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Sample records for intake sufficiently effective

  1. Monitoring the effects of iodine prophylaxis in the adult population of southern Italy with deficient and sufficient iodine intake levels: a cross-sectional, epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Catalano, Stefania; Perri, Anna; Santoro, Marta; Siciliano, Lorenza; Lofaro, Danilo; Gallo, Massimiliano; Marsico, Stefania; Bruno, Rosalinda; Giordano, Cinzia; Barone, Ines; Andò, Sebastiano

    2017-01-01

    I prophylaxis is the most effective strategy to eradicate I deficiency disorders, but it has been shown to affect the thyroid disease pattern. In this study, we assessed the frequency of thyroid disorders in an adult population living in two areas of southern Italy after implementing I prophylaxis. To this aim, a cross-sectional, population-based study including 489 subjects from an I-deficient rural and an I-sufficient urban area of southern Italy was conducted. Thyroid ultrasound was performed on all participants, and urine and blood samples were collected from each subject. The levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TgAb) and thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), urinary I excretion (UIE), and thyroid volume and echogenicity were evaluated. We found that the median UIE was higher in the urban than in the rural area (P=0·004), whereas the prevalence of subjects affected by goitre was higher in the rural compared with the urban area (P=0·003). Positive TgAb rather than TPOAb were more frequent in subjects from the urban area compared with the rural area (P=0·009). The hypoechoic pattern at thyroid ultrasound (HT-US) was similar between the two areas, but TgAb were significantly higher (P=0·01) in HT-US subjects from the urban area. The frequency of elevated TSH did not differ between the two screened populations, and no changes were found for TgAb positivity in subjects with high TSH in the urban compared with the rural area. Our findings support that the small risks of I supplementation are far outweighed by the substantial benefits of correcting I deficiency, although continued monitoring of populations is necessary.

  2. Decreased, but still sufficient, iodine intake of children and adults in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Buurma-Rethans, Elly J M; Dekkers, Arnold L M; van Rossum, Caroline T M

    2017-04-01

    Sufficient I intake is important for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which play an important role in normal growth and development. Our aim was to estimate habitual I intake for the Dutch population and the risk of inadequate or excessive intakes. Further, we aimed to provide an insight into the dietary sources of I and the association with socio-demographic factors. Data from the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey 2007-2010 (n 3819; 7-69 years), and from the Dutch food and supplement composition tables were used to estimate habitual I intake with a calculation model. Contribution of food groups to I intake were computed and multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of intakes with socio-demographic factors. A total of ≤2 % of the population had an intake below the estimated average requirement or above the upper level. The main sources of I were bread containing iodised salt (39 %), dairy products (14 %) and non-alcoholic drinks (6 %). I intake (natural sources only, excluding iodised salt and supplements) was positively associated with (parental) education, which could at least partly be attributed to a higher consumption of dairy products. Among children, the consumption of bread, often containing iodised bakery salt, was positively associated with parental education. The I intake of the Dutch population (7-69 years) seems adequate, although it has decreased since the period before 2008. With the current effort to reduce salt intake and changing dietary patterns (i.e. less bread, more organic foods) it is important to keep a close track on the I status, important sources and potential risk groups.

  3. [Association between breakfast intake and quality of life among self-sufficient Chilean elderly].

    PubMed

    García Milla, Paula; Candia Johns, Priscila; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-10-01

    Elderly people are becoming more prevalent in our country, which studies in this group are relevant. Moreover, the health impact of breakfast consumption is demonstrated in school groups. To determine whether breakfast consumption is associated with better quality of life in self-sufficient Chilean elderly. We interviewed 1,285 elderly (> 60 years) of both sexes. We applied two surveys (food and healthy lifestyles surveys), then an anthropometric evaluation was conducted. 5.6% of older adults does not consume breakfast. Those who consume breakfast had a better quality of life (p = 0.004), specifically in men breakfast intake is associated with lower body mass index (BMI) (p=0.002). Moreover, the results indicate that the proportion of elderly who smokes and does not take breakfast is higher, as well as, greater responsibility in health, nutrition, stress management are greater in those that take breakfast. Finally there was an association between breakfast consumption and better nutrition (p = 0.01) and self-realization (p = 0.005). Consumption of breakfast in older adults is associated with better quality of life. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between serum parathyroid hormone, vitamin D sufficiency, age, and calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Adami, Silvano; Viapiana, Ombretta; Gatti, Davide; Idolazzi, Luca; Rossini, Maurizio

    2008-02-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is extremely common among elderly subjects and it has been associated with poor bone health, and to a number of other conditions. The ideal 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, reflecting the size of vitamin D deposits, are generally retained those not associated with any marginal increase in serum parathyroid hormone (PTH). These threshold values vary considerably and this may be due to the interaction of other factors. The aim of the study is to assess whether age and calcium intake interact with the relationship between 25(OH)D and PTH. Data from a survey on the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in elderly women in Italy were analysed in order to verify whether age and calcium intake were interfering on the 25(OH)D/PTH relationship. A total of 697 women were available for analysis. Serum PTH levels were significantly correlated with age, 25(OH)D and calcium intake (p<0.001) and in a multivariate model they all significantly contributed to explain PTH variance (R(2)=24.4%). In 39 elderly osteoporotic women on a low calcium intake and given vitamin D supplements (2000-3000 IU daily for >8 months) able to increase 25(OH)D levels above 110 nMol/l, PTH levels were maintained below 35 pg/mL. The minimum 25(OH)D levels to be recommended depends largely on the age and the calcium intake. In elderly individuals not taking calcium supplements in order to keep serum PTH levels strictly within the normal range 25(OH)D serum levels should be maintained above ca. 120 nMol/L.

  5. Nutritional intakes in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: high intakes of energy and protein based on high consumption of fish, vegetables and fruits provide sufficient micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    acid, potassium and dietary fiber, phosphorus and vitamin B2, phosphorus and pantothenic acid, iron and folic acid, zinc and vitamin B12, and copper and vitamin B12. From these results, it is evident that age is not an important determinant of dietary intake among apparently healthy elderly Japanese people aged 74 y. In addition, the high intake of energy and protein in the Japanese dietary pattern, based upon high consumption of fish and/or shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, provide sufficient minerals and vitamins.

  6. Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

    2014-12-17

    High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait.

  7. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically in the subfornical organ is sufficient to induce fluid intake

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Jeffrey P.; Cassell, Martin D.; Davis, Deborah R.; Grobe, Justin L.

    2014-01-01

    Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system within the brain elevates fluid intake, blood pressure, and resting metabolic rate. Renin and angiotensinogen are coexpressed within the same cells of the subfornical organ, and the production and action of ANG II through the ANG II type 1 receptor in the subfornical organ (SFO) are necessary for fluid intake due to increased activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system. We generated an inducible model of ANG II production by breeding transgenic mice expressing human renin in neurons controlled by the synapsin promoter with transgenic mice containing a Cre-recombinase-inducible human angiotensinogen construct. Adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase causes SFO-selective induction of human angiotensinogen expression. Selective production of ANG II in the SFO results in increased water intake but did not change blood pressure or resting metabolic rate. The increase in water intake was ANG II type 1 receptor-dependent. When given a choice between water and 0.15 M NaCl, these mice increased total fluid and sodium, but not water, because of an increased preference for NaCl. When provided a choice between water and 0.3 M NaCl, the mice exhibited increased fluid, water, and sodium intake, but no change in preference for NaCl. The increase in fluid intake was blocked by an inhibitor of PKC, but not ERK, and was correlated with increased phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the subfornical organ. Thus, increased production and action of ANG II specifically in the subfornical organ are sufficient on their own to mediate an increase in drinking through PKC. PMID:24965793

  8. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically in the subfornical organ is sufficient to induce fluid intake.

    PubMed

    Coble, Jeffrey P; Cassell, Martin D; Davis, Deborah R; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-08-15

    Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system within the brain elevates fluid intake, blood pressure, and resting metabolic rate. Renin and angiotensinogen are coexpressed within the same cells of the subfornical organ, and the production and action of ANG II through the ANG II type 1 receptor in the subfornical organ (SFO) are necessary for fluid intake due to increased activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system. We generated an inducible model of ANG II production by breeding transgenic mice expressing human renin in neurons controlled by the synapsin promoter with transgenic mice containing a Cre-recombinase-inducible human angiotensinogen construct. Adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase causes SFO-selective induction of human angiotensinogen expression. Selective production of ANG II in the SFO results in increased water intake but did not change blood pressure or resting metabolic rate. The increase in water intake was ANG II type 1 receptor-dependent. When given a choice between water and 0.15 M NaCl, these mice increased total fluid and sodium, but not water, because of an increased preference for NaCl. When provided a choice between water and 0.3 M NaCl, the mice exhibited increased fluid, water, and sodium intake, but no change in preference for NaCl. The increase in fluid intake was blocked by an inhibitor of PKC, but not ERK, and was correlated with increased phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the subfornical organ. Thus, increased production and action of ANG II specifically in the subfornical organ are sufficient on their own to mediate an increase in drinking through PKC.

  9. Chronic high fructose intake reduces serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 levels in calcium-sufficient rodents.

    PubMed

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D.

  10. Chronic High Fructose Intake Reduces Serum 1,25 (OH)2D3 Levels in Calcium-Sufficient Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Douard, Veronique; Patel, Chirag; Lee, Jacklyn; Tharabenjasin, Phuntila; Williams, Edek; Fritton, J. Christopher; Sabbagh, Yves; Ferraris, Ronaldo P.

    2014-01-01

    Excessive fructose consumption inhibits adaptive increases in intestinal Ca2+ transport in lactating and weanling rats with increased Ca2+ requirements by preventing the increase in serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. Here we tested the hypothesis that chronic fructose intake decreases 1,25(OH)2D3 levels independent of increases in Ca2+ requirements. Adult mice fed for five wk a high glucose-low Ca2+ diet displayed expected compensatory increases in intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter expression and activity, in renal CYP27B1 (coding for 1α-hydroxylase) expression as well as in serum 1,25(OH)2D3 levels, compared with mice fed isocaloric glucose- or fructose-normal Ca2+ diets. Replacing glucose with fructose prevented these increases in Ca2+ transporter, CYP27B1, and 1,25(OH)2D3 levels induced by a low Ca2+ diet. In adult mice fed for three mo a normal Ca2+ diet, renal expression of CYP27B1 and of CYP24A1 (24-hydroxylase) decreased and increased, respectively, when the carbohydrate source was fructose instead of glucose or starch. Intestinal and renal Ca2+ transporter activity and expression did not vary with dietary carbohydrate. To determine the time course of fructose effects, a high fructose or glucose diet with normal Ca2+ levels was fed to adult rats for three mo. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased and of FGF23 increased significantly over time. Renal expression of CYP27B1 and serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 still decreased in fructose- compared to those in glucose-fed rats after three mo. Serum parathyroid hormone, Ca2+ and phosphate levels were normal and independent of dietary sugar as well as time of feeding. Thus, chronically high fructose intakes can decrease serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 in adult rodents experiencing no Ca2+ stress and fed sufficient levels of dietary Ca2+. This finding is highly significant because fructose constitutes a substantial portion of the average diet of Americans already deficient in vitamin D. PMID:24718641

  11. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine.

  12. Optimal and safe upper limits of iodine intake for early pregnancy in iodine-sufficient regions: a cross-sectional study of 7190 pregnant women in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaoguang; Han, Cheng; Li, Chenyan; Mao, Jinyuan; Wang, Weiwei; Xie, Xiaochen; Li, Chenyang; Xu, Bin; Meng, Tao; Du, Jianling; Zhang, Shaowei; Gao, Zhengnan; Zhang, Xiaomei; Fan, Chenling; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2015-04-01

    The WHO Technical Consultation recommends urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) from 250 to 499 μg/L as more-than-adequate iodine intake and UIC ≥ 500 μg/L as excessive iodine for pregnant and lactating women, but scientific evidence for this is weak. We investigated optimal and safe ranges of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region of China. Seven thousand one hundred ninety pregnant women at 4-8 weeks gestation were investigated and their UIC, serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured. The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was lowest in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L, which corresponded to the lowest serum Tg concentration (10.18 μg/L). Prevalences of subclinical hypothyroidism (2.4%) and isolated hypothyroxinemia (1.7%) were lower in the group with UIC 150-249 μg/L. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that more-than-adequate iodine intake (UIC 250-499 μg/L) and excessive iodine intake (UIC ≥ 500 μg/L) were associated with a 1.72-fold and a 2.17-fold increased risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, respectively. Meanwhile, excessive iodine intake was associated with a 2.85-fold increased risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia. Moreover, the prevalence of TPOAb positivity and TgAb positivity presented a U-shaped curve, ranging from mild iodine deficiency to iodine excess. The upper limit of iodine intake during early pregnancy in an iodine-sufficient region should not exceed UIC 250 μg/L, because this is associated with a significantly high risk of subclinical hypothyroidism, and a UIC of 500 μg/L should not be exceeded, as it is associated with a significantly high risk of isolated hypothyroxinemia.

  13. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  14. Drug intake is sufficient, but conditioning is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking after extended self-administration.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sietse; Pelloux, Yann; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-06-01

    Compulsive drug seeking, which is characterized by continued instrumental effort despite contingent punishment, has been shown to emerge after extended drug self-administration. Exactly what aspect of drug self-administration drives the appearance of addictive behavior is unclear, but the mechanistic explanations that have been offered differ in one key respect. On one hand, it has been suggested that dysfunctional conditioning during self-administration drives unrealistic reward expectations, ultimately producing resistance to punishment. If this is indeed the pathological process that drives compulsive behavior, then compulsivity should be apparent only in the presence of the pavlovian and instrumental stimuli that underwent frequent pairing with the drug reward. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that extended drug intake produces general changes to reward and decision-making circuits that manifest as compulsive drug seeking. Unfortunately, conditioning history and drug intake are generally intrinsically intertwined. However, here we used an animal model of compulsive cocaine seeking to selectively manipulate drug intake and the degree of conditioning in the test context, to investigate which of the two is more important for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking. The results show that extended drug intake alone is sufficient, but extended conditioning in the test context is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking, resolving a fundamental question in addiction research.

  15. Evaluation of Shearing Time Sufficient for Effective Liquid Metal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybalska, Agnieszka; Eskin, Dmitry; Patel, Jayesh B.

    2017-04-01

    Melt shearing has been suggested to be an efficient means of structure refinement through oxide dispersion and fragmentation. One of the process parameters that needs to be optimized is the shearing time. In this paper, the effect of shearing time on alumina powder refinement was studied in a model system with water as a working fluid. The established time was taken as a first approximation for experiments with the liquid metals processing by a high shear device based on a rotor-stator technology. The water model findings were confirmed experimentally on liquid aluminum alloys, and indicate that the optimal time of mixing is equal to 4 min in fully agitated conditions for the volume of 2.7 dm3.

  16. Evaluation of Shearing Time Sufficient for Effective Liquid Metal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybalska, Agnieszka; Eskin, Dmitry; Patel, Jayesh B.

    2017-03-01

    Melt shearing has been suggested to be an efficient means of structure refinement through oxide dispersion and fragmentation. One of the process parameters that needs to be optimized is the shearing time. In this paper, the effect of shearing time on alumina powder refinement was studied in a model system with water as a working fluid. The established time was taken as a first approximation for experiments with the liquid metals processing by a high shear device based on a rotor-stator technology. The water model findings were confirmed experimentally on liquid aluminum alloys, and indicate that the optimal time of mixing is equal to 4 min in fully agitated conditions for the volume of 2.7 dm3.

  17. Vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency among Canadian children residing at high latitude following the revision of the RDA of vitamin D intake in 2010.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Yuan, Yan; Willows, Noreen D; Faught, Erin L; Ekwaru, John P; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-03-01

    Recently, countries at high latitudes have updated their vitamin D recommendations to ensure adequate intake for the musculoskeletal health of their respective populations. In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1-70 years increased from 5 μg/d to 15 μg/d, whereas in 2016 for citizens of the UK aged ≥4 years 10 μg/d is recommended. The vitamin D status of Canadian children following the revised dietary guidelines is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency among Canadian children. For this study, we assumed serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 nmol/l as 'deficient' and ≥50nmol/l as 'sufficient'. Data from children aged 3-18 years (n 2270) who participated in the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey were analysed. Of all children, 5·6 % were vitamin D deficient and 71 % were vitamin D sufficient. Children who consumed vitamin D-fortified milk daily (77 %) were more likely to be sufficient than those who consumed it less frequently (OR 2·7; 95 % CI 1·4, 5·0). The 9 % of children who reported taking vitamin D-containing supplements in the previous month had higher 25(OH)D concentrations (OR 6·9 nmol/l; 95 % CI 1·1, 12·7 nmol/l) relative to those who did not. Children who were older, obese, of non-white ethnicity and from low-income households were less likely to be vitamin D sufficient. To improve vitamin D status, consumption of vitamin D-rich foods should be promoted, and fortification of more food items or formal recommendations for vitamin D supplementation should be considered.

  18. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  19. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning.

  20. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN.

  1. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  2. Information trimming: Sufficient statistics, mutual information, and predictability from effective channel states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Ryan G.; Mahoney, John R.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-06-01

    One of the most basic characterizations of the relationship between two random variables, X and Y , is the value of their mutual information. Unfortunately, calculating it analytically and estimating it empirically are often stymied by the extremely large dimension of the variables. One might hope to replace such a high-dimensional variable by a smaller one that preserves its relationship with the other. It is well known that either X (or Y ) can be replaced by its minimal sufficient statistic about Y (or X ) while preserving the mutual information. While intuitively reasonable, it is not obvious or straightforward that both variables can be replaced simultaneously. We demonstrate that this is in fact possible: the information X 's minimal sufficient statistic preserves about Y is exactly the information that Y 's minimal sufficient statistic preserves about X . We call this procedure information trimming. As an important corollary, we consider the case where one variable is a stochastic process' past and the other its future. In this case, the mutual information is the channel transmission rate between the channel's effective states. That is, the past-future mutual information (the excess entropy) is the amount of information about the future that can be predicted using the past. Translating our result about minimal sufficient statistics, this is equivalent to the mutual information between the forward- and reverse-time causal states of computational mechanics. We close by discussing multivariate extensions to this use of minimal sufficient statistics.

  3. A low dietary intake of cod protein is sufficient to increase growth, improve serum and tissue fatty acid compositions, and lower serum postprandial glucose and fasting non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mjøs, Svein Are; Høgøy, Ingmar; Remman, Tore; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita

    2015-10-01

    Studies in rats suggest that fish proteins may improve lipid and glucose regulation and could thus be a potential tool in the treatment of obesity-related comorbidities. To date, all published rat studies on dietary fish protein have been designed with 50 or 100% of dietary proteins from fish. As it is not common, nor advised, to consume fish as the only protein source in a healthy diet, mechanistic studies on the effects of diets with low dose fish proteins are needed. Here, we investigate whether a low dose of cod protein would affect glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Twelve male obese Zucker fa/fa rats consumed diets where cod proteins accounted for 25% of the total protein intake with the remaining 75% from casein (COD) or 100% of protein as casein (CAS) for 4 weeks. Rats fed COD achieved a higher body weight without affecting adiposity and thigh muscle mass after 4 weeks, but liver weight and hepatic cholesterol level were higher than in CAS-fed rats. Fasting serum level of non-esterified fatty acids and 2 h postprandial glucose level were lower in COD than in CAS. The fatty acid metabolism was beneficially affected by the COD diet, with e.g., higher ratio of n-3/n-6 PUFAs in serum, liver and adipose tissue when compared to CAS. A low intake of cod protein (25% of protein intake) was sufficient to beneficially affect lipid metabolism and postprandial glucose regulation in obese fa/fa rats.

  4. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  5. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  6. Effect of renin-angiotensin system on sodium intake.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaraviglio, E

    1976-01-01

    1. Water and saline intake was measured in rats depleted of Na by I.P. dialysis. Na intake was prevented 180 min but not 60-90 min after bilateral nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy as well as ureteral ligature had no effect on Na intake. 2. Renin (3u.) injected I.P. re-established the Na appetite abolished by nephrectomy. 3. Angiotensin I (5 ng) or II (5-40 ng) injected into the 3rd ventricle, also restored the Na intake and this effect was dose-dependent. 4. The angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor Sq 20,881 (1 mg/kg) inhibited the effect of AI but not that of AII in restoring Na intake. 5. It is concluded that the kidneys might play a role in the regulation of Na intake through the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:1255521

  7. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  8. Fat emulsion composition alters intake and the effects of baclofen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Wilt, D C; Wojnicki, F H E; Babbs, R K; Coupland, J N; Corwin, R L C

    2011-12-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: (1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and (2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. FAT EMULSION COMPOSITION ALTERS INTAKE AND THE EFFECTS OF BACLOFEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Wilt, DC; Wojnicki, FHE; Babbs, RK; Coupland, JN; Corwin, RLC

    2011-01-01

    Thickened oil-in-water emulsions are useful model foods in rat studies due to their high acceptance and similarity to foods consumed by humans. Previous work from this laboratory used oil-in-water emulsions thickened with a biopolymer blend containing starch. Intake and effects of baclofen, a GABA-B agonist that decreases fat intake and drug self-administration, were reported, but the contribution of starch was not assessed. In the present study, intake and effects of baclofen were assessed in rats using emulsions prepared with two fat types (32% vegetable shortening, 32% corn oil) and thickened with three biopolymer blends. One biopolymer blend contained starch and the other two did not. Daily 1-h intake of the vegetable shortening emulsion containing starch was significantly greater than the other emulsions. When starch was added to the emulsions originally containing no starch, intake significantly increased. Baclofen generally reduced intake of all emulsions regardless of starch content and stimulated intake of chow. However, effects were more often significant for vegetable shortening emulsions. This report: 1) demonstrates that products used to prepare thickened oil-in-water emulsions have significant effects on rat ingestive behavior, and 2) confirms the ability of baclofen to reduce consumption of fatty foods, while simultaneously stimulating intake of chow. PMID:21855586

  10. Effect of oral diclofenac intake on faecal calprotectin.

    PubMed

    Rendek, Zlatica; Falk, Magnus; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Wahlin, Karl; Kechagias, Stergios; Svernlöv, Rikard; Hjortswang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    NSAIDs are a known source of increased faecal calprotectin (FC) levels. Currently, there is a lack of knowledge about how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after NSAID intake. The aim was to investigate how oral diclofenac intake affects FC levels and assess how long it takes for an increased FC level to return to normal after oral diclofenac intake. Thirty healthy volunteers received diclofenac 50 mg three times daily for 14 days. Participants provided a stool sample on Days 0, 2, 4, 7, 14 during intake and Days 17, 21, 28 after discontinuation. FC levels were then followed at 7-day intervals until normalization. During diclofenac intake, eight participants (27%) had FC levels exceeding the upper limit of normal (median, 76 μg/g; range, 60-958 μg/g), corresponding to 8.3% of measurements. FC was not constantly increased and became normal in most participants during diclofenac intake. FC levels were on average significantly higher during intake (M = 9.5, interquartile range (IQR) = 13.4) than on baseline (M = 7.5, IQR = 0.0), p = 0.003. After discontinuation, two participants had increased FC on Days 17 and 21, respectively. No significant differences in FC levels were found between baseline and measurements after discontinuation. Two weeks after discontinuation, all participants had normal FC levels. Short-term oral diclofenac intake is associated with increased FC levels. However, the likelihood of an increased test result is low. Our results suggest that 2 weeks of diclofenac withdrawal is sufficient to get an uninfluenced FC test result.

  11. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Many sample sets from these studies were highly variable because of inadequate sample replication, thus precluding the use of statistical tests on some of the data. Where possible, an analysis of variance and a Student, Newman, Keuls multiple range test were computed and tested at the 0.05 level. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. The greater quantities entrained at night were related to a greater abundance in the source water body at night rather than to intake design. These results indicate that time-of-day differences might be used to mitigate effects on zooplankton at some intakes if the intake could be operated to require less cooling water when concentrations were greatest. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  12. Nanodrug Delivery: Is the Enhanced Permeability and Retention Effect Sufficient for Curing Cancer?

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yuko; Mochida, Ai; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2016-10-19

    Nanotechnology offers several attractive design features that have prompted its exploration for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Nanosized drugs have a large loading capacity, the ability to protect the payload from degradation, a large surface on which to conjugate targeting ligands, and controlled or sustained release. Nanosized drugs also leak preferentially into tumor tissue through permeable tumor vessels and are then retained in the tumor bed due to reduced lymphatic drainage. This process is known as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. However, while the EPR effect is widely held to improve delivery of nanodrugs to tumors, it in fact offers less than a 2-fold increase in nanodrug delivery compared with critical normal organs, resulting in drug concentrations that are not sufficient for curing most cancers. In this Review, we first overview various barriers for nanosized drug delivery with an emphasis on the capillary wall's resistance, the main obstacle to delivering drugs. Then, we discuss current regulatory issues facing nanomedicine. Finally, we discuss how to make the delivery of nanosized drugs to tumors more effective by building on the EPR effect.

  13. Effects of Timing of Whey Protein Intake on Appetite and Energy Intake in Healthy Older Men.

    PubMed

    Giezenaar, Caroline; Coudert, Zoé; Baqeri, Abdul; Jensen, Caroline; Hausken, Trygve; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian; Soenen, Stijn

    2017-10-01

    Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage malnutrition in older adults. We previously showed that 30 g whey protein ingestion, 3 hours before a buffet meal, suppressed energy intake in young, but not in older men. Information about the impact of the timing of ingestion of protein drinks on the suppression of energy intake in older adults is lacking. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the timing of whey protein ingestion on appetite and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in healthy older men. In a single blind, randomized design, 16 older men were studied on 5 occasions, on which they consumed a whey protein drink (30 g/120 kcal, 140 mL) 3, 2, 1 hour(s), or immediately before a buffet meal, from which ad libitum energy intake was quantified, and isopalatable noncaloric drinks (∼1 kcal) at the remaining time points. On the control day, noncaloric drinks were ingested at all time points. Perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms were determined, by visual analog scales, throughout the study days. There was no effect of the timing of protein ingestion on perceptions of appetite and gastrointestinal symptoms (P > .05) or energy intake at the buffet meal (3 hours: 888 ± 49 kcal, 2 hours: 879 ± 56 kcal, 1 hours: 909 ± 47 kcal, 0 hour: 892 ± 51 kcal, control: 930 ± 49 kcal, P = .94). Total energy intake (ie, preload + test meal) was higher on the protein days compared with control (82 ± 24 kcal increase, P = .003). In older men, ingestion of 30 g protein increased total energy intake, irrespective of the time of intake in relation to the meal. These observations support the use of "pure" whey protein drinks to increase overall protein and energy intake in older adults at risk of undernutrition. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of intravenous nutrient infusions on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Walls, E K; Koopmans, H S

    1989-06-01

    To assess the effect of gut signals on food intake two types of nutrients were infused intravenously for 17.5 hours in 17 hour fed rats. In the first experiment a solution of 25% d-glucose and 4.25% amino acids (Travasol) was infused at levels of 26 and 52 kcal/day for two consecutive four-day periods. During infusion periods, food intake was reduced from saline baseline levels by 18.9 +/- 1.7 and 34.8 +/- 1.8 kcal/day, respectively. This represents an oral intake reduction of approximately 70% of the infused calories. In contrast, food intake was reduced 17.4 +/- 1.7 kcal/day below saline baseline levels when 40 kcal of Nutralipid were infused. The reduction in food intake was only 43% of the lipid calories infused. These results indicate that infusions of glucose and amino acids are more effective than infusion of fats in inhibiting daily food intake, that gut signals associated with absorption of fat provide important satiety signals and that removal of fat from the bloodstream has relatively little effect on daily food intake.

  15. [Effectiveness of the use of iodized milk protein to improve girls' sufficiency with iodine].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, L S; Lisitsin, A B; Chernukha, I M; Zubtsov, Iu N; Litvinova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of the research capabilities of the use of iodized milk protein as a component of food supplement and enriched food product for the correction of iodine sufficiency in girls. Milk iodinated protein was produced by the enzyme-effective iodization of amino acid residues of cow's milk whey proteins. The study involved 30 girls, whose average age was 19.9 +/- 1.4 years. Participants of observation were divided into three groups, for 10 people each. The first group received daily serving of meat cutlets (50g), enriched with dairy iodinated protein. Iodine content in the finished minced was 100 mcg. The second group received iodinated milk protein in the form of food supplement with iodine content of 100 mcg. The third group was a control one. The duration of observations was 30 days. To assess the effectiveness of measures the concentration of iodine in urine, blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine have been determined, changes in cognitive processes (memory and attention) with the use of psychological tests have been evaluated. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using of iodized milk protein for the correction of iodine deficiency in girls. The use of iodized protein, as part of the enriched product and in the form of food supplement increased urinary iodine level and had a positive influence on the state of the hypophysial-thyroid system. In addition, the use of iodized milk protein helped to improve the cognitive functions of the students, which can be considered as an additional positive effect of correction of iodine deficiency.

  16. Preference or fat? Revisiting opioid effects on food intake

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Sharif A.

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that opioid signaling in the central nervous system constitutes a powerful stimulus for food intake. The role of opioids in determining food preference, however, is less well defined. Opioids have been proposed to promote intake of preferred foods, or, alternatively, to preferentially increase consumption of fat. In the present manuscript, I comprehensively review results from previous studies investigating this issue. Data from these studies suggests a mechanism for opioid action that may reconcile the previously proposed hypotheses: opioid effects on food intake do appear to be largely specific for fat consumption, but individual animals’ sensitivity to this effect may be dependent on baseline food preferences. In addition, I highlight the possibility that the selectivity of endogenous opioid effects may importantly differ from that of exogenous agonists in the degree to which baseline preferences, rather than macronutrient intake, are altered. PMID:20211638

  17. Effect of skipping breakfast on subsequent energy intake.

    PubMed

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly R

    2013-07-02

    The objective was to examine the effect of consuming breakfast on subsequent energy intake. Participants who habitually ate breakfast and those who skipped breakfast were recruited for two studies. Using a randomized crossover design, the first study examined the effect of having participants consume either (a) no breakfast, (b) a high carbohydrate breakfast (335 kcals), or (c) a high fiber breakfast (360 kcals) on three occasions and measured ad libitum intake at lunch. The second study again used a randomized crossover design but with a larger, normal carbohydrate breakfast consumed ad libtum. Intake averaged 624 kcals and subsequent food intake was measured throughout the day. Participants ate only foods served from the Cornell Human Metabolic Research Unit where all foods were weighed before and after consumption. In the first study, neither eating breakfast nor the kind of breakfast consumed had an effect on the amount consumed at lunch despite a reduction in hunger ratings. In the second study, intake at lunch as well as hunger ratings were significantly increased after skipping breakfast (by 144 kcal), leaving a net caloric deficit of 408 kcal by the end of the day. These data are consistent with published literature demonstrating that skipping a meal does not result in accurate energy compensation at subsequent meals and suggests that skipping breakfast may be an effective means to reduce daily energy intake in some adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High potassium intake blunts the effect of elevated sodium intake on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Machado, Rebeca Caldeira; Forechi, Ludimila; Molina, Maria del Carmem Bisi; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary potassium on the sodium effect on blood pressure (BP) in the general population and the adherence of current recommendations for sodium and potassium intake. An overnight (12-hour) urine sample was collected in a population-based study to investigate cardiovascular risk. A sub-sample of 1285 subjects (age range, 25-64 years) free from any medication interfering with BP or potassium excretion was studied. Of the participants, 86.0% consumed over 6 g of salt/day and 87.7% less than the recommended intake of potassium (4.7 g). Potassium excretion and the sodium to potassium ratio were significantly related to systolic and diastolic BP only in subjects consuming more than 6 g/day of salt. Subjects in the highest sodium to potassium ratio quartile (surrogate of unhealthy diet) presented 8 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, when compared with the first quartile, while individuals in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (healthier diet) showed 6 mm Hg and 4 mm Hg lower systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Our data indicate that when people have an increased intake of potassium, high intake of sodium is not associated with higher BP.

  19. A weekly bout of eccentric exercise is sufficient to induce health-promoting effects.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2011-01-01

    The effects of chronic eccentric-only versus concentric-only exercise on muscle physiology and blood biochemistry were investigated. Twenty women performed on an isokinetic dynamometer a concentric (n = 10;mean ± SEM: age = 21.0 ± 0.4 yr, body fat = 22.0% ± 0.9%) or an eccentric (n = 10, age = 20.0 ± 0.3 yr, body fat = 23.2% ± 0.7%) exercise session using the knee extensors of both lower limbs once a week for eight subsequent weeks. Muscle function (isometric, concentric, and eccentric peak torque, range of movement, and soreness) was evaluated before, immediately after, and 48 h postexercise in each one of the eight training weeks. Body fat, resting energy expenditure (REE), lipid, and carbohydrate oxidation rate as well as blood chemistry measurements (lipid, lipoprotein and apolipoprotein profile, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and creatine kinase) were examined before and 48 h postexercise at the first and eighth week of training. Acute eccentric exercise increased REE and fat oxidation at week 1 (12.7% and 12.9%, respectively) and at week 8 (0.7% and 2.8%, respectively). Chronic eccentric exercise increased resting REE and fat oxidation at week 8 compared with week 1 (5.0% and 9.9%, respectively). Acute eccentric exercise improved blood lipid profile at week 1 and week 8. Chronic eccentric exercise improved resting blood lipid profile at week 8. Acute eccentric exercise increased insulin resistance at week 1 but not at week 8. Chronic eccentric exercise decreased resting insulin resistance at week 8. It is reported for the first time that only 30 min of eccentric exercise per week for 8 wk was sufficient to improve health risk factors.

  20. [Effect of vitamin beverages on vitamin sufficiency of the workers of Pskov Hydroelectric Power-Plant].

    PubMed

    Spiricheva, T V; Vrezhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kosheleva, O V; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Iudina, A V; Spirichev, V B

    2010-01-01

    The research of influence of vitamin complexes in the form of a drink or kissel on vitamin sufficiency of working persons has been carried out. Long inclusion (6,5 months) in a diet of vitamin drinks containing about 80% from recommended daily consumption of vitamins, was accompanied by trustworthy improvement of vitamins C and B6 sufficiency and prevention of seasonal deterioration of beta-carotene status. As initially surveyed have been well provided with vitamins A and E, their blood serum level increase had not occurred.

  1. Effect of central enterostatin on fat intake in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Jonaidi, H; Rasooli, R

    2013-01-15

    Enterostatin, a gut-brain pentapeptide cleaved from procolipase has been shown to inhibit fat intake in rodents after both peripheral and central administration. In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of enterostatin on fat intake was investigated in neonatal chicks. In Experiment 1, 3-h-fasted chicks fed a low-fat diet were injected with the various doses of enterostatin. Experiment 2 was similar to experiment 1 except that the birds were fasted overnight. In Experiment 3, the 3-h-fasted and in Experiment 4, the overnight fasted chicks adapted to a high-fat diet received different doses of enterostatin. ICV injection of enterostatin caused a dose-dependent increase in high-fat diet intake in 3-h-fasted chicks whereas a decrease in high-fat intake was observed in chicks that were fasted overnight. However, low-fat diet intake was not affected by enterostatin in either 3-h or overnight fasted chicks. These results suggest that enterostatin acts within the brain of chicks to influence fat intake. It appears that in chicks, the eating effect of enterostatin has a biphasic nature similar to those seen in rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of vitamin D deficiency and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung Joo; Koh, Yae Kyu; Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jinae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Bo Hyon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at femur and at lumbar spine, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The BMD divided according to serum 25(OH)D and daily calcium intakes were not statistically different among the groups. However, when both daily calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D were not sufficient, risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in both femur neck and lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] 2.242, P=0.006; OR 3.044, P=0.001; respectively). Although daily calcium intake was sufficient, risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis significantly increased in lumbar spine group if serum 25(OH)D is <20 ng/mL (OR 2.993, P=0.006). Conclusion The combined effects of insufficient daily calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency may cause low BMD and increase in prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years. PMID:28217672

  3. Effects of Excessive Dietary Phosphorus Intake on Bone Health.

    PubMed

    Vorland, Colby J; Stremke, Elizabeth R; Moorthi, Ranjani N; Hill Gallant, Kathleen M

    2017-08-24

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of dietary phosphorus, its sources, recommended intakes, and its absorption and metabolism in health and in chronic kidney disease and to discuss recent findings in this area with a focus on the effects of inorganic phosphate additives in bone health. Recent findings show that increasing dietary phosphorus through inorganic phosphate additives has detrimental effects on bone and mineral metabolism in humans and animals. There is new data supporting an educational intervention to limit phosphate additives in patients with chronic kidney disease to control serum phosphate. The average intake of phosphorus in the USA is well above the recommended dietary allowance. Inorganic phosphate additives, which are absorbed at a high rate, account for a substantial and likely underestimated portion of this excessive intake. These additives have negative effects on bone metabolism and present a prime opportunity to lower total phosphorus intake in the USA. Further evidence is needed to confirm whether lowering dietary phosphorus intake would have beneficial effects to improve fracture risk.

  4. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  5. The effects of high phosphorus intake on calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M S

    1994-01-01

    Survey data confirm that the dietary pattern of many American women who are at high risk of developing osteoporosis is typically high in phosphorus and low in calcium. The imbalance between calcium and phosphorus intake may become more pronounced with continued changes in food preferences and the growing use of phosphorus-containing food additives. Recent studies in young women have shown that a high phosphorus diet moderately low in calcium results in a mild secondary hyperparathyroidism that persists over 4 weeks. Plasma levels of calcitriol did not change despite changes in PTH and serum ionized calcium. Studies on men have shown that dietary phosphorus at levels within the normal range of intakes can affect the renal production and serum concentration of calcitriol. High phosphorus intakes for ten days reduced their plasma calcitriol levels; a 70% reduction in phosphate intake significantly increased their plasma calcitriol. Thus, several lines of evidence indicate that prolonged high phosphorus intake may impair the usual homeostatic mechanisms that come into play when dietary calcium is limited. This, in turn, could impair achievement of maximal bone mass or accelerate bone loss. Although no clinical studies have linked high phosphorus intake with lower bone mass or higher rates of bone loss in humans, this relationship has been demonstrated in animal models. For example, young beagles fed high phosphorus, moderately low calcium diets showed a significant reduction in vertebral bone mass. Current dietary patterns of high phosphorus, low calcium consumption result in persistent changes in calcium regulating hormones that are not conducive to maximizing peak bone mass during growth or slowing the rate of aging bone loss. The net effect of the present dietary pattern on bone status, particularly in teenage and young adult women, needs to be determined. Optimal nutrition early in life, which may include higher calcium and lower phosphorus intakes, together with

  6. The Self-Sufficiency Project at 36 Months: Effects of a Financial Work Incentive on Employment and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Harknett, Kristen; Robins, Philip K.

    This report previews the Self-Sufficiency Project's (SSP's) longer-term effects by looking at these four related issues: wage progression, job retention, marital status, and attitudes toward work. A companion report, available separately, examines SSP's effects on children. Chapter 1 discusses the SSP research and demonstration project that…

  7. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1710.508 Section 1710.508 Housing... Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  8. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1710.508 Section 1710.508 Housing... Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1710.508 Section 1710.508 Housing... Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  10. 12 CFR 1010.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1010.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1010.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1010.508 Section 1010.508 Banks and Banking... Equivalent State Law § 1010.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1010.501(b):...

  11. The Self-Sufficiency Project at 36 Months: Effects on Children of a Program That Increased Parental Employment and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Pamela; Michalopoulos, Charles

    This report examines effects of the Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) for three age groups of children (younger cohort aged 3-5, middle cohort aged 6-11, and older cohort aged 12-18) at the 36-month interview. A companion report on effects of the SSP on adults is available separately. Chapter 1 describes the SSP incentive, project design, and SSP…

  12. Neonatal hypothyroxinemia: effects of iodine intake and premature birth.

    PubMed

    Ares, S; Escobar-Morreale, H F; Quero, J; Durán, S; Presas, M J; Herruzo, R; Morreale de Escobar, G

    1997-06-01

    We have investigated the effects of iodine (I) intake on urinary I excretion in preterm (PT) babies up to 2 months after birth and its effect on serum T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, TSH, and thyroglobulin (Tg) levels compared to those in term (T) newborns. Very premature and very sick infants were in negative I balance for the first weeks after birth. Later, these same infants, as well as the other PT and T newborns, were in positive balance; 75- 80% of the ingested I was not accounted for in the urine. The urinary I levels of PT and T neonates cannot be equated to their I intakes. T4, FT4, and T3 levels in PT and T neonates increased with postmenstrual age, whereas Tg decreased and TSH did not change. Serum FT4, T3, Tg, and TSH levels in PT neonates were affected negatively, independently from age, by a low I intake. PT birth also affected T4, FT4, and Tg negatively, independently from I intake and postmenstrual age, for at least 6-8 weeks after birth. Care should be taken to avoid I deficiency in PT neonates. However, even when I intake is adequate, PT newborns are hypothyroxinemic compared to T babies during an important period of brain development. This suggests the possible convenience of interventions that might mimic the intrauterine hormone environment and accelerate maturation.

  13. Effect of ambience on food intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Stroebele, Nanette; De Castro, John M

    2004-09-01

    Eating takes place in a context of environmental stimuli known as ambience. Various external factors such as social and physical surroundings, including the presence of other people and sound, temperature, smell, color, time, and distraction affect food intake and food choice. Food variables such as the temperature, smell, and color of the food also influence food intake and choice differently. However, the influence of ambience on nutritional health is not fully understood. This review summarizes the research on ambient influences on food intake and food choice. The literature suggests that there are major influences of ambience on eating behavior and that the magnitude of the effect of ambience may be underestimated. Changes in intake can be detected with different levels of the number of people present, food accessibility, eating locations, food color, ambient temperatures and lighting, and temperature of foods, smell of food, time of consumption, and ambient sounds. It is suggested that the manipulation of these ambient factors as a whole or individually may be used therapeutically to alter food intake and that more attention needs to be paid to ambience in nutrition-related research.

  14. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake.

    PubMed

    Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; de Wijk, R A; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; de Graaf, C

    2008-04-01

    Energy-yielding liquids elicit weak suppressive appetite responses and weak compensatory responses, suggesting that liquid calories might lead to a positive energy balance. However, data is often derived from foods differing in many characteristics other than viscosity. To investigate the effect of viscosity on ad libitum food intake in real-life setting and to investigate whether a difference in ad libitum intake is related to eating rate and/or eating effort. In real-life setting 108 nonrestrained subjects (26+/-7 years, BMI 22.7+/-2.4 kg m(-2)) received a chocolate flavored liquid, semi-liquid and semi-solid milk-based product, similar in palatability, macronutrient composition and energy density. In laboratory setting 49 nonrestrained subjects (24+/-6 years, BMI 22.2+/-2.3 kg m(-2)) received the liquid or semi-solid product. Effort and eating rate were controlled by means of a peristaltic pump. In real-life setting the intake of the liquid (809+/-396 g) was respectively 14 and 30% higher compared to the semi-liquid (699+/-391 g) and semi-solid product (566+/-311 g; P<0.0001). In laboratory setting, removing eating effort, resulted in a 29% (P<0.0001) intake difference between liquid (319+/-176 g) and semi-solid (226+/-122 g). Standardizing eating rate resulted in 12% difference between liquid (200+/-106 g) and semi-solid (176+/-88 g; P=0.24). If not controlled, the difference in intake between liquid (419+/-216 g) and semi-solid (277+/-130 g) was comparable to the real-life setting (34%; P<0.0001). Products different in viscosity but similar in palatability, macronutrient composition and energy density lead to significant differences in intake. This difference is partially explained by the higher eating rate of liquids.

  16. Membrane alteration is necessary but not sufficient for effective glutamate secretion in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C; Krämer, R

    1990-01-01

    We showed recently that secretion of glutamate in biotin-limited cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum is mediated by carrier systems in the plasma membrane (C. Hoischen and R. Krämer, Arch. Microbiol. 151:342-347, 1989). In view of the generally accepted hypothesis that glutamate efflux is directly caused by alterations of the membrane, it was necessary to examine the kind of correlation between changes in lipid content and composition of the bacterial membrane and glutamate secretion activity. Two new experimental approaches were used. (i) Changes in lipid content and composition were analyzed in glutamate-producing cells which were forced to switch to nonproducers by addition of biotin in a short-term fermentation. (ii) The time courses of both the fatty acid or phospholipid composition and the efflux activity were analyzed within the first minutes of the switch from high to low secretion activity. The following results were obtained. (i) The time course of the change in fatty acid or phospholipid content and composition was not related to the change in secretion behavior. (ii) There was no specific fatty acid or phospholipid compound which regulated glutamate efflux. (iii) High efflux activity could only be induced when the total lipid content of the membrane was reduced. (iv) Although consistently correlated to high secretion activity, membrane alteration was never a sufficient prerequisite for glutamate efflux in C. glutamicum. PMID:1971623

  17. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  18. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental.

  19. Protein-enriched 'regular products' and their effect on protein intake in acute hospitalized older adults; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Stelten, S; Dekker, I M; Ronday, E M; Thijs, A; Boelsma, E; Peppelenbos, H W; de van der Schueren, M A E

    2015-06-01

    Especially in older adults, maintaining muscle mass is essential to perform activities of daily living. This requires a sufficient protein intake. However, protein intake in hospitalized older adults is often insufficient. Thus far different nutrition intervention strategies have failed to show success in reaching sufficient protein intake in hospitalized older adults. The effect of recently developed protein-enriched bread and drinking yoghurt on protein intake is still unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the effect of protein-enriched bread and drinking yoghurt on the protein intake of acute hospitalized older adults (≥55 years). This study was performed as a single blind randomized controlled trial in 47 hospitalized elderly acutely admitted to a university hospital. During three consecutive days participants received either ad libitum protein-enriched bread and drinking yoghurt or normal, non-enriched products as part of their daily meals. The protein-enriched bread contained 6.9 g of protein per serving and the normal bread 3.8 g of protein. For drinking yoghurt this was 20.0 g and 7.5 g of protein per serving respectively. The products were almost isocaloric. Food intake of participants was measured and nutritional values were calculated according to the Dutch Food Composition Table. An independent sample t-test was used to compare protein intake between the intervention and control group. Analyses illustrate a protein intake in the intervention group of 75.0 ± 33.2 g per day versus 58.4 ± 14.5 g in the control group (p = 0.039). Intervention patients had a mean protein intake of 1.1 g/kg/day, with 36% of the patients reaching the minimum requirement of 1.2 g/kg/day; in control patients this was 0.9 g/kg/day (p = 0.041) and 8% (p = 0.030). Bread and drinking yoghurt contributed almost equally to the increased intake of protein in the intervention group. The use of protein-enriched bread and drinking yoghurt, consumed as part of

  20. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports.

  1. The Long-Term Effects of Public Housing on Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sandra J.; Harkness, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the effects of living in public housing as a child at some point between 1968-1982 on four young adult outcomes. Results indicated that having lived in public housing increased employment, raised earnings, and reduced welfare use but had no effect on household earnings relative to the…

  2. The Long Term Effects of Housing Assistance on Self-Sufficiency. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sandra J.; Harkness, Joseph

    This study investigated the effects of housing assistance received by children between the ages of 10 and 16 at some point during the period 1968-1982 on four outcomes experienced in adulthood: (1) welfare receipt between ages 20-27; (2) earnings above poverty between ages 25-27; (3) total earnings between 25-27; and (4) educational attainment at…

  3. Effects of total fat intake on body weight.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bunn, Diane; Brown, Tracey; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Skeaff, C Murray

    2015-08-07

    In order to prevent overweight and obesity in the general population we need to understand the relationship between the proportion of energy from fat and resulting weight and body fatness in the general population. To assess the effects of proportion of energy intake from fat on measures of weight and body fatness (including obesity, waist circumference and body mass index) in people not aiming to lose weight, using all appropriate randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies in adults, children and young people We searched CENTRAL to March 2014 and MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL to November 2014. We did not limit the search by language. We also checked the references of relevant reviews. Trials fulfilled the following criteria: 1) randomised intervention trial, 2) included children (aged ≥ 24 months), young people or adults, 3) randomised to a lower fat versus usual or moderate fat diet, without the intention to reduce weight in any participants, 4) not multifactorial and 5) assessed a measure of weight or body fatness after at least six months. We also included cohort studies in children, young people and adults that assessed the proportion of energy from fat at baseline and assessed the relationship with body weight or fatness after at least one year. We duplicated inclusion decisions and resolved disagreement by discussion or referral to a third party. We extracted data on the population, intervention, control and outcome measures in duplicate. We extracted measures of weight and body fatness independently in duplicate at all available time points. We performed random-effects meta-analyses, meta-regression, subgrouping, sensitivity and funnel plot analyses. We included 32 RCTs (approximately 54,000 participants) and 30 sets of analyses of 25 cohorts. There is consistent evidence from RCTs in adults of a small weight-reducing effect of eating a smaller proportion of energy from fat; this was seen in almost all included studies and was highly resistant to

  4. Estimating the Cost-Effectiveness of Implementation: Is Sufficient Evidence Available?

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Sophie; Dixon, Simon; Faria, Rita; Walker, Simon; Palmer, Stephen; Sculpher, Mark; Radford, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely implementation of recommended interventions can provide health benefits to patients and cost savings to the health service provider. Effective approaches to increase the implementation of guidance are needed. Since investment in activities that improve implementation competes for funding against other health generating interventions, it should be assessed in term of its costs and benefits. Objective In 2010, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence released a clinical guideline recommending natriuretic peptide (NP) testing in patients with suspected heart failure. However, its implementation in practice was variable across the National Health Service in England. This study demonstrates the use of multi-period analysis together with diffusion curves to estimate the value of investing in implementation activities to increase uptake of NP testing. Methods Diffusion curves were estimated based on historic data to produce predictions of future utilization. The value of an implementation activity (given its expected costs and effectiveness) was estimated. Both a static population and a multi-period analysis were undertaken. Results The value of implementation interventions encouraging the utilization of NP testing is shown to decrease over time as natural diffusion occurs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the value of the implementation activity depends on its efficacy and on the population size. Conclusions Value of implementation can help inform policy decisions of how to invest in implementation activities even in situations in which data are sparse. Multi-period analysis is essential to accurately quantify the time profile of the value of implementation given the natural diffusion of the intervention and the incidence of the disease. PMID:27021746

  5. Effect of neuropeptide Y on food intake in bullfrog larvae.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shunsuke; Azuma, Morio; Morimoto, Noriaki; Kikuyama, Sakae; Matsuda, Kouhei

    2013-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide implicated in appetite regulation in mammals. However, except for teleost fish such as the goldfish and zebrafish, the involvement of NPY in the regulation of feeding in non-mammalian vertebrates has not been well studied. Anuran amphibian larvae feed and grow during the pre- and pro-metamorphic stages, but, thereafter they stop feeding as the metamorphic climax approaches. Therefore, orexigenic factors seem to play important roles in pre- and pro-metamorphic larvae. We investigated the role of NPY in food intake using bullfrog larvae including pre- and pro-metamorphic stages, and examined the effect of feeding status on the expression level of the NPY transcript in the hypothalamus. NPY mRNA levels in hypothalamus specimens obtained from larvae that had been fasted for 3 days were higher than those in larvae that had been fed normally. We then investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPY on food intake in the larvae. Cumulative food intake was significantly increased by ICV administration of NPY (5 and 10 pmol/g body weight, BW) during a 15-min observation period. The NPY-induced orexigenic action (10 pmol/g BW) was blocked by treatment with a NPY Y1 receptor antagonist, BIBP-3226 (100 pmol/g BW). These results indicate that NPY acts as an orexigenic factor in bullfrog larvae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    PubMed

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final

  7. Establishing the cost-effectiveness of new pharmaceuticals under conditions of uncertainty--when is there sufficient evidence?

    PubMed

    Sculpher, Mark; Claxton, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Decisions about which health-care interventions represent adequate value to collectively funded health-care systems are as widespread as they are unavoidable. In the case of new pharmaceuticals, many countries now require formal cost-effectiveness analysis to inform this decision-making process. This requires evidence on parameters associated with health-related utilities, treatment effects, resource use, and costs, for which data from available regulatory trials are invariably absent or highly uncertain. This uncertainty results from a number of factors including the predominance of intermediate end points in the clinical evidence-base and the limited period of follow-up of patients in clinical studies. Despite these imperfections in the evidence base, decisions about whether new pharmaceuticals are sufficiently cost-effective for reimbursement cannot be side-stepped. Data limitations do, however, require the use of rigorous analytical methods to support decision making. Probabilistic decision models and value of information analysis offer a means of structuring decision problems, synthesizing all available data, characterizing the uncertainty in the decision, quantifying the cost of uncertainty, and establishing the expected value of perfect information. This analytical framework is important because it addresses two fundamental questions about new pharmaceuticals. First, is the product expected to be cost-effective on the basis of existing evidence? Second, is additional research concerning the product itself cost-effective? In addressing these questions, the analytical framework can establish when sufficient evidence exists to sustain a claim for a new pharmaceutical to be cost-effective.

  8. Response execution, selection, or activation: what is sufficient for response-related repetition effects under task shifting?

    PubMed

    Hübner, Ronald; Druey, Michel D

    2006-07-01

    Repetition effects are often helpful in revealing information about mental structures and processes. Usually, positive effects have been observed when the stimuli or responses are repeated. However, in task shift studies it has also been found that response repetitions can produce negative effects if the task shifts. Although several mechanisms have been proposed to account for this interaction between task shifting and response repetition, many details remain open. Therefore, a series of four experiments was conducted to answer two questions. First, are motor responses necessary to produce response-related repetition effects, or is response activation sufficient? Second, does the risk of an accidental re-execution of the last response affect the repetition costs? The results show that response activation alone can produce repetition effects. Furthermore, the risk of accidental response re-execution largely modulates these effects.

  9. EFFECTS OF PROBIOTIC INTAKE ON INTESTINAL BIFIDOBACTERIA OF CELIAC PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Martinello, Flávia; Roman, Camila Fontana; Souza, Paula Alves de

    2017-01-01

    Healthy individuals exhibit a significantly higher concentration of faecal bifidobacteria in comparison to celiac patients. Even though there are potential benefits in probiotic usage, they have been little explored as an adjunctive therapy in celiac disease. This study aimed at the comparison of faecal bifidobacteria concentration and pH among celiac patients and healthy subjects before and after the daily intake of 100 g of yogurt containing probiotic for a thirty-day period. Feces from 17 healthy subjects and 14 celiac patients were analyzed, in which stool culture was performed for the isolation and quantification of faecal bifidobacteria. Furthermore, Gram's method was employed for the microscopic analysis of the colonies, while the identification of the Bifidobacterium genus was made through determination of the fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase enzyme. Faecal pH was measured using a calibrated pHmeter. Faecal bifidobacteria concentration before probiotic consumption was significantly higher in healthy individuals (2.3x108±6.3x107 CFU/g) when compared to celiac patients (1.0x107±1.7x107 CFU/g). Faecal pH values did not show a significant difference. After the daily consumption of probiotic-containing yogurt both groups showed a significant increase in the concentration of faecal bifidobacteria, but healthy subjects presented significantly higher bifidobacteria concentrations (14.7x108±0.2x108 CFU/g) than the celiac group (0.76x108±0.1x108 CFU/g). The obtained pH values from both groups were not significantly different, being 7.28±0.518 for the celiac patients and 7.07±0.570 for healthy individuals after the probiotic intake. The probiotic supplementation significantly increased the number of bifidobacteria in the feces of celiac patients, although it was not sufficient to reach the concentration found in healthy individuals prior to its consumption.

  10. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  11. Food intake suppressant effect of baclofen in rats.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, M R; Hosseini-Nia, T; Allah-Maddadi, S

    1989-01-01

    1. Baclofen given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake. 2. Bicuculline or picrotoxin (GABAA-antagonist) and methergoline (5-HT antagonist) decreased the anorectic effect of baclofen. 3. Pimozide (dopamine receptor blocker), phenoxybenzamine and propranolol (alpha and beta adrenergic blockers) did not diminish the baclofen effect, but even increased the anorexia induced by the drug. 4. It can be postulated that, at least partially, GABAA receptor mechanism, GABA-5HT receptor complex and/or 5-HT mechanism may be involved in baclofen induced anorexia.

  12. Combined effects of saturated fat and cholesterol intakes on serum lipids: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Ramezankhani, Azra; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated the combined effect of saturated fat and cholesterol intake on serum lipids among Tehranian adults. In 443 subjects >or=18 y, dietary intake was assessed. Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated. Serum cholesterol, triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were calculated. Cholesterol intakes >or=300 mg/d and saturated fat intakes >or=7% of total energy were defined as high intakes. Individuals were categorized into four groups based on cholesterol and saturated fat intakes. Subjects' mean age was 40.1 +/- 14.6 y; those in whom cholesterol and saturated fat intake was normal had significantly less energy and fat intake than those with high cholesterol and saturated fat intakes (P < 0.01). Saturated fat intake had a significant effect on serum total and HDL-C levels. Subjects with a normal saturated fat intake had significantly less serum total and HDL-C than those who had high saturated fat intake (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index, the main effect of cholesterol intake on HDL-C was significant (P = 0.05). Mean serum HDL-C was lower in subjects who had normal cholesterol intake than in those with high cholesterol intake. These results show that cholesterol and saturated fat intakes have no combined effect on serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, whereas cholesterol intake per se affects serum HDL-C level.

  13. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies in outpatients hospital setting in an area with sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Legakis, Ioannis; Manousaki, Mina; Detsi, Stela; Nikita, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of thyroid disease in a hospital outpatient setting, in an area of sufficient iodine intake, serum levels of TSH, T4, T3, anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies were examined in 909 individuals with an age range of 12.4 to 88.5 years, participating in a checkup outpatient setting. The study was conducted in Henry Dynant Hospital located in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece, during a 2 year period. Hormonal parameters were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.95% of the total population and subclinical thyrotoxicosis in 5.5%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.43% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 4.51%. In male population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.4 % and subclinical thyrotoxicosis was also found in 4.4%. On the other hand, overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.4% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 3.7% in males. In female population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 5.2% whereas subclinical thyrotoxicosis was found in 6.0%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.5% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 4,9% in females. Positive anti-TPO antibodies were detected more often (30.4%) than anti-Tg (15.4%) in the tested population. The positivity in both anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies was correlated with abnormally high TSH concentrations after the age of 50 years, especially in female population. In conclusion distinct profile of thyroid hormonal parameters was observed in inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Athens, with overt thyrotoxicosis strikingly overcome overt hypothyroidism while subclinical forms of each dysfunction also exhibit analogous results. © 2013 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  15. Dose-related effects of lauric acid on antropyloroduodenal motility, gastrointestinal hormone release, appetite, and energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Feltrin, Kate L; Horowitz, Michael; Smout, Andre J P M; Rades, Thomas; Meyer, James H; Pilichiewicz, Amelia N; Wishart, Judith; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2005-10-01

    We recently reported that intraduodenal infusion of lauric acid (C12) (0.375 kcal/min, 106 mM) stimulates isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs), inhibits antral and duodenal pressure waves (PWs), stimulates release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and suppresses energy intake and that these effects are much greater than those seen in response to isocaloric decanoic acid (C10) infusion. Administration of C12 was, however, associated with nausea, confounding interpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different intraduodenal doses of C12 on antropyloroduodenal (APD) motility, plasma CCK and GLP-1 concentrations, appetite, and energy intake. Thirteen healthy males were studied on 4 days in double-blind, randomized fashion. APD pressures, plasma CCK and GLP-1 concentrations, and appetite perceptions were measured during 90-min ID infusion of C12 at 0.1 (14 mM), 0.2 (28 mM), or 0.4 (56 mM) kcal/min or saline (control; rate 4 ml/min). Energy intake was determined at a buffet meal immediately following infusion. C12 dose-dependently stimulated IPPWs, decreased antral and duodenal motility, and stimulated secretion of CCK and GLP-1 (r > 0.4, P < 0.05 for all). C12 (0.4 kcal/min) suppressed energy intake compared with control, C12 (0.1 kcal/min), and C12 (0.2 kcal/min) (P < 0.05). These effects were observed in the absence of nausea. In conclusion, intraduodenal C12 dose-dependently modulated APD motility and gastrointestinal hormone release in healthy male subjects, whereas effects on energy intake were only apparent with the highest dose infused (0.4 kcal/min), possibly because only at this dose was modulation of APD motility and gastrointestinal hormone secretion sufficient for a suppressant effect on energy intake.

  16. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research.

  17. The effects of calorie information on food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Girz, L; Polivy, J; Herman, C P; Lee, H

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effects of calorie labeling on food selection and intake in dieters and non-dieters, and to explore whether expectations about food healthfulness moderate these effects. Participants were presented with a menu containing two items, a salad and a pasta dish. The menu had (a) no calorie information, (b) information that the salad was low in calories and the pasta was high in calories, (c) information that the salad was high in calories and the pasta was low in calories or (d) information that both were high in calories (study 2 only). Calorie labels influenced food selection for dieters, but not for non-dieters. Dieters were more likely to order salad when the salad was labeled as low in calories and more likely to order pasta, even high-calorie pasta, when the salad was labeled as high in calories. Participants who chose high-calorie foods over low-calorie foods did not eat less in response to calorie information, although non-dieters reduced their intake somewhat when calorie labels were put in the context of recommended daily calories. The results suggest that the rush to provide calorie information may not prove to be the best approach to fighting the obesity epidemic.

  18. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  19. Cancer patients' referral wish: effects of distress, problems, socio-demographic and illness-related variables and social support sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Admiraal, J M; van Nuenen, F M; Burgerhof, J G M; Reyners, A K L; Hoekstra-Weebers, J E H M

    2016-11-01

    The present study's aim was to examine effects of cancer patients' perceived distress and problems, socio-demographic and illness-related variables and social support sufficiency on referral wish. A cross-sectional group of 1340 patients (response = 51%) completed a questionnaire consisting of the Dutch version of the Distress Thermometer and Problem List, including the referral wish question, and questions on socio-demographic and illness-related variables and perceived social support sufficiency. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the effects of these variables on patients' referral wish. Of the patients who completed the referral wish question (N = 1297), 13% wished and 21% considered a referral, while 66% did not want a referral. Univariate analyses showed that, in comparison with patients not having a referral wish, those having a (maybe) wish were more distressed, reporting more problems in all Problem List domains, younger, more likely not to have children or children living at home, higher educated, more likely to be employed, under active treatment or recently diagnosed, receiving more intensive treatment and more likely to perceive support received to be insufficient. A final ordinal logistic regression analysis showed independent effects of distress, practical and emotional problems, age and treatment phase on referral wish (χ(2) (6) = 205.9; p < 0.001; Nagelkerke's R(2)  = 0.24). A third of the patients (maybe) wished a referral. Knowledge of risk variables (particularly increased distress, experience of more practical and emotional problems, younger age and receiving active treatment or recently diagnosed) may support the identification of patients at increased need of additional healthcare services. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  1. The effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and growth in beagle puppies.

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, C B; Barrette, D; Mongeau, R; Larivière, N

    1985-01-01

    We studied the growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of groups of female Beagle puppies fed 16% or 22% crude protein rations to which 6% or 12% wheat bean was added at the expense of the total diet. The final neutral detergent fibre concentrations were 12%, 16%, 22% and 23% (dry matter basis). The addition of wheat bran to puppy rations, bringing the neutral detergent fibre up to 16% in a 21% crude protein diet had no deleterious effects on feed intake, feed and protein efficiency or growth in Beagle puppies. Over a sufficiently long period of time, the growth of this group did not differ from that of the controls (12% neutral detergent fibre, 23% crude protein) although it was higher at intermediate times. The effects of the high fibre (22 or 23% neutral detergent fibre) diets on growth, feed intake feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio are consistent with an energy deficit resulting from the animals' inability to adapt fully to the dilution of their rations leading to lower growth, less efficient use of feed and, in the case of group 3 (22% crude protein, 22% neutral detergent fibre), a lower protein efficiency ratio. The protein efficiency ratio of group 4 (16% crude protein, 23% neutral detergent fibre) was higher than that of group 3, most likely the result of a more limiting amount of dietary protein leading to a more efficient use for growth by the animal. We have concluded that intermediate levels of neutral detergent fibre (up to 16%) were not deleterious even in puppy rations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2994864

  2. Short-term isocaloric manipulation of carbohydrate intake: effect on subsequent ad libitum energy intake.

    PubMed

    Penesova, Adela; Venti, Colleen A; Bunt, Joy C; Bonfiglio, Susan M; Votruba, Susanne B; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2011-09-01

    Isocaloric manipulation of carbohydrate or fat intake could alter subsequent ad libitum food intake. In a controlled inpatient study, we investigated whether isocaloric manipulation of carbohydrate or fat would alter subsequent ad libitum energy intake. Eighteen non-diabetic subjects (age range 19-53 years.; 15 M/3F; % body fat 38.5 ± 9.1 (mean ± SD)) were fed for 3 days an isocaloric high-carbohydrate diet (HC; 60% carbohydrate, 20% fat, 20% protein) and a high-fat diet (HF; 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate, 20% protein) in random order each followed by 3 days of ad libitum food intake. There were no differences in mean daily energy intake (EI) following each diet (HC vs. HF: 4,811 ± 1,190 vs. 4,823 ± 1,238 kcal/d; P = 0.7) or in the percent of weight maintenance energy needs (%EN-WM; 173 ± 41 vs. 173 ± 46%, P = 0.5). However, the individual difference in EI between the HF versus HC diet (ΔEI) both on day one and over the 3 days of each ad libitum period was negatively associated with % body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (day 1: ΔEI vs. %BF, r = -0.49, P = 0.04; mean day 1-3 kcal ΔEI vs. %BF, r = -0.66, P = 0.003, and ΔEI vs. waist, r = -0.65, P = 0.004). A short-term isocaloric HC diet did not result in overall lower EI compared with a HF diet in the same individuals. However, we did find that increasing body fat was associated with less decline in EI following the HC versus HF diet indicating that increasing adiposity is associated with altered regulation of EI in response to macronutrient changes.

  3. Effect of cooking loss in the assessment of vitamin intake for epidemiological data in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Adachi, H Y; Ishihara, J; Tsugane, S

    2011-04-01

    The effect of cooking loss on vitamin intake is an important consideration in dietary and epidemiological studies in Japanese. However, because few published food values have considered cooking effect, allowing for cooking loss in the assessment of vitamin intake in Japan has been difficult. Seven-day dietary records and a fasting blood sample were collected from 102 men and 113 women in August of 1994 or 1995. Vitamin intake were estimated using two food databases, one composed of raw food only and the second of cooked food. Estimates were compared with blood levels. Water-soluble vitamin intake using a food database including cooked food was lower than intakes estimated using a database composed of raw food only, except for pantothenic acid and vitamin B(12) intake. In particular, vitamin B(1) intake was 18.9% lower in men and 16.8% lower in women. However, when subjects were classified into the same and adjacent categories by joint classification by quintiles, appreciable change in ranking of a subject was not observed. Furthermore, the relationship between vitamin intake and biomarker did not improve when intake was calculated using a food database including cooked food. Although the effect of cooking loss on absolute values is not negligible, this might not significantly impact the ranking of subject intake estimations of vitamin intake in epidemiological studies. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved

  4. Effects of dietary enrichment with conventional foods on energy and protein intake in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Trabal, Joan; Farran-Codina, Andreu

    2015-09-01

    Decreased food intake is a common problem among older adults; it is a known cause of weight loss and may lead to malnutrition. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effects of dietary enrichment with conventional foods on energy and protein intake in older adults. Studies were identified through systematic searches of the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, via PubMed; CINAHL, via EBSCO; Web of Science; Scopus; and Google Scholar. Studies in older adults were included without restrictions for sample size, length of follow-up, comparators, or date or status of publication. Eligible studies were dietary-enrichment interventions with conventional foods and powdered modules that aimed to increase the energy and protein density of meals without significantly increasing the final volume of the meals. Outcomes assessed included changes in energy intake, protein intake, nutritional status, body weight, functional status, and episodes of infection. Nine studies were included. The results suggest that dietary enrichment can improve energy intake in older adults. While dietary enrichment seems to increase protein intake, there is not enough evidence of sufficient quality to confirm this observation or to determine whether dietary enrichment improves other outcomes assessed in this population. Additional large clinical trials with long-term interventions are needed to establish the effects of dietary enrichment in older people at risk of malnutrition. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Assisting Young, Unmarried Mothers to Become Self-Sufficient: The Effects of Different Types of Early Economic Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jodi R.; Hill, Martha S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers how different types of economic support, received soon after the birth of a first child, contribute to the later self-sufficiency of young, unmarried mothers. Findings suggest that certain economic supports assist these mothers and that life choices they make after their child's birth are important to self-sufficiency. (RJM)

  6. Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Janet H W; Mars, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f = 8/22, age: 21.2 ± 1.9 years, BMI: 21.2 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3 bites/min), medium (5 bites/min) or fast (7 bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9 ± 1.3, medium: 4.0 ± 1.1, fast: 4.0 ± 1.3 bites/min (p = 0.75), as was average bite size (11 ± 2.6 g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9 ± 3.6 min) and fast condition (14.4 ± 3.7 min) compared to the slow condition (16.8 ± 4.8 min) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.01), and intake was lower in the medium (634 ± 183 g) and fast condition (624 ± 190 g) compared to the slow condition (701 ± 220 g) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.05). This experimental study suggests that bite frequency is not affected by the confederate. However, the meal duration of the confederates showed a significant effect on the meal duration and meal size of the participants. It seems that intake was influenced as a result of copying meal termination.

  7. Effect of various carbon sources on biomass and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris during nutrient sufficient and nitrogen starvation conditions.

    PubMed

    Abedini Najafabadi, Hamed; Malekzadeh, Mohammad; Jalilian, Farhad; Vossoughi, Manouchehr; Pazuki, Gholamreza

    2015-03-01

    In this research, a two-stage process consisting of cultivation in nutrient rich and nitrogen starvation conditions was employed to enhance lipid production in Chlorella vulgaris algal biomass. The effect of supplying different organic and inorganic carbon sources on cultivation behavior was investigated. During nutrient sufficient condition (stage I), the highest biomass productivity of 0.158±0.011g/L/d was achieved by using sodium bicarbonate followed by 0.130±0.013, 0.111±0.005 and 0.098±0.003g/L/d for sodium acetate, carbon dioxide and molasses, respectively. Cultivation under nitrogen starvation process (stage II) indicated that the lipid and fatty acid content increased continuously to a maximum value at day 2. Using carbon dioxide resulted in highest cell density, while using sodium acetate led to the highest fatty acid content. Molasses was not as effective as other carbon sources, but by taking into account its lower price, it can be considered as a suitable carbon source for algal lipid productivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sufficient utilization of natural fluctuating light intensity is an effective approach of promoting lipid productivity in oleaginous microalgal cultivation outdoors.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Xu, Liangliang; Xia, Ling; Hu, Chunxiang

    2015-03-01

    The effects of fluctuating intensity of solar radiation on biomass and lipid in oleaginous microalgae are important. However, this topic has not been the subject of studies for a long time. In this study, four oleaginous microalgae from semi-arid areas were screened and cultivated outdoors under different fluctuating intensities. Results showed that the highest lipid productivities and neutral lipid (NL) contents occurred under high fluctuating intensity (HFI), in which 13-20% of the increased NL came from glycolipid transformation without phospholipid conversion. Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 obtained from biological soil crusts in desert had the largest biomass (137.13, 106.61mgL(-1)d(-1)) and lipid yields (35.06, 32.45mgL(-1)d(-1)) under HFI. The highest areal lipid productivities of 9.06 and 8.95gm(-2)d(-1) and better biodiesel quality were observed under HFI. Accordingly, sufficiently adopting fluctuating light intensity outdoors to culture microalgae was an economic and effective approach.

  9. Short-term treatment with nitrate is not sufficient to induce in vivo antithrombotic effects in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Proniewski, B; Marcinczyk, N; Rykaczewska, U; Jarmoc, D; Chabielska, E; Chlopicki, S

    2017-01-01

    In humans, short-term supplementation with nitrate is hypotensive and inhibits platelet aggregation via an nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. In the present work, we analyzed whether short-term treatment with nitrate induces antithrombotic effects in rats and mice. Arterial thrombosis was evoked electrically in a rat model in which renovascular hypertension was induced by partial ligation of the left renal artery. In mice expressing green fluorescent protein, laser-induced thrombosis was analyzed intravitally by using confocal microscope. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or sodium nitrite (NaNO2) was administered orally at a dose of 0.17 mmol/kg, twice per day for 3 days. Short-term nitrate treatment did not modify thrombus formation in either rats or mice, while nitrite administration led to pronounced antithrombotic activity. In hypertensive rats, nitrite treatment resulted in a significant decrease in thrombus weight (0.50 ± 0.08 mg vs. VEH 0.96 ± 0.09 mg; p < 0.01). In addition, nitrite inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) generation and prolonged prothrombin time. These effects were accompanied by significant increases in blood NOHb concentration and plasma nitrite concentration. In contrast, nitrate did not affect ex vivo platelet aggregation or prothrombin time and led to only slightly elevated nitrite plasma concentration. In mice, nitrate was also ineffective, while nitrite led to decreased platelet accumulation in the area of laser-induced endothelial injury. In conclusion, although nitrite induced profound NO-dependent antithrombotic effects in vivo, conversion of nitrates to nitrite in rats and mice over short-term 3-day treatment was not sufficient to elicit NO-dependent antiplatelet or antithrombotic effects.

  10. Effect of dietary intake on immune function in athletes.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Jaya T; Pendergast, David R

    2002-01-01

    Athletes are exposed to acute and chronic stress that may lead to suppression of the immune system and increased oxidative species generation. In addition, the tendency to consume fewer calories than expended and to avoid fats may further compromise the immune system and antioxidant mechanisms. The exercise stress is proportional to the intensity and duration of the exercise, relative to the maximal capacity of the athlete. Muscle glycogen depletion compromises exercise performance and it also increases the stress. Glycogen stores can be protected by increased fat oxidation (glycogen sparing). The diets of athletes should be balanced so that total caloric intake equals expenditure, and so that the carbohydrates and fats utilised in exercise are replenished. Many athletes do not meet these criteria and have compromised glycogen or fat stores, have deficits in essential fats, and do not take in sufficient micronutrients to support exercise performance, immune competence and antioxidant defence. Either overtraining or under nutrition may lead to an increased risk of infections. Exercise stress leads to a proportional increase in stress hormone levels and concomitant changes in several aspects of immunity, including the following: high cortisol; neutrophilia; lymphopenia; decreases in granulocyte oxidative burst, nasal mucociliary clearance, natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, the delayed-type sensitivity response, the production of cytokines in response to mitogens, and nasal and salivary immunoglobulin A levels; blunted major histocompatibility complex II expression in macrophages; and increases in blood granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. In addition to providing fuel for exercise, glycolysis, glutaminlysis, fat oxidation and protein degradation participate in metabolism and synthesis of the immune components. Compromising, or overusing, any of these components may lead to immunosuppression. In some

  11. Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

  12. Effect of caffeine intake on finger cold-induced vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong Jo; Seo, Yongsuk; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Dae Taek

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of caffeine intake on finger cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD). Ten healthy men underwent 6 experimental trials characterized by control (NCAFF) or caffeine intake (CAFF) via chewing gum (300 mg of caffeine) while resting on a chair or performing submaximal (70% maximal oxygen consumption) or maximal (100% maximal oxygen consumption) treadmill exercise (Bruce protocol) followed by immersion of the middle finger in a water bath (5°C) for 20 minutes. Finger temperature (Tf ) and time parameters of the first CIVD cycle and post-test norepinephrine were measured. Exercise duration for submaximal and maximal exercise was 8.9 ± 0.9 and 12.4 ± 0.8 minutes, respectively. CAFF had no effect on Tf, but exercise increased minimal Tf in NCAFF (9.08 ± 1.27°C, 13.02 ± 2.13°C, and 13.25 ± 1.63°C in rest, submaximal, and maximal exercise, respectively) and CAFF (8.76 ± 1.39°C, 12.50 ± 1.91°C, and 12.79 ± 1.20°C). Maximal Tf was significantly higher in NCAFF (15.98 ± 1.04°C, 16.18 ± 1.56°C, and 15.14 ± 1.52°C) than in CAFF (13.56 ± 1.19°C, 15.52 ± 1.31°C, and 14.39 ± 1.43°C), resulting in a significant difference between minimal and maximal Tf in rest (NCAFF, 6.89 ± 1.56°C and CAFF, 4.79 ± 1.23°C), but not in exercise conditions. CAFF had no effect on CIVD time responses, but exercise significantly shortened CIVD onset and peak time compared with rest in both NCAFF and CAFF. Norepinephrine concentration was significantly greater in CAFF (290.6 ± 113.0 pg/mL, 278.1 ± 91.4 pg/mL, and 399.8 ± 125.5 pg/mL) than NCAFF (105.6 ± 29.5 pg/mL, 199.6 ± 89.6 pg/mL, and 361.5 ± 171.3 pg/mL). Caffeine intake before finger immersion in cold water does not result in a thermogenic effect and adversely affects CIVD responses, whereas exercise modifies CIVD temperature and time responses. Copyright © 2013 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of residual feed intake classification on forage intake by grazing beef cows.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Kerley, M S; Kallenbach, R L

    2008-10-01

    Although feed intake and efficiency differences in growing cattle of low and high residual feed intake (RFI) classification have been established, little is known about the difference in grazed forage intake between beef cows of known RFI classification. Two experiments were conducted using Hereford cows for which RFI had been determined as heifers using the GrowSafe 4000E feed intake system, after which heifers had been divided into thirds as low RFI, mid RFI, and high RFI. During Exp. 1, 2 replicates of low and high RFI cows (n = 7/replicate) in mid- to late-gestation were blocked to 1 of 4 non-endophyte-infected tall fescue paddocks (1.8 to 2.4 ha), which they grazed continuously for 84 d during summer. Using grazing exclosures, weekly rising plate meter readings, and forage harvests every 21 d, average forage DMI was calculated. Low and high RFI groups did not differ (P > 0.05) in BW change or BCS change over the trial (19.5 vs. 22.1 kg of BW gain and 0.11 vs. 0.10 BCS gain), but low RFI cows had a 21% numerically lower DMI than high RFI cows (12.4 vs. 15.6 kg/d; P = 0.23). The average area needed per paddock over the trial was similar for low and high RFI cows (1.71 vs. 1.82 ha; P = 0.35), and the average DM on offer over the trial was less for low RFI than for high RFI cows (4,215 vs. 4,376 kg; P = 0.06). During Exp. 2, 3 replicates of low and high RFI cows with their calves (n = 4 pair/replicate) strip-grazed stockpiled and early spring growth tall fescue paddocks (0.7 to 0.9 ha) for 60 d in late winter and early spring. Because of limiting forage availability and quality at trial initiation, cow-calf pairs were also fed 3.31 kg/pair of pelleted soyhulls daily. Pre- and post-grazed forage samples were harvested for 4 grazing periods, and forage growth was estimated using a growing degree days calculation and on-site weather station data. Performance did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI cows throughout the experiment (18.4 vs. 26.6 kg of BW gain

  14. Vitamin D intake in Australian adults and the modeled effects of milk and breakfast cereal fortification.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, Naomi; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Ibiebele, Torukiri I; van den Akker, Sanne; van der Pols, Jolieke C

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D intake from foods or supplements is a safe and attractive means to improve vitamin D status of populations. The aim of this study was to help identify population subgroups that would benefit most from efforts to increase intake. To do so, we investigated which personal characteristics are associated with vitamin D intake in an Australian population and modeled possible effects of expanded food fortification practices. We investigated vitamin D intake in a population-based random sample of 785 adults, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and assessed associations with personal and behavioral characteristics. We identified vitamin D food sources and modeled the hypothetical effects of blanket fortification of milk and breakfast cereals. Average total vitamin D intake was 4.4 (±4.0) μg/g and below adequate intake for most participants in all age and sex subgroups. Higher intake was associated with being female, having a serious medical condition, energy intake below the median, and vitamin D supplement use (all P < 0.05). The "meat, fish, and eggs" food group contributed most to total vitamin D intake (51%), followed by dairy products and related foods (43%). If all milk and breakfast cereals were to be fortified with vitamin D, the average intake of vitamin D from foods would increase from 3.6 (±2.4) μg/d to 6.3 (±3.2) μg/d, with similar increases in all age and sex subgroups. Vitamin D intake in Australia is generally below recommended levels, and few personal characteristics help to identify subgroups with low intake. Blanket vitamin D fortification of milk and breakfast cereals would substantially increase average vitamin D intake in Australian adults of all ages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of dietary counseling on nutrient intakes in gastric banding surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Shah, Meena; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Rao, Sneha; Snell, Peter; Quittner, Claudia; Garg, Abhimanyu

    2013-12-01

    There is some evidence that bariatric surgery patients who undergo the purely restrictive procedures, such as the gastric banding (GB) or the vertical banded gastroplasty surgery, do not meet the dietary reference intakes for several nutrients. Whether dietary counseling improves micronutrient and macronutrient intakes was examined in GB surgery patients. Twenty-three GB surgery patients received dietary and behavioral counseling for 12 weeks to limit energy intake and improve nutrient intakes. Food intake was assessed by 3-day food record at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks. Postintervention data were available in 21 patients. At baseline, more than 50% of the subjects reported inadequate dietary intakes of 13 nutrients but overconsumption of sodium and percent energy from saturated and trans-fatty acids. Mixed-effects model for repeated measures revealed a significant reduction in energy (P = 0.0007), absolute protein (P = 0.04), cholesterol (P = 0.045), and potassium (P = 0.01) intake and an increase in vitamin K (P = 0.03) intake and percent energy from protein (P = 0.005) during the 12 weeks. The McNemar test showed a reduction in the proportion of the subjects with an inadequate intake of vitamin K (P = 0.008) but an increase in the proportion of the subjects with an inadequate intake of thiamin (P = 0.03) at 12 weeks. The proportion of the subjects who did not meet the nutrient requirements for the remaining 27 nutrients was generally high and remained unchanged. Dietary intervention improved the intake of some nutrients in the GB surgery patients. However, most nutrient intake requirements remained unmet by many subjects. These results indicate that nutritional counseling beyond 12 weeks is warranted in GB surgery patients to improve their dietary nutrient intakes.

  16. Brief report: effect of dietary restraint on fruit and vegetable intake following implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2013-07-01

    This study explored whether the effects of implementation intentions on increasing fruit and vegetable intake were moderated by dietary restraint. In total, 208 participants were randomly allocated to control or implementation intention conditions where they were asked to write down when, where and how they would increase their fruit and vegetable intake. Implementation intentions increased fruit and vegetable intake but only in participants scoring low (not high) on rigid dietary restraint. Motives underlying fruit and vegetable consumption may be different for restrained and unrestrained eaters. Efforts to increase their intake may need to be tailored, for example, through motivational rather than situational cues.

  17. Effects of exercise on gut peptides, energy intake and appetite.

    PubMed

    Martins, Catia; Morgan, Linda M; Bloom, Stephen R; Robertson, M Denise

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of exercise on the postprandial levels of appetite-related hormones and metabolites, energy intake (EI) and subjective measures of appetite. Ghrelin, polypeptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were measured in the fasting state and postprandially in 12 healthy, normal-weight volunteers (six males and six females) using a randomised crossover design. One hour after a standardised breakfast, subjects either cycled for 60 min at 65% of their maximal heart rate or rested. Subjective appetite was assessed throughout the study using visual analogue scales and subsequent EI at a buffet meal was measured at the end (3-h post-breakfast and 1-h post-exercise). Exercise significantly increased mean PYY, GLP-1 and PP levels, and this effect was maintained during the post-exercise period for GLP-1 and PP. No significant effect of exercise was observed on postprandial levels of ghrelin. During the exercise period, hunger scores were significantly decreased; however, this effect disappeared in the post-exercise period. Exercise significantly increased subsequent absolute EI, but produced a significant decrease in relative EI after accounting for the energy expended during exercise. Hunger scores and PYY, GLP-1 and PP levels showed an inverse temporal pattern during the 1-h exercise/control intervention. In conclusion, acute exercise, of moderate intensity, temporarily decreased hunger sensations and was able to produce a short-term negative energy balance. This impact on appetite and subsequent energy homeostasis was not explained by changes in postprandial levels of ghrelin; however, 'exercise-induced anorexia' may potentially be linked to increased PYY, GLP-1 and PP levels.

  18. Effects of trace acrylamide intake in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko; Fujioka, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180 degrees C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein.

  19. Body weight reducing effect of oral boric acid intake.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear.

  20. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  1. Effect of selection for residual feed intake on feeding behavior and daily feed intake patterns in Yorkshire swine.

    PubMed

    Young, J M; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between observed and predicted feed intake based on average requirements for growth and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for decreased RFI on feeding behavior traits and to estimate their relationships with RFI. Three data sets from the 4th and 5th generations of a selection experiment with a line selected for reduced RFI (LRFI) and a randomly selected control line (CTRL) were analyzed. Lines were mixed in pens of 16 and evaluated for feeding behavior traits obtained from a single-space electronic feeder over a growing period of ~3 mo before ~115 kg. The following traits were evaluated as averages over the entire test period and over the first and second half of the test period: number of visits per day and hour; occupation time per day, visit, and hour; feed intake (FI) per day, visit, and hour; and FI rate per visit. Models used included fixed effects of line and feeder, covariates of on-test age and FI per day, and random effects of pen, on-test group, sire, and litter. Repeated measures models were used to analyze feeding patterns during the day. The LRFI pigs had significantly less FI per day than CTRL pigs for all 3 data sets. With adjustment for FI per day, line differences of all traits were in the same direction for all 3 data sets but differed in significance and size. Feed intake per visit and hour and visits per day and hour did not differ between lines, but the trend was for LRFI pigs to have fewer visits, in particular during peak eating times. The LRFI pigs had a greater feeding rate and less occupation time per day, visit, and hour than CTRL pigs, but this was not significant for all data sets. Correlations of RFI with FI per day and visit and visits per day were positive. Average daily gain was positively correlated with FI per day and visit and occupation time per visit but negatively correlated with visits per day

  2. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  3. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  4. Priority areas for research on the intake, composition, and health effects of tree nuts and peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from conference on the health effects of nut consumption and identifies priority areas for future research. Individuals with higher intakes of nuts generally have higher intakes of many beneficial dietary constituents. More information is needed on ...

  5. Priority areas for research on the intake, composition and health effects of nuts and peanuts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from a conference on the health effects of nut consumption, and identifies priority areas for future research. Individuals with higher intakes of nuts generally have higher intakes of many beneficial dietary constituents. More information is needed ...

  6. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  7. The protective effect of calcium on bone mass in postmenopausal women with high selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Pedrera-Zamorano, J D; Calderon-García, J F; Roncero-Martin, R; Mañas-Nuñez, P; Moran, J M; Lavado-Garcia, J M

    2012-01-01

    Nutritional factors, especially the two essential nutrients calcium and vitamin D, have been shown to play an important role in bone health. We wanted to determine the possible protective effect of calcium intake in adequate amounts on bone mass as assessed by quantitative ultrasound in postmenopausal women who also have a high intake of selenium. Health district of Cáceres, Spain. PARTICIPANTS AND STUDY DESIGN: 335 postmenopausal women aged 60.9 (SD = 8.1) years. Women were stratified based on the vitamin D, vitamin E, calcium intake and the calcium/protein and calcium/phosphorous index. Bone status (Ad-SoS measured at the phalanges) was assessed with an ultrasound device model DBM Sonic 1200R. Food intake was quantified using dietetic scales, measuring cups, and spoons based on 7 days of diet records. Urine samples were collected the morning of testing after an overnight fast. Venous blood samples for the hematological and biochemical studies were also obtained in the fasting state. In the group of women with Ca intake < 800 mg / d we found a significant and negative relationship between Ad-SoS with age (β= -4.020, F = 23.327) and selenium intake (β = -0.419, F = 10.067), as well as a positive relationship with Ca intake (β= 0.104 and F = 7.084) (p <0.0001 in all). In the group of women with Ca intake > 800 mg / d, age has a significant and negative relationship (β = -4.829 and F = 106.745), whereas folic acid intake has a significant and positive relationship (β = 0.047 and F = 5.858) (p <0.0001 in both). Elevated selenium intake negatively affects bone mass measurements in postmenopausal women over the age of 51 but only if calcium intake is also less than 800 mg / day. When calcium intake is greater than 800 mg/day, selenium did not appear to affect bone mass.

  8. Beneficial Physiological Effects With Blackcurrant Intake in Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus; Myers, Stephen David; Gault, Mandy Lucinda; Cook, Matthew David

    2015-08-01

    Blackcurrant contains anthocyanins, known to influence vasorelaxation and peripheral blood flow. We examined the effects of 7 days intake of Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder (6g/day) on the lactate curve, maximum oxygen uptake, and cardiovascular responses at rest and during cycling. Thirteen trained triathletes with >3 yrs experience (8 men, age: 38 ± 8 yrs, body mass: 71 ± 9 kg, BF%: 19 ± 5%, mean ± SD) performed two incremental cycling protocols with recording of physiological and cardiovascular responses (Portapres Model 2). Cardiovascular function was also measured in rest. Experimental design was double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized and cross-over (wash-out 4 wks). Data were analyzed with two-tailed t tests and 2-way ANOVA and significance accepted at p < .05. Plasma lactate was lower at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of maximum power by 27%, 22%, 17% and 13%. Intensity at 4 mmol · La(-1) OBLA was 6% higher with blackcurrant without effect on heart rate and oxygen uptake. Maximum values of oxygen uptake, heart rate and power were not affected by blackcurrant, but obtained with 14% lower lactate. In rest, blackcurrant increased stroke volume and cardiac output by 25% and 26%, and decreased total peripheral resistance by 16%, with no changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Cardiovascular responses during exercise at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% intensity were not affected. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects lactate production and/or clearance during exercise. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects physiological and cardiovascular responses in rest and during exercise that may have implications for exercise performance.

  9. Liraglutide suppression of caloric intake competes with the intake-promoting effects of a palatable cafeteria diet, but does not impact food or macronutrient selection.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Kellie M; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2017-08-01

    Liraglutide, a Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is used as a treatment for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity because it improves glycemia and decreases food intake. Here, we tested whether chronic activation of the GLP-1 receptor system with liraglutide would induce decreases in intake accompanied by changes in proportional food or macronutrient intake similar to those seen following RYGB in rats when a variety of palatable food options are available. A "cafeteria diet" was used that included: laboratory rodent chow, refried beans (low-fat/low-sugar), low-fat yogurt (low-fat/high-sugar), peanut butter (high-fat/low-sugar) and sugar-fat whip (high-fat/high-sugar). Liraglutide (1mg/kg daily, sc, n=6) induced significant reductions in body weight and total caloric intake compared to saline-injected control rats (n=6). Although access to a cafeteria diet induced increases in caloric intake in both groups relative to chow alone, liraglutide still effectively decreased intake compared with saline-injected rats suggesting that chronic GLP-1 activation competes with the energy density and palatability of available food options in modulating ingestive behavior. Even with the substantial effects on overall intake, liraglutide did not change food choice or relative macronutrient intake when compared to pre-treatment baseline. When drug treatment was discontinued, the liraglutide group increased caloric intake and rapidly gained body weight to match that of the saline group. These results demonstrate that, while liraglutide effectively decreases caloric intake and body weight in rats, it does not cause adjustments in relative macronutrient consumption. Our data also show that drug-induced decreases in intake and body weight are not maintained following termination of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The acute effect of D-tagatose on food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Toubro, S; Raben, A; Blundell, J; Astrup, A

    2000-08-01

    A double-blind randomized crossover study was performed with nineteen normal-weight men to investigate the effect on subsequent ad libitum food intake of replacing 29 g sucrose with 29 g D-tagatose as sweetener to a breakfast meal. D-Tagatose is a malabsorbed stereoisomer of fructose with potential application as a bulk sweetener. Food intake was measured at lunch offered 4 h after the breakfast meal, during the afternoon with access to abundant snacks, and finally at a supper buffet 9 h after the breakfast. Energy intake at lunch and during the snacking period was similar after ingesting the two sugars, while it was 15% lower after ingesting D-tagatose than with sucrose at supper (P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal factors such as the osmotic effects of unabsorbed D-tagatose causing distension of the gut might have mediated the acute appetite-suppressing effect. The present paper also refers to data from a preceding study in which we observed an increased self-reported energy intake after ingestion of D-tagatose compared with sucrose which, in fact, suggests a relative hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose. However, self-reported food intake may be biased by selective under-reporting and this subsequent study with a more controlled assessment of food intake was therefore conducted. This present study did not support any hyperphagic effect of D-tagatose, but rather suggests that D-tagatose may contribute to a reduced energy intake.

  11. Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite, but not overall energy intake.

    PubMed

    Dougkas, Anestis; Minihane, Anne M; Givens, D Ian; Reynolds, Christopher K; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-12-28

    Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese.

  12. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2011-01-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABAb receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; HiS increased and LoS decreased intake. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. PMID:21924281

  13. Effect of flow rate of side-type orifice intake on withdrawn water temperature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueping; Li, Guangning; Han, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  14. [Vitamin D intake and the prevention of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2005-08-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis in Japan is increasing. Osteoporotic fractures have been causes of "bedridden" status among the elderly in recent years, and vitamin D has the potential to decrease the incidence of these health problems of osteoporosis. This article tried to clarify the preventive effect of increased vitamin D intake on osteoporosis in Japan. Vitamin D intake of 700-800 IU/day together with sufficient calcium intake is recommended to prevent fractures in the elderly, and vitamin D intake of 400 IU/day is recommended to prevent bone loss in adult women. The author also discusses the importance of increasing vitamin D intake in public health in Japan.

  15. The effect of grapefruit intake on endogenous serum estrogen levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Monroe, Kristine R; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Besinque, Kathleen H; Pike, Malcolm C

    2013-01-01

    Although grapefruit intake leads to elevated serum estrogen levels when hormones are taken orally, there are no published data on the effect on endogenous levels. We conducted a pilot dietary intervention study among healthy postmenopausal volunteers to test whole grapefruit, 2 juices, and 1 grapefruit soda. Fifty-nine participants were recruited through the Love/Avon Army of Women. The study consisted of a 3-wk run-in, 2 wk of grapefruit intake, and a 1-wk wash-out. Eight fasting blood samples were collected. An additional 5 samples drawn at 1, 2, 4, 8, and 10 hr after grapefruit intake were collected during an acute-phase study for 10 women. Serum assays for estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), estrone-3-sulfate (E1S), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and sex hormone-binding globulin were conducted. Whole grapefruit intake had significant effects on endogenous E1S. Peak effects were seen at 8 hr, increasing by 26% from baseline. No changes in mean E1 or E2 with whole fruit intake were observed. In contrast, fresh juice, bottled juice, and soda intake all had significant lowering effects on E2. The findings suggest an important interaction between grapefruit intake and endogenous estrogen levels. Because endogenous estrogen levels are associated with breast cancer risk, further research is warranted.

  16. The effect of rises in food costs on food intake of three year olds in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Taveedej, C H; Pevsner, B

    1983-12-01

    The food intake of two samples of children born five years apart were determined in 1975 and 1980 at three years of age in a low and middle class neighbourhood of Jerusalem. The 24-hour recall method was used. No deficiency in caloric intake was noted. The protein intake was twice the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), 3.7 gr/kg in the study group interviewed in 1975 and 3.3 gr/kg in those interviewed in 1980. The mean daily iron intake was only 40% of the RDA. The main sources for protein were milk and milk products, poultry and eggs. Significantly higher mean caloric and protein intakes were noted for the upper as compared to middle and low social class in 1980. Children from Asian origin had the lowest caloric and protein intake in 1975 and 1980 whereas those of European-American origin had the highest. Severe inflation and the resulting tenfold increase in food prices in Israel were not reflected in marked changes in dietary intake. The percentage expenditure on food was 25% of total income during both periods. The possible factors influencing the stability in dietary intake are governmental subsidy for the essential foods, correction of wages and increase in social security payments thus maintaining the buying power, as well as the educational effect of the preventive services--the Mother and Child Health Stations on feeding practices.

  17. Self-Sufficiency Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    These instructional materials were developed as a supplement to the "Alaska State Model Curriculum in Renewable Natural Resources/Agriculture." The topics covered focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that may not be sufficiently covered by…

  18. Effects of High Salt Intake on Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Disease: The Role of COX Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2016-04-01

    Sodium has a bidirectional effect on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). High sodium intake increases both BP and CVD, whereas low sodium intake decreases them. The significance of this association has been debated for years, mostly due to the inconsistency of data, but recently it has been revived due to new evidence about the harmful effects of sodium. Recent studies have indicated that high sodium intake was associated with an increase in BP and CVD, which in 2010 was estimated to have accounted for 1.65 million deaths worldwide. Based on this evidence, the American Heart Association has issued a Science Advisory statement regarding the significance of high sodium intake in relation to the incidence of hypertension and CVD. In addition to high sodium intake, experimental studies have shown that the coadministration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs further aggravates the harmful effects of high sodium intake. The interrelationship of high sodium intake and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs will be discussed in this commentary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats: response

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2006-01-01

    A response to Louter-van de Haar J, Wielinga PY, Scheurink AJ, Nieuwenhuizen AG: Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats. Nutr Metabol 2005, 2:23 PMID:16846513

  20. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  1. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  2. Effect of Zinc Intake on Growth in Infants: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, M; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Fuentes Lugo, D; Henríquez Sánchez, P; Doreste Alonso, J; Peña Quintana, L; Ruano, C; Lowe, N L; Hall Moran, V; Skinner, A L; Warthon-Medina, M; Serra-Majem, L

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on growth in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 19 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on growth was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional status, and risk of bias. From each select growth study, final measures of weight, length, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), head circumference, weight for age z-score (WAZ), length for age z-score (LAZ), and weight for length z-score (WLZ) were assessed. Pooled β and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Additionally, we carried out a sensitivity analysis. Zn intake was not associated with weight, length, MUAC, head circumference, and LAZ in the pooled analyses. However, Zn intake had a positive and statistically effect on WAZ (β = 0.06; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.10) and WLZ (β = 0.05; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.08). The dose-response relationship between Zn intake and these parameters indicated that a doubling of Zn intake increased WAZ and WLZ by approximately 4%. Substantial heterogeneity was present only in length analyses (I(2) = 45%; p = 0.03). Zn intake was positively associated with length values at short time (four to 20 weeks) (β = 0.01; CI 95% 0 to 0.02) and at medium doses of Zn (4.1 to 8 mg/day) (β = 0.003; CI 95% 0 to 0.01). Nevertheless, the effect magnitude was small. Our results indicate that Zn intake increases growth parameters of infants. Nonetheless, interpretation of these results should be carefully considered.

  3. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements' effect on total nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; White, Kami K; Park, Song-Yi; Sharma, Sangita

    2007-01-01

    Use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intakes. In the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), 48% of men and 56% of women without chronic diseases reported use of multivitamin supplements at least weekly over the past year. We calculated the prevalence of nutrient adequacy for 17 nutrients based on responses to a self-administered quantitative food-frequency questionnaire administered to MEC participants at baseline in 1993-1996. Although the prevalence of nutrient adequacy from food only was higher for multivitamin supplement users (n = 21,056) than for nonusers (n = 69,715), differences averaged only 2 percentage points. For multivitamin users, the prevalence of adequacy improved by an average of 8 percentage points for both men and women when intake from supplements was included. Users were also more likely to have potentially excessive intakes, particularly for iron, zinc, vitamin A, and niacin. The 26,735 MEC participants in Hawaii who answered an open-ended question about multivitamin use in 1999-2001 reported using 1246 different products. The nutrient profile of these products varied widely, and the composition of products at the 90th percentile was 10-fold greater than the composition at the median for some nutrients. We conclude that analyses of nutrient adequacy and excess for supplement users should be extended to national samples and that composition data on actual supplements used are preferable to assuming a default nutrient profile for multivitamin supplements. Multivitamin products could be better formulated to reduce the prevalence of inadequacy and also to reduce the risk of excessive intakes.

  4. Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Shufa; Neiman, Andrea; Batis, Carolina; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jiguo; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20-60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options.

  5. Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China123

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shufa; Neiman, Andrea; Batis, Carolina; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jiguo; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. Objective: We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. Design: The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20–60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Results: Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Conclusions: Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options. PMID:24257724

  6. The effect of nutrition knowledge and dietary iron intake on iron status in young women.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research on the relationships between general nutrition knowledge and dietary intake, and dietary iron intake and iron status has produced inconsistent results. Currently, no study has focused on knowledge of dietary iron and its effect on dietary iron intake. This study aimed to determine whether nutrition knowledge of iron is related to dietary iron intake in young women, and subsequently whether greater knowledge and intake translates into better iron status. A cross-sectional assessment of nutrition knowledge of iron, dietary iron intake and iron status was conducted in women aged 18-35 years living in Newcastle, NSW, Australia. Iron status was assessed by serum ferritin, haemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor and alpha-1-glycoprotein. One hundred and seven women (27.8 ± 4.7 years) completed the nutrition knowledge questionnaire and FFQ. Of these, 74 (70%) also had biomarkers of iron status measured. Mean iron intake was 11.2 ± 3.8 mg/day. There was no association between nutrition knowledge score and whether the women met the RDI for iron (F (1, 102) = .40, P = .53). A positive correlation was shown between nutrition knowledge score and iron intake (mg/day) (r = 0.25, P = .01). Serum ferritin was positively associated with the frequency of flesh food intake (r = .27 P = .02). Vegetarians (including partial vegetarians) had significantly lower serum ferritin levels than non-vegetarians (F (1, 71) = 7.44, P = .01). Significant positive correlations found between higher flesh food intake and biomarkers of iron status suggest that educating non-vegetarians about the benefits of increased flesh food consumption and vegetarians about dietary iron enhancers and inhibitors may have potential for addressing the high rates of iron deficiency among young women. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-12-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The impact of restaurant consumption among US adults: effects on energy and nutrient intakes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Binh T; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    To examine the effect of fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption on adults' energy intake and dietary indicators. Individual-level fixed-effects regression model estimation based on two different days of dietary intake data was used. Parallel to the rising obesity epidemic in the USA, there has been a marked upward trend in total energy intake derived from food away from home. The full sample included 12 528 respondents aged 20-64 years who completed 24 h dietary recall interviews for both day 1 and day 2 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010. Fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption, respectively, was associated with an increase in daily total energy intake of 813·75 kJ (194·49 kcal) and 858·04 kJ (205·21 kcal) and with higher intakes of saturated fat (3·48 g and 2·52 g) and Na (296·38 mg and 451·06 mg). Individual characteristics moderated the impacts of restaurant food consumption with adverse impacts on net energy intake being larger for black adults compared with their white and Hispanic counterparts and greater for middle-income v. high-income adults. Adults' fast-food and full-service restaurant consumption was associated with higher daily total energy intake and poorer dietary indicators.

  9. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  10. Effect of a Shear Layer on the Stability of an Axisymmetric External Compression Air Intake,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-21

    ID , E = OF A SHEAR LAY ON THE STABILITY OF AN AXISYI4~M=C EXTERNAL QYM2RESSION AIR INTAKE by Z. Kunyuan, Y. Shaozhi, P. Chenyi Approved for public...t 110E 4 EFFECT OF A SItEAR LAYER ON THE STABILITY OF AN AXISYMMETRICEXTERNAL COMPRESSION AIR INTAKE Zhang Kunyuan, Yu Shaozhi, Peng Chenyi (Nanjing...positions on the stability of a variable center cone external compression air intake under the condition of a M 1.72 incident stream. It was experimentally

  11. Effect of Dietary Fiber Intake on Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Independent of Estradiol in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    High-fiber diets are associated with improved lipid profiles. However, pre- and postmenopausal women respond differently to fiber intake, suggesting that endogenous estradiol mediates the effect. The authors' objective was to determine the direct effect of fiber intake on lipoprotein cholesterol levels independent of estradiol among premenopausal women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, followed 259 healthy women for up to 2 complete menstrual cycles. Serum lipoprotein and hormone levels were measured at 16 visits timed using fertility monitors. Fiber intake was assessed by 8 24-hour recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weights for both lipoprotein and estradiol levels were used to estimate controlled direct effects of the highest category of fiber intake (≥22 g/day vs. <22 g/day) while accounting for age, body mass index, total energy, vitamin E intake, physical activity, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. Reductions were observed in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with higher fiber intakes. Direct effects were greater than total effects. These analyses suggested that estradiol mediates at least part of the association between fiber and cholesterol among premenopausal women. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:21148240

  12. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-05

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours.

  13. Effect of glycemic index and glycemic load on energy intake in children.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Mohammad Hossein; Salehi-Abargouei, Amin; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-09-01

    Several studies assessed the effect of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) on energy intake in children but findings are not consistent in this regard. The aim of this study is to summarize and assess the evidence for the effect of GI and GL on energy intake by conducting a meta-analysis on published randomized clinical trials. Our search process was conducted in PUBMED, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases. The following keywords were searched in any part of published articles: "glycemic index" OR "glycaemic index" OR "glycemic load" OR "glycaemic load" OR "energy intake" AND "child" OR "children" OR "adolescent" OR "youth." We gathered 5099 articles. Non-clinical trial studies that did not intervene by GI or GL or those not assessing energy intake as a dependent variable and those that were conducted on patients over age 18 y were excluded. Each included study was evaluated three times and the exclusion criteria was checked. Eventually, six studies from 1999 to 2012 met the criteria (213 participants ages 4-17.5 y). There is heterogeneity in the study's participants in the present paper. Children with type 2 diabetes, obesity, or normal-weight children were recruited in different studies. Overall effect of consuming low GI (LGI) and low GL (LGL) meals on energy intake was not significant. Subgroup analysis showed that LGI (not LGL) meals decreased subsequent energy intake, whereas heterogeneity was significant in the LGI group of studies. Although a slight asymmetry was shown by Begg's funnel plot, the Egger's asymmetry was not significant. We did not find any evidence of publication bias for studies assessing the effect of low GI or GL meals on energy intake. Consuming LGI diet (not LGL) has favorable effect on reducing energy intake and obesity, subsequently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lack of effect of exercise time of day on acute energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    O'Donoghue K, J M; Fournier, Paul A; Guelfi, Kym J

    2010-08-01

    Although the manipulation of exercise and dietary intake to achieve successful weight loss has been extensively studied, it is unclear how the time of day that exercise is performed may affect subsequent energy intake. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of an acute bout of exercise performed in the morning compared with an equivalent bout of exercise performed in the afternoon on short-term energy intake. Nine healthy male participants completed 3 trials: morning exercise (AM), afternoon exercise (PM), or control (no exercise; CON) in a randomized counterbalanced design. Exercise consisted of 45 min of treadmill running at 75% VO(2peak). Energy intake was assessed over a 26-hr period with the participants eating ad libitum from a standard assortment of food items of known quantity and composition. There was no significant difference in overall energy intake (M ± SD; CON 23,505 ± 6,938 kJ, AM 24,957 ± 5,607 kJ, PM 24,560 ± 5,988 kJ; p = .590) or macronutrient preferences during the 26-hr period examined between trials. Likewise, no differences in energy intake or macronutrient preferences were observed at any of the specific individual meal periods examined (i.e., breakfast, lunch, dinner) between trials. These results suggest that the time of day that exercise is performed does not significantly affect short-term energy intake in healthy men.

  15. Age-associated reduction of stimulatory effect of ghrelin on food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Yosuke; Kanai, Setsuko; Ohta, Minoru; Akimoto, Saeko; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Kyoko

    2012-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decrease in appetite and food intake. We focused on the age-associated changes of the stimulatory effect of the appetite-regulating peptide, ghrelin. Food intake and the concentrations of acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin in the plasma and in the stomach were measured with and without overnight fasting in young and old mice. Moreover, the food intake in response to the intraperitoneal administration of graded doses of acyl ghrelin was compared between young and old mice. Fasting drives food intake in young mice, but not in old mice. The concentrations of acyl ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin in the plasma and in the stomach were higher in the old mice than in the young mice. Food intake did not increase in old mice when stimulated by the administration of 1-3 nmol of acyl ghrelin, which could produce a significant increase in food intake in young mice. In conclusion, food intake did not increase in old mice after either overnight fasting or the administration of acyl ghrelin. The release and synthesis of ghrelin seem to be rather higher in old mice compared to young mice. These increases might be the results of compensation for the decline of receptor (and/or post-receptor) functions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ghrelin alters the stimulatory effect of cocaine on ethanol intake following mesolimbic or systemic administration.

    PubMed

    Cepko, Leah C S; Selva, Joaquín A; Merfeld, Emily B; Fimmel, Anna I; Goldberg, Sana A; Currie, Paul J

    2014-10-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that ghrelinergic and dopaminergic signaling interact in the neural control of motivation and ethanol reward. To further investigate a possible interaction between these two neurochemical systems, we examined the impact of ghrelin, cocaine and combined injections of ghrelin with cocaine, on voluntary ethanol intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were habituated to an 8% ethanol solution until intakes stabilized. Rats were then injected with ghrelin (2.5-10 nmol IP), cocaine (0.625-10 mg/kg IP) or ghrelin paired with cocaine. We also examined the impact of direct ghrelin (30-300 pmol) injections into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) co-administered with systemic cocaine. Ethanol consumption was measured at 2 and 6 h postinjection. While ghrelin and cocaine reliably increased ethanol intake, peripheral administration of the peptide elicited a dose-dependent differential effect on cocaine-induced intake. Pretreatment with ghrelin potentiated the effect of cocaine on ethanol intake at a low dose of 2.5 nmol, whereas 10 nmol suppressed cocaine-induced ethanol intake. This same 10 nmol dose was found to induce anxiogenic behavior as measured using an elevated plus maze paradigm. Finally, when injected directly into the VTA, ghrelin (300 pmol) potentiated the effect of systemic cocaine on ethanol intake. Combined subthreshold dosing of VTA ghrelin with a subthreshold dose of cocaine also evoked reliable increases in intake compared to vehicle. Overall, our data suggest that low doses of ghrelin elicit a stimulatory effect on cocaine-induced ethanol consummatory behavior and provide further support for an interactive role of dopaminergic and ghrelinergic transmission in ethanol reward. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  18. Increased calcium intake does not completely counteract the effects of increased phosphorus intake on bone: an acute dose-response study in healthy females.

    PubMed

    Kemi, Virpi E; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Karp, Heini J; Laitinen, Kalevi A E; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E

    2008-04-01

    A high dietary P intake is suggested to have negative effects on bone through increased parathyroid hormone secretion, as high serum parathyroid hormone (S-PTH) concentration increases bone resorption. In many countries the P intake is 2- to 3-fold above dietary guidelines, whereas Ca intake is too low. This combination may not be optimal for bone health. In a previous controlled study, we found that dietary P dose-dependently increased S-PTH and bone resorption and decreased bone formation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dose-response effects of Ca intake on Ca and bone metabolism with a dietary P intake higher than recommended. Each of the twelve healthy female subjects aged 21-40 years attended three 24-h study sessions, which were randomized with regard to a Ca dose of 0 (control day), 600 or 1200 mg, and each subject served as her own control. The meals on each study day provided 1850 mg P and 480 mg Ca. S-PTH concentration decreased (P < 0.001) and serum ionized Ca concentration increased (P < 0.001) with increasing Ca doses. The bone formation marker, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, did not differ significantly (P = 0.4). By contrast, the bone resorption marker, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I, decreased significantly with both Ca doses (P = 0.008). When P intake was above current recommendations, increased Ca intake was beneficial for bone, as indicated by decreased S-PTH concentration and bone resorption. However, not even a high Ca intake could affect bone formation when P intake was excessive.

  19. The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ≥ 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.

  20. Effects of acute salbutamol intake during a Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Le Panse, B; Portier, H; Lecoq, A-M; Jaffre, C; Beaupied, H; Richard, O; Benhamou, L; Courteix, D; De Ceaurriz, J

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the impact of acute salbutamol intake on performance and selected hormonal and metabolic variables during supramaximal exercise, 13 recreational male athletes performed two 30-second Wingate tests after either placebo (PLA, lactose) or salbutamol (SAL, 4 mg) oral administration, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples collected at rest, end of the Wingate test, recovery (5, 10, 15 min) were tested for growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), blood glucose (GLU), and lactate determination. We found the peak and mean power performed significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA (PPSAL: 896 +/- 46; PPPLA: 819 +/- 57 W; MPSAL: 585 +/- 27; MPPLA: 534 +/- 35 W, p < 0.05), whereas no change was observed in the fatigue index. Blood glucose and INS were significantly increased by SAL at rest, at the end of the Wingate test, and during the 5 first minutes of recovery (p < 0.05). Plasma GH was significantly decreased by SAL (p < 0.05) during the recovery whereas end-exercise and recovery blood lactate tended but were not significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA. From these data, acute salbutamol intake at therapeutical dosage did appear to improve peak power and mean power during a supramaximal exercise, but the mechanisms involved need further investigation.

  1. Effects of food attributes on hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Kirkmeyer, S V; Mattes, R D

    2000-09-01

    To explore the relative importance of a food's macronutrient composition, energy value, energy density, fiber content, weight, volume, sensory properties and rheology on hunger and food intake. Preloads of peanuts, peanut butter (rheology control), almonds (tree nut), chestnuts (macronutrient control), chocolate (sensory control), rice cakes (volume control), pickles (weight control) and no load (time control) were consumed by subjects in random order at weekly intervals and hunger was assessed over the subsequent 180 min. Free-feeding energy and macronutrient intake were monitored 24 h before and following preload ingestion. Twelve male and 12 female healthy, normal weight (12-28% body fat), adults (mean (s.d.) age 22 +/- 2.5 y) with low dietary restraint. Hunger ratings following consumption of the 2092 kJ (500 kcal) preloads of peanuts, peanut butter, almonds, chestnuts and chocolate were significantly lower than the low energy preloads or no preload condition, but with the exception of peanut butter, did not vary from each other. The rate of hunger recovery was consistent across all preloads so the overall impact of each food on hunger was determined by the initial drop it evoked. Total energy, but not macronutrient, compensation was observed with all preloads. Consequently, the fatty acid profile of the total diet reflected the composition of the preloads. Energy content may be the primary determinant of a food's impact on hunger. Because macronutrient compensation is weak, a dietary supplement or substitute may influence the daily dietary nutrient profile.

  2. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  3. Effect of high parathyroid hormone level on bone mineral density in a vitamin D-sufficient population: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se Hwa; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Soo-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    The detrimental effect of high parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone has not been adequately evaluated in vitamin D-sufficient Koreans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high PTH on bone mineral density (BMD) in such a population. A total of 5,403 subjects (2,644 men and 2,759 postmenopausal women; ≥50 years old) were selected from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects were divided into four groups according to vitamin D status (<20 and ≥20 ng/mL) and PTH levels (≤65 and >65 pg/mL). Total hip and spine BMD were evaluated in each group. High PTH level was found in 50% of vitamin D-deficient subjects and 35% of vitamin D-sufficient subjects. In the vitamin D-deficient group, subjects with normal PTH level had higher total hip and spine BMD than those with high PTH after adjusting for multiple confounding factors, regardless of gender. In the vitamin D-sufficient group, only women with high PTH showed lower total hip and spine BMD than those with normal PTH. Multivariable linear regression analysis found that PTH level was independently associated with total hip BMD in vitamin D-sufficient women as well as vitamin D-insufficient women, but no association was found in men. In conclusion, high serum PTH level has an additive detrimental effect on BMD in postmenopausal women even though they had sufficient vitamin D levels.

  4. Effects of selective estrogen receptor agonists on food intake and body weight gain in rats.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Darren M

    2006-01-30

    Ovariectomized (OVX) rats eat more and gain weight more rapidly than sham-operated (SO) rats and estradiol (E(2)) treatment attenuates food intake and body weight gain in OVX rats. Studies were designed to test the hypothesis that the alpha subtype of the estrogen receptor (ERalpha) mediates the attenuating effects of E(2) on food intake and body weight gain while the beta subtype (ERbeta) mediates opposing actions that lead to increased food intake and body weight gain. Female rats were SO or OVX and treated daily with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO) or E(2) (10 microg/day), or the ERalpha-selective agonist, 4,4',4''-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol (PPT, 0.5 mg/day), or the ERbeta-selective agonist, 2,3-bis(4-hyroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (DPN, 0.5 mg/day) for 14 days. Total food intake was significantly reduced by E(2) and PPT, but not DPN. Total body weight gain was significantly increased in OVX rats compared to SO rats and treatment with E(2) or PPT, but not DPN, significantly decreased total body weight gain to levels that were not significantly different from SO rats. A dose-response study of PPT indicated that at 0.25 mg/day, PPT significantly reduced total 21-day food intake and body weight gain and, at 0.13 and 0.06 mg/day, PPT significantly reduced total body weight gain compared to OVX rats without significantly reducing total food intake. A dose-response study of DPN indicated that none of the three doses of DPN significantly altered total 21-day food intake or total body weight gain. These results suggest ERalpha mediates the attenuating effects of estrogens on food intake and body weight gain while ERbeta has no effect on these variables.

  5. Children's executive function and high-calorie, low-nutrient food intake: mediating effects of child-perceived adult fast food intake.

    PubMed

    Tate, Eleanor B; Unger, Jennifer B; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Southern California elementary schools. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (N = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program. Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p < .001) and had a significant indirect effect through higher perceived frequency of parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.11, 0.25], p < .001). Longitudinally, child EF problems did not significantly predict higher HCLN intake a year and a half later (B = 0.01, SE = 0.10, p = .92, n = 848) but did have a significant indirect effect through higher perceived parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.10], p < .001). Children's EF difficulties may increase their perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models' convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Children’s Executive Function and High Calorie, Low Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low nutrient (HCLN) food. Design One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from larger randomized control trial Setting Southern California elementary schools Subjects Fourth and fifth grade children (n = 1,005) participating in the Pathways to Health obesity prevention program Results Child EF problems were associated with higher concurrent HCLN intake (B = 0.29, SE = 0.10, p < 0.001) and had a significant indirect effect through higher perceived frequency of parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.11/0.25, p < 0.001). Longitudinally, child EF problems did not significantly predict higher HCLN intake a year and a half later (B = 0.01, SE = 0.10, p = 0.92, n = 848) but did have a significant indirect effect through higher perceived parent fast food intake (indirect effect = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.02/0.10, p < 0.001). Conclusions Children’s EF difficulties may increase their perception of parent concurrent fast food intake, contributing to their own unhealthy food intake. However, EF problems may not directly affect HCLN intake across time, except when problems are associated with child perception of more frequent parent consumption of convenience foods. Future research is needed to investigate the possibility that helping children perceive and understand role models’ convenience food consumption may improve child dietary consumption patterns. PMID:25194147

  7. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  8. Effect of water source on intake and urine concentration in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Grant, David C

    2010-06-01

    Increasing water intake and decreasing urine concentration are recommended for cats with urolithiasis and with idiopathic cystitis. Fountains are advocated to encourage drinking; however, effects on drinking of fountains have not been reported in cats living in pet owners homes. Thirteen healthy cats were assigned to have 24-h water intake and urine osmolality and specific gravity measured when water was offered from a bowl or fountain. One cat developed excessive barbering, vomiting, and refusal to drink water offered from the fountain. For the remaining 12 cats, intake was slightly greater from the fountain. However, urine osmolality was not significantly different. In this study, a fountain failed to substantially increase water intake and dilute urine in cats. A similar study including a greater period of time and additional cats may clarify the results of this study. Copyright 2009 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of indorenate on food intake: a comparison with fenfluramine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Velázquez Martínez, D N; Valencia Flores, M; López Cabrera, M; Villarreal, J E

    1995-01-01

    Indorenate (TR3369, 5-methoxytryptamine b-methylcarboxylate HCl) is a 5-HT1-like receptor agonist with hypotensive activity. Here, we describe that indorenate also decreases food intake (ED50 26.1 mg/kg) without an appreciable effect in water intake (the estimated ED50 for water was 589.8 mg/kg). The anorectic activity of indorenate was compared to the effects of amphetamine and other serotonin agonists; the effect of indorenate was smaller than those of the other compounds; however, the effect of indorenate was specific to food, whereas all the other drugs also produced significant decrements in water intake. The serotonin antagonists cinanserin, cyproheptadine, methergoline and methysergide effectively prevented the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate and fenfluramine. Haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist, was ineffective in preventing the effect of indorenate although it prevented the anorectic effect of amphetamine. The present results suggest the participation of serotoninergic, but not dopaminergic mechanisms, in the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate.

  10. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on pre-bred dairy heifer feed intake and growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of pre-bred dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI), and offered diets with different energy levels. Pre-bred heifers (128, ages 4-9 months) were blocked by ...

  11. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate–high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  12. Effects of glucocorticoids on energy metabolism and food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Tataranni, P A; Larson, D E; Snitker, S; Young, J B; Flatt, J P; Ravussin, E

    1996-08-01

    The effect of glucocorticoid administration on energy metabolism and food intake was studied in 20 healthy, nondiabetic Caucasian male volunteers [27 +/- 5 (SD) yr, 72 +/- 9 kg, 20 +/- 7% body fat] randomly and blindly assigned to glucocorticoid (methylprednisolone, METH; n = 10) or placebo (PLAC; n = 10) treatment. Each subject was studied twice: during a weight maintenance diet and during ad libitum food intake. Energy metabolism was measured by indirect calorimetry and food intake by an automated food-selection system. Twenty-four-hour urinary norepinephrine excretion (24-h NE) was used as an estimate of sympathetic nervous system activity. During weight maintenance, METH intravenous infusion (125 mg/30 min) increased energy expenditure compared with PLAC, and after 4 days of oral therapy, METH (40 mg/day) decreased 24-h NE and increased energy expenditure compared with PLAC. During ad libitum food intake, after 4 days of METH (40 mg/day) or PLAC oral therapy, both groups increased their energy intake over weight maintenance, but the increase was significantly larger in the METH group compared with the PLAC group (4,554 +/- 1,857 vs. 2,867 +/- 846 kcal/day; P = 0.04). Our data suggest that therapeutic doses of glucocorticoids induce obesity mostly by increasing energy intake, an effect which may be related to the ability of glucocorticoids to act directly or indirectly on the central regulation of appetite.

  13. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.

  14. Effects of a high protein intake on renal acid excretion in bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Remer, T; Decher-Spliethoff, E; Höhler, M; Kersting, M; Kunz, C; Lausen, B

    1995-03-01

    Bodybuilders often prefer a high protein diet to achieve maximum skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In this study the effect of a high protein diet on renal acid load and renal handling of proton excretion was studied comparing dietary intake and urinary ionograms in 37 male bodybuilders and 20 young male adults. Energy intake (+ 7%), protein intake (128 vs 88 g/d/1.73 m2), and renal net acid excretion (95 vs 64 mmol/d/1.73 m2) were higher in the bodybuilders than in the controls, however, urine-pH was only slightly lower (5.83 vs 6.12). In the bodybuilders renal ammonium excretion was higher at any given value of urine pH than in the controls. In a regression analysis protein intake proved to be an independent factor modulating the ratio between urine-pH and renal ammonium excretion. The concomitant increase of renal net acid excretion and maximum renal acid excretion capacity in periods of high protein intake appears to be a highly effective response of the kidney to a specific food intake leaving a large renal surplus capacity for an additional renal acid load.

  15. Neuropeptide Y effect on food intake in broiler and layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Ikura, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yoko; Hasegawa, Shin

    2011-08-01

    Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. In this study, we examined the involvement of orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks (Gallus gallus). First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of NPY and its receptors (Y1 and Y5 receptors) between these strains at 1, 2, 4, and 8 days of age. Daily food intake was significantly higher in broiler chicks than layer chicks after 2 days of age. However, the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level was significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks except at 8 days of age. In addition, the mRNA levels of NPY receptors were also significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks at 2 and 4 days of age (Y1 receptor) or 2 days of age (Y5 receptor). These results suggest that the differences in the expressions of hypothalamic NPY and its receptors do not cause the increase in food intake in broiler chicks. To compare the orexigenic effect of NPY between broiler and layer chicks, we next examined the effects of central administration of NPY on food intake in these strains. In both strains, central administration of NPY significantly increased food intake at 2, 4 and 8 days of age. All our findings demonstrated that the increase in food intake in broiler chicks is not accompanied with the over-expression of NPY or its receptor.

  16. The Role of Reminding in the Effects of Spaced Repetitions on Cued Recall: Sufficient but Not Necessary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlheim, Christopher N.; Maddox, Geoffrey B.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared…

  17. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    PubMed

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  18. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-03-30

    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  19. Biological effect of human serum collected before and after oral intake of Pygeum africanum on various benign prostate cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Larré, Stéphane; Camparo, Philippe; Comperat, Eva; Boulbés, Delphine; Haddoum, Mohammed; Baulande, Sylvain; Soularue, Pascal; Costa, Pierre; Cussenot, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Pygeum africanum (Tadenan) is a popular phytotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active compounds of the drug have not been identified, and determining the plasma concentration of the drug is, therefore, not possible. Because there are conflicting results on the efficacy of this drug, we aimed to investigate its effect on prostate cell growth in vitro using human serum collected before and after Pygeum africanum intake. We used primary and organotypic cultures of human prostatic stromal myofibroblast cell line WPMY and prostatic epithelial cell line PNT2. We also used fresh benign prostatic tissue. The serum of a treated man induced decreases in the proliferation of primary cells, organotypic cells and WPMY cells but not PNT2 cells. We also analysed the effect of treated serum on the gene expression profile of WPMY cells. The transcriptome analysis revealed an upregulation of genes involved in multiple tumour suppression pathways and a downregulation of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative-stress pathways. The oral intake of Pygeum africanum resulted in serum levels of active substances that were sufficient to inhibit the proliferation of cultured myofibroblasts prostatic cells. This inhibition was associated with changes in the transcriptome. PMID:22198631

  20. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Certification of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  1. Low doses of gamma-irradiation induce an early bystander effect in zebrafish cells which is sufficient to radioprotect cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term "bystander effect" is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01-0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors.

  2. Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ziolkovska, Anna; Hooper, Lee; Elliott, Paul; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of decreased sodium intake on blood pressure, related cardiovascular diseases, and potential adverse effects such as changes in blood lipids, catecholamine levels, and renal function. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Latin American and Caribbean health science literature database, and the reference lists of previous reviews. Study selection Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in non-acutely ill adults and children assessing the relations between sodium intake and blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids, and catecholamine levels, and in non-acutely ill adults all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate and study characteristics and outcomes extracted. When possible we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of lower sodium intake using the inverse variance method and a random effects model. We present results as mean differences or risk ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. Results We included 14 cohort studies and five randomised controlled trials reporting all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, or coronary heart disease; and 37 randomised controlled trials measuring blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids, and catecholamine levels in adults. Nine controlled trials and one cohort study in children reporting on blood pressure were also included. In adults a reduction in sodium intake significantly reduced resting systolic blood pressure by 3.39 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 2.46 to 4.31) and resting diastolic blood pressure by 1.54 mm Hg (0.98 to 2.11). When sodium intake was <2 g/day versus ≥2 g/day, systolic blood pressure was reduced by 3.47 mm Hg (0.76 to 6.18) and diastolic blood pressure by 1.81 mm

  3. Effect of lower sodium intake on health: systematic review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Aburto, Nancy J; Ziolkovska, Anna; Hooper, Lee; Elliott, Paul; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2013-04-03

    To assess the effect of decreased sodium intake on blood pressure, related cardiovascular diseases, and potential adverse effects such as changes in blood lipids, catecholamine levels, and renal function. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the Latin American and Caribbean health science literature database, and the reference lists of previous reviews. Randomised controlled trials and prospective cohort studies in non-acutely ill adults and children assessing the relations between sodium intake and blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids, and catecholamine levels, and in non-acutely ill adults all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate and study characteristics and outcomes extracted. When possible we conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the effect of lower sodium intake using the inverse variance method and a random effects model. We present results as mean differences or risk ratios, with 95% confidence intervals. We included 14 cohort studies and five randomised controlled trials reporting all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, stroke, or coronary heart disease; and 37 randomised controlled trials measuring blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids, and catecholamine levels in adults. Nine controlled trials and one cohort study in children reporting on blood pressure were also included. In adults a reduction in sodium intake significantly reduced resting systolic blood pressure by 3.39 mm Hg (95% confidence interval 2.46 to 4.31) and resting diastolic blood pressure by 1.54 mm Hg (0.98 to 2.11). When sodium intake was <2 g/day versus ≥ 2 g/day, systolic blood pressure was reduced by 3.47 mm Hg (0.76 to 6.18) and diastolic blood pressure by 1.81 mm Hg (0.54 to 3.08). Decreased sodium intake had no significant adverse effect on

  4. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment – sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  5. Effect of Breakfast Omission on Energy Intake and Evening Exercise Performance.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David J; Barutcu, Asya; Machin, Claire; Stensel, David J; James, Lewis J

    2015-12-01

    Breakfast omission may reduce daily energy intake. Exercising fasted impairs performance compared with exercising after breakfast, but the effect breakfast omission has on evening exercise performance is unknown. This study assessed the effect of omitting breakfast on evening exercise performance and within-day energy intake. Ten male, habitual breakfast eaters completed two trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Subjects arrived at the laboratory in an overnight-fasted state and either consumed or omitted a 733 ± 46 kcal (3095 ± 195 kJ) breakfast. Ad libitum energy intake was assessed at 4.5 h (lunch) and 11 h (dinner). At 9 h, subjects completed a 30-min cycling exercise at approximately 60% VO2peak, followed by a 30-min maximal cycling performance test. Food was not permitted for subjects once they left the laboratory after dinner until 0800 h the following morning. Acylated ghrelin, GLP-1(7-36), glucose, and insulin were assessed at 0, 4.5, and 9 h. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded throughout. Energy intake was 199 ± 151 kcal greater at lunch (P < 0.01) after breakfast omission compared with that after breakfast consumption and tended to be greater at dinner after consuming breakfast (P = 0.052). Consequently, total ad libitum energy intake was similar between trials (P = 0.196), with 24-h energy intake 19% ± 5% greater after consuming breakfast (P < 0.001). Total work completed during the exercise performance test was 4.5% greater after breakfast (314 ± 53 vs 300 ± 56 kJ; P < 0.05). Insulin was greater during breakfast consumption at 4.5 h (P < 0.05), with no other interaction effect for hormone concentrations. Breakfast omission might be an effective means of reducing daily energy intake but may impair performance later that day, even after consuming lunch.

  6. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Appleton, K; Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1999-04-01

    Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K (L), and a high-energy, sucrose-sweetened drink (H). Following a period of challenging exercise (70% VO2 max for 50 min), subjects consumed freely from a particular drink before being offered a test meal at which energy and nutrient intakes were measured. The degree of pleasantness (palatability) of the drinks was also measured before and after exercise. At the test meal, energy intake following the artificially sweetened (L) drink was significantly greater than after water and the sucrose (H) drinks (p < 0.05). Compared with the artificially sweetened (L) drink, the high-energy (H) drink suppressed intake by approximately the energy contained in the drink itself. However, there was no difference between the water (W) and the sucrose (H) drink on test meal energy intake. When the net effects were compared (i.e., drink + test meal energy intake), total energy intake was significantly lower after the water (W) drink compared with the two sweet (L and H) drinks. The exercise period brought about changes in the perceived pleasantness of the water, but had no effect on either of the sweet drinks. The remarkably precise energy compensation demonstrated after the higher energy sucrose drink suggests that exercise may prime the system to respond sensitively to nutritional manipulations. The results may also have implications for the effect on short-term appetite control of different types of drinks used to quench thirst during and after exercise.

  8. Methodological considerations regarding response bias effect in substance use research: is correlation between the measured variables sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Efforts for drug free sport include developing a better understanding of the behavioural determinants that underline doping with an increased interest in developing anti-doping prevention and intervention programmes. Empirical testing of both is dominated by self-report questionnaires, which is the most widely used method in psychological assessments and sociology polls. Disturbingly, the potential distorting effect of socially desirable responding (SD) is seldom considered in doping research, or dismissed based on weak correlation between some SD measure and the variables of interest. The aim of this report is to draw attention to i) the potential distorting effect of SD and ii) the limitation of using correlation analysis between a SD measure and the individual measures. Models of doping opinion as a potentially contentious issue was tested using structural equation modeling technique (SEM) with and without the SD variable, on a dataset of 278 athletes, assessing the SD effect both at the i) indicator and ii) construct levels, as well as iii) testing SD as an independent variable affecting expressed doping opinion. Participants were categorised by their SD score into high- and low SD groups. Based on low correlation coefficients (<|0.22|) observed in the overall sample, SD effect on the indicator variables could be disregarded. Regression weights between predictors and the outcome variable varied between groups with high and low SD but despite the practically non-existing relationship between SD and predictors (<|0.11|) in the low SD group, both groups showed improved model fit with SD, independently. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the presence of SD effect and the inadequacy of the commonly used pairwise correlation to assess social desirability at model level. In the absence of direct observation of the target behaviour (i.e. doping use), evaluation of the effectiveness of future anti-doping campaign, along with empirical testing of refined

  9. Effect of lead exposure on patterns of food intake in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Minnema, D J; Hammond, P B

    1994-01-01

    The reduction in growth resulting from lead (PB) exposure in weanling rats is consistent with a lowering of the biological set-point for food intake. In this study the effects of lead on the patterns of food intake were examined. For 10 days (from ages 26 to 36 days), female rats were provided with drinking water containing 250 ppm lead as the acetate (n = 6) or equivalent acetate as sodium acetate (n = 6). A computerized system was used to monitor daily food intake at 5-min intervals over 10 successive 23-h periods (each period consisting of 12 h dark, 11 h light). Control rats consumed approximately 75% to 85% of their food intake during the dark phase. Exposure to lead resulted in decreased body weight, tail length, and cumulative food intake. Decreased food intake associated with lead during the first 6 days of exposure was due to a decrease in the size of each meal during the dark phase, which reflected a decrease in the duration of each meal. These results suggest that lead, at least initially, was affecting food-satiety signals to produce a premature termination of food intake during a meal. After 6 days, the lead-exposed rats appear to have adjusted their meal size and meal duration to approximately control values. However, this compensation appears to have occurred at the expense of the daily (nocturnal) number of meals, which decreased slightly (although not significantly) in lead-exposed animals. Thus, the total daily intake of food in lead-treated animals remained depressed relative to control animals.

  10. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-09-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R(2) = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R(2) = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts.

  11. Effect of dietary net energy concentrations on growth performance and net energy intake of growing gilts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Han, Gi Ppeum; Koo, Do Yoon; Choi, Hyeon Seok; Kil, Dong Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objective This experiment investigated the effect of dietary net energy (NE) concentrations on growth performance and NE intake of growing gilts. Methods Five diets were formulated to contain 9.6, 10.1, 10.6, 11.1, and 11.6 MJ NE/kg, respectively. A metabolism trial with 10 growing pigs (average body weight [BW] = 15.9±0.24 kg) was conducted to determine NE concentrations of 5 diets based on French and Dutch NE systems in a 5×5 replicated Latin square design. A growth trial also was performed with five dietary treatments and 12 replicates per treatment using 60 growing gilts (average BW = 15.9±0.55 kg) for 28 days. A regression analysis was performed to predict daily NE intake from the BW of growing gilts. Results Increasing NE concentrations of diets did not influence average daily gain and average daily feed intake of growing gilts. There was a quadratic relationship (p = 0.01) between dietary NE concentrations and feed efficiency (G:F), although the difference in G:F among treatment means was relatively small. Regression analysis revealed that daily NE intake was linearly associated with the BW of growing gilts. The prediction equations for NE intake with the BW of growing gilts were: NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.442+(0.562×BW, kg), R2 = 0.796 when French NE system was used, whereas NE intake (MJ/d) = 1.533+(0.614×BW, kg), R2 = 0.810 when Dutch NE system was used. Conclusion Increasing NE concentrations of diets from 9.6 to 11.6 MJ NE/kg have little impacts on growth performance of growing gilts. Daily NE intake can be predicted from the BW between 15 and 40 kg in growing gilts. PMID:28728390

  12. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  13. Comparison of estimated daily intakes of flavouring substances with no-observed-effect levels.

    PubMed

    Munro, I C; Danielewska-Nikiel, B

    2006-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the margins of safety between no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) and estimates of daily intake for 809 flavouring substances evaluated by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of daily intake were calculated using two methods, the maximized survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) and the possible average daily intake (PADI). The MSDI estimates were based on the production volume of flavouring agents as reported by industry, whereas the higher more conservative PADI estimates were derived by multiplying the anticipated average use level of a flavouring substance in each of 33 food categories by the average amount of food consumed daily from that food category and summing the intake over all 33 food categories. These intake estimates were used to calculate the margins of safety for the flavouring agents to determine whether adequate margins of safety would still exist in the event that the MSDIs used by JECFA to evaluate the safety of flavouring substances underestimated daily intakes. Based on the calculation of the margins of safety using the MSDI values, 99.9% of the 809 flavouring substances evaluated by JECFA have margins of safety of greater than 100. In comparison, 98% of flavouring substances have margins of safety of greater than 100 when the margins of safety were calculated from PADI values. The results indicate that if the MSDI estimates used by JECFA for the evaluation of the safety of flavouring substances were underestimated, a wide margin of safety exists for all but a few of the flavouring substances even when intakes were estimated from PADI values.

  14. Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation.

    PubMed

    Weijzen, Pascalle L G; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees

    2009-10-01

    Sensory-specific satiation (SSS) drives food selection and contributes to meal termination. We hypothesised that smaller sips would increase SSS due to increased oro-sensory exposure, irrespective of energy content. The objective was to determine the effects of sip size and energy content on ad libitum intake of orangeade and subjective SSS for orangeade. Orangeade intake and ratings of wanting and liking were measured before and after ad libitum orangeade consumption in a 2 x 2 cross-over design (n 53). Conditions differed in energy content (no-energy v. regular-energy orangeade) and in sip size (large, 20 g/sip v. small, 5 g/sip). The mean intake of both orangeades was lower when consumed with small sips than when consumed with large sips (regular-energy, 352 v. 493 g; no-energy, 338 v. 405 g; both P < 0.001). When consumed with large sips, the mean intake of no-energy orangeade was lower than that of regular-energy orangeade (P = 0.02). When consumed with small sips, subjective SSS (based on the desire to drink) was higher for no-energy orangeade than for regular-energy orangeade (P = 0.01), while mean intake was comparable. We concluded that smaller sip size, i.e. increased oro-sensory exposure per unit of consumption, can lower intake of sweet drinks. Only with low oro-sensory exposure (large sip size) was intake higher for an energy-containing sweet drink than for a no-energy sweet drink. This suggests that intake of sweet drinks is stimulated by (metabolic) reward value and inhibited by sensory satiation. This underpins the importance of SSS for meal termination.

  15. [Effects of a long-term intervention in a work cafeteria on employee vegetable intake].

    PubMed

    Misawa, Akemi; Yoshita, Katsushi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Tanaka, Taichiro; Tamaki, Junko; Takebayashi, Toru; Kusaka, Yukinori; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Yamato, Hiroshi; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effects on employee vegetable intake of a long-term intervention in an employee work cafeteria. The subjects were approximately 1,200 employees (aged 19-61 years) of an industrial company in Fukui prefecture. We promoted the intake of typical Japanese style meals that combined three elements (staple foods, main dishes and vegetable dishes) to increase vegetables intake. We displayed all items on the menus of the employee cafeteria using three colors (yellow, red and green to denote three elements) to indicate healthy food choices for the maintenance of a healthy food environment. We advised employees to choose meals containing the three elements at the time of payment, for nutritional education (appropriate portion choice: APC). We evaluated the ratio of APC at the same time. To calculate the mean daily intake per person, we carried out a questionnaire survey similar to the "semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire" and asked about the frequency and approximate intake of vegetables. The APC was 63.5% after one year of intervention, significantly increased to 82.1% after two years (p < 0.001), and was 80.0% after three years of intervention (p < 0.001). Vegetable intake at breakfast (p < 0.001), lunch (p < 0.001) and dinner (p = 0.011), and from vegetable juice (p = 0.030) significantly increased after three years of intervention. The consumption of pickles significantly decreased after three years of intervention (p = 0.009). It was estimated that the vegetable intake of men increased from 167.3 to 184.6 g, and that of women from 157.9 to 187.7 g. Employee estimated vegetable intake was significantly increased and that of pickles was significantly decreased by a long-term intervention (three years) in the employee work cafeteria.

  16. Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Alexander, Erin; Mars, Monica; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-11-01

    Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.

  17. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sterling, M E; Karatayev, O; Chang, G-Q; Algava, D B; Leibowitz, S F

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake.

  18. Effect of hepatic portal infusion of water on water intake by water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, M; Adachi, A

    1992-11-01

    To determine whether or not hepatoportal osmoreceptive (or sodium-receptive) signals participate in the control of drinking, we examined the effects of portal infusion of water, 0.9% saline, and 1.8% saline on water intake by water-deprived rats. Infusion was started 0.5 h prior to the end of the water deprivation period for 3.5 h at a rate of 52 microliters/min through either a portal or a jugular catheter. After 24-h water deprivation, water intake was measured successively for 24 h without food. As a result of the water infusion tests, water intake of the portal infusion group was significantly less than that of the jugular infusion group during and after the infusion. Portal infusion of neither 0.9% nor 1.8% saline affected the water intake compared to similar infusion into the jugular vein. It is concluded that hypotonic stimulation of the hepatoportal osmoreceptor suppresses water intake in water-deprived rats. On the contrary, isotonic or hypertonic stimulation does not produce any change of water intake.

  19. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  20. Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.

    PubMed

    Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2006-10-30

    Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.

  1. Central administration of obestatin fails to show inhibitory effects on food and water intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Annemie; Annemie, Van Dijck; Van Dam, Debby; Debby, Van Dam; Vergote, Valentijn; Valentijn, Vergote; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Bart, De Spiegeleer; Luyten, Walter; Walter, Luyten; Schoofs, Liliane; Liliane, Schoofs; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Peter Paul, De Deyn

    2009-08-07

    Obestatin is a ghrelin-associated peptide hormone with presumed anorexigenic and inhibitory effect on gastric propulsive motility activity. Recent literature, however, discloses much contestation over satiety and gastrointestinal motility-related functionalities of obestatin. In addition, antidipsinogenic effects in rodents by obestatin were recently reported. The present study was set up to bring more clarity into the contested effects of obestatin on food and water intake. Additionally, the stability of obestatin in brain tissue homogenate was investigated. The in vitro incubation of obestatin in brain homogenates revealed disappearance half-life times of 19 min for crude brain homogenate to 27 min for brain membrane homogenate. For the behavioural studies, male C57Bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly treated with 0.2 nmol murine amidated obestatin or vehicle at the age of 3 months. An additional group of mice was treated with 0.3 nmol of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as a positive control of suppression of food intake. Food and water intake were studied over a period of 5 h in metabolic cages. Under our experimental conditions, no suppressive effects of obestatin on food or water intake were observed, whereas CRF evoked a significant suppression of food intake, which proves the internal validity of the study design.

  2. The power of social influence over food intake: examining the effects of attentional bias and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Larsen, Junilla K; Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Herman, C Peter; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-02-14

    Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions. A potential explanation for this modelling effect is that the eating behaviour of others operates as an external eating cue that stimulates food intake. The present study explored whether this cue-reactive mechanism can account for modelling effects on intake. It was investigated whether attentional bias towards dynamic eating cues and impulsivity would influence the degree of modelling. Participants completed one individual session and one session in which an experimental confederate accompanied them. In the first session, eye movements were recorded as an index of attentional bias to dynamic eating cues. In addition, self-reported impulsivity and response inhibition were assessed. The second session employed a between-participants design with three experimental conditions in which participants were exposed to a same-sex confederate instructed to eat nothing, a low or a large amount of M&Ms. A total of eighty-five young women participated. The participants' self-reported impulsivity determined the occurrence of modelling; only low-impulsive women adjusted their intake to that of their eating companion. Attention towards eating cues and response inhibition, however, did not moderate modelling of food intake. The present study suggests that cue-reactive mechanisms may not underlie modelling of food intake. Instead, the results emphasise the importance of social norms in explaining modelling effects, whereas it is suggested that the degree of impulsivity may play a role in whether or not women adhere to the intake norms set by their eating companion.

  3. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  4. Effect of dysphagia rehabilitation on oral intake in elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Ryo; Yasunaga, Hideo; Matsui, Hiroki; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Abo, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the effects of dysphagia rehabilitation on oral intake after aspiration pneumonia in older adults. The present retrospective observational study used data from the Japanese Diagnosis Procedure Combination inpatient database. We identified patients who were admitted to acute care hospitals with aspiration pneumonia. Patients were subdivided into those with and without dysphagia rehabilitation. The main outcome variable was total oral intake on discharge. We carried out multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the effect of dysphagia rehabilitation on the outcome, with adjustment for patient backgrounds. We also carried out analyses based on pneumonia severity, and the timing and duration of dysphagia rehabilitation. We identified 22,819 patients with dysphagia rehabilitation and 75,555 patients without dysphagia rehabilitation. The rates of total oral intake on discharge were 78.0 and 75.2%, respectively. The multivariate regression model showed that the dysphagia rehabilitation group had a significantly higher proportion of total oral intake on discharge (odds ratio 1.32; P < 0.001). Mild pneumonia patients had a higher odds ratio for total oral intake associated with dysphagia rehabilitation than patients with moderate and severe pneumonia (odds ratio 2.27; P < 0.001). Among patients who underwent a short period of dysphagia rehabilitation, those with early rehabilitation were more likely to achieve total oral intake at discharge than those with late rehabilitation. The data suggest that dysphagia rehabilitation had a positive effect on total oral intake in elderly patients with aspiration pneumonia. Dysphagia rehabilitation showed greater benefit in patients with mild pneumonia than with more severe pneumonia. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Reproduction regulates Drosophila nutrient intake through independent effects of egg production and sex peptide: Implications for aging

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Elizabeth; Tatar, Marc

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ratio of protein to carbohydrate (P:C) consumed influences reproduction and lifespan, outcomes that are often maximized by different P:C intake. OBJECTIVE: Determine if reproduction in female Drosophila drives elevated P:C intake. Distinguish whether such a preference is driven by egg production or from male-derived sex peptides in seminal fluid. METHODS: Intake of protein and carbohydrate was measured in a diet-choice assay. Macronutrient intake was calculated for mated and unmated fertile females, mated and unmated sterile females, and both types of female when mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide. RESULTS: Mated females have high P:C intake relative to unmated females and mated, sterile females. Fertile females mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide have high P:C intake, but sterile females have similar, low P:C intake when unmated and when mated to males lacking sex peptide. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic demands of egg production and sex peptides are individually sufficient to drive elevated P:C intake in adult female Drosophila. Reproductive state can thus modulate how animals consume macronutrients, which in turn can impact their health and aging. PMID:28035342

  6. What Do We Know about Dietary Fiber Intake in Children and Health? The Effects of Fiber Intake on Constipation, Obesity, and Diabetes in Children1

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L.; Miller, Kevin B.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children’s dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children’s health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children’s health through increased dietary fiber. PMID:22332100

  7. What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health? The effects of fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L; Miller, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children's dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children's health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children's health through increased dietary fiber.

  8. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.

  9. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) decreases the effects of ghrelin on memory retention and food intake.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Valeria P; Gaydou, Romina C; Schiöth, Helgi B; de Barioglio, Susana R

    2007-04-05

    Ghrelin (Ghr) is an appetite stimulating hormone that is produced peripherally, by the stomach, and centrally as well. Previous investigations show that Ghr increases food intake and memory retention in rats, and that extra-hypothalamic structures, such as the hippocampus, participate in these effects. In the present work we analyzed the effect on food intake and memory retention induced by Ghr after serotonin (5-HT) availability modification at the serotoninergic synapses. Animals only treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (FLU) 5 mg/kg or clomipramine (CLO) 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, showed a significant reduction in both food intake and memory retention. On the contrary, Ghr administration induces a significant increase in food intake and a dose-dependent increase in short and long term memory retention. When the animals were treated with FLU prior to Ghr injection, the food intake induced, as well as the expression of short and long term memory retention, was decreased. In conclusion, evidence presented in this paper suggests that the effects of Ghr on both feeding and memory retention in extra-hypothalamic structures such as the hippocampus, could depend on the availability of 5-HT.

  10. Effects of tailoring ingredients in auditory persuasive health messages on fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Elbert, Sarah P; Dijkstra, Arie; Rozema, Andrea D

    2017-07-01

    Health messages can be tailored by applying different tailoring ingredients, among which personalisation, feedback and adaptation. This experiment investigated the separate effects of these tailoring ingredients on behaviour in auditory health persuasion. Furthermore, the moderating effect of self-efficacy was assessed. The between-participants design consisted of four conditions. A generic health message served as a control condition; personalisation was applied using the recipient's first name, feedback was given on the personal state, or the message was adapted to the recipient's value. The study consisted of a pre-test questionnaire (measuring fruit and vegetable intake and perceived difficulty of performing these behaviours, indicating self-efficacy), exposure to the auditory message and a follow-up questionnaire measuring fruit and vegetable intake two weeks after message exposure (n = 112). ANCOVAs showed no main effect of condition on either fruit or vegetable intake, but a moderation was found on vegetable intake: When self-efficacy was low, vegetable intake was higher after listening to the personalisation message. No significant differences between the conditions were found when self-efficacy was high. Individuals with low self-efficacy seemed to benefit from incorporating personalisation, but only regarding vegetable consumption. This finding warrants further investigation in tailoring research.

  11. The effect of the home environment on physical activity and dietary intake in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Østbye, T; Malhotra, R; Stroo, M; Lovelady, C; Brouwer, R; Zucker, N; Fuemmeler, B

    2013-10-01

    The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time derived from accelerometer data and two dietary factors ('junk' and healthy food intake scores) based on factor analysis of mother-reported food intake. Linear regression models assessed the net effect (controlling for child demographics, study arm, supplemental time point, maternal education/work status, child body mass index and accelerometer wear time (for PA outcomes)) of the home environment on the outcomes and moderation by maternal education/work status. Data were collected in North Carolina from 2007 to 2011. Parental policies supporting PA increased MVPA time, and limiting access to unhealthy foods increased the healthy food intake score. Role modeling of healthy eating behaviors increased the healthy food intake score among children of mothers with no college education. Among children of mothers with no college education and not working, limiting access to unhealthy foods and role modeling reduced 'junk' food intake scores whereas parental policies supporting family meals increased 'junk' food intake scores. To promote MVPA, parental policies supporting child PA are warranted. Limited access to unhealthy foods and role modeling of healthy eating may improve the quality of the child's food intake.

  12. Effect of dietary sodium intake on blood lipids: results from the DASH-sodium trial.

    PubMed

    Harsha, David W; Sacks, Frank M; Obarzanek, Eva; Svetkey, Laura P; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Bray, George A; Aickin, Mikel; Conlin, Paul R; Miller, Edgar R; Appel, Lawrence J

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the effect on serum lipids of sodium intake in 2 diets. Participants were randomly assigned to a typical American control diet or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, each prepared with 3 levels of sodium (targeted at 50, 100, and 150 mmol/d per 2100 kcal). The DASH diet is increased in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and is reduced in saturated and total fat. Within assigned diet, participants ate each sodium level for 30 days. The order of sodium intake was random. Participants were 390 adults, age 22 years or older, with blood pressure of 120 to 159 mm Hg systolic and 80 to 95 mm Hg diastolic. Serum lipids were measured at baseline and at the end of each sodium period. Within each diet, sodium intake did not significantly affect serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides. On the control diet, the ratio of total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol increased by 2% from 4.53 on higher sodium to 4.63 on lower sodium intake (P=0.04). On the DASH diet, sodium intake did not affect this ratio. There was no dose-response of sodium intake on serum lipids or the cholesterol ratio in either diet. At each sodium level, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were lower on the DASH diet versus the typical American diet. There were no significant interactions between the effects of sodium and the DASH diet on serum lipids. In conclusion, changes in dietary sodium intake over the range of 50 to 150 mmol/d did not affect blood lipid concentrations.

  13. Short-term soybean intake and its effect on steroid sex hormones and cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter; Hodosy, Július; Hampl, Richard; Putz, Zdenek; Kúdela, Matús

    2007-12-01

    To observe the effects of short-term soybean consumption on cognitive spatial abilities and changes in sex endocrine net in both genders. Short-term prospective intervention study. Academic medical center. Fifty-four healthy females and 32 healthy males (18 - 25 y of age). Volunteers were asked to eat 2 g/kg per day of soybeans during 1 week. Saliva and plasma samples were taken, and psychometric tests were performed on the 1st (before soybean intake), 7th (after soybean intake), and 14th days (after washout period) of the study. Salivary T and plasma E(2) were measured. Mental rotation (MR) and spatial visualization (SV) tests were performed on the days of sampling. Soybean intake did not change salivary T and plasma E(2) levels in men. During the washout period, both parameters have shown a tendency to rise. The effect of soybean intake on hormonal parameters in men was, however, dependent on the basal T levels. In women, salivary T as well as plasma E(2) levels showed a tendency toward a decline after soybean intake (the decrease in E(2) was statistically significant) and to increase back toward basal levels during the washout period. Both males and females statistically significantly improved in MR and SV after soybean intake. During the washout period, both genders further improved their results in MR but not in SV. Short-term soybean consumption alters the concentrations of salivary T and plasma E(2) in both men and women. Spatial abilities appear to be improved by short-term soybean intake, but the exact mechanisms require further study.

  14. The Effect of the Home Environment on Physical Activity and Dietary Intake in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Østbye, Truls; Malhotra, Rahul; Stroo, Marissa; Lovelady, Cheryl; Brouwer, Rebecca; Zucker, Nancy; Fuemmeler, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background The effects of the home environment on child health behaviors related to obesity are unclear. Purpose To examine the role of the home physical activity (PA) and food environment on corresponding outcomes in young children, and assess maternal education/work status as a moderator. Methods Overweight or obese mothers reported on the home PA and food environment (accessibility, role modeling and parental policies). Outcomes included child moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time derived from accelerometer data and two dietary factors (“junk” and healthy food intake scores) based on factor analysis of mother-reported food intake. Linear regression models assessed the net effect (controlling for child demographics, study arm, supplemental timepoint, maternal education/work status, child body mass index and accelerometer wear-time (for PA outcomes)) of the home environment on the outcomes and moderation by maternal education/work status. Data was collected in North Carolina from 2007–2011. Results Parental policies supporting PA increased MVPA time, and limiting access to unhealthy foods increased the healthy food intake score. Role modeling of healthy eating behaviors increased the healthy food intake score among children of mothers with no college education. Among children of mothers with no college education and not working, limiting access to unhealthy foods and role modeling reduced “junk” food intake scores while parental policies supporting family meals increased “junk” food intake scores. Conclusions To promote MVPA, parental policies supporting child PA are warranted. Limited access to unhealthy foods and role modeling of healthy eating may improve the quality of the child’s food intake. PMID:23736357

  15. Effects of injection of serotonin into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake and body weight in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pal, G K; Kannan, N; Pal, Pravati

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin is known to inhibit food and water intake. However, the effect of its injection into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake is not known. In the present study, serotonin hydrochloride, buspirone (the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist) and ondensetron (the 5HT3 antagonist) were injected into nucleus caudatus through stereotaxically implanted cannulae in three different dosages (1, 2 and 5 microg) and their effects on 24 h food and water intake, and body weight were recorded. The injection of serotonin hydrochloride resulted in a dose- dependent decrease in food intake attaining maximum of 27.3% at 5 microg dose, whereas water intake and body weight were decreased 12% and 4.3% respectively only at the highest does. Buspirone elicited a dose dependent inhibition of food and water intake and body weight (22.3%, 19.8% and 5.1% respectively), whereas ondensetron elicited an increase in food and water intake (37.8% and 36.3% respectively) without significantly altering bodyweight. It was concluded that serotonin hydrochloride injected into nucleus caudatus inhibits food and water intake significantly. These effects are mediated via 5-HT1A and 5HT3 receptors. The effect of injections of 5-HT1A receptor agonist is more pronounced on water intake. The effect of injections of 5HT3 receptor antagonist is also more pronounced on water intake.

  16. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, John C.; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  17. Do carbamazepine, gabapentin, or other anticonvulsants exert sufficient radioprotective effects to alter responses from trigeminal neuralgia radiosurgery?

    PubMed

    Flickinger, John C; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C

    2012-07-15

    Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up ≥6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age ≤70 years, and Type 1 typical

  18. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  19. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  20. Glycemic profile and effectiveness and safety of insulin therapy in septic patients: is the blood glucose level sufficient?

    PubMed

    Szrama, Jakub; Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Trojanowska, Iwona

    2009-10-01

    Hyperglycemia in sepsis is managed by intensive insulin therapy, which can cause hypoglycemia. The aim of the study was to evaluate the glycemic profile as well as safety and effectiveness of a nurse-controlled insulin therapy protocol in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The study included 16 septic patients who died (nonsurvivors) and 61 septic patients who survived. Glycemia was measured every 4 h, and the dose of insulin infusion was adjusted to maintain glycemia of 4.4 mmol/l to 8.3 mmol/l. We analyzed glycemia levels and daily variations, insulin dose, episodes of hypo- and hyperglycemia. Nonsurvivors and survivors had similar mean glycemia levels (7.38 vs. 7.08 mmol/l; p = 0.20) and insulin requirements (median [Me] = 26.9 vs. 23.9 units/d; p = 0.22; Me = 1.7 vs. 1.4 units/h; p = 0.25). Daily glycemia variation (Me = 4.81 vs. 3.03 mmol/l; p <0.001), episodes of hypoglycemia (18.8% vs. 3.3%; p = 0.02), spontaneous severe hypoglycemia (12.5% vs. 0%; p = 0.006) and hyperglycemia (75.0% vs. 45.9%; p = 0.04) were higher and more frequent in nonsurvivors. Three of 5393 blood samples (0.05%) met severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia criteria, and 74.4% of samples met the recommended range of 4.4-8.3 mmol/l. Patients who died experienced more episodes of hyperglycemia, spontaneous hypoglycemia and greater variation in the daily glycemia level. Daily glycemia variation is more reliable than a mean glycemic level in evaluating glucose homeostasis in septic patients. Few episodes of severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia occurred while using the nurse-controlled insulin therapy protocol.

  1. The effect of an intake vortex on the frontal boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlaka, V. V.

    1986-02-01

    The three-dimensional boundary layer at the intake of a blade cascade is investigated experimentally using a needle probe. It is shown that an intake vortex does not cause the boundary layer to separate but affects the local characteristics of the latter. Thus, extreme values of the integral characteristics of the boundary values are recorded in the wake of a vortex, the effect of the vortex on the longitudinal velocity component being particularly strong. The effect of the vortex is shown to depend on flow conditions in the flow core and is less pronounced in reactive cascades.

  2. [Effect of energy intake on production and reproduction characteristics in (breeding) sows].

    PubMed

    den Hartog, L A

    1985-04-01

    A total number of 113 first-litter sows and 680 gilts of the Dutch Landrace were used in order to study the effect of energy intake on productive and reproductive characteristics. A high feeding level in normal sows after weaning is essential, not to increase the ovulation rate but rather to improve the condition of the sow and advance oestrus. The experiment with the gilts showed that from the point of view of the cost of the feed consumed and reproductive performance, an energy intake during rearing of more than 2.1 times maintenance will have an adverse effect when adequate protein is given.

  3. The effect of intraperitoneal administration of leptin on short-term food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh D; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-02-02

    The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of leptin (1, 5, and 10 mug/kg) were investigated on the food consumption during a 60 min test meal in 21 h fasted rats. All doses of leptin produced significant reductions in cumulative food intake during the first 15 min and 30 min (at least, P<0.05) after administration. Similarly, i.p., but not subcutaneous (s.c.), administration of leptin (25 microg/kg) reduced food intake in 21 h fasted rats. Leptin (10 and 25 microg/kg, i.p.) did not reduce water intake in 16 h water-deprived rats, nor did leptin (25 microg/kg) produce aversion in a two-bottle conditioned taste aversion test indicating that the hypophagic effect of leptin is (i) behaviourally specific for food and not water intake, and (ii) not due to drug-induced malaise. Moreover, leptin (10 and 25 microg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly alter food intake in non-deprived rats when measured at 30 min intervals over a period of 24 h. Chemical vagotomy with capsaicin abolished the inhibitory effects of leptin (25 microg/kg, i.p) on food intake in fasted rats and suggest that the hypophagic effect is dependent on intact vagal afferent nerves. Furthermore, the hypophagia induced by leptin (10 microg/kg, i.p.) in fasted rats was not attenuated by systemic administration of the peripherally acting cholecystokinin(1) receptor antagonist, 2-naphthalenesulphanyl-L-aspartyl-2-(phenethyl) amide (2-NAP; 2 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that the suppressant effects of leptin on food consumption are not secondary to the release of endogenous peripheral cholecystokinin.

  4. Effect of chronic caffeine intake on choice reaction time, mood, and visual vigilance.

    PubMed

    Judelson, Daniel A; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Sökmen, Bülent; Roti, Melissa W; Casa, Douglas J; Kellogg, Mark D

    2005-08-07

    The stimulatory effects of acute caffeine intake on choice reaction time, mood state, and visual vigilance are well established. Little research exists, however, on the effects of chronic caffeine ingestion on psychomotor tasks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 5 days of controlled caffeine intake on cognitive and psychomotor performance. Three groups of 20 healthy males (age=22+/-3 years, mass=75.4+/-7.9 kg, body fat percentage=11.2+/-5.1%) twice completed a battery of cognitive and psychomotor tasks: after 6 days of 3 mg.kg(-1) day(-1) caffeine equilibration (Day 6), and after 5 days of experimental (0 [G0], 3 [G3], or 6 [G6] mg.kg(-1) day(-1)) caffeine intake (Day 11). Groups were randomized and stratified for age, mass, and body composition; all procedures were double-blind. Cognitive analyses involved a visual four-choice reaction time test, a mood state questionnaire, and a visual vigilance task. Experimental chronic caffeine intake did not significantly alter the number of correct responses or the mean latency of response for either the four-choice reaction time or the visual vigilance tasks. The Vigor-Activity subset of the mood state questionnaire was significantly greater in G3 than G0 or G6 on Day 11. All other mood constructs were unaffected by caffeine intake. In conclusion, few cognitive and psychomotor differences existed after 5 days of controlled caffeine ingestion between subjects consuming 0, 3, or 6 mg.kg(-1) day(-1) of caffeine, suggesting that chronic caffeine intake (1) has few perceptible effects on cognitive and psychomotor well-being and (2) may lead to a tolerance to some aspects of caffeine's acute effects.

  5. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.

  6. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: effects of glucose intake, antimuscarinic activity and anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Celik, Pinar Yamantürk; Açikmeşe, Bariş

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to further evaluate the contribution of antimuscarinic activity and hypoglycaemia to the development of scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake. The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on convulsions were also evaluated. Antimuscarinic drugs atropine (3 mg/kg) and biperiden (10 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to animals fasted for 48 h. Like scopolamine, both drugs induced convulsions after animals were allowed to eat ad libitum. Another group of animals was given glucose (5%) in drinking water during fasting. These animals, although they had normoglycaemic blood levels after fasting, also developed convulsions after treated with scopolamine i.p. (3 mg/kg), atropine (3 mg/kg) or biperiden (10 mg/kg) and allowed to eat ad libitum. Among the drugs studied, only valproate (340 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) markedly reduced the incidence of scopolamine-induced convulsions. The present results indicate that antimuscarinic activity, but not hypoglycaemia, underlies these convulsions which do not respond to most of the conventional anticonvulsant drugs.

  7. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  8. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    PubMed

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  9. Numerical investigation of centerline curvature effects on a compact S-shaped intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Enliang; Zhao, Shengfeng; Lei, Zhijun; Kang, Jianxiong; Lu, Xingen; Zhu, Junqiang

    2012-10-01

    Taking into account stealth, structure and maintenance, ultra-compact S-shaped intake has been widely used in modern vehicles. In this paper a series of steady numerical simulation were carried out to investigate the complex flow mechanism in s-shaped intake, particular attention was given to examining the effect of centerline curvature on the performance and flowfield of an ultra-compact S-shaped intake. In order to validate the multi-block model, the computational results for Royal Aircraft Establishment intake 2129-M2129 which had modest centerline curvature distribution were corrected with available experimental test data. The numerical simulation results agreed fairly well with the experimental data, and the computational method was then used to investigate the effects of different centerline curvature distributions on performance and flow field in compact S-shaped intake. Detailed analyses of the flow visualization had exposed the different flow topologies between the cases with different centerline curvature. It was found that different centerline curvature distributions changed the initial location and the size of separation bubble, as well as the strength of two counter-rotating vortices at the entrance of engine.

  10. Effects of nicotine on homeostatic and hedonic components of food intake.

    PubMed

    Stojakovic, Andrea; Espinosa, Enma P; Farhad, Osman T; Lutfy, Kabirullah

    2017-10-01

    Chronic tobacco use leads to nicotine addiction that is characterized by exaggerated urges to use the drug despite the accompanying negative health and socioeconomic burdens. Interestingly, nicotine users are found to be leaner than the general population. Review of the existing literature revealed that nicotine affects energy homeostasis and food consumption via altering the activity of neurons containing orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in the brain. Hypothalamus is one of the critical brain areas that regulates energy balance via the action of these neuropeptides. The equilibrium between these two groups of peptides can be shifted by nicotine leading to decreased food intake and weight loss. The aim of this article is to review the existing literature on the effect of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis and report on the changes that nicotine brings about in the level of these peptides and their receptors that may explain changes in food intake and body weight induced by nicotine. Furthermore, we review the effect of nicotine on the hedonic aspect of food intake. Finally, we discuss the involvement of different subtypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the regulatory action of nicotine on food intake and energy homeostasis. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Controversies Surrounding High-Protein Diet Intake: Satiating Effect and Kidney and Bone Health12

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. PMID:25979491

  12. Salad and satiety: the effect of timing of salad consumption on meal energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Liane S.; Meengs, Jennifer S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, consuming a fixed amount of low-energy-dense salad as a first course reduced meal energy intake. We investigated whether this effect depended on serving salad before rather than with the main course, or on compulsory rather than ad libitum consumption. On five occasions, 46 women consumed ad libitum a main course of pasta, accompanied four times by low-energy-dense salad (300 g; 100 kcal [418 kJ]). At two meals the salad was served 20 min before the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum), and at two meals the salad was served with the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum). Results showed that adding a fixed amount of salad to the meal reduced energy intake by 11% (57±19 kcal [238±79 kJ]. Ad libitum salad consumption was less than compulsory consumption and did not significantly affect energy intake. Across all participants, the timing of serving the salad did not significantly influence energy intake, but the effect of timing depended on participant scores for flexible dietary restraint. Consuming low-energy-dense salad before rather than with the main course increased vegetable consumption by 23%. To moderate energy intake, maximizing the amount of salad eaten may be more important than the timing of consumption. PMID:22008705

  13. Salad and satiety. The effect of timing of salad consumption on meal energy intake.

    PubMed

    Roe, Liane S; Meengs, Jennifer S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-02-01

    In a previous study, consuming a fixed amount of low-energy-dense salad as a first course reduced meal energy intake. We investigated whether this effect depended on serving salad before rather than with the main course, or on compulsory rather than ad libitum consumption. On five occasions, 46 women consumed ad libitum a main course of pasta, accompanied four times by low-energy-dense salad (300 g; 100 kcal [418 kJ]). At two meals the salad was served 20 min before the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum), and at two meals the salad was served with the pasta (once compulsory; once ad libitum). Results showed that adding a fixed amount of salad to the meal reduced energy intake by 11% (57±19 kcal [238±79 kJ]). Ad libitum salad consumption was less than compulsory consumption and did not significantly affect energy intake. Across all participants, the timing of serving the salad did not significantly influence energy intake, but the effect of timing depended on participant scores for flexible dietary restraint. Consuming low-energy-dense salad before rather than with the main course increased vegetable consumption by 23%. To moderate energy intake, maximizing the amount of salad eaten may be more important than the timing of consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Yohimbine and Tolazoline on Isoproterenol and Angiotensin 2-Induced Water Intake in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists, yohimbine and tolazoline, at doses up to 1000 micro-g/kg, had no effect on water intake of female rats. However, when these compounds were administered SC in combination with either the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, isoproterenol (10 to 25 micro-g/kg, SC), or with angiotensin 2 (200 micro-g/kg, SC). water intake was enhanced. In contrast, intraventricular administration of either tolazoline (10 and 20 micro-g/kg) or yohimbine (300 micro-g/kg) failed to augment the dipsogenic response to angiotensin 2 (150 micro-g/kg, SC). Thus, the enhancing effect of these alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists on isoproterenol- and angiotensin 2-induced water intakes appears to be manifested peripherally, rather than centrally. In view of the fact that clonidine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor agonist, has been shown to inhibit water intake induced by both isoproterenol and angiotensin 2, the results suggest that the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor may play a role in modulating water intake induced by these two dipsogenic agents.

  15. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  16. Effects of calcium intake on the cardiovascular system in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Challoumas, D; Cobbold, C; Dimitrakakis, G

    2013-11-01

    The use of calcium supplements for the prevention of complications of osteoporosis has significantly increased during the last years. The effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters such as blood pressure, serum lipids and cardiovascular events are controversial. Even though transient beneficial effects of calcium supplementation have been reported, especially in women with low dietary calcium intake, their long-term outcomes are inconclusive. Only a very few studies investigating serum lipids in postmenopausal women have been described and these showed significant increases in high-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein to low-density lipoprotein ratio. With regards to cardiovascular events in this population group adverse effects have been reported on the rates of myocardial infarction and stroke with increased calcium intake by some authors, however, others described no effects or even beneficial outcomes. We present a review of the current literature which provides a balanced summary of the possible beneficial and adverse effects of calcium intake in postmenopausal women on cardiovascular parameters. Taking into account the modest effect of calcium supplementation in reducing fracture rates, a reassessment of the role, benefits and adverse effects of calcium supplements should be conducted in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of WIC Food Package Changes on Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Greig, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Orrin B.; Cruz, Theresa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined WIC policy change effects on dietary intake of preschool children from WIC-participating households in rural New Mexico communities. Methods Dietary intake of children enrolled in Head Start in 8 communities was compared before and after 2009 WIC food package changes. Results Following the policy change, participants reported significantly increased consumption of lower-fat milk, reduced consumption of saturated fat (grams), and decreased consumption of vegetables without potatoes. No significant differences in fruit, fruit juice, vegetables including potatoes, whole-grains and saturated fat (percent-energy) consumption were observed. Conclusions WIC policy changes have the potential to improve children’s saturated fat intake. More research with robust designs is necessary to examine long-term effects of WIC policy changes. PMID:27668264

  18. Intraamygdaloid administration of BIBO 3304 increases water intake and extends anxiolytic effects.

    PubMed

    Wierońska, Joanna M; Stachowicz, Katarzyna; Kłodzińska, Aleksandra; Smiałowska, Maria; Pilc, Andrzej

    2004-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of BIBO 3304 in the Vogel's conflict drinking test and in the water intake test in non-deprived rats after injection of the drug into the basolateral nucleus of the amygdaloid complex. BIBO 3304 was given at the doses of 25, 100 and 200 pmol/0.5 microl/site. We investigated also the effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), given intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg, which was used as a positive control in the water intake test. Water consumption was measured 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h after drug administration. We found that water intake was increased both after 5-HTP and BIBO 3304 administration.

  19. Effects of preparatory and action planning instructions on situation-specific and general fruit and snack intake.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Nguyen, Minh Hao; Rhodes, Ryan E; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Evidence to date suggests heterogeneity in the effects of implementation intentions on health behaviour, including diet. Additional variables and study designs may impact on their effectiveness. Preparatory action, such as making sure fruits are available for consumption, may be an important additional variable. Likewise, most implementation intention research has focused on changes in general intake, yet implementation intention instructions typically require participants to consider behaviour in specific situations. Little is known on how implementation intentions impact situation-specific intake. The present study sought to add to the evidence base by comparing (1) the effects of action planning instructions versus preparatory planning instructions on (2) both situation-specific (as formulated in the implementation intention instruction) and general intake of fruits and in-between meal snack intake frequency. Fruit intake was assessed in average pieces per day, whereas snacking intake was assessed as average frequency in days per week. Using non-probability sampling, 243 undergraduate students who intended to have a healthy diet were randomized to either a standard information control condition, an action planning condition, or a preparatory planning condition. Planning manipulations were based on previous work. Two weeks later, general and situation-specific intake was assessed again in 181 participants. Data were analysed using 2 (time) x 3 (conditions) analyses of variance. Results showed that both planning manipulations were successful in decreasing snack intake frequency in the specified situation, with larger effect sizes for the action planning condition than for the preparatory planning condition. No effects were found on general snack intake frequency or fruit intake. Future planning interventions should more explicitly compare changes in situational and general intake, as well as simultaneously assessed decreases in unhealthy intake and increases in

  20. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult male rats: Effects on tolerance, social behavior and ethanol intake

    PubMed Central

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of the present study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Methods Adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10 day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), non-manipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10) or non-manipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, loss of righting reflex was tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and non-manipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hrs after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and non-manipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and non-manipulated animals using an 8 day 2 bottle choice, limited access ethanol intake procedure. Results Adolescents were less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than adults. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents drank significantly more ethanol than adults on a g/kg basis, with intake uninfluenced by prior ethanol exposure at both ages. Conclusion Adolescents and adults may differ in

  1. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way.

  2. Effects of added fruits and vegetables on dietary intakes and body weight in Scottish adults.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Stephen; Harrison, Claire L S; Mayer, Claus; James Stubbs, R

    2006-03-01

    An increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been suggested as a way to limit, or even lower, energy and fat intakes. The present study examined the effects of incorporating F&V supplements into the diets of adults who reported consuming <240 g (three portions) of F&V per d on energy and fat intakes, and change in body weight, over 8 weeks using a randomised parallel design. Thirty-four males and twenty-eight females (age 42.6 (sd 11.1) years, BMI 23.7 (sd 2.7) kg/m(2)) were each provided with supplements of 0, 300 or 600 g F&V per d. Food, nutrient and energy intakes were measured before, during and at the end of the supplementation period using 7 d weighed records. Mean daily energy intakes were not different among the three groups before (P = 0.151) or during the supplementation periods (P = 0.407), although changes in energy intakes over the study period tended to be more positive with increasing amounts of F&V supplements (P = 0.078). There was no difference in changes of body weights during the study (P = 0.242). Carbohydrate (P < 0.001), sugar (P < 0.001), fibre (P < 0.001) and weight of food consumed (P = 0.022) increased in the treatment groups. There were no significant differences, or changes, in fat intakes among the three groups. Consumption of mandatory F&V supplements for 8 weeks produced beneficial changes in diet composition, but did not result in lower reported energy or fat intakes, and did not result in loss of body weight.

  3. Fatty Acid Transporter CD36 Mediates Hypothalamic Effect of Fatty Acids on Food Intake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moullé, Valentine S.; Le Foll, Christelle; Philippe, Erwann; Kassis, Nadim; Rouch, Claude; Marsollier, Nicolas; Bui, Linh-Chi; Guissard, Christophe; Dairou, Julien; Lorsignol, Anne; Pénicaud, Luc; Levin, Barry E.; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Variations in plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are detected by FA sensing neurons in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus. These neurons play a physiological role in the control of food intake and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Le Foll et al. previously showed in vitro that at least 50% of the FA sensing in ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons is attributable to the interaction of long chain FA with FA translocase/CD36 (CD36). The present work assessed whether in vivo effects of hypothalamic FA sensing might be partly mediated by CD36 or intracellular events such as acylCoA synthesis or β-oxidation. To that end, a catheter was implanted in the carotid artery toward the brain in male Wistar rats. After 1 wk recovery, animals were food-deprived for 5 h, then 10 min infusions of triglyceride emulsion, Intralipid +/− heparin (IL, ILH, respectively) or saline/heparin (SH) were carried out and food intake was assessed over the next 5 h. Experimental groups included: 1) Rats previously injected in ventromedian nucleus (VMN) with shRNA against CD36 or scrambled RNA; 2) Etomoxir (CPT1 inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH; and 3) Triacsin C (acylCoA synthase inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH. ILH significantly lowered food intake during refeeding compared to SH (p<0.001). Five hours after refeeding, etomoxir did not affect this inhibitory effect of ILH on food intake while VMN CD36 depletion totally prevented it. Triacsin C also prevented ILH effects on food intake. In conclusion, the effect of FA to inhibit food intake is dependent on VMN CD36 and acylCoA synthesis but does not required FA oxidation. PMID:24040150

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of energy intake on risk of digestive cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yi-Qian; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To quantitatively assess the relationship between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% CIs of digestive cancers with respect to total energy intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Data were extracted independently by two investigators and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed fixed-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to compute the summary RR for highest versus lowest category of energy intake and for per unit energy intake and digestive cancer incidence by giving each study-specific RR a weight that was proportional to its precision. RESULTS: Nineteen studies consisting of 13 independent cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The studies included 995 577 participants and 5620 incident cases of digestive cancer with an average follow-up of 11.1 years. A significant inverse association was observed between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers. The RR of digestive cancers for the highest compared to the lowest caloric intake category was 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-0.98, P < 0.05). The RR for an increment of 239 kcal/d energy intake was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99, P < 0.05) in the fixed model. In subgroup analyses, we noted that energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, P < 0.05) and an increased risk of gastric cancer (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.31, P < 0.01). There appeared to be no association with esophageal (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, P > 0.05) or pancreatic (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49-1.09, P > 0.05) cancer. Associations were also similar in studies from North America and Europe. The RR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.79-1.25, P > 0.05) when

  5. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    PubMed

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  6. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  7. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  8. Repeated administration of angiotensin II reduces its dipsogenic effect without affecting saline intake

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Peter J.; Daniels, Derek

    2010-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) acts at central type I (AT1) receptors to increase intake of water and saline. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid desensitization of the AT1 receptor after AngII exposure and behavioural studies in rats suggest that exposure to AngII decreases the dipsogenic potency of subsequent AngII. Nevertheless, the effect of repeated AngII injections on saline intake remains untested and a reliable paradigm for examining this purported behavioural desensitization has not emerged from the literature. To address these issues, we established a reliable approach to study AngII-induced dipsetic desensitization and used this approach to test the requirement of central AT1 receptors and the specificity of the effect for water intake. Rats given a treatment regimen of three injections of AngII (300 ng, icv), each separated by 20 min, drank less water than control rats after a subsequent test injection of AngII. The effect was relatively short lasting, dependent on the dose and timing of AngII, and was almost completely blocked by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan. In further testing, when rats were given access to both water and 1.5% saline, animals that received an AngII treatment regimen drank less water than controls, but saline intake was unaffected. These data support previous suggestions that AngII-induced water and saline intakes are separable. Given the role of G protein uncoupling in desensitization of the AT1 receptor, these data are consistent with the emerging hypothesis that AT1 receptor G protein-dependent intracellular signalling pathways are more relevant for water, but not saline intake. PMID:20228119

  9. Examining the effects of lipopolysaccharide and cholecystokinin on water ingestion: comparing intake and palatability.

    PubMed

    Cross-Mellor, S K; Kent, W D; Kavaliers, M; Ossenkopp, K P

    2000-04-10

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cholecystokinin (CCK) have been shown to have anorectic properties in a variety of species. The present study examined the effects of LPS and CCK, both alone and in combination, on two different aspects of water ingestion, water intake and palatability. On test days, animals were first injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with either LPS (200 microg/kg) or NaCl vehicle, and 2 h later received a second injection of either CCK (8 microg/kg) or NaCl vehicle. In Experiment 1, water intake was monitored for 1 h on 3 separate test days 72 h apart; while in Experiment 2, water palatability was assessed using the taste reactivity test (TRT), on two separate test days 72 h apart. Both LPS and CCK significantly (p<0.05) reduced water intake, with the effects of combined LPS with CCK being more pronounced than either agent injected alone. Rats developed a rapid tolerance to the effects of LPS on water intake on subsequent exposures to LPS. Results from the TRT indicated that LPS enhanced water palatability (p<0.05), as evidenced by a high level of ingestive responding, whereas CCK produced a pattern of responding indicative of satiety. LPS plus CCK reduced ingestive responding on the first test day, but these responses were significantly increased on the second test day (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that although LPS reduces water intake, it enhances water palatability. The results further underscore the necessity for examining palatability changes in addition to intake measures when studying the regulation of feeding and drinking.

  10. Comparison of effect of high intake of magnesium with high intake of phosphorus and potassium on urolithiasis in goats fed with cottonseed meal diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Yong; Sun, Wei-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Long

    2009-08-01

    The effect of high intake of Mg on urolithiasis was compared with high intake of P and K in goats being fed with a cottonseed meal and rice straw diet. Eighteen wether goats were randomly allocated into group A, B and C evenly and fed with cottonseed meal and rice straw diet for three months. From day 60 onwards, KH(2)PO(4) and K(2)HPO(4) were provided via drinking water to goats in group B to increase the intake of P, K, and MgO to goats in group C to increase the intake of Mg. Blood and urine samples were collected to analyze the concentration of P, K, Mg and Ca, and the activity product (AP) of potassium magnesium phosphate (MKP) in urine was also calculated. The composition of calculi and urinary sedimentary crystals were examined by chemical qualitative analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the incidence of urolithiasis in group C (6/6) was higher than that in group A (1/6) and B (1/6) (P<0.05). The calculi were mainly composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) and partly composed of MKP. MKP presented in crystals of different phases in this experiment. The high intake of Mg contributed to a significant increase of plasma Mg, but additional P, K did not cause a further increase of plasma P, K. Urine P, K, Mg and Ca and AP of MKP in group C decreased significantly after the onset of urolithiasis. In conclusion, high intake of Mg was more important in inducing struvite calculi compared with high intake of K and P in goats under these feeding conditions. Cottonseed meal and rice straw with additional Mg is a good dietary model for inducing struvite calculi in castrated goats.

  11. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal.

    PubMed

    Flood-Obbagy, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2009-04-01

    Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate. Once a week for 5 weeks, 58 adults consumed one of four preloads (266 g; 125 kcal [523 kJ]), or no preload (control), followed by a test meal consumed ad libitum 15 min later. Results showed that eating apple reduced lunch energy intake (preload+test meal) by 15% (187+/-36 kcal [782+/-151 kJ]) compared to control (p<0.0001) and decreased energy intake compared to applesauce and both juices. Fullness ratings differed significantly after preload consumption (apple>applesauce>both juices>control). Overall, whole apple increased satiety more than applesauce or apple juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice did not enhance satiety. These results suggest that solid fruit affects satiety more than pureed fruit or juice, and that eating fruit at the start of a meal can reduce energy intake.

  12. Effect of food intake on commonly used pulsed Doppler and tissue Doppler measurements.

    PubMed

    Dencker, Magnus; Björgell, Ola; Hlebowicz, Joanna

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of food intake on commonly used pulsed Doppler and tissue Doppler measurements. Twenty-three healthy subjects aged 25.6 ± 4.5 years were investigated. A wide selection of pulsed Doppler and tissue Doppler variables were measured before a standardized meal as well as and 30 and 110 minutes afterwards. The following variables increased significantly (P < 0.05) 30 minutes after food intake: left ventricular stroke volume, left ventricular cardiac output, left ventricular outflow velocity-time integral, peak of early diastolic (E) and late diastolic (A) mitral flow velocities, pulmonary vein peak velocities in systole (S) and in diastole (D), S/D, pulsed tissue Doppler peak systolic velocities, and late diastolic velocities. Deceleration time of E-wave decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The change in measured variables between fasting and 30 minutes after the food intake ranged from 7% to 28%. There were no significant (P > 0.05) changes in E/A, early diastolic tissue Doppler velocities (e'), and E/e'. Most, but not all variables returned to baseline values 110 minutes after food intake. This study shows that food intake affects several echocardiographic variables used to routinely assess diastolic function and hemodynamics. Further studies are warranted in older healthy subjects and in patients with various cardiac diseases to determine whether the findings are reproducible in such populations. © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Effect of food intake on left and right ventricular systolic tissue Doppler measurements.

    PubMed

    Dieden, Anna; Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Systolic tissue Doppler measurements (s') have been used to measure the velocity in myocardial motion and are a valuable tool for evaluating the systolic function of the left and right ventricles. Digestion of food is known to significantly alter hemodynamics and may therefore affect s'. The effect of food intake on s' parameters has not yet been studied. We assessed whether s' is affected by food intake. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 26·2 ± 4·2 years were investigated. s' was measured with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in the right and left ventricles before the subjects ate a standardized meal and also 30 and 110 min after the meal. Three measurements were taken in each projection, and a mean value was calculated for each. s' increased significantly (P<0·05) from fasting to 30 min after food intake in every measured site except in the left inferolateral wall (P = 0·15, NS). Several, but not all, variables returned to base value 110 min after food intake. This study shows that food intake affects the tissue Doppler variables used to evaluate systolic heart function. Further studies are needed in older healthy subjects and older subjects with various cardiovascular diseases. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of alcohol on surgical dexterity after a night of moderate alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Van Dyken, Irminne; Szlabick, Randolph E; Sticca, Robert P

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol misuse is commonplace among health professionals. The effects of alcohol on cognition and dexterity have been shown up to 14 hours after alcohol intake. The aerospace industry has restrictions on alcohol intake, and there is pressure for the health care industry to do the same. Few studies have addressed the lingering impact alcohol has on surgical performance, and none have measured surgical dexterity using well-established Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery benchmarks. Twenty-seven surgeons participated in this study: 11 attending surgeons, 2 fellows, and 14 resident surgeons. Three Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery tasks measured surgical dexterity: peg transfer, pattern cutting, and intracorporeal suturing. Performance on these tasks was measured before alcohol intake and the morning after a night of social drinking. Alcohol levels were measured via breathalyzer 20 minutes after completion of drinking and the following morning before testing. Time and accuracy were compared. The mean blood alcohol level was .076 mg/100 mL blood. Times for peg transfer, pattern cutting, and intracorporeal suturing showed no differences. Accuracy in pattern cutting was not different, but accuracy for intracorporeal suturing was significantly worse the morning after alcohol intake. The morning after moderate alcohol intake, the time to complete Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery tasks was unchanged, but accuracy was worse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men

    PubMed Central

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. Subjects/Methods: We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Results: Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Conclusions: Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27553712

  16. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  17. Implementation Intentions on the Effect of Salt Intake among Hypertensive Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was aimed at assessing the potential effect of a theory-driven intervention—implementation intentions—on reducing salt intake among hypertensive Brazilian women. Ninety-eight participants were randomly assigned to participate in an implementation intentions intervention aimed at promoting lower salt intake through decreased addition of salt and salty spices to meals (intervention group, n = 49; group, n = 49). Endpoints were assessed at baseline and at the 2-month follow-up. Primary endpoints were a self-reporting measure of salt intake given by salt addition to meals (discretionary salt + salty spices = total added salt) and the 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. Secondary endpoints included intention, self-efficacy, and habit related to adding salt to meals. Patients in the intervention group showed a significant reduction in salt intake as assessed by 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. A significant reduction in the measure of habit was observed for both groups. No differences were observed for intention and self-efficacy. The results of this pilot study suggest the efficacy of planning strategies to help hypertensive women reduce their salt intake. PMID:25243084

  18. Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Darzi, J; Frost, G S; Robertson, M D

    2012-07-01

    There is evidence linking oral propionate to a reduction in food intake, which could confer functional food properties in the fight against obesity. However, propionate is typically volatile with a pungent smell and taste and so incorporating into foods naturally, at levels acceptable to the consumer is a novel approach. Twenty healthy, young, normal weight unrestrained eaters underwent an acute feeding study using a palatable sourdough and an identical control bread of a similar palatability, in a randomized cross-over balanced design for the assessment of appetite and energy intake. No difference in energy intake of an ad libitum test meal, 180 min after the bread-based breakfast or in energy and macronutrient intake over the entire 24 h period was found between breads. Visual analogue scale ratings for appetite were not influenced by bread type, except the desire to eat something sweet. Elevated plasma insulin concentrations were observed following the propionate-rich sourdough breakfast (P=0.033 no effects of treatment on postprandial glycaemia were found. These findings suggest propionate-rich sourdough bread does not influence appetite and food intake unlike larger doses of the food preservative N-propionate.

  19. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men.

    PubMed

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-11-01

    Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  20. Comparison of satiating effects of ceruletide and food intake using behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of memory.

    PubMed

    Pietrowsky, R; Specht, G; Fehm, H L; Born, J

    1994-06-01

    Animal and human studies have suggested a satieting effect of ceruletide, an analog of cholecystokinin. In humans, signs of a selectively diminished central nervous processing of food stimuli may provide a more valid measure of satiety than overt eating behavior. To assess the satieting effects of ceruletide in humans, effects of ceruletide and food intake on memory of food stimuli and stimuli not related to food (neutral and sex) were compared with memory performance in fasted subjects. In experiment I, recall of slide-projected words was tested in 12 fasting men in a within-subject comparison (i) following intravenous administration of saline solution, (ii) of ceruletide (6.75 micrograms), and (iii) after having eaten a regular breakfast. The P3 component of the event-related potential to the stimuli was assessed as a physiological sign of memory processing. In experiment II, recognition of pictures was tested in a between-subject design in 36 fasting men following (i) administration of saline solution, (ii) of ceruletide (6 micrograms), and (iii) intake of an opulent meal. After food intake, recall and recognition of food and also of sex stimuli were diminished, but were increased for neutral stimuli. Ceruletide diminished recognition of food stimuli and increased that of neutral stimuli; similar effects on recall of food and neutral stimuli failed to reach significance. P3 amplitude did not reflect changes in memory performance. Memory of food stimuli declined after ceruletide as well as after food intake, suggesting ceruletide mediates satieting effects on memory processing.

  1. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gustavo R; Ortiz, Pablo A

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake

    PubMed Central

    Ares, Gustavo R.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure. PMID:26447210

  3. The effects of nicotine self-administration and withdrawal on concurrently available chow and sucrose intake in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Bunney, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Hernandez, Christine; LeSage, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate intake, preference, and taste thresholds may be altered in current and former cigarette smokers, which may mediate weight gain and risk for obesity in individuals who quit smoking. Attempts to model these effects in rodents have primarily used noncontingent nicotine administration. The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in chow and sucrose intake in rats during a 23-h access model of i.v. nicotine self-administration (NSA), in which rats lever-pressed for chow, sucrose, and nicotine under concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. Male rats were assigned to one of three groups that differed in food and drug availability. The Nicotine C+S group had concurrent access to nicotine, chow, and sucrose. The Saline C+S group had access to saline, chow, and sucrose. The Nicotine C-Only group had access to nicotine and chow, but not sucrose. Changes in food intake and weight gain were assessed during baseline, NSA, and nicotine withdrawal (i.e., saline extinction). Weight gain was significantly slowed during NSA and increased during withdrawal, but did not differ between the nicotine groups. NSA produced a significant decrease in both chow and sucrose intake. Gradual tolerance to nicotine’s effects on sucrose, but not chow intake, occurred. During withdrawal, chow and sucrose intake increased, with a larger percent increase in sucrose intake compared to chow. The proportion of total food intake from sucrose was greater at the end of withdrawal compared to baseline, indicating a history of nicotine intake changed dietary preference. Combined, these results indicate that sucrose intake is more resistant to nicotine’s appetite suppressant effects and withdrawal from nicotine produces a greater increase in sweet food intake alongside general increases in chow intake. Changes in overall food intake in current and ex-smokers may lead to increased risk for obesity and other health problems, potentially limiting the benefit of quitting smoking. PMID

  4. The effects of nicotine self-administration and withdrawal on concurrently available chow and sucrose intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Bunney, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Hernandez, Christine; LeSage, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate intake, preference, and taste thresholds may be altered in current and former cigarette smokers, which may mediate weight gain and risk for obesity in individuals who quit smoking. Attempts to model these effects in rodents have primarily used noncontingent nicotine administration. The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in chow and sucrose intake in rats during a 23-h access model of i.v. nicotine self-administration (NSA), in which rats lever-pressed for chow, sucrose, and nicotine under concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. Male rats were assigned to one of three groups that differed in food and drug availability. The Nicotine C+S group had concurrent access to nicotine, chow, and sucrose. The Saline C+S group had access to saline, chow, and sucrose. The Nicotine C-Only group had access to nicotine and chow, but not sucrose. Changes in food intake and weight gain were assessed during baseline, NSA, and nicotine withdrawal (i.e., saline extinction). Weight gain was significantly slowed during NSA and increased during withdrawal, but did not differ between the nicotine groups. NSA produced a significant decrease in both chow and sucrose intake. Gradual tolerance to nicotine's effects on sucrose, but not chow intake, occurred. During withdrawal, chow and sucrose intake increased, with a larger percent increase in sucrose intake compared to chow. The proportion of total food intake from sucrose was greater at the end of withdrawal compared to baseline, indicating a history of nicotine intake changed dietary preference. Combined, these results indicate that sucrose intake is more resistant to nicotine's appetite suppressant effects and withdrawal from nicotine produces a greater increase in sweet food intake alongside general increases in chow intake. Changes in overall food intake in current and ex-smokers may lead to increased risk for obesity and other health problems, potentially limiting the benefit of quitting smoking. Copyright

  5. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  6. Metabolizable energy intake effects on carcass quality of steers finished in southern Chile during summer time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan, USA) to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on beef carcass quality during the summer ti...

  7. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  8. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on digestibility and intake of alfalfa silage in sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...

  9. A randomized trial on the effects of regular water intake in patients with recurrent headaches.

    PubMed

    Spigt, Mark; Weerkamp, Nico; Troost, Jaap; van Schayck, Constant P; Knottnerus, J André

    2012-08-01

    Previously published investigations suggest a positive effect of increased water intake on headache, but a randomised controlled trial has not been done. To investigate the effects of increased water intake on headache. Randomised controlled trial in primary care with two groups and a follow-up period of 3 months. Patients were included if they had at least two episodes of moderately intense headache or at least five mildly intense episodes per month and a total fluid intake of less than 2.5 l/day. Both groups received written instructions about stress reduction and sleep improvement strategies. The intervention group additionally received the instruction to increase the daily water intake by 1.5 l. The main outcome measures were Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQOL) and days with at least moderate headache per month. We randomised 50 patients to the control group and 52 patients to the intervention group. Drinking more water resulted in a statistically significant improvement of 4.5 (confidence interval: 1.3-7.8) points on MSQOL. In addition, 47% in the water group reported much improvement (6 or higher on a 10-point scale) on perceived intervention effect against 25% in the control group. However, drinking more water did not result in relevant changes in days with at least moderate headache. Considering the observed positive subjective effects, it seems reasonable to recommend headache patients to try this non-invasive intervention for a short period of time to see whether they experience improvement.

  10. THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor

    Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD?

    ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

  11. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to environmental influences on eating is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on intake of large and self-selected portions among children 2 to 9 years of age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE...

  12. Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Graciela B.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Reyes, Angela G.; Izumi, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed 2 pathways through which dietary antioxidants may counter adverse effects of exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) on blood pressure (BP): main (compensatory) and modifying (protective) models. Methods. We used 2002 to 2003 data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership community survey conducted with a multiethnic sample of adults (n = 347) in low- to moderate-income, predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. We used generalized estimating equations to test the effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary antioxidant intake on BP, with adjustment for multiple confounders. Results. Dietary antioxidant intake was inversely associated with systolic BP (b = −0.5; P < .05) and pulse pressure (b  = −0.6; P < .05) in neighborhoods closest to major sources of air pollutants. Adverse effects of PM2.5 remained significant after accounting for antioxidant intakes. Exploratory analyses suggested potential modifying effects of antioxidant intake on associations between ambient PM2.5 exposure and BP. Conclusions. Interventions to improve access to antioxidant-rich foods in polluted urban areas may be protective of cardiovascular health. However, efforts to reduce PM2.5 exposure remain critical for cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:25320896

  13. Effect of level and source of dietary fiber on food intake in the dog.

    PubMed

    Butterwick, R F; Markwell, P J; Thorne, C J

    1994-12-01

    The effects of dietary fiber on challenge meal intake and on the perception of hunger in dogs were evaluated. A program of testing variants of a standard low energy diet, to which one of five fiber containing raw materials was added, was undertaken. Diets were fed to a group of six dogs for 12-d periods in a latin square design and in amounts that corresponded to the food allowance for weight reduction. Behavioral characteristics of dogs were recorded on videotape for 30-min periods after introduction of test diets. On two occasions during each 12-d feeding period dogs were presented with a challenge meal. At the end of each 12-d feeding period all dogs entered a 6-d washout period. There was no significant effect of diet on the intake of the challenge meal or on intake of food during the subsequent washout period. In addition, diet had no apparent effect on the perception of hunger, as represented by behavioral characteristics during the 30-min period after presentation of test diets. It was concluded that inclusion of moderate levels of raw materials, composed primarily of insoluble fiber, in a commercial low energy diet had no apparent beneficial effects on satiety, when fed to dogs on an energy intake corresponding to allowances for weight reduction.

  14. THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor

    Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD?

    ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

  15. Acute effect of environmental temperature during exercise on subsequent energy intake in active men.

    PubMed

    Shorten, Allison L; Wallman, Karen E; Guelfi, Kym J

    2009-11-01

    The performance of exercise while immersed in cold water has been shown to influence energy intake in the subsequent meal. However, the effect of ambient temperature during land-based exercise is not known. Our aims were to investigate the effect of exercise performed in the heat on energy intake in the subsequent meal and to determine concentrations of circulating appetite-related hormones. In a randomized, counterbalanced design, 11 active male participants completed 3 experimental trials in a fasted state: exercise in the heat (36 degrees C), exercise in a neutral temperature (25 degrees C), and a resting control (25 degrees C). The exercise trials consisted of treadmill running for 40 min at 70% VO(2peak). After each trial, participants were presented with a buffet-type breakfast of precisely known quantity and nutrient composition, which they could consume ad libitum. Energy intake was greater after exercise in the neutral temperature compared with the control (P = 0.021) but was similar between exercise in the heat and the control and between the 2 exercise trials. When accounting for the excess energy expended during exercise, relative energy intake during exercise in the heat was lower than the control (P = 0.002) but was similar between exercise in the neutral temperature and the control and between exercise in the heat and in the neutral temperature. The lower relative energy intake after exercise in the heat was associated with an elevated tympanic temperature and circulating concentrations of peptide YY (P < 0.05). Exercise in a neutral environmental temperature is associated with higher energy intake in the subsequent meal compared with a control, whereas exercise in the heat is not.

  16. No effect of increased water intake on blood viscosity and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Tonstad, Serena; Klemsdal, Tor Ole; Landaas, Sverre; Høieggen, Aud

    2006-12-01

    Observational data have suggested that increased water intake decreases the risk of CHD. A postulated mechanism is that increased water ingestion reduces blood viscosity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of increased fluid intake on blood viscosity. Men (n 67) and postmenopausal women (n 27) with one or more risk factors for CVD who reported intake of < or =0.5 litres water daily were randomised to a control group (n 31), an intervention group (n 32) that increased their daily water intake by 1 litre/d and an intervention group (n 31) that ingested 1 litre blueberry juice/d. All were encouraged to continue their usual diet and lifestyle. Whole-blood viscosity and blood and urine chemistries were measured by standard techniques after 2 and 4 weeks. Urine volume increased (by a median of 872 and 725 ml in the water and blueberry juice groups, respectively, v. 10 ml in the control group; P< or =0.002), confirming the subjects' adherence to the protocol. Urine osmolality and urinary levels of Na, K and creatinine decreased in the water and blueberry juice groups v. the controls (P<0.05). No change was seen in whole-blood viscosity or in levels of fibrinogen, total protein, lipids, glucose, insulin, C-peptide or other chemistry and haematology variables. In conclusion, a postulated protective effect of increased water or fluid intake is not explained by a change in blood viscosity and increased fluid intake does not influence CVD risk factors in the short term.

  17. Plate size and children's appetite: effects of larger dishware on self-served portions and intake.

    PubMed

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Birch, Leann L; Davey, Adam; Serrano, Elena L; Zhang, Jun; Bruton, Yasmeen; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2013-05-01

    Dishware size is thought to influence eating behaviors, but effects on children's self-served portion sizes and intakes have not been studied. We aimed to evaluate whether larger dishware increased children's self-served portion sizes and intake during meals. A within-subjects experimental design was used to test the effects of dishware size (ie, plates and bowls) on children's self-served portion sizes and intakes in a naturalistic setting. Subjects were predominantly African American elementary school-aged children (n = 42) observed on repeated occasions during school lunch. Children served themselves an entree and side dishes using either child- or adult-size dishware, which represented a 100% increase in the surface area of plates and volume of bowls across conditions. Condition order was randomly assigned and counterbalanced across 2 first-grade classrooms. Entrées of amorphous and unit form were evaluated on separate days. Fruit and vegetable side dishes were evaluated at each meal. Fixed portions of milk and bread were provided at each meal. Children served more energy (mean = 90.1 kcal, SE = 29.4 kcal) when using adult-size dishware. Adult-size dishware promoted energy intake indirectly, where every additional calorie served resulted in a 0.43-kcal increase in total energy intakes at lunch (t = 7.72, P = .001). Children served themselves more with larger plates and bowls and consumed nearly 50% of the calories that they served. This provides new evidence that children's self-served portion sizes are influenced by size-related facets of their eating environments, which, in turn, may influence children's energy intake.

  18. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C.; Tamashiro, Kellie L. K.; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M.; Begg, Denovan P.; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R.; Woods, Stephen C.; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism. PMID:22461023

  19. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  1. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  2. [Vitamin sufficiency of young basketball players].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Pereverzeva, O G; Beketova, N A; Isaeva, V A; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of vitamin sufficiency of young basket-ball players 14-16 years old (17 girls and 14 boys) has been carried out 59-77 per cent of the children had the deficiency of B group vitamins, 24-54 per cent--vitamin E insufficiency, most of them (82-100 per cent)--deficit of carotenoids while they were sufficiently vitamins C and A supplied. The girls were supplied with vitamins better than boys. There was no one adequately supplied with all vitamins among boys while 12 per cent of girls had adequately sufficiency. The girls had deficit of 1-2 vitamins more often whereas the combined insufficiency of 3-4 vitamins took place in 1.8-2.3 fold more frequently among boys. Daily intake of multivitamin containing 10 vitamins in daily recommended doses, lipoic acid, methionin and 9 minerals by boys lead to their blood plasma vitamin C, E, B-2 and beta-carotene level increase. Vitamin C insufficiency disappeared. Deficit of beta-carotene and vitamin B-6 became 1.5 fold rarely, vitamin B-2--2 fold, vitamin E--6 fold. Thus daily intake of recommended doses of vitamins eliminates biochemical signs of vitamin deficiency.

  3. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was

  4. Prevalence and determinants of sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption among primary school children in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Piaseu, Noppawan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Low consumption of fruit and vegetable is frequently viewed as an important contributor to obesity risk. With increasing childhood obesity and relatively low fruit and vegetable consumption among Thai children, there is a need to identify the determinants of the intake to promote fruit and vegetable consumption effectively. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted at two conveniently selected primary schools in Nakhon Pathom. A total of 609 students (grade 4-6) completed questionnaires on personal and environmental factors. Adequate fruit and vegetable intakes were defined as a minimum of three servings of fruit or vegetable daily, and adequate total intake as at least 6 serves of fruit and vegetable daily. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The proportion of children with a sufficient fruit and/or vegetable intakes was low. Covariates of child's personal and environmental factors showed significant associations with sufficient intakes of fruit and/or vegetable (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed that the following factors were positively related to sufficient intake of vegetable; lower grade, a positive attitude toward vegetable, and fruit availability at home; and that greater maternal education, a positive child's attitude toward vegetable, and fruit availability at home were significantly associated with sufficient consumption of fruits and total fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS The present study showed that personal factors like attitude toward vegetables and socio-environmental factors, such as, greater availability of fruits were significantly associated with sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. The importance of environmental and personal factors to successful nutrition highlights the importance of involving parents and schools. PMID:28386386

  5. Effect of zinc intake on serum/plasma zinc status in infants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Lowe, Nicola M; Moran, Victoria Hall; Skinner, Anna Louise; Medina, Marisol Warthon; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-07-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on serum/plasma Zn status in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 13 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on serum/plasma Zn concentration was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional status and risk of bias. The pooled β of status was 0.09 [confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.12]. However, a substantial heterogeneity was present in the analyses (I(2) = 98%; P = 0.00001). When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn intake on serum/plasma Zn status changed depending on the duration of the intervention, the dose of supplementation and the nutritional situation (P ANCOVA = 0.054; <0.001 and <0.007, respectively). After stratifying the sample according to the effect modifiers, the results by duration of intervention showed a positive effect when Zn intake was provided during medium and long periods of time (4-20 weeks and >20 weeks). A positive effect was also seen when doses ranged from 8.1 to 12 mg day(-1). In all cases, the pooled β showed high evidence of heterogeneity. Zn supplementation increases serum/plasma Zn status in infants, although high evidence of heterogeneity was found. Further standardised research is urgently needed to reach evidence-based conclusions to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant serum/plasma Zn status, particularly in Europe. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal pH and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M L; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2012-09-01

    Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), a byproduct of the wet-milling industry, is commonly substituted in lactating dairy rations for both forages and concentrates. Previous research has shown that increasing WCGF in the diet decreased ruminal pH, likely due in part to decreasing particle size as forage inclusion rate decreased. The objective of this study was to maintain at least 10% of ration particles >19 mm in length across diets while increasing WCGF inclusion in the diet. We hypothesized that as WCGF increased in this scenario, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield would increase and ruminal pH would be maintained. Seven ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows (4 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used in an incomplete 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments included 0, 12.4, 24.5, or 35.1% WCGF and used alfalfa hay to maintain particle size. Across treatments, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were held relatively constant. Four 21-d periods were used with 17d of adaptation and 4d of sample collection. Indwelling ruminal pH probes were used during sampling periods and recorded pH every 5 min. Particle size of total mixed rations and orts were analyzed using a Penn State Particle Separator (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park). Results were analyzed with mixed models to test the fixed effect of treatment. All diets contained ≥10% of particles >19 mm; however, as WCGF increased, the proportion of particles >19 mm decreased. Interestingly, with increasing WCGF, cows sorted for the particles >19 mm but against particles on the bottom screen and pan. With increasing WCGF, ruminal pH was not affected, but DMI and milk yield increased in a quadratic fashion, with the peak responses for the 24.5% WCGF diet. Milk protein, lactose, and fat concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, milk protein and lactose yields increased with the inclusion of WCGF because of the increased milk yield. Production efficiency was not

  7. The effect of an intervention on schoolchildren's susceptibility to a peer's candy intake.

    PubMed

    Bevelander, K E; Engels, R C M E; Anschütz, D J; Wansink, B

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was to pilot test two interventions designed to reduce children's susceptibility to peers' candy intake and to determine if interventions had different effects on boys and girls. In the standard intervention, peer modeling was explained while communicating the importance of not following other's food intake by means of photos, video clips and interactive tasks. A second animated intervention was similar but added a monkey puppet as a (cue) reminder. A social modeling component was conducted 1 day after the intervention to test whether the interventions affected the extent to which children model their peers' eating. During the modeling session, the participants' (N = 141; 78% boys, mean age = 7.84 ± 0.72 years) solved a puzzle with a same-sex 'confederate' who was instructed to eat chocolate candy when he/she was covertly signaled. The monkey puppet was put in sight to test whether the monkey served as a cue reminder in the animated intervention. Candy intake was compared across control and intervention conditions. The standard intervention reduced candy intake in boys but not girls. Nevertheless, children still remained susceptible to a peer's eating. There was no significant effect of the animated intervention on consumption. There are gender differences when children are exposed to an (over)eating peer. Although interventions are effective, social norms can be powerful. Social networks should be leveraged when possible.

  8. The effects of maternal caffeine and chocolate intake on fetal heart rate.

    PubMed

    Buscicchio, Giorgia; Piemontese, Mariangela; Gentilucci, Lucia; Ferretti, Filippo; Tranquilli, Andrea L

    2012-05-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the effects of caffeine and chocolate (70% cocoa) on fetal heart rate (FHR). Fifty pregnant women with uncomplicated gestation, matched for age and parity, underwent computerized FHR recording before and after the consumption of caffeine and then, after one week, before and after 70% cocoa chocolate intake. Computerized cardiotocography (cCTG) parameters were expressed as mean and SD. The differences were tested for statistical significance using the paired t-test, with significance at p < 0.05. The number of uterine contraction peaks, the number of small and large accelerations (10 and 15 beats per minute for 15 seconds), the duration of episodes of high variation and the short-term FHR variation were significantly higher (p < 0.001) after maternal coffee intake. The number of large accelerations, the duration of episodes of high variation and the short-term FHR variation were significantly higher (p < 0.001) after maternal consumption of chocolate, whilst no effect of cocoa was found during contractions. Our results suggest that maternal intake of both caffeine and 70% cocoa have a stimulating action on fetal reactivity. This finding is likely due to the pharmacological action of theobromine, a methilxanthine present in coffee and in chocolate. The correlation between maternal caffeine intake and increased uterine contraction peaks is likely due to the effect of caffeine on the uterine muscle.

  9. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Heather M.; Stevenson, Richard J.; Oaten, Megan J.; Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Yeomans, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors – gender and habitual processed-food intake – that may moderate these effects. Participants [n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; Mage = 19.7 (SD = 2.9); MBMI = 22.4 (SD = 3.1)] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se, but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions. PMID:28979225

  10. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History.

    PubMed

    Francis, Heather M; Stevenson, Richard J; Oaten, Megan J; Mahmut, Mehmet K; Yeomans, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors - gender and habitual processed-food intake - that may moderate these effects. Participants [n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; Mage = 19.7 (SD = 2.9); MBMI = 22.4 (SD = 3.1)] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se, but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  11. Effect of dose timing in relation to food intake on systemic exposure to blonanserin.

    PubMed

    Saruwatari, Junji; Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Kaneko, Sunao

    2010-09-01

    Blonanserin is a novel potent dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(2) antagonist for treating schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to investigate prandial effects on systemic exposure to blonanserin in healthy volunteers, with particular attention paid to the effect of dose timing relative to meal intake. Volunteers received a single 2-mg oral dose of blonanserin under the following conditions: fasting, 30 min before eating a standard meal; or 30 min or 2 or 4 h after eating the meal. Plasma concentrations of blonanserin were measured using validated high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Ratios and 90% confidence intervals of the geometric means compared with the fasting condition indicated that the maximum concentrations of blonanserin (C(max)) significantly increased with dosing 30 min before meal intake, and 30 min and 2 and 4 h after meal intake, yielding by 330%, 239%, 272%, and 138%, respectively. The truncated area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(last)) also increased by 386%, 201%, 256%, and 155%, respectively. There was no difference in values of the time to reach maximum concentration between the fasting and the four fed states. Food intake increased the systemic exposure to blonanserin for all time intervals investigated in this study. The marked effect of food on the bioavailability of blonanserin should be taken into account in its dosing schedules.

  12. Effects of thyroid hormone on food intake, hypothalamic Na/K ATPase activity and ATP content.

    PubMed

    Luo, LuGuang; MacLean, David B

    2003-05-30

    The effects of thyroid hormone on whole body energy metabolism and compensatory effects on food intake are well established. However, the hypothalamic mechanisms that translate perceived whole body energy demands into subsequent appetitive behavior are incompletely understood. In order to address this question, we tested the effects of T3 on food intake and body weight in rats and measured neuronal Na/K ATPase activity and ATP content in the hypothalamus. Intraperitoneal T3 (100 microg/kg BW) administered for 6 consecutive days increased 24-h rat food intake from control, 26.6+/-1.2, to T3-treated 33.2+/-1.6 g (P<0.01). In T3-treated rats, rubidium-86 (86Rb) uptake (measured as a marker of Na/K ATPase activity) in ex vivo hypothalamic tissue increased (P<0.01) while the content of ATP in the ventral hypothalamus declined following T3 treatment (P<0.01). In another model of energy deficit, which was induced by a very low calorie diet, ATP content was also reduced in the hypothalamus compared to rats fed ad libitum. In summary, increased food intake in response to T3 may be secondary to decreased hypothalamic ATP content, perhaps resulting from both increased Na/K ATPase activity in the hypothalamus and metabolic signaling induced by whole body caloric deficit.

  13. Ceramide counteracts the effects of ghrelin on the metabolic control of food intake in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Cristina; Moreiras, Guillermo; Conde-Sieira, Marta; Leao, José M; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2017-07-15

    In mammals, ceramides are involved in the modulation of the orexigenic effects of ghrelin (GHRL). We previously demonstrated in rainbow trout that intracerebroventricular (ICV) treatment with ceramide (2.5 µg/100 g fish) resulted in an anorexigenic response, i.e. a response opposed to that described in mammals, where ceramide treatment is orexigenic. Therefore, we hypothesized that the putative interaction between GHRL and ceramide must be different in fish. Accordingly, in a first experiment, we observed that ceramide levels in the hypothalamus of rainbow trout did not change after ICV treatment with GHRL. In a second experiment, we assessed whether the effects of GHRL treatment on the regulation of food intake in rainbow trout changed in the presence of ceramide. Thus, we injected ICV GHRL and ceramide alone or in combination to evaluate in hypothalamus and hindbrain changes in parameters related to the metabolic control of food intake. The presence of ceramide generally counteracted the effects elicited by GHRL on fatty acid-sensing systems, the capacity of integrative sensors (AMPK, mTOR and SIRT-1), proteins involved in cellular signalling pathways (Akt and FoxO1) and neuropeptides involved in the regulation of food intake (AgRP, NPY, POMC and CART). The results are discussed in the context of regulation of food intake by metabolic and endocrine inputs. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Targeting implicit approach reactions to snack food in children: Effects on intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Veling, Harm; Hoeken, Hans

    2016-08-01

    Implicit approach reactions to energy-dense snack food can facilitate unhealthy eating in children. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to test whether modifying implicit reactions to snack food by means of a go/no-go task can reduce consumption of this food. The effectiveness of this intervention on actual snack intake after exposure to a food or a control advertisement was tested. Children (133; age range = 7-10 years) played an advergame promoting either energy-dense food or nonfood products. Subsequently, children conducted either a go/no-go food task in which the advertised food was consistently associated with no-go cues, or a go/no-go control task in which colored circles were consistently associated with no-go cues. Afterward, they could eat the advertised food and a new food. Candy intake was weighed and caloric intake was determined. Results show that children who performed the go/no-go food task consumed significantly and considerably fewer calories (34%) than the children who carried out the control task. No main effect of type of advertisement was found. Furthermore, the effect of the go/no-go food task was similar after each type of advertisement, similar for advertised and new foods, and was significant for both girls and boys. Targeting implicit reactions to high-energy snacks proved effective in decreasing intake of snacks in children. Furthermore, the previously reported stimulating effect of food promoting advergames on intake may disappear when a short cognitive task is presented directly after the game. Future work should evaluate the clinical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: Differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  16. The Effects of Exercise on Food Intake and Hunger: Relationship with Acylated Ghrelin and Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever-Ozen, Serife; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Bugdayci, Guler; Ozen, Guclu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05). The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05) interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management. Key points Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity, since it lowers the energetic balance by increasing energy expenditure. However, because any energy expended in exercise elevates the intensity of hunger and drives food consumption, it is pertinent to ask how effective exercise could be in helping people to lose weight or to prevent weight gain. The effects of exercise on hunger sensations and food intake are fairly controversial and depend on the intensity and duration of exercise. 120 min prolonged treadmill exercise with mix intensity, temporarily decreased hunger sensations, acylated ghrelin and relative energy intake. Variations in exercise intensity should

  17. Effect of zinc intake on mental and motor development in infants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Skinner, Anna L; Medina, Marisol W; Lowe, Nicola M; Hall Moran, Victoria; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on mental and motor development in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 5 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on mental and motor development was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Indices of mental and motor development assessed were the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. The pooled β was -0.01 (95 %CI -0.02, 0) for MDI and 0 (95 %CI -0.03, 0.02) for PDI, with a substantial heterogeneity in both analyses. When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn supplementation on MDI changed depending on the dose of supplementation. Regarding PDI, there was a differential effect of Zn intake depending on intervention duration, dose of supplementation, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Zn supplementation showed a negative, weak and significant effect on PDI score in those studies with a length of 4 to 20 weeks (β= -0.05; CI 95 % -0.06 to -0.04). In conclusion, no association was found between Zn intake and mental and motor development in infants. Further standardized research is urgently needed to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant mental and motor development, particularly in Europe.

  18. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans.

  19. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  20. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P < 0.05) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams. Body weight gain, ADG, FS, DMI, and RFI were not significant (P > 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P < 0.01) for BW gain, ADG, FS, and DMI. Among RFI classifications, beginning and end BW, BW gain, ADG, and FS were not different (P > 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared

  1. The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes.

    PubMed

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; El Ghormli, Laurie; Mobley, Connie; Gillis, Bonnie; Stadler, Diane; Hartstein, Jill; Volpe, Stella L; Virus, Amy; Bridgman, Jessica

    2011-02-04

    The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups). HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n=3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p=0.0016). The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p=0.008). There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. © 2011 Siega-Riz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. Effects of feed intake on composition of sheep rumen contents and their microbial population size.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Redondo, R; Cajarville, C

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of feed intake on the composition of the rumen contents of sheep and on their bacterial densities. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous inter-rumen infusion of 15NH3 from four rumen-cannulated wethers successively fed on a hay-concentrate diet (2:1, w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight0.75. Total weight and chemical composition of rumen contents, as well as the distribution by size and chemical composition of particles, were determined. The populations of bacteria associated with the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria, LAB) and solid (solid-associated bacteria, SAB) fractions of rumen digesta and the distribution of SAB according to feed particle size were also examined. The greater feed intake caused an increase in the mass of the rumen contents, while its chemical composition did not change, except for a higher content of organic matter (P=0.023). The distribution of feed particles by size was similar at both levels of intake. The concentrations of neutral- and acid-detergent fibre in feed particles decreased and those of total, dietary, and microbial N increased, both with a quadratic response (P=0.001), as particle size decreased. The proportion of LAB in the microbial biomass of rumen digesta reached only 8.0 %. This proportion and the density of LAB were unaffected by the level of feed intake, whereas an apparent reduction (10.4 %) occurred with the SAB biomass in whole rumen contents. A systematic, but not significant, reduction (mean value 11.9 %) in the level of microbial colonisation in the different particle fractions with the increase of feed intake was also observed.

  3. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  4. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: Effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, M.E.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, G.-Q.; Algava, D.B.; Leibowitz, S.F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period of time to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically-relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake. PMID:25257106

  5. Maternal coffee intake and associated risk factors: effects on fetal growth and activity.

    PubMed

    Conde, Ana; Teves, Cláudia; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that fetal growth and activity can be affected by several risk factors, such as maternal anxiety, depression and tobacco or alcohol consumption. Caffeine intake has received less attention in the literature, as well as the analysis of the mutual interplay of the range of such risk factors. This study aimed to examine effects of mother's coffee intake and associated risk factors during early pregnancy on fetal growth and activity. The sample involved 47 fetuses (51.1% male and 48.9% female) with gestational ages between 20-22 weeks whose mothers were recruited in a Portuguese antenatal obstetric unit. Repeated measures of mother's anxiety (STAI-S) and depression (EPDS) and information about socio-demographics and substances consumption were collected during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Fetal activity and biometry were measured during the 2(nd) trimester ultrasound. Results showed that 1) 23.4% of the pregnant women (N = 11) had regular coffee intake; 2) no significant differences were found neither on fetal growth nor on fetal movements considering mother's coffee intake; 3) when mother's socio-demographics and substances consumption were considered, tobacco consumption and anxiety at the 2(nd) trimester appeared as significant predictors of fetal growth and mother's coffee intake and anxiety symptoms at the 2(nd) trimester emerged as significant predictors of fetal movements. An adverse impact of maternal coffee intake during pregnancy was found on fetal activity but not on fetal growth. A deeper understanding of the multiple pathways by which these risk factors affect fetal growth and activity is needed.

  6. Effect of chronic intake of liquid nutrition on stomach and duodenum morphology.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Vazan, Rastislav; Miko, Michal; Varga, Ivan; Mravec, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of food intake have been shown to be associated with morphological and functional alterations of the gastrointestinal system. To examine this, we investigated the effect of chronic liquid nutrition intake (Fresubin) on stomach and duodenum morphology in Wistar rats fed liquid nutrition during different developmental periods. We used four groups of rats: a) control group (CON) fed pelleted chow for 130days; b) liquid nutrition group (LN) fed liquid nutrition for 130days; c) liquid nutrition juvenile group (LNJ) fed liquid nutrition for 70days and then pelleted food for 60days; d) liquid nutrition adult group (LNA) fed pelleted chow for 70days and then liquid nutrition for 60days. We found that LN and LNA rats showed a significant reduction of empty stomach mass compared to CON animals, while stomach and duodenal longitudinal muscle layer thickness did not differ between groups. Villus height was increased only in LNA animals, while villus width was increased in both LN and LNA rats. Crypt depth was reduced in LNJ. However, liquid nutrition intake did not affect villus height/crypt depth ratio, nor number of goblet cells. We found that chronic intake of liquid nutrition affects some morphological parameters of the stomach and duodenum but these changes were not homogenous between experimental groups. Interestingly, transition from liquid nutrition to solid food reversed the alterations of stomach weight as well as villus width induced by intake of liquid nutrition in LNA rats. Our data indicate that morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal system induced by qualitative and quantitative changes in food intake are at least partially reversible. Therefore, specific diets may be used potentially as adjuvant treatment for modulating the progression of gastrointestinal diseases by affecting stomach and small intestine morphology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. [The effect of food intake on drug action].

    PubMed

    Pletscher, W; Peretti, E

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between medicaments and food are only incompletely documented--despite their frequent occurrence. Food can influence the effect of medicaments in a variety of ways: the effect of the medicament can be delayed or weakened; in some cases the effect may also be increased. The interactions between the kinetics of medicaments and food are described in the present survey. The absorption conditions in the stomach and small intestine are influenced physiologically and chemically by food. In very rare cases the elimination of active ingredients too can be modified by the quality and quantity of the food. Detailed knowledge about the physical-chemical properties of the medicaments used help to optimize the pharmacotherapy in the individual case. For the patient, the easiest suggestion to follow would be to take the medicaments with plenty of water and always at the same time.

  8. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  9. Ghrelin in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) post-larvae: Paracrine effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guillén, Carmen; Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Successful food consumption and digestion depend on specifics anatomical and behavioral characteristics and corresponding physiological functions that should be ready to work at the appropriate time. The physiological regulation of appetite and ingestion involves a complex integration of peripheral and central signals by the brain. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone involved in the control of energy homeostasis and increases food intake in mammals, however ghrelin has species-specific actions on food intake in fish. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this peptide has an orexigenic or anorexigenic role in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in order to improve the knowledge of the physiological basis underlying feeding activity. Feed intake was measured at several sampling points to determine the overall action time of the peptide and its effect in Senegalese sole food intake. Artemia protein digestibility and retention were determined in order to analyze the ghrelin effect in fed and fasted Senegalese sole post-larvae. Results suggested that ghrelin acts as orexigenic hormone in Senegalese sole, with a response time around 25min. Results indicated that Senegalese sole post-larvae are able to maintain absorption and retention capacities independently of feeding rate and nutritional status. Furthermore, the present study gives insight for the first time of the fate of the retained amino acids, being mainly used for protein accretion (86.79% of retained amino acids recovered in protein and FAA fractions).

  10. Effects of life-long fluoride intake on bone measures of adolescents: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Levy, S M; Warren, J J; Phipps, K; Letuchy, E; Broffitt, B; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J; Burns, T L; Kavand, G; Janz, K F; Torner, J C; Pauley, C A

    2014-04-01

    Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride's effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents' bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ≥ .10 and all partial R(2) ≤ 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ≥ .34 and all partial R(2) ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures.

  11. Effects of Life-long Fluoride Intake on Bone Measures of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Levy, S.M.; Warren, J.J.; Phipps, K.; Letuchy, E.; Broffitt, B.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J.; Burns, T.L.; Kavand, G.; Janz, K.F.; Torner, J.C.; Pauley, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride’s effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents’ bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ≥ .10 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ≥ .34 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. PMID:24470542

  12. The effects of intake valve detergent structure on combustion chamber deposits (CCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Maxey, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been heavily researched in the past with regard to Octane Requirement Increase (ORI). New concerns about their role in combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) and their potential contribution to exhaust emissions have reinforced interest in defining the underlying factors that contribute to CCD. In this study, intake valve detergents were evaluated in the absence of any fluidizer in L-6 1987 BMW 325e engines using 10,000 mile tests run with a BMW IVD driving cycle. The chemical structure of detergents used to reduce Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has been systematically varied to determine its effect on the quantity and the composition of CCD. In general, chemical changes in the intake valve detergent had little effect on the amount and chemical composition of CCD. The composition of CCD was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All CCDs produced with fuels containing intake valve detergents showed the same types and similar levels of organic oxygen, sulfur and aromatic carbon. The CCDs did not contain intact additive backbone fragments or detergent head groups. The only distinguishing feature of these CCDs was the varying nitrogen content that appeared to depend on the type and number of amine groups in the detergent. However, the types of nitrogen present in the CCDs were chemically different from those present in the initial detergent suggesting that, although some of the nitrogen in the detergent head group remains in the CCD, it is chemically transformed.

  13. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  14. Cognitive performance effects of low zinc (Zn) intakes in healthy adult men

    SciTech Connect

    Penland, J.G. )

    1991-03-15

    A battery of tasks assessing sensory-motor skills and cognitive performance was administered to 14 healthy men participating in a 7-month, live-in metabolic study of Zn nutrition. Following a 33-day equilibration period, during which Zn intake was approximately 10 mg/2,500 kcal/day, all subjects were fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Zn/day during each of four consecutive 35-day depletion periods administered in a random, double-blind manner. The study concluded with a 35-day repletion period providing 10 mg Zn/day. When contrasted with performance during the Zn repletion period, measures of response time and/or error on 10 of the 15 tasks administered showed a significant negative relationship to dietary Zn intake. Two sensory-motor tasks, two attention tasks, three perceptual tasks, two memory tasks, and one spatial task showed impaired performance with the low Zn intakes. However, there were few differences among the four depletion periods to support a dose effect of dietary Zn. Results suggest that even marginally low Zn intakes may have a negative effect on psychological and behavioral function in otherwise healthy young adult men.

  15. Moderators of the mediated effect of intentions, planning, and saturated-fat intake in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Soureti, Anastasia; Hurling, Robert; van Mechelen, Willem; Cobain, Mark; ChinAPaw, Mai

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed to advance our understanding of health-related theory, that is, the alleged intention-behavior gap in an obese population. It examined the mediating effects of planning on the intention-behavior relationship and the moderated mediation effects of age, self-efficacy and intentions within this relationship. The study was conducted over a five-week period. Complete data from 571 obese participants were analyzed. The moderated mediation hypothesis was conducted using multiple-regression analysis. To test our theoretical model, intentions (Week 2), action self-efficacy (Week 2), maintenance self-efficacy (Week 5), planning (Week 5), and saturated-fat intake (Weeks 1 and 5) were measured by self-report. As hypothesized, planning mediated the intention-behavior relationship for perceived (two-item scale) and percentage-saturated-fat intake (measured by a food frequency questionnaire). Age, self-efficacy, and intention acted as moderators in the above mediation analysis. In specific, younger individuals, those with stronger intention, and people with higher levels of maintenance self-efficacy at higher levels of planning showed greater reductions in their perceived saturated-fat intake. For successful behavior change, knowledge of its mediators and moderators is needed. Future interventions targeting planning to change saturated-fat intake should be guided by people's intentions, age, and self-efficacy levels.

  16. The Effect of the Presence of Others on Caloric Intake in Homebound Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Locher, Julie L.; Robinson, Caroline O.; Roth, David L.; Ritchie, Christine S.; Burgio, Kathryn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background Undernutrition in homebound older adults is a significant problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the presence of others, both within the household and during meals, on caloric intake in homebound older adults. Methods In-depth interviews and three 24-hour dietary recalls were obtained from 50 older adults who were receiving home health services. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize participants, and hierarchical linear modeling was performed to evaluate predictors of caloric intake per meal. Results Participants’ mean age was 77. Females composed 65% and African Americans composed 42% of the sample. Analyses are based on 553 meal observations. The majority (84%) of participants consumed all meals for each of the 3 days of data collection; however, they consumed an average of only 1305 calories per day. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis indicated that persons who had others present during meals consumed an average of 114.0 calories more per meal than those who ate alone (p = .009) and that women consumed 76.7 fewer calories per meal than did men (p = .045). The presence of others within the household had no effect on caloric intake. Conclusion This research suggests that a simple and inexpensive way to increase caloric intake in homebound older adults is to make arrangements for family members or caregivers to eat with them. PMID:16339337

  17. Dietary interaction of cane molasses with source of roughage: intake and lactation effects.

    PubMed

    Morales, J L; Van Horn, H H; Moore, J E

    1989-09-01

    Effects of cane molasses at 0, 4, and 8% of DM in complete mixed diets were evaluated when molasses was fed to lactating dairy cows with cottonseed hulls, alfalfa haylage, or both combined. Thirty-six mature Holstein cows from mid to late lactation were used in a partially balanced incomplete block design with three 28-d periods. Variables measured were DM intake, milk yield, and composition. With cottonseed hull diets (30% of DM), molasses improved milk yield, milk fat percentage, solids-corrected milk, and feed efficiency. Dry matter intake was not affected by molasses. With alfalfa haylage diets (35% of DM), 8% molasses depressed actual milk yield and solids-corrected milk, DM intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, and feed efficiency. Milk fat percentage was increased with 4% molasses. With 65% alfalfa haylage diets, most variables measured were unaffected by molasses; however, with 8% molasses, DM intake increased and milk protein percentage decreased. In diets with both roughages combined, molasses did not affect any variable measured; however, these diets gave highest solids-corrected milk yields. Results show clearly that molasses effects depend on percentage molasses and type and amount of roughage in the diet.

  18. Effects of priming thoughts about control on anxiety and food intake as moderated by dietary restraint.

    PubMed

    Rotenberg, Ken J; Lancaster, Claire; Marsden, Julie; Pryce, Sarah; Williams, Juliet; Lattimore, Paul

    2005-04-01

    The study was designed to examine: (a) if activating thoughts about control affects anxiety and food intake and (b) if those effects are moderated by dietary restraint. Eighty female undergraduates were administered the Dietary Restraint questionnaire and were primed for cognitions of control or of lack of control. The participants' perceptions of control over food consumption, their state anxiety, and their food intake as part of an alleged taste-test, were assessed. As evidence for the effectiveness of priming, participants reported less control over food consumption after being primed for lack of control than for control cognitions. As expected, Restraint score was negatively correlated with perceived control over food consumption. Consistent with hypothesis, participants high in dietary restraint experienced greater anxiety after being primed for control than after priming for lack of control, whereas participants low in dietary restraint displayed the opposite pattern. These findings were consistent with the cognitive dissonance principle that individuals experience greater anxiety when cognitions are inconsistent with personal beliefs than when they are consistent. As expected, priming thoughts of lack of control resulted in greater food intake than did priming thoughts of control, supporting the hypothesis of a nonconscious, automatic link between cognitions and food intake.

  19. Modifying effect of calcium/magnesium intake ratio and mortality: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Qi; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Deng, Xinqing; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Honglan; Yang, Gong; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ji, Butian; Cai, Hui; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) antagonise each other in (re)absorption, inflammation and many other physiological activities. Based on mathematical estimation, the absorbed number of Ca or Mg depends on the dietary ratio of Ca to Mg intake. We hypothesise that the dietary Ca/Mg ratio modifies the effects of Ca and Mg on mortality due to gastrointestinal tract cancer and, perhaps, mortality due to diseases occurring in other organs or systems. Design Prospective studies. Setting Population-based cohort studies (The Shanghai Women's Health Study and the Shanghai Men's Health Study) conducted in Shanghai, China. Participants 74 942 Chinese women aged 40–70 years and 61 500 Chinese men aged 40–74 years participated in the study. Primary outcome measures All-cause mortality and disease-specific mortality. Results In this Chinese population with a low Ca/Mg intake ratio (a median of 1.7 vs around 3.0 in US populations), intakes of Mg greater than US Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) levels (320 mg/day among women and 420 mg/day among men) were related to increased risks of total mortality for both women and men. Consistent with our hypothesis, the Ca/Mg intake ratio significantly modified the associations of intakes of Ca and Mg with mortality risk, whereas no significant interactions between Ca and Mg in relation to outcome were found. The associations differed by gender. Among men with a Ca/Mg ratio >1.7, increased intakes of Ca and Mg were associated with reduced risks of total mortality, and mortality due to coronary heart diseases. In the same group, intake of Ca was associated with a reduced risk of mortality due to cancer. Among women with a Ca/Mg ratio ≤1.7, intake of Mg was associated with increased risks of total mortality, and mortality due to cardiovascular diseases and colorectal cancer. Conclusions These results, if confirmed, may help to understand the optimal balance between Ca and Mg in the aetiology and prevention of these

  20. Effect of Sidewall Configurations on Hypersonic Intake Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seihwan; Park, Ji Hyun; Jeung, In-Seuck; Lee, Hyoung Jin

    For reusable space launchers and hypersonic flight vehicles, use of an air-breathing propulsion system with supersonic combustion is the most promising option in terms of cost effectiveness. At this point, only the scramjet propulsion system provides a real alternative to expensive rocket driven systems, which currently are the only way to reach a hypersonics speeds.

  1. Effect of alcohol intake on muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Collier, Greg R; Broad, Elizabeth M; Davis, Peter G; Martin, David T; Sanigorski, Andrew J; Hargreaves, Mark

    2003-09-01

    We studied the effects of alcohol intake on postexercise muscle glycogen restoration with samples from vastus lateralis being collected immediately after glycogen-depleting cycling and after a set recovery period. Six well-trained cyclists undertook a study of 8-h recovery (2 meals), and another nine cyclists undertook a separate 24-h protocol (4 meals). In each study, subjects completed three trials in crossover order: control (C) diet [meals providing carbohydrate (CHO) of 1.75 g/kg]; alcohol-displacement (A) diet (1.5 g/kg alcohol displacing CHO energy from C) and alcohol + CHO (AC) diet (C + 1.5 g/kg alcohol). Alcohol intake reduced postmeal glycemia especially in A trial and 24-h study, although insulin responses were maintained. Alcohol intake increased serum triglycerides, particularly in the 24-h study and AC trial. Glycogen storage was decreased in A diets compared with C at 8 h (24.4 +/- 7 vs. 44.6 +/- 6 mmol/kg wet wt, means +/- SE, P < 0.05) and 24 h (68 +/- 5 vs. 82 +/- 5 mmol/kg wet wt, P < 0.05). There was a trend to reduced glycogen storage with AC in 8 h (36.2 +/- 8 mmol/kg wet wt, P = 0.1) but no difference in 24 h (85 +/- 9 mmol/kg wet wt). We conclude that 1). the direct effect of alcohol on postexercise glycogen synthesis is unclear, and 2). the main effect of alcohol intake is indirect, by displacing CHO intake from optimal recovery nutrition practices.

  2. Differential effect on cell-mediated immunity in human volunteers after intake of different lactobacilli

    PubMed Central

    Rask, C; Adlerberth, I; Berggren, A; Ahrén, I L; Wold, A E

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which have beneficial effects on the host when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic bacteria may stimulate immune effector functions in a strain-specific manner. In this blind placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects on the immune system following daily intake of six different strains of lactobacilli or the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas lundensis for 2 or 5 weeks. Blood lymphocyte subsets were quantified by fluorescence activated cell sorter and the expression of activation and memory markers was determined. The bacterial strains were also examined for their capacity to adhere to human intestinal cells and to be phagocytosed by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Intake of Lactobacillus plantarum strain 299v increased the expression of the activation marker CD25 (P = 0·01) on CD8+ T cells and the memory cell marker CD45RO on CD4+ T cells (P = 0·03), whereas intake of L. paracasei tended to expand the natural killer T (NK T) cell population (P = 0·06). The phagocytic activity of granulocytes was increased following intake of L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum HEAL, L. paracasei or L. fermentum. In contrast, ingestion of L. rhamnosus decreased the expression of CD25 and CD45RO significantly within the CD4+ cell population. The observed immune effects after in-vivo administration of the probiotic bacteria could not be predicted by either their adherence capacity or the in-vitro-induced cytokine production. The stimulation of CD8+ T cells and NK T cells suggests that intake of probiotic bacteria may enhance the immune defence against, e.g. viral infections or tumours. PMID:23574328

  3. Effects of Metformin on Energy Intake and Satiety in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Mopelola A.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Kozlosky, Merel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Calis, Karim A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Metformin’s ability to promote weight loss is believed to be at least partly attributable to decreased energy consumption. There are few data regarding the effects of metformin on energy intake in children. We therefore investigated metformin’s effects on appetite and energy intake in obese hyperinsulinemic children. Materials and Methods We conducted a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of metformin 1000mg BID on body weight and energy balance in 100 obese hyperinsulinemic children aged 6–12y. Subjects ate ad libitum from standardized food arrays on two separate occasions before, and then again after, 6 months of study medication. The first test meal was consumed after an overnight fast. The second was preceded by a pre-meal load. For each test meal, energy intake was recorded, and subjects completed scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat. Results Data from the meal studies at baseline and after treatment with study medication were available for 84 children (45 metformin-treated and 39 placebo-treated). Compared with placebo, metformin treatment elicited significant reductions from baseline in adjusted mean energy intake after the pre-meal load (metformin: −104.7±83.8 kcal vs. placebo: +144.2±96.9 kcal; p=0.034) independent of changes in body composition. Metformin also significantly decreased ratings of hunger (−1.5±5.6 vs. +18.6±6.3; p=0.013) and increased ratings of fullness (+10.1±6.2 vs. −12.8±7.0; p=0.01) following the pre-meal load. Conclusions These data suggest that decreased perceived hunger resulting in diminished food intake are among the mechanisms by which metformin treatment reduces body weight in overweight, hyperinsulinemic children. PMID:25483291

  4. Nesfatin-1 exerts long-term effect on food intake and body temperature.

    PubMed

    Könczöl, K; Pintér, O; Ferenczi, S; Varga, J; Kovács, K; Palkovits, M; Zelena, D; Tóth, Z E

    2012-12-01

    To determine whether the anorexigenic peptide, nesfatin-1 affects energy expenditure, and to follow the time course of its effects. Food intake duration, core body temperature, locomotor activity and heart rate of rats were measured by telemetry for 48 h after a single intracerebroventricular injection of 25 or 100 pmol nesfatin-1 applied in the dark or the light phase of the day. Body weight, food and water intake changes were measured daily. Furthermore, cold-responsive nesfatin-1/NUCB2 neurons were mapped in the brain. Nesfatin-1 reduced duration of nocturnal food intake for 2 days independently of circadian time injected, and raised body temperature immediately, or with little delay depending on the dose and circadian time applied. The body temperature remained higher during the next light phases of the 48 h observation period, and the circadian curve of temperature flattened. After light phase application, the heart rate was elevated transiently. Locomotion did not change. Daily food and water intake, as well as body weight measurements point to a potential decrease in all parameters on the first day and some degree of compensation on the second day. Cold-activated (Fos positive) nesfatin-1/NUCB2 neurones have been revealed in several brain nuclei involved in cold adaptation. Nesfatin-1 co-localised with prepro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone in cold responsive neurones of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, and in neurones of the nucleus raphe pallidus and obscurus that are premotor neurones regulating brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and skin blood flow. Nesfatin-1 has a remarkably prolonged effect on food intake and body temperature. Time course of nesfatin-1's effects may be varied depending on the time applied. Many of the nesfatin-1/NUCB2 neurones are cold sensitive, and are positioned in key centres of thermoregulation. Nesfatin-1 regulates energy expenditure a far more potent way than it was recognised before making it a preferable candidate anti

  5. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  6. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Redner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is developed such that there exists a continous linear sufficient statistic T for a dominated collection of totally finite measures defined on the Borel field generated by the open sets of a Banach space X. In particular, corollary necessary and sufficient conditions are given so that there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T for any finite collection of probability measures having n-variate normal densities. In this case a simple calculation, involving only the population means and covariances, determines the smallest integer K for which there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T (as well as an associated statistic T itself).

  7. Effects of Coffee and Caffeine Anhydrous Intake During Creatine Loading.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Roelofs, Erica J; Hirsch, Katie R; Persky, Adam M; Mock, Meredith G

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5 days of creatine (CRE) loading alone or in combination with caffeine anhydrous (CAF) or coffee (COF) on upper-body and lower-body strength and sprint performance. Physically active males (n = 54; mean ± SD; age = 20.1 ± 2.1 years; weight = 78.8 ± 8.8 kg) completed baseline testing, consisting of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to fatigue with 80% 1RM for bench press and leg press, followed by a repeated sprint test of five, 10-second sprints separated by 60-second rest on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power (PP) and total power (TP). At least 72 hours later, subjects were randomly assigned to supplement with CRE (5 g of CRE monohydrate, 4 times per day; n = 14), CRE + CAF (CRE +300 mg·d of CAF; n = 13), CRE + COF (CRE +8.9 g of COF, yielding 303 mg of CAF; n = 13), or placebo (PLA; n = 14) for 5 days. Serum creatinine (CRN) was measured before and after supplementation, and on day 6, participants repeated pretesting procedures. Strength measures were improved in all groups (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant time × treatment interactions. No significant interaction or main effects were observed for PP. For TP, a time × sprint interaction was observed (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant interactions among treatment groups. A time × treatment interaction was observed for serum CRN values (p ≤ 0.05) that showed increases in all groups except PLA. Four subjects reported mild gastrointestinal discomfort with CRE + CAF, with no side effects reported in other groups. These findings suggest that neither CRE alone nor in combination with CAF or COF significantly affected performance compared with PLA.

  8. Effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous intake during creatine loading

    PubMed Central

    Trexler, Eric T.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Roelofs, Erica J.; Hirsch, Katie R.; Persky, Adam M.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5 d of creatine (CRE) loading alone or in combination with caffeine anhydrous (CAF) or coffee (COF) on upper and lower body strength and sprint performance. Physically active males (n=54; Mean ± SD; Age = 20.1 ± 2.1 yrs; Weight = 78.8 ± 8.8 kg) completed baseline testing, consisting of one-repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to fatigue (RTF) with 80% 1RM for bench press (BP) and leg press (LP), followed by a repeated sprint test of five, 10 s sprints separated by 60 s rest on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power (PP) and total power (TP). At least 72 hr later, subjects were randomly assigned to supplement with CRE (5 g creatine monohydrate, 4 times*d−1; n=14), CRE+CAF (CRE + 300 mg*d−1 of CAF; n=13), CRE+COF (CRE + 8.9 g COF, yielding 303 mg caffeine; n=13), or placebo (PLA; n=14) for 5 d. Serum creatinine (CRN) was measured prior to and following supplementation and on day six, participants repeated pre-testing procedures. Strength measures were improved in all groups (p<0.05), with no significant time × treatment interactions. No significant interaction or main effects were observed for PP. For TP, a time × sprint interaction was observed (p<0.05), with no significant interactions between treatment groups. A time × treatment interaction was observed for serum CRN values (p<0.05) that showed increases in all groups except PLA. Four subjects reported mild gastrointestinal discomfort with CRE+CAF, with no side effects reported in other groups. These findings suggest that neither CRE alone, nor in combination with CAF or COF, significantly affected performance compared to PLA. PMID:26439785

  9. The effect of dairy products choice on calcium dietary intake in female university students of nutritional faculty.

    PubMed

    Włodarek, Dariusz; Głabska, Dominika; Lange, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Dairy products provide the most important source of calcium in a typical human diet, being of particular significance to women. To determine dietary calcium intakes in a group of female students studying human nutrition at a Warsaw University of Life Sciences - SGGW through analysing the selections made of dairy products. A food frequency questionnaire was used to assess average consumption of dairy products. Total daily calcium intakes were then estimated by adding the intakes obtained from such dairy products to an average non-dairy calcium value obtained from other foodstuffs and taken to be 250 mg. Varied choices were made of dairy foodstuffs, with most subjects consuming milk, milk beverages, cottage cheese and rennet cheese. Calcium intakes were thus dependent on the dietary assortment of such selected dairy products made. Whenever cheeses were avoided in the diet, then low calcium intakes became more common. When compared to dietary recommendations, calcium intakes in this group of young women were inadequately low especially for those not eating cheese and despite supposedly having sufficient knowledge through studying this subject area.

  10. The effect of sugar-sweetened beverage intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet.

    PubMed

    Munsters, Marjet J M; Saris, Wim H M

    2010-01-01

    The increased incidence of obesity coincides with an increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). This study investigated the effect of SSB intake on energy intake in an ad libitum 6-month low-fat high-carbohydrate diet in a reanalysis of the CARMEN data. Forty-seven overweight-to-obese men and women participated in the Maastricht centre of the randomized controlled CARMEN study. They were allocated to a control (habitual) diet group (CD), a low-fat (-10 energy percent, En%) high simple carbohydrate (SCHO) or low-fat high complex carbohydrate group (CCHO) (SCHO vs. CCHO: 1.5 vs. 0.5) using a controlled laboratory shop system. Reanalyses were made for the energy, amount and density of all drinks and in particular of sweetened beverages (SBs). The SCHO and CD group could select non-diet SBs, including soft drinks and fruit juices, while the CCHO group received SB alternatives. Energy intake decreased in the CCHO and SCHO groups versus the CD group (-2.7 ± 0.4 MJ/day CCHO group vs. -0.2 ± 0.5 MJ/day CD group, p < 0.01; -1.4 ± 0.4 MJ/day SCHO group, not significant). Simple carbohydrate intake increased significantly in the SCHO group versus the CCHO and CD groups (+10.8 ± 1.6 vs. -2.0 ± 0.9 and -0.5 ± 1.1 En%; p < 0.001). In the SCHO and CD groups, energy intake from SBs increased significantly (+187 ± 114 and +101 ± 83 kJ/day, respectively; -432 ± 72 kJ/day in the CCHO group; p < 0.001). Simple carbohydrate intake increased through enhanced intake of non-diet SBs in the SCHO group. Fat reduction combined with only diet SBs in an ad libitum situation has a greater impact on energy intake than fat reduction combined with non-diet SBs. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Louter-van de Haar, Johanna; Wielinga, Peter Y; Scheurink, Anton J W; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G

    2005-09-13

    Studies on the effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in humans are controversial. As differences in the HCA preparations may contribute to this apparent discrepancy, the aim of the current study is to compare different HCA-containing preparations in adult Wistar rats. The effects of 3 different HCA-containing preparations (Regulator, Citrin K, Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS, all used at an effective HCA dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg, administered intragastrically) on food intake and body weight were studied in adult male Wistar rats. The efficacy was tested under 2 different experimental conditions: 1) after a single dose administration and 2) during repeated administration for 4 subsequent days. Regulator and Citrin K significantly reduced food intake in both experimental setups, while Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS was less effective. When administered for 4 subsequent days Regulator and Citrin K diminished body weight gain. Regulator and Citrin K were shown to be potent inhibitors of food intake in rats, whereas Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS showed only small and more inconsistent effects. The striking differences in efficacy between these 3 preparations indicate that low doses of a relatively low-effective HCA preparation may have contributed to the lack of efficacy as found in several human studies.

  12. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats

    PubMed Central

    Louter-van de Haar, Johanna; Wielinga, Peter Y; Scheurink, Anton JW; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G

    2005-01-01

    Background Studies on the effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in humans are controversial. As differences in the HCA preparations may contribute to this apparent discrepancy, the aim of the current study is to compare different HCA-containing preparations in adult Wistar rats. Design The effects of 3 different HCA-containing preparations (Regulator, Citrin K, Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS, all used at an effective HCA dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg, administered intragastrically) on food intake and body weight were studied in adult male Wistar rats. The efficacy was tested under 2 different experimental conditions: 1) after a single dose administration and 2) during repeated administration for 4 subsequent days. Results Regulator and Citrin K significantly reduced food intake in both experimental setups, while Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS was less effective. When administered for 4 subsequent days Regulator and Citrin K diminished body weight gain. Conclusion Regulator and Citrin K were shown to be potent inhibitors of food intake in rats, whereas Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS showed only small and more inconsistent effects. The striking differences in efficacy between these 3 preparations indicate that low doses of a relatively low-effective HCA preparation may have contributed to the lack of efficacy as found in several human studies. PMID:16156903

  13. Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Anderson, Annie S; Norton, Geraldine N M; Newson, Lisa

    2006-07-30

    Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers.

  14. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  15. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on caloric intake and activity energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Calvin, Andrew D; Carter, Rickey E; Adachi, Taro; Macedo, Paula G; Albuquerque, Felipe N; van der Walt, Christelle; Bukartyk, Jan; Davison, Diane E; Levine, James A; Somers, Virend K

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies link short sleep duration to obesity and weight gain. Insufficient sleep appears to alter circulating levels of the hormones leptin and ghrelin, which may promote appetite, although the effects of sleep restriction on caloric intake and energy expenditure are unclear. We sought to determine the effect of 8 days/8 nights of sleep restriction on caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. We conducted a randomized study of usual sleep vs a sleep restriction of two-thirds of normal sleep time for 8 days/8 nights in a hospital-based clinical research unit. The main outcomes were caloric intake, activity energy expenditure, and circulating levels of leptin and ghrelin. Caloric intake in the sleep-restricted group increased by +559 kcal/d (SD, 706 kcal/d, P=.006) and decreased in the control group by -118 kcal/d (SD, 386 kcal/d, P=.51) for a net change of +677 kcal/d (95% CI, 148-1,206 kcal/d; P=.014). Sleep restriction was not associated with changes in activity energy expenditure (P=.62). No change was seen in levels of leptin (P=.27) or ghrelin (P=.21). Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in caloric consumption with no change in activity energy expenditure or leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Increased caloric intake without any accompanying increase in energy expenditure may contribute to obesity in people who are exposed to long-term sleep restriction. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01334788; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  16. Construction of cholecystokinin transgenic mouse and its effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-ning; Li, Gui-lin; Zhang, Lian-feng

    2009-09-05

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is one of the richest neuropeptides in the mammalian brain, which is mainly distributed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and caudate-putamen. CCK is implicated in a variety of behavioral functions such as food intake, learning, memory, anxiety, pain and neuroprotection. The current research results for CCK are obtained mainly through injection of CCK peptide into the body. The key issues of whether CCK can regulate diet by a central pathway and whether there are long-term regulation effects on diet are still unresolved. In this study, the effects of CCK on food intake in transgenic mice were investigated. Transgenic mice were created by microinjection of the PDGF-CCK construct into male pronucleus of the zygotes. The genomic phonetype of transgenic mice were identified by PCR. The expression of PDGF-CCK was analyzed by Western blotting. Body weight, plasma glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were assayed and analyzed. Two PDGF-CCK transgenic independent lines were established and exhibited a high-levels brain-specific transgene expression compared with that of nontransgenic littermate controls. The food intake of male CCK transgenic mice was decreased by 5% - 10% with the same levels of water consumed compared with wild type mice. The food intake in female mice was not obviously changed. In the transgenic mice the bodyweight was lower and plasma glucose was higher compared with the nontransgenic littermate controls. The high expression of the CCK gene in the brain can decrease body weight and increase plasma glucose. The differences in food intake between the males and females require further study.

  17. Effect of maternal excessive sodium intake on postnatal brain development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-a; Ahn, Young-mo; Lee, Hye-ah; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Young-ju; Lee, Hwa-young

    2015-04-01

    Postnatal brain development is affected by the in utero environment. Modern people usually have a high sodium intake. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium hyperingestion during pregnancy on the postnatal brain development of rat offspring. The sodium-overloaded rats received 1.8% NaCl in their drinking water for 7 days during the last week of gestation. Their body weight, urine, and blood levels of sodium and other parameters were measured. Some rats were sacrificed at pregnancy day 22 and the weight and length of the placenta and foetus were measured. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus were obtained from their offspring at postnatal day 1 and at postnatal weeks 1, 2, 4, and 8. Western blot analyses were conducted with brain tissue lysates. The sodium-overloaded animals had decreased weight gain in the last week of gestation as well as decreased food intake, increased water intake, urine volume, urine sodium, and serum sodium. There were no differences in placental weight and length. The foetuses of sodium-overloaded rats showed decreased body weight and size, and this difference was maintained postnatally for 2 weeks. In the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the offspring, the protein levels of myelin basic protein, calmodulin/calcium-dependent protein kinase II, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were decreased or aberrantly expressed. The present data suggest that increased sodium intake during pregnancy affects the brain development of the offspring.

  18. Effect of jaggery on the quality and intake levels of maize silage.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanan, Ragothaman; Sreekumar, Chirukandoth; Anilkumar, Rishipal; Selvaraj, P; Vidhya, Nainar M; Mathagowder, Iyue

    2010-06-01

    Silage, which is anaerobically fermented green fodder, is valued throughout the world as a source of animal feed during lean months. Several farms in India use carbohydrate sources like jaggery or molasses at 2% for preparation of silage, and this increases cost of production. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of jaggery on quality and intake of maize silage, with an objective to find out whether additional carbohydrate source is essential in preparation of silage using green maize. Three silage types, one without jaggery (A), the second with 1% jaggery (B), and the third with 2% jaggery (C) were prepared in cylindrical bins under similar conditions. They were compared for colour, pH, lactic acid bacteria count, lactic acid content, proximate composition and silage intake by sheep. Silage type C with 2% jaggery was significantly different from the other two types with values of 3.98 and 805.66 g for pH and mean silage intake, respectively. Even though the values of pH and dry matter intake for all three silage types were within normal levels, silage type C was significantly superior in terms of fermentation and palatability. The method of preparation followed could be ideal for small holder farmers requiring less quantity of silage.

  19. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  20. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  1. Should bioactive trace elements not recognized as essential, but with beneficial health effects, have intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    Today, most nutritionists do not consider a trace element essential unless it has a defined biochemical function in higher animals or humans. As a result, even though it has been found that trace elements such as boron and silicon have beneficial bioactivity in higher animals and humans, they generally receive limited attention or mention when dietary guidelines or intake recommendations are formulated. Recently, the possibility of providing dietary intake recommendations such as an adequate intake (AI) for some bioactive food components (e.g., flavonoids) has been discussed. Boron, chromium, nickel, and silicon are bioactive food components that provide beneficial health effects by plausible mechanisms of action in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts, and thus should be included in the discussions. Although the science base may not be considered adequate for establishing AIs, a significant number of findings suggest that statements about these trace elements should be included when dietary intake guidance is formulated. An appropriate recommendation may be that diets should include foods that would provide trace elements not currently recognized as essential in amounts shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease and/or promote health and well-being. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. The effect of the timing of meal intake on energy metabolism during moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shota; Nakae, Satoshi; Ebine, Naoyuki; Aoi, Wataru; Higashi, Akane; Ishii, Kojiro

    2014-01-01

    Although the intake of carbohydrates is important for the supplementation of energy substrate utilized during exercise, fat oxidation is possibly prevented by an elevation of insulin, and whether or not the timing of the intake of meals affects energy metabolism during exercise has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the timing of the intake of meals taken at different times before exercise on the carbohydrate and fat metabolism during aerobic exercise. The subjects were eight young trained athletes who performed cycling exercise at the lactate threshold (LT) intensity for 60 min. They performed under five conditions consisting of a no-meal (water) trial, and four meal trials that had a normal meal at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h before the exercise. There were no significant changes for any trial in respiratory exchange ratio, or carbohydrate or fat oxidation rates during exercise. The serum insulin level before exercise in the meal trials was more elevated, the shorter the time to the start of the exercise from meal intake. A tendency for higher blood glucose was shown during exercise with a shorter interval time in the meal trials. No alterations were demonstrated for the serum free fatty acids in any of the groups. These results showed that the timing of the pre-exercise meal taken within a 4-h period before exercise did not affect the energy metabolism of the trained subjects during exercise at LT intensity.

  3. Fluid intake and epidemiology of urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Siener, R; Hesse, A

    2003-12-01

    A low urine volume is an important risk factor in urinary stone formation. The present article summarizes available data from epidemiological and clinical studies to elucidate the impact of fluid intake and urine volume on the risk of urinary stone formation and the prevention of stone recurrence. A review of the literature shows that an increased urine volume achieved by a high fluid intake exerts an efficacious preventive effect on the onset and recurrence of urinary stones. A high water intake and urine dilution results in a marked reduction in saturation of lithogenous salts. The type of fluids should be carefully selected to achieve the appropriate change of urine composition depending on stone composition. A sufficient intake of fluid is one of the most important preventive measures for stone recurrence.

  4. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  5. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.; Goel, Namni

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine sleep restriction's effects on weight gain, daily caloric intake, and meal timing. Design: Repeated-measures experiments assessing body weight at admittance and discharge in all subjects (N = 225) and caloric intake and meal timing across days following 2 baseline nights, 5 sleep restriction nights and 2 recovery nights or across days following control condition nights in a subset of subjects (n = 37). Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Participants: Two hundred twenty-five healthy adults aged 22-50 y (n = 198 sleep-restricted subjects; n = 31 with caloric intake data; n = 27 control subjects; n = 6 with caloric intake data). Interventions: Approximately 8-to-1 randomization to an experimental condition (including five consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed [TIB]/night, 04:00-08:00) or to a control condition (all nights 10 h TIB/night, 22:00-08:00). Measurements and Results: Sleep-restricted subjects gained more weight (0.97 ± 1.4 kg) than control subjects (0.11 ± 1.9 kg; d = 0.51, P = 0.007). Among sleep-restricted subjects, African Americans gained more weight than Caucasians (d = 0.37, P = 0.003) and males gained more weight than females (d = 0.38, P = 0.004). Sleep-restricted subjects consumed extra calories (130.0 ± 43.0% of daily caloric requirement) during days with a delayed bedtime (04:00) compared with control subjects who did not consume extra calories (100.6 ± 11.4%; d = 0.94, P = 0.003) during corresponding days. In sleep-restricted subjects, increased daily caloric intake was due to more meals and the consumption of 552.9 ± 265.8 additional calories between 22:00-03:59. The percentage of calories derived from fat was greater during late-night hours (22:00-03:59, 33.0 ± 0.08%) compared to daytime (08:00-14:59, 28.2 ± 0.05%) and evening hours (15:00-21:59, 29.4 ± 0.06%; Ps < 0.05). Conclusions: In the largest, most diverse healthy sample studied to date under controlled laboratory conditions, sleep restriction

  6. Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1994-08-01

    In 1987 Ryan-Harshman et al. reported finding no effects on food intake after administering high doses (up to 10.08 g) of phenylalanine and aspartame in capsules to human volunteers. However, this is contrary to the results of other studies, and trends in their tabulated data suggest that certain effects may have been overlooked. This is confirmed by a reanalysis of the raw data (available from a Ph.D. thesis: Ryan-Harshman, 1987) that can be interpreted as showing a dose-related suppression of food intake by phenylalanine. Furthermore, the data are consistent with an anorexic action of aspartame and perhaps also of alanine (which was designated as the placebo treatment by Ryan-Harshman et al.). These, together with other findings, suggest that the appetite effects of amino acids and small peptides should be investigated further. In addition to its theoretical importance, such work may have potential for therapeutic applications.

  7. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  8. Effects of beer, wine and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older adult men and women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. We examined alcohol intake (total and individual types) and BMD in 1251 men, 1317 post-menopausal and 264 pre-menopausal women in the populat...

  9. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  10. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  11. Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wanders, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; de Graaf, C; Hulshof, T; Jonathan, M C; Kristensen, M; Mars, M; Schols, H A; Feskens, E J M

    2011-09-01

    Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.

  12. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jee Ae; Son, Young Ae; Park, Ji Min

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal and urinary Cd excretions were remarkably increased in Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Thus, cadmium retention ratio and absorption rate were decreased in the Cd exposed chlorella groups. Urinary and serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance were not changed in experimental animals. In addition, metallothionein (MT) synthesis in tissues was increased by Cd administration. The Cd-exposed chlorella groups indicated lower MT concentration compared to the Cd-exposed groups. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not changed by dietary chlorella and Cd administration. According to the results above, this study could suggest that Cd toxicity can be alleviated by increasing Cd excretion through feces. Therefore, when exposed to Cd, chlorella is an appropriate source which counteracts heavy metal poisoning, to decrease the damage of tissues by decreasing cadmium absorption. PMID:20016697

  13. Effect of Chlorella intake on Cadmium metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jee Ae; Son, Young Ae; Park, Ji Min; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of chlorella on cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Cd- administered rats. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 week-old) were blocked into 6 groups. Cadmium chloride was given at levels of 0 or 325 mg (Cd: 0, 160 ppm), and chlorella powder at levels of 0, 3 and 5%. Cadmium was accumulated in blood and tissues (liver, kidney and small intestine) in the Cd-exposed groups, while the accumulation of Cd was decreased in the Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Fecal and urinary Cd excretions were remarkably increased in Cd-exposed chlorella groups. Thus, cadmium retention ratio and absorption rate were decreased in the Cd exposed chlorella groups. Urinary and serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance were not changed in experimental animals. In addition, metallothionein (MT) synthesis in tissues was increased by Cd administration. The Cd-exposed chlorella groups indicated lower MT concentration compared to the Cd-exposed groups. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not changed by dietary chlorella and Cd administration. According to the results above, this study could suggest that Cd toxicity can be alleviated by increasing Cd excretion through feces. Therefore, when exposed to Cd, chlorella is an appropriate source which counteracts heavy metal poisoning, to decrease the damage of tissues by decreasing cadmium absorption.

  14. Effects of dietary intake of garlic on intestinal trematodes.

    PubMed

    Cortés, Alba; García-Ferrús, Miguel; Sotillo, Javier; Guillermo Esteban, J; Toledo, Rafael; Muñoz-Antolí, Carla

    2017-08-01

    The current strategy for the control of helminth infections relies on chemotherapy. However, resistance appearance is promoting the necessity of developing new drugs against trematodes. Herein, potential trematocidal effects of garlic (Allium sativum) are investigated in the context of intestinal foodborne trematodes, employing the Echinostoma caproni-mouse model. Daily administration of dietary doses of garlic was conducted in three groups of mice: (i) before infection (prophylaxis), (ii) after infection (therapeutic) and (iii) both, before and after infection (continuous). A fourth group of mice, not exposed to garlic, was used as control. No differences in worm recovery, fecundity and local cytokine expression profiles were found with respect to control infections. However, considerable alterations in tegument structure, including swelling, furrowing, vacuolization and changes in secretory bodies were detected in garlic-exposed parasites using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Protein secretion was markedly reduced in response to garlic, whereas up-regulation of several proteins, such as major vault protein and tER-ATPase, was observed in treated worms. The results presented herein provide new insights in the anthelminthic activity of bioactive garlic compounds and the manner that parasites respond to toxins.

  15. Effect of low zinc intake on absorption and excretion of zinc by infants studied with 70Zn as extrinsic tag.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, E E; Serfass, R E; Nelson, S E; Figueroa-Colón, R; Edwards, B B; Houk, R S; Thompson, J J

    1989-11-01

    The effect of low dietary intake of zinc was studied in six normal infants with the use of 70Zn as an extrinsic tag. Of the two study formulas, one provided a zinc intake similar to that of customary infant formulas ("high" intake), whereas the other provided a "low" zinc intake. Two zinc absorption studies were performed with each formula (sequence: high-low-low-high). Extrinsically labeled formula was fed for 24 h and excreta were collected for 72 h. Zinc isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). When zinc intake was high, net zinc absorption was 9.1 +/- 8.7% (mean +/- SD) of intake and net zinc retention was 74 +/- 91 micrograms/(kg.d). True zinc (70Zn) absorption was 16.8 +/- 5.8% of intake and fecal excretion of endogenous zinc was 78 +/- 56 micrograms/(kg.d). When zinc intake was low, net absorption of zinc increased significantly (P less than 0.001) to 26.0 +/- 13.0% of intake, but net retention was not significantly different at 42 +/- 33 micrograms/(kg.d). True absorption of zinc also increased significantly (P less than 0.001) to 41.1 +/- 7.8% of intake, whereas fecal endogenous zinc decreased (P less than 0.05) to 34 +/- 16 micrograms/(kg.d) during low zinc intake. Thus, infants maintain zinc balance in the face of low zinc intake through increased efficiency of absorption and decreased excretion of endogenous zinc.

  16. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  17. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  18. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  19. Acute tier-1 and tier-2 effect assessment approaches in the EFSA Aquatic Guidance Document: are they sufficiently protective for insecticides?

    PubMed

    van Wijngaarden, René P A; Maltby, Lorraine; Brock, Theo C M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether the acute tier-1 and tier-2 methods as proposed by the Aquatic Guidance Document recently published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are appropriate for deriving regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) for insecticides. The tier-1 and tier-2 RACs were compared with RACs based on threshold concentrations from micro/mesocosm studies (ETO-RAC). A lower-tier RAC was considered as sufficiently protective, if less than the corresponding ETO-RAC. ETO-RACs were calculated for repeated (n = 13) and/or single pulsed applications (n = 17) of 26 insecticides to micro/mesocosms, giving a maximum of 30 insecticide × application combinations (i.e. cases) for comparison. Acute tier-1 RACs (for 24 insecticides) were lower than the corresponding ETO-RACs in 27 out of 29 cases, while tier-2 Geom-RACs (for 23 insecticides) were lower in 24 out of 26 cases. The tier-2 SSD-RAC (for 21 insecticides) using HC5 /3 was lower than the ETO-RAC in 23 out of 27 cases, whereas the tier-2 SSD-RAC using HC5 /6 was protective in 25 out of 27 cases. The tier-1 and tier-2 approaches proposed by EFSA for acute effect assessment are sufficiently protective for the majority of insecticides evaluated. Further evaluation may be needed for insecticides with more novel chemistries (neonicotinoids, biopesticides) and compounds that show delayed effects (insect growth regulators). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Elmamouz, F

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of feeding diet based on untreated (UT) or ensiled alkali-treated (ET) barley straw with either urea or casein supplementation, on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal pH, water intake and faecal and urinary characteristics. Four sheep fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barley straw was treated by the dry (spraying) method in pH adjusted of hydrogen peroxide (pH 11.5), ensiled for 6 weeks and included at 65% of the diet dry matter (DM). The results showed that straw pH reduced from 11.58 to 8.60 after 6 weeks of ensilage. The ET diet increased average DM digestibility and intake by 19% and 43% respectively. Total water intake was similar across treatments, while the water/DM intake ratio was 23% higher with the UT diet than with the ET one. Ruminal (6.73 vs. 6.84) and faecal (8.67 vs. 9.05) pH decreased but urinary pH (6.14 vs. 8.13) increased as a result of feeding animals on the ET diet compared with the UT diet. Compared with the UT diet, the ET one decreased faecal fibre (12%), moisture (32%) and water holding capacity, while it increased faecal ash (10%) and density (20%). The volume of urine excreted by the sheep fed with the ET diet increased by 67%, but their urine specific gravity (SG) decreased. No significant effects were observed for the dietary N supplementation and interactions between straw type × N supplementation with regard to any of the measured characteristics except for DM intake, which reduced due to the casein supplementation in the ET diet. These results indicate that the alkali treatment and ensilage of barley straw increased digestibility, intake, faecal consistency and urinary pH and dilution but decreased straw alkalinity as well as ruminal and faecal pH.

  1. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  2. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Nina; Friedrich, Alexia; Fujita, Naoko; Gais, Steffen; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Benedict, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory) and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory). After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG). Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also sensitive to the

  3. Effects of Daytime Food Intake on Memory Consolidation during Sleep or Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Nina; Friedrich, Alexia; Fujita, Naoko; Gais, Steffen; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M.; Benedict, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory) and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory). After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG). Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep’s capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep’s quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also sensitive to the

  4. Acute effect of walking on energy intake in overweight/obese women

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Otto, Amy D.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Helsel, Diane L.; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Jakicic, John M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the acute effect of a bout of walking on hunger, energy intake, and appetite-regulating hormones [acylated ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)] in 19 overweight/obese women (BMI:32.5±4.3kg/m2). Subjects underwent two experimental testing sessions in a counterbalanced order: exercise and rest. Subjects walked at a moderate-intensity for approximately 40 minutes or rested for a similar duration. Subjective feelings of hunger were assessed and blood was drawn at 5 time points (pre-, post-, 30-minutes, 60-minutes, 120-minutes post-testing). Ad-libitum energy intake consumed 1–2 hours post-exercise/rest was assessed and similar between conditions (mean ± standard deviation; exercise: 551.5±245.1 kcals [2.31±1.0MJ] vs. rest: 548.7±286.9 kcals [2.29±1.2MJ]). However, when considering the energy cost of exercise, relative energy intake was significantly lower following exercise (197.8±256.5 kcals [0.83±1.1MJ]) compared to rest (504.3±290.1 kcals [2.11±1.2MJ]). GLP-1 was lower in the exercise vs. resting condition while acylated ghrelin and hunger were unaltered by exercise. None of these variables were associated with energy intake. In conclusion, hunger and energy intake were unaltered by a bout of walking suggesting that overweight/obese individuals do not acutely compensate for the energy cost of the exercise bout through increased caloric consumption. This allows for an energy deficit to persist post-exercise, having potentially favorable implications for weight control. PMID:20674640

  5. The effect of paternal methyl-group donor intake on offspring DNA methylation and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, S; Truijen, I; Ghosh, M; Duca, R C; Langie, S A S; Bekaert, B; Freson, K; Huybrechts, I; Koppen, G; Devlieger, R; Godderis, L

    2017-03-06

    Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother-infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained. A total of 51 cord blood samples were collected and birth weight was obtained. DNA methylation status was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (global DNA (hydroxy)methylation) and pyrosequencing (IGF2 DMR methylation). Paternal betaine intake was positively associated with paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation (0.028% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.053, P=0.03) and cord blood global DNA methylation (0.679% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.057, 1.302, P=0.03). Paternal methionine intake was positively associated with CpG1 (0.336% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.569, P=0.006), and mean CpG (0.201% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.402, P=0.049) methylation of the IGF2 DMR in cord blood. Further, a negative association between birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score and paternal betaine/methionine intake was found. In addition, a positive association between choline and birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was also observed. Our data indicate a potential impact of paternal methyl-group donor intake on paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation, offspring global and IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and prenatal growth.

  6. 48-h glucose infusion in humans: effect on hormonal responses, hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L; Petrova, Maja; Havel, Peter J; Townsend, Raymond R

    2007-04-23

    Experimentally-induced hyperglycemia by prolonged glucose infusion allows investigation of the effects of sustained stimulation of the pancreatic beta-cell on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Hormonal responses to a meal following prolonged glucose infusions have not been investigated. To determine if a 48-h glucose infusion alters hormonal responses to a test meal as well as food intake and hunger in normal weight individuals, 16 subjects (8 men, 8 women, age 18-30 years, mean BMI=21.7+/-1.6 kg/m2) were infused for 48 h with either saline (50 ml/h) or 15% glucose (200 mg/m2/min). Subjects ingested a 600 kcal mixed nutrient meal 3 h after infusion termination. Blood samples were taken during the 48 h and for 4 h following food ingestion. The 48-h glucose infusion elicited a metabolic profile of a glucose intolerant obese subjects, with increased plasma glucose, insulin and leptin (all P<0.01) and increased HOMA-IR (P<0.001). During meal ingestion, early insulin secretion was increased (P<0.05) but post-prandial glucose (P<0.01) and insulin (P<0.01) excursions were lower following the glucose infusion. Post-prandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased after glucose compared with saline. Food intake and hunger ratings were not different between the two conditions. Plasma leptin levels were inversely correlated with hunger (P<0.03) in both conditions and with food intake (P<0.003) during the glucose condition only. Thus, a 48-h glucose infusion does not impair post-prandial hormonal responses, alter food intake or hunger in normal weight subjects. The glucose-induced increases in plasma leptin result in a stronger inverse relationship between plasma leptin and hunger as well as food intake. These data are the first to demonstrate a relationship between leptin and hunger in normal weight, non-calorically restricted human subjects.

  7. Effects of voluntary access to sweetened ethanol during adolescence on intake in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of alcohol use during adolescence is concerning given that early age of alcohol initiation is correlated with development of alcohol-related problems later in life. The purpose of this series of studies was to assess whether voluntary ethanol exposure during adolescence would influence ethanol drinking behavior in adulthood using an animal model. Methods Pair-housed Sprague-Dawley adolescent (P28-42) rats of both sexes were given single bottle access to one of three solutions in their home cages--10% ethanol in "supersac" (0.125% saccharin and 3% sucrose) (EtOH/SS), supersac without ethanol (SS), or water-- for 30 min. every other day for a total of 8 drinking days, or were left non-manipulated. Animals were non-manipulated thereafter until adulthood (P70) at which time they were given one-bottle, 30 min. limited access tests with 20% ethanol every other day (Exp 1), 10% ethanol in SS (Exp 2) or SS without ethanol (Exp 3). Results Adolescent EtOH/SS exposure increased adulthood consumption of EtOH/SS (Exp 2), but not 20% unsweetened ethanol (Exp 1) or SS (Exp 3), with this increase most pronounced at the beginning of the 8 intake day procedure. Access to SS (without EtOH) during adolescence produced an analogous effect, with increased adult SS consumption during the first two intake days, but no increases in either of the ethanol test solutions. Conclusion Solution-specific increases in adulthood intake after adolescent exposure are most likely associated with solution acceptance due to familiarity. This is an important consideration for future intake studies assessing the influence of ethanol exposure during adolescence on intake of ethanol in adulthood. PMID:23278242

  8. Effect of Fat Intake on the Inflammatory Process and Cardiometabolic Risk in Obesity After Interdisciplinary Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jamar, G; Pisani, L P; Medeiros, A; Oyama, L M; Masquio, D C L; Colantonio, E; Garcia, S; Sanches, R B; dos Santos Moraes, A; Belote, C; Caranti, D A

    2016-02-01

    Changes in diet and eating behavior along with excessive consumption of sugar or fat and a sedentary lifestyle are related to increased obesity and its associated comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the type of macronutrients on specific health benefits associated with the weight loss in treating obesity. A total of 30 obese women (34.89±3.04 kg/m(2) and 43.3±5.34 years) participated in an interdisciplinary therapy approach to lifestyle change, which consisted of nutritional counseling, exercise, and psychological therapy for over a period of 26 weeks. The profile was obtained by anthropometric measurements and body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Usual food intake was assessed with 3-day food record diaries and blood tests were used to determine metabolic and adipokines parameters. After therapy, there was significant reduction in all anthropometric and body composition variables. Food consumption also decreased while still providing adequate nutrient intake. There was significant improvement in LDL-cholesterol, PAI-1, leptin, CRP, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. Lower dietary carbohydrate and fat intake led to weight loss. The effect of lower carbohydrate intake on weight loss is related to changes in body composition and leptin levels. Weight loss by reducing fat intake modified the inflammatory process and cardiovascular risk, indicating dietary fat as an independent predictor factor of cell adhesion molecules. Therefore, decreasing dietary fat consumption had greater impact on the inflammatory process on obese individuals. Our results show that the type of macronutrient influences the health benefits associated with weight loss. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  10. [Effect of social desirability on dietary intake estimated from a food questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Barros, Renata; Moreira, Pedro; Oliveira, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    Self-report of dietary intake could be biased by social thus affecting risk estimates in epidemiological studies. The objective of study was to assess the effect of social desirability on dietary intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). A convenience sample of 483 Portuguese university students was recruited. Subjects were invited to complete a two-part self-administered questionnaire: the first part included the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (M-CSDS), a physical activity questionnaire and self-reported height and weight; the second part, included a semi-quantitative FFQ validated for Portuguese adults, that should be returned after fulfillment. All subjects completed the first part of the questionnaire and 40.4% returned the FFQ fairly completed. In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for energy and confounders, social desirability produced a significant positive effect in the estimates of dietary fibre, vitamin C, vitamin E, magnesium and potassium, in both genders. In multiple regression, after adjustment for energy and confounders, social desirability had a significant positive effect in the estimates of vegetable consumption, for both genders, and a negative effect in white bread and beer, for women. Social desirability affected nutritional and food intake estimated from a food frequency questionnaire.

  11. Beneficial Effect of Low Ethanol Intake on the Cardiovascular System: Possible Biochemical Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Vasdev, Sudesh; Gill, Vicki; Singal, Pawan K

    2006-01-01

    Low ethanol intake is known to have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. In cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance leads to altered glucose and lipid metabolism resulting in an increased production of aldehydes, including methylglyoxal. Aldehydes react non-enzymatically with sulfhydryl and amino groups of proteins forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs), altering protein structure and function. These alterations cause endothelial dysfunction with increased cytosolic free calcium, peripheral vascular resistance, and blood pressure. AGEs produce atherogenic effects including oxidative stress, platelet adhesion, inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and modification of lipoproteins. Low ethanol intake attenuates hypertension and atherosclerosis but the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Ethanol at low concentrations is metabolized by low Km alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, both reactions resulting in the production of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This creates a reductive environment, decreasing oxidative stress and secondary production of aldehydes through lipid peroxidation. NADH may also increase the tissue levels of the antioxidants cysteine and glutathione, which bind aldehydes and stimulate methylglyoxal catabolism. Low ethanol improves insulin resistance, increases high-density lipoprotein and stimulates activity of the antioxidant enzyme, paraoxonase. In conclusion, we suggest that chronic low ethanol intake confers its beneficial effect mainly through its ability to increase antioxidant capacity and lower AGEs. PMID:17326332

  12. Modeling of palatable food intake in female young adults. Effects of perceived body size.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Larsen, Junilla K; Herman, C Peter; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-11-01

    Laboratory taste-test studies have shown that social modeling effects on food intake are powerful. The aim of the present study was to examine the degree to which people model food intake in a more naturalistic eating setting. After completing a cover task, female participants (N=102) spent a 15-min break with a female confederate who ate a large amount or a small amount of M&Ms or no M&Ms at all. Further, the confederate had a slim or (subtly manipulated) normal-weight appearance. Females who were exposed to a confederate who ate much consumed more than those who were confronted with a confederate who ate only a little or nothing at all. Although the manipulation of the confederate's appearance had no significant main effect on the amount of food that participants consumed, a significant interaction effect was found, such that the modeling effect of eating was present only in the normal-weight appearance condition. Our findings suggest that normal-weight young women are more inclined to imitate the food intake of a female confederate if they are more similar to the confederate.

  13. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-08-02

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures.

  14. Differential effects of active and passive stress on food intake in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Lattimore, Paul; Caswell, Noreen

    2004-04-01

    This study examined the effects of active (AC) and passive coping (PC) stress tasks on food intake in female restrained (n = 20) and unrestrained eaters (n = 20) Participants completed a reaction time task (AC), a cold-pressor test (PC), and a relaxation control condition separated by 1-week intervals. Food intake was assessed after each task. Self-reported anxiety, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and after each task. Restraint was measured using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Significant increases in BP were evident in the AC task only. Stress tasks produced significant increases in self-rated anxiety. Restrained eaters consumed more than unrestrained following the reaction time task, while the opposite was observed following relaxation. The findings of this study show that disinhibited eating of restrained eaters can be triggered by the distracting effects of a cognitively demanding task and may be independent of anxiety experienced.

  15. [Effects of carbonated water intake on constipation in elderly patients following a cerebrovascular accident].

    PubMed

    Mun, Jae-Hee; Jun, Seong Sook

    2011-04-01

    This study was done to identify effects of carbonated water intake on constipation in elders who have experienced a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and are bed-ridden. Forty elderly patients with CVA were randomly assigned to one of two groups in a double-blind study. Patients in the experimental group drank carbonated water and those in the control group drank tap water for two weeks. Six patients dropped out during the study period. Data were analyzed by repeated measured ANCOVA and the covariance was the dose of laxatives used for the two weeks. Frequency of defecation increased significantly and symptoms of constipation decreased significantly for patients in the experimental group. The study results suggest that the intake of carbonated water is an effective method for the intervention of constipation in elderly patients with CVA.

  16. GM biofortified crops: potential effects on targeting the micronutrient intake gap in human populations.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Mehta, Saurabh; Gellynck, Xavier; Finkelstein, Julia L

    2017-04-01

    Genetic engineering has been successfully applied to increase micronutrient content in staple crops. Nutrition evidence is key to ensure scale-up and successful implementation. Unlike conventional plant breeding efforts, research on the efficacy or effectiveness of GM biofortified crops on nutritional status in human populations is lacking. This review reports on the potential role of GM biofortified crops in closing the micronutrient gap - increasing the dietary intake of micronutrients in human populations. To date, one clinical trial in the United States reported a high bio-conversion rate of β-carotene in Golden Rice, and potential effects of GM biofortified crop consumption on dietary intake and nutritional outcomes are promising. However, further research needs to confirm the ex ante assessments in target regions.

  17. Acute effects of mycoprotein on subsequent energy intake and appetite variables.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, W H; Walton, J; Leeds, A R

    1993-10-01

    The effect of mycoprotein, a food produced by continuous fermentation of Fusarium graminearum (Schwabe), on energy intake and appetite was investigated. Female subjects, all classified as nonrestrained eaters, participated in two 3-d study periods. Subjects weighed food consumed on the day before the study, on the day of the meal, and on the following day. Subjects were presented with an isoenergetic meal containing either mycoprotein or chicken and visual analogue scales were completed immediately premeal, postmeal, and at hourly intervals for 3 h. Energy intake was significantly reduced the day of the study (by 24%) and the next day (by 16.5%) after eating mycoprotein compared with chicken. When measured 3 h after consumption, prospective food consumption and desire to eat decreased after mycoprotein compared with chicken. Evidence is increasing that fiber can have an effect on appetite and we have demonstrated that fiber-containing mycoprotein also has this affect.

  18. [Cardiovascular effects of omega-3-fatty acids and alternatives to increase their intake].

    PubMed

    Carrero, J J; Martín-Bautista, E; Baró, L; Fonollá, J; Jiménez, J; Boza, J J; López-Huertas, E

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main mortality cause in Europe, the USA and a great extent of Asia. There are several risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases, such as increased total cholesterol, homocysteine and triglycerides, hypertension, diabetes, and reduced levels of HDL-cholesterol. Many of these risk factors are diet influenced. In spite of the great amount of foods enriched with n-3 fatty acids available at the market, the knowledge about the effects produced by regular intake of these foods still is a challenge in the majority of cases. It appears that intake of foods enriches with n-3 polyunsatured fatty acids is an option that may be effective in reducing risk factors for diseases, by substituting supplements without modifying consumer's alimentary habits. Also shown are the outcomes from a nutritional study undergone with a functional milk-bases food that contains n-3 fatty acids, oleic acid and vitamins.

  19. Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Léon; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrient intakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrient intakes in the direction of the recommendations. PMID:21373186

  20. Total Zinc Intake May Modify the Glucose-Raising Effect of a Zinc Transporter (SLC30A8) Variant

    PubMed Central

    Kanoni, Stavroula; Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Hivert, Marie-France; Ye, Zheng; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Shungin, Dmitry; Sonestedt, Emily; Ngwa, Julius S.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Anderson, Jennifer S.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hindy, George; Saylor, Georgia; Renstrom, Frida; Bennett, Amanda J.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Florez, Jose C.; Fox, Caroline S.; Hofman, Albert; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Houston, Denise K.; Hu, Frank B.; Jacques, Paul F.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; McKeown, Nicola; Ordovas, Jose; Pankow, James S.; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Uitterlinden, André G.; Yannakoulia, Mary; Zillikens, M. Carola; Wareham, Nick J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Bandinelli, Stefania; Forouhi, Nita G.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J.; Hallmans, Goran; Dupuis, Josée; Langenberg, Claudia; Ferrucci, Luigi; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Siscovick, David S.; Meigs, James B.; Franks, Paul W.; Dedoussis, George V.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Many genetic variants have been associated with glucose homeostasis and type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is important for β-cell function and glucose homeostasis. We tested the hypothesis that zinc intake could influence the glucose-raising effect of specific variants. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a 14-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction of 20 genetic variants known to be related to glycemic traits and zinc metabolism with dietary zinc intake (food sources) and a 5-cohort meta-analysis to assess the interaction with total zinc intake (food sources and supplements) on fasting glucose levels among individuals of European ancestry without diabetes. RESULTS We observed a significant association of total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per 1 mg/day of zinc intake: −0.0012 ± 0.0003 mmol/L, summary P value = 0.0003), while the association of dietary zinc intake was not significant. We identified a nominally significant interaction between total zinc intake and the SLC30A8 rs11558471 variant on fasting glucose levels (β-coefficient ± SE per A allele for 1 mg/day of greater total zinc intake: −0.0017 ± 0.0006 mmol/L, summary interaction P value = 0.005); this result suggests a stronger inverse association between total zinc intake and fasting glucose in individuals carrying the glucose-raising A allele compared with individuals who do not carry it. None of the other interaction tests were statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that higher total zinc intake may attenuate the glucose-raising effect of the rs11558471 SLC30A8 (zinc transporter) variant. Our findings also support evidence for the association of higher total zinc intake with lower fasting glucose levels. PMID:21810599

  1. The effect of polyethylene glycol on intake of Mediterranean shrubs by sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Rogosic, J; Pfister, J A; Provenza, F D; Pavlicevic, J

    2008-12-01

    Poor nutritional quality and increased content of secondary compounds can reduce consumption of Mediterranean shrubs by herbivores. In 2 sequential trials, we examined the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and number of shrub species offered on daily intake of Mediterranean shrubs by 12 sheep and 12 goats. The PEG (25 g) was fed to experimental animals with barley. In trial 1 (6 shrubs), goats ate more (P = 0.0008) daily total shrub biomass than did sheep (60.7 vs. 45.9 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). There was a trend (P = 0.08) toward a positive PEG effect on total shrub intake, with PEG-supplemented animals consuming more total shrubs than controls (56.7 vs. 50.0 +/- 2.6 g/kg of BW). Trial 2 (using 3 shrubs) was a continuation of trial 1, except that animals were given less barley and treatment animals were given more PEG (50 g). Both sheep and goats showed a numerical decrease in total shrub intake from trial 1 to trial 2. Sheep receiving PEG ate more (P = 0.002) total shrubs than did controls, but no PEG effect was found for goats. Thus, PEG had a greater influence on sheep than goats when only 3 shrubs were offered, a result that may be related to the fact that fewer shrubs with complementary secondary compounds were offered and that goats appear to have a greater ability to consume and detoxify secondary compounds from Mediterranean shrubs. Overall, as the number and diversity of shrubs offered increased, supplemental PEG had less effect on increasing intake for both goats and sheep.

  2. The effect of serotonergic system on nociceptin/orphanin FQ induced food intake in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Morteza; Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Babapour, Vahab; Baghbanzadeh, Ali; Pourrahimi, Maryam; Hassanpour, Shahin

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) (cerebral serotonin depletive), fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist) and SB 242084 (5-HT2c receptor antagonist) on nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) induced feeding response in chickens. A guide cannula was surgically implanted into the lateral ventricle of chickens. Before the experiments, 3-h fasting periods had been given to all experimental birds. In experiment 1, chickens were injected with PCPA (1.5 μg) followed by an N/OFQ injection (16 nmol) intracerebroventricularly. In experiment 2, birds received fluoxetine (10 μg) prior to the injection of N/OFQ. In experiment 3, chickens were administered with N/OFQ after the 8-OH-DPAT administration (15.25 nmol). In experiment 4, birds were injected with SB 242084 (1.5 μg) followed by an N/OFQ injection. Cumulative food intake was measured at 3 h post injection. The results of this study show that N/OFQ increases food intake in broiler cockerels (P < 0.05) and that this effect is amplified by pretreatment with PCPA and SB 242084 in an additive manner (P < 0.05). The effect of N/OFQ is not changed by pretreatment with 8-OH-DPAT (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of N/OFQ on food intake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with fluoxetine. These results suggest that N/OFQ induced hyperphagia is mediated by serotonergic mechanisms, and possibly imply an interaction between N/OFQ and the serotonergic system (via 5-HT2C receptors) on food intake in chickens.

  3. Effects of breastfeeding and low sugar-sweetened beverage intake on obesity prevalence in Hispanic toddlers.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jaimie N; Whaley, Shannon E; Goran, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have examined the independent and additive effects of breastfeeding (BF) and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake in early life on overweight and obesity prevalence. The objective was to assess the effects of BF and SSB intake on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Hispanic toddlers. Nutrition data were collected via phone surveys with caregivers of 1483 Hispanic children (2-4 y of age) from the Los Angeles County Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program. BF history at 2-4 y of age was categorized as follows: no BF, >1 wk to <6 mo BF, 6 to <12 mo BF, and ≥12 mo BF. SSB intake at 2-4 y of age was categorized as follows: high SSB (≥2 SSBs/d), mid SSB (1 SSB/d), and no SSB. The height and weight of the children were measured by WIC staff and stored in the Integrated Statewide Information System. Binary logistic regressions assessed the effects of BF and SSB categories on overweight and obesity prevalence. In comparison with the no-BF participants, the odds of obesity were lower in the ≥12-mo-BF participants (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.83; P = 0.004). In comparison with high-SSB participants, the odds of obesity were lower in the no-SSB participants (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.47, 1.00; P = 0.047). In comparison with the combined no-BF/high-SSB participants, the odds of obesity were lower in the ≥12-mo BF/no-SSB participants (OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.80; P = 0.01). The results suggest that BF for ≥1 y and low SSB intake during the toddler years can have profound effects on reducing the prevalence of obesity in Hispanic toddlers.

  4. Assessing population effects from entrainment of fish at a large volume water intake

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.; Page, T.L.; Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for estimating population effects from entrainment of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a steam electric generating station on the Columbia River that required cooperation between power plant operators and fishery biologists. The method involved sampling fish in the river and entrained fish (both marked recaptures and naturally occurring downstream migrants) within the intake, and estimating the 1) total number of fish entrained, 2) size of the natural population, and 3) percent of the natural population affected.

  5. Effects of protein intake on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Trudy; Vitezova, Anna; Bramer, Wichor M; Ars, Charlotte L; Bautista, Paula K; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Felix, Janine F; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Sajjad, Ayesha; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Tharner, Anne; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-14

    High protein intake in early childhood is associated with obesity, suggesting possible adverse effects on other cardiometabolic outcomes. However, studies in adults have suggested beneficial effects of protein intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Whether dietary protein intake is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the evidence on the associations of protein intake with BP, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and PubMed for interventional and observational studies in healthy children up to the age of 18 years, in which associations of total, animal and/or vegetable protein intake with one or more of the following outcomes were reported: BP; measures of insulin sensitivity; cholesterol levels; or TAG levels. In the search, we identified 6636 abstracts, of which fifty-six studies met all selection criteria. In general, the quality of the included studies was low. Most studies were cross-sectional, and many did not control for potential confounders. No overall associations were observed between protein intake and insulin sensitivity or blood lipids. A few studies suggested an inverse association between dietary protein intake and BP, but evidence was inconclusive. Only four studies examined the effects of vegetable or animal protein intake, but with inconsistent results. In conclusion, the literature, to date provides insufficient evidence for effects of protein intake on BP, insulin sensitivity or blood lipids in children. Future studies could be improved by adequately adjusting for key confounders such as energy intake and obesity.

  6. Effects of fludrocortisone on water and sodium intake of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about steroidal control of thirst- and salt-appetite behaviors of mice. The current study investigates effects of fludrocortisone acetate (FCA), a steroid with potent glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects, on thirst- and salt-appetite responses of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with FCA produced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) increases in both magnitude and duration of water and sodium intake. Chronic elevation of water and saline intake was achieved with daily injections of FCA. Daily injection of FCA, when only 0.9% saline was available, produced a remarkably rapid increase in saline intake. A single injection of FCA stimulated brisk diuresis and natriuresis in fluid-restricted animals. This work is the first to demonstrate copious water drinking by mice in response to FCA. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that the renal effects of FCA promote increases in water and sodium turnover and thereby, increases in water and sodium ingestion. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism.

  8. The effect of glutamine intake on complications of colorectal and colon cancer treatment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jolfaie, Nahid Ramezani; Mirzaie, Safiye; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improvement in complications of antitumor agents and surgery is important to enhance life quality and survival among patients with colon and colorectal cancer. It has been reported that some dietary components such as glutamine (Gln) have beneficial effects on these complications of cancer therapies. However, the results of studies are inconsistent in this area. We performed a review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Gln intake on complications related to therapeutic strategies of the colon and colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and SID databases to find the relevant literature, published before July 2015. Results: Nine RCTs of 217 screened articles were included in this systematic review. The results of the present review suggested that Gln intake among colon and colorectal cancer patients could reduce some complications induced by chemotherapy such as gut mucositis and diarrhea and improve nitrogen balance, immune system and wound healing after surgery, whereas benefits role of Gln on radiochemotherapy side effects were not provided. Conclusion: The role of Gln intake on some improvement of complications induced by cancer therapeutic methods and shorten the length of hospital stay may be promising and one that is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26759580

  9. Effects of fludrocortisone on water and sodium intake of C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ralph F.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about steroidal control of thirst- and salt-appetite behaviors of mice. The current study investigates effects of fludrocortisone acetate (FCA), a steroid with potent glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects, on thirst- and salt-appetite responses of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with FCA produced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) increases in both magnitude and duration of water and sodium intake. Chronic elevation of water and saline intake was achieved with daily injections of FCA. Daily injection of FCA, when only 0.9% saline was available, produced a remarkably rapid increase in saline intake. A single injection of FCA stimulated brisk diuresis and natriuresis in fluid-restricted animals. This work is the first to demonstrate copious water drinking by mice in response to FCA. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that the renal effects of FCA promote increases in water and sodium turnover and thereby, increases in water and sodium ingestion. PMID:26017491

  10. Effects of roughage source and concentration on intake and performance by finishing heifers.

    PubMed

    Defoor, P J; Galyean, M L; Salyer, G B; Nunnery, G A; Parsons, C H

    2002-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of roughage source and concentration on intake and performance by finishing heifers. In Exp. 1, 12 medium-framed beef heifers (average BW = 389 kg) were used in three simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin square intake trials to evaluate the effects of dietary NDF supply from alfalfa hay, sudan hay, wheat straw, or cottonseed hulls fed in each Latin square at 5, 10, or 15% of dietary DM. Within each roughage concentration, roughage NDF accounted for the majority of variation in NEg intake/kg of BW0.75 among the roughage sources. Averaged across roughage concentrations, NEg intake/kg of BW0.75 tended to be greater (P < 0.10) when heifers were fed cottonseed hulls, sudan hay, or wheat straw than when they were fed alfalfa. In Exp. 2, six medium-framed beef heifers (average BW = 273 kg) were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine whether diets containing 10% (DM basis) alfalfa, cottonseed hulls, or sudan silage differed in eating rate. Average DM eating rates did not differ (P > 0.10) among roughage sources, which we interpreted to suggest that 90% concentrate diets containing alfalfa, cottonseed hulls, and sudan silage do not differ in the amount of chewing required during eating. In Exp. 3, 105 medium-framed beef heifers (average BW = 275 kg) were used in a 140-d finishing trial to evaluate three methods of dietary roughage exchange. Alfalfa at 12.5% of the dietary DM (ALF12.5) was used as a standard, and cottonseed hulls and sudan silage were each fed at three different levels: exchanged with ALF12.5 on an equal percentage DM basis, an equal NDF basis, or an equal NDF basis, where only NDF from particles larger than 2.36 mm (retained NDF) were considered to contribute to the NDF. No differences (P > 0.10) in ADG, DMI, gain:feed ratio, or NEg intake/kg of BW0.75 were detected between alfalfa and cottonseed hulls exchanged on an equal NDF basis. For sudan silage, exchanging with ALF12.5 on an equal retained NDF

  11. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D; Patel, Manoj K; Scott, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control.

  12. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D.; Patel, Manoj K.; Scott, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control. PMID:27065827

  13. Effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density of students with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or without calcium supplementation (Tr+Ca+ and Tr+Ca-) and nontraining groups with or without calcium supplementation (Tr-Ca+ and Tr-Ca-). The intervention involved 45 min of physical training performed 3 sessions a week and/or the addition of dietary calcium-rich food using enriched cow milk with vitamin D containing 230 mg calcium per serving, over 6 months. Paired-samples t-test and ANOVA analysis was used to determine the main and combined effects of training and calcium on BMD. All groups showed greater femoral neck BMD after 6 months. The increase in femoral neck BMD in the Tr+Ca+ group was 10% greater than increase in the Tr+Ca- group (not significant). Apparently, the effect of training was greater than calcium intake because the Tr+Ca- group achieved 4% greater BMD than Tr-Ca+ group (not significant). In this study, both training groups had greater BMD than the control group (Tr-Ca-) (P<0.05). In these participants with inadequate calcium intakes, additional exercise and calcium supplementation resulted in a 6-20% greater increase in BMD than controls at the loaded site (femoral neck). These results help to provide more evidence for public health organizations to deal with both exercise and nutrition issues in children for the achievement of peak BMD. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  15. Independent and combined effects of eating rate and energy density on energy intake, appetite, and gut hormones.

    PubMed

    Karl, J Philip; Young, Andrew J; Rood, Jennifer C; Montain, Scott J

    2013-03-01

    Energy density (ED) and eating rate (ER) influence energy intake; their combined effects on intake and on postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses are undetermined. To determine the combined effects of ED and ER manipulation on voluntary food intake, subjective appetite, and postprandial pancreatic and gut hormone responses. Twenty nonobese volunteers each consumed high (1.6 kcal g(-1) ; HED) and low (1.2 kcal g(-1) ; LED) ED breakfasts slowly (20 g min(-1) ; SR) and quickly (80 g min(-1) ; FR) ad libitum to satiation. Appetite, and pancreatic and gut hormone concentrations were measured periodically over 3 h. Ad libitum energy intake during the subsequent lunch was then measured. Main effects of ED and ER on energy intake and a main effect of ER, but not ED, on mass of food consumed were observed, FR and HED being associated with increased intake (P < 0.05). Across all conditions, energy intake was highest during FR-HED (P ≤ 0.01). Area under the curve (AUC) of appetite ratings was not different between meals. Main effects of ED and ER on insulin, peptide-YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1 AUC (P < 0.05) were observed, FR and HED being associated with larger AUC. No effects on active or total ghrelin AUC were documented. Total energy intake over both meals was highest during the FR-HED trial with the greatest difference between FR-HED and SR-LED trials (P ≤ 0.01). Consuming an energy dense meal quickly compounds independent effects of ER and ED on energy intake. Energy compensation at the following meal may not occur despite altered gut hormone responses. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Deleterious Metabolic Effects of High Fructose Intake: The Preventive Effect of Lactobacillus kefiri Administration

    PubMed Central

    Zubiría, María Guillermina; Gambaro, Sabrina Eliana; Rey, María Amanda; Carasi, Paula; Serradell, María de los Ángeles; Giovambattista, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Modern lifestyle and diets have been associated with metabolic disorders and an imbalance in the normal gut microbiota. Probiotics are widely known for their health beneficial properties targeting the gut microbial ecosystem. The aim of our study was to evaluate the preventive effect of Lactobacillus kefiri (L. kefiri) administration in a fructose-rich diet (FRD) mice model. Mice were provided with tap water or fructose-added (20% w/v) drinking water supplemented or not with L. kefiri. Results showed that probiotic administration prevented weight gain and epidydimal adipose tissue (EAT) expansion, with partial reversion of the adipocyte hypertrophy developed by FRD. Moreover, the probiotic prevented the increase of plasma triglycerides and leptin, together with the liver triglyceride content. Leptin adipocyte secretion was also improved by L. kefiri, being able to respond to an insulin stimulus. Glucose intolerance was partially prevented by L. kefiri treatment (GTT) and local inflammation (TNFα; IL1β; IL6 and INFγ) was completely inhibited in EAT. L. kefiri supplementation generated an impact on gut microbiota composition, changing Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes profiles. Overall, our results indicate that the administration of probiotics prevents the deleterious effects of FRD intake and should therefore be promoted to improve metabolic disorders. PMID:28513533

  17. Lowering Effects of Onion Intake on Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azuma, Keiko; Minami, Yuko; Ippoushi, Katsunari; Terao, Junji

    2007-01-01

    The protective effect of onion against oxidative stress in streptozotosin-induced diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with that of quercetin aglycone. We measured oxidative stress biomarkers involving the susceptibility of the plasma against copper ion-induced lipid peroxidation, which was estimated by the amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides, and urine TBARS and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine contents. After the 12-week feeding period, plasma glucose levels and these biomarkers increased in diabetic rats compared to normal rats. In diabetic rats fed a 6.0% onion diet (quercetin equivalent: 0.023%), quercetin metabolites accumulated in the plasma at concentrations of approximately 35 µM. Onion intake decreased plasma glucose levels and lowered the oxidative stress biomarkers. On the other hand, quercetin metabolites in the plasma of rats fed a diet with 0.023% quercetin aglycone were found at lower concentrations (14.2 µM) than the rats fed the onion diet. Furthermore, oxidative stress biomarkers were higher in the quercetin diet group compared to the onion diet group. These results strongly suggest that onion intake suppresses diabetes-induced oxidative stress more effectively than the intake of the same amount of quercetin aglycone alone. PMID:18188415

  18. Tracking food intake as bites: Effects on cognitive resources, eating enjoyment, and self-control.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Danny; Siemens, Jennifer Christie; Kopp, Steven W

    2017-04-01

    While monitoring food intake is critical for controlling eating, traditional tools designed for this purpose can be impractical when one desires real-time feedback. Further, the act of monitoring can deplete valuable cognitive resources. In response to these concerns, technologies have been developed to aid those wanting to control their food intake. Of note, devices can now track eating in number of bites taken as opposed to more traditional units such as pieces or volume. Through two studies, the current research investigates the effects of tracking food portions at the bite level on cognitive resources, enjoyment of the eating experience, and objective and subjective self-control. Results indicate that using wearable technology to track bite portions, as compared to doing so mentally, (1) reduces cognitive resource depletion, (2) is equally as effective for allowing users to successfully achieve eating goals, and (3) does not reduce enjoyment of the eating experience. These results support the viability of tracking food intake at the bite level, which holds a number of potential implications for eating and weight management.

  19. The effects of husbandry system on the grass intake and egg nutritive characteristics of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mugnai, Cecilia; Sossidou, Evangelia N; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Ruggeri, Silvia; Mattioli, Simona; Castellini, Cesare

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of husbandry system and season on the grass intake and egg quality in laying hens considering that characteristics of organic eggs obtained in a system with no grass in the external area are similar conventional ones. Three hundred and sixty Ancona hens were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group (C), with the hens kept in cages under standard housing conditions; the organic group (O), with the hens kept under an organic production system (4 m² per hen) and the organic-plus group (OP), with the hens maintained under organic conditions but with a larger grass paddock availability (10 m² per hen). The estimated intake of forage, carotenoids and flavonoids of the OP hens was very high as the amounts deposited in eggs, mainly in the spring season. The fatty acid composition of the yolk was significantly affected by pasture. The OP eggs showed lower concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) n-6 and a higher percentage of PUFA n-3. The results showed that the grass intake was largely affected by the husbandry system and highlighted the seasonal effect of grass availability on the nutritional quality of eggs produced in organic systems. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of variable energy served on 24-hour energy intake in 16 preschools, Chicago, Illinois, 2007.

    PubMed

    Lown, Debbie A; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Dyer, Alan; Schiffer, Linda; Gomez, Sandra; Braunschweig, Carol L

    2011-05-01

    The effect of varying portion size in a natural environment on the self-regulation of 24-hour energy intake has not been evaluated. We studied students at 16 preschools in Chicago to determine the effect of meals with variable energy and macronutrients on the amount consumed over a 24-hour period (ie, at preschool and outside of preschool). The food items and portion sizes served at 16 preschools in the Chicago Public Schools early childhood education programs were observed for 3 to 8 days. Children were assessed for total energy and selected macronutrients consumed at preschool and outside of preschool for a 24-hour period; their data were pooled and reported by school. The students were predominantly African American (96%); on average, 32 students (range, 21-38) participated at each of the 16 preschools, and the age range of students was 4.0 to 4.5 years. The energy served at preschools ranged from 48% to 90% of the daily recommended energy allowance (REA). The mean energy intake at school was significantly higher (39% of REA) at 2 preschools, including 1 that served 90% of the REA. Mean energy consumption outside of preschool and total 24-hour energy consumption did not differ by preschool, adjusting for body mass index z score and sex. The preschools served meals that widely varied by portion size and energy; however, this variation did not result in differences in mean 24-hour nutrient intakes for the students attending these schools.

  1. Presence of music while eating: Effects on energy intake, eating rate and appetite sensations.

    PubMed

    Mamalaki, Eirini; Zachari, Konstantina; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Zervas, Efthimios; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2017-01-01

    The role of music in energy and dietary intake of humans is poorly understood. The purpose of the present laboratory study was to examine the effect of background music, its presence and its intensity, on energy intake, eating rate and appetite feelings. The study had a randomized crossover design. Twenty-six normal weight and overweight/obese men participated in random order in three trials: the control trial (no music was playing), the 60dB and the 90dB music trials, while an ad libitum lunch was consumed. Visual analogue scales for hunger, fullness/satiety, as well as desire to eat were administered to the participants. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch did not differ between trials, even when covariates were taken into account. There were no statistically significant differences between trials on meal characteristics, such as meal duration, number of servings, number of bites eaten and on appetite indices. Future studies are needed to replicate these results and investigate the effect of different types of music and/or sound. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Zendedel, Abolfazl; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Anbari, Khatereh; Ghanadi, Kourosh; Bachari, Elham Ceneicel; Azargon, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D intake on COPD exacerbation and FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. Methods: This double blind placebo control randomized clinical trial study was done in the Ashayer university hospital in Khorramabad in 2012. Eighty eight patients with severe and very severe COPD were randomly selected from those who recoursed to the internal medicine clinic of Ashayer hospital. They were randomly allocated to case and placebo group. The patients received routine treatment for COPD. Along with the routine treatment, placebo group received 100,000 IU of oral vitamin D per month, for 6 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS computer software, paired t-test, independent t-test, non parametric t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: In each group, there were 44 patients. After the intervention, there were significant differences in FEV1 and the number of COPD exacerbation between the case and control group patients. Also, after the study, in the case group, FEV1 was increased and the number of COPD exacerbation was decreased significantly. Conclusion: Vitamin D intake decreased COPD exacerbation and improved FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. It is suggested that baseline serum vitamin D levels will recorded in similar studies and the effect of vitamin D intake will evaluated regarding the baseline serum vitamin D levels. PMID:25946929

  3. Effects of reduced food intake on the parameters of toxicity evaluation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Morita, Junya; Izumi, Tomoko; Sunouchi, Mana; Arima, Kazunori; Tsutsumi, Shunsuke

    2015-08-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the variations in the toxicity parameters in experimental animals during the development of new drugs. Reduced food intake has been reported to have an impact on the toxicity parameters in rats; however, there are few reports of such studies in dogs. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of reduced food intake on the general toxicity parameters and their reversibility in dogs. Male beagle dogs were fed 300 g/day of diet for 12 weeks in the control group, and 150 g/day for the first 8 weeks and 200 g/day for the subsequent 4 weeks in the low feeding group. During the following 4-week recovery period, the amount of feeding was set at 300 g/day. There were no clinical changes in any of the dogs. The low feeding group showed a body weight loss of 9.0%, 16.7% and 14.3% relative to the pre-test values at Week 4, 8 and 12, respectively. The following changes from the pre-test values and/or the control group in the examined parameters were observed in this group: decreased heart rate, prolonged PR interval on the ECG, decreased leukocyte count, and increased serum free fatty acid and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels. Significant changes of these parameters were not observed any more during the recovery period. This fact supports biological or physiological reaction to reduced food intake. These results are considered to represent useful information for toxicologists to distinguish between the direct effects of drugs and the changes attributable to reduced food intake.

  4. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Kurt A; Morales, Jacobo; Vandusseldorp, Trisha A

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6-8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from <6 g/kg/day to 6-8 g/kg/day; the C group maintained their current intake of <6 g/kg/day. On days 6 and 7 both groups performed CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected.

  5. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance

    PubMed Central

    ESCOBAR, KURT A.; MORALES, JACOBO; VANDUSSELDORP, TRISHA A.

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6–8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from <6 g/kg/day to 6–8 g/kg/day; the C group maintained their current intake of <6 g/kg/day. On days 6 and 7 both groups performed CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected. PMID:27766133

  6. Effects of high-protein intake on bone turnover in long-term bed rest in women.

    PubMed

    Heer, Martina; Baecker, Natalie; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Graf, Sonja; Zwart, Sara R; Biolo, Gianni; Smith, Scott M

    2017-01-19

    Bed rest (BR) causes bone loss, even in otherwise healthy subjects. Several studies suggest that ambulatory subjects may benefit from high-protein intake to stimulate protein synthesis and to maintain muscle mass. However, increasing protein intake above the recommended daily intake without adequate calcium and potassium intake may increase bone resorption. We hypothesized that a regimen of high-protein intake (HiPROT), applied in an isocaloric manner during BR, with calcium and potassium intake meeting recommended values, would prevent any effect of BR on bone turnover. After a 20-day ambulatory adaptation to a controlled environment, 16 women participated in a 60-day, 6° head-down-tilt (HDT) BR and were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups. Control (CON) subjects (n = 8) received 1 g/(kg body mass·day)(-1) dietary protein. HiPROT subjects (n = 8) received 1.45 g protein/(kg body mass·day)(-1) plus an additional 0.72 g branched-chain amino acids per day during BR. All subjects received an individually tailored diet (before HDTBR: 1888 ± 98 kcal/day; during HDTBR: 1604 ± 125 kcal/day; after HDTBR: 1900 ± 262 kcal/day), with the CON group's diet being higher in fat and carbohydrate intake. High-protein intake exacerbated the BR-induced increase in bone resorption marker C-telopeptide (>30%) (p < 0.001) by the end of BR. Bone formation markers were unaffected by BR and high-protein intake. We conclude that high-protein intake in BR might increase bone loss. Further long-duration studies are mandatory to show how the positive effect of protein on muscle mass can be maintained without the risk of reducing bone mineral density.

  7. Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1989-06-01

    A comparison was made of the effects on hunger and food intake of consuming preloads varying in sweetness and energy content. The preloads were a plain (unsweetened) yogurt, and the same yogurt sweetened to equal intensity with saccharin or glucose, or supplemented with starch. This balanced design made it possible to assess the consequences of adding sweetness to food as well as the consequences of substituting a nonnutritive sweetener for a caloric sweetener. Subjects (N = 24, repeated measures design) ate the preload at midday and returned one hour later for a sandwich lunch. Food intake in this meal was measured directly, and intake during the remaining part of the day was monitored using home recording in diaries. Hunger was assessed using subjective ratings of motivation to eat. Food intake at lunchtime was significantly greater following the saccharin compared with the plain preload, and parallel effects were revealed by the motivational ratings. Saccharin also stimulated further increases in intake after lunch. Food intake was lowest following the high-energy preloads, with the starch supplemented yogurt producing somewhat the largest suppression of intake. The results confirm and extend previous findings showing that intense sweeteners do not possess the same satiating capacity as glucose and sucrose. The stimulation of appetite by saccharin may be due to its sweet taste and also to effects on postingestive mechanisms.

  8. REPEATED ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION MODIFIES THE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF SUCROSE INTAKE PATTERNS IN MICE: EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Raúl; Kamens, Helen M.; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Ford, Matthew M.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroadaptations supporting behavioral sensitization to abused drugs are suggested to underlie pathological, excessive motivation toward drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Drug-induced sensitization has also been linked to increased appetitive responses for non-drug, natural reinforcers. The present research investigated whether ethanol (EtOH)-induced neural changes, inferred from psychomotor sensitization, can modify consumption and intake dynamics for the natural reinforcer, sucrose. The effects of EtOH-induced sensitization in mice on the temporal structure of sucrose intake patterns were measured using a lickometer system. Sucrose intake dynamics were measured after sensitization for 1 h daily for 7 days and indicated more rapid initial approach and consumption of sucrose in EtOH-sensitized groups; animals showed a shorter latency to the first intake bout and an increased number of sucrose bottle licks during the initial 15 min of the 1-h sessions. This effect was associated with increased frequency and size of bouts. For the total 1-h session, sucrose intake and bout dynamics were not different between groups, indicating a change in patterns of sucrose intake but not total consumption. When sensitization was prevented by the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen, the increased rate of approach and consumption of sucrose were also prevented. Thus, EtOH-induced sensitization, and not the mere exposure to EtOH, was associated with changes in sucrose intake patterns. These data are consistent with current literature suggesting an enhancing effect of drug-induced sensitization on motivational processes involved in reinforcement. PMID:20624153

  9. Effects of pellet diameter during and after lactation on feed intake of piglets pre- and postweaning.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Wamsteeker, D; Oostindjer, M; van Enckevort, L C M; van der Poel, A F B; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E

    2014-09-01

    Effects of 2 pellet diameters for piglets pre- and postweaning on feed intake, BW, and feed-related behavior were studied in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, 19 litters were provided with pellets of 2 and 12 mm in diameter in a choice-feeding setup from d 4 of lactation onward. From d 4 to 18, piglets preferred the 12-mm diameter pellet over the 2-mm diameter pellet (519 vs. 168 g/pen; P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, 39 litters were provided with creep feed of either 2- or 10-mm diameter pellets. Feed intake from d 3 to 17 was higher in litters provided the 10-mm diameter pellet than the 2-mm diameter pellet (1,752 vs. 1,101 g/pen; P < 0.001). Piglet BW at weaning did not differ between treatments. Treatment × day of lactation interactions were found for time spent eating, interest in eating, and time spent suckling. Time spent eating and interest in eating increased with time. This increase was lower in the litters provided with the 10-mm diameter pellet. Time spent suckling remained the same in litters provided with 2-mm diameter pellets but decreased in time in litters provided the 10-mm diameter pellets. Experiment 3 was set up as a 2 × 2 factorial design with pellet diameter both pre- and postweaning as factors. During lactation, 18 litters were provided creep feed of either 2 or 12 mm in pellet diameter. At weaning, each litter was split into 2 comparable half litters and each half litter was provided with feed of 2 or 12 mm in diameter. Feed intake was higher in the 12-mm diameter pellet litters than in the 2-mm ones from d 4 to 11 of lactation (P < 0.01). Pellet diameter provided after weaning did not affect BW gain or feed intake. Piglets provided the 12-mm diameter pellet before weaning, however, had a higher BW gain (2,060 vs. 2,606 g/pig; P = 0.003) and feed intake (2,772 vs. 3,173 g/pig; P = 0.04) and a lower feed conversion ratio (P = 0.03) between d 0 and 10 after weaning than piglets provided the 2-mm diameter pellet before weaning. Postweaning pellet diameter

  10. Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on metabolism and endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Cox, Gregory R; Desbrow, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Anderson, Megan E; Bruce, Clinton R; Macrides, Theodore A; Martin, David T; Moquin, Angela; Roberts, Alan; Hawley, John A; Burke, Louise M

    2002-09-01

    Competitive athletes completed two studies of 2-h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O(2) uptake followed by 7 kJ/kg time trial (TT) with carbohydrate (CHO) intake before (2 g/kg) and during (6% CHO drink) exercise. In Study A, 12 subjects received either 6 mg/kg caffeine 1 h preexercise (Precaf), 6 x 1 mg/kg caffeine every 20 min throughout SS (Durcaf), 2 x 5 ml/kg Coca-Cola between 100 and 120 min SS and during TT (Coke), or placebo. Improvements in TT were as follows: Precaf, 3.4% (0.2-6.5%, 95% confidence interval); Durcaf, 3.1% (-0.1-6.5%); and Coke, 3.1% (-0.2-6.2%). In Study B, eight subjects received 3 x 5 ml/kg of different cola drinks during the last 40 min of SS and TT: decaffeinated, 6% CHO (control); caffeinated, 6% CHO; decaffeinated, 11% CHO; and caffeinated, 11% CHO (Coke). Coke enhanced TT by 3.3% (0.8-5.9%), with all trials showing 2.2% TT enhancement (0.5-3.8%; P < 0.05) due to caffeine. Overall, 1) 6 mg/kg caffeine enhanced TT performance independent of timing of intake and 2) replacing sports drink with Coca-Cola during the latter stages of exercise was equally effective in enhancing endurance performance, primarily due to low intake of caffeine (approximately 1.5 mg/kg).

  11. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels.

  12. Differential effect of caffeine intake in subjects with genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prakash M; Paing, Swe Swe Thet; Li, HuiHua; Pavanni, R; Yuen, Y; Zhao, Y; Tan, Eng King

    2015-11-02

    We examined if caffeine intake has a differential effect in subjects with high and low genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder. A case control study involving 812 subjects consisting of PD and healthy controls were conducted. Caffeine intake assessed by a validated questionnaire and genotyping of PD gene risk variant (LRRK2 R1628P) was carried out. Compared to caffeine takers with the wild-type genotype (low genetic susceptibility), non-caffeine takers with R1628P variant (high genetic susceptibility) had a 15 times increased risk of developing PD (OR = 15.4, 95% CI = (1.94, 122), P = 0.01), whereas caffeine takers with R1628P (intermediate susceptibility) had a 3 times risk (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = (2.02, 4.66), P < 0.001). Caffeine intake would significantly reduce the risk of PD much more in those with high genetic susceptibility compared to those with low genetic susceptibility.

  13. Combined effects of cognitive bias for food cues and poor inhibitory control on unhealthy food intake.

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, Naomi; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combined effects of cognitive bias (attentional and approach biases) and inhibitory control on unhealthy snack food intake. Cognitive biases reflect automatic processing, while inhibitory control is an important component of controlled processing. Participants were 146 undergraduate women who completed a dot probe task to assess attentional bias and an approach-avoidance task to assess approach bias. Inhibitory control was measured with a food-specific go/no-go task. Unhealthy snack food intake was measured using a so-called "taste test". There was a significant interaction between approach bias and inhibitory control on unhealthy snack food intake. Specifically, participants who showed a strong approach bias combined with low inhibitory control consumed the most snack food. Theoretically, the results support contemporary dual-process models which propose that behaviour is guided by both automatic and controlled processing systems. At a practical level, the results offer potential scope for an intervention that combines re-training of both automatic and controlled processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake.

  15. The effect of sodium intake on the urinary histamine in adrenalectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjurö, T.; Westling, H.

    1964-01-01

    The daily excretion (μg/day) of free histamine has been measured in bilaterally adrenalectomized or sham-operated female rats. In rats developing adrenal insufficiency when kept on a “sodium free” diet, the output of free histamine in the urine fell progressively. The volume of urine was unchanged. In rats with adrenal insufficiency the oral administration of 0.9% saline caused an immediate rise in the urinary excretion of histamine. The rise was sustained for several days. Adrenalectomized rats consuming 43 mg/day of sodium chloride or less developed adrenal insufficiency and the daily output of urinary histamine fell progressively. A sodium chloride intake of 90 mg/day prevented this fall. Adrenalectomized rats kept on 0.9% saline showed no significant changes during the first 7 days after adrenalectomy. From the 8th day onwards the daily output of histamine in the urine rose progressively. After sham operation the daily output of histamine in the urine was not affected by the intake of sodium chloride. Adrenalectomized rats eat less food; a similar restriction of food intake in sham-operated rats decreased the urinary excretion of histamine. The decrease was, however, not as pronounced as in adrenalectomized rats developing adrenal insufficiency. Other sodium salts, but not glucose, had the same effect as 0.9% saline on the urinary excretion of histamine in adrenalectomized rats. PMID:14211676

  16. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  17. The effects of beverage carbonation on sensory responses and voluntary fluid intake following exercise.

    PubMed

    Passe, D H; Horn, M; Murray, R

    1997-12-01

    The effects of carbonated beverages on sensory acceptability and voluntary fluid intake after exercise were examined. The level of carbonation in a 6% carbohydrate (CHO) electrolyte drink was systematically varied (0, 1.1, 2.3, and 3.0 volumes of CO2), and its impact was assessed in 52 adults following 30 min of exercise. The perception of carbonation intensity closely tracked the differences in physical carbonation levels presented, with all perceived intensities significantly different from each other (p < .01). Overall sensory acceptability, perceived thirst quenching, and perceived sweetness were significantly lower for 2.3-vol CO2 and 3.0-vol CO2 than for 0-vol CO2 and 1.1-vol CO2 (p < .01). Perceived throatburn was significantly higher for 2.3-vol CO2 and 3.0-vol CO2 than for 0-vol CO2 and 1.1-vol CO2 (p < .01). Total fluid intake for 0-vol CO2 and 1.1-vol CO2 was significantly higher than for 2.3-vol CO2 (p < .05), which was significantly higher than for 3.0-vol CO2 (p < .05). It was concluded that levels of carbonation equal to or in excess of 2.3-vol CO2 negatively impact drink acceptability and voluntary fluid intake.

  18. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of a high-caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas P J; Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Karstoft, Kristian; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Thomsen, Carsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-02-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake. Therefore, healthy individuals on a high-caloric intake were randomized to either 10,000 or 1,500 steps/day for 14 days. Step number, total energy expenditure, dietary records, neuropsychological tests, maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max), whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with stable isotopes were performed before and after the intervention. Both study groups gained the same amount of body weight. However, the inactive group accumulated significantly more visceral fat compared with the active group. Following the 2-wk period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity.

  19. Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H; Saravis, S; Schacher, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A

    1989-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted, each with 20 healthy 9-10-year-old children. After an overnight fast, subjects were given a standardized breakfast at 0830 hrs, the treatments at 1030 hrs, and a lunch containing an excess of foods at 1200 hrs. Visual analog scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were administered 5 min before and 20 and 85 min after treatment. Lunch-time food intake was measured. In experiment 1, either aspartame (34 mg/kg), or the equivalent sweetness of sodium cyclamate, was given in an ice slurry (300 ml) of unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid with carbohydrate (1.75 g/kg polycose). In experiment 2, drinks (300 ml) contained either sucrose (1.75 g/kg) or aspartame (9.7 mg/kg). In both experiments, significant meal- and time-dependent effects were observed for subjective feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. Treatments, however, did not affect either subjective feelings of appetite or lunch-time food intake. Thus, aspartame consumed without or with carbohydrate, did not affect either hunger or food intake of children when compared with the sweeteners sodium cyclamate and sucrose, respectively.

  20. Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; McPhee, L; Sullivan, S

    1989-02-01

    In two experiments, 2-5-year-old children's responsiveness to caloric density cues was examined. In a preloading protocol, consumption of fixed volumes of drinks (205 ml in Experiment 1; 150 ml in Experiment 2), sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, aspartame plus low glucose maltodextrin, or a water control, was followed by ad lib consumption from among a variety of foods. Caloric drinks had about 90 kcal in Experiment 1, 65 kcal in Experiment 2. The delay interval between the preload and the ad lib consumption was 0, 30 or 60 minutes. In Experiment 1, 24 4- and 5-year-old children participated in only one delay interval, while in Experiment 2, all 20 2- and 3-year-old children were seen in all conditions. Results revealed evidence of caloric compensation, but no evidence of preload x time delay interaction. In both experiments, aspartame also produced a significant suppression of intake relative to water, primarily due to the pattern at 30 min following the preload. Across conditions, the suppression following aspartame was usually significantly less than that produced by the caloric sweet drinks, providing evidence for postingestive effects. In Experiment 1, suppression of intake was related to the children's preferences for the foods, not to macronutrient content; consumption of nonpreferred foods was most suppressed. Consumption of sweetened drinks as long as 1 hour prior to eating suppressed food intake, and this common feeding practice may also reduce dietary variety.

  1. Effect of ghrelin in dry matter intake and energy metabolism in prepartum sheep: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; White, Jason; Badinga, Lokenga; Verstegen, John; Donovan, Gerald A; Archbald, Louis F

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of ghrelin on dry matter intake and energy metabolites in ewes during the last 10d of gestation. Ewes were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n=6) or a control group (n=6). One hour after feeding (08:00 and 16:00), ewes in the treated group were given ovine ghrelin (3 microg/kg, i.m.) and the control group received an equivalent volume of saline. Treatments were continued until lambing. Daily blood samples were taken starting at assignment. The principal findings were that: (1) ewes treated with ghrelin had a higher dry matter intake only on the first day of treatment; (2) treated ewes had lower serum concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and insulin but higher serum concentrations of growth hormone; (3) serum concentrations of beta-hydroxy butyrate and cortisol were not different between treated and non-treated ewes. In conclusion, treatment with ghrelin affected dry matter intake and energy metabolites of pre-partum ewes during the last 10 d of pregnancy.

  2. Effects of dry matter and energy intake on quality of oocytes and embryos in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Roberto; Spies, Camila; Wiltbank, Milo C

    2016-01-01

    The success of herd fertility involves the development of healthy follicles, viable oocytes and embryos capable of establishing and maintaining a pregnancy. Herein we discuss how nutrition interacts with reproduction throughout follicle development and pregnancy establishment, focusing on dry matter and energy intake. High feed intake, especially associated with moderate to high body condition, before and through superstimulation protocols, natural or induced single-ovulations or before ovum pick-up has detrimental effects on the quality of oocytes or embryos. Feed restriction or high energy supply can be used strategically to obtain either more or better quality oocytes or embryos. Altering diets that provide different concentrations of circulating insulin may improve ovarian status, oocyte quality, embryo development and pregnancy establishment and maintenance. Some sources of fat can positively affect reproductive performance, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, improving embryo quality and pregnancy. In contrast, fat supplementation in the diet may compromise embryo cryotolerance. Finally, nutrition can alter concentrations of circulating or intrafollicular hormones and metabolites and the expression of genes in cattle oocytes and embryos. For an adequate feeding program to benefit reproductive performance, factors such as genetic group, source of energy, metabolic status, physiological status and level of feed intake must be taken into account.

  3. Effects of acute acamprosate and homotaurine on ethanol intake and ethanol-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Olive, M Foster; Nannini, Michelle A; Ou, Christine J; Koenig, Heather N; Hodge, Clyde W

    2002-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the acute effects of the anticraving compound acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) and the closely related compound homotaurine on ethanol intake and ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Male rats were treated with acamprosate (200 or 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.) or homotaurine (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg i.p.) 15 min prior to access to 10% ethanol and water for 1 h in a two-bottle choice restricted access paradigm. A separate group of rats was implanted with microdialysis probes in the nucleus accumbens and given an acute injection of ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p.) that was preceded by saline, acamprosate, or homotaurine. Acamprosate and homotaurine dose-dependently reduced ethanol intake and preference. These compounds also delayed or suppressed ethanol-stimulated increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine release, suggesting that acamprosate and homotaurine may reduce ethanol intake by interfering with the ability of ethanol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine reward system.

  4. Effects of synbiotic supplementation on lactating mothers' energy intake and BMI, and infants' growth.

    PubMed

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive daily supplement of synbiotic (n = 40) or a placebo (n = 40) for 30 days. Information on dietary intake was collected and anthropometric measurements were taken using standard calibrated instruments. Data analysis was carried out using nutritionist IV, SPSS and Epi Info software. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a slight increase in mean energy intake while, in the placebo group, maternal energy intake decreased significantly (p < 0.023). Although maternal weight and BMI increased slightly in the supplemented group, these two parameters decreased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Also, infants' weight gain in the synbiotic group was significantly higher than the placebo group after the intervention (p < 0.044). Synbiotics may prevent weight loss in lactating mothers and result in weight gain in infants. Further experiments are required to study these effects in undernourished lactating mothers and their infants.

  5. Effectiveness of cell phones and mypyramidtracker.gov to estimate fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Long, JoAnn D; Boswell, Carol; Rogers, Toby J; Littlefield, Laurel A; Estep, Gary; Shriver, Brent J; Roman-Shriver, Carmen R; Culpepper, Dean; Kuenzi, Gina; Song, Huaxin

    2013-02-01

    Inadequate fruit and vegetable intake is linked to leading causes of global mortality and rise in obesity. Measuring fruit and vegetable intake is problematic. Advances in cell phone technologies may improve the accuracy and ease of recording diet. This study tested the effectiveness of using cell phones with digital pictures to prompt memory and mypyramidtracker.gov to estimate self-reported fruit and vegetable intake in 69 college students. A repeated measures design was used. Focus groups provided feedback on the acceptability, usability, and feasibility of cell phones for diet recording in this population. A statistically significant difference in fruit and vegetable scores, F(1, 58)=4.64, p=.04, was supported between cell phone use for short-term memory prompt and mypyramidtracker.gov alone. Cell phone pictures improved memory and accuracy of recall when using an online self-reported interactive diet record and was considered an easy, relevant, and accessible way to record diet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Population pharmacokinetics of blonanserin in Chinese healthy volunteers and the effect of the food intake.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu-Guan; Shang, De-Wei; Xie, He-Zhi; Wang, Xi-Pei; Ni, Xiao-Jia; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Wei; Qiu, Chang; Liu, Xia; Li, Fang-Fang; Li, Xuan; Luo, Fu-Tian

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the study was to better understand blonanserin population pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics in Chinese healthy subjects. Data from two studies with 50 subjects were analyzed to investigate the population PK characteristics of blonanserin at single dose (4, 8, and 12 mg) under fasting, multidose (4 mg bid or 8 mg qd for 7 days) and under food intake condition (single dose, 8 mg). Blonanserin plasma concentrations were detected using the high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed to describe the blonanserin concentration-time profiles. A two compartment model with first-order absorption was built to describe the time-course of blonanserin. The population-predicted system apparent clearance (CL/F), volume of apparent distribution in center (V(1)/F), and the first-order absorption rate constant (Ka) of blonanserin under fasting was 1230 L/h, 9500 L, and 3.02 h(-1), respectively. Food intake decreased Ka of blonanserin to 0.78 h(-1). The relative bioavailability between fasting and food intake estimated by the final model was 55%. No clinically significant safety issues were identified. This is the first study assessing the PK profile of blonanserin with population PKs method. The results can be used for simulation in further clinical trial and optimize individual dosage regimens using a Bayesian methodology in patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Leptin regulates peripheral lipid metabolism primarily through central effects on food intake

    PubMed Central

    Prieur, Xavier; Tung, Y. C. Loraine; Griffin, Julian L; Farooqi, I Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Coll, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic effects of leptin may involve both centrally and peripherally mediated actions with a component of the central actions potentially independent of alterations in food intake. Ob/ob mice have significant abnormalities in lipid metabolism, correctable by leptin administration. We used ob/ob mice to study the relative importance of the subtypes of actions of leptin (central vs peripheral; food intake dependent vs independent) on lipid metabolism. Mice were treated for 3 days with leptin, either centrally (ICV) or peripherally (IP), and compared with mice pair-fed to the leptin-treated mice (PF) and with ad libitum fed controls (C). All treatment groups (ICV, IP, PF) showed indistinguishable changes in liver weight, hepatic steatosis, hepatic lipidomic profile and circulating free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol lipoprotein profile. Changes in the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in liver, muscle and white fat were broadly similar in IP, ICV and PF groups. Leptin (both ICV and IP) stimulated expression of both mitochondrial and peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (liver) and PPARα (skeletal muscle) to an extent not replicated by pair feeding. Leptin had profound effects on peripheral lipid metabolism but the majority were explained by its effects on food intake. Leptin had additional centrally mediated effects to increase the expression of a limited number of genes concerned with fatty acid oxidation. While we cannot exclude direct peripheral effects of leptin on certain aspects of lipid metabolism we were unable to detect any such effects on the parameters measured in this study. PMID:18635658

  8. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Reoner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A surjective bounded linear operator T from a Banach space X to a Banach space Y must be a sufficient statistic for a dominated family of probability measures defined on the Borel sets of X. These results were applied, so that they characterize linear sufficient statistics for families of the exponential type, including as special cases the Wishart and multivariate normal distributions. The latter result was used to establish precisely which procedures for sampling from a normal population had the property that the sample mean was a sufficient statistic.

  9. Daily intake of green and yellow vegetables is effective for maintaining bone mass in young women.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroko; Noda, Tsuyako; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Muto, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    The increasing proportion of underweight young women may lead to an increase in those with low bone mass. The present study investigated whether bone mass level is associated with lifestyle factors among young Japanese women. A total of 103 Japanese female college students aged 20-21 majoring in food science participated in this cross-sectional study. We measured bone area ratio at the os calcis using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and assessed lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity using a self-reported questionnaire. Bone area ratio was defined as a proportion of bone substance in a cross section of os trabeculare. Ninety-one subjects who completed the questionnaire were categorized into two groups according to the average bone area ratio of the 103 subjects (30.9%), calculated based on the screening method for osteoporosis prevention: 69 subjects with normal bone mass (bone area ratio: 36.2 +/- 3.8%) and 22 subjects with low bone mass (bone area ratio: 28.1 +/- 1.6%). In normal group, 12 subjects (17.4%) had a dietary habit of not daily intake of green and yellow vegetables, such as carrot and spinach, while this occurred in 10 subjects (45.5%) in low group (P = 0.007). Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that the subjects without daily intake of green and yellow vegetables had almost 5-fold risk of low bone mass, compared to the subjects having daily intake of the vegetables [Odds ratio: 4.96 (95%CI 1.36-18.18)]. In conclusion, daily intake of green and yellow vegetables is effective for maintaining bone mass in young women.

  10. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  11. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  12. Independent, additive effects of five dietary variables on ad libitum energy intake in a residential study.

    PubMed

    Urban, Lorien E; McCrory, Megan A; Rasmussen, Helen; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fuss, Paul J; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B

    2014-09-01

    To examine the relationship between dietary characteristics of self-selected foods and energy balance in a cafeteria-style dining hall. Ad libitum dietary intake from a self-selection menu was measured over two days in 151 adults (70% female, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) ). The associations of dietary variables with energy balance (calculated as measured energy intake/predicted energy requirements, pER) were assessed. Measured energy intake was significantly correlated with pER (R(2) =0.83, P < 0.001). In mixed multiple regression models, percent energy from protein was negatively associated with energy balance (R(2) =0.04, P = 0.02), and percent energy from liquid sources (R(2)  = 0.02, P = 0.05), total dietary variety in females (R(2)  = 0.39, P < 0.001), and energy density (R(2)  = 0.57, P < 0.001) were positively associated with energy balance. In addition, glycemic index was inversely associated with energy balance in normal-weight individuals (R(2)  = 0.14, P < 0.001) but not in overweight or obese individuals. There are independent associations of dietary protein, liquid calories, energy density, dietary variety, and glycemic index with energy balance, indicating additive effects of these dietary factors on energy intake and energy balance. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether dietary prescriptions combining these dietary factors facilitate long-term prevention of weight gain. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. Effect of restricted feed intake of dams and heat stress on mineral status of newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Kume, S; Toharmat, T; Kobayashi, N

    1998-06-01

    To clarify the effects of restricted feed intake, heat stress, and parity on the mineral status of cows and heifers around parturition and on the mineral status of their calves during 1 wk of age, data were collected from 66 Holstein cows and heifers and their calves. In Experiment 1, 36 heifers and mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet requirements for total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, and minerals. In Experiment 2, 15 mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet maintenance requirements for TDN plus requirements for TDN for the last 2 mo of gestation, and 15 heifers were fed to meet TDN requirements. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures of newborn calves. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of heifers around parturition were higher than those of mature cows, but blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves born from heifers were lower. The restricted feed intake of dams decreased blood hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as plasma Fe of calves in hot and cool weather. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, and alkaline phosphatase as well as colostral Ca, P, Mg, and Zn of heifers were higher than those of mature cows, but plasma Mg of heifers was lower. Plasma Mg of calves and their dams was lower in hot weather than in cool weather, and restricted feed intake accelerated the reduction in plasma Mg of calves and their dams during hot weather. Plasma Na of calves and their dams was higher in hot weather than in cool weather. Heat stress increased plasma K of heifers and their calves. Heat stress increased Ca concentration in meconium of calves born from cows, and the restricted feed intake increased P concentrations in meconium. These results suggest that the maintenance of optimum erythropoiesis and mineral status in heatstressed periparturient cows and heifers and their calves must be met by dietary energy and minerals that are fed at maintenance concentrations plus excess requirements necessary during the gestation

  14. The effect of post-exercise drink macronutrient content on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David J; Stensel, David J; Watson, Phillip; James, Lewis J

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate and protein ingestion post-exercise are known to facilitate muscle glycogen resynthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, but the effects of post-exercise nutrient intake on subsequent appetite are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether protein induced satiety that has been reported at rest was still evident when pre-loads were consumed in a post-exercise context. Using a randomised, double blind, crossover design, 12 unrestrained healthy males completed 30 min of continuous cycling exercise at ~60% VO2peak, followed by five, 3 min intervals at ~85% VO2peak. Ten min post-exercise, subjects consumed 500 ml of either a low energy placebo (15 kJ) (PLA); a 6% whey protein isolate drink (528 kJ) (PRO); or a 6% sucrose drink (528 kJ) (CHO). Sixty min after drink ingestion, a homogenous ad-libitum pasta lunch was provided and energy intake at this lunch was quantified. Subjective appetite ratings were measured at various stages of the protocol. Energy consumed at the ad-libitum lunch was lower after PRO (5831 ± 960 kJ) than PLA (6406 ± 492 kJ) (P<0.05), but not different between CHO (6111 ± 901 kJ) and the other trials (P>0.315). Considering the post-exercise drink, total energy intake was not different between trials (P=0.383). There were no differences between trials for any of the subjective appetite ratings. The results demonstrate that where post-exercise liquid protein ingestion may enhance the adaptive response of skeletal muscle, this may be possible without affecting gross energy intake relative to consuming a low energy drink.

  15. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: Evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Niderkorn, V; Martin, C; Rochette, Y; Julien, S; Baumont, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique. Positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary DMI ( < 0.001), which was greater when sheep were fed with at least 50% red clover (1.56-1.59 kg/d) compared with those fed with 0 or 25% red clover (1.29 and 1.45 kg/d, respectively; < 0.001). This synergy between forages was not observed on nutrient digestibility, as these parameters linearly decreased with increasing proportions of red clover ( < 0.001). As a result, positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary intake of digestible DM ( < 0.001). Taken together, the results indicate that the synergy on voluntary intake was due to a greater motivation of animals to eat mixtures (seen in increased intake rates) rather than a positive associative effect on digestive efficiency. Methane yield decreased linearly with increasing proportion of red clover ( < 0.001) and ranged from 20.0 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% orchardgrass to 16.1 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% red clover. Mixtures of orchardgrass and red clover quadratically ( = 0.03) decreased urinary nitrogen losses and tended ( = 0.099) to quadratically increase nitrogen retention. This synergy between orchardgrass and red clover silages could improve animal performances in addition to the known agronomic benefits of grass-legume mixtures.

  16. A low effective dose of interleukin-7 is sufficient to maintain cord blood T cells alive without potentiating allo-immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Laurent; Hivert, Bénédicte; Trauet, Jacques; Deberranger, Eva; Dessaint, Jean-Paul; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Labalette, Myriam

    2015-04-01

    Slow reconstitution of T cell immunity remains a critical issue after umbilical cord blood (CB) transplantation. Although this may be a consequence of the low cell dose, it may also reflect the propensity of naïve T cells, which predominate in CB, to undergo apoptotic cell death. Exogenous interleukin 7 (IL-7) can prevent apoptosis of naïve T cells, but at high concentrations, IL-7 may also expand alloreactive T cells, thereby aggravating the risk of graft-versus-host disease. We evaluated the survival of CB T cells from 34 healthy full-term pregnancies, and we found wide interdonor variation, from 17.4% to 79.7%, of CB T cells that were still alive after being rested for 4 days in culture medium without cytokine supplementation. The viability of CB T cells was negatively correlated to infant birth weight (Spearman's ρ = .376; P = .031) and positively correlated to venous CB pH (ρ = .397; P = .027); both associations were confirmed by multivariate analysis (P = .023 and P = .005, respectively). A low supplemental concentration (100 pg/mL) of recombinant human IL-7 was sufficient to maintain the viability of cryopreserved/thawed CB T cells, with most (>80%) cells remaining in a quiescent state and without significant changes in their CD4/CD8 ratio and the proportion of CD4(+) CD31(+) PTK7(+) recent thymic emigrants. IL-7 at 100 pg/mL did not lead to any significant enhancement of the alloreactive response of CB T cells, as evaluated by proliferation rates (thymidine incorporation and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester dilution) and interferon-gamma production (ELISPOT). This effective concentration of IL-7 is far lower than that obtained in vivo after pharmacological administration of the cytokine. This study suggests that administration of lower doses of recombinant human IL-7 than used in previous clinical trials may be sufficient to sustain the viability of infused CB T cells and, thus, help to accelerate naïve T cell reconstitution without

  17. No additional effect of different types of physical activity on 10-hour muscle protein synthesis in elderly men on a controlled energy- and protein-sufficient diet.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Jacob; Agergaard, Jakob; Kjaer, Michael; Holm, Lars; Reitelseder, Søren

    2016-06-15

    The elderly lose skeletal muscle mass with age, which may be detrimental for function and quality of life. Both inactivity and heavy resistance exercise are known to have marked but opposite effects upon muscle mass. However, the potential effects of daily physical activity upon muscle protein synthesis (MPS) are less investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily physical activities upon MPS in elderly individuals. A total of 24 elderly men (70±1year) were recruited and randomly assigned: inactivity in form of bed-rest (IA), daily physical activities (DA), or heavy resistance exercise (RE). All groups undertook a normal eating routine containing carbohydrates (52 E%), fat (32 E%), and protein (16 E%). Ingestion of labeled milk protein ([1-(13)C]leucine-labeled whey and caseinate) served to maintain tracer enrichment for determination of 10-hour myofibrillar protein fractional synthesis rates (FSR), and typical prerequisites for calculating FSR were fulfilled. Physical activities were monitored, and venous blood and muscle biopsies collected. Physical activity was highest in the DA compared to both the IA and RE groups. Nutrient ingestion increased insulin, leucine, and phenylalanine plasma concentrations in all groups. [1-(13)C]leucine enrichment was stable throughout the 10-hour FSR period. Myofibrillar protein FSR were similar for IA, DA, and RE groups, 0.055±0.003%/h, 0.058±0.006%/h, and 0.065±0.008%/h, respectively (means±SE, P=0.44). In elderly males, inactivity, daily activities, and resistance exercise interventions result in equal 10-hour, whole day MPS during an energy- and protein-sufficient diet regimen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of intake of pickles containing Lactobacillus brevis on immune activity and bowel symptoms in female students.

    PubMed

    Takii, Yukio; Nishimura, Sayaka; Yoshida-Yamamoto, Syumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Nagayoshi, Emi

    2013-01-01

    Forty-four female students with a tendency for constipation (mean age, 20.2±3.3 y) were asked to consume 30 g test pickles daily for 2 wk and were divided into 3 groups: viable-cell intake subjects (n=14, 3.0×10⁵ colony-forming units of viable LAB (lactic acid bacteria) cells per sample), dead-cells intake subjects (n=15, viable cells were heat sterilized), and placebo-intake subjects (n=15, LAB removed from the pickles). γ-Aminobutyric acid content of 75.1±3.2 mg per sample was noted, with no marked difference between samples containing viable and dead cells. Natural killer (NK)-cell activity (% specific lysis) in serum from dead-cell intake subjects was 37.5±17.0% before the start of the test-food intake and 47.7±20.1% after intake, indicating statistically significant effects (p<0.01). However, viable-cell intake and placebo intake subjects showed no statistically significant difference. The number of days with bowel movements significantly increased from 3.8±1.5 to 4.9±1.8 d in the dead-cell intake group, whereas a slight change from 4.6±1.5 to 5.1±1.7 d was observed in the viable-cell intake group. Additionally, the feeling of incomplete evacuation fell and a refreshed feeling increased among the subjects with constipation. Thus, marked enhancement of NK-cell activity and improved bowel symptoms were observed in subjects consuming pickles containing dead LAB cells.

  19. Altering physically effective fiber intake through forage proportion and particle length: digestion and milk production.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-07-01

    Intake of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of dairy cows was altered by adjusting the proportion of forage in the diet and forage particle length, and effects on nutrient intake, site and extent of digestion, microbial N synthesis, and milk production were measured. The experiment was designed as a triplicated 4 x 4 Latin square using 12 lactating dairy cows, with 4 that were ruminally and duodenally cannulated, 4 that were ruminally cannulated, and 4 that were intact. Thus, the site and extent of digestion, and microbial N synthesis were measured in a single 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios (dry matter basis). Dietary peNDF content was determined from the sum of the proportion (dry matter basis) of dietary dry matter retained either on the 2 screens (8- and 19-mm) or on the 3 screens (1.18-, 8-, and 19-mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by the neutral detergent fiber content of the diet. An increased F:C ratio reduced intakes of dry matter and starch by 9 and 46%, respectively, but increased intake of fiber from forage sources by 53%. Digestibility of dry matter in the total tract was not affected, whereas total digestion of fiber and N was improved by increasing the F:C ratio. Improved total fiber digestion resulted from higher ruminal digestion, which was partially due to a shift in starch digestion from the rumen to the intestine with the increased F:C ratio. Actual milk yield was decreased but production of 4% fat-corrected milk was similar between the low and high F:C diets because of increased milk fat content. Increased FPL increased intake of peNDF, especially when the high F:C diet was fed. However, nutrient intakes, N metabolism in the digestive tract, and milk production were not affected. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in

  20. Effects of 7-keto Dehydroepiandrosterone on Voluntary Ethanol Intake in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Worrel, Mary E.; Gurkovskaya, Olga V.; Leonard, Stuart T.; Lewis, Peter B.; Winsauer, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid that can negatively modulate the GABAA receptor, has been shown to decrease voluntary intake of ethanol in rats. In vivo, DHEA can be metabolized to a variety of metabolites, including 7-keto DHEA, a metabolite without the prohormonal effects of DHEA. This study compared the effectiveness of 7-keto DHEA to DHEA for reducing ethanol intake in the same group of rats. The subjects, previously trained to drink ethanol using a saccharin-fading procedure, had access to ethanol for thirty minutes daily, and the amount consumed was recorded. Subjects were administered 10 and 56 mg/kg of DHEA or 7-keto DHEA intraperitoneally 15 minutes prior to drinking sessions. Subjects received each particular dose daily until one of two criteria was met; that is, either ethanol intake did not differ by more than 20% of the mean for three consecutive days, or for a maximum of eight days. Both 10 and 56 mg/kg of 7-keto DHEA significantly reduced the dose of ethanol consumed. While 10 mg/kg of 7-keto DHEA produced decreases similar to those found with DHEA, the 56-mg/kg dose of 7-keto DHEA was significantly more effective at decreasing the dose of ethanol consumed than the same dose of DHEA. These results show that 7-keto DHEA is comparable to, or possibly more effective than, DHEA at decreasing ethanol consumption in rats, and that 7-keto DHEA is a compound deserving further investigation as a possible clinical treatment for alcohol abuse without the prohormonal effects of DHEA. PMID:21051179

  1. Differential effects of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hong; Wu, Congqing; Howatt, Deborah A.; Balakrishnan, Anju; Charnigo, Richard J.; Cassis, Lisa A.; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The amount of dietary sodium intake regulates the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure, both of which play critical roles in atherosclerosis. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on atherosclerosis. This study applied a broad range of dietary sodium concentrations to determine the concomitant effects of dietary sodium intake on the RAS, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in mice. Eight-week-old male low-density lipoprotein receptor −/− mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet containing selected sodium concentrations (Na 0.01%, 0.1%, or 2% w/w) for 12 weeks. Mice in these three groups were all hypercholesterolemic, although mice fed Na 0.01% and Na 0.1% had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than mice fed Na 2%. Mice fed Na 0.01% had greater abundances of renal renin mRNA than those fed Na 0.1% and 2%. Plasma renin concentrations were higher in mice fed Na 0.01% (14.2±1.7 ng/ml/30 min) than those fed Na 0.1% or 2% (6.2±0.6 and 5.8±1.6 ng/ml per 30 min, respectively). However, systolic blood pressure at 12 weeks was higher in mice fed Na 2% (138±3 mm Hg) than those fed Na 0.01% and 0.1% (129±3 and 128±4 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, mice fed Na 0.01% (0.17±0.02 mm2) had larger atherosclerotic lesion areas in aortic roots than those fed Na 2% (0.09±0.01 mm2), whereas lesion areas in mice fed Na 0.1% (0.12±0.02 mm2) were intermediate between and not significantly different from those in Na 0.01% and Na 2% groups. In conclusion, while high dietary sodium intake led to higher systolic blood pressure, low dietary sodium intake augmented atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22705323

  2. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters.

  3. Differential effects of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Wu, Congqing; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Charnigo, Richard J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The amount of dietary sodium intake regulates the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure, both of which play critical roles in atherosclerosis. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on atherosclerosis. This study applied a broad range of dietary sodium concentrations to determine the concomitant effects of dietary sodium intake on the RAS, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in mice. Eight-week-old male low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet containing selected sodium concentrations (Na 0.01%, 0.1%, or 2% w/w) for 12 weeks. Mice in these three groups were all hypercholesterolemic, although mice fed Na 0.01% and Na 0.1% had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than mice fed Na 2%. Mice fed Na 0.01% had greater abundances of renal renin mRNA than those fed Na 0.1% and 2%. Plasma renin concentrations were higher in mice fed Na 0.01% (14.2 ± 1.7 ng/ml/30 min) than those fed Na 0.1% or 2% (6.2 ± 0.6 and 5.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml per 30 min, respectively). However, systolic blood pressure at 12 weeks was higher in mice fed Na 2% (138 ± 3 mm Hg) than those fed Na 0.01% and 0.1% (129 ± 3 and 128 ± 4 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, mice fed Na 0.01% (0.17 ± 0.02 mm(2)) had larger atherosclerotic lesion areas in aortic roots than those fed Na 2% (0.09 ± 0.01 mm(2)), whereas lesion areas in mice fed Na 0.1% (0.12 ± 0.02 mm(2)) were intermediate between and not significantly different from those in Na 0.01% and Na 2% groups. In conclusion, while high dietary sodium intake led to higher systolic blood pressure, low dietary sodium intake augmented atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  4. A systematic review of vascular and endothelial function: effects of fruit, vegetable and potassium intake.

    PubMed

    Blanch, N; Clifton, P M; Keogh, J B

    2015-03-01

    To review the relationships between: 1) Potassium and endothelial function; 2) Fruits and vegetables and endothelial function; 3) Potassium and other measures of vascular function; 4) Fruits and vegetables and other measures of vascular function. An electronic search for intervention trials investigating the effect of potassium, fruits and vegetables on vascular function was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Potassium appears to improve endothelial function with a dose of >40 mmol/d, however the mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Potassium may improve measures of vascular function however this effect may be dependent on the effect of potassium on blood pressure. The effect of fruit and vegetables on endothelial function independent of confounding variables is less clear. Increased fruit and vegetable intake may improve vascular function only in high risk populations. Increasing dietary potassium appears to improve vascular function but the effect of increasing fruit and vegetable intake per se on vascular function is less clear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A comparative study of the central effects of melanocortin peptides on food intake in broiler and layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Hasegawa, Shin; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. However, the causes of the difference in food intake in the neonatal period between these strains are not clear. In this study, we examined the involvement of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin peptides α-, β- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks. First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of POMC between these strains and found that there was no significant difference in these levels between broiler and layer chicks. Next, we examined the effects of central administration of MSHs on food intake in these strains. Central administration of α-MSH significantly suppressed food intake in both strains. Central administration of β-MSH significantly suppressed food intake in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks, while central administration of γ-MSH did not influence food intake in either strain. It is therefore likely that the absence of the anorexigenic effect of β-MSH might be related to the increased food intake in broiler chicks.

  6. Synergistic effects of social support and self-efficacy on dietary motivation predicting fruit and vegetable intake.

    PubMed

    Reyes Fernández, Benjamín; Warner, Lisa Marie; Knoll, Nina; Montenegro Montenegro, Esteban; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Self-efficacy and social support are considered relevant predictors of fruit and vegetable intake. This study examines whether the effect of self-efficacy on fruit and vegetable intake is mediated by intention and whether this motivational process is moderated by received dietary social support. A longitudinal study with two measurement points in time, four weeks apart, on fruit and vegetable intake was carried out with 473 students aged 19 years on average (52% women). In a conditional process analysis, dietary intention was specified as a mediator between self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intake, whereas received dietary support was specified as a moderator of the self-efficacy-intention association, controlling for baseline fruit and vegetable intake. Self-efficacy was positively associated with fruit and vegetable intake four weeks later, and intention mediated this process. Moreover, an interaction between received dietary support and self-efficacy on intention emerged. The effect of self-efficacy on fruit and vegetable intake was fully mediated by intention. Moreover, received support exhibited a moderating role within the motivational process: high dietary support appeared to accentuate the positive relationship between self-efficacy and dietary intention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-08-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS.

  8. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  9. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  10. Effects of short-term oral corticosteroid intake on dietary intake, body weight and body composition in adults with asthma - a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berthon, B S; Gibson, P G; McElduff, P; MacDonald-Wicks, L K; Wood, L G

    2015-05-01

    Oral corticosteroids (OCS) are an efficacious treatment for asthma exacerbations, yet risk of adverse effects may decrease patient adherence to therapy. In particular, changes in appetite and dietary intake, which lead to weight gain and changes in body composition, are considered undesirable. To determine whether 10-day OCS therapy in adults with asthma causes changes in leptin, appetite, dietary intake, body weight and body composition. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized cross-over trial of 10 days prednisolone (50 mg) in adults with stable asthma (n = 55) (ACTRN12611000562976). Pre- and post-assessment included spirometry, body weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis, appetite measured using a validated visual analogue scale (VAS) and dietary intake assessed using 4-day food records. Leptin was measured as a biomarker of appetite and eosinophils as an adherence biomarker. Outcomes were analysed by generalized linear mixed models. Subject adherence was confirmed by a significant decrease in blood eosinophils (× 10(9) /L) following prednisolone compared to placebo [Coef. -0.29, 95% CI: (-0.39, -0.19) P < 0.001]. There was no difference in serum leptin (ng/mL) [Coef. 0.13, 95% CI: (-3.47, 3.72) P = 0.945] or appetite measured by VAS (mm) [Coef. -4.93, 95% CI: (-13.64, 3.79) P = 0.267] following prednisolone vs. placebo. There was no difference in dietary intake (kJ/day) [Coef. 255, 95% CI: (-380, 891) P = 0.431], body weight (kg) [Coef. -0.38, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.05) P = 0.083] or body fat (%) [Coef. -0.31, 95% CI: (-0.81, 0.20) P = 0.230]. Symptoms including sleep and gastrointestinal disturbance were reported significantly more often during prednisolone vs. placebo. Short-term OCS in stable asthma did not induce significant changes in appetite, dietary intake, body weight or composition, although other adverse effects may require medical management. This evidence may assist in increasing

  11. The combined effects of protein intake and resistance training on serum osteocalcin concentrations in strength and power athletes.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Hoffman, Jay R; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Mangine, Gerald T; Falvo, Michael J; Kang, Jie

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the combined effects of protein intake and resistance training on a blood marker of bone osteogenesis, serum osteocalcin, in Division III football players. Thirty-three resistance-trained football players (age = 20.4 +/- 1.8 years; height = 180.9 +/- 7.0 cm; body mass = 97.2 +/- 12.6 kg) were evaluated on their protein intake and subsequently underwent 10 weeks of periodized heavy resistance training during the off season. Subjects were then placed into 1 of the following 3 groups based on relative protein intake and were instructed to maintain their diets throughout the experimental period: (a) low protein intake (<1.2 g per kilogram of body mass), (b) moderate protein intake (1.21 to 1.90 g per kilogram of body mass), or (c) high protein intake (>1.91 g per kilogram of body mass). Blood sampling occurred prior to and following the 10-week resistance training period to determine resting serum osteocalcin concentrations. A significant main effect was observed following training such that only the group who consumed <1.2 g per kilogram of body mass of protein shown significant elevations in serum osteocalcin in response to resistance training (26.8 +/- 6.4 to 33.4 +/- 6.6 ng.ml(-1)). In addition, absolute protein intake was significantly correlated to serum osteocalcin concentrations (r = 0.39). The results of the present investigation demonstrated relationships between protein intake and serum osteocalcin concentrations. In addition, the osteocalcin response to short-term resistance training appeared to be affected by protein intake.

  12. Effect of drinker type on water intake and waste in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Toth Tamminga, E L M; Widowski, T M

    2008-06-01

    During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate hunger through gut fill from a familiar ingestive source. Gut fill through water intake may affect the establishment of feeding behavior. Using drinker devices other than the standard nipple drinker may ease the piglets' transition at weaning by facilitating the initiation of feeding and preventing the development of behavioral problems such as excessive drinking and belly nosing. In this experiment, we examined the effect of drinker type on water and food intake, growth rates, and belly nosing in newly weaned piglets. Eighteen pens of 15 piglets each (270 piglets total) were weaned at 18.1 +/- 0.1 d of age and housed in pens containing 1 of 3 drinker devices (standard nipple, push-lever bowl, and float bowl). Piglets' water and feed intake, water use, BW, and behavior were examined on a pen basis through 2 wk after weaning. Piglets with nipple drinkers wasted more water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 295 +/- 70 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); nipple, 1,114 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); and push-lever, 186 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)), whereas piglets with float bowls consumed less water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 475 +/- 81 mL . pig(-1) x d(-1); nipple, 870 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); push-lever, 774 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)). Drinker type affected feeding behavior (P = 0.02); piglets with push-lever bowls spent less time at the feeder than the other piglets, although no difference was detected for feed intake (P = 0.64) or overall ADG (P = 0.16). Piglets with push-lever bowls also tended to perform less piglet-directed nosing behavior than piglets with the float bowl (P = 0.04). Piglets appear to use more water during the first 2 d after weaning with

  13. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  14. Dietary intake of fibers: differential effects in men and women on perceived general health and immune functioning.

    PubMed

    Fernstrand, Amanda M; Bury, Didi; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2017-01-01

    Background: It has been reported previously that dietary fiber intake provides health benefits. Nevertheless, only a limited number of human studies have investigated whether gender differences exist in the relationship between fiber intake and perceived health and immune status. Objective: To investigate potential gender differences in the effects of dietary fiber intake on perceived health and immune status of healthy young adults. Design: A survey was conducted among university students in Utrecht, the Netherlands. Data were collected on perceived general health status and perceived immune functioning. Dietary intake of fibers was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Perceived general health status and immune functioning were associated with daily intake of fibers using nonparametric (Spearman) correlations. Statistical analyses were conducted for the group as a whole, and for men and women separately. Results: N = 509 subjects completed the survey. Mean (SD) age was 20.8 (2.6) years old. 71.9% of the samples were females. Mean daily dietary fiber intake was 15.5 (6.9) g. Daily dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with general health rate (r = 0.171, p = 0.0001) and perceived immune functioning (r = 0.124, p = 0.008). After controlling for total caloric intake, the partial correlation between fiber intake and general health remained significant (r = 0.151, p = 0.002). In men, dietary fiber intake correlated significantly with perceived general health status (r = 0.320, p = 0.0001) and immune functioning (r = 0.281, p = 0.002). After controlling for caloric intake, the association between dietary fiber intake and perceived general health (r = 0.261, p = 0.005) remained significant. Remarkably, no significant correlations were observed in women. Conclusion: A significant association between daily dietary fiber intake and perceived general health status and immune rate was found in men, but not in women. Future studies

  15. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  16. Effects of distraction and focused attention on actual and perceived food intake in females with non-clinical eating psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Long, Stacey; Meyer, Caroline; Leung, Newman; Wallis, Deborah J

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of distraction and focused attention on both food intake and accuracy of perceived intake in women with non-clinical levels of disordered eating. In a laboratory study, twenty-seven young women consumed three identical pasta meals once a week for three consecutive weeks. Meals were eaten ad libitum during a control and two test conditions, in which attention was either diverted away from (distraction condition) or directed towards food-related stimuli (focused attention condition). They also completed the drive for thinness, bulimia and body dissatisfaction subscales of the Eating Disorders Inventory-2. Intake was significantly higher in the distraction than in the control or focused attention conditions, but was not related to eating psychopathology. A measure of accuracy of perceived intake indicated that drive for thinness was associated with overestimation of food intake in the focused attention condition. This study suggests that distraction could promote food intake in all non-clinical consumers, irrespective of individual differences in eating behaviours. Furthermore, it suggests that those with a high drive for thinness may overestimate intake when required to focus on their food. These findings could have implications for mealtime interventions in the treatment of eating disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of central histamine receptors blockade on GABA(A) agonist-induced food intake in broiler cockerels.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Zendehdel; Vahhab, Babapour; Hossein, Jonaidi

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection of H1, H2 and H3 antagonists on feed intake induced by GABA(A) agonist was evaluated. In Experiment 1, the animals received chloropheniramine, a H1 antagonist and then muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist. In Experiment 2, chickens received famotidine, a H2 receptor antagonist, prior to injection of muscimol. Finally in Experiment 3, the birds were injected with thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist and muscimol. Cumulative food intake was measured 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after injections. The results of this study indicated that effects of muscimol on food intake inhibited by pretreatment with chloropheneramine maleate (p < or = 0.05), significantly, while the famotidine and thioperamide were ineffective. These results suggest the existence of H1-receptor mediated histamine-GABA(A) receptor interaction on food intake in broiler cockerels.

  18. Structural analogs of pyrazole and sulfonamide cannabinoids: Effects on acute food intake in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiley, Jenny L.; Marusich, Julie A.; Zhang, Yanan; Fulp, Alan; Maitra, Rangan; Thomas, Brian F.; Mahadevan, Anu

    2012-01-01

    Obesity contributes to a multitude of serious health problems. Given the demonstrated role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in appetite regulation, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate structural analogs of two cannabinoids, rimonabant (cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist) and O-2050 (sulfonamide analog of Δ8-tetrahydrocannabinol), that showed appetite suppressant effects in previous studies. Structure–activity relationships of these two lead compounds were examined in several assays, including cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor binding, food intake, and an in vivo test battery (locomotor activity, antinociception, ring immobility, and body temperature) in mice. Rimonabant and O-2050 reliably decreased feeding in mice; however, their analogs decreased feeding only at higher doses, even though some compounds had quite good cannabinoid CB1 binding affinity. Results of the in vivo test battery were inconsistent, with some of the compounds producing effects characteristic of cannabinoid agonists while other compounds were inactive or were antagonists against an active dose of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These results demonstrate that reduction of food intake is not a characteristic effect of pyrazole and sulfonamide cannabinoid analogs with favorable cannabinoid CB1 binding affinity, suggesting that development of these classes of cannabinoids for the treatment of obesity will require evaluation of their effects in a broad spectrum of pharmacological assays. PMID:22975289

  19. Structural analogs of pyrazole and sulfonamide cannabinoids: effects on acute food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jenny L; Marusich, Julie A; Zhang, Yanan; Fulp, Alan; Maitra, Rangan; Thomas, Brian F; Mahadevan, Anu

    2012-11-15

    Obesity contributes to a multitude of serious health problems. Given the demonstrated role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in appetite regulation, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate structural analogs of two cannabinoids, rimonabant (cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist) and O-2050 (sulfonamide analog of Δ(8)-tetrahydrocannabinol), that showed appetite suppressant effects in previous studies. Structure-activity relationships of these two lead compounds were examined in several assays, including cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor binding, food intake, and an in vivo test battery (locomotor activity, antinociception, ring immobility, and body temperature) in mice. Rimonabant and O-2050 reliably decreased feeding in mice; however, their analogs decreased feeding only at higher doses, even though some compounds had quite good cannabinoid CB(1) binding affinity. Results of the in vivo test battery were inconsistent, with some of the compounds producing effects characteristic of cannabinoid agonists while other compounds were inactive or were antagonists against an active dose of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. These results demonstrate that reduction of food intake is not a characteristic effect of pyrazole and sulfonamide cannabinoid analogs with favorable cannabinoid CB(1) binding affinity, suggesting that development of these classes of cannabinoids for the treatment of obesity will require evaluation of their effects in a broad spectrum of pharmacological assays. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.