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Sample records for intake sufficiently effective

  1. Nutritional intakes in community-dwelling older Japanese adults: high intakes of energy and protein based on high consumption of fish, vegetables and fruits provide sufficient micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Hanamori, Kiyoko; Kadoya, Hiroko; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Miyazaki, Hideo

    2004-06-01

    acid, potassium and dietary fiber, phosphorus and vitamin B2, phosphorus and pantothenic acid, iron and folic acid, zinc and vitamin B12, and copper and vitamin B12. From these results, it is evident that age is not an important determinant of dietary intake among apparently healthy elderly Japanese people aged 74 y. In addition, the high intake of energy and protein in the Japanese dietary pattern, based upon high consumption of fish and/or shellfish, vegetables, and fruits, provide sufficient minerals and vitamins.

  2. Pattern of beverage intake and milk and dairy products sufficiency among high-school students in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Nassar, M F; AbdelKader, A M; Al-Refaee, F A; Al-Dhafiri, S S

    2014-12-17

    High consumption of soft drinks has been associated with lower intakes of milk and calcium-rich foods and higher body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to explore the pattern of beverage intake among Kuwaiti high-school students. A questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning beverages and milk and dairy products intake was completed by 190 Kuwaiti students aged 16-18 years and BMI was calculated for 181 of them. Intake of sweetened carbonated beverages and to a lesser extent packaged fruit juices affected the sufficiency of milk and dairy products intake among the sample of high-school students in Kuwait. Although BMI was not related to milk and dairy insufficiency, more of the overweight and obese students displayed incorrect practices. Nutritional education of high-school students on the importance of milk and dairy products as well as the hazards of excess sweetened carbonated beverages and packaged juice is recommended to prevent the obesity epidemic prevailing in Kuwait.

  3. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system, specifically in the subfornical organ is sufficient to induce fluid intake.

    PubMed

    Coble, Jeffrey P; Cassell, Martin D; Davis, Deborah R; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2014-08-15

    Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system within the brain elevates fluid intake, blood pressure, and resting metabolic rate. Renin and angiotensinogen are coexpressed within the same cells of the subfornical organ, and the production and action of ANG II through the ANG II type 1 receptor in the subfornical organ (SFO) are necessary for fluid intake due to increased activity of the brain renin-angiotensin system. We generated an inducible model of ANG II production by breeding transgenic mice expressing human renin in neurons controlled by the synapsin promoter with transgenic mice containing a Cre-recombinase-inducible human angiotensinogen construct. Adenoviral delivery of Cre-recombinase causes SFO-selective induction of human angiotensinogen expression. Selective production of ANG II in the SFO results in increased water intake but did not change blood pressure or resting metabolic rate. The increase in water intake was ANG II type 1 receptor-dependent. When given a choice between water and 0.15 M NaCl, these mice increased total fluid and sodium, but not water, because of an increased preference for NaCl. When provided a choice between water and 0.3 M NaCl, the mice exhibited increased fluid, water, and sodium intake, but no change in preference for NaCl. The increase in fluid intake was blocked by an inhibitor of PKC, but not ERK, and was correlated with increased phosphorylated cyclic AMP response element binding protein in the subfornical organ. Thus, increased production and action of ANG II specifically in the subfornical organ are sufficient on their own to mediate an increase in drinking through PKC.

  4. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine.

  5. Drug intake is sufficient, but conditioning is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking after extended self-administration.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sietse; Pelloux, Yann; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-06-01

    Compulsive drug seeking, which is characterized by continued instrumental effort despite contingent punishment, has been shown to emerge after extended drug self-administration. Exactly what aspect of drug self-administration drives the appearance of addictive behavior is unclear, but the mechanistic explanations that have been offered differ in one key respect. On one hand, it has been suggested that dysfunctional conditioning during self-administration drives unrealistic reward expectations, ultimately producing resistance to punishment. If this is indeed the pathological process that drives compulsive behavior, then compulsivity should be apparent only in the presence of the pavlovian and instrumental stimuli that underwent frequent pairing with the drug reward. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that extended drug intake produces general changes to reward and decision-making circuits that manifest as compulsive drug seeking. Unfortunately, conditioning history and drug intake are generally intrinsically intertwined. However, here we used an animal model of compulsive cocaine seeking to selectively manipulate drug intake and the degree of conditioning in the test context, to investigate which of the two is more important for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking. The results show that extended drug intake alone is sufficient, but extended conditioning in the test context is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking, resolving a fundamental question in addiction research.

  6. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  7. Evaluation of Shearing Time Sufficient for Effective Liquid Metal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybalska, Agnieszka; Eskin, Dmitry; Patel, Jayesh B.

    2017-03-01

    Melt shearing has been suggested to be an efficient means of structure refinement through oxide dispersion and fragmentation. One of the process parameters that needs to be optimized is the shearing time. In this paper, the effect of shearing time on alumina powder refinement was studied in a model system with water as a working fluid. The established time was taken as a first approximation for experiments with the liquid metals processing by a high shear device based on a rotor-stator technology. The water model findings were confirmed experimentally on liquid aluminum alloys, and indicate that the optimal time of mixing is equal to 4 min in fully agitated conditions for the volume of 2.7 dm3.

  8. Vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency among Canadian children residing at high latitude following the revision of the RDA of vitamin D intake in 2010.

    PubMed

    Munasinghe, Lalani L; Yuan, Yan; Willows, Noreen D; Faught, Erin L; Ekwaru, John P; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-03-01

    Recently, countries at high latitudes have updated their vitamin D recommendations to ensure adequate intake for the musculoskeletal health of their respective populations. In 2010, the dietary guidelines for vitamin D for Canadians and Americans aged 1-70 years increased from 5 μg/d to 15 μg/d, whereas in 2016 for citizens of the UK aged ≥4 years 10 μg/d is recommended. The vitamin D status of Canadian children following the revised dietary guidelines is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency and sufficiency among Canadian children. For this study, we assumed serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations <30 nmol/l as 'deficient' and ≥50nmol/l as 'sufficient'. Data from children aged 3-18 years (n 2270) who participated in the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey were analysed. Of all children, 5·6 % were vitamin D deficient and 71 % were vitamin D sufficient. Children who consumed vitamin D-fortified milk daily (77 %) were more likely to be sufficient than those who consumed it less frequently (OR 2·7; 95 % CI 1·4, 5·0). The 9 % of children who reported taking vitamin D-containing supplements in the previous month had higher 25(OH)D concentrations (OR 6·9 nmol/l; 95 % CI 1·1, 12·7 nmol/l) relative to those who did not. Children who were older, obese, of non-white ethnicity and from low-income households were less likely to be vitamin D sufficient. To improve vitamin D status, consumption of vitamin D-rich foods should be promoted, and fortification of more food items or formal recommendations for vitamin D supplementation should be considered.

  9. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning.

  10. Effects of human opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice following central administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Tian, Xiao-Zhu; Bai, Lu; Liu, Ze-Qi; Xiao, Xing-Peng; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiang-Kai

    2017-02-22

    Human opiorphin plays an important pharmacological functions in rats or mice. The present study was performed to investigate effects and underlying mechanism of central injected opiorphin on food intake and water intake in mice. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered opiorphin (5-20μg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed food intake in fasted mice, but had no influence on food intake in freely feeding mice. The cumulative food intake was significantly decreased at 60min after injection of 10 and 20μg/kg opiorphin and the food intake was significantly reduced during the 20-60min period after treatment. Non-selected opiate receptor antagonist naloxone could fully block the inhibitory effect induced by opiorphin on cumulative food intake at 60min in fasted mice, suggesting that the anorexic effect of opiorphin was related to the opioid system. Moreover, the anorexic effect induced by opiorphin in fasted mice was also significantly inhibited by pretreatment with captopril or valsartan, which suggested that endogenous angiotensin may be involved in the response to opiorphin. Interestingly, the effect of opiorphin on water intake was increased in both fasted and freely feeding mice, which was completely blocked by captopril and valsartan. Furthermore, naloxone did not modify the effect of opiorphin on water intake. All together, the food and water intake effects of opiorphin may be due to the protection of the endogenous angiotensin and opioid peptides from degradation by NEP or APN.

  11. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  12. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  13. Effect of renin-angiotensin system on sodium intake.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaraviglio, E

    1976-01-01

    1. Water and saline intake was measured in rats depleted of Na by I.P. dialysis. Na intake was prevented 180 min but not 60-90 min after bilateral nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy as well as ureteral ligature had no effect on Na intake. 2. Renin (3u.) injected I.P. re-established the Na appetite abolished by nephrectomy. 3. Angiotensin I (5 ng) or II (5-40 ng) injected into the 3rd ventricle, also restored the Na intake and this effect was dose-dependent. 4. The angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor Sq 20,881 (1 mg/kg) inhibited the effect of AI but not that of AII in restoring Na intake. 5. It is concluded that the kidneys might play a role in the regulation of Na intake through the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:1255521

  14. Effect of various intake designs on zooplankton entrainment

    SciTech Connect

    Dycus, D.L.

    1983-03-01

    Field studies were conducted at the intakes of three Tennessee Valley Authority electric power plants to determine whether intake design is a feasible means of mitigating effects on zooplankton by minimizing the quantity entrained. Three intake designs were evaluated: one with a shallow skimmer wall, one with a deep skimmer wall, and one with no skimmer wall. Many sample sets from these studies were highly variable because of inadequate sample replication, thus precluding the use of statistical tests on some of the data. Where possible, an analysis of variance and a Student, Newman, Keuls multiple range test were computed and tested at the 0.05 level. Several studies indicated possible differences between day and night in the quantity of zooplankton entrained. The greater quantities entrained at night were related to a greater abundance in the source water body at night rather than to intake design. These results indicate that time-of-day differences might be used to mitigate effects on zooplankton at some intakes if the intake could be operated to require less cooling water when concentrations were greatest. None of these studies indicated that the intake designs studied minimized the quantity of zooplankton entrained because the quantities in the intake canals were similar to the quantities in the source water body.

  15. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  16. Effect of intravenous nutrient infusions on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Walls, E K; Koopmans, H S

    1989-06-01

    To assess the effect of gut signals on food intake two types of nutrients were infused intravenously for 17.5 hours in 17 hour fed rats. In the first experiment a solution of 25% d-glucose and 4.25% amino acids (Travasol) was infused at levels of 26 and 52 kcal/day for two consecutive four-day periods. During infusion periods, food intake was reduced from saline baseline levels by 18.9 +/- 1.7 and 34.8 +/- 1.8 kcal/day, respectively. This represents an oral intake reduction of approximately 70% of the infused calories. In contrast, food intake was reduced 17.4 +/- 1.7 kcal/day below saline baseline levels when 40 kcal of Nutralipid were infused. The reduction in food intake was only 43% of the lipid calories infused. These results indicate that infusions of glucose and amino acids are more effective than infusion of fats in inhibiting daily food intake, that gut signals associated with absorption of fat provide important satiety signals and that removal of fat from the bloodstream has relatively little effect on daily food intake.

  17. High potassium intake blunts the effect of elevated sodium intake on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Machado, Rebeca Caldeira; Forechi, Ludimila; Molina, Maria del Carmem Bisi; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary potassium on the sodium effect on blood pressure (BP) in the general population and the adherence of current recommendations for sodium and potassium intake. An overnight (12-hour) urine sample was collected in a population-based study to investigate cardiovascular risk. A sub-sample of 1285 subjects (age range, 25-64 years) free from any medication interfering with BP or potassium excretion was studied. Of the participants, 86.0% consumed over 6 g of salt/day and 87.7% less than the recommended intake of potassium (4.7 g). Potassium excretion and the sodium to potassium ratio were significantly related to systolic and diastolic BP only in subjects consuming more than 6 g/day of salt. Subjects in the highest sodium to potassium ratio quartile (surrogate of unhealthy diet) presented 8 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, when compared with the first quartile, while individuals in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (healthier diet) showed 6 mm Hg and 4 mm Hg lower systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Our data indicate that when people have an increased intake of potassium, high intake of sodium is not associated with higher BP.

  18. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  19. Effects of vitamin D deficiency and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Seung Joo; Koh, Yae Kyu; Heo, Jin Young; Lee, Jinae; Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Bo Hyon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the combined effects of vitamin D and daily calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study consisting of 1,921 Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years without thyroid dysfunction, from the 2008–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were classified into six groups according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and daily calcium intake. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at femur and at lumbar spine, and the serum vitamin D levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results The BMD divided according to serum 25(OH)D and daily calcium intakes were not statistically different among the groups. However, when both daily calcium intake and serum 25(OH)D were not sufficient, risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis showed significant increase in both femur neck and lumbar spine (odds ratio [OR] 2.242, P=0.006; OR 3.044, P=0.001; respectively). Although daily calcium intake was sufficient, risks of osteopenia and osteoporosis significantly increased in lumbar spine group if serum 25(OH)D is <20 ng/mL (OR 2.993, P=0.006). Conclusion The combined effects of insufficient daily calcium intake and vitamin D deficiency may cause low BMD and increase in prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in Korean postmenopausal women aged 45 to 70 years. PMID:28217672

  20. [Effectiveness of the use of iodized milk protein to improve girls' sufficiency with iodine].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, L S; Lisitsin, A B; Chernukha, I M; Zubtsov, Iu N; Litvinova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of the research capabilities of the use of iodized milk protein as a component of food supplement and enriched food product for the correction of iodine sufficiency in girls. Milk iodinated protein was produced by the enzyme-effective iodization of amino acid residues of cow's milk whey proteins. The study involved 30 girls, whose average age was 19.9 +/- 1.4 years. Participants of observation were divided into three groups, for 10 people each. The first group received daily serving of meat cutlets (50g), enriched with dairy iodinated protein. Iodine content in the finished minced was 100 mcg. The second group received iodinated milk protein in the form of food supplement with iodine content of 100 mcg. The third group was a control one. The duration of observations was 30 days. To assess the effectiveness of measures the concentration of iodine in urine, blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine have been determined, changes in cognitive processes (memory and attention) with the use of psychological tests have been evaluated. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using of iodized milk protein for the correction of iodine deficiency in girls. The use of iodized protein, as part of the enriched product and in the form of food supplement increased urinary iodine level and had a positive influence on the state of the hypophysial-thyroid system. In addition, the use of iodized milk protein helped to improve the cognitive functions of the students, which can be considered as an additional positive effect of correction of iodine deficiency.

  1. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  2. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental.

  3. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports.

  4. The Self-Sufficiency Project at 36 Months: Effects of a Financial Work Incentive on Employment and Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalopoulos, Charles; Card, David; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Harknett, Kristen; Robins, Philip K.

    This report previews the Self-Sufficiency Project's (SSP's) longer-term effects by looking at these four related issues: wage progression, job retention, marital status, and attitudes toward work. A companion report, available separately, examines SSP's effects on children. Chapter 1 discusses the SSP research and demonstration project that…

  5. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1710.508 Section 1710.508 Housing... Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  6. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1710.508 Section 1710.508 Housing... Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  7. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1710.508 Section 1710.508 Housing... Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  8. 12 CFR 1010.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1010.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1010.501(b): Sufficient protection requirement. 1010.508 Section 1010.508 Banks and Banking... Equivalent State Law § 1010.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1010.501(b):...

  9. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    PubMed

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (-0.27 vs. 0.27); however, RFI values did not differ (P = 1.0) between yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa. Dry matter intake was 22% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes in the low than high RFI group (2.5 vs. 3.2 kg/d) and 59% less (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed chopped versus pelleted alfalfa (2.2 vs. 3.5 kg/d). Initial and final BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ (P > 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P < 0.01) by yearling ewes fed pelleted alfalfa compared to chopped alfalfa. Final LMA did not differ (P = 0.77) between RFI groups, but final

  10. Membrane alteration is necessary but not sufficient for effective glutamate secretion in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C; Krämer, R

    1990-01-01

    We showed recently that secretion of glutamate in biotin-limited cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum is mediated by carrier systems in the plasma membrane (C. Hoischen and R. Krämer, Arch. Microbiol. 151:342-347, 1989). In view of the generally accepted hypothesis that glutamate efflux is directly caused by alterations of the membrane, it was necessary to examine the kind of correlation between changes in lipid content and composition of the bacterial membrane and glutamate secretion activity. Two new experimental approaches were used. (i) Changes in lipid content and composition were analyzed in glutamate-producing cells which were forced to switch to nonproducers by addition of biotin in a short-term fermentation. (ii) The time courses of both the fatty acid or phospholipid composition and the efflux activity were analyzed within the first minutes of the switch from high to low secretion activity. The following results were obtained. (i) The time course of the change in fatty acid or phospholipid content and composition was not related to the change in secretion behavior. (ii) There was no specific fatty acid or phospholipid compound which regulated glutamate efflux. (iii) High efflux activity could only be induced when the total lipid content of the membrane was reduced. (iv) Although consistently correlated to high secretion activity, membrane alteration was never a sufficient prerequisite for glutamate efflux in C. glutamicum. PMID:1971623

  11. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  12. Food intake suppressant effect of baclofen in rats.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, M R; Hosseini-Nia, T; Allah-Maddadi, S

    1989-01-01

    1. Baclofen given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to rats caused a dose-dependent decrease in food intake. 2. Bicuculline or picrotoxin (GABAA-antagonist) and methergoline (5-HT antagonist) decreased the anorectic effect of baclofen. 3. Pimozide (dopamine receptor blocker), phenoxybenzamine and propranolol (alpha and beta adrenergic blockers) did not diminish the baclofen effect, but even increased the anorexia induced by the drug. 4. It can be postulated that, at least partially, GABAA receptor mechanism, GABA-5HT receptor complex and/or 5-HT mechanism may be involved in baclofen induced anorexia.

  13. The Long-Term Effects of Public Housing on Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sandra J.; Harkness, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the effects of living in public housing as a child at some point between 1968-1982 on four young adult outcomes. Results indicated that having lived in public housing increased employment, raised earnings, and reduced welfare use but had no effect on household earnings relative to the…

  14. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid on human health.

    PubMed

    Koukkou, Eftychia G; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Markou, Kostas B

    2017-04-01

    The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma. Large doses of iodine reduce both the uptake and the organification (Wolff-Chaikoff effect) and cause partial inhibition of Tg proteolysis. The thyroid gland has several protective mechanisms resulting on the maintenance of normal thyroid function despite wide fluctuations of the daily iodine intake. Ingestion of several commonly used drugs and food conservatives results in acute or chronic excessive iodine intake. Failure to escape from the iodine induced organification inhibition can cause hypothyroidism, which is temporary and subsides after iodine exposure ceases. Iodine excess may also establish a status of excessive thyroid hormone synthesis and release, thus inducing autonomic thyroid function in iodopenic areas or can contribute to the development of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism in iodine abundant areas. The anti-arrhythmic Amiodarone, is a benzofuranic product with a very high iodine content, is associated with either hypo- or hyperthyroidism development. In the presence of defective auto-protective mechanisms, excessive iodine ingestion can divert the normal thyroid function.

  15. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research.

  16. Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: Short-Term Effect on Performance

    PubMed Central

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Hausswirth, Christophe; Molle, Odeline; Hawley, John A.; Burke, Louise M.; Tiollier, Eve; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2016-01-01

    Background: “Sleep-low” consists of a sequential periodization of carbohydrate (CHO) availability—low glycogen recovery after “train high” glycogen-depleting interval training, followed by an overnight-fast and light intensity training (“train low”) the following day. This strategy leads to an upregulation of several exercise-responsive signaling proteins, but the chronic effect on performance has received less attention. We investigated the effects of short-term exposure to this strategy on endurance performance. Methods: Following training familiarization, 11 trained cyclists were divided into two groups for a one-week intervention—one group implemented three cycles of periodized CHO intake to achieve the sleep-low strategy over six training sessions (SL, CHO intake: 6 g·kg−1·day−1), whereas the control group consumed an even distribution of CHO over the day (CON). Tests were a 2 h submaximal ride and a 20 km time trial. Results: SL improved their performance (mean: +3.2%; p < 0.05) compared to CON. The improvement was associated with a change in pacing strategy with higher power output during the second part of the test. No change in substrate utilization was observed after the training period for either group. Conclusion: Implementing the “sleep-low” strategy for one week improved performance by the same magnitude previously seen in a three-week intervention, without any significant changes in selected markers of metabolism. PMID:27897989

  17. Dose-related effects of lauric acid on antropyloroduodenal motility, gastrointestinal hormone release, appetite, and energy intake in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Little, Tanya J; Feltrin, Kate L; Horowitz, Michael; Smout, Andre J P M; Rades, Thomas; Meyer, James H; Pilichiewicz, Amelia N; Wishart, Judith; Feinle-Bisset, Christine

    2005-10-01

    We recently reported that intraduodenal infusion of lauric acid (C12) (0.375 kcal/min, 106 mM) stimulates isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs), inhibits antral and duodenal pressure waves (PWs), stimulates release of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and suppresses energy intake and that these effects are much greater than those seen in response to isocaloric decanoic acid (C10) infusion. Administration of C12 was, however, associated with nausea, confounding interpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different intraduodenal doses of C12 on antropyloroduodenal (APD) motility, plasma CCK and GLP-1 concentrations, appetite, and energy intake. Thirteen healthy males were studied on 4 days in double-blind, randomized fashion. APD pressures, plasma CCK and GLP-1 concentrations, and appetite perceptions were measured during 90-min ID infusion of C12 at 0.1 (14 mM), 0.2 (28 mM), or 0.4 (56 mM) kcal/min or saline (control; rate 4 ml/min). Energy intake was determined at a buffet meal immediately following infusion. C12 dose-dependently stimulated IPPWs, decreased antral and duodenal motility, and stimulated secretion of CCK and GLP-1 (r > 0.4, P < 0.05 for all). C12 (0.4 kcal/min) suppressed energy intake compared with control, C12 (0.1 kcal/min), and C12 (0.2 kcal/min) (P < 0.05). These effects were observed in the absence of nausea. In conclusion, intraduodenal C12 dose-dependently modulated APD motility and gastrointestinal hormone release in healthy male subjects, whereas effects on energy intake were only apparent with the highest dose infused (0.4 kcal/min), possibly because only at this dose was modulation of APD motility and gastrointestinal hormone secretion sufficient for a suppressant effect on energy intake.

  18. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies in outpatients hospital setting in an area with sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Legakis, Ioannis; Manousaki, Mina; Detsi, Stela; Nikita, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of thyroid disease in a hospital outpatient setting, in an area of sufficient iodine intake, serum levels of TSH, T4, T3, anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies were examined in 909 individuals with an age range of 12.4 to 88.5 years, participating in a checkup outpatient setting. The study was conducted in Henry Dynant Hospital located in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece, during a 2 year period. Hormonal parameters were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.95% of the total population and subclinical thyrotoxicosis in 5.5%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.43% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 4.51%. In male population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.4 % and subclinical thyrotoxicosis was also found in 4.4%. On the other hand, overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.4% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 3.7% in males. In female population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 5.2% whereas subclinical thyrotoxicosis was found in 6.0%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.5% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 4,9% in females. Positive anti-TPO antibodies were detected more often (30.4%) than anti-Tg (15.4%) in the tested population. The positivity in both anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies was correlated with abnormally high TSH concentrations after the age of 50 years, especially in female population. In conclusion distinct profile of thyroid hormonal parameters was observed in inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Athens, with overt thyrotoxicosis strikingly overcome overt hypothyroidism while subclinical forms of each dysfunction also exhibit analogous results.

  19. Establishing the cost-effectiveness of new pharmaceuticals under conditions of uncertainty--when is there sufficient evidence?

    PubMed

    Sculpher, Mark; Claxton, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Decisions about which health-care interventions represent adequate value to collectively funded health-care systems are as widespread as they are unavoidable. In the case of new pharmaceuticals, many countries now require formal cost-effectiveness analysis to inform this decision-making process. This requires evidence on parameters associated with health-related utilities, treatment effects, resource use, and costs, for which data from available regulatory trials are invariably absent or highly uncertain. This uncertainty results from a number of factors including the predominance of intermediate end points in the clinical evidence-base and the limited period of follow-up of patients in clinical studies. Despite these imperfections in the evidence base, decisions about whether new pharmaceuticals are sufficiently cost-effective for reimbursement cannot be side-stepped. Data limitations do, however, require the use of rigorous analytical methods to support decision making. Probabilistic decision models and value of information analysis offer a means of structuring decision problems, synthesizing all available data, characterizing the uncertainty in the decision, quantifying the cost of uncertainty, and establishing the expected value of perfect information. This analytical framework is important because it addresses two fundamental questions about new pharmaceuticals. First, is the product expected to be cost-effective on the basis of existing evidence? Second, is additional research concerning the product itself cost-effective? In addressing these questions, the analytical framework can establish when sufficient evidence exists to sustain a claim for a new pharmaceutical to be cost-effective.

  20. The effect of dietary fibre on feed intake and growth in beagle puppies.

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, C B; Barrette, D; Mongeau, R; Larivière, N

    1985-01-01

    We studied the growth, feed intake, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of groups of female Beagle puppies fed 16% or 22% crude protein rations to which 6% or 12% wheat bean was added at the expense of the total diet. The final neutral detergent fibre concentrations were 12%, 16%, 22% and 23% (dry matter basis). The addition of wheat bran to puppy rations, bringing the neutral detergent fibre up to 16% in a 21% crude protein diet had no deleterious effects on feed intake, feed and protein efficiency or growth in Beagle puppies. Over a sufficiently long period of time, the growth of this group did not differ from that of the controls (12% neutral detergent fibre, 23% crude protein) although it was higher at intermediate times. The effects of the high fibre (22 or 23% neutral detergent fibre) diets on growth, feed intake feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio are consistent with an energy deficit resulting from the animals' inability to adapt fully to the dilution of their rations leading to lower growth, less efficient use of feed and, in the case of group 3 (22% crude protein, 22% neutral detergent fibre), a lower protein efficiency ratio. The protein efficiency ratio of group 4 (16% crude protein, 23% neutral detergent fibre) was higher than that of group 3, most likely the result of a more limiting amount of dietary protein leading to a more efficient use for growth by the animal. We have concluded that intermediate levels of neutral detergent fibre (up to 16%) were not deleterious even in puppy rations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2994864

  1. Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Janet H W; Mars, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f = 8/22, age: 21.2 ± 1.9 years, BMI: 21.2 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3 bites/min), medium (5 bites/min) or fast (7 bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9 ± 1.3, medium: 4.0 ± 1.1, fast: 4.0 ± 1.3 bites/min (p = 0.75), as was average bite size (11 ± 2.6 g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9 ± 3.6 min) and fast condition (14.4 ± 3.7 min) compared to the slow condition (16.8 ± 4.8 min) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.01), and intake was lower in the medium (634 ± 183 g) and fast condition (624 ± 190 g) compared to the slow condition (701 ± 220 g) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.05). This experimental study suggests that bite frequency is not affected by the confederate. However, the meal duration of the confederates showed a significant effect on the meal duration and meal size of the participants. It seems that intake was influenced as a result of copying meal termination.

  2. The effect of residual feed intake classification on forage intake by grazing beef cows.

    PubMed

    Meyer, A M; Kerley, M S; Kallenbach, R L

    2008-10-01

    Although feed intake and efficiency differences in growing cattle of low and high residual feed intake (RFI) classification have been established, little is known about the difference in grazed forage intake between beef cows of known RFI classification. Two experiments were conducted using Hereford cows for which RFI had been determined as heifers using the GrowSafe 4000E feed intake system, after which heifers had been divided into thirds as low RFI, mid RFI, and high RFI. During Exp. 1, 2 replicates of low and high RFI cows (n = 7/replicate) in mid- to late-gestation were blocked to 1 of 4 non-endophyte-infected tall fescue paddocks (1.8 to 2.4 ha), which they grazed continuously for 84 d during summer. Using grazing exclosures, weekly rising plate meter readings, and forage harvests every 21 d, average forage DMI was calculated. Low and high RFI groups did not differ (P > 0.05) in BW change or BCS change over the trial (19.5 vs. 22.1 kg of BW gain and 0.11 vs. 0.10 BCS gain), but low RFI cows had a 21% numerically lower DMI than high RFI cows (12.4 vs. 15.6 kg/d; P = 0.23). The average area needed per paddock over the trial was similar for low and high RFI cows (1.71 vs. 1.82 ha; P = 0.35), and the average DM on offer over the trial was less for low RFI than for high RFI cows (4,215 vs. 4,376 kg; P = 0.06). During Exp. 2, 3 replicates of low and high RFI cows with their calves (n = 4 pair/replicate) strip-grazed stockpiled and early spring growth tall fescue paddocks (0.7 to 0.9 ha) for 60 d in late winter and early spring. Because of limiting forage availability and quality at trial initiation, cow-calf pairs were also fed 3.31 kg/pair of pelleted soyhulls daily. Pre- and post-grazed forage samples were harvested for 4 grazing periods, and forage growth was estimated using a growing degree days calculation and on-site weather station data. Performance did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI cows throughout the experiment (18.4 vs. 26.6 kg of BW gain

  3. Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

  4. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  5. The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Vida; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the important reasons behind termination of breast-feeding in the first six months after childbirth is insufficient production of breast milk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of herbal tea containing fenugreek seed on the signs of breast milk sufficiency in Iranian girl infants aged 0 - 4 months, at the medical health centers of Tehran university of medical sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a control group. Seventy-eight girl infants, 0 - 4 months old that were exclusively breastfed by their mothers, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (received herbal tea containing 7.5 g fenugreek seed powder in addition to 3 g of black tea, three times a day) and the control group (received herbal tea containing 3 g of black tea powder, three times a day). Before and during the four weeks of study, the signs of breast milk sufficiency were evaluated through measurement of growth parameters and use of follow-up forms for measuring the number of wet diapers in one day, frequency of defecation and infant breast-feeding times in a day. Results: Before the intervention there was no significant difference between weight, height, head circumference, the number of wet diapers and frequency of defecation between the two groups (P > 0.05), yet the number of breast feeding times of the control group was more than the Fenugreek group. At the end of the fourth week in proportion to the pre-intervention conditions, the weight of the infants in the fenugreek group increased significantly from 5282.0513 ± 1021.51121 to 6383.0769 ± 952.06190, while head circumference increased from 38.3103 ± 1.62736 to 39.9256 ± 1.50660, number of wet diapers from 5.2821 ± 0.93044 to 8.1648 ± 1.20620, frequency of defecation from 1.8846 ± 1.08495 to 2.7326 ± 0.94771 and the number of breast feeding times from 9.1795 ± 1.39778 to 15.9597 ± 1.45056 (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant effect on

  6. Brief report: effect of dietary restraint on fruit and vegetable intake following implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2013-07-01

    This study explored whether the effects of implementation intentions on increasing fruit and vegetable intake were moderated by dietary restraint. In total, 208 participants were randomly allocated to control or implementation intention conditions where they were asked to write down when, where and how they would increase their fruit and vegetable intake. Implementation intentions increased fruit and vegetable intake but only in participants scoring low (not high) on rigid dietary restraint. Motives underlying fruit and vegetable consumption may be different for restrained and unrestrained eaters. Efforts to increase their intake may need to be tailored, for example, through motivational rather than situational cues.

  7. Effects of trace acrylamide intake in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Totani, Nagao; Yawata, Miho; Ojiri, Yuko; Fujioka, Yoshio

    2007-01-01

    Frying oil in use of cooking may contain acrylamide formed from frying foodstuffs. We have reported that administration of a diet containing 7% practically used frying oil for 12 weeks damaged liver and kidneys severely in Wistar rats. Then, male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks a powdered diet (AIN93G; no fat) containing 7 wt% of fresh oil (control group) or frying oil heated with Asn + glucose for 20 h at 180 degrees C under a nitrogen flow in order to form acrylamide under the least thermal deterioration (experimental group). The rats were subjected to anthropometric measurements, hematological analyses, and observations of the liver and kidneys. All of the rats grew well, and no gross symptoms attributable to the experimental oil were observed. But the experimental rats had significantly low insulin and triacylglycerol levels. The liver and kidneys from the experimental rats had damages, but the degree of the histological changes looked lighter than that of the rats fed practically used frying oil described above. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were also not much increased. Thus, it was suggested that continuous intake of trace acrylamide induced characteristically low serum insulin level and that the effects of the used frying oil on the liver and kidneys were hardly attributable to acrylamide possibly contained therein.

  8. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  9. Assisting Young, Unmarried Mothers to Become Self-Sufficient: The Effects of Different Types of Early Economic Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jodi R.; Hill, Martha S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers how different types of economic support, received soon after the birth of a first child, contribute to the later self-sufficiency of young, unmarried mothers. Findings suggest that certain economic supports assist these mothers and that life choices they make after their child's birth are important to self-sufficiency. (RJM)

  10. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  11. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  12. Beneficial Physiological Effects With Blackcurrant Intake in Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Willems, Mark Elisabeth Theodorus; Myers, Stephen David; Gault, Mandy Lucinda; Cook, Matthew David

    2015-08-01

    Blackcurrant contains anthocyanins, known to influence vasorelaxation and peripheral blood flow. We examined the effects of 7 days intake of Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder (6g/day) on the lactate curve, maximum oxygen uptake, and cardiovascular responses at rest and during cycling. Thirteen trained triathletes with >3 yrs experience (8 men, age: 38 ± 8 yrs, body mass: 71 ± 9 kg, BF%: 19 ± 5%, mean ± SD) performed two incremental cycling protocols with recording of physiological and cardiovascular responses (Portapres Model 2). Cardiovascular function was also measured in rest. Experimental design was double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized and cross-over (wash-out 4 wks). Data were analyzed with two-tailed t tests and 2-way ANOVA and significance accepted at p < .05. Plasma lactate was lower at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of maximum power by 27%, 22%, 17% and 13%. Intensity at 4 mmol · La(-1) OBLA was 6% higher with blackcurrant without effect on heart rate and oxygen uptake. Maximum values of oxygen uptake, heart rate and power were not affected by blackcurrant, but obtained with 14% lower lactate. In rest, blackcurrant increased stroke volume and cardiac output by 25% and 26%, and decreased total peripheral resistance by 16%, with no changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Cardiovascular responses during exercise at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% intensity were not affected. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects lactate production and/or clearance during exercise. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects physiological and cardiovascular responses in rest and during exercise that may have implications for exercise performance.

  13. Sufficient utilization of natural fluctuating light intensity is an effective approach of promoting lipid productivity in oleaginous microalgal cultivation outdoors.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Xu, Liangliang; Xia, Ling; Hu, Chunxiang

    2015-03-01

    The effects of fluctuating intensity of solar radiation on biomass and lipid in oleaginous microalgae are important. However, this topic has not been the subject of studies for a long time. In this study, four oleaginous microalgae from semi-arid areas were screened and cultivated outdoors under different fluctuating intensities. Results showed that the highest lipid productivities and neutral lipid (NL) contents occurred under high fluctuating intensity (HFI), in which 13-20% of the increased NL came from glycolipid transformation without phospholipid conversion. Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 obtained from biological soil crusts in desert had the largest biomass (137.13, 106.61mgL(-1)d(-1)) and lipid yields (35.06, 32.45mgL(-1)d(-1)) under HFI. The highest areal lipid productivities of 9.06 and 8.95gm(-2)d(-1) and better biodiesel quality were observed under HFI. Accordingly, sufficiently adopting fluctuating light intensity outdoors to culture microalgae was an economic and effective approach.

  14. Short-term treatment with nitrate is not sufficient to induce in vivo antithrombotic effects in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Proniewski, B; Marcinczyk, N; Rykaczewska, U; Jarmoc, D; Chabielska, E; Chlopicki, S

    2017-01-01

    In humans, short-term supplementation with nitrate is hypotensive and inhibits platelet aggregation via an nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. In the present work, we analyzed whether short-term treatment with nitrate induces antithrombotic effects in rats and mice. Arterial thrombosis was evoked electrically in a rat model in which renovascular hypertension was induced by partial ligation of the left renal artery. In mice expressing green fluorescent protein, laser-induced thrombosis was analyzed intravitally by using confocal microscope. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3) or sodium nitrite (NaNO2) was administered orally at a dose of 0.17 mmol/kg, twice per day for 3 days. Short-term nitrate treatment did not modify thrombus formation in either rats or mice, while nitrite administration led to pronounced antithrombotic activity. In hypertensive rats, nitrite treatment resulted in a significant decrease in thrombus weight (0.50 ± 0.08 mg vs. VEH 0.96 ± 0.09 mg; p < 0.01). In addition, nitrite inhibited ex vivo platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TxB2) generation and prolonged prothrombin time. These effects were accompanied by significant increases in blood NOHb concentration and plasma nitrite concentration. In contrast, nitrate did not affect ex vivo platelet aggregation or prothrombin time and led to only slightly elevated nitrite plasma concentration. In mice, nitrate was also ineffective, while nitrite led to decreased platelet accumulation in the area of laser-induced endothelial injury. In conclusion, although nitrite induced profound NO-dependent antithrombotic effects in vivo, conversion of nitrates to nitrite in rats and mice over short-term 3-day treatment was not sufficient to elicit NO-dependent antiplatelet or antithrombotic effects.

  15. Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite, but not overall energy intake.

    PubMed

    Dougkas, Anestis; Minihane, Anne M; Givens, D Ian; Reynolds, Christopher K; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2012-12-28

    Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese.

  16. Effect of flow rate of side-type orifice intake on withdrawn water temperature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueping; Li, Guangning; Han, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  17. The effect of rises in food costs on food intake of three year olds in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Palti, H; Taveedej, C H; Pevsner, B

    1983-12-01

    The food intake of two samples of children born five years apart were determined in 1975 and 1980 at three years of age in a low and middle class neighbourhood of Jerusalem. The 24-hour recall method was used. No deficiency in caloric intake was noted. The protein intake was twice the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), 3.7 gr/kg in the study group interviewed in 1975 and 3.3 gr/kg in those interviewed in 1980. The mean daily iron intake was only 40% of the RDA. The main sources for protein were milk and milk products, poultry and eggs. Significantly higher mean caloric and protein intakes were noted for the upper as compared to middle and low social class in 1980. Children from Asian origin had the lowest caloric and protein intake in 1975 and 1980 whereas those of European-American origin had the highest. Severe inflation and the resulting tenfold increase in food prices in Israel were not reflected in marked changes in dietary intake. The percentage expenditure on food was 25% of total income during both periods. The possible factors influencing the stability in dietary intake are governmental subsidy for the essential foods, correction of wages and increase in social security payments thus maintaining the buying power, as well as the educational effect of the preventive services--the Mother and Child Health Stations on feeding practices.

  18. [Vitamin D intake and the prevention of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2005-08-01

    The incidence of osteoporosis in Japan is increasing. Osteoporotic fractures have been causes of "bedridden" status among the elderly in recent years, and vitamin D has the potential to decrease the incidence of these health problems of osteoporosis. This article tried to clarify the preventive effect of increased vitamin D intake on osteoporosis in Japan. Vitamin D intake of 700-800 IU/day together with sufficient calcium intake is recommended to prevent fractures in the elderly, and vitamin D intake of 400 IU/day is recommended to prevent bone loss in adult women. The author also discusses the importance of increasing vitamin D intake in public health in Japan.

  19. Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China123

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shufa; Neiman, Andrea; Batis, Carolina; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jiguo; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. Objective: We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. Design: The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20–60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Results: Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Conclusions: Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options. PMID:24257724

  20. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats: response

    PubMed Central

    Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2006-01-01

    A response to Louter-van de Haar J, Wielinga PY, Scheurink AJ, Nieuwenhuizen AG: Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats. Nutr Metabol 2005, 2:23 PMID:16846513

  1. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  2. Effect of Zinc Intake on Growth in Infants: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, M; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Fuentes Lugo, D; Henríquez Sánchez, P; Doreste Alonso, J; Peña Quintana, L; Ruano, C; Lowe, N L; Hall Moran, V; Skinner, A L; Warthon-Medina, M; Serra-Majem, L

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on growth in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 19 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on growth was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional status, and risk of bias. From each select growth study, final measures of weight, length, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), head circumference, weight for age z-score (WAZ), length for age z-score (LAZ), and weight for length z-score (WLZ) were assessed. Pooled β and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Additionally, we carried out a sensitivity analysis. Zn intake was not associated with weight, length, MUAC, head circumference, and LAZ in the pooled analyses. However, Zn intake had a positive and statistically effect on WAZ (β = 0.06; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.10) and WLZ (β = 0.05; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.08). The dose-response relationship between Zn intake and these parameters indicated that a doubling of Zn intake increased WAZ and WLZ by approximately 4%. Substantial heterogeneity was present only in length analyses (I(2) = 45%; p = 0.03). Zn intake was positively associated with length values at short time (four to 20 weeks) (β = 0.01; CI 95% 0 to 0.02) and at medium doses of Zn (4.1 to 8 mg/day) (β = 0.003; CI 95% 0 to 0.01). Nevertheless, the effect magnitude was small. Our results indicate that Zn intake increases growth parameters of infants. Nonetheless, interpretation of these results should be carefully considered.

  3. Multivitamin-multimineral supplements' effect on total nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; White, Kami K; Park, Song-Yi; Sharma, Sangita

    2007-01-01

    Use of multivitamin-multimineral supplements is widespread and can contribute substantially to total nutrient intakes. In the Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort (MEC), 48% of men and 56% of women without chronic diseases reported use of multivitamin supplements at least weekly over the past year. We calculated the prevalence of nutrient adequacy for 17 nutrients based on responses to a self-administered quantitative food-frequency questionnaire administered to MEC participants at baseline in 1993-1996. Although the prevalence of nutrient adequacy from food only was higher for multivitamin supplement users (n = 21,056) than for nonusers (n = 69,715), differences averaged only 2 percentage points. For multivitamin users, the prevalence of adequacy improved by an average of 8 percentage points for both men and women when intake from supplements was included. Users were also more likely to have potentially excessive intakes, particularly for iron, zinc, vitamin A, and niacin. The 26,735 MEC participants in Hawaii who answered an open-ended question about multivitamin use in 1999-2001 reported using 1246 different products. The nutrient profile of these products varied widely, and the composition of products at the 90th percentile was 10-fold greater than the composition at the median for some nutrients. We conclude that analyses of nutrient adequacy and excess for supplement users should be extended to national samples and that composition data on actual supplements used are preferable to assuming a default nutrient profile for multivitamin supplements. Multivitamin products could be better formulated to reduce the prevalence of inadequacy and also to reduce the risk of excessive intakes.

  4. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  5. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-05

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours.

  6. Effect of Dietary Fiber Intake on Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Independent of Estradiol in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    High-fiber diets are associated with improved lipid profiles. However, pre- and postmenopausal women respond differently to fiber intake, suggesting that endogenous estradiol mediates the effect. The authors' objective was to determine the direct effect of fiber intake on lipoprotein cholesterol levels independent of estradiol among premenopausal women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, followed 259 healthy women for up to 2 complete menstrual cycles. Serum lipoprotein and hormone levels were measured at 16 visits timed using fertility monitors. Fiber intake was assessed by 8 24-hour recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weights for both lipoprotein and estradiol levels were used to estimate controlled direct effects of the highest category of fiber intake (≥22 g/day vs. <22 g/day) while accounting for age, body mass index, total energy, vitamin E intake, physical activity, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. Reductions were observed in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with higher fiber intakes. Direct effects were greater than total effects. These analyses suggested that estradiol mediates at least part of the association between fiber and cholesterol among premenopausal women. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:21148240

  7. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  8. The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ≥ 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.

  9. Effects of acute salbutamol intake during a Wingate test.

    PubMed

    Collomp, K; Le Panse, B; Portier, H; Lecoq, A-M; Jaffre, C; Beaupied, H; Richard, O; Benhamou, L; Courteix, D; De Ceaurriz, J

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the impact of acute salbutamol intake on performance and selected hormonal and metabolic variables during supramaximal exercise, 13 recreational male athletes performed two 30-second Wingate tests after either placebo (PLA, lactose) or salbutamol (SAL, 4 mg) oral administration, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples collected at rest, end of the Wingate test, recovery (5, 10, 15 min) were tested for growth hormone (GH), insulin (INS), blood glucose (GLU), and lactate determination. We found the peak and mean power performed significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA (PPSAL: 896 +/- 46; PPPLA: 819 +/- 57 W; MPSAL: 585 +/- 27; MPPLA: 534 +/- 35 W, p < 0.05), whereas no change was observed in the fatigue index. Blood glucose and INS were significantly increased by SAL at rest, at the end of the Wingate test, and during the 5 first minutes of recovery (p < 0.05). Plasma GH was significantly decreased by SAL (p < 0.05) during the recovery whereas end-exercise and recovery blood lactate tended but were not significantly increased after SAL vs. PLA. From these data, acute salbutamol intake at therapeutical dosage did appear to improve peak power and mean power during a supramaximal exercise, but the mechanisms involved need further investigation.

  10. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake.

  11. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  12. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Agnes N; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate-high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  13. Effects of indorenate on food intake: a comparison with fenfluramine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Velázquez Martínez, D N; Valencia Flores, M; López Cabrera, M; Villarreal, J E

    1995-01-01

    Indorenate (TR3369, 5-methoxytryptamine b-methylcarboxylate HCl) is a 5-HT1-like receptor agonist with hypotensive activity. Here, we describe that indorenate also decreases food intake (ED50 26.1 mg/kg) without an appreciable effect in water intake (the estimated ED50 for water was 589.8 mg/kg). The anorectic activity of indorenate was compared to the effects of amphetamine and other serotonin agonists; the effect of indorenate was smaller than those of the other compounds; however, the effect of indorenate was specific to food, whereas all the other drugs also produced significant decrements in water intake. The serotonin antagonists cinanserin, cyproheptadine, methergoline and methysergide effectively prevented the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate and fenfluramine. Haloperidol, a dopaminergic antagonist, was ineffective in preventing the effect of indorenate although it prevented the anorectic effect of amphetamine. The present results suggest the participation of serotoninergic, but not dopaminergic mechanisms, in the decrease in food intake produced by indorenate.

  14. Neuropeptide Y effect on food intake in broiler and layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi; Ikura, Atsushi; Nakayama, Yoko; Hasegawa, Shin

    2011-08-01

    Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. In this study, we examined the involvement of orexigenic peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks (Gallus gallus). First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of NPY and its receptors (Y1 and Y5 receptors) between these strains at 1, 2, 4, and 8 days of age. Daily food intake was significantly higher in broiler chicks than layer chicks after 2 days of age. However, the hypothalamic NPY mRNA level was significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks except at 8 days of age. In addition, the mRNA levels of NPY receptors were also significantly lower in broiler chicks than layer chicks at 2 and 4 days of age (Y1 receptor) or 2 days of age (Y5 receptor). These results suggest that the differences in the expressions of hypothalamic NPY and its receptors do not cause the increase in food intake in broiler chicks. To compare the orexigenic effect of NPY between broiler and layer chicks, we next examined the effects of central administration of NPY on food intake in these strains. In both strains, central administration of NPY significantly increased food intake at 2, 4 and 8 days of age. All our findings demonstrated that the increase in food intake in broiler chicks is not accompanied with the over-expression of NPY or its receptor.

  15. Effect of salt intensity in soup on ad libitum intake and on subsequent food choice.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, Dieuwerke P; Lakemond, Catriona M M; de Wijk, Rene A; Luning, Pieternel A; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-02-01

    The effect of salt intensity on ad libitum intake of tomato soup was investigated when soup was served as a first course and as a second course. Also the effect of salt intensity in soup on subsequent sweet vs. savory choice of sandwich fillings was investigated. Forty-three healthy subjects consumed ad libitum a low-salt (LS), ideal-salt (IS) and high-salt (HS) tomato soup in both meal settings. The salt concentrations were selected on an individual basis, in a way that IS was most pleasant and LS and HS were similar in pleasantness. The ad libitum intake of IS soup was higher than that of LS and HS soup, and the ad libitum intake of LS soup was higher than that of HS soup. The meal setting, soup as a first or as a second course, did not affect ad libitum intake. Salt intensity in soup did not predict sweet vs. savory choice of fillings in grams or energy, although most sodium from fillings was consumed after intake of HS soup. In conclusion, a higher salt intensity lead to lower ad libitum intake of soup similar in palatability (LS vs. HS). In addition, salt intensity in soup does not predict sweet vs. savory food choice.

  16. Effects of a high protein intake on renal acid excretion in bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Manz, F; Remer, T; Decher-Spliethoff, E; Höhler, M; Kersting, M; Kunz, C; Lausen, B

    1995-03-01

    Bodybuilders often prefer a high protein diet to achieve maximum skeletal muscle hypertrophy. In this study the effect of a high protein diet on renal acid load and renal handling of proton excretion was studied comparing dietary intake and urinary ionograms in 37 male bodybuilders and 20 young male adults. Energy intake (+ 7%), protein intake (128 vs 88 g/d/1.73 m2), and renal net acid excretion (95 vs 64 mmol/d/1.73 m2) were higher in the bodybuilders than in the controls, however, urine-pH was only slightly lower (5.83 vs 6.12). In the bodybuilders renal ammonium excretion was higher at any given value of urine pH than in the controls. In a regression analysis protein intake proved to be an independent factor modulating the ratio between urine-pH and renal ammonium excretion. The concomitant increase of renal net acid excretion and maximum renal acid excretion capacity in periods of high protein intake appears to be a highly effective response of the kidney to a specific food intake leaving a large renal surplus capacity for an additional renal acid load.

  17. [Bone mineral density in pregnant women from Moscow: possible effects of pregnancy dynamics and nutrient intake].

    PubMed

    Kon, I Ya; Safronova, A I; Gmoshinskaya, M V; Shcheplyagina, L A; Korosteleva, M M; Toboleva, M A; Aleshina, I V; Kurkova, V I; Larionova, Z G

    2014-01-01

    Supporting of bone health is one of the main approaches to provide health in pregnant women considering intensive calcium and other mineral mobilization from mass bone that is necessary forforming fetus bone. This mobilization may lead to decrease of bone mineral density and development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. The important factors of development of bone impairment in pregnancy are nutrition and particular deficient consumption of protein, Ca, vitamin D. The possible role of reduced intake of pregnant women other nutrients remains unexplored. The aim of the research was estimating the prevalence of bone mineral density decrease in regard to the particular course of pregnancy and studying possible effects of key nutrients on bone mineral density in pregnant women. 131 women at different stages of pregnancy were involved in the survey. The bone density assessment was conducted using Bone Densitometer Omnisense 7000. As a criterion for bone density decrease in women used a Z-score, which was considered as normal to -1.0, as reduced from -1.0 to -2,0, and as significantly reduced when Z-score was less than -2,0. Analysis of the actual nutrition was performed by a 24-hour recording of 58 pregnant women. Normal bone mineral density was detected in 54 women or 41% of the total number of women surveyed. In 51 (39%) pregnant women reduced bone mineral density was discovered, and in 26 (20%) patients--significantly reduced bone density. There was a considerable deviation in pregnant patients' diet from the nutrition guidelines, which include, in particular, the high content of fat and saturated fatty acid, reduced intake of some micronutrients such as calcium, zinc, folic acid, β-carotene, vitamins A, B1, E. However, differences in the actual consumption of nutrients in women with varying bone mineral density have been identified only in case of consumption of fat and energy value of diets, also Mn and I. So, it may be suggested that the differences in bone mineral

  18. Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Appleton, K; Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1999-04-01

    Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K (L), and a high-energy, sucrose-sweetened drink (H). Following a period of challenging exercise (70% VO2 max for 50 min), subjects consumed freely from a particular drink before being offered a test meal at which energy and nutrient intakes were measured. The degree of pleasantness (palatability) of the drinks was also measured before and after exercise. At the test meal, energy intake following the artificially sweetened (L) drink was significantly greater than after water and the sucrose (H) drinks (p < 0.05). Compared with the artificially sweetened (L) drink, the high-energy (H) drink suppressed intake by approximately the energy contained in the drink itself. However, there was no difference between the water (W) and the sucrose (H) drink on test meal energy intake. When the net effects were compared (i.e., drink + test meal energy intake), total energy intake was significantly lower after the water (W) drink compared with the two sweet (L and H) drinks. The exercise period brought about changes in the perceived pleasantness of the water, but had no effect on either of the sweet drinks. The remarkably precise energy compensation demonstrated after the higher energy sucrose drink suggests that exercise may prime the system to respond sensitively to nutritional manipulations. The results may also have implications for the effect on short-term appetite control of different types of drinks used to quench thirst during and after exercise.

  19. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  20. Sip size of orangeade: effects on intake and sensory-specific satiation.

    PubMed

    Weijzen, Pascalle L G; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees

    2009-10-01

    Sensory-specific satiation (SSS) drives food selection and contributes to meal termination. We hypothesised that smaller sips would increase SSS due to increased oro-sensory exposure, irrespective of energy content. The objective was to determine the effects of sip size and energy content on ad libitum intake of orangeade and subjective SSS for orangeade. Orangeade intake and ratings of wanting and liking were measured before and after ad libitum orangeade consumption in a 2 x 2 cross-over design (n 53). Conditions differed in energy content (no-energy v. regular-energy orangeade) and in sip size (large, 20 g/sip v. small, 5 g/sip). The mean intake of both orangeades was lower when consumed with small sips than when consumed with large sips (regular-energy, 352 v. 493 g; no-energy, 338 v. 405 g; both P < 0.001). When consumed with large sips, the mean intake of no-energy orangeade was lower than that of regular-energy orangeade (P = 0.02). When consumed with small sips, subjective SSS (based on the desire to drink) was higher for no-energy orangeade than for regular-energy orangeade (P = 0.01), while mean intake was comparable. We concluded that smaller sip size, i.e. increased oro-sensory exposure per unit of consumption, can lower intake of sweet drinks. Only with low oro-sensory exposure (large sip size) was intake higher for an energy-containing sweet drink than for a no-energy sweet drink. This suggests that intake of sweet drinks is stimulated by (metabolic) reward value and inhibited by sensory satiation. This underpins the importance of SSS for meal termination.

  1. Effects of oral and gastric stimulation on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Wijlens, Anne G M; Erkner, Alfrun; Alexander, Erin; Mars, Monica; Smeets, Paul A M; de Graaf, Cees

    2012-11-01

    Appetite is regulated by many factors, including oro-sensory and gastric signals. There are many studies on contributions of and possible interaction between sensory and gastric stimulation, but there are few studies in humans using simultaneous oral and gastric stimulation. We investigated the effect of simultaneous, but independently manipulated, oral and gastric stimulation on appetite ratings and energy intake. We hypothesized that compared with no stimulation, oral and gastric stimulation would equally and additively decrease appetite ratings and energy intake. Healthy men (n = 26, 21 ± 2 years, BMI 22 ± 3 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover trial with four experimental conditions and a control condition. Experimental conditions consisted of oral stimulation, with either 1 or 8 min modified sham feeding (MSF), and gastric stimulation, with either 100 or 800 ml intragastrically infused liquid (isocaloric, 99 kcal, 100 ml/min). The control condition consisted of no oral or gastric stimulation. Outcome measures were energy intake 30 min after the treatment and appetite ratings. Compared with the control condition, energy intake decreased significantly after the 8 min/100 ml (19% lower, P = 0.001) and 8 min/800 ml conditions (15% lower, P = 0.02), but not after the 1 min/100 ml (14% lower, P = 0.06) and 1 min/800 ml conditions (10% lower, P = 0.39). There was no interaction of oral and gastric stimulation on energy intake. Hunger and fullness differed across all conditions (P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, duration of oral exposure was at least as important in decreasing energy intake as gastric filling volume. Oral and gastric stimulation did not additively decrease energy intake. Longer oro-sensory stimulation, therefore, may be an important contributor to a lower energy intake.

  2. Effect of hepatic portal infusion of water on water intake by water-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Kobashi, M; Adachi, A

    1992-11-01

    To determine whether or not hepatoportal osmoreceptive (or sodium-receptive) signals participate in the control of drinking, we examined the effects of portal infusion of water, 0.9% saline, and 1.8% saline on water intake by water-deprived rats. Infusion was started 0.5 h prior to the end of the water deprivation period for 3.5 h at a rate of 52 microliters/min through either a portal or a jugular catheter. After 24-h water deprivation, water intake was measured successively for 24 h without food. As a result of the water infusion tests, water intake of the portal infusion group was significantly less than that of the jugular infusion group during and after the infusion. Portal infusion of neither 0.9% nor 1.8% saline affected the water intake compared to similar infusion into the jugular vein. It is concluded that hypotonic stimulation of the hepatoportal osmoreceptor suppresses water intake in water-deprived rats. On the contrary, isotonic or hypertonic stimulation does not produce any change of water intake.

  3. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sterling, M E; Karatayev, O; Chang, G-Q; Algava, D B; Leibowitz, S F

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake.

  4. Effect of flavour of liquid Ensure diet supplement on energy intake in male SD rats.

    PubMed

    Archer, Zoe A; Brown, Yvonne A; Rayner, D Vernon; Stubbs, R James; Mercer, Julian G

    2006-10-30

    Outbred male Sprague-Dawley rats were provided with one of the four flavours of the liquid diet, Ensure, in addition to chow pellets, to examine whether differences in flavour lead to differences in energy intake i.e. degree of over-consumption. For half the rats, the Ensure supplement was provided for 14 days and then withdrawn for the final 8 days of the study, whereas the remaining animals were allowed to consume Ensure for 22 days. All four flavours of Ensure, chocolate, vanilla, coffee and asparagus, induced a sustained increase in daily energy intake of approximately 15%. There was an effect of flavour on initial consumption of the Ensure diet, with coffee and asparagus flavours being consumed less avidly than vanilla or chocolate. However, this effect was short-lived. Overall, there was no effect of flavour on body weight gain, energy intake from Ensure, total energy intake, body composition, or measured blood hormones and metabolites. Withdrawal of Ensure resulted in reductions in body weight gain, total energy intake, fat but not lean tissue mass, and concentrations of blood leptin, non-esterified fatty acids and triglycerides, but there was no effect of the flavour of Ensure previously supplied on any of these parameters. The ability of the liquid diet, Ensure, to stimulate long-term caloric over-consumption is not due to its flavouring. Rather, other attributes of Ensure must be more important, such as its intrinsic flavour, liquid formulation, macronutrient composition, and ease of ingestion, digestion and absorption.

  5. Central administration of obestatin fails to show inhibitory effects on food and water intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Van Dijck, Annemie; Annemie, Van Dijck; Van Dam, Debby; Debby, Van Dam; Vergote, Valentijn; Valentijn, Vergote; De Spiegeleer, Bart; Bart, De Spiegeleer; Luyten, Walter; Walter, Luyten; Schoofs, Liliane; Liliane, Schoofs; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Peter Paul, De Deyn

    2009-08-07

    Obestatin is a ghrelin-associated peptide hormone with presumed anorexigenic and inhibitory effect on gastric propulsive motility activity. Recent literature, however, discloses much contestation over satiety and gastrointestinal motility-related functionalities of obestatin. In addition, antidipsinogenic effects in rodents by obestatin were recently reported. The present study was set up to bring more clarity into the contested effects of obestatin on food and water intake. Additionally, the stability of obestatin in brain tissue homogenate was investigated. The in vitro incubation of obestatin in brain homogenates revealed disappearance half-life times of 19 min for crude brain homogenate to 27 min for brain membrane homogenate. For the behavioural studies, male C57Bl/6 mice were intracerebroventricularly treated with 0.2 nmol murine amidated obestatin or vehicle at the age of 3 months. An additional group of mice was treated with 0.3 nmol of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) as a positive control of suppression of food intake. Food and water intake were studied over a period of 5 h in metabolic cages. Under our experimental conditions, no suppressive effects of obestatin on food or water intake were observed, whereas CRF evoked a significant suppression of food intake, which proves the internal validity of the study design.

  6. What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health? The effects of fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L; Miller, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children's dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children's health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children's health through increased dietary fiber.

  7. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  8. The power of social influence over food intake: examining the effects of attentional bias and impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Larsen, Junilla K; Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Herman, C Peter; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-02-14

    Numerous studies have shown that people adjust their intake directly to that of their eating companions. A potential explanation for this modelling effect is that the eating behaviour of others operates as an external eating cue that stimulates food intake. The present study explored whether this cue-reactive mechanism can account for modelling effects on intake. It was investigated whether attentional bias towards dynamic eating cues and impulsivity would influence the degree of modelling. Participants completed one individual session and one session in which an experimental confederate accompanied them. In the first session, eye movements were recorded as an index of attentional bias to dynamic eating cues. In addition, self-reported impulsivity and response inhibition were assessed. The second session employed a between-participants design with three experimental conditions in which participants were exposed to a same-sex confederate instructed to eat nothing, a low or a large amount of M&Ms. A total of eighty-five young women participated. The participants' self-reported impulsivity determined the occurrence of modelling; only low-impulsive women adjusted their intake to that of their eating companion. Attention towards eating cues and response inhibition, however, did not moderate modelling of food intake. The present study suggests that cue-reactive mechanisms may not underlie modelling of food intake. Instead, the results emphasise the importance of social norms in explaining modelling effects, whereas it is suggested that the degree of impulsivity may play a role in whether or not women adhere to the intake norms set by their eating companion.

  9. Reproduction regulates Drosophila nutrient intake through independent effects of egg production and sex peptide: Implications for aging

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Elizabeth; Tatar, Marc

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ratio of protein to carbohydrate (P:C) consumed influences reproduction and lifespan, outcomes that are often maximized by different P:C intake. OBJECTIVE: Determine if reproduction in female Drosophila drives elevated P:C intake. Distinguish whether such a preference is driven by egg production or from male-derived sex peptides in seminal fluid. METHODS: Intake of protein and carbohydrate was measured in a diet-choice assay. Macronutrient intake was calculated for mated and unmated fertile females, mated and unmated sterile females, and both types of female when mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide. RESULTS: Mated females have high P:C intake relative to unmated females and mated, sterile females. Fertile females mated to wildtype males and to males lacking sex peptide have high P:C intake, but sterile females have similar, low P:C intake when unmated and when mated to males lacking sex peptide. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolic demands of egg production and sex peptides are individually sufficient to drive elevated P:C intake in adult female Drosophila. Reproductive state can thus modulate how animals consume macronutrients, which in turn can impact their health and aging. PMID:28035342

  10. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) decreases the effects of ghrelin on memory retention and food intake.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Valeria P; Gaydou, Romina C; Schiöth, Helgi B; de Barioglio, Susana R

    2007-04-05

    Ghrelin (Ghr) is an appetite stimulating hormone that is produced peripherally, by the stomach, and centrally as well. Previous investigations show that Ghr increases food intake and memory retention in rats, and that extra-hypothalamic structures, such as the hippocampus, participate in these effects. In the present work we analyzed the effect on food intake and memory retention induced by Ghr after serotonin (5-HT) availability modification at the serotoninergic synapses. Animals only treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine (FLU) 5 mg/kg or clomipramine (CLO) 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, showed a significant reduction in both food intake and memory retention. On the contrary, Ghr administration induces a significant increase in food intake and a dose-dependent increase in short and long term memory retention. When the animals were treated with FLU prior to Ghr injection, the food intake induced, as well as the expression of short and long term memory retention, was decreased. In conclusion, evidence presented in this paper suggests that the effects of Ghr on both feeding and memory retention in extra-hypothalamic structures such as the hippocampus, could depend on the availability of 5-HT.

  11. Effect of dietary sodium intake on blood lipids: results from the DASH-sodium trial.

    PubMed

    Harsha, David W; Sacks, Frank M; Obarzanek, Eva; Svetkey, Laura P; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Bray, George A; Aickin, Mikel; Conlin, Paul R; Miller, Edgar R; Appel, Lawrence J

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated the effect on serum lipids of sodium intake in 2 diets. Participants were randomly assigned to a typical American control diet or the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, each prepared with 3 levels of sodium (targeted at 50, 100, and 150 mmol/d per 2100 kcal). The DASH diet is increased in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and is reduced in saturated and total fat. Within assigned diet, participants ate each sodium level for 30 days. The order of sodium intake was random. Participants were 390 adults, age 22 years or older, with blood pressure of 120 to 159 mm Hg systolic and 80 to 95 mm Hg diastolic. Serum lipids were measured at baseline and at the end of each sodium period. Within each diet, sodium intake did not significantly affect serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or triglycerides. On the control diet, the ratio of total cholesterol-to-HDL cholesterol increased by 2% from 4.53 on higher sodium to 4.63 on lower sodium intake (P=0.04). On the DASH diet, sodium intake did not affect this ratio. There was no dose-response of sodium intake on serum lipids or the cholesterol ratio in either diet. At each sodium level, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were lower on the DASH diet versus the typical American diet. There were no significant interactions between the effects of sodium and the DASH diet on serum lipids. In conclusion, changes in dietary sodium intake over the range of 50 to 150 mmol/d did not affect blood lipid concentrations.

  12. Effects of injection of serotonin into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake and body weight in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pal, G K; Kannan, N; Pal, Pravati

    2004-10-01

    Serotonin is known to inhibit food and water intake. However, the effect of its injection into nucleus caudatus on food and water intake is not known. In the present study, serotonin hydrochloride, buspirone (the serotonin 5-HT1A agonist) and ondensetron (the 5HT3 antagonist) were injected into nucleus caudatus through stereotaxically implanted cannulae in three different dosages (1, 2 and 5 microg) and their effects on 24 h food and water intake, and body weight were recorded. The injection of serotonin hydrochloride resulted in a dose- dependent decrease in food intake attaining maximum of 27.3% at 5 microg dose, whereas water intake and body weight were decreased 12% and 4.3% respectively only at the highest does. Buspirone elicited a dose dependent inhibition of food and water intake and body weight (22.3%, 19.8% and 5.1% respectively), whereas ondensetron elicited an increase in food and water intake (37.8% and 36.3% respectively) without significantly altering bodyweight. It was concluded that serotonin hydrochloride injected into nucleus caudatus inhibits food and water intake significantly. These effects are mediated via 5-HT1A and 5HT3 receptors. The effect of injections of 5-HT1A receptor agonist is more pronounced on water intake. The effect of injections of 5HT3 receptor antagonist is also more pronounced on water intake.

  13. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  14. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: effects of glucose intake, antimuscarinic activity and anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Celik, Pinar Yamantürk; Açikmeşe, Bariş

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to further evaluate the contribution of antimuscarinic activity and hypoglycaemia to the development of scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake. The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on convulsions were also evaluated. Antimuscarinic drugs atropine (3 mg/kg) and biperiden (10 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to animals fasted for 48 h. Like scopolamine, both drugs induced convulsions after animals were allowed to eat ad libitum. Another group of animals was given glucose (5%) in drinking water during fasting. These animals, although they had normoglycaemic blood levels after fasting, also developed convulsions after treated with scopolamine i.p. (3 mg/kg), atropine (3 mg/kg) or biperiden (10 mg/kg) and allowed to eat ad libitum. Among the drugs studied, only valproate (340 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) markedly reduced the incidence of scopolamine-induced convulsions. The present results indicate that antimuscarinic activity, but not hypoglycaemia, underlies these convulsions which do not respond to most of the conventional anticonvulsant drugs.

  15. [Effect of energy intake on production and reproduction characteristics in (breeding) sows].

    PubMed

    den Hartog, L A

    1985-04-01

    A total number of 113 first-litter sows and 680 gilts of the Dutch Landrace were used in order to study the effect of energy intake on productive and reproductive characteristics. A high feeding level in normal sows after weaning is essential, not to increase the ovulation rate but rather to improve the condition of the sow and advance oestrus. The experiment with the gilts showed that from the point of view of the cost of the feed consumed and reproductive performance, an energy intake during rearing of more than 2.1 times maintenance will have an adverse effect when adequate protein is given.

  16. The effect of an intake vortex on the frontal boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlaka, V. V.

    1986-02-01

    The three-dimensional boundary layer at the intake of a blade cascade is investigated experimentally using a needle probe. It is shown that an intake vortex does not cause the boundary layer to separate but affects the local characteristics of the latter. Thus, extreme values of the integral characteristics of the boundary values are recorded in the wake of a vortex, the effect of the vortex on the longitudinal velocity component being particularly strong. The effect of the vortex is shown to depend on flow conditions in the flow core and is less pronounced in reactive cascades.

  17. The effect of intraperitoneal administration of leptin on short-term food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jayesh D; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2008-02-02

    The effects of intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of leptin (1, 5, and 10 mug/kg) were investigated on the food consumption during a 60 min test meal in 21 h fasted rats. All doses of leptin produced significant reductions in cumulative food intake during the first 15 min and 30 min (at least, P<0.05) after administration. Similarly, i.p., but not subcutaneous (s.c.), administration of leptin (25 microg/kg) reduced food intake in 21 h fasted rats. Leptin (10 and 25 microg/kg, i.p.) did not reduce water intake in 16 h water-deprived rats, nor did leptin (25 microg/kg) produce aversion in a two-bottle conditioned taste aversion test indicating that the hypophagic effect of leptin is (i) behaviourally specific for food and not water intake, and (ii) not due to drug-induced malaise. Moreover, leptin (10 and 25 microg/kg, i.p.) did not significantly alter food intake in non-deprived rats when measured at 30 min intervals over a period of 24 h. Chemical vagotomy with capsaicin abolished the inhibitory effects of leptin (25 microg/kg, i.p) on food intake in fasted rats and suggest that the hypophagic effect is dependent on intact vagal afferent nerves. Furthermore, the hypophagia induced by leptin (10 microg/kg, i.p.) in fasted rats was not attenuated by systemic administration of the peripherally acting cholecystokinin(1) receptor antagonist, 2-naphthalenesulphanyl-L-aspartyl-2-(phenethyl) amide (2-NAP; 2 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating that the suppressant effects of leptin on food consumption are not secondary to the release of endogenous peripheral cholecystokinin.

  18. Controversies Surrounding High-Protein Diet Intake: Satiating Effect and Kidney and Bone Health12

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. PMID:25979491

  19. Effects of Yohimbine and Tolazoline on Isoproterenol and Angiotensin 2-Induced Water Intake in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists, yohimbine and tolazoline, at doses up to 1000 micro-g/kg, had no effect on water intake of female rats. However, when these compounds were administered SC in combination with either the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, isoproterenol (10 to 25 micro-g/kg, SC), or with angiotensin 2 (200 micro-g/kg, SC). water intake was enhanced. In contrast, intraventricular administration of either tolazoline (10 and 20 micro-g/kg) or yohimbine (300 micro-g/kg) failed to augment the dipsogenic response to angiotensin 2 (150 micro-g/kg, SC). Thus, the enhancing effect of these alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists on isoproterenol- and angiotensin 2-induced water intakes appears to be manifested peripherally, rather than centrally. In view of the fact that clonidine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor agonist, has been shown to inhibit water intake induced by both isoproterenol and angiotensin 2, the results suggest that the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor may play a role in modulating water intake induced by these two dipsogenic agents.

  20. The effect of dietary carbohydrate:fat ratio on energy intake by adult women.

    PubMed

    van Stratum, P; Lussenburg, R N; van Wezel, L A; Vergroesen, A J; Cremer, H D

    1978-02-01

    The effect of the dietary carbohydrate:fat (C:F) ratio on the spontaneous energy intake by healthy adults was investigated by comparing a high-carbohydrate diet (fat 24%, carbohydrate 58%, protein 18% of energy) and a high-fat diet (fat 47%, carbohydrate 35%, protein 18% of energy) in a 2 X 2 week cross-over design. Subjects were 22 healthy nuns in a Trappist convent with very regular activities. The diets consisted of combinations of liquid formula (75%) and standardized snacks (25%). The difference in C:F ratio was concealed: energy density, taste and appearance were similar. Energy consumption was recorded continuously. The mean daily energy intakes remained constant: 8276 kJ (1978 kcal). The difference in mean daily energy intake between diets was 73 kJ +/- 180 (SEM). Small changes in body weight were observed, but these are argued not to indicate definitive effects. It is concluded that changing the C:F ratio within commonly occurring ranges does not influence the spontaneous energy intake of healthy adults. The composition of the dietary fat was kept constant. Under practical conditions a change in the C:F ratio will also induce a change in the fatty acid composition of the diet, which might affect the energy intake regulation. Other experiments are required to see whether the C:F ratio can affect body composition or other physiological parameters in the long run.

  1. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  2. Obesity by choice revisited: effects of food availability, flavor variety and nutrient composition on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Ackroff, Karen; Bonacchi, Kristine; Magee, Michael; Yiin, Yeh-Min; Graves, Jonathan V; Sclafani, Anthony

    2007-10-22

    Recent work suggested that the energy intake and weight gain of rats maintained on chow and 32% sucrose solution could be increased by simply offering more sources of sucrose [Tordoff M.G. Obesity by choice: the powerful influence of nutrient availability on nutrient intake. Am J Physiol 2002;282:R1536-R1539.]. In Experiment 1 this procedure was replicated but the effect was not: rats given one bottle of sucrose and five bottles of water consumed as much sucrose as those given five bottles of sucrose and one of water. Adding different flavors to the sucrose did not increase intakes further in Experiment 2. The relative potency of sucrose and other optional foods was studied in Experiment 3. Sucrose solution stimulated more overeating and weight gain than fat (vegetable shortening), and offering both sucrose and shortening did not generate further increases in energy intake. Finally, foods commonly used to produce overeating and weight gain were compared. Sucrose was less effective than a high-fat milk diet, and offering cookies in addition to the milk did not increase energy intake further. The nature of optional foods (nutrient composition and physical form) was markedly more important than the number of food sources available to the animals, and is a better contender as the reason for "obesity by choice".

  3. Effect of WIC Food Package Changes on Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Greig, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Orrin B.; Cruz, Theresa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined WIC policy change effects on dietary intake of preschool children from WIC-participating households in rural New Mexico communities. Methods Dietary intake of children enrolled in Head Start in 8 communities was compared before and after 2009 WIC food package changes. Results Following the policy change, participants reported significantly increased consumption of lower-fat milk, reduced consumption of saturated fat (grams), and decreased consumption of vegetables without potatoes. No significant differences in fruit, fruit juice, vegetables including potatoes, whole-grains and saturated fat (percent-energy) consumption were observed. Conclusions WIC policy changes have the potential to improve children’s saturated fat intake. More research with robust designs is necessary to examine long-term effects of WIC policy changes. PMID:27668264

  4. Effects of preparatory and action planning instructions on situation-specific and general fruit and snack intake.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Nguyen, Minh Hao; Rhodes, Ryan E; van Osch, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    Evidence to date suggests heterogeneity in the effects of implementation intentions on health behaviour, including diet. Additional variables and study designs may impact on their effectiveness. Preparatory action, such as making sure fruits are available for consumption, may be an important additional variable. Likewise, most implementation intention research has focused on changes in general intake, yet implementation intention instructions typically require participants to consider behaviour in specific situations. Little is known on how implementation intentions impact situation-specific intake. The present study sought to add to the evidence base by comparing (1) the effects of action planning instructions versus preparatory planning instructions on (2) both situation-specific (as formulated in the implementation intention instruction) and general intake of fruits and in-between meal snack intake frequency. Fruit intake was assessed in average pieces per day, whereas snacking intake was assessed as average frequency in days per week. Using non-probability sampling, 243 undergraduate students who intended to have a healthy diet were randomized to either a standard information control condition, an action planning condition, or a preparatory planning condition. Planning manipulations were based on previous work. Two weeks later, general and situation-specific intake was assessed again in 181 participants. Data were analysed using 2 (time) x 3 (conditions) analyses of variance. Results showed that both planning manipulations were successful in decreasing snack intake frequency in the specified situation, with larger effect sizes for the action planning condition than for the preparatory planning condition. No effects were found on general snack intake frequency or fruit intake. Future planning interventions should more explicitly compare changes in situational and general intake, as well as simultaneously assessed decreases in unhealthy intake and increases in

  5. Effects of added fruits and vegetables on dietary intakes and body weight in Scottish adults.

    PubMed

    Whybrow, Stephen; Harrison, Claire L S; Mayer, Claus; James Stubbs, R

    2006-03-01

    An increased consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) has been suggested as a way to limit, or even lower, energy and fat intakes. The present study examined the effects of incorporating F&V supplements into the diets of adults who reported consuming <240 g (three portions) of F&V per d on energy and fat intakes, and change in body weight, over 8 weeks using a randomised parallel design. Thirty-four males and twenty-eight females (age 42.6 (sd 11.1) years, BMI 23.7 (sd 2.7) kg/m(2)) were each provided with supplements of 0, 300 or 600 g F&V per d. Food, nutrient and energy intakes were measured before, during and at the end of the supplementation period using 7 d weighed records. Mean daily energy intakes were not different among the three groups before (P = 0.151) or during the supplementation periods (P = 0.407), although changes in energy intakes over the study period tended to be more positive with increasing amounts of F&V supplements (P = 0.078). There was no difference in changes of body weights during the study (P = 0.242). Carbohydrate (P < 0.001), sugar (P < 0.001), fibre (P < 0.001) and weight of food consumed (P = 0.022) increased in the treatment groups. There were no significant differences, or changes, in fat intakes among the three groups. Consumption of mandatory F&V supplements for 8 weeks produced beneficial changes in diet composition, but did not result in lower reported energy or fat intakes, and did not result in loss of body weight.

  6. Memorizing fruit: The effect of a fruit memory-game on children's fruit intake.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anastasiadou, Dimitra Tatiana; Anschütz, Doeschka

    2017-03-01

    Food cues of palatable food are omnipresent, thereby simulating the intake of unhealthy snack food among children. As a consequence, this might lead to a higher intake of energy-dense snacks and less fruit and vegetables, a habit that increases the risk of developing chronic diseases. The aim of this experimental study is to examine whether playing a memory game with fruit affects fruit intake among young children. We used a randomized between-subject design with 127 children (age: 7-12 y) who played a memory-game, containing either fruit (n = 64) or non-food products (n = 63). While playing the memory-game in a separate room in school during school hours, free intake of fruit (mandarins, apples, bananas, and grapes) was measured. Afterwards, the children completed self-report measures, and length and weight were assessed. The main finding is that playing a memory-game containing fruit increases overall fruit intake (P = 0.016). Children who played the fruit version of the memory-game ate more bananas (P = 0.015) and mandarins (P = 0.036) than children who played the non-food memory-game; no effects were found for apples (P > 0.05) and grapes (P > 0.05). The findings suggest that playing a memory-game with fruit stimulates fruit intake among young children. This is an important finding because children eat insufficient fruit, according to international standards, and more traditional health interventions have limited success. Healthy eating habits of children maintain when they become adults, making it important to stimulate fruit intake among children in an enjoyable way.

  7. Fatty Acid Transporter CD36 Mediates Hypothalamic Effect of Fatty Acids on Food Intake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moullé, Valentine S.; Le Foll, Christelle; Philippe, Erwann; Kassis, Nadim; Rouch, Claude; Marsollier, Nicolas; Bui, Linh-Chi; Guissard, Christophe; Dairou, Julien; Lorsignol, Anne; Pénicaud, Luc; Levin, Barry E.; Cruciani-Guglielmacci, Céline; Magnan, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Variations in plasma fatty acid (FA) concentrations are detected by FA sensing neurons in specific brain areas such as the hypothalamus. These neurons play a physiological role in the control of food intake and the regulation of hepatic glucose production. Le Foll et al. previously showed in vitro that at least 50% of the FA sensing in ventromedial hypothalamic (VMH) neurons is attributable to the interaction of long chain FA with FA translocase/CD36 (CD36). The present work assessed whether in vivo effects of hypothalamic FA sensing might be partly mediated by CD36 or intracellular events such as acylCoA synthesis or β-oxidation. To that end, a catheter was implanted in the carotid artery toward the brain in male Wistar rats. After 1 wk recovery, animals were food-deprived for 5 h, then 10 min infusions of triglyceride emulsion, Intralipid +/− heparin (IL, ILH, respectively) or saline/heparin (SH) were carried out and food intake was assessed over the next 5 h. Experimental groups included: 1) Rats previously injected in ventromedian nucleus (VMN) with shRNA against CD36 or scrambled RNA; 2) Etomoxir (CPT1 inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH; and 3) Triacsin C (acylCoA synthase inhibitor) or saline co-infused with ILH/SH. ILH significantly lowered food intake during refeeding compared to SH (p<0.001). Five hours after refeeding, etomoxir did not affect this inhibitory effect of ILH on food intake while VMN CD36 depletion totally prevented it. Triacsin C also prevented ILH effects on food intake. In conclusion, the effect of FA to inhibit food intake is dependent on VMN CD36 and acylCoA synthesis but does not required FA oxidation. PMID:24040150

  8. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  9. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    PubMed

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  10. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  11. A meta-analysis of the effects of energy intake on risk of digestive cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yi-Qian; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To quantitatively assess the relationship between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% CIs of digestive cancers with respect to total energy intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Data were extracted independently by two investigators and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed fixed-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to compute the summary RR for highest versus lowest category of energy intake and for per unit energy intake and digestive cancer incidence by giving each study-specific RR a weight that was proportional to its precision. RESULTS: Nineteen studies consisting of 13 independent cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The studies included 995 577 participants and 5620 incident cases of digestive cancer with an average follow-up of 11.1 years. A significant inverse association was observed between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers. The RR of digestive cancers for the highest compared to the lowest caloric intake category was 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-0.98, P < 0.05). The RR for an increment of 239 kcal/d energy intake was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99, P < 0.05) in the fixed model. In subgroup analyses, we noted that energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, P < 0.05) and an increased risk of gastric cancer (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.31, P < 0.01). There appeared to be no association with esophageal (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, P > 0.05) or pancreatic (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49-1.09, P > 0.05) cancer. Associations were also similar in studies from North America and Europe. The RR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.79-1.25, P > 0.05) when

  12. Comparison of effect of high intake of magnesium with high intake of phosphorus and potassium on urolithiasis in goats fed with cottonseed meal diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Yong; Sun, Wei-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Long

    2009-08-01

    The effect of high intake of Mg on urolithiasis was compared with high intake of P and K in goats being fed with a cottonseed meal and rice straw diet. Eighteen wether goats were randomly allocated into group A, B and C evenly and fed with cottonseed meal and rice straw diet for three months. From day 60 onwards, KH(2)PO(4) and K(2)HPO(4) were provided via drinking water to goats in group B to increase the intake of P, K, and MgO to goats in group C to increase the intake of Mg. Blood and urine samples were collected to analyze the concentration of P, K, Mg and Ca, and the activity product (AP) of potassium magnesium phosphate (MKP) in urine was also calculated. The composition of calculi and urinary sedimentary crystals were examined by chemical qualitative analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the incidence of urolithiasis in group C (6/6) was higher than that in group A (1/6) and B (1/6) (P<0.05). The calculi were mainly composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) and partly composed of MKP. MKP presented in crystals of different phases in this experiment. The high intake of Mg contributed to a significant increase of plasma Mg, but additional P, K did not cause a further increase of plasma P, K. Urine P, K, Mg and Ca and AP of MKP in group C decreased significantly after the onset of urolithiasis. In conclusion, high intake of Mg was more important in inducing struvite calculi compared with high intake of K and P in goats under these feeding conditions. Cottonseed meal and rice straw with additional Mg is a good dietary model for inducing struvite calculi in castrated goats.

  13. Chronic intermittent ethanol exposure in adolescent and adult male rats: Effects on tolerance, social behavior and ethanol intake

    PubMed Central

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of alcohol use in adolescence, it is important to understand the consequences of chronic ethanol exposure during this critical period in development. The purpose of the present study was to assess possible age-related differences in susceptibility to tolerance development to ethanol-induced sedation and withdrawal-related anxiety, as well as voluntary ethanol intake after chronic exposure to relatively high doses of ethanol during adolescence or adulthood. Methods Adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five 10 day exposure conditions: chronic ethanol (4 g/kg every 48 hours), chronic saline (equivalent volume every 24 hours), chronic saline/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10), non-manipulated/acutely challenged with ethanol (4 g/kg on day 10) or non-manipulated. For assessment of tolerance development, loss of righting reflex was tested on the first and last ethanol exposure days in the chronic ethanol group, with both saline and non-manipulated animals likewise challenged on the last exposure day. Withdrawal-induced anxiety was indexed in a social interaction test 24 hrs after the last ethanol exposure, with ethanol-naïve chronic saline and non-manipulated animals serving as controls. Voluntary intake was assessed 48 hours after the chronic exposure period in chronic ethanol, chronic saline and non-manipulated animals using an 8 day 2 bottle choice, limited access ethanol intake procedure. Results Adolescents were less sensitive to the sedative effects of ethanol than adults. Adults, but not adolescents, developed chronic tolerance to the sedative effects of ethanol, tolerance that appeared to be metabolic in nature. Social deficits were observed after chronic ethanol in both adolescents and adults. Adolescents drank significantly more ethanol than adults on a g/kg basis, with intake uninfluenced by prior ethanol exposure at both ages. Conclusion Adolescents and adults may differ in

  14. Effect of food intake on left and right ventricular systolic tissue Doppler measurements.

    PubMed

    Dieden, Anna; Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Systolic tissue Doppler measurements (s') have been used to measure the velocity in myocardial motion and are a valuable tool for evaluating the systolic function of the left and right ventricles. Digestion of food is known to significantly alter hemodynamics and may therefore affect s'. The effect of food intake on s' parameters has not yet been studied. We assessed whether s' is affected by food intake. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 26·2 ± 4·2 years were investigated. s' was measured with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in the right and left ventricles before the subjects ate a standardized meal and also 30 and 110 min after the meal. Three measurements were taken in each projection, and a mean value was calculated for each. s' increased significantly (P<0·05) from fasting to 30 min after food intake in every measured site except in the left inferolateral wall (P = 0·15, NS). Several, but not all, variables returned to base value 110 min after food intake. This study shows that food intake affects the tissue Doppler variables used to evaluate systolic heart function. Further studies are needed in older healthy subjects and older subjects with various cardiovascular diseases.

  15. Oxytocin's inhibitory effect on food intake is stronger in obese than normal-weight men

    PubMed Central

    Thienel, M; Fritsche, A; Heinrichs, M; Peter, A; Ewers, M; Lehnert, H; Born, J; Hallschmid, M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Animal studies and pilot experiments in men indicate that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin limits food intake, and raise the question of its potential to improve metabolic control in obesity. Subjects/Methods: We compared the effect of central nervous oxytocin administration (24 IU) via the intranasal route on ingestive behaviour and metabolic function in 18 young obese men with the results in a group of 20 normal-weight men. In double-blind, placebo-controlled experiments, ad libitum food intake from a test buffet was examined in fasted subjects 45 min after oxytocin administration, followed by the assessment of postprandial, reward-driven snack intake. Energy expenditure was repeatedly assessed by indirect calorimetry and blood was sampled to determine concentrations of blood glucose and hormones. Results: Oxytocin markedly reduced hunger-driven food intake in the fasted state in obese but not in normal-weight men, and led to a reduction in snack consumption in both groups, whereas energy expenditure remained generally unaffected. Hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis secretion and the postprandial rise in plasma glucose were blunted by oxytocin in both groups. Conclusions: Oxytocin exerts an acutely inhibitory impact on food intake that is enhanced rather than decreased in obese compared with normal-weight men. This pattern puts it in contrast to other metabolically active neuropeptides and bodes well for clinical applications of oxytocin in the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27553712

  16. Implementation Intentions on the Effect of Salt Intake among Hypertensive Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was aimed at assessing the potential effect of a theory-driven intervention—implementation intentions—on reducing salt intake among hypertensive Brazilian women. Ninety-eight participants were randomly assigned to participate in an implementation intentions intervention aimed at promoting lower salt intake through decreased addition of salt and salty spices to meals (intervention group, n = 49; group, n = 49). Endpoints were assessed at baseline and at the 2-month follow-up. Primary endpoints were a self-reporting measure of salt intake given by salt addition to meals (discretionary salt + salty spices = total added salt) and the 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. Secondary endpoints included intention, self-efficacy, and habit related to adding salt to meals. Patients in the intervention group showed a significant reduction in salt intake as assessed by 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. A significant reduction in the measure of habit was observed for both groups. No differences were observed for intention and self-efficacy. The results of this pilot study suggest the efficacy of planning strategies to help hypertensive women reduce their salt intake. PMID:25243084

  17. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  18. The effect of fruit in different forms on energy intake and satiety at a meal.

    PubMed

    Flood-Obbagy, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2009-04-01

    Consuming whole fruit reduces ratings of satiety more than fruit juice, but little is known about the effects of different forms of fruit on subsequent energy intake. This study tested how consuming preloads of apples in different forms prior to a meal (apple, applesauce, and apple juice with and without added fiber) influences satiety and energy intake at meal. Preloads were matched for weight, energy content, energy density, and ingestion rate. Once a week for 5 weeks, 58 adults consumed one of four preloads (266 g; 125 kcal [523 kJ]), or no preload (control), followed by a test meal consumed ad libitum 15 min later. Results showed that eating apple reduced lunch energy intake (preload+test meal) by 15% (187+/-36 kcal [782+/-151 kJ]) compared to control (p<0.0001) and decreased energy intake compared to applesauce and both juices. Fullness ratings differed significantly after preload consumption (apple>applesauce>both juices>control). Overall, whole apple increased satiety more than applesauce or apple juice. Adding naturally occurring levels of fiber to juice did not enhance satiety. These results suggest that solid fruit affects satiety more than pureed fruit or juice, and that eating fruit at the start of a meal can reduce energy intake.

  19. Comparison of satiating effects of ceruletide and food intake using behavioral and electrophysiological indicators of memory.

    PubMed

    Pietrowsky, R; Specht, G; Fehm, H L; Born, J

    1994-06-01

    Animal and human studies have suggested a satieting effect of ceruletide, an analog of cholecystokinin. In humans, signs of a selectively diminished central nervous processing of food stimuli may provide a more valid measure of satiety than overt eating behavior. To assess the satieting effects of ceruletide in humans, effects of ceruletide and food intake on memory of food stimuli and stimuli not related to food (neutral and sex) were compared with memory performance in fasted subjects. In experiment I, recall of slide-projected words was tested in 12 fasting men in a within-subject comparison (i) following intravenous administration of saline solution, (ii) of ceruletide (6.75 micrograms), and (iii) after having eaten a regular breakfast. The P3 component of the event-related potential to the stimuli was assessed as a physiological sign of memory processing. In experiment II, recognition of pictures was tested in a between-subject design in 36 fasting men following (i) administration of saline solution, (ii) of ceruletide (6 micrograms), and (iii) intake of an opulent meal. After food intake, recall and recognition of food and also of sex stimuli were diminished, but were increased for neutral stimuli. Ceruletide diminished recognition of food stimuli and increased that of neutral stimuli; similar effects on recall of food and neutral stimuli failed to reach significance. P3 amplitude did not reflect changes in memory performance. Memory of food stimuli declined after ceruletide as well as after food intake, suggesting ceruletide mediates satieting effects on memory processing.

  20. The effects of nicotine self-administration and withdrawal on concurrently available chow and sucrose intake in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Bunney, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Hernandez, Christine; LeSage, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrate intake, preference, and taste thresholds may be altered in current and former cigarette smokers, which may mediate weight gain and risk for obesity in individuals who quit smoking. Attempts to model these effects in rodents have primarily used noncontingent nicotine administration. The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in chow and sucrose intake in rats during a 23-h access model of i.v. nicotine self-administration (NSA), in which rats lever-pressed for chow, sucrose, and nicotine under concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. Male rats were assigned to one of three groups that differed in food and drug availability. The Nicotine C+S group had concurrent access to nicotine, chow, and sucrose. The Saline C+S group had access to saline, chow, and sucrose. The Nicotine C-Only group had access to nicotine and chow, but not sucrose. Changes in food intake and weight gain were assessed during baseline, NSA, and nicotine withdrawal (i.e., saline extinction). Weight gain was significantly slowed during NSA and increased during withdrawal, but did not differ between the nicotine groups. NSA produced a significant decrease in both chow and sucrose intake. Gradual tolerance to nicotine’s effects on sucrose, but not chow intake, occurred. During withdrawal, chow and sucrose intake increased, with a larger percent increase in sucrose intake compared to chow. The proportion of total food intake from sucrose was greater at the end of withdrawal compared to baseline, indicating a history of nicotine intake changed dietary preference. Combined, these results indicate that sucrose intake is more resistant to nicotine’s appetite suppressant effects and withdrawal from nicotine produces a greater increase in sweet food intake alongside general increases in chow intake. Changes in overall food intake in current and ex-smokers may lead to increased risk for obesity and other health problems, potentially limiting the benefit of quitting smoking. PMID

  1. The effects of nicotine self-administration and withdrawal on concurrently available chow and sucrose intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Bunney, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Hernandez, Christine; LeSage, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate intake, preference, and taste thresholds may be altered in current and former cigarette smokers, which may mediate weight gain and risk for obesity in individuals who quit smoking. Attempts to model these effects in rodents have primarily used noncontingent nicotine administration. The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in chow and sucrose intake in rats during a 23-h access model of i.v. nicotine self-administration (NSA), in which rats lever-pressed for chow, sucrose, and nicotine under concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. Male rats were assigned to one of three groups that differed in food and drug availability. The Nicotine C+S group had concurrent access to nicotine, chow, and sucrose. The Saline C+S group had access to saline, chow, and sucrose. The Nicotine C-Only group had access to nicotine and chow, but not sucrose. Changes in food intake and weight gain were assessed during baseline, NSA, and nicotine withdrawal (i.e., saline extinction). Weight gain was significantly slowed during NSA and increased during withdrawal, but did not differ between the nicotine groups. NSA produced a significant decrease in both chow and sucrose intake. Gradual tolerance to nicotine's effects on sucrose, but not chow intake, occurred. During withdrawal, chow and sucrose intake increased, with a larger percent increase in sucrose intake compared to chow. The proportion of total food intake from sucrose was greater at the end of withdrawal compared to baseline, indicating a history of nicotine intake changed dietary preference. Combined, these results indicate that sucrose intake is more resistant to nicotine's appetite suppressant effects and withdrawal from nicotine produces a greater increase in sweet food intake alongside general increases in chow intake. Changes in overall food intake in current and ex-smokers may lead to increased risk for obesity and other health problems, potentially limiting the benefit of quitting smoking.

  2. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  3. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  4. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to environmental influences on eating is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on intake of large and self-selected portions among children 2 to 9 years of age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE...

  5. Effects of Particulate Matter and Antioxidant Dietary Intake on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Graciela B.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Reyes, Angela G.; Izumi, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed 2 pathways through which dietary antioxidants may counter adverse effects of exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5) on blood pressure (BP): main (compensatory) and modifying (protective) models. Methods. We used 2002 to 2003 data from the Detroit Healthy Environments Partnership community survey conducted with a multiethnic sample of adults (n = 347) in low- to moderate-income, predominantly Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black neighborhoods in Detroit, Michigan. We used generalized estimating equations to test the effects of ambient exposure to PM2.5 and dietary antioxidant intake on BP, with adjustment for multiple confounders. Results. Dietary antioxidant intake was inversely associated with systolic BP (b = −0.5; P < .05) and pulse pressure (b  = −0.6; P < .05) in neighborhoods closest to major sources of air pollutants. Adverse effects of PM2.5 remained significant after accounting for antioxidant intakes. Exploratory analyses suggested potential modifying effects of antioxidant intake on associations between ambient PM2.5 exposure and BP. Conclusions. Interventions to improve access to antioxidant-rich foods in polluted urban areas may be protective of cardiovascular health. However, efforts to reduce PM2.5 exposure remain critical for cardiovascular health promotion. PMID:25320896

  6. THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor

    Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD?

    ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

  7. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on digestibility and intake of alfalfa silage in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...

  8. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  9. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  10. Metabolizable energy intake effects on carcass quality of steers finished in southern Chile during summer time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan, USA) to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on beef carcass quality during the summer ti...

  11. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was

  12. 24 CFR 1710.508 - Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b): Sufficient protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Certification of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.508 Effect of suspension of certification granted under § 1710.501(b):...

  13. Low doses of gamma-irradiation induce an early bystander effect in zebrafish cells which is sufficient to radioprotect cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term "bystander effect" is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01-0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors.

  14. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  15. The Effects of Exercise on Food Intake and Hunger: Relationship with Acylated Ghrelin and Leptin

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever-Ozen, Serife; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Bugdayci, Guler; Ozen, Guclu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a long bout of aerobic exercise on hunger and energy intake and circulating levels of leptin and acylated ghrelin. Ten healthy male subjects undertook two, 4 h trials in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trial subjects ran for 105 min at 50% of maximal oxygen uptake and the last 15 min at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by a 120 min rest period. In the control trial, subjects rested for 4 h. Subjects consumed a buffet test meal at 180 min during each trial. Hunger ratings, acylated ghrelin, leptin, glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. No differences were found at baseline values for hunger, acylated ghrelin, leptin, insulin and glucose for both trials (p > 0.05). The estimated energy expenditure of the exercise trial was 1550 ± 136 kcal. Exercise did not change subsequent absolute energy intake, but produced a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in relative energy intake. A two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (p < 0. 05) interaction effect for hunger and acylated ghrelin. In conclusion, this exercise regimen had a positive effect on reducing appetite which is related to reduced acylated ghrelin responses over time. This finding lends support for a role of exercise in weight management. Key points Physical exercise is a strategy used to counteract obesity, since it lowers the energetic balance by increasing energy expenditure. However, because any energy expended in exercise elevates the intensity of hunger and drives food consumption, it is pertinent to ask how effective exercise could be in helping people to lose weight or to prevent weight gain. The effects of exercise on hunger sensations and food intake are fairly controversial and depend on the intensity and duration of exercise. 120 min prolonged treadmill exercise with mix intensity, temporarily decreased hunger sensations, acylated ghrelin and relative energy intake. Variations in exercise intensity should

  16. Effect of zinc intake on mental and motor development in infants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Skinner, Anna L; Medina, Marisol W; Lowe, Nicola M; Hall Moran, Victoria; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on mental and motor development in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 5 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on mental and motor development was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Indices of mental and motor development assessed were the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. The pooled β was -0.01 (95 %CI -0.02, 0) for MDI and 0 (95 %CI -0.03, 0.02) for PDI, with a substantial heterogeneity in both analyses. When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn supplementation on MDI changed depending on the dose of supplementation. Regarding PDI, there was a differential effect of Zn intake depending on intervention duration, dose of supplementation, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Zn supplementation showed a negative, weak and significant effect on PDI score in those studies with a length of 4 to 20 weeks (β= -0.05; CI 95 % -0.06 to -0.04). In conclusion, no association was found between Zn intake and mental and motor development in infants. Further standardized research is urgently needed to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant mental and motor development, particularly in Europe.

  17. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment – sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  18. Effects of feed intake on composition of sheep rumen contents and their microbial population size.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Redondo, R; Cajarville, C

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of feed intake on the composition of the rumen contents of sheep and on their bacterial densities. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous inter-rumen infusion of 15NH3 from four rumen-cannulated wethers successively fed on a hay-concentrate diet (2:1, w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight0.75. Total weight and chemical composition of rumen contents, as well as the distribution by size and chemical composition of particles, were determined. The populations of bacteria associated with the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria, LAB) and solid (solid-associated bacteria, SAB) fractions of rumen digesta and the distribution of SAB according to feed particle size were also examined. The greater feed intake caused an increase in the mass of the rumen contents, while its chemical composition did not change, except for a higher content of organic matter (P=0.023). The distribution of feed particles by size was similar at both levels of intake. The concentrations of neutral- and acid-detergent fibre in feed particles decreased and those of total, dietary, and microbial N increased, both with a quadratic response (P=0.001), as particle size decreased. The proportion of LAB in the microbial biomass of rumen digesta reached only 8.0 %. This proportion and the density of LAB were unaffected by the level of feed intake, whereas an apparent reduction (10.4 %) occurred with the SAB biomass in whole rumen contents. A systematic, but not significant, reduction (mean value 11.9 %) in the level of microbial colonisation in the different particle fractions with the increase of feed intake was also observed.

  19. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: Effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sterling, M.E.; Karatayev, O.; Chang, G.-Q.; Algava, D.B.; Leibowitz, S.F

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period of time to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically-relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake. PMID:25257106

  20. Effect of chronic intake of liquid nutrition on stomach and duodenum morphology.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Vazan, Rastislav; Miko, Michal; Varga, Ivan; Mravec, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of food intake have been shown to be associated with morphological and functional alterations of the gastrointestinal system. To examine this, we investigated the effect of chronic liquid nutrition intake (Fresubin) on stomach and duodenum morphology in Wistar rats fed liquid nutrition during different developmental periods. We used four groups of rats: a) control group (CON) fed pelleted chow for 130days; b) liquid nutrition group (LN) fed liquid nutrition for 130days; c) liquid nutrition juvenile group (LNJ) fed liquid nutrition for 70days and then pelleted food for 60days; d) liquid nutrition adult group (LNA) fed pelleted chow for 70days and then liquid nutrition for 60days. We found that LN and LNA rats showed a significant reduction of empty stomach mass compared to CON animals, while stomach and duodenal longitudinal muscle layer thickness did not differ between groups. Villus height was increased only in LNA animals, while villus width was increased in both LN and LNA rats. Crypt depth was reduced in LNJ. However, liquid nutrition intake did not affect villus height/crypt depth ratio, nor number of goblet cells. We found that chronic intake of liquid nutrition affects some morphological parameters of the stomach and duodenum but these changes were not homogenous between experimental groups. Interestingly, transition from liquid nutrition to solid food reversed the alterations of stomach weight as well as villus width induced by intake of liquid nutrition in LNA rats. Our data indicate that morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal system induced by qualitative and quantitative changes in food intake are at least partially reversible. Therefore, specific diets may be used potentially as adjuvant treatment for modulating the progression of gastrointestinal diseases by affecting stomach and small intestine morphology.

  1. Maternal coffee intake and associated risk factors: effects on fetal growth and activity.

    PubMed

    Conde, Ana; Teves, Cláudia; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that fetal growth and activity can be affected by several risk factors, such as maternal anxiety, depression and tobacco or alcohol consumption. Caffeine intake has received less attention in the literature, as well as the analysis of the mutual interplay of the range of such risk factors. This study aimed to examine effects of mother's coffee intake and associated risk factors during early pregnancy on fetal growth and activity. The sample involved 47 fetuses (51.1% male and 48.9% female) with gestational ages between 20-22 weeks whose mothers were recruited in a Portuguese antenatal obstetric unit. Repeated measures of mother's anxiety (STAI-S) and depression (EPDS) and information about socio-demographics and substances consumption were collected during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Fetal activity and biometry were measured during the 2(nd) trimester ultrasound. Results showed that 1) 23.4% of the pregnant women (N = 11) had regular coffee intake; 2) no significant differences were found neither on fetal growth nor on fetal movements considering mother's coffee intake; 3) when mother's socio-demographics and substances consumption were considered, tobacco consumption and anxiety at the 2(nd) trimester appeared as significant predictors of fetal growth and mother's coffee intake and anxiety symptoms at the 2(nd) trimester emerged as significant predictors of fetal movements. An adverse impact of maternal coffee intake during pregnancy was found on fetal activity but not on fetal growth. A deeper understanding of the multiple pathways by which these risk factors affect fetal growth and activity is needed.

  2. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens.

  3. Low Doses of Gamma-Irradiation Induce an Early Bystander Effect in Zebrafish Cells Which Is Sufficient to Radioprotect Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sandrine; Malard, Véronique; Ravanat, Jean-Luc; Davin, Anne-Hélène; Armengaud, Jean; Foray, Nicolas; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    The term “bystander effect” is used to describe an effect in which cells that have not been exposed to radiation are affected by irradiated cells though various intracellular signaling mechanisms. In this study we analyzed the kinetics and mechanisms of bystander effect and radioadaptation in embryonic zebrafish cells (ZF4) exposed to chronic low dose of gamma rays. ZF4 cells were irradiated for 4 hours with total doses of gamma irradiation ranging from 0.01–0.1 Gy. In two experimental conditions, the transfer of irradiated cells or culture medium from irradiated cells results in the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks in non-irradiated cells (assessed by the number of γ-H2AX foci) that are repaired at 24 hours post-irradiation whatever the dose. At low total irradiation doses the bystander effect observed does not affect DNA repair mechanisms in targeted and bystander cells. An increase in global methylation of ZF4 cells was observed in irradiated cells and bystander cells compared to control cells. We observed that pre-irradiated cells which are then irradiated for a second time with the same doses contained significantly less γ-H2AX foci than in 24 h gamma-irradiated control cells. We also showed that bystander cells that have been in contact with the pre-irradiated cells and then irradiated alone present less γ-H2AX foci compared to the control cells. This radioadaptation effect is significantly more pronounced at the highest doses. To determine the factors involved in the early events of the bystander effect, we performed an extensive comparative proteomic study of the ZF4 secretomes upon irradiation. In the experimental conditions assayed here, we showed that the early events of bystander effect are probably not due to the secretion of specific proteins neither the oxidation of these secreted proteins. These results suggest that early bystander effect may be due probably to a combination of multiple factors. PMID:24667817

  4. [The effect of food intake on drug action].

    PubMed

    Pletscher, W; Peretti, E

    1990-01-01

    Interactions between medicaments and food are only incompletely documented--despite their frequent occurrence. Food can influence the effect of medicaments in a variety of ways: the effect of the medicament can be delayed or weakened; in some cases the effect may also be increased. The interactions between the kinetics of medicaments and food are described in the present survey. The absorption conditions in the stomach and small intestine are influenced physiologically and chemically by food. In very rare cases the elimination of active ingredients too can be modified by the quality and quantity of the food. Detailed knowledge about the physical-chemical properties of the medicaments used help to optimize the pharmacotherapy in the individual case. For the patient, the easiest suggestion to follow would be to take the medicaments with plenty of water and always at the same time.

  5. Dietary interaction of cane molasses with source of roughage: intake and lactation effects.

    PubMed

    Morales, J L; Van Horn, H H; Moore, J E

    1989-09-01

    Effects of cane molasses at 0, 4, and 8% of DM in complete mixed diets were evaluated when molasses was fed to lactating dairy cows with cottonseed hulls, alfalfa haylage, or both combined. Thirty-six mature Holstein cows from mid to late lactation were used in a partially balanced incomplete block design with three 28-d periods. Variables measured were DM intake, milk yield, and composition. With cottonseed hull diets (30% of DM), molasses improved milk yield, milk fat percentage, solids-corrected milk, and feed efficiency. Dry matter intake was not affected by molasses. With alfalfa haylage diets (35% of DM), 8% molasses depressed actual milk yield and solids-corrected milk, DM intake, milk fat percentage, milk protein percentage, and feed efficiency. Milk fat percentage was increased with 4% molasses. With 65% alfalfa haylage diets, most variables measured were unaffected by molasses; however, with 8% molasses, DM intake increased and milk protein percentage decreased. In diets with both roughages combined, molasses did not affect any variable measured; however, these diets gave highest solids-corrected milk yields. Results show clearly that molasses effects depend on percentage molasses and type and amount of roughage in the diet.

  6. The effects of intake valve detergent structure on combustion chamber deposits (CCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Maxey, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been heavily researched in the past with regard to Octane Requirement Increase (ORI). New concerns about their role in combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) and their potential contribution to exhaust emissions have reinforced interest in defining the underlying factors that contribute to CCD. In this study, intake valve detergents were evaluated in the absence of any fluidizer in L-6 1987 BMW 325e engines using 10,000 mile tests run with a BMW IVD driving cycle. The chemical structure of detergents used to reduce Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has been systematically varied to determine its effect on the quantity and the composition of CCD. In general, chemical changes in the intake valve detergent had little effect on the amount and chemical composition of CCD. The composition of CCD was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All CCDs produced with fuels containing intake valve detergents showed the same types and similar levels of organic oxygen, sulfur and aromatic carbon. The CCDs did not contain intact additive backbone fragments or detergent head groups. The only distinguishing feature of these CCDs was the varying nitrogen content that appeared to depend on the type and number of amine groups in the detergent. However, the types of nitrogen present in the CCDs were chemically different from those present in the initial detergent suggesting that, although some of the nitrogen in the detergent head group remains in the CCD, it is chemically transformed.

  7. Effect of morphine, naloxone and histamine system on water intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Eidi, Maryam; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Eidi, Akram; Sepehrara, Leili

    2003-10-08

    The present study investigated the interaction between histamine and opioid systems on water intake in adult male rats. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections were carried out in all experiments. Water intake was measured 1 h after drug injections. Administration of histamine (40-80 microg/rat) and naloxone (0.5-1 microg/rat) increased, while morphine (2.5 microg/rat), pyrilamine (25-50 microg/rat), the histamine H1 receptor antagonist, and ranitidine (10-20 microg/rat), the histamine H2 receptor antagonist, decreased water intake in isolated rats. Blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors attenuated the histamine-induced response. Pyrilamine, but not ranitidine, increased the inhibitory effect induced by morphine. Also, pharmacological blockade of histamine H1 and H2 receptors decreased the naloxone-induced effect on water intake. It is concluded that the histaminergic system may have a close interaction with morphine and naloxone on drinking behavior.

  8. Ghrelin in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) post-larvae: Paracrine effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Guillén, Carmen; Yúfera, Manuel; Engrola, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Successful food consumption and digestion depend on specifics anatomical and behavioral characteristics and corresponding physiological functions that should be ready to work at the appropriate time. The physiological regulation of appetite and ingestion involves a complex integration of peripheral and central signals by the brain. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone involved in the control of energy homeostasis and increases food intake in mammals, however ghrelin has species-specific actions on food intake in fish. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this peptide has an orexigenic or anorexigenic role in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) in order to improve the knowledge of the physiological basis underlying feeding activity. Feed intake was measured at several sampling points to determine the overall action time of the peptide and its effect in Senegalese sole food intake. Artemia protein digestibility and retention were determined in order to analyze the ghrelin effect in fed and fasted Senegalese sole post-larvae. Results suggested that ghrelin acts as orexigenic hormone in Senegalese sole, with a response time around 25min. Results indicated that Senegalese sole post-larvae are able to maintain absorption and retention capacities independently of feeding rate and nutritional status. Furthermore, the present study gives insight for the first time of the fate of the retained amino acids, being mainly used for protein accretion (86.79% of retained amino acids recovered in protein and FAA fractions).

  9. Effects of Increased Iodine Intake on Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  10. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    PubMed

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  11. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.

  12. Effects of Metformin on Energy Intake and Satiety in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo, Mopelola A.; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Kozlosky, Merel; Krakoff, Jonathan; Calis, Karim A.; Brady, Sheila M.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Metformin’s ability to promote weight loss is believed to be at least partly attributable to decreased energy consumption. There are few data regarding the effects of metformin on energy intake in children. We therefore investigated metformin’s effects on appetite and energy intake in obese hyperinsulinemic children. Materials and Methods We conducted a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of metformin 1000mg BID on body weight and energy balance in 100 obese hyperinsulinemic children aged 6–12y. Subjects ate ad libitum from standardized food arrays on two separate occasions before, and then again after, 6 months of study medication. The first test meal was consumed after an overnight fast. The second was preceded by a pre-meal load. For each test meal, energy intake was recorded, and subjects completed scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat. Results Data from the meal studies at baseline and after treatment with study medication were available for 84 children (45 metformin-treated and 39 placebo-treated). Compared with placebo, metformin treatment elicited significant reductions from baseline in adjusted mean energy intake after the pre-meal load (metformin: −104.7±83.8 kcal vs. placebo: +144.2±96.9 kcal; p=0.034) independent of changes in body composition. Metformin also significantly decreased ratings of hunger (−1.5±5.6 vs. +18.6±6.3; p=0.013) and increased ratings of fullness (+10.1±6.2 vs. −12.8±7.0; p=0.01) following the pre-meal load. Conclusions These data suggest that decreased perceived hunger resulting in diminished food intake are among the mechanisms by which metformin treatment reduces body weight in overweight, hyperinsulinemic children. PMID:25483291

  13. Effect of alcohol intake on muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Collier, Greg R; Broad, Elizabeth M; Davis, Peter G; Martin, David T; Sanigorski, Andrew J; Hargreaves, Mark

    2003-09-01

    We studied the effects of alcohol intake on postexercise muscle glycogen restoration with samples from vastus lateralis being collected immediately after glycogen-depleting cycling and after a set recovery period. Six well-trained cyclists undertook a study of 8-h recovery (2 meals), and another nine cyclists undertook a separate 24-h protocol (4 meals). In each study, subjects completed three trials in crossover order: control (C) diet [meals providing carbohydrate (CHO) of 1.75 g/kg]; alcohol-displacement (A) diet (1.5 g/kg alcohol displacing CHO energy from C) and alcohol + CHO (AC) diet (C + 1.5 g/kg alcohol). Alcohol intake reduced postmeal glycemia especially in A trial and 24-h study, although insulin responses were maintained. Alcohol intake increased serum triglycerides, particularly in the 24-h study and AC trial. Glycogen storage was decreased in A diets compared with C at 8 h (24.4 +/- 7 vs. 44.6 +/- 6 mmol/kg wet wt, means +/- SE, P < 0.05) and 24 h (68 +/- 5 vs. 82 +/- 5 mmol/kg wet wt, P < 0.05). There was a trend to reduced glycogen storage with AC in 8 h (36.2 +/- 8 mmol/kg wet wt, P = 0.1) but no difference in 24 h (85 +/- 9 mmol/kg wet wt). We conclude that 1). the direct effect of alcohol on postexercise glycogen synthesis is unclear, and 2). the main effect of alcohol intake is indirect, by displacing CHO intake from optimal recovery nutrition practices.

  14. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, John C.; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  15. Effects of Coffee and Caffeine Anhydrous Intake During Creatine Loading.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Roelofs, Erica J; Hirsch, Katie R; Persky, Adam M; Mock, Meredith G

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5 days of creatine (CRE) loading alone or in combination with caffeine anhydrous (CAF) or coffee (COF) on upper-body and lower-body strength and sprint performance. Physically active males (n = 54; mean ± SD; age = 20.1 ± 2.1 years; weight = 78.8 ± 8.8 kg) completed baseline testing, consisting of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to fatigue with 80% 1RM for bench press and leg press, followed by a repeated sprint test of five, 10-second sprints separated by 60-second rest on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power (PP) and total power (TP). At least 72 hours later, subjects were randomly assigned to supplement with CRE (5 g of CRE monohydrate, 4 times per day; n = 14), CRE + CAF (CRE +300 mg·d of CAF; n = 13), CRE + COF (CRE +8.9 g of COF, yielding 303 mg of CAF; n = 13), or placebo (PLA; n = 14) for 5 days. Serum creatinine (CRN) was measured before and after supplementation, and on day 6, participants repeated pretesting procedures. Strength measures were improved in all groups (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant time × treatment interactions. No significant interaction or main effects were observed for PP. For TP, a time × sprint interaction was observed (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant interactions among treatment groups. A time × treatment interaction was observed for serum CRN values (p ≤ 0.05) that showed increases in all groups except PLA. Four subjects reported mild gastrointestinal discomfort with CRE + CAF, with no side effects reported in other groups. These findings suggest that neither CRE alone nor in combination with CAF or COF significantly affected performance compared with PLA.

  16. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  17. Effects of intraamygdaloid microinjections of acylated-ghrelin on liquid food intake of rats.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Krisztián; László, Kristóf; Bagi, Eva Eszter; Lukács, Edit; Lénárd, László

    2008-09-30

    Ghrelin (Ghr) has two main forms in the blood: the acylated (A-Ghr) and non-acylated (NA-Ghr) Ghr. A-Ghr was discovered as a potent growth hormone (GH) secretion increasing substance acting on GH secretagouge receptor (GHS-R) type 1a. A-Ghr facilitates food intake after its i.p., i.c.v. or direct hypothalamic application. Immunohistological assays identified projections of ghrelinergic neurons to the basolateral nucleus (ABL) of the amygdala (AMY). A-Ghr injected into the hypothalamus caused c-Fos overexpression in the AMY area that has an important role in food intake and body weight regulation. In separate experiments, liquid food intake of male wistar rats was measured after bilateral intraamygdalar or bilateral i.c.v. administration of A-Ghr (25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ng/side or 500 and 1000 ng/side, A-Ghr dissolved in 0.15 M sterile NaCl/0.4 microl or 1 microl, respectively). In the ABL, A-Ghr microinjections in the 50-250 ng dose range resulted in significant decrease of food intake. The 25 and 500 ng had no effect. Action of 50 ng (14.83 pmol) or 100 ng (30.16 pmol) A-Ghr was eliminated by 15 ng (16.13 pmol) or 30 ng (32.25 pmol) GHS-R antagonist (D-Lys3-GHRP-6) pretreatment. The administration of 30 ng D-Lys3-GHRP-6 in itself had no influence on feeding. I.c.v. applied 1000 ng A-Ghr increased liquid food intake. Our results are the first ones reporting that A-Ghr injected into the ABL resulted in a decrease of liquid food consumption, within a limited dose range. This is a receptor-linked effect because it was eliminated by a GHS-R specific antagonist.

  18. Situational effects on meal intake: A comparison of eating alone and eating with others.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Anderson, Annie S; Norton, Geraldine N M; Newson, Lisa

    2006-07-30

    Eating in competition with other tasks has been shown to increase food intake, particularly when tasks are cognitively demanding. To test the hypothesis that social facilitation of eating occurs, in part, as a function of distraction which impairs the ability to self-monitor, eating with others was compared with eating alone or in front of the television. Using a repeated measure within-subjects design, thirty-seven participants (21 males) visited the laboratory 4 times to eat a buffet-style lunch ad libitum. All eating episodes were filmed. Energy intake (EI) was measured when participants ate alone (A), ate alone while watching TV (B), ate with two same sex strangers (C), and ate with two same sex friends (D) in a counterbalanced order. EI was significantly enhanced by presence of familiar others (D: 4565+/-272 kJ, p < 0.001) and watching TV (B: 4350+/-252 kJ, p < 0.05) compared to baseline (A: 3861+/-200 kJ). Length of eating episode correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with EI, however, amount of time spent eating and looking at food differed by condition with a greater percentage of time focussed on food during baseline (p < 0.001). Eating with friends increased EI by 18% and eating in front of the TV increased EI by 14% relative to baseline. Engaging in conversation or watching TV draws attention away from the eaten food and can stimulate food intake. However, since eating with strangers also drew attention away from food but did not result in increased intake, social facilitation effects are not simply due to distraction. Thus food intake can be enhanced when attention to food and self-monitoring are impaired during distraction, however, this effect is moderated when eating with strangers.

  19. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark E.; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B.; Bartness, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal’s wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially-subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity. PMID:18486158

  20. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  1. The effect of the timing of meal intake on energy metabolism during moderate exercise.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shota; Nakae, Satoshi; Ebine, Naoyuki; Aoi, Wataru; Higashi, Akane; Ishii, Kojiro

    2014-01-01

    Although the intake of carbohydrates is important for the supplementation of energy substrate utilized during exercise, fat oxidation is possibly prevented by an elevation of insulin, and whether or not the timing of the intake of meals affects energy metabolism during exercise has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the timing of the intake of meals taken at different times before exercise on the carbohydrate and fat metabolism during aerobic exercise. The subjects were eight young trained athletes who performed cycling exercise at the lactate threshold (LT) intensity for 60 min. They performed under five conditions consisting of a no-meal (water) trial, and four meal trials that had a normal meal at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h before the exercise. There were no significant changes for any trial in respiratory exchange ratio, or carbohydrate or fat oxidation rates during exercise. The serum insulin level before exercise in the meal trials was more elevated, the shorter the time to the start of the exercise from meal intake. A tendency for higher blood glucose was shown during exercise with a shorter interval time in the meal trials. No alterations were demonstrated for the serum free fatty acids in any of the groups. These results showed that the timing of the pre-exercise meal taken within a 4-h period before exercise did not affect the energy metabolism of the trained subjects during exercise at LT intensity.

  2. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  3. Effect of jaggery on the quality and intake levels of maize silage.

    PubMed

    Venkataramanan, Ragothaman; Sreekumar, Chirukandoth; Anilkumar, Rishipal; Selvaraj, P; Vidhya, Nainar M; Mathagowder, Iyue

    2010-06-01

    Silage, which is anaerobically fermented green fodder, is valued throughout the world as a source of animal feed during lean months. Several farms in India use carbohydrate sources like jaggery or molasses at 2% for preparation of silage, and this increases cost of production. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of jaggery on quality and intake of maize silage, with an objective to find out whether additional carbohydrate source is essential in preparation of silage using green maize. Three silage types, one without jaggery (A), the second with 1% jaggery (B), and the third with 2% jaggery (C) were prepared in cylindrical bins under similar conditions. They were compared for colour, pH, lactic acid bacteria count, lactic acid content, proximate composition and silage intake by sheep. Silage type C with 2% jaggery was significantly different from the other two types with values of 3.98 and 805.66 g for pH and mean silage intake, respectively. Even though the values of pH and dry matter intake for all three silage types were within normal levels, silage type C was significantly superior in terms of fermentation and palatability. The method of preparation followed could be ideal for small holder farmers requiring less quantity of silage.

  4. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats

    PubMed Central

    Louter-van de Haar, Johanna; Wielinga, Peter Y; Scheurink, Anton JW; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G

    2005-01-01

    Background Studies on the effects of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) in humans are controversial. As differences in the HCA preparations may contribute to this apparent discrepancy, the aim of the current study is to compare different HCA-containing preparations in adult Wistar rats. Design The effects of 3 different HCA-containing preparations (Regulator, Citrin K, Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS, all used at an effective HCA dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg, administered intragastrically) on food intake and body weight were studied in adult male Wistar rats. The efficacy was tested under 2 different experimental conditions: 1) after a single dose administration and 2) during repeated administration for 4 subsequent days. Results Regulator and Citrin K significantly reduced food intake in both experimental setups, while Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS was less effective. When administered for 4 subsequent days Regulator and Citrin K diminished body weight gain. Conclusion Regulator and Citrin K were shown to be potent inhibitors of food intake in rats, whereas Super CitriMax HCA-600-SXS showed only small and more inconsistent effects. The striking differences in efficacy between these 3 preparations indicate that low doses of a relatively low-effective HCA preparation may have contributed to the lack of efficacy as found in several human studies. PMID:16156903

  5. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  6. Fluid intake and epidemiology of urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Siener, R; Hesse, A

    2003-12-01

    A low urine volume is an important risk factor in urinary stone formation. The present article summarizes available data from epidemiological and clinical studies to elucidate the impact of fluid intake and urine volume on the risk of urinary stone formation and the prevention of stone recurrence. A review of the literature shows that an increased urine volume achieved by a high fluid intake exerts an efficacious preventive effect on the onset and recurrence of urinary stones. A high water intake and urine dilution results in a marked reduction in saturation of lithogenous salts. The type of fluids should be carefully selected to achieve the appropriate change of urine composition depending on stone composition. A sufficient intake of fluid is one of the most important preventive measures for stone recurrence.

  7. Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1994-08-01

    In 1987 Ryan-Harshman et al. reported finding no effects on food intake after administering high doses (up to 10.08 g) of phenylalanine and aspartame in capsules to human volunteers. However, this is contrary to the results of other studies, and trends in their tabulated data suggest that certain effects may have been overlooked. This is confirmed by a reanalysis of the raw data (available from a Ph.D. thesis: Ryan-Harshman, 1987) that can be interpreted as showing a dose-related suppression of food intake by phenylalanine. Furthermore, the data are consistent with an anorexic action of aspartame and perhaps also of alanine (which was designated as the placebo treatment by Ryan-Harshman et al.). These, together with other findings, suggest that the appetite effects of amino acids and small peptides should be investigated further. In addition to its theoretical importance, such work may have potential for therapeutic applications.

  8. Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wanders, A J; van den Borne, J J G C; de Graaf, C; Hulshof, T; Jonathan, M C; Kristensen, M; Mars, M; Schols, H A; Feskens, E J M

    2011-09-01

    Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.

  9. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  10. Effects of beer, wine and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older adult men and women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. We examined alcohol intake (total and individual types) and BMD in 1251 men, 1317 post-menopausal and 264 pre-menopausal women in the populat...

  11. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  12. Effect of low zinc intake on absorption and excretion of zinc by infants studied with 70Zn as extrinsic tag.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, E E; Serfass, R E; Nelson, S E; Figueroa-Colón, R; Edwards, B B; Houk, R S; Thompson, J J

    1989-11-01

    The effect of low dietary intake of zinc was studied in six normal infants with the use of 70Zn as an extrinsic tag. Of the two study formulas, one provided a zinc intake similar to that of customary infant formulas ("high" intake), whereas the other provided a "low" zinc intake. Two zinc absorption studies were performed with each formula (sequence: high-low-low-high). Extrinsically labeled formula was fed for 24 h and excreta were collected for 72 h. Zinc isotope ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). When zinc intake was high, net zinc absorption was 9.1 +/- 8.7% (mean +/- SD) of intake and net zinc retention was 74 +/- 91 micrograms/(kg.d). True zinc (70Zn) absorption was 16.8 +/- 5.8% of intake and fecal excretion of endogenous zinc was 78 +/- 56 micrograms/(kg.d). When zinc intake was low, net absorption of zinc increased significantly (P less than 0.001) to 26.0 +/- 13.0% of intake, but net retention was not significantly different at 42 +/- 33 micrograms/(kg.d). True absorption of zinc also increased significantly (P less than 0.001) to 41.1 +/- 7.8% of intake, whereas fecal endogenous zinc decreased (P less than 0.05) to 34 +/- 16 micrograms/(kg.d) during low zinc intake. Thus, infants maintain zinc balance in the face of low zinc intake through increased efficiency of absorption and decreased excretion of endogenous zinc.

  13. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  14. Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Elmamouz, F

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of feeding diet based on untreated (UT) or ensiled alkali-treated (ET) barley straw with either urea or casein supplementation, on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal pH, water intake and faecal and urinary characteristics. Four sheep fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barley straw was treated by the dry (spraying) method in pH adjusted of hydrogen peroxide (pH 11.5), ensiled for 6 weeks and included at 65% of the diet dry matter (DM). The results showed that straw pH reduced from 11.58 to 8.60 after 6 weeks of ensilage. The ET diet increased average DM digestibility and intake by 19% and 43% respectively. Total water intake was similar across treatments, while the water/DM intake ratio was 23% higher with the UT diet than with the ET one. Ruminal (6.73 vs. 6.84) and faecal (8.67 vs. 9.05) pH decreased but urinary pH (6.14 vs. 8.13) increased as a result of feeding animals on the ET diet compared with the UT diet. Compared with the UT diet, the ET one decreased faecal fibre (12%), moisture (32%) and water holding capacity, while it increased faecal ash (10%) and density (20%). The volume of urine excreted by the sheep fed with the ET diet increased by 67%, but their urine specific gravity (SG) decreased. No significant effects were observed for the dietary N supplementation and interactions between straw type × N supplementation with regard to any of the measured characteristics except for DM intake, which reduced due to the casein supplementation in the ET diet. These results indicate that the alkali treatment and ensilage of barley straw increased digestibility, intake, faecal consistency and urinary pH and dilution but decreased straw alkalinity as well as ruminal and faecal pH.

  15. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  16. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  17. Prevalence and determinants of sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption among primary school children in Nakhon Pathom, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Piaseu, Noppawan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Low consumption of fruit and vegetable is frequently viewed as an important contributor to obesity risk. With increasing childhood obesity and relatively low fruit and vegetable consumption among Thai children, there is a need to identify the determinants of the intake to promote fruit and vegetable consumption effectively. SUBJECTS/METHODS This cross-sectional study was conducted at two conveniently selected primary schools in Nakhon Pathom. A total of 609 students (grade 4-6) completed questionnaires on personal and environmental factors. Adequate fruit and vegetable intakes were defined as a minimum of three servings of fruit or vegetable daily, and adequate total intake as at least 6 serves of fruit and vegetable daily. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS The proportion of children with a sufficient fruit and/or vegetable intakes was low. Covariates of child's personal and environmental factors showed significant associations with sufficient intakes of fruit and/or vegetable (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed that the following factors were positively related to sufficient intake of vegetable; lower grade, a positive attitude toward vegetable, and fruit availability at home; and that greater maternal education, a positive child's attitude toward vegetable, and fruit availability at home were significantly associated with sufficient consumption of fruits and total fruit and vegetable intake. CONCLUSIONS The present study showed that personal factors like attitude toward vegetables and socio-environmental factors, such as, greater availability of fruits were significantly associated with sufficient fruit and vegetable consumption. The importance of environmental and personal factors to successful nutrition highlights the importance of involving parents and schools. PMID:28386386

  18. [Phosphorus intake and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Omi, N; Ezawa, I

    2001-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important nutrients for bone metabolism, such as calcium. In general, P intake is usually adequate in our daily diet, and there is a risk of over-consumption from processed food. On the other hand, Ca intake is not always adequate from the Japanese daily diet. When Ca/P is taken from the daily diet at a level of 0.5 - 2.0, the P intake level dose not affect intestinal Ca absorption. Therefore, it is important not only to pay attention to preventing the over-consumption of P, but also to obtain a sufficient intake of Ca. For the prevention of osteoporosis, it is important to consume sufficient Ca and to maintain and appropriate Ca/P balance from diet.

  19. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  20. The effect of paternal methyl-group donor intake on offspring DNA methylation and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Pauwels, S; Truijen, I; Ghosh, M; Duca, R C; Langie, S A S; Bekaert, B; Freson, K; Huybrechts, I; Koppen, G; Devlieger, R; Godderis, L

    2017-03-06

    Most nutritional studies on the development of children focus on mother-infant interactions. Maternal nutrition is critically involved in the growth and development of the fetus, but what about the father? The aim is to investigate the effects of paternal methyl-group donor intake (methionine, folate, betaine, choline) on paternal and offspring global DNA (hydroxy)methylation, offspring IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and birth weight. Questionnaires, 7-day estimated dietary records, whole blood samples, and anthropometric measurements from 74 fathers were obtained. A total of 51 cord blood samples were collected and birth weight was obtained. DNA methylation status was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (global DNA (hydroxy)methylation) and pyrosequencing (IGF2 DMR methylation). Paternal betaine intake was positively associated with paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation (0.028% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.003, 0.053, P=0.03) and cord blood global DNA methylation (0.679% per 100 mg betaine increase, 95% CI: 0.057, 1.302, P=0.03). Paternal methionine intake was positively associated with CpG1 (0.336% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.103, 0.569, P=0.006), and mean CpG (0.201% per 100 mg methionine increase, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.402, P=0.049) methylation of the IGF2 DMR in cord blood. Further, a negative association between birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score and paternal betaine/methionine intake was found. In addition, a positive association between choline and birth weight/birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was also observed. Our data indicate a potential impact of paternal methyl-group donor intake on paternal global DNA hydroxymethylation, offspring global and IGF2 DMR DNA methylation, and prenatal growth.

  1. Effects of voluntary access to sweetened ethanol during adolescence on intake in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Broadwater, Margaret; Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of alcohol use during adolescence is concerning given that early age of alcohol initiation is correlated with development of alcohol-related problems later in life. The purpose of this series of studies was to assess whether voluntary ethanol exposure during adolescence would influence ethanol drinking behavior in adulthood using an animal model. Methods Pair-housed Sprague-Dawley adolescent (P28-42) rats of both sexes were given single bottle access to one of three solutions in their home cages--10% ethanol in "supersac" (0.125% saccharin and 3% sucrose) (EtOH/SS), supersac without ethanol (SS), or water-- for 30 min. every other day for a total of 8 drinking days, or were left non-manipulated. Animals were non-manipulated thereafter until adulthood (P70) at which time they were given one-bottle, 30 min. limited access tests with 20% ethanol every other day (Exp 1), 10% ethanol in SS (Exp 2) or SS without ethanol (Exp 3). Results Adolescent EtOH/SS exposure increased adulthood consumption of EtOH/SS (Exp 2), but not 20% unsweetened ethanol (Exp 1) or SS (Exp 3), with this increase most pronounced at the beginning of the 8 intake day procedure. Access to SS (without EtOH) during adolescence produced an analogous effect, with increased adult SS consumption during the first two intake days, but no increases in either of the ethanol test solutions. Conclusion Solution-specific increases in adulthood intake after adolescent exposure are most likely associated with solution acceptance due to familiarity. This is an important consideration for future intake studies assessing the influence of ethanol exposure during adolescence on intake of ethanol in adulthood. PMID:23278242

  2. 48-h glucose infusion in humans: effect on hormonal responses, hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Teff, Karen L; Petrova, Maja; Havel, Peter J; Townsend, Raymond R

    2007-04-23

    Experimentally-induced hyperglycemia by prolonged glucose infusion allows investigation of the effects of sustained stimulation of the pancreatic beta-cell on insulin secretion and sensitivity. Hormonal responses to a meal following prolonged glucose infusions have not been investigated. To determine if a 48-h glucose infusion alters hormonal responses to a test meal as well as food intake and hunger in normal weight individuals, 16 subjects (8 men, 8 women, age 18-30 years, mean BMI=21.7+/-1.6 kg/m2) were infused for 48 h with either saline (50 ml/h) or 15% glucose (200 mg/m2/min). Subjects ingested a 600 kcal mixed nutrient meal 3 h after infusion termination. Blood samples were taken during the 48 h and for 4 h following food ingestion. The 48-h glucose infusion elicited a metabolic profile of a glucose intolerant obese subjects, with increased plasma glucose, insulin and leptin (all P<0.01) and increased HOMA-IR (P<0.001). During meal ingestion, early insulin secretion was increased (P<0.05) but post-prandial glucose (P<0.01) and insulin (P<0.01) excursions were lower following the glucose infusion. Post-prandial plasma triglyceride concentrations were increased after glucose compared with saline. Food intake and hunger ratings were not different between the two conditions. Plasma leptin levels were inversely correlated with hunger (P<0.03) in both conditions and with food intake (P<0.003) during the glucose condition only. Thus, a 48-h glucose infusion does not impair post-prandial hormonal responses, alter food intake or hunger in normal weight subjects. The glucose-induced increases in plasma leptin result in a stronger inverse relationship between plasma leptin and hunger as well as food intake. These data are the first to demonstrate a relationship between leptin and hunger in normal weight, non-calorically restricted human subjects.

  3. Modeling of palatable food intake in female young adults. Effects of perceived body size.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Larsen, Junilla K; Herman, C Peter; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2008-11-01

    Laboratory taste-test studies have shown that social modeling effects on food intake are powerful. The aim of the present study was to examine the degree to which people model food intake in a more naturalistic eating setting. After completing a cover task, female participants (N=102) spent a 15-min break with a female confederate who ate a large amount or a small amount of M&Ms or no M&Ms at all. Further, the confederate had a slim or (subtly manipulated) normal-weight appearance. Females who were exposed to a confederate who ate much consumed more than those who were confronted with a confederate who ate only a little or nothing at all. Although the manipulation of the confederate's appearance had no significant main effect on the amount of food that participants consumed, a significant interaction effect was found, such that the modeling effect of eating was present only in the normal-weight appearance condition. Our findings suggest that normal-weight young women are more inclined to imitate the food intake of a female confederate if they are more similar to the confederate.

  4. Potential Effects of Nutrient Profiles on Nutrient Intakes in the Netherlands, Greece, Spain, USA, Israel, China and South-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Roodenburg, Annet J. C.; Schlatmann, Anke; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Daamen, Robert; Dong, Jie; Guarro, Marta; Stergiou, Margarita; Sayed, Nazeeia; Ronoh, Eunice; Jansen, Léon; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Nutrient profiling is defined as the science of categorising foods based on their nutrient composition. The Choices Programme is a nutrient profile system with criteria that determine whether foods are eligible to carry a “healthier option” stamp. The Daily Menu Method which has been developed to evaluate these criteria is described here. This method simulates the change in calculated nutrient intakes which would be the result of consumers changing their diets in favour of food products that comply with the criteria. Methods Average intakes of energy, trans fatty acids (TFA), saturated fatty acids (SAFA), sodium, added sugar and fibre were derived from dietary intake studies and food consumption surveys of 7 countries: The Netherlands, Greece, Spain, the USA, Israel, China and South Africa. For each of the key nutrients, these average intakes were translated into three Typical Daily Menus per country. Average intakes based on these three menus were compared with average intakes from three Choices Daily Menus. To compose the Choices Menus, foods from the Typical Menus that did not comply with the Choices criteria were replaced with foods that did comply and are available on the market. Results Comparison of intakes from the Choices Menus with the survey data showed that calculated intakes of energy, SAFA, TFA, sodium and added sugar were reduced. Fibre intakes were increased. The size of the effect differed per country. Conclusion The Daily Menu Method is a useful means to predict the potential effects of nutrient profiles such as the Choices criteria, on daily nutrient intakes. The method can be applied internationally and confirms that the criteria of the Choices Programme are in line with the aim of the programme: to improve nutrient intakes in the direction of the recommendations. PMID:21373186

  5. Effect of tachykinins on the need-free sodium intake of female rats: a continuous intracerebroventricular infusion study.

    PubMed

    Polidori, C; Ciccocioppo, R; Epstein, A N; de Caro, G; Massi, M

    1994-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of 24-h continuous ICV infusion of four different tachykinins on the enhanced need-free sodium intake induced by previous repeated sodium depletions in female rats. Female rats were employed because, in response to sodium depletions, they develop a higher need-free sodium intake than male rats. The following tachykinins were used: eledoisin, substance P (SP), [Sar9,Met(O2)11]SP and [Asp5,6,MePhe8]SP(5-11), also referred to as NH2-senktide, all at the same doses of 300 or 600 ng/h x 24 h. Food pellets, water, and 3% NaCl sodium solution were freely available. Eledoisin and NH2-senktide were more potent than SP in reducing the need-free sodium intake. On the other hand, [Sar9,Met(O2)11]SP had no effect. None of the tachykinins employed completely blocked the intake. Water intake was reduced, but this reduction was apparently a consequence of reduced intake of hypertonic sodium chloride solution, because at the same doses TKs did not inhibit water intake in a single-bottle test. Food intake remained unchanged at either dose used. These findings confirm previous studies in which pulse injection of the same drugs potently inhibited sodium intake. They also demonstrate that tachykinins endowed with high affinity for the NK3 receptor are the most potent in inhibiting sodium intake. Furthermore, these findings indicate that the tachykinins reduce the need-free sodium intake only during the infusion period, indicating that in these conditions they do not evoke either aversion for salt, or toxic consequences in the follow-up period.

  6. GM biofortified crops: potential effects on targeting the micronutrient intake gap in human populations.

    PubMed

    De Steur, Hans; Mehta, Saurabh; Gellynck, Xavier; Finkelstein, Julia L

    2017-04-01

    Genetic engineering has been successfully applied to increase micronutrient content in staple crops. Nutrition evidence is key to ensure scale-up and successful implementation. Unlike conventional plant breeding efforts, research on the efficacy or effectiveness of GM biofortified crops on nutritional status in human populations is lacking. This review reports on the potential role of GM biofortified crops in closing the micronutrient gap - increasing the dietary intake of micronutrients in human populations. To date, one clinical trial in the United States reported a high bio-conversion rate of β-carotene in Golden Rice, and potential effects of GM biofortified crop consumption on dietary intake and nutritional outcomes are promising. However, further research needs to confirm the ex ante assessments in target regions.

  7. The effect of serotonergic system on nociceptin/orphanin FQ induced food intake in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, Morteza; Mokhtarpouriani, Kasra; Babapour, Vahab; Baghbanzadeh, Ali; Pourrahimi, Maryam; Hassanpour, Shahin

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular injection of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) (cerebral serotonin depletive), fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), 8-OH-DPAT (5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist) and SB 242084 (5-HT2c receptor antagonist) on nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) induced feeding response in chickens. A guide cannula was surgically implanted into the lateral ventricle of chickens. Before the experiments, 3-h fasting periods had been given to all experimental birds. In experiment 1, chickens were injected with PCPA (1.5 μg) followed by an N/OFQ injection (16 nmol) intracerebroventricularly. In experiment 2, birds received fluoxetine (10 μg) prior to the injection of N/OFQ. In experiment 3, chickens were administered with N/OFQ after the 8-OH-DPAT administration (15.25 nmol). In experiment 4, birds were injected with SB 242084 (1.5 μg) followed by an N/OFQ injection. Cumulative food intake was measured at 3 h post injection. The results of this study show that N/OFQ increases food intake in broiler cockerels (P < 0.05) and that this effect is amplified by pretreatment with PCPA and SB 242084 in an additive manner (P < 0.05). The effect of N/OFQ is not changed by pretreatment with 8-OH-DPAT (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the stimulatory effect of N/OFQ on food intake was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with fluoxetine. These results suggest that N/OFQ induced hyperphagia is mediated by serotonergic mechanisms, and possibly imply an interaction between N/OFQ and the serotonergic system (via 5-HT2C receptors) on food intake in chickens.

  8. Assessing population effects from entrainment of fish at a large volume water intake

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.; Page, T.L.; Neitzel, D.A.; Dauble, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    A method is described for estimating population effects from entrainment of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a steam electric generating station on the Columbia River that required cooperation between power plant operators and fishery biologists. The method involved sampling fish in the river and entrained fish (both marked recaptures and naturally occurring downstream migrants) within the intake, and estimating the 1) total number of fish entrained, 2) size of the natural population, and 3) percent of the natural population affected.

  9. Effects of wet corn gluten feed on ruminal pH and productivity of lactating dairy cattle fed diets with sufficient physically effective fiber.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M L; Grigsby, K N; Bradford, B J

    2012-09-01

    Wet corn gluten feed (WCGF), a byproduct of the wet-milling industry, is commonly substituted in lactating dairy rations for both forages and concentrates. Previous research has shown that increasing WCGF in the diet decreased ruminal pH, likely due in part to decreasing particle size as forage inclusion rate decreased. The objective of this study was to maintain at least 10% of ration particles >19 mm in length across diets while increasing WCGF inclusion in the diet. We hypothesized that as WCGF increased in this scenario, dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield would increase and ruminal pH would be maintained. Seven ruminally cannulated, lactating Holstein cows (4 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used in an incomplete 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments included 0, 12.4, 24.5, or 35.1% WCGF and used alfalfa hay to maintain particle size. Across treatments, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber concentrations were held relatively constant. Four 21-d periods were used with 17d of adaptation and 4d of sample collection. Indwelling ruminal pH probes were used during sampling periods and recorded pH every 5 min. Particle size of total mixed rations and orts were analyzed using a Penn State Particle Separator (The Pennsylvania State University, University Park). Results were analyzed with mixed models to test the fixed effect of treatment. All diets contained ≥10% of particles >19 mm; however, as WCGF increased, the proportion of particles >19 mm decreased. Interestingly, with increasing WCGF, cows sorted for the particles >19 mm but against particles on the bottom screen and pan. With increasing WCGF, ruminal pH was not affected, but DMI and milk yield increased in a quadratic fashion, with the peak responses for the 24.5% WCGF diet. Milk protein, lactose, and fat concentrations were not affected by treatment; however, milk protein and lactose yields increased with the inclusion of WCGF because of the increased milk yield. Production efficiency was not

  10. Effects of protein intake on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Trudy; Vitezova, Anna; Bramer, Wichor M; Ars, Charlotte L; Bautista, Paula K; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Felix, Janine F; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Sajjad, Ayesha; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Tharner, Anne; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-14

    High protein intake in early childhood is associated with obesity, suggesting possible adverse effects on other cardiometabolic outcomes. However, studies in adults have suggested beneficial effects of protein intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Whether dietary protein intake is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the evidence on the associations of protein intake with BP, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and PubMed for interventional and observational studies in healthy children up to the age of 18 years, in which associations of total, animal and/or vegetable protein intake with one or more of the following outcomes were reported: BP; measures of insulin sensitivity; cholesterol levels; or TAG levels. In the search, we identified 6636 abstracts, of which fifty-six studies met all selection criteria. In general, the quality of the included studies was low. Most studies were cross-sectional, and many did not control for potential confounders. No overall associations were observed between protein intake and insulin sensitivity or blood lipids. A few studies suggested an inverse association between dietary protein intake and BP, but evidence was inconclusive. Only four studies examined the effects of vegetable or animal protein intake, but with inconsistent results. In conclusion, the literature, to date provides insufficient evidence for effects of protein intake on BP, insulin sensitivity or blood lipids in children. Future studies could be improved by adequately adjusting for key confounders such as energy intake and obesity.

  11. The effect of glutamine intake on complications of colorectal and colon cancer treatment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jolfaie, Nahid Ramezani; Mirzaie, Safiye; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improvement in complications of antitumor agents and surgery is important to enhance life quality and survival among patients with colon and colorectal cancer. It has been reported that some dietary components such as glutamine (Gln) have beneficial effects on these complications of cancer therapies. However, the results of studies are inconsistent in this area. We performed a review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Gln intake on complications related to therapeutic strategies of the colon and colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and SID databases to find the relevant literature, published before July 2015. Results: Nine RCTs of 217 screened articles were included in this systematic review. The results of the present review suggested that Gln intake among colon and colorectal cancer patients could reduce some complications induced by chemotherapy such as gut mucositis and diarrhea and improve nitrogen balance, immune system and wound healing after surgery, whereas benefits role of Gln on radiochemotherapy side effects were not provided. Conclusion: The role of Gln intake on some improvement of complications induced by cancer therapeutic methods and shorten the length of hospital stay may be promising and one that is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26759580

  12. Effects of fludrocortisone on water and sodium intake of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about steroidal control of thirst- and salt-appetite behaviors of mice. The current study investigates effects of fludrocortisone acetate (FCA), a steroid with potent glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects, on thirst- and salt-appetite responses of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with FCA produced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) increases in both magnitude and duration of water and sodium intake. Chronic elevation of water and saline intake was achieved with daily injections of FCA. Daily injection of FCA, when only 0.9% saline was available, produced a remarkably rapid increase in saline intake. A single injection of FCA stimulated brisk diuresis and natriuresis in fluid-restricted animals. This work is the first to demonstrate copious water drinking by mice in response to FCA. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that the renal effects of FCA promote increases in water and sodium turnover and thereby, increases in water and sodium ingestion.

  13. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism.

  14. Effects of roughage source and concentration on intake and performance by finishing heifers.

    PubMed

    Defoor, P J; Galyean, M L; Salyer, G B; Nunnery, G A; Parsons, C H

    2002-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of roughage source and concentration on intake and performance by finishing heifers. In Exp. 1, 12 medium-framed beef heifers (average BW = 389 kg) were used in three simultaneous 4 x 4 Latin square intake trials to evaluate the effects of dietary NDF supply from alfalfa hay, sudan hay, wheat straw, or cottonseed hulls fed in each Latin square at 5, 10, or 15% of dietary DM. Within each roughage concentration, roughage NDF accounted for the majority of variation in NEg intake/kg of BW0.75 among the roughage sources. Averaged across roughage concentrations, NEg intake/kg of BW0.75 tended to be greater (P < 0.10) when heifers were fed cottonseed hulls, sudan hay, or wheat straw than when they were fed alfalfa. In Exp. 2, six medium-framed beef heifers (average BW = 273 kg) were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine whether diets containing 10% (DM basis) alfalfa, cottonseed hulls, or sudan silage differed in eating rate. Average DM eating rates did not differ (P > 0.10) among roughage sources, which we interpreted to suggest that 90% concentrate diets containing alfalfa, cottonseed hulls, and sudan silage do not differ in the amount of chewing required during eating. In Exp. 3, 105 medium-framed beef heifers (average BW = 275 kg) were used in a 140-d finishing trial to evaluate three methods of dietary roughage exchange. Alfalfa at 12.5% of the dietary DM (ALF12.5) was used as a standard, and cottonseed hulls and sudan silage were each fed at three different levels: exchanged with ALF12.5 on an equal percentage DM basis, an equal NDF basis, or an equal NDF basis, where only NDF from particles larger than 2.36 mm (retained NDF) were considered to contribute to the NDF. No differences (P > 0.10) in ADG, DMI, gain:feed ratio, or NEg intake/kg of BW0.75 were detected between alfalfa and cottonseed hulls exchanged on an equal NDF basis. For sudan silage, exchanging with ALF12.5 on an equal retained NDF

  15. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  16. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Zendedel, Abolfazl; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Anbari, Khatereh; Ghanadi, Kourosh; Bachari, Elham Ceneicel; Azargon, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D intake on COPD exacerbation and FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. Methods: This double blind placebo control randomized clinical trial study was done in the Ashayer university hospital in Khorramabad in 2012. Eighty eight patients with severe and very severe COPD were randomly selected from those who recoursed to the internal medicine clinic of Ashayer hospital. They were randomly allocated to case and placebo group. The patients received routine treatment for COPD. Along with the routine treatment, placebo group received 100,000 IU of oral vitamin D per month, for 6 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS computer software, paired t-test, independent t-test, non parametric t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: In each group, there were 44 patients. After the intervention, there were significant differences in FEV1 and the number of COPD exacerbation between the case and control group patients. Also, after the study, in the case group, FEV1 was increased and the number of COPD exacerbation was decreased significantly. Conclusion: Vitamin D intake decreased COPD exacerbation and improved FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. It is suggested that baseline serum vitamin D levels will recorded in similar studies and the effect of vitamin D intake will evaluated regarding the baseline serum vitamin D levels. PMID:25946929

  17. Tracking food intake as bites: Effects on cognitive resources, eating enjoyment, and self-control.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Danny; Siemens, Jennifer Christie; Kopp, Steven W

    2017-04-01

    While monitoring food intake is critical for controlling eating, traditional tools designed for this purpose can be impractical when one desires real-time feedback. Further, the act of monitoring can deplete valuable cognitive resources. In response to these concerns, technologies have been developed to aid those wanting to control their food intake. Of note, devices can now track eating in number of bites taken as opposed to more traditional units such as pieces or volume. Through two studies, the current research investigates the effects of tracking food portions at the bite level on cognitive resources, enjoyment of the eating experience, and objective and subjective self-control. Results indicate that using wearable technology to track bite portions, as compared to doing so mentally, (1) reduces cognitive resource depletion, (2) is equally as effective for allowing users to successfully achieve eating goals, and (3) does not reduce enjoyment of the eating experience. These results support the viability of tracking food intake at the bite level, which holds a number of potential implications for eating and weight management.

  18. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance

    PubMed Central

    ESCOBAR, KURT A.; MORALES, JACOBO; VANDUSSELDORP, TRISHA A.

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6–8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from <6 g/kg/day to 6–8 g/kg/day; the C group maintained their current intake of <6 g/kg/day. On days 6 and 7 both groups performed CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected. PMID:27766133

  19. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Kurt A; Morales, Jacobo; Vandusseldorp, Trisha A

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6-8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from <6 g/kg/day to 6-8 g/kg/day; the C group maintained their current intake of <6 g/kg/day. On days 6 and 7 both groups performed CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected.

  20. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake.

    PubMed

    Warthen, Daniel M; Lambeth, Philip S; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P; Newmyer, Brandon A; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D; Patel, Manoj K; Scott, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control.

  1. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D.; Patel, Manoj K.; Scott, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control. PMID:27065827

  2. Separating the actions of sweetness and calories: effects of saccharin and carbohydrates on hunger and food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1989-06-01

    A comparison was made of the effects on hunger and food intake of consuming preloads varying in sweetness and energy content. The preloads were a plain (unsweetened) yogurt, and the same yogurt sweetened to equal intensity with saccharin or glucose, or supplemented with starch. This balanced design made it possible to assess the consequences of adding sweetness to food as well as the consequences of substituting a nonnutritive sweetener for a caloric sweetener. Subjects (N = 24, repeated measures design) ate the preload at midday and returned one hour later for a sandwich lunch. Food intake in this meal was measured directly, and intake during the remaining part of the day was monitored using home recording in diaries. Hunger was assessed using subjective ratings of motivation to eat. Food intake at lunchtime was significantly greater following the saccharin compared with the plain preload, and parallel effects were revealed by the motivational ratings. Saccharin also stimulated further increases in intake after lunch. Food intake was lowest following the high-energy preloads, with the starch supplemented yogurt producing somewhat the largest suppression of intake. The results confirm and extend previous findings showing that intense sweeteners do not possess the same satiating capacity as glucose and sucrose. The stimulation of appetite by saccharin may be due to its sweet taste and also to effects on postingestive mechanisms.

  3. Effects of intracerebroventricularly and intraperitoneally administered growth hormone on body weight and food intake in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Carla; Wieczorek, Ingo; Reschke, Kirsten; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) possesses multiple metabolic effects, in particular with regard to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies on the effects of GH on body weight and food and water intake are scarce and have yielded controversial results. We investigated the effects of different modes of GH administration on the parameters of body weight and food intake as well as on insulin and leptin concentrations in fa/fa Zucker rats. In control experiments, aqua pro injection was given. GH was administered over a time period of 11 days at a daily dose of 250 microg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 25 microg intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). While both food intake and body weight were found to be unaltered in the four groups after this observation period, there was an enhanced food intake and consecutively an increase in body weight over the day period when compared to the night period in the groups of rats that received GH i.c.v. or i.p. This tendency was also shown for water intake. Insulin and leptin concentrations were similar in all groups. Thus, injection of GH appears to modify food intake-related behavior, since the periods of enhanced food and water intake were shifted from night- to daytime. Thus, while in general the metabolic parameters remained unchanged, the activity pattern was clearly modified.

  4. REPEATED ETHANOL ADMINISTRATION MODIFIES THE TEMPORAL STRUCTURE OF SUCROSE INTAKE PATTERNS IN MICE: EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH BEHAVIORAL SENSITIZATION

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, Raúl; Kamens, Helen M.; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Ford, Matthew M.; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroadaptations supporting behavioral sensitization to abused drugs are suggested to underlie pathological, excessive motivation toward drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Drug-induced sensitization has also been linked to increased appetitive responses for non-drug, natural reinforcers. The present research investigated whether ethanol (EtOH)-induced neural changes, inferred from psychomotor sensitization, can modify consumption and intake dynamics for the natural reinforcer, sucrose. The effects of EtOH-induced sensitization in mice on the temporal structure of sucrose intake patterns were measured using a lickometer system. Sucrose intake dynamics were measured after sensitization for 1 h daily for 7 days and indicated more rapid initial approach and consumption of sucrose in EtOH-sensitized groups; animals showed a shorter latency to the first intake bout and an increased number of sucrose bottle licks during the initial 15 min of the 1-h sessions. This effect was associated with increased frequency and size of bouts. For the total 1-h session, sucrose intake and bout dynamics were not different between groups, indicating a change in patterns of sucrose intake but not total consumption. When sensitization was prevented by the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen, the increased rate of approach and consumption of sucrose were also prevented. Thus, EtOH-induced sensitization, and not the mere exposure to EtOH, was associated with changes in sucrose intake patterns. These data are consistent with current literature suggesting an enhancing effect of drug-induced sensitization on motivational processes involved in reinforcement. PMID:20624153

  5. Effects of pellet diameter during and after lactation on feed intake of piglets pre- and postweaning.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Wamsteeker, D; Oostindjer, M; van Enckevort, L C M; van der Poel, A F B; Kemp, B; Bolhuis, J E

    2014-09-01

    Effects of 2 pellet diameters for piglets pre- and postweaning on feed intake, BW, and feed-related behavior were studied in 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, 19 litters were provided with pellets of 2 and 12 mm in diameter in a choice-feeding setup from d 4 of lactation onward. From d 4 to 18, piglets preferred the 12-mm diameter pellet over the 2-mm diameter pellet (519 vs. 168 g/pen; P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, 39 litters were provided with creep feed of either 2- or 10-mm diameter pellets. Feed intake from d 3 to 17 was higher in litters provided the 10-mm diameter pellet than the 2-mm diameter pellet (1,752 vs. 1,101 g/pen; P < 0.001). Piglet BW at weaning did not differ between treatments. Treatment × day of lactation interactions were found for time spent eating, interest in eating, and time spent suckling. Time spent eating and interest in eating increased with time. This increase was lower in the litters provided with the 10-mm diameter pellet. Time spent suckling remained the same in litters provided with 2-mm diameter pellets but decreased in time in litters provided the 10-mm diameter pellets. Experiment 3 was set up as a 2 × 2 factorial design with pellet diameter both pre- and postweaning as factors. During lactation, 18 litters were provided creep feed of either 2 or 12 mm in pellet diameter. At weaning, each litter was split into 2 comparable half litters and each half litter was provided with feed of 2 or 12 mm in diameter. Feed intake was higher in the 12-mm diameter pellet litters than in the 2-mm ones from d 4 to 11 of lactation (P < 0.01). Pellet diameter provided after weaning did not affect BW gain or feed intake. Piglets provided the 12-mm diameter pellet before weaning, however, had a higher BW gain (2,060 vs. 2,606 g/pig; P = 0.003) and feed intake (2,772 vs. 3,173 g/pig; P = 0.04) and a lower feed conversion ratio (P = 0.03) between d 0 and 10 after weaning than piglets provided the 2-mm diameter pellet before weaning. Postweaning pellet diameter

  6. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: Evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake.

    PubMed

    Niderkorn, V; Martin, C; Rochette, Y; Julien, S; Baumont, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique. Positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary DMI ( < 0.001), which was greater when sheep were fed with at least 50% red clover (1.56-1.59 kg/d) compared with those fed with 0 or 25% red clover (1.29 and 1.45 kg/d, respectively; < 0.001). This synergy between forages was not observed on nutrient digestibility, as these parameters linearly decreased with increasing proportions of red clover ( < 0.001). As a result, positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary intake of digestible DM ( < 0.001). Taken together, the results indicate that the synergy on voluntary intake was due to a greater motivation of animals to eat mixtures (seen in increased intake rates) rather than a positive associative effect on digestive efficiency. Methane yield decreased linearly with increasing proportion of red clover ( < 0.001) and ranged from 20.0 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% orchardgrass to 16.1 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% red clover. Mixtures of orchardgrass and red clover quadratically ( = 0.03) decreased urinary nitrogen losses and tended ( = 0.099) to quadratically increase nitrogen retention. This synergy between orchardgrass and red clover silages could improve animal performances in addition to the known agronomic benefits of grass-legume mixtures.

  7. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake.

  8. Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on metabolism and endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Cox, Gregory R; Desbrow, Ben; Montgomery, Paul G; Anderson, Megan E; Bruce, Clinton R; Macrides, Theodore A; Martin, David T; Moquin, Angela; Roberts, Alan; Hawley, John A; Burke, Louise M

    2002-09-01

    Competitive athletes completed two studies of 2-h steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O(2) uptake followed by 7 kJ/kg time trial (TT) with carbohydrate (CHO) intake before (2 g/kg) and during (6% CHO drink) exercise. In Study A, 12 subjects received either 6 mg/kg caffeine 1 h preexercise (Precaf), 6 x 1 mg/kg caffeine every 20 min throughout SS (Durcaf), 2 x 5 ml/kg Coca-Cola between 100 and 120 min SS and during TT (Coke), or placebo. Improvements in TT were as follows: Precaf, 3.4% (0.2-6.5%, 95% confidence interval); Durcaf, 3.1% (-0.1-6.5%); and Coke, 3.1% (-0.2-6.2%). In Study B, eight subjects received 3 x 5 ml/kg of different cola drinks during the last 40 min of SS and TT: decaffeinated, 6% CHO (control); caffeinated, 6% CHO; decaffeinated, 11% CHO; and caffeinated, 11% CHO (Coke). Coke enhanced TT by 3.3% (0.8-5.9%), with all trials showing 2.2% TT enhancement (0.5-3.8%; P < 0.05) due to caffeine. Overall, 1) 6 mg/kg caffeine enhanced TT performance independent of timing of intake and 2) replacing sports drink with Coca-Cola during the latter stages of exercise was equally effective in enhancing endurance performance, primarily due to low intake of caffeine (approximately 1.5 mg/kg).

  9. Effects of acute acamprosate and homotaurine on ethanol intake and ethanol-stimulated mesolimbic dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Olive, M Foster; Nannini, Michelle A; Ou, Christine J; Koenig, Heather N; Hodge, Clyde W

    2002-02-15

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the acute effects of the anticraving compound acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) and the closely related compound homotaurine on ethanol intake and ethanol-stimulated dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Male rats were treated with acamprosate (200 or 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally, i.p.) or homotaurine (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg i.p.) 15 min prior to access to 10% ethanol and water for 1 h in a two-bottle choice restricted access paradigm. A separate group of rats was implanted with microdialysis probes in the nucleus accumbens and given an acute injection of ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p.) that was preceded by saline, acamprosate, or homotaurine. Acamprosate and homotaurine dose-dependently reduced ethanol intake and preference. These compounds also delayed or suppressed ethanol-stimulated increases in nucleus accumbens dopamine release, suggesting that acamprosate and homotaurine may reduce ethanol intake by interfering with the ability of ethanol to activate the mesolimbic dopamine reward system.

  10. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of a high-caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas P J; Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Karstoft, Kristian; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Thomsen, Carsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-02-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake. Therefore, healthy individuals on a high-caloric intake were randomized to either 10,000 or 1,500 steps/day for 14 days. Step number, total energy expenditure, dietary records, neuropsychological tests, maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max), whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with stable isotopes were performed before and after the intervention. Both study groups gained the same amount of body weight. However, the inactive group accumulated significantly more visceral fat compared with the active group. Following the 2-wk period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity.

  11. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  12. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  13. Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H; Saravis, S; Schacher, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A

    1989-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted, each with 20 healthy 9-10-year-old children. After an overnight fast, subjects were given a standardized breakfast at 0830 hrs, the treatments at 1030 hrs, and a lunch containing an excess of foods at 1200 hrs. Visual analog scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were administered 5 min before and 20 and 85 min after treatment. Lunch-time food intake was measured. In experiment 1, either aspartame (34 mg/kg), or the equivalent sweetness of sodium cyclamate, was given in an ice slurry (300 ml) of unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid with carbohydrate (1.75 g/kg polycose). In experiment 2, drinks (300 ml) contained either sucrose (1.75 g/kg) or aspartame (9.7 mg/kg). In both experiments, significant meal- and time-dependent effects were observed for subjective feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. Treatments, however, did not affect either subjective feelings of appetite or lunch-time food intake. Thus, aspartame consumed without or with carbohydrate, did not affect either hunger or food intake of children when compared with the sweeteners sodium cyclamate and sucrose, respectively.

  14. Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; McPhee, L; Sullivan, S

    1989-02-01

    In two experiments, 2-5-year-old children's responsiveness to caloric density cues was examined. In a preloading protocol, consumption of fixed volumes of drinks (205 ml in Experiment 1; 150 ml in Experiment 2), sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, aspartame plus low glucose maltodextrin, or a water control, was followed by ad lib consumption from among a variety of foods. Caloric drinks had about 90 kcal in Experiment 1, 65 kcal in Experiment 2. The delay interval between the preload and the ad lib consumption was 0, 30 or 60 minutes. In Experiment 1, 24 4- and 5-year-old children participated in only one delay interval, while in Experiment 2, all 20 2- and 3-year-old children were seen in all conditions. Results revealed evidence of caloric compensation, but no evidence of preload x time delay interaction. In both experiments, aspartame also produced a significant suppression of intake relative to water, primarily due to the pattern at 30 min following the preload. Across conditions, the suppression following aspartame was usually significantly less than that produced by the caloric sweet drinks, providing evidence for postingestive effects. In Experiment 1, suppression of intake was related to the children's preferences for the foods, not to macronutrient content; consumption of nonpreferred foods was most suppressed. Consumption of sweetened drinks as long as 1 hour prior to eating suppressed food intake, and this common feeding practice may also reduce dietary variety.

  15. Effects of synbiotic supplementation on lactating mothers' energy intake and BMI, and infants' growth.

    PubMed

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Nikniaz, Leila; Mahdavi, Reza; Hejazi, Mohammad Amin; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-09-01

    In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 lactating mothers were randomly divided into two groups to receive daily supplement of synbiotic (n = 40) or a placebo (n = 40) for 30 days. Information on dietary intake was collected and anthropometric measurements were taken using standard calibrated instruments. Data analysis was carried out using nutritionist IV, SPSS and Epi Info software. Synbiotic supplementation resulted in a slight increase in mean energy intake while, in the placebo group, maternal energy intake decreased significantly (p < 0.023). Although maternal weight and BMI increased slightly in the supplemented group, these two parameters decreased significantly in the placebo group (p < 0.01). Also, infants' weight gain in the synbiotic group was significantly higher than the placebo group after the intervention (p < 0.044). Synbiotics may prevent weight loss in lactating mothers and result in weight gain in infants. Further experiments are required to study these effects in undernourished lactating mothers and their infants.

  16. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels.

  17. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  18. Daily intake of green and yellow vegetables is effective for maintaining bone mass in young women.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hiroko; Noda, Tsuyako; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Muto, Takashi

    2009-06-01

    The increasing proportion of underweight young women may lead to an increase in those with low bone mass. The present study investigated whether bone mass level is associated with lifestyle factors among young Japanese women. A total of 103 Japanese female college students aged 20-21 majoring in food science participated in this cross-sectional study. We measured bone area ratio at the os calcis using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and assessed lifestyle factors including diet and physical activity using a self-reported questionnaire. Bone area ratio was defined as a proportion of bone substance in a cross section of os trabeculare. Ninety-one subjects who completed the questionnaire were categorized into two groups according to the average bone area ratio of the 103 subjects (30.9%), calculated based on the screening method for osteoporosis prevention: 69 subjects with normal bone mass (bone area ratio: 36.2 +/- 3.8%) and 22 subjects with low bone mass (bone area ratio: 28.1 +/- 1.6%). In normal group, 12 subjects (17.4%) had a dietary habit of not daily intake of green and yellow vegetables, such as carrot and spinach, while this occurred in 10 subjects (45.5%) in low group (P = 0.007). Adjusted logistic regression analyses showed that the subjects without daily intake of green and yellow vegetables had almost 5-fold risk of low bone mass, compared to the subjects having daily intake of the vegetables [Odds ratio: 4.96 (95%CI 1.36-18.18)]. In conclusion, daily intake of green and yellow vegetables is effective for maintaining bone mass in young women.

  19. Effect of restricted feed intake of dams and heat stress on mineral status of newborn calves.

    PubMed

    Kume, S; Toharmat, T; Kobayashi, N

    1998-06-01

    To clarify the effects of restricted feed intake, heat stress, and parity on the mineral status of cows and heifers around parturition and on the mineral status of their calves during 1 wk of age, data were collected from 66 Holstein cows and heifers and their calves. In Experiment 1, 36 heifers and mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet requirements for total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, and minerals. In Experiment 2, 15 mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet maintenance requirements for TDN plus requirements for TDN for the last 2 mo of gestation, and 15 heifers were fed to meet TDN requirements. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures of newborn calves. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of heifers around parturition were higher than those of mature cows, but blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves born from heifers were lower. The restricted feed intake of dams decreased blood hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as plasma Fe of calves in hot and cool weather. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, and alkaline phosphatase as well as colostral Ca, P, Mg, and Zn of heifers were higher than those of mature cows, but plasma Mg of heifers was lower. Plasma Mg of calves and their dams was lower in hot weather than in cool weather, and restricted feed intake accelerated the reduction in plasma Mg of calves and their dams during hot weather. Plasma Na of calves and their dams was higher in hot weather than in cool weather. Heat stress increased plasma K of heifers and their calves. Heat stress increased Ca concentration in meconium of calves born from cows, and the restricted feed intake increased P concentrations in meconium. These results suggest that the maintenance of optimum erythropoiesis and mineral status in heatstressed periparturient cows and heifers and their calves must be met by dietary energy and minerals that are fed at maintenance concentrations plus excess requirements necessary during the gestation

  20. The effect of post-exercise drink macronutrient content on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Clayton, David J; Stensel, David J; Watson, Phillip; James, Lewis J

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate and protein ingestion post-exercise are known to facilitate muscle glycogen resynthesis and protein synthesis, respectively, but the effects of post-exercise nutrient intake on subsequent appetite are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether protein induced satiety that has been reported at rest was still evident when pre-loads were consumed in a post-exercise context. Using a randomised, double blind, crossover design, 12 unrestrained healthy males completed 30 min of continuous cycling exercise at ~60% VO2peak, followed by five, 3 min intervals at ~85% VO2peak. Ten min post-exercise, subjects consumed 500 ml of either a low energy placebo (15 kJ) (PLA); a 6% whey protein isolate drink (528 kJ) (PRO); or a 6% sucrose drink (528 kJ) (CHO). Sixty min after drink ingestion, a homogenous ad-libitum pasta lunch was provided and energy intake at this lunch was quantified. Subjective appetite ratings were measured at various stages of the protocol. Energy consumed at the ad-libitum lunch was lower after PRO (5831 ± 960 kJ) than PLA (6406 ± 492 kJ) (P<0.05), but not different between CHO (6111 ± 901 kJ) and the other trials (P>0.315). Considering the post-exercise drink, total energy intake was not different between trials (P=0.383). There were no differences between trials for any of the subjective appetite ratings. The results demonstrate that where post-exercise liquid protein ingestion may enhance the adaptive response of skeletal muscle, this may be possible without affecting gross energy intake relative to consuming a low energy drink.

  1. Leptin regulates peripheral lipid metabolism primarily through central effects on food intake

    PubMed Central

    Prieur, Xavier; Tung, Y. C. Loraine; Griffin, Julian L; Farooqi, I Sadaf; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Coll, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic effects of leptin may involve both centrally and peripherally mediated actions with a component of the central actions potentially independent of alterations in food intake. Ob/ob mice have significant abnormalities in lipid metabolism, correctable by leptin administration. We used ob/ob mice to study the relative importance of the subtypes of actions of leptin (central vs peripheral; food intake dependent vs independent) on lipid metabolism. Mice were treated for 3 days with leptin, either centrally (ICV) or peripherally (IP), and compared with mice pair-fed to the leptin-treated mice (PF) and with ad libitum fed controls (C). All treatment groups (ICV, IP, PF) showed indistinguishable changes in liver weight, hepatic steatosis, hepatic lipidomic profile and circulating free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol lipoprotein profile. Changes in the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation in liver, muscle and white fat were broadly similar in IP, ICV and PF groups. Leptin (both ICV and IP) stimulated expression of both mitochondrial and peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (liver) and PPARα (skeletal muscle) to an extent not replicated by pair feeding. Leptin had profound effects on peripheral lipid metabolism but the majority were explained by its effects on food intake. Leptin had additional centrally mediated effects to increase the expression of a limited number of genes concerned with fatty acid oxidation. While we cannot exclude direct peripheral effects of leptin on certain aspects of lipid metabolism we were unable to detect any such effects on the parameters measured in this study. PMID:18635658

  2. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  3. Altering physically effective fiber intake through forage proportion and particle length: digestion and milk production.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-07-01

    Intake of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of dairy cows was altered by adjusting the proportion of forage in the diet and forage particle length, and effects on nutrient intake, site and extent of digestion, microbial N synthesis, and milk production were measured. The experiment was designed as a triplicated 4 x 4 Latin square using 12 lactating dairy cows, with 4 that were ruminally and duodenally cannulated, 4 that were ruminally cannulated, and 4 that were intact. Thus, the site and extent of digestion, and microbial N synthesis were measured in a single 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios (dry matter basis). Dietary peNDF content was determined from the sum of the proportion (dry matter basis) of dietary dry matter retained either on the 2 screens (8- and 19-mm) or on the 3 screens (1.18-, 8-, and 19-mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by the neutral detergent fiber content of the diet. An increased F:C ratio reduced intakes of dry matter and starch by 9 and 46%, respectively, but increased intake of fiber from forage sources by 53%. Digestibility of dry matter in the total tract was not affected, whereas total digestion of fiber and N was improved by increasing the F:C ratio. Improved total fiber digestion resulted from higher ruminal digestion, which was partially due to a shift in starch digestion from the rumen to the intestine with the increased F:C ratio. Actual milk yield was decreased but production of 4% fat-corrected milk was similar between the low and high F:C diets because of increased milk fat content. Increased FPL increased intake of peNDF, especially when the high F:C diet was fed. However, nutrient intakes, N metabolism in the digestive tract, and milk production were not affected. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in

  4. A comparative study of the central effects of melanocortin peptides on food intake in broiler and layer chicks.

    PubMed

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Hasegawa, Shin; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2012-09-01

    Broiler chicks eat more food than layer chicks. However, the causes of the difference in food intake in the neonatal period between these strains are not clear. In this study, we examined the involvement of proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived melanocortin peptides α-, β- and γ-melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs) in the difference in food intake between broiler and layer chicks. First, we compared the hypothalamic mRNA levels of POMC between these strains and found that there was no significant difference in these levels between broiler and layer chicks. Next, we examined the effects of central administration of MSHs on food intake in these strains. Central administration of α-MSH significantly suppressed food intake in both strains. Central administration of β-MSH significantly suppressed food intake in layer chicks, but not in broiler chicks, while central administration of γ-MSH did not influence food intake in either strain. It is therefore likely that the absence of the anorexigenic effect of β-MSH might be related to the increased food intake in broiler chicks.

  5. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-08-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS.

  6. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  7. Differential effects of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Wu, Congqing; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Charnigo, Richard J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The amount of dietary sodium intake regulates the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure, both of which play critical roles in atherosclerosis. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on atherosclerosis. This study applied a broad range of dietary sodium concentrations to determine the concomitant effects of dietary sodium intake on the RAS, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in mice. Eight-week-old male low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet containing selected sodium concentrations (Na 0.01%, 0.1%, or 2% w/w) for 12 weeks. Mice in these three groups were all hypercholesterolemic, although mice fed Na 0.01% and Na 0.1% had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than mice fed Na 2%. Mice fed Na 0.01% had greater abundances of renal renin mRNA than those fed Na 0.1% and 2%. Plasma renin concentrations were higher in mice fed Na 0.01% (14.2 ± 1.7 ng/ml/30 min) than those fed Na 0.1% or 2% (6.2 ± 0.6 and 5.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml per 30 min, respectively). However, systolic blood pressure at 12 weeks was higher in mice fed Na 2% (138 ± 3 mm Hg) than those fed Na 0.01% and 0.1% (129 ± 3 and 128 ± 4 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, mice fed Na 0.01% (0.17 ± 0.02 mm(2)) had larger atherosclerotic lesion areas in aortic roots than those fed Na 2% (0.09 ± 0.01 mm(2)), whereas lesion areas in mice fed Na 0.1% (0.12 ± 0.02 mm(2)) were intermediate between and not significantly different from those in Na 0.01% and Na 2% groups. In conclusion, while high dietary sodium intake led to higher systolic blood pressure, low dietary sodium intake augmented atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  8. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters.

  9. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  10. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  11. Effects of central histamine receptors blockade on GABA(A) agonist-induced food intake in broiler cockerels.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Zendehdel; Vahhab, Babapour; Hossein, Jonaidi

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection of H1, H2 and H3 antagonists on feed intake induced by GABA(A) agonist was evaluated. In Experiment 1, the animals received chloropheniramine, a H1 antagonist and then muscimol, a GABA(A) agonist. In Experiment 2, chickens received famotidine, a H2 receptor antagonist, prior to injection of muscimol. Finally in Experiment 3, the birds were injected with thioperamide, a H3 receptor antagonist and muscimol. Cumulative food intake was measured 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 min after injections. The results of this study indicated that effects of muscimol on food intake inhibited by pretreatment with chloropheneramine maleate (p < or = 0.05), significantly, while the famotidine and thioperamide were ineffective. These results suggest the existence of H1-receptor mediated histamine-GABA(A) receptor interaction on food intake in broiler cockerels.

  12. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-08-02

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures.

  13. [Effect of alcohol intake on dietary habits and obesity in Japanese middle-aged men].

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Hirai, Y; Fujiura, Y; Imaizumi, T

    2000-10-01

    The amount of alcohol intake has been increasing in Japan. We investigated whether this might affect dietary habits in middle-aged men. In 1989, we conducted a health examination of 809 Japanese males aged 40-69. Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from 24-hour dietary recall. Mean values of total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate were evaluated according to alcohol intake. Consumption of total calories and proteins, especially animal proteins, increased and carbohydrate intake decreased proportionately with the amount of alcohol intake. Meat, fish, and soybean intake were increased in heavy drinker, along with niacin, sodium, and phosphorus intake. Despite their higher caloric intake, moderate and heavy drinkers were not more obese than non- or light-drinkers. Japanese heavy drinkers took more animal protein and sodium instead of carbohydrate compared to non- and light- drinkers. In our series, heavy drinking was not related to obesity.

  14. Examining the effects of remote-video confederates on young women's food intake.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Larsen, Junilla K; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-08-01

    One's decisions about eating are at times, largely based on the observations of other people's eating behavior. Previous studies have shown that modeling of eating is a robust effect. The current research examined the impact of a video remote confederate on young women's food intake. Experiment 1 examined the effect of an eating or non-eating video confederate. Participants (N=77 female undergraduate students, M age=20.29) were exposed to a same-sex video confederate (i.e., a 25 year old woman) who was modeling eating (i.e., 4 winegums; pastille-type sweets) or not eating (i.e. no food visible). Results indicated that participants exposed to the eating confederate did not eat more than participants exposed to the non-eating confederate. Experiment 2 was conducted to address some of the limitations of Experiment 1. In this experiment, participants (N=51, M age=20.43) were exposed to one of three intake conditions: No-eating (i.e. food visible but not consumed), Small portion-size condition (i.e., 8 M&Ms) or Large portion-size condition (i.e., 20 M&Ms). The same video confederate as in Experiment 1 modeled these three conditions. Results indicated that participants did not adjust their intake to that of a video model. The current findings provide preliminary evidence for the assumption that modeling only exists if people have clear indications about how much others have consumed in the same context (as was the case in previous modeling studies). Future research is needed to further examine this proposition.

  15. Biological effects of tolerable level chronic boron intake on transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Orenay Boyacioglu, Seda; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Kahraman, Erkan; Yildirim, Hatice; Bora, Selin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of boron effect on human transcription and translation has not been fully understood. In the current study it was aimed to reveal the role of boron on the expression of certain transcription factors that play key roles in many cellular pathways on human subjects chronically exposed to low amounts of boron. The boron concentrations in drinking water samples were 1.57±0.06mg/l for boron group while the corresponding value for the control group was 0.016±0.002mg/l. RNA isolation was performed using PAX gene RNA kit on the blood samples from the subjects. The RNA was then reverse transcribed into cDNA and analyzed using the Human Transcription Factors RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Arrays. While the boron amount in urine was detected as 3.56±1.47mg/day in the boron group, it was 0.72±0.30mg/day in the control group. Daily boron intake of the boron and control groups were calculated to be 6.98±3.39 and 1.18±0.41mg/day, respectively. The expression levels of the transcription factor genes were compared between the boron and control groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (P>0.05). The data suggest that boron intake at 6.98±3.39mg/day, which is the dose at which beneficial effects might be seen, does not result in toxicity at molecular level since the expression levels of transcription factors are not changed. Although boron intake over this level will seem to increase RNA synthesis, further examination of the topic is needed using new molecular epidemiological data.

  16. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation.

  17. Effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs on intralipid intake and cocaine-induced hyperactivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Hartfield, Abegale W; Moore, Nicholas A; Clifton, Peter G

    2006-09-01

    Clozapine and olanzapine have been shown to acutely stimulate consumption of a fat emulsion (Intralipid) by male Lister hooded rats. We initially investigated the extent of any sex difference in Intralipid hyperphagia associated with olanzapine treatment. We then examined the degree of Intralipid hyperphagia produced by a range of atypical antipsychotic drugs having different associations with human weight gain, and also determined their effects on cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity as a measure of functional dopamine antagonism in vivo. Olanzapine (0.1-1 mg/kg) stimulated Intralipid intake to an equal extent in male and female rats. Quetiapine (10 mg/kg) also stimulated Intralipid intake whereas ziprasidone (0.3-10 mg/kg) or risperidone (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) did not have this effect. All of the compounds, except quetiapine, reduced cocaine-stimulated locomotor activity but the relationship to the degree of Intralipid hyperphagia was variable. Since there was a positive relationship between Intralipid hyperphagia and the reported extent of human body weight gain, we conclude that Intralipid hyperphagia may have predictive value for this drug-associated side effect and is not related to the dopamine antagonist properties of these agents.

  18. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  19. Effects of ethanol exposure in a familiar or isolated context during infancy on ethanol intake during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Morales, Roberto Sebastián; Haymal, Beatriz; Pautassi, Ricardo M

    2016-12-01

    Early exposure to ethanol affects ethanol intake later in life. This early experience encompasses exposure to social stimuli and the pharmacological and orosensory properties of ethanol. The specific contribution of each type of stimulus to subsequent ethanol intake remains unknown. We assessed the intake of various concentrations of ethanol in a familiar or isolated context during infancy and the lingering effects of this experience on ethanol intake during adolescence. On postnatal day 3 (PD3), PD7, and PD11, rats were given 5% ethanol or water in a nursing or isolated context (Experiments 1 and 2). Intake tests (ethanol vs. water) were conducted during adolescence. Experiment 2 matched the amount of fluid ingested during infancy in both contexts and subsequently tested ethanol consumption during adolescence. The results revealed a facilitative effect of the nursing context on fluid intake during the tests in infancy. Pups stimulated with ethanol but not water in the isolated context exhibited an increase in ethanol consumption during adolescence. This effect disappeared when the isolated infants were matched to receive the same amount of ethanol ingested by their nursed counterparts. In Experiment 3, isolated infant rats were exposed to different ethanol concentrations (.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10.0%), and drug consumption was tested during adolescence. This exposure increased adolescent ethanol intake, regardless of the alcohol concentration (Experiment 3). The common denominators that resulted in enhanced ethanol intake during adolescence were preexposure to ethanol via active consumption of the drug that induced a low-to-moderate level of intoxication in an isolated context.

  20. The effect of very low food intake on digestive physiology and forage digestibility in horses.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Schiele, K; Ortmann, S; Fritz, J; Codron, D; Hummel, J; Kienzle, E

    2014-02-01

    Equid digestion is often conceptualized as a high-throughput/low-efficiency system, in particular compared with ruminants. It is commonly assumed that ruminants have an advantage when resources are limited; the effect of low food intake on digestive physiology of horses has, however, not been explored to our knowledge. We used four adult ponies [initial body mass (BM) 288 ± 65 kg] in two subsequent trials with grass hay-only diets [in dry matter (DM): hay1, mid-early cut, crude protein (CP) 10.5%, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 67.6%; hay2, late cut, CP 5.8%, NDF 69.5%], each fed subsequently at four different dry matter intake (DMI) levels: ad libitum and at 75, 55 and 30 g/kg(0.75) /day. We particularly expected digesta mean retention times (MRT) to increase, and hence fibre digestibility to increase, with decreasing DMI. Ponies maintained BM on the first, but lost BM and body condition on DMI55 and DMI30. MRTs were negatively correlated to DMI and ranged (for particles <2 mm) from 23/31 h (hay1/2) on the ad libitum to 38/48 h on DMI30. Digestibilities of DM, nutrients and fibre components decreased from DMI75 to DMI30; apparent digestibilities of organic matter and NDF (hay1/2) dropped from 47/43% and 42/37%, respectively, on the ad libitum DMI to 35/35% and 30/28% on DMI30. Additional differences evident between the two hays included a higher estimated 'true' protein digestibility for hay1 and finer faecal particles on hay2; there were no differences in faecal particle size between intake levels. The results suggest that below a certain food intake threshold, the major digestive constraint is not fermentation time but nutrient supply to gut bacteria. The threshold for such an effect probably varies between feeds and might differ between ruminants and equids.

  1. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  2. Analysis of interaction of phenolic compounds with the cholecystokinin signaling pathway to explain effects on reducing food intake.

    PubMed

    Al Shukor, Nadin; Raes, Katleen; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2014-03-01

    Previous animal experiments demonstrated that phenolic compounds can reduce weight and food intake, but the exact mechanism(s) behind these effects remain unknown. For regulation of food intake, the cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone signaling pathway plays an important role as it induces satiety by binding on its specific receptor (CCK1R), hereby reducing food intake. In this study, we investigated the possible interactions of eight phenolic compounds of different classes (tannic acid, gallic acid, benzoic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and resveratrol) with the CCK1R signaling pathway. As major results, the tested phenolic compounds could not activate the CCK1R in a specific cell-based bioassay. In contrast, we observed an anti-CCK1R activity. This antagonistic action might be explained by blocking of the functioning of the CCK1R receptor, although the exact mechanism of interaction remains unknown. For tannic acid, we also measured a sequestration activity of the CCK hormone in vitro. In conclusion, the reported activity of phenolic compounds against food intake and weight is not based on an activation of the CCK1R. Taking into account the complex regulation of food intake, further work is necessary to unravel other essential mechanisms involved to explain the reported effects of phenolic compounds against food intake.

  3. The effect of dietary intake changes on nutritional status in acute leukaemia patients after first induction chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration.

  4. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  5. Effects of photoperiod on food intake, activity and metabolic rate in adult neutered male cats.

    PubMed

    Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Kerr, K R; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of increased photoperiod (longer days) on voluntary physical activity levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake required to maintain BW, and fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in adult cats. Eleven healthy, adult, neutered, male domestic shorthair cats were used in a randomized crossover design study. During two 12-week periods, cats were exposed to either a short-day (SD) photoperiod of 8 h light: 16 h dark or a long-day (LD) photoperiod of 16 h light: 8 h dark. Cats were fed a commercial diet to maintain baseline BW. In addition to daily food intake and twice-weekly BW, RMR (via indirect calorimetry), body composition [via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)] and physical activity (via Actical activity monitors) were measured at week 0 and 12 of each period. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured at week 0, 6 and 12 of each period. Average hourly physical activity was greater (p = 0.008) in LD vs. SD cats (3770 vs. 3129 activity counts/h), which was primarily due to increased (p < 0.001) dark period activity (1188 vs. 710 activity counts/h). This corresponded to higher (p < 0.0001) daily metabolizable energy intake (mean over 12-week period: 196 vs. 187 kcal/day), and increased (p = 0.048) RMR in LD cats (9.02 vs. 8.37 kcal/h). Body composition, serum leptin and serum ghrelin were not altered by photoperiod. More research is needed to determine potential mechanisms by which these physiological changes occurred and how they may apply to weight management strategies.

  6. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  7. Adverse Effects Associated with Protein Intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults.

    PubMed

    Delimaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Background. While high-protein consumption-above the current recommended dietary allowance for adults (RDA: 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day)-is increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on its potential adverse effects. Objective. To determine the potential disease risks due to high protein/high meat intake obtained from diet and/or nutritional supplements in humans. Design. Review. Subjects. Healthy adult male and female subjects. Method. In order to identify relevant studies, the electronic databases, Medline and Google Scholar, were searched using the terms:"high protein diet," "protein overconsumption," "protein overuse," and "high meat diet." Papers not in English were excluded. Further studies were identified by citations in retrieved papers. Results. 32 studies (21 experimental human studies and 11 reviews) were identified. The adverse effects associated with long-term high protein/high meat intake in humans were (a) disorders of bone and calcium homeostasis, (b) disorders of renal function, (c) increased cancer risk, (d) disorders of liver function, and (e) precipitated progression of coronary artery disease. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that there is currently no reasonable scientific basis in the literature to recommend protein consumption above the current RDA (high protein diet) for healthy adults due to its potential disease risks. Further research needs to be carried out in this area, including large randomized controlled trials.

  8. Potassium transport by medullary collecting tubule of rabbit: Effects of variation in K intake

    SciTech Connect

    Wingo, C.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Gainesville, FL )

    1987-12-01

    These studies examine the effect of dietary K content on the rate efflux coefficient (K{sub k}) assessed both isotopically ({sup 42}K) and by net K flux in segments dissected from the inner stripe of the outer medullary collecting tubule (MCT). Female New Zealand White rabbits were given either a K-replete diet (KCl diet) or one of two K-restricted diets with similar K content. After 7 days, renal K excretion varied with K intake. To determine whether alterations in K{sub k} of MCT could contribute to these changes in urinary K excretion, the MCT from the three groups of rabbits was perfused in vitro and volume reabsorption and K{sub k} were measured. Net K flux in the presence of a 15 mM lumen-to-bath K gradient confirmed a significantly greater K reabsorptive flux and net rate coefficient in either K-restricted group than the K-replete control group. A model used to assess the relative contribution of cortical secretory flux and medullary absorptive flux shows that at physiological flow rates for the MCT such alterations in the apparent K permeability of the MCT could have dramatic effects on the reabsorption of K from the lumen and thereby on K excretion. These observations demonstrate that K movement from lumen to interstitium is influenced by dietary K intake and that the MCT participates in K homeostasis.

  9. Effects of caffeine intake during gestation and lactation on bones of young growing rats.

    PubMed

    Schneider, P E; Miller, H I; Nakamoto, T

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the extended effect of caffeine intake received during gestation and lactation on the mandible and femur of rats. Timed-pregnant dams were divided into two groups. Dams of group 1 were fed a 20% protein diet throughout the experimental period from day 9 of gestation. Dams of group 2 were also fed a 20% protein diet, supplemented with caffeine (1 mg/100 g of body weight). Upon delivery, 8 pups were assigned to each dam, and the dams were continued on their respective diets. At weaning (day 22 postnatally), only male rats were selected. Pups of both groups were fed a 20% protein diet without caffeine. At day 56 postnatally the rats were killed. Mandibles and femurs were removed and the following parameters analyzed: weight, physical dimension, volume, and Knoop microhardness. Caffeine intake during gestation and lactation resulted in an impairment of femur growth and development and to a lesser extent mandibular growth and development. The early effects of caffeine in the maternal diet were lasting, as noted by the lack of recovery of the offspring even after changing to a caffeine-free diet for an extended time after weaning.

  10. "Beer potomania" in non-beer drinkers: effect of low dietary solute intake.

    PubMed

    Thaler, S M; Teitelbaum, I; Berl, T

    1998-06-01

    A ovolactovegetarian patient presented with hyponatremia. She had maximally dilute urine and undetectable vasopressin levels. Dietary history revealed very low protein intake but no beer intake. We postulated that the very low intake of solute limited her water excretion and caused the hyponatremia despite only a modest increase in fluid intake. When protein intake was increased in a clinical research center setting, free water excretion increased and serum sodium normalized despite maintaining the water intake at 4 to 5 L daily. We discuss the role of dietary solute in water excretion. Previously described in beer drinkers, the phenomenon can occur in the absence of beer drinking. In this era of weight consciousness, hyponatremia because of low solute intake may be seen with increased frequency.

  11. The School Mix Effect: How the Social Class Composition of School Intakes Shapes School Processes and Student Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thrupp, Martin

    The existence of a contextual effect of the social class composition of a school's intake on individual student performance--the school mix effect--has long been debated in qualitative school effectiveness literature. This paper reports on a qualitative study of four New Zealand urban secondary schools of varying social class composition (and…

  12. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Reoner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A surjective bounded linear operator T from a Banach space X to a Banach space Y must be a sufficient statistic for a dominated family of probability measures defined on the Borel sets of X. These results were applied, so that they characterize linear sufficient statistics for families of the exponential type, including as special cases the Wishart and multivariate normal distributions. The latter result was used to establish precisely which procedures for sampling from a normal population had the property that the sample mean was a sufficient statistic.

  13. Effect of elevated selenium intakes on mammary cell proliferation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salbe, A.D.; Albanes, D.; Winick, M.; Taylor, P.R.; Levander, O.A. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Elevated selenium (Se) intakes and calorie restriction (CR) inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate cell proliferation in the mammary tissue gland. Female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, 40% CR, 4 or 6 ppm Se in water as selenate. Control rats and Se rats were fed a control diet ad lib. CR rats were pair-fed 40% less than controls with a diet providing equal nutrients except carbohydrate calories. After 3 weeks, rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and killed 1 hr later. Se at 4 ppm significantly decreased only the number of ducts, whereas 6 ppm Se decreased both the number of ducts as well as the number and percent of labeled cells. CR had no effect on mammary cell proliferation. These results suggest that elevated Se intakes may protect against mammary tumorigenesis by decreasing cell proliferation, a mechanism which may affect the dose-response of the genotoxic chemicals frequently used as initiating agents in animal experiments.

  14. Prolonged oral cyanide effects on feed intake, growth rate and blood parameters in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Avais, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Ashraf, Kamran; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid

    2014-07-01

    Twelve adult rabbits bred locally were divided into two equal groups of 6; experimental and control groups. Rabbits in the experimental group were orally dosed with KCN at 3mg/kg body weight for 40 consecutive days. Members in control group were given placebo (distilled water) for the same period. Animals in both groups were offered feed at 90gm/kg/day while ample drinking water was available ad lib. Feed consumption and body weight of rabbits in both the groups were recorded. Blood samples were also drawn to determine various hematological parameters. Statistical analysis revealed a non-significant difference of total and daily feed intakes in rabbits of experimental and control groups. Whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the experimental group were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared to controls. Likewise a significant decrease in body weight gain of rabbits in experimental group (P<0.05) was observed. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets of rabbits in both the groups. Erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly decreased in treated rabbits. It was concluded that chronic cyanide intake had a deleterious effect on feed efficiency, growth rate and blood components of rabbits.

  15. Negative effects of alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency combination on osseointegration in a rat model.

    PubMed

    de Deco, Camila Porto; da Silva Marchini, Adriana Mathias Pereira; Bárbara, Mary Anne Moreira; de Vasconcellos, Luana Marotta Reis; da Rocha, Rosilene Fernandes; Marchini, Leonardo

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency can both affect bone physiology and have shown to have an adverse effect on dental implant therapy. However, the combination of both factors on osseointegration is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate osseointegration in rats fed with alcohol and presenting induced estrogen deficiency. Ninety-six female rats were divided according to diet and hormonal condition into 6 groups as follows: group Sh-W: sham (simulated ovariectomy) control, food and water ad libitum; group Sh-Et: sham, food and 20% ethanol solution ad libitum; group Sh-Su: sham, food and sucrose solution controlled to ensure an isocaloric diet in relation to Sh-Et; group Ov-W: ovariectomy, food and water ad libitum; group Ov-Et: ovariectomy, food and 20% ethanol solution ad libitum; and group Ov-Su: ovariectomy, food and sucrose solution controlled to ensure an isocaloric diet as Ov-Et. The groups were subdivided according to time of euthanasia: 30 and 45 days after placement of implants. Implant surgery was performed 1 month after ovariectomy or sham. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and evaluated by histomorphometry. Groups Ov-Et and Ov-Su showed the lowest percentage of bone-to-implant contact. The combination of alcohol intake and estrogen deficiency, and the combination of estrogen deficiency and reduced ingestion of food can negatively affect osseointegration in rats.

  16. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  17. The Effect of Theory Based Nutritional Education on Fat Intake, Weight and Blood Lipids

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Aziz; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Heydari, Heshmatolah; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Though Nutrition plays a key role in the control of hypertension, it is often forgotten in Iranian patients’ diet. In fact, dietary behavior can be regarded as unsatisfactory among Iranian patients. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of theory based educational intervention on fat intake, weight, and blood lipids among rural hypertensive patients. Methods This quasi experimental study was conducted on 138 hypertensive patients who had referred to Ardabil rural health centers during 2014. The nutritional education based on DASH and Health Promotion Model (HPM) was treated for six sessions. The pre-test and post-test had intervals of two and six months. Data were analyzed using SPSS-18 and Chi-square, independent-samples t-test, paired-samples t-test and repeated measure ANOVA. Results After treating intervention, weight, dietary fat, LDL_C and Total cholesterol, systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly in the intervention group compared with the control group (p < 0.001). In contrast, HDL_C increased significantly in the intervention group. Conclusion Educational intervention, provided based on Pender’s health promotion model, affecting fat intake, blood lipids, and blood pressure, led to their decrease PMID:28163845

  18. Effects on satiation, satiety and food intake of wholegrain and refined grain pasta.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Ibrugger, Sabine; Bache, Jessica; Thomassen, Mette Torp; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Kristensen, Mette

    2016-12-01

    Wholegrains have received much attention in recent years due to their role in prevention of obesity and its comorbidities. Many studies about energy regulation are focused on the effect between meals (satiety), but the effect within meal (satiation) for wholegrain foods has not been extensively studied. The objective was to investigate the effect of WG pasta (WGP) compared to refined grain pasta (RGP), on ad libitum energy intake (EI) within and at the subsequent meal as well as appetite. Two different ad libitum lunch meals (study A) and two different iso-caloric lunch meals (study B) were administered in sixteen overweight/obese subjects in a crossover design. The test meals consisted of RGP and WGP served with tomato sauce. Study A: the ad libitum lunch meal was consumed then EI registered. Study B: the iso-caloric lunch meal was served, then subjective appetite sensation and breath hydrogen excretion were assessed for 240 min followed by an ad libitum meal where EI was calculated. Overall, WGP did not significantly differ in the effect on ad libitum EI within meal (p = 0.23) in study A. In study B, WGP resulted in an increased sensation of satiety (p < 0.001) and lower ratings of hunger (p < 0.001) without increased in breath hydrogen excretion (p = 0.11). Again, no overall effect on EI at the subsequent meal was seen (p = 0.12). In conclusion, WGP increased satiety, diminished hunger without modifying energy intake at the subsequent meals.

  19. A low effective dose of interleukin-7 is sufficient to maintain cord blood T cells alive without potentiating allo-immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Laurent; Hivert, Bénédicte; Trauet, Jacques; Deberranger, Eva; Dessaint, Jean-Paul; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Labalette, Myriam

    2015-04-01

    Slow reconstitution of T cell immunity remains a critical issue after umbilical cord blood (CB) transplantation. Although this may be a consequence of the low cell dose, it may also reflect the propensity of naïve T cells, which predominate in CB, to undergo apoptotic cell death. Exogenous interleukin 7 (IL-7) can prevent apoptosis of naïve T cells, but at high concentrations, IL-7 may also expand alloreactive T cells, thereby aggravating the risk of graft-versus-host disease. We evaluated the survival of CB T cells from 34 healthy full-term pregnancies, and we found wide interdonor variation, from 17.4% to 79.7%, of CB T cells that were still alive after being rested for 4 days in culture medium without cytokine supplementation. The viability of CB T cells was negatively correlated to infant birth weight (Spearman's ρ = .376; P = .031) and positively correlated to venous CB pH (ρ = .397; P = .027); both associations were confirmed by multivariate analysis (P = .023 and P = .005, respectively). A low supplemental concentration (100 pg/mL) of recombinant human IL-7 was sufficient to maintain the viability of cryopreserved/thawed CB T cells, with most (>80%) cells remaining in a quiescent state and without significant changes in their CD4/CD8 ratio and the proportion of CD4(+) CD31(+) PTK7(+) recent thymic emigrants. IL-7 at 100 pg/mL did not lead to any significant enhancement of the alloreactive response of CB T cells, as evaluated by proliferation rates (thymidine incorporation and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester dilution) and interferon-gamma production (ELISPOT). This effective concentration of IL-7 is far lower than that obtained in vivo after pharmacological administration of the cytokine. This study suggests that administration of lower doses of recombinant human IL-7 than used in previous clinical trials may be sufficient to sustain the viability of infused CB T cells and, thus, help to accelerate naïve T cell reconstitution without

  20. Effects of intraperitoneally administered L-histidine on food intake, taste, and visceral sensation in rats.

    PubMed

    Okusha, Yuka; Hirai, Yoshiyuki; Maezawa, Hitoshi; Hisadome, Kazunari; Inoue, Nobuo; Yamazaki, Yutaka; Funahashi, Makoto

    2016-08-17

    To evaluate relative factors for anorectic effects of L-histidine, we performed behavioral experiments for measuring food and fluid intake, conditioned taste aversion (CTA), taste disturbance, and c-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells before and after i.p. injection with L-histidine in rats. Animals were injected with saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) for a control group, and saline (9 ml/kg, i.p.) containing L-histidine (0.75, 1.5, 2.0 g/kg) for a L-histidine group. Injection of L-histidine decreased the average value of food intake, and statistically significant anorectic effects were found in animals injected with 1.5 or 2.0 g/kg L-histidine but not with 0.75 g/kg L-histidine. Taste abnormalities were not detected in any of the groups. Animals injected with 2.0 g/kg L-histidine were revealed to present with nausea by the measurement of CTA. In this group, a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir cells was detected both in the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In the 0.75 g/kg L-histidine group, a significant increase in the number of Fos-ir cells was detected only in the NTS. When the ventral gastric branch vagotomy was performed, recovery from anorexia became faster than the sham-operated group, however, vagotomized rats injected with 2.0 g/kg L-histidine still acquired CTA. These data indicate that acute anorectic effects induced by highly concentrated L-histidine are partly caused by induction of nausea and/or visceral discomfort accompanied by neuronal activities in the NTS and the area postrema. We suggest that acute and potent effects of L-histidine on food intake require substantial amount of L-histidine in the diet.

  1. Effects of Nitrate Intake on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jeddi, Sajad; Khalifi, Saeedeh; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Bageripour, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. Objective We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. Method Rats were divided into four groups (n=7 in each group): control, control+nitrate, diabetes, and diabetes+nitrate. Type 2 diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Nitrate (sodium nitrate) was added to drinking water (100 mg/L) for 2 months. The hearts were perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 2 months and assessed before (baseline) and after myocardial IR for the following parameters: left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), minimum and maximum rates of pressure change in the left ventricle (±dP/dt), endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and NO metabolites (NOx). Results Recovery of LVDP and ±dP/dt was lower in diabetic rats versus controls, but almost normalized after nitrate intake. Diabetic rats had lower eNOS and higher iNOS expression both at baseline and after IR, and dietary nitrate restored these parameters to normal values after IR. Compared with controls, heart NOx level was lower in diabetic rats at baseline but was higher after IR. Diabetic rats had higher MDA levels both at baseline and after IR, which along with heart NOx levels decreased following nitrate intake. Conclusion Dietary nitrate in diabetic rats provides cardioprotection against IR injury by regulating eNOS and iNOS expression and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in the heart. PMID:27849257

  2. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-04

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  3. Effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Osborne, V R; Odongo, N E; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C; McBride, B W

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing glycerol and soybean oil in drinking water on feed and water intake, calculated energy balance, and production performance of periparturient dairy cows. Ninety multiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) no nutrients supplemented in the drinking water (control); 2) 20 g/L of glycerin supplemented in the drinking water (glycerol); and 3) 10 g/L of soybean oil supplemented in the drinking water (SBO). The trial lasted from 7 d prepartum to 7 d postpartum. Cows were offered a close-up and milking cow TMR for ad libitum intake, pre- and postpartum, respectively. The dry matter intake of cows supplemented with glycerol and SBO was lower than for the control cows throughout the experimental period but not different from each other. Water intake for the control cows was greater than the average for the glycerol and SBO cows prepartum, and greater than for SBO cows but similar to that of glycerol cows postpartum. Glycerol cows consumed more water than SBO cows. There were no differences in energy intake and energy balance of the cows pre- and postpartum. Serum triacylglycerol concentration for glycerol cows was lower than for the control and SBO cows prepartum and was lower than for the SBO cows postpartum. There were no differences in the serum nonesterified fatty acids and glucose concentrations throughout the experiment. There were no differences in the serum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at parturition, but serum BHBA concentration of the glycerol cows was greater than for control and SBO cows during the prepartum period. However, during the postpartum period, serum BHBA concentrations of the control cows were greater than for glycerol and SBO cows. There were no differences in calf birth weights or milk yield and composition. Although the glucogenic property of glycerol supplemented in the drinking water at 20 g/L may not have been sufficient to

  4. Manipulations of attention during eating and their effects on later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Manipulation of attention during eating has been reported to affect later consumption via changes in meal memory. The aim of the present studies was to examine the robustness of these effects and investigate moderating factors. Across three studies, attention to eating was manipulated via distraction (via a computer game or TV watching) or focusing of attention to eating, and effects on subsequent snack consumption and meal memory were assessed. The participants were predominantly lean, young women students and the designs were between-subjects. Distraction increased later snack intake and this effect was larger when participants were more motivated to engage with the distracter and were offset when the distractor included food-related cues. Attention to eating reduced later snacking and this effect was larger when participants imagined eating from their own perspective than when they imagined eating from a third person perspective. Meal memory was impaired after distraction but focusing on eating did not affect later meal memory, possibly explained by ceiling effects for the memory measure. The pattern of results suggests that attention manipulations during eating have robust effects on later eating and the effect sizes are medium to large. The data are consistent with previous reports and add to the literature by suggesting that type of attention manipulation is important in determining effects on later eating. The results further suggest that attentive eating may be a useful target in interventions to help with appetite control.

  5. Effectiveness and Acceptability of Nutrient Solutions in Enhancing Fluid Intake in the Heat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-18

    Body weight changes from arrival at site (Day 0 PM) to the last afternoon (Day 8 PM) 95 31 Potassium intake (mg/day) 97...deployment 31 2 Percent change in body weight during deployment 33 3 Daily (Mean+SE) fluid intake of soldiers working in the heat for 8 days...means for fluid intake (Table 17). The percent change in body weight (Figure 21) normalizes body weight changes to the pre-deployment

  6. Chronic intake of honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup exert equivalent effects on glucose and insulin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of nutritive sweeteners is high with ‘added sugars’ intake from the WWEIA (2009-2010) survey in all individuals = 2 yr at 76.2 g or 295 kcal daily. Controversy continues regarding the metabolic effects of the source of sweetener. Our goal was to evaluate the glycemic and insulin effect o...

  7. Effect of hay steaming on forage nutritive values and dry matter intake by horses.

    PubMed

    Earing, J E; Hathaway, M R; Sheaffer, C C; Hetchler, B P; Jacobson, L D; Paulson, J C; Martinson, K L

    2013-12-01

    Management strategies for horses with respiratory disease include soaking hay before feeding. Hay steaming is an alternative to this practice; however, little is known about its impact on forage nutritive values or intake. The objective was to determine the effect of steaming on forage nutritive value and intake by horses. Two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)-orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) mixed hays were evaluated: a low moldy (NM) and moderately moldy (MM) hay. Six mature horses were used in a 10 d crossover design. Three horses were assigned to each hay type and treatments were switched on d 6. Each day, one bale of each hay was sampled (pre- and poststeaming) and steamed for 90 min using a commercial hay steamer. Two flakes of steamed or unsteamed NM or MM hay were weighed and offered simultaneously to each horse in individual hay nets. Horses were allowed access to hay for 2 h, orts were collected, and 2 h DMI was calculated. Six additional bales of NM and MM were used to evaluate the effect of steaming on total suspended particulate (TSP). Flakes of unsteamed or steamed hay were agitated in an electric cement mixer, and TSP were recorded every min for 30 min using a tapered element oscillating microbalance sampler. Paired t tests and PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) were used to compare steamed and unsteamed hay nutritive values, mold concentration, TSP, and 2 h DMI. Steaming increased hay moisture and therefore reduced DM to 77 and 81% for NM and MM, respectively (P < 0.001). In NM and MM hay, steaming reduced P content by 16 and 17%, respectively (P ≤ 0.007). Steaming reduced water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) by 13% (P = 0.001) and 27% (P = 0.003), respectively, for MM but had no effect on NM (P > 0.05). Steaming reduced mold concentrations in both hays by ≥ 91% (P < 0.001). Total suspended particulate of MM hay was reduced by 55% (P = 0.043), but TSP in NM hay was not affected by steaming (P = 0

  8. Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian V; Ren, Pei-Gen; Avsian-Kretchmer, Orna; Luo, Ching-Wei; Rauch, Rami; Klein, Cynthia; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2005-11-11

    Ghrelin, a circulating appetite-inducing hormone, is derived from a prohormone by posttranslational processing. On the basis of the bioinformatic prediction that another peptide also derived from proghrelin exists, we isolated a hormone from rat stomach and named it obestatin-a contraction of obese, from the Latin "obedere," meaning to devour, and "statin," denoting suppression. Contrary to the appetite-stimulating effects of ghrelin, treatment of rats with obestatin suppressed food intake, inhibited jejunal contraction, and decreased body-weight gain. Obestatin bound to the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR39. Thus, two peptide hormones with opposing action in weight regulation are derived from the same ghrelin gene. After differential modification, these hormones activate distinct receptors.

  9. The effect of supplementing maize stover with cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata) haulms on the intake and growth performance of Ethiopian sheep.

    PubMed

    Koralagama, K D N; Mould, F L; Fernandez-Rivera, S; Hanson, J

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of supplementing maize stover (MS) with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) haulms or commercial concentrate (CC) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, live weight gain and carcass yield of male Ethiopian Highland sheep. Two cowpea genotypes, 12688 (forage) and IT96D-774 (dual-purpose), were used. A randomised block design was applied with groups of eight sheep, blocked by weight, allocated to one of six treatments; MS ad libitum either unsupplemented or supplemented daily with 150 or 300 g dry matter (DM) of either cowpea or CC. MS contained more neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and lignin than either cowpeas or CC. Crude protein (CP) content of the forage-type cowpeas was higher than either dual-purpose or CC, while MS had the lowest CP content. Relative to the negative control group, cowpea at either level significantly (P < 0.01) increased both MS intake and total NDF and lignin. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.01) increased nitrogen (N) intakes relative to the negative control, with N intake for CC and dual-purpose cowpea (high level) being similar to the intakes for cowpeas at 150 g. N intake with the forage-type cowpea offered at higher levels was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than the other groups. No significant differences (P > 0.01) in MS intake were identified between cowpeas at either level or CC and, although intake level of CC increased, it did not differ significantly from the negative control group. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.01) improved average daily gain, with the negative control group losing weight over the experimental period, and increased final live weight, carcass cold weight and dressing percentage. Supplementation significantly improved the apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter and NDF, with no significant difference found between cowpeas at either level. N retention was negative for sheep offered only MS, but positive with all supplements, with cowpeas improving N

  10. Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of sucrose on appetite and mood remain unclear. Normal weight subjects compensate for sucrose added blind to the diet (Reid et al., 2007). Overweight subjects, however, may differ. In a single-blind, between-subjects design, soft drinks (4x25cl per day; 1800kJ sucrose sweetened versus 67kJ aspartame sweetened) were added to the diet of overweight women (n=53, BMI 25-30, age 20-55) for 4 weeks. A 7-day food diary gave measures of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients. Mood and hunger were measured by ten single Likert scales rated daily at 11.00, 14.00, 16.00, and 20.00. Activity levels were measured by diary and pedometer. Baseline energy intake did not differ between groups. During the first week of the intervention energy intake increased slightly in the sucrose group, but not in the aspartame group, then decreased again, so by the final week intake again did not differ from the aspartame group. Compensation was not large enough to produce significant changes in the composition of the voluntary diet. There were no effects on hunger or mood. It is concluded that overweight women do not respond adversely to sucrose added blind to the diet, but compensate for it by reducing voluntary energy intake. Alternative explanations for the correlation between sugary soft drink intake and weight gain are discussed.

  11. Effectiveness of a theory-driven nutritional education program in improving calcium intake among older Mauritian adults.

    PubMed

    Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P < 0.001) at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P < 0.05) after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.

  12. Effect of sucrose and safflower oil preloads on short term appetite and food intake of young men.

    PubMed

    Woodend, D M; Anderson, G H

    2001-12-01

    The effects of carbohydrate and fat on satiety have been examined primarily through meal composition studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of pure sucrose and safflower oil, isovolumetric beverage preloads, on appetite (measured every 15 minutes by visual analogue scales) and food intake 60 minutes later. Young men consumed 0, 418, 836 and 1254 kJ of sucrose in the first two experiments and these same doses of safflower oil in the third. Finally, the largest doses of sucrose and safflower oil were compared. Sucrose, but not safflower oil, suppressed average appetite compared with control. In experiment 2, food intake was reduced (p<0.05) by 518 kJ after the 418 and 836 kJ preloads and by 1129 kJ after the 1254 kJ sucrose preload. Only the 1254 kJ dose of safflower oil significantly suppressed food intake by 480 kJ in the third experiment. When the 1254 kJ doses were compared directly, sucrose suppressed food intake by 653 kJ compared with control where as safflower oil did not. It is concluded that, in the short-term, sucrose produces a dose dependent reduction in appetite and food intake that is greater than that produced by safflower oil.

  13. Effectiveness of a Theory-Driven Nutritional Education Program in Improving Calcium Intake among Older Mauritian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P < 0.001) at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P < 0.05) after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults. PMID:24453901

  14. Weight loss effects from vegetable intake: a 12-month randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tapsell, L C; Batterham, M J; Thorne, R L; O'Shea, J E; Grafenauer, S J; Probst, Y C

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Direct evidence for the effects of vegetable intake on weight loss is qualified. The study aimed to assess the effect of higher vegetable consumption on weight loss. Subjects/Methods: A single blind parallel controlled trial was conducted with 120 overweight adults (mean body mass index=29.98 kg/m2) randomised to two energy deficit healthy diet advice groups differing only by doubling the serving (portion) sizes of vegetables in the comparator group. Data were analysed as intention-to-treat using a linear mixed model. Spearmans rho bivariate was used to explore relationships between percentage energy from vegetables and weight loss. Results: After 12 months, the study sample lost 6.5±5.2 kg (P<0.001 time) with no difference between groups (P>0.05 interaction). Both groups increased vegetable intake and lost weight in the first 3 months, and the change in weight was significantly correlated with higher proportions of energy consumed as vegetables (rho=–0.217, P=0.024). Fasting glucose, insulin and triglyceride levels decreased (P<0.001 time) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels increased (P<0.001 time), with no difference between groups. Weight loss was sustained for 12 months by both groups, but the comparator group reported greater hunger satisfaction (P=0.005). Conclusions: Advice to consume a healthy low-energy diet leads to sustained weight loss, with reductions in cardiovascular disease risk factors regardless of an emphasis on more vegetables. In the short term, consuming a higher proportion of the dietary energy as vegetables may support a greater weight loss and the dietary pattern appears sustainable. PMID:24667750

  15. Effect of prepartum dietary calcium on intake and serum and urinary mineral concentrations of cows.

    PubMed

    Chan, P S; West, J W; Bernard, J K

    2006-02-01

    Nine multiparous and 12 primiparous cows were fed diets containing an anionic salt supplement and moderate Ca (0.99%) or high Ca (1.50%) concentrations for 21 d prepartum to determine the effects of dietary Ca concentration on serum and urine electrolytes and on postpartum intake and milk yield. Blood samples were collected during 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum. Dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) for prepartum diets was approximately -6 mEq/100 g of dry matter (Na + K - Cl - S). Immediately postpartum, cows were fed diets with positive DCAD with greater than 1.00% Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentrations 21 to 1 d prepartum, 0 to 2 d postpartum, and 3 to 21 d postpartum were 9.62, 8.41, and 9.38 mg/dL. There were no treatment effects on serum Ca concentration. Mean serum Ca concentration was higher for primiparous than multiparous cows (9.34 vs. 8.93 mg/dL) for the trial and at calving (8.77 vs. 8.13 mg/dL). Mean serum HCO(3)(-) and urinary pH, respectively, were 20.32 mEq/L and 5.67 prepartum, 25.82 mEq/L and 7.62 at calving, and 26.08 mEq/L and 8.25 postpartum. No differences due to treatment were observed for serum and urinary concentrations of HCO(3)(-), pH, Mg, Na, K, and Cl. Milk yield was similar for 0.99 and 1.50% Ca treatments (22.8 and 20.7 kg/d). Diets containing 0.99 or 1.5% Ca maintained serum Ca at adequate levels around parturition and resulted in similar dry matter intake and postpartum milk yield.

  16. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake.

    PubMed

    Anson, R Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K; Lane, Mark A; Mattson, Mark P

    2003-05-13

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake.

  17. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake.

  18. The effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients.

  19. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  20. Effects of beer, wine, and liquor intakes on bone mineral density in older men and women123

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Katherine L; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Powell, Jonathan J; Qiao, Ning; Hannan, Marian T; Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Cupples, L Adrienne; Kiel, Douglas P

    2009-01-01

    Background: Moderate intake of alcohol has been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. However, different classes of alcoholic beverages have not been investigated. Objective: Our aim was to determine the association between intake of total alcohol or individual alcoholic beverages and bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Adjusting for potential confounding factors, we examined alcohol intakes and BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine in 1182 men and in 1289 postmenopausal and 248 premenopausal women in the population-based Framingham Offspring cohort (age: 29–86 y). Results: Men were predominantly beer drinkers, and women were predominantly wine drinkers. Compared with nondrinkers, hip BMD was greater (3.4–4.5%) in men consuming 1–2 drinks/d of total alcohol or beer, whereas hip and spine BMD were significantly greater (5.0–8.3%) in postmenopausal women consuming >2 drinks/d of total alcohol or wine. Intake of >2 drinks/d of liquor in men was associated with significantly lower (3.0–5.2%) hip and spine BMD than was intake of 1–2 drinks/d of liquor in men. After adjustment for silicon intake, all intergroup differences for beer were no longer significant; differences for other alcohol sources remained significant. Power was low for premenopausal women, and the associations were not significant. Conclusions: Moderate consumption of alcohol may be beneficial to bone in men and postmenopausal women. However, in men, high liquor intakes (>2 drinks/d) were associated with significantly lower BMD. The tendency toward stronger associations between BMD and beer or wine, relative to liquor, suggests that constituents other than ethanol may contribute to bone health. Silicon appears to mediate the association of beer, but not that of wine or liquor, with BMD. Other components need further investigation. PMID:19244365

  1. Effect of supplements on growth and forage intake by stocker steers grazing wheat pasture.

    PubMed

    Lippke, H; Forbes, T D; Ellis, W C

    2000-06-01

    This experiment was conducted with stocker steers to determine the effects of supplementary fiber and grain on ruminal acid concentrations and OM intake following abrupt dietary change to lush, primary-growth wheat (Triticum aestivum) pasture and to measure the effects of those supplements on weight gain at different levels of herbage mass (HM). Each of four irrigated wheat pastures (2.4, 3.6, 4.9, and 6.1 ha) was stocked with nine Angus crossbred steers (mean = 189 kg). In each pasture, three steers were individually fed a daily supplement of 11.3 g of cottonseed hulls (CSH)/kg BW(.75), three steers were fed a supplement mixture of 11.3 g CSH/kg BW(.75) and 8.5 g corn grain/kg BW(.75), and three steers remained as controls. Body weight and HM changes were measured at 28-d intervals throughout the experiment. Ruminal samples for VFA determination were collected twice during the 1st wk on pasture. Organic matter intake calculations were based on fecal output and OM digestibility estimates made during the 2nd wk on pasture. Fecal outputs were estimated from nonlinear least squares analyses using a two-compartment rumen model of excretion patterns of Yb following a single oral dose. Digestibility of OM was estimated using indigestible NDF in feed and feces as an internal marker. Dietary supplements had no detectable effect on ruminal VFA characteristics. The magnitude of changes in ruminal acetate:propionate ratios between d 3 and 7 on pasture was significantly and negatively related to ADG during the first 28-d growth measurement period. Body condition scores taken on d 0 also had a significant, negative relationship to ADG. Average fecal output was greater for steers fed supplements (36 g/kg BW(.75)) than for control steers (30 g/kg BW(.75)) (P < .03). The supplements also significantly reduced estimates of total diet OM digestibility. However, supplements had no measurable effect on BW changes. Herbage mass up to 1,000 kg/ha had a significant and positive effect on

  2. Higher Intakes of Antioxidants and Unsaturated Fatty Acid Reduce the Cardiac Autonomic Effects of Particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher intakes of antioxidants (vitamins C and E, carotene) found in foods such as cruciferous vegetables, and unsaturated fatty acids, including omega-3 from fish and monounsaturated fats from nuts and seeds, may prevent cardiovascular disease. We examined whether higher intake of such antioxidants...

  3. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  4. Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Short-Term Food Intake and Weight Loss12

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. PMID:25979503

  5. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O; Hesselink, M K; Koninckx, E; Rose, A J; Schrauwen, P; Bonen, A; Richter, E A; Hespel, P

    2008-04-01

    Skeletal muscle gene response to exercise depends on nutritional status during and after exercise, but it is unknown whether muscle adaptations to endurance training are affected by nutritional status during training sessions. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of an endurance training program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were similarly increased between F and CHO. Fatty acid binding protein (FABPm) content increased significantly in F (P = 0.007). Intramyocellular triglyceride content (IMCL) remained unchanged in both groups. After training, pre-exercise glycogen content was higher in CHO (545 +/- 19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.02), but not in F (434 +/- 32 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.23). For a given initial glycogen content, F blunted exercise-induced glycogen breakdown when compared with CHO (P = 0.04). Neither IMCL breakdown (P = 0.23) nor fat oxidation rates during exercise were altered by training. Thus short-term training elicits similar adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed.

  6. Effect of prepartum anionic supplementation on periparturient feed intake, health, and milk production.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, M A; Block, E; French, P D

    2010-11-01

    Our objectives were to determine if dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) and source of anions influence periparturient feed intake and milk production of dairy cattle during the transition period. Diets differed in DCAD (cationic or anionic) and anionic supplement. The 4 diets used prepartum were (1) control [DCAD +20 mEq/100g of dry matter (DM)], (2) Bio-Chlor (DCAD -12 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc., Princeton, NJ), (3) Fermenten (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM; Church & Dwight Co. Inc.), and (4) salts (DCAD -10 mEq/100g of DM). Urine pH was lower for cows that consumed an anionic diet prepartum compared with control. Prepartum diet had no effect on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) of multiparous or primiparous cows. Postpartum DMI and milk yield for multiparous cows fed anionic diets prepartum were greater compared with those fed the control diet. Postpartum DMI and milk yield of primiparous cows were similar for prepartum diets. Feeding prepartum anionic diets did not affect plasma Ca at or near calving. However, cows fed anionic diets began their decline in plasma Ca later than control cows. Postpartum β-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acids were lower for primiparous cows fed prepartum anionic diets compared with those fed the control diet. Prepartum and postpartum plasma glucose concentrations were not affected by prepartum diet for all cows. Liver triglyceride differed for parity by day. Parities were similar at 21 d prepartum, but at 0 d and 21 d postpartum, levels were greater for multiparous cows. Results indicate that decreasing the DCAD of the diet during the prepartum period can increase postpartum DMI and milk production of multiparous cows without negatively affecting performance of primiparous cows.

  7. GLOBOX: A spatially differentiated global fate, intake and effect model for toxicity assessment in LCA.

    PubMed

    Wegener Sleeswijk, Anneke; Heijungs, Reinout

    2010-06-15

    GLOBOX is a model for the calculation of spatially differentiated LCA toxicity characterisation factors on a global scale. It can also be used for human and environmental risk assessment. The GLOBOX model contains equations for the calculation of fate, intake and effect factors, and equations for the calculation of LCA characterisation factors for human toxicity and ecotoxicity. The model is differentiated on the level of 239 countries/territories and 50 seas/oceans. Each region has its own set of homogeneous compartments, and the regions are interconnected by atmospheric and aquatic flows. Multimedia transport and degradation calculations are largely based on the EUSES 2.0 multimedia model, and are supplemented by specific equations to account for the advective air and water transport between different countries and/or seas. Metal-specific equations are added to account for speciation in fresh and marine surface water. Distribution parameters for multimedia transport equations are differentiated per country or sea with respect to geographic features, hydrology, and climate. The model has been tested with nitrobenzene as a test chemical, for emissions to all countries in the world. Spatially differentiated characterisation factors turn out to show wide ranges of variation between countries, especially for releases to inland water and soil compartments. Geographic position, distribution of lakes and rivers and variations in environmental temperature and rain rate are decisive parameters for a number of different characterisation factors. Population density and dietary intake play central roles in the variation of characterisation factors for human toxicity. Among the countries that show substantial deviations from average values of the characterisation factors are not only small and remote islands, but also countries with a significant economic production rate, as indicated by their GDPs. It is concluded that spatial differentiation between countries is an important

  8. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated.

  9. Effects of Parental Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake on Offspring Microbiome and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Myles, Ian A.; Datta, Sandip K.

    2014-01-01

    The “Western diet” is characterized by increased intake of saturated and omega-6 (n−6) fatty acids with a relative reduction in omega-3 (n−3) consumption. These fatty acids can directly and indirectly modulate the gut microbiome, resulting in altered host immunity. Omega-3 fatty acids can also directly modulate immunity through alterations in the phospholipid membranes of immune cells, inhibition of n−6 induced inflammation, down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, and by serving as pre-cursors to anti-inflammatory lipid mediators such as resolvins and protectins. We have previously shown that consumption by breeder mice of diets high in saturated and n−6 fatty acids have inflammatory and immune-modulating effects on offspring that are at least partially driven by vertical transmission of altered gut microbiota. To determine if parental diets high in n−3 fatty acids could also affect offspring microbiome and immunity, we fed breeding mice an n−3-rich diet with 40% calories from fat and measured immune outcomes in their offspring. We found offspring from mice fed diets high in n−3 had altered gut microbiomes and modestly enhanced anti-inflammatory IL-10 from both colonic and splenic tissue. Omega-3 pups were protected during peanut oral allergy challenge with small but measurable alterations in peanut-related serologies. However, n−3 pups displayed a tendency toward worsened responses during E. coli sepsis and had significantly worse outcomes during Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. Our results indicate excess parental n−3 fatty acid intake alters microbiome and immune response in offspring. PMID:24489864

  10. A systematic review of the effect of oral glucocorticoids on energy intake, appetite, and body weight in humans.

    PubMed

    Berthon, Bronwyn S; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Wood, Lisa G

    2014-03-01

    Obesity is a serious risk factor for chronic disease, and commonly prescribed oral glucocorticoids (OCS) may be contributing to the prevalence of obesity. The objective of this review was to assess the impact of OCS on obesity in humans through effects on body weight (BW), energy intake, appetite, and body composition. An electronic search of English language peer-reviewed studies from 1973 up to March 2012 was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. Original studies that addressed the effects of OCS on appetite, energy intake, BW, or body composition in adults were considered eligible. Data from 21 studies with objectively measured outcomes were extracted and assessed for quality using standardized tools. The publication year varied from 1986 to 2013, and the sample size, from 6 to 189. Energy intake was measured in 6 studies; BW, in 19 studies; energy expenditure, in 3 studies; body composition, in 6 studies; and appetite was evaluated in 3 studies. Short-term oral glucocorticoid therapy may result in small increases in energy intake but does not appear to result in increased BW, possibly due to an increase in energy expenditure. Long-term therapy may result in clinically significant weight gain. Within-subject variation due to metabolism and physical activity levels confounds the relationship. A dose-response relationship of oral glucocorticoid therapy on energy intake, appetite, BW, or body composition was not found. Additional well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials that use standardized doses of OCS and assess the effects on appetite, energy intake, BW, and composition are strongly justified to confirm the findings of this review.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of dietary salt intake in aged healthy cats: a 2-year prospective randomized, blinded, and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chetboul, Valérie; Reynolds, Brice Stéphane; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Nguyen, Patrick; Concordet, Didier; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Testault, Isabelle; Elliott, Jonathan; Abadie, Jérôme; Biourge, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé Pierre

    2014-01-01

    High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1 ± 2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some

  12. Effects of methysergide and loratadine on food intake, mood, and performance of humans living in a residential laboratory.

    PubMed

    Comer, S D; Haney, M; Ward, A S; Fischman, M W; Foltin, R W

    1998-05-01

    The effects of loratadine, a peripherally acting histamine (H1) antagonist, and methysergide, a serotonin (5-HT) antagonist, were evaluated in seven normal-weight, male research volunteers, participating in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, 17-day residential study. Participants received oral loratadine (10 or 20 mg), methysergide (4 or 8 mg), or placebo at 1000 and 1700 hours daily. Active drug was administered on Days 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, 15, and 16; placebo was administered on all other days. Drug and dose order were counterbalanced across participants. Food intake, performance, and subjective ratings were measured repeatedly throughout the day. Loratadine had no effect on food intake, performance, or subjective ratings. In contrast, total caloric intake significantly decreased from approximately 3500 kcal during placebo administration to 3065 kcal on the first but not the second day of methysergide administration. Consumption of carbohydrate (p < 0.055), protein, and fat decreased on the first day of methysergide administration. This decrease in food intake was due to a decrease in meal size; the number of meals consumed was not affected. The proportion of calories derived from carbohydrates significantly increased on the first day of methysergide administration. Methysergide also significantly impaired performance of a psychomotor task on the first day of high-dose administration and increased ratings of several subjective measures, including "Vomiting," "Stomach Pain," and "Miserable." These results suggest that the anorectic effect occurred as a result of the somatic and mood changes produced by methysergide. In addition, the inability of loratadine to affect food intake indicates that antagonism of central histamine receptors may be responsible for the increases in food intake produced by other antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine).

  13. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  14. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  15. Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Mathern, Jocelyn R; Raatz, Susan K; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2009-11-01

    Eighteen healthy obese subjects participated in a single blind, randomized, crossover study of three test breakfasts, containing 0 g (control), 4 g or 8 g of isolated fenugreek fiber. Subjects recorded ratings of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption using visual analog scales (VAS) every 30 min for 3.5 h. Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses were measured. Energy intake from an ad libitum lunch buffet and for the remainder of the day was assessed. The 8 g dose of fenugreek fiber significantly increased mean ratings of satiety and fullness, and reduced ratings of hunger and prospective food consumption (P < 0.05). Palatability was significantly reduced with increasing doses of fenugreek fiber (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for area under the curve (AUC) for blood glucose among treatments. An increase in insulin AUC was found with 8 g fenugreek fiber. Energy intake at an ad libitum lunch buffet was significantly lower for 8 g than 4 g fenugreek fiber, but not significantly different from control, although there was a trend towards a lower intake (p = 0.11). No differences were observed for energy intake for the remainder of the day. Fenugreek fiber (8 g) significantly increased satiety and reduced energy intake at lunch, suggesting it may have short-term beneficial effects in obese subjects. Satiety results were not related to postprandial blood glucose.

  16. Working toward Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan

    1985-01-01

    Upon arrival in the United States, the Southeast Asian "Boat People" faced a multitude of problems that would seem to have hindered their achieving economic self-sufficiency. Nonetheless, by the time of a 1982 research study which interviewed nearly 1,400 refugee households, 25 percent of all the households in the sample had achieved…

  17. The effect dietary Cu intake on the development of hypertension in the Dahl-S rat

    SciTech Connect

    Garrow, T.; Metzler, G.; Clegg, M.S.; Keen, C.L. )

    1989-02-09

    It has been shown that hypertense Dahl-S rats are characterized by abnormal Cu metabolism. To test the idea that variable dietary Cu intake may influence the development of hypertension in these rats, Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed ad libitum one of six diets in a 2x3 design. Diets contained 0.4% Na (normotensive; NT) or 8.0% Na (hypertense; HT), and 2, 12 or 50 ug Cu/g diet. Initial body weights and mean systolic blood pressures did not differ among groups. Rats were killed when mean systolic blood pressure was 190 mm Hg. Dietary Cu had no effect on development of hypertension among the high Na groups. Dietary Cu had no effect on final body weights; however, HT rats weighed less than NT rats and had cardio- and splenomegaly and low hematocrits. The rats fed the low Cu diets had lower levels of liver, heart and plasma Cu, and ceruloplasmin oxidase (CP) activity than the other groups. The HT groups had significant increase in plasma Cu and CP activity compared to their NT counterparts. The increase in plasma CP activity was related to the increase in blood pressure. Independent of dietary Cu, the HT groups also had significant reduction in plasma Zn and increases in hepatic metallothionein and plasma cholesterol compared to the NT groups. These results support the idea that hypertension has a marked effect on Cu metabolism. The influence of this effect on vascular pathology needs to be ascertained.

  18. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  19. Effects of Excess Energy Intake on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiuqing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy intake correlates with the development of metabolic disorders. However, different energy-dense foods have different effects on metabolism. To compare the effects of a high-fat diet, a high-fructose diet and a combination high-fat/high-fructose diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, male C57BL/6 mice were fed with one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow; standard diet and access to fructose water; a high fat diet; and a high fat diet with fructose water. After 3 months of feeding, the high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups showed significantly increased body weights, accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; however, the high-fructose group was not different from the control group. All three energy-dense groups showed significantly higher visceral fat weights, total cholesterol concentrations, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with the control group. Assays of basal metabolism showed that the respiratory quotient of the high-fat, the high-fructose, and the high-fat/high-fructose groups decreased compared with the control group. The present study confirmed the deleterious effect of high energy diets on body weight and metabolism, but suggested that the energy efficiency of the high-fructose diet was much lower than that of the high-fat diet. In addition, fructose supplementation did not worsen the detrimental effects of high-fat feeding alone on metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26745179

  20. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake

    PubMed Central

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; Dileone, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake. PMID:24441680

  1. The effects of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular administration of the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 35348 on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sunit M; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2004-10-25

    In order to test the hypothesis that endogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting at central GABAB receptors, plays a physiological role in the control of feeding behaviour, it was reasoned that blocking these receptors with a centrally active GABAB receptor antagonist should reduce food intake in hungry rats. In the present study, experiments were carried out to test this possibility using the GABAB receptor antagonist 3-aminopropyl-diethoxy-methyl-phosphinic acid (CGP 35348), which is water-soluble and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier from the systemic circulation. CGP 35348 (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) had no effect on food intake in 22-h fasted rats, but a higher dose (i.e. 500 mg/kg., i.p.) significantly reduced cumulative food consumption. These findings are consistent with previous observations that high systemic doses of CGP 35348 are needed to block central GABAB receptors. However, to eliminate the possibility that the 500 mg/kg dose of CGP 35348 decreased food intake by a peripheral, rather than a central mode of action, further experiments were undertaken where the drug was given directly into the brain by the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) route. I.c.v. administration of CGP 35348 (5 and 10 microg) significantly decreased cumulative food intake food intake in rats that had been fasted for 22 h. By contrast, i.c.v. administration of CGP 35348 (10 microg) had no effect on water intake in 16-h water-deprived rats. The results indicate that CGP 35348 reduces food consumption in hungry rats by blocking central GABAB receptors in a behaviourally specific manner. These findings suggest that endogenous GABA acting at central GABAB receptors plays a physiological role in the regulation of feeding behaviour.

  2. The effect of nutrient intake on bone mineral status in young adults: the Northern Ireland young hearts project.

    PubMed

    Neville, C E; Robson, P J; Murray, L J; Strain, J J; Twisk, J; Gallagher, A M; McGuinness, M; Cran, G W; Ralston, S H; Boreham, C A G

    2002-02-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life may reduce osteoporosis risk in later life. Such optimization may be partly dependent upon diet. In the present study, nutrient intakes and selected lifestyle parameters were assessed in adolescent subjects (238 males, 205 females; aged 15 y) and again, in the same subjects, on one occasion in young adulthood (aged between 20 and 25 y). The extent of the relationships between these parameters and bone mineral density (BMD), dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), lumbar spine (L2-L4), and femoral neck measured concurrently with diet in young adulthood only, was assessed. Adjusted linear regression models were constructed. Variables included a measure of pubertal status (at age 15 y), age (at young adulthood), height, weight, physical activity, smoking, and mean daily intakes of energy, calcium, protein, vitamin D, phosphorus, total fat, and alcohol. In both sexes, body weight at adolescence and young adulthood was the only factor consistently positively associated with BMD at both measurement sites. Effects of nutrient intake on BMD were inconsistent. Vitamin D and calcium intakes reported by female adolescents showed significant positive relationships with BMD measured in young adulthood (vitamin D measured at the lumbar spine; calcium measured at the femoral neck). The positive relationship between vitamin D and BMD remained significant at young adulthood, but at the femoral neck rather than at the lumbar spine. Also in females, intakes of phosphorus and the calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) at adolescence were strongly negatively related to femoral neck BMD measured at young adulthood. In males, however, Ca:P reported at young adulthood had a significant positive relationship with lumbar spine BMD, whereas Ca:protein was negatively associated with BMD at the lumbar spine. Intakes of Ca reported by adolescent males also had a strong negative effect on lumbar spine BMD measured at young adulthood.

  3. Effects of dairy slurry application and bale moisture concentration on voluntary intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage by sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as a fertilizer in agriculture. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing...

  4. Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2013-06-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after birth on mild stress-induced attenuation of hippocamapal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP), the present study evaluated the effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of LTP and recognition memory. Young rats were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning and subjected to water immersion stress for 30min, which was more severe than tail suspension stress for 30s used previously. Serum corticosterone levels were lower in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats even after exposure to stress. CA1 LTP induced by a 100-Hz tetanus for 1s was inhibited in the presence of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, in hippocampal slices from the control rats and was attenuated by water immersion stress. In contrast, CA1 LTP was not significantly inhibited in the presence of APV in hippocampal slices from theanine-administered rats and was not attenuated by the stress. Furthermore, object recognition memory was impaired in the control rats, but not in theanine-administered rats. The present study indicates the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairments of hippocampal LTP and recognition memory. It is likely that the modification of corticosterone secretion after theanine intake is involved in the preventive effect.

  5. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects.

  6. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-02-01

    Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered acutely to rats (a) given access to regular food and water, (b) given access to regular food, water, and a chocolate-flavored beverage, or (c) infused with a starch bolus. P. vulgaris extract and the combination produced comparable reductions in intake of regular food and chocolate-flavored beverage; conversely, C. scolymus extract was ineffective on both parameters. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts additively contributed to the reducing effect of the combination on glycemic rise. These results suggest that a mixture of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts is preferable over each single extract, as it combines the anorectic effect of the P. vulgaris extract with the hypoglycemic effect of both extracts. These data support the recent clinical use of the combination of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts in the control of appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia and represent a successful example of translational research in the nutraceutical field.

  7. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  8. Effects of Carbohydrate Intake Before and During An Ice Hockey Game on Blood and Muscle Energy Substrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Clermont; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the effect of a supplemental carbohydrate intake for seven elite ice hockey players before and during a game demonstrated that the supplement could result in less glycogen usage per distance skated, which had important implications for athletes who may participate in more than one game a day. (Author/CB)

  9. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  10. Altered "set-point" of the hypothalamus determines effects of cortisol on food intake, adiposity, and metabolic substrates in sheep.

    PubMed

    Henry, B A; Blache, D; Dunshea, F R; Clarke, I J

    2010-01-01

    Chronic elevation of glucocorticoid concentrations is detrimental to health. We investigated effects of chronic increase in plasma cortisol concentrations on energy balance and endocrine function in sheep. Because food intake and reproduction are regulated by photoperiod, we performed experiments in January (JAN) and August (AUG), when appetite drive is either high or low, respectively. Ovariectomized ewes were treated (intramuscularly) daily with 0.5mg Synacthen Depot(R) (synthetic adrenocorticotropin: ACTH) or saline for 4 wk. Blood samples were taken to measure plasma concentrations of cortisol, luteinising hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), growth hormone (GH), leptin, insulin, and glucose. Adrenocorticotropin treatment increased concentrations of cortisol. During JAN, treatment reduced food intake transiently, but increased food intake in AUG. Leptin concentrations were reduced and glucose concentrations were greater in AUG, and insulin concentrations were similar throughout the year. Treatment with ACTH increased leptin concentrations in AUG only, whereas insulin concentrations increased in JAN only. Synacthen treatment increased glucose concentrations, with a greater effect in JAN. Changes in truncal adiposity and ACTH-induced cortisol secretion were positively correlated in JAN and negatively correlated in AUG. Treatment reduced the plasma LH pulse frequency in JAN and AUG, with an effect on pulse amplitude in JAN only. Treatment did not affect plasma GH or FSH concentrations. We conclude that chronically elevated cortisol concentrations can affect food intake, adiposity, and reproductive function. In sheep, effects of chronically elevated cortisol concentrations on energy balance and metabolism depend upon metabolic setpoint, determined by circannual rhythms.

  11. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...

  12. Metabolizable energy intake effects on tympanic temperature and ADG of steers finished in southern Chile during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were used to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on ADG and tympanic temperature (TT) during the summer time in southern Chile. Steers were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a C...

  13. Effects of metabolizable energy intake on tympanic temperature and average daily gain of steers finished in southern Chile during wintertime

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 Angus x Hereford steers (BW = 479.8 ± 4.48) were used to assess the effect of Metabolizable Energy Intake (MEI) on Average Daily Gain (ADG) and Tympanic Temperature (TT) during the wintertime in southern Chile. The study was conducted at the experimental field of the Catholic Universit...

  14. Effect of Task-Centered Instructional Programs on Hypertensives' Ability to Achieve and Maintain Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Karen V.; Sullivan, Patricia L.

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of systematically designed instructional programs in helping adult hypertensives to achieve and maintain dietary sodium intake. Sixty-six subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: task-centered instruction; task-centered instruction plus goal-setting and self-monitoring; or control.…

  15. Effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight women

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli; Cetin, Cansu; Besler, H. Tanju

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of smaller plates to control food intake is a commonly recommended strategy for restricting energy intake, despite conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not three different sizes of plates influence energy intake during a multi-itemed buffet meal in normal weight women. SUBJECTS/METHODS This was a cross-over study conducted on 37 female participants aged 19-25 years with normal BMI levels. Participants were recruited from Hacettepe University and the surrounding community. On experimental days, participants ate a standard breakfast and were then randomly assigned to eat lunch using a small (19 cm), medium (23 cm), or large (28 cm) diameter plate. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores on sensory and satiety outcomes were measured for all meals. Energy and macronutrient intakes during lunch were recorded. RESULTS There was no evidence that use of a smaller plate size reduced energy or specific macronutrient intake during the free choice lunch meal. Multiple visits to the serving table were not associated with energy or macronutrient intake. Plate size did not affect VAS scores during the test days. CONCLUSIONS Plate size did not influence energy intake, meal composition, or palatability in normal weight women during a multi-itemed open buffet lunch. Studies in natural settings at the population level are needed to clarify current outcomes. PMID:27698960

  16. Effect of daytime protein restriction on nutrient intakes of free-living Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Paré, S; Barr, S I; Ross, S E

    1992-03-01

    Studies have shown that severe daytime restriction of dietary protein improves the efficacy of L-dopa and reduces response fluctuations in some Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. This study investigated the nutritional adequacy of the daytime restricted-protein diet. Eleven free-living PD patients suffering from unpredictable response fluctuations to L-dopa were counseled to limit protein intake to approximately 10 g before 1700. Three sets of 6-d food records obtained during the 8-wk study showed that while on the test diet, mean intakes of most nutrients remained above the recommended nutrient intakes, although significant decreases occurred in protein, calcium, iron, phosphorus, riboflavin, and niacin intakes. The impact of the test diet on nutritional status as evaluated by changes in body weight and serum prealbumin was small. We conclude that healthy and highly motivated patients can maintain adequate intakes of most nutrients while restricting daytime protein intake. However, nutrient intakes might be compromised in patients whose regular diets are marginally adequate.

  17. The individual and combined effects of glycemic index and protein on glycemic response, hunger, and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Makris, Angela P; Borradaile, Kelley E; Oliver, Tracy L; Cassim, Nida G; Rosenbaum, Diane L; Boden, Guenther H; Homko, Carol J; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Although high protein and low glycemic index (GI) foods are thought to promote satiety, little is known about the effects of GI, protein, and their interaction on hunger and energy intake several hours following a mixed meal. This study investigated the long term effects of GI, protein, and their combined effects on glucose, insulin, hunger, and energy intake in healthy, sedentary, overweight, and obese adults (BMI of 30.9 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)). Sixteen individuals participated separately in four testing sessions after an overnight fast. The majority (75%) were non-Hispanic Blacks. Each consumed one of four breakfast meals (high GI/low protein, high GI/high protein, low GI/low protein, low GI/high protein) in random order. Visual analog scales (VAS) and blood samples were taken at baseline, 15 min, and at 30 min intervals over 4 h following the meal. After 4 h, participants were given the opportunity to consume food ad libitum from a buffet style lunch. Meals containing low GI foods produced a smaller glucose (P < 0.002) and insulin (P = 0.0001) response than meals containing high GI foods. No main effects for protein or interactions between GI and protein were observed in glucose or insulin responses, respectively. The four meals had no differential effect on observed energy intake or self-reported hunger, satiety, and prospective energy intake. Low GI meals produced the smallest postprandial increases in glucose and insulin. There were no effects for GI, protein, or their interaction on appetite or energy intake 4 h after breakfast.

  18. Multi-Day Administration of Ivermectin is Effective in Reducing Alcohol Intake in Mice at Doses Shown to be Safe in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multi-day IVM administration in reducing 10E intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; i.p.) on reducing 10% v/v alcohol (10E) intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48 and 72 hours post-injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake and total fluid intake with Dunnett’s Multiple Comparison post-hoc test. Individual student’s t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (p<0.01). Pre IVM 10E intake was 9.1 ± 3.2 g/kg/24-h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (p<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (p<0.01) and total fluid intake (p<0.05). Multi-day administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans. PMID:25004078

  19. Effects of Glycine-Extended and Serine13-Phosphorylated Forms of Peptide YY on Food Intake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reidelberger, Roger; Haver, Alvin; Chelikani, Prasanth; Keire, David A.; Reeve, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    The gut hormone peptide YY(3–36)-amide [PYY(3–36)-NH2] is significantly more potent than PYY(1–36)-NH2 in reducing food intake in rats and humans. Other Gly-extended and Ser13-phosphorylated PYY forms have been detected or predicted based upon known cellular processes of PYY synthesis and modification. Here we compared the effects of 3-h IV infusion of PYY(1–36)-NH2, PYY(3–36)-NH2, PYY(1–36)-Gly-OH, PYY(3–36)-Gly-OH, Ser13(PO3)-PYY(1–36)-NH2, Ser13(PO3)-PYY(3–36)-NH2, Ser13(PO3)-PYY(1–36)-Gly-OH, and Ser13(PO3)-PYY(3–36)-Gly-OH during the early dark period on food intake in freely-feeding rats. PYY(3–36)-NH2 and Ser13(PO3)-PYY(3–36)-NH2 reduced food intake similarly at 50 pmol/kg/min, while only PYY(3–36)-NH2 reduced food intake at 15 pmol/kg/min. PYY(1–36)-NH2 and Ser13(PO3)-PYY(1–36)-NH2 reduced food intake similarly at 50 and 150 pmol/kg/min. In contrast, PYY(1–36)-Gly-OH, PYY(3–36)-Gly-OH, Ser13(PO3)-PYY(3–36)-Gly-OH, and Ser13(PO3)-PYY(1–36)-Gly-OH had no effect on food intake at doses of 50 or 150 pmol/kg/min. Taken together, these results indicate that i) PYY(3–36)-NH2 is significantly more potent than PYY(1–36)-NH2 in reducing food intake, ii) Gly-extended forms of PYY are significantly less potent than non-extended forms, and iii) Ser13-phosphorylation of PYY(3–36)-NH2 decreases the anorexigenic potency PYY(3–36)-NH2, but not PYY(1–36)-NH2. Thus, PYY(3–36)-NH2 appears to be the most potent PYY form for reducing food intake in rats. PMID:21262301

  20. Stopping to food can reduce intake. Effects of stimulus-specificity and individual differences in dietary restraint☆

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; Verbruggen, Frederick; Morrison, Sinead; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Overeating in our food-rich environment is a key contributor to obesity. Computerised response-inhibition training could improve self-control in individuals who overeat. Evidence suggests that training people to inhibit motor responses to specific food pictures can reduce the subsequent choice and consumption of those foods. Here we undertook three experiments using the stop-signal task to examine the effects of food and non-food related stop-training on immediate snack food consumption. The experiments examined whether training effects were stimulus-specific, whether they were influenced by the comparator (control) group, and whether they were moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. Experiment 1 revealed lower intake of one food following stop- vs. double- (two key-presses) response training to food pictures. Experiment 2 offered two foods, one of which was not associated with stopping, to enable within- and between-subjects comparisons of intake. A second control condition required participants to ignore signals and respond with one key-press to all pictures. There was no overall effect of training on intake in Experiment 2, but there was a marginally significant moderation by dietary restraint: Restrained eaters ate significantly less signal-food following stop- relative to double-response training. Experiment 3 revealed that stop- vs. double-response training to non-food pictures had no effect on food intake. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest some stimulus-specific effects of stop-training on food intake that may be moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. PMID:25447023

  1. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  2. Effects of red wine intake on human salivary antiradical capacity and total polyphenol content.

    PubMed

    Varoni, Elena Maria; Vitalini, Sara; Contino, Daniele; Lodi, Giovanni; Simonetti, Paolo; Gardana, Claudio; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio; Iriti, Marcello

    2013-08-01

    The protective effects of grape polyphenols have been reported on oral health, though unreasonable alcohol consumption represents a risk factor for developing oral cancer. The possible effects of red wine consumption on salivary antiradical activity were investigated in healthy volunteers for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. Time-course (from 0 min to 240 min) changes of salivary radical-scavenging capacity were measured by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(+)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, in twelve healthy volunteers, after the intake of red wine (125 mL), a capsule of red wine extract (300 mg) or water (125 mL). Furthermore, time-course of salivary total polyphenol levels, detected by the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, was also determined. Both ABTS and DPPH tests showed that red wine consumption did not increase salivary antiradical activity in volunteers. Conversely, red wine extract administration caused a marked rise in salivary ABTS radical-scavenging capacity within 30 min, followed by a plateau up to 240 min. The same treatment also raised salivary DPPH radical-scavenging activity at any time point, though to a minor extent. The highest salivary polyphenol concentration was reached 30 min after wine drinking, followed by a steady decrease up to 240 min. Wine drinking was not associated to a reduced salivary antiradical capacity. However, wine extract greatly improved the salivary antioxidant status.

  3. The Effects of Social Contact on Drug Use: Behavioral Mechanisms Controlling Drug Intake

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The social environment plays a critical role in determining the likelihood that an individual will use drugs or will develop a drug use disorder. Recent evidence obtained from preclinical studies reveals that proximal social factors (i.e., those factors that are immediately present at the time of drug exposure) exert a particularly strong influence on both drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. These studies are advancing our understanding of the role of the social environment in drug use by showing that the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs depend on (1) whether other individuals are immediately present and (2) whether those individuals are also using drugs. Furthermore, the preclinical literature examining the role of social learning in behavior maintained by nondrug reinforcers reveals a number of behavioral mechanisms by which social contact may influence drug use, as well as potential ways the social environment may be modified to prevent or reduce drug use. Additional research is needed to determine potential age and sex differences in the effects of social contact on drug use, to determine the generality of the current findings across different pharmacological classes of drugs, and to determine the role of social contact on drug intake during different transitional stages of drug use disorders; however, enough evidence now exists to begin implementing social interventions in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:24188170

  4. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Etchells, Katie A; Houstoun, Katie V E; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N=60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered.

  5. Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance, nine lactating Holstein dairy cows (day in milk= 100±21 d; body weight=645.7 ± 26.5 kg) were allotted to a 3 × 3 Latin square design at three 23-d periods. The three treatments included 34.91% (B), 18.87% (BC), and 18.86% (BB) barley that in treatment B was partially replaced with only corn or corn plus beet pulp in treatments BC and BB, respectively. The concentration of starch and neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate varied (22.2, 20.2, and 14.5; 13.6, 15.9, and 20.1% of DM in treatments B, BC, and BB, respectively). Cows in treatment BB showed a higher DMI and improved digestibility of DM, NDF, and EE compared with treatments B or BC. Ruminal pH was higher in cows fed on BB (6.83) compared with those that received B or BC treatments (6.62 and 6.73, respectively). A lower proportion of propionate accompanied the higher pH in the BB group; however, a greater proportion of acetate and acetate: propionate ratio was observed compared with cows fed either on the B or BC diet. Moreover, cows fed on the BB diet showed the lowest ruminal passage rate and longest ruminal and total retention time. Eating time did not differ among treatments, rumination time was greater among cows fed on the BB diet compared with the others, whereas total chewing activity was greater than those fed on BC, but similar to those fed on B. The treatments showed no effect on milk yield. Partially replacing barley with corn or beet pulp resulted in an increase in milk fat and a lower protein concentration. Changing dietary NFC with that of a different degradability thus altered intake, chewing activity, ruminal environment, retention time or passage rate, and lactation performance. The results of this study showed that beet pulp with a higher NDF and a detergent-soluble carbohydrate or pectin established a more consistent ruminal mat than barley and corn, thus resulting in

  6. Short-term effects of whole-grain wheat on appetite and food intake in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bodinham, Caroline L; Hitchen, Katie L; Youngman, Penelope J; Frost, Gary S; Robertson, M Denise

    2011-08-01

    While it has been proposed, based on epidemiological studies, that whole grains may be beneficial in weight regulation, possibly due to effects on satiety, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming this. The present cross-over study aimed to investigate the short-term effects on appetite and food intake of 48 g of whole-grain wheat (daily for 3 weeks) compared with refined grain (control). A total of fourteen healthy normal-weight adults consumed, within their habitual diets, either two whole-grain bread rolls (providing 48 g of whole grains over two rolls) or two control rolls daily for 3 weeks. Changes in food intake were assessed using 7 d diet diaries. Changes in subjective appetite ratings and food intake were also assessed at postprandial study visits. There were no significant differences between interventions in energy intake (assessed by the 7 d diet diaries and at the ad libitum test meal), subjective appetite ratings or anthropometric measurements. However, there was a significant difference between interventions for systolic blood pressure, which decreased during the whole-grain intervention and increased during the control intervention (-2 v. 4 mmHg; P = 0·015). The present study found no effect of whole grains on appetite or food intake in healthy individuals; however, 48 g of whole grain consumed daily for 3 weeks did have a beneficial effect on systolic blood pressure. The findings from the present study therefore do not support epidemiological evidence that whole grains are beneficial in weight regulation, although further investigation in other population groups (such as overweight and obese) would be required.

  7. Effect of concurrent saccharin intake on ethanol consumption by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats.

    PubMed

    Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, Maria Elena

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent presentation of a highly palatable saccharin solution on ethanol consumption during the acquisition or maintenance of ethanol drinking by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol (10% v/v) and water under a home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day. After 7 days (acquisition) of ethanol exposure, a third bottle containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) was concomitantly offered for an additional seven consecutive days, and the same process was repeated after 3 months (maintenance) of ethanol exposure. We found that concurrent saccharin intake significantly reduced ethanol intake by UChB rats after 7 days of ethanol exposure indicating that preference for sweet taste tends to override the preference for ethanol. However, the concurrent saccharin presentation to rats after 3 months of stable ethanol consumption did not reduce ethanol intake, whereas their saccharin consumption reached polydipsic-like values. These results support the notion that in UChB rats, a time-dependent sensitization to the rewarding effects of ethanol is developed that may account for the increases in ethanol volition seen following chronic ethanol intake.

  8. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy.

  9. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael M; Perello, Mario; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Sakata, Ichiro; Gautron, Laurent; Lee, Charlotte E; Lauzon, Danielle; Elmquist, Joel K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR) expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  10. High potassium intake enhances the inhibitory effect of 11,12-EET on ENaC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Yue, Peng; Jiang, Houli; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Schwartzman, Michal L; Falck, John R; Goli, Mohan; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2010-10-01

    High dietary potassium stimulates the renal expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase 2C23, which metabolizes arachidonic acid (AA). Because the AA metabolite 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) can inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the cortical collecting duct, we tested whether dietary potassium modulates ENaC function. High dietary potassium increased 11,12-EET in the isolated cortical collecting duct, an effect mimicked by inhibiting the angiotensin II type I receptor with valsartan. In patch-clamp experiments, a high potassium intake or treatment with valsartan enhanced AA-induced inhibition of ENaC, an effect mediated by a CYP-epoxygenase-dependent pathway. Moreover, high dietary potassium and valsartan each augmented the inhibitory effect of 11,12-EET on ENaC. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that the rate of EET conversion to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET) was lower in renal tissue obtained from rats on a high-potassium diet than from those on a control diet, but this was not a result of altered expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Instead, suppression of sEH activity seemed to be responsible for the 11,12-EET-mediated enhanced inhibition of ENaC in animals on a high-potassium diet. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that 11,12-DHET was a weak inhibitor of ENaC compared with 11,12-EET, whereas 8,9- and 14,15-DHET were not. Furthermore, inhibition of sEH enhanced the 11,12-EET-induced inhibition of ENaC similar to high dietary potassium. In conclusion, high dietary potassium enhances the inhibitory effect of AA and 11,12-EET on ENaC by increasing CYP epoxygenase activity and decreasing sEH activity, respectively.

  11. In good company. The effect of an eating companion's appearance on food intake.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Mitsuru; Johnson, Katie; Wansink, Brian

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not the presence of an overweight eating companion influences healthy and unhealthy eating behavior, and to determine if the effect is moderated by how the companion serves herself. A professional actress either wore an overweight prosthesis (i.e., "fatsuit") or did not wear one, and served herself either healthily (i.e., a small amount of pasta and a large amount of salad) or unhealthily (i.e., a large amount of pasta and a small amount of salad) for lunch. After observing her, male and female participants were asked to serve themselves pasta and salad to eat. Results demonstrated that regardless of how the confederate served, participants served and ate a larger amount of pasta when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. In addition, when the confederate served herself healthily, participants served and ate a smaller amount of salad when she was wearing the prosthesis than when she was not. Consistent with the "lower health commitment" hypothesis, these results demonstrated that people may eat larger portions of unhealthy food and smaller portions of healthy food when eating with an overweight person, probably because the health commitment goal is less activated. More generally, this study provides evidence that the body type of an eating companion, as well as whether she serves herself healthily or unhealthily, influences the quantity of food intake.

  12. Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Paul, M V Sauganth; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and hepatocellular injury in animal model. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150-175 g, were randomly divided into three groups as follows: first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt.; the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt.; and controls were given water freely. Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.) in the drinking water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system.

  13. Effect of chronic caffeine intake on myocardial function during early growth.

    PubMed

    Temples, T E; Geoffray, D J; Nakamoto, T; Hartman, A D; Miller, H I

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effects of chronic caffeine ingestion on the myocardium during fetal and neonatal growth and development. The isolated perfused working heart preparation was used to evaluate cardiac function. During gestation and lactation, one group of dams consumed a caffeine supplemented diet (10 mg/kg/day). Their offspring were sacrificed and the hearts analyzed 50 days after birth. We found that the intake of caffeine by the dams resulted in significant increases in the offspring's coronary flow, peak systolic pressure, and myocardial work. A second group of dams ingested a diet containing caffeine (10 mg/kg/day) during lactation only. Their pups continued to consume the caffeine diet until 50 days. Pup hearts exhibited significant reductions in cardiac output, stroke volume, pressure development, myocardial work, and external efficiency when compared to controls. Caffeine did not affect body or heart weight or adipose size or number in these experiments. Thus, continued caffeine consumption following birth may alter cardiac performance of the offspring.

  14. Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya

    2010-08-02

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes.

  15. Effect of fermented soybean products intake on the overall immune safety and function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Hee; Paek, Se Hee; Shin, Hye Won; Lee, Seung Yeon; Moon, Byoung Seok; Park, Jung Eun; Lim, Gyeong Dong; Kim, Chang Yul

    2017-01-01

    Various functional activities have been reported for the fermented soybean products doenjang (DJ) and cheonggukjang (CGJ), although no systemic investigations of their immune functions have been conducted to date. We examined the effects of an experimental diet of DJ, CGJ, or a mixture of unfermented raw material for 4 weeks on overall immunity and immune safety in mice. No significant alterations were observed in peripheral or splenic immune cells among groups. Enhanced splenic natural killer cell activity was observed in the DJ and CGJ groups compared with the plain diet group. T helper type-1 (Th1)-mediated immune responses were enhanced in the DJ and CGJ groups with an upregulated production ratio of IFN-γ vs. IL-4 and IgG2a vs. IgG1 in stimulated splenic T and B cells, respectively. Resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection was observed in the DJ and CGJ groups. Overall, the results of this study suggest that DJ and CGJ intake consolidates humoral and cellular immunity to Th1 responses. PMID:27030201

  16. The effect of current and anticipated body pride and shame on dietary restraint and caloric intake.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a link between body shame and eating disorder symptoms and behaviours. However, few have differentiated current feelings of body shame from those anticipated with weight change and none has examined the effects of these on subsequent eating behaviour. In this paper, a measure of body pride and shame was developed (Study 1) for the purposes of using it in a subsequent longitudinal study (Study 2). Two hundred and forty two women were recruited from a university and the general population and participated in Study 1, completing the Body Pride and Shame (BPS) scale either online or offline, as well as a number of validating measures. In Study 2, 40 female students completed the BPS, as well as a measure of dietary restraint, and subsequently recorded their dietary intake everyday for the next seven days. Study 1 identified and validated subscales of current body pride/shame as well as pride/shame that is anticipated were the individual to gain weight or lose weight. In Study 2, over and above levels of dietary restraint, current feelings of body shame predicted eating more calories over the next 7 days while the anticipation of shame with weight gain predicted eating fewer calories. Although previous research has only measured current feelings of body shame, the present studies showed that anticipated shame also impacts on subsequent behaviour. Interventions that regulate anticipated as well as current emotions, and that do not merely challenge cognitions, may be important in changing eating behaviour.

  17. Pre-meal tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) intake can have anti-obesity effects in young women?

    PubMed

    Vinha, Ana F; Barreira, Sérgio V P; Costa, Anabela S G; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2014-12-01

    The effect of pre-meal tomato intake in the anthropometric indices and blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid of a young women population (n = 35, 19.6 ± 1.3 years) was evaluated. During 4 weeks, daily, participants ingested a raw ripe tomato (∼90 g) before lunch. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured repeatedly during the follow-up time. At the end of the 4 weeks, significant reductions were observed on body weight (-1.09 ± 0.12 kg on average), % fat (-1.54 ± 0.52%), fasting blood glucose (-5.29 ± 0.80 mg/dl), triglycerides (-8.31 ± 1.34 mg/dl), cholesterol (-10.17 ± 1.21 mg/dl), and uric acid (-0.16 ± 0.04 mg/dl) of the participants. The tomato pre-meal ingestion seemed to interfere positively in body weight, fat percentage, and blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, and uric acid of the young adult women that participated in this study.

  18. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Aragon, Alan; Wilborn, Colin; Urbina, Stacie L.; Hayward, Sara E.; Krieger, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) (n = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) (n = 12). The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8–12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied (p > 0.05). These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed. PMID:28070459

  19. Effects of dexamethasone and colostrum intake on the somatotropic axis in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Stephanie N; Ontsouka, Edgar; Roffler, Bettina; Zbinden, Yolande; Philipona, Chantal; Pfaffl, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H; Blum, Jürg W; Hammon, Harald M

    2003-08-01

    Glucocorticoids and colostrum feeding influence postnatal maturation of the somatotropic axis. We have tested the hypothesis that dexamethasone (Dexa) affects the somatotropic axis in neonatal calves dependent on colostrum intake. Calves were fed either with colostrum or with a milk-based formula (n = 14/group), and, in each feeding group, one-half of the calves were treated with Dexa (30 micro g. kg body wt-1. day-1). Pre- and postprandial blood samples were taken on days 1, 2, 4, and 5, and liver samples were taken on day 5 of life. Dexa increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, but decreased growth hormone (GH) and IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and -2 plasma concentrations and increased GH receptor (GHR) mRNA levels in liver. Dexa increased IGF-I mRNA levels only in formula-fed calves and increased hepatic GHR binding capacity, but only in colostrum-fed calves. Colostrum feeding decreased IGFBP-1 and -2 plasma concentrations and hepatic IGFBP-2 and -3 mRNA levels. In conclusion, Dexa and colostrum feeding promoted maturation of the somatotropic axis. Dexa effects partly depended on whether colostrum was fed or not.

  20. Pre- versus post-exercise protein intake has similar effects on muscular adaptations.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan; Wilborn, Colin; Urbina, Stacie L; Hayward, Sara E; Krieger, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the anabolic window theory by investigating muscle strength, hypertrophy, and body composition changes in response to an equal dose of protein consumed either immediately pre- versus post-resistance training (RT) in trained men. Subjects were 21 resistance-trained men (>1 year RT experience) recruited from a university population. After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a group that consumed a supplement containing 25 g protein and 1 g carbohydrate immediately prior to exercise (PRE-SUPP) (n = 9) or a group that consumed the same supplement immediately post-exercise (POST-SUPP) (n = 12). The RT protocol consisted of three weekly sessions performed on non-consecutive days for 10 weeks. A total-body routine was employed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions for each exercise. Results showed that pre- and post-workout protein consumption had similar effects on all measures studied (p > 0.05). These findings refute the contention of a narrow post-exercise anabolic window to maximize the muscular response and instead lends support to the theory that the interval for protein intake may be as wide as several hours or perhaps more after a training bout depending on when the pre-workout meal was consumed.

  1. Evidence for sugar addiction: behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake.

    PubMed

    Avena, Nicole M; Rada, Pedro; Hoebel, Bartley G

    2008-01-01

    [Avena, N.M., Rada, P., Hoebel B.G., 2007. Evidence for sugar addiction: Behavioral and neurochemical effects of intermittent, excessive sugar intake. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews XX(X), XXX-XXX]. The experimental question is whether or not sugar can be a substance of abuse and lead to a natural form of addiction. "Food addiction" seems plausible because brain pathways that evolved to respond to natural rewards are also activated by addictive drugs. Sugar is noteworthy as a substance that releases opioids and dopamine and thus might be expected to have addictive potential. This review summarizes evidence of sugar dependence in an animal model. Four components of addiction are analyzed. "Bingeing," "withdrawal," "craving" and "cross-sensitization" are each given operational definitions and demonstrated behaviorally with sugar bingeing as the reinforcer. These behaviors are then related to neurochemical changes in the brain that also occur with addictive drugs. Neural adaptations include changes in dopamine and opioid receptor binding, enkephalin mRNA expression and dopamine and acetylcholine release in the nucleus accumbens. The evidence supports the hypothesis that under certain circumstances rats can become sugar dependent. This may translate to some human conditions as suggested by the literature on eating disorders and obesity.

  2. The short-time treatment with curcumin sufficiently decreases cell viability, induces apoptosis and copper enhances these effects in multidrug-resistant K562/A02 cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Cai, Yu-Jun; Ding, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The anti-cancer activities of curcumin (CUR), a polyphenol derived from the plant Curcuma longa, has been extensively studied. In the present study, we found that CUR displayed anti-multidrug-resistant (MDR) activity in K562/A02 cells. A short-time treatment with CUR sufficiently and equally induced DNA damage, decreased cell viability, and triggered apoptosis in parent K562 and MDR K562/A02 cells. The short-time treatment with CUR also caused decrease of pro-caspase 3 in both cell lines and decrease of pro-caspase 9, increase of PARP cleavage and the ratio of Bax/Bcl-xL in MDR K562/A02 cells. Further experiment revealed that CUR was capable of down-regulating P-glycoprotein in MDR K562/A02 cells. Moreover, we observed that Cu(2+) enhanced CUR-mediated apoptosis which was blocked by antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine and catalase. In summary, the short-time treatment with CUR sufficiently induced DNA damage, decreased cell viability and triggered apoptosis in MDR K562/A02 cells and Cu(2+) enhanced CUR-mediated apoptosis which due to reactive oxygen species generation.

  3. Caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community dwellers living in a rural Ecuadorian village (The Atahualpa Project)

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Mera, Robertino M.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R.

    2016-01-01

    More information is needed to better understand the effect of caffeine on sleep quality at the community level. In a population-based, cross-sectional study design, we aimed to assess the effect of caffeine intake on sleep quality by the use of a multivariate exposure-effect model, adjusted for relevant confounders. All Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a structured instrument designed to estimate the daily amount of caffeine intake. An exposure-effect model was built using augmented inverse probability weighting taking into account variables that were associated with exposure (using a probit model) and variables that were associated with outcome (in a linear model). Out of 779 eligible individuals, 716 (92%) were included. Consumption of <100 mg/day of caffeine was recorded in 320 (45%) participants, from 100 to 200 mg/day in 299 (42%), and >200 mg/day in 97 (13%). Mean score in the PSQI was 4.5±2.2 points, with 203 (28%) individuals classified as poor sleepers (≥6 points). The exposure-effect model, adjusted for variables associated with the exposure (symptoms of depression, total cholesterol blood levels and smoking) and the outcome (age, symptoms of depression, physical activity and fasting glucose levels), revealed no effect of caffeine intake in sleep quality (average exposure effect: 0.027, 95% C.I.: −0.284 to 0.338, p=0.866). This population-based study shows that caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community-dwelling adults living in a rural village of Ecuador. PMID:27217907

  4. Acute effects of complexity in aroma composition on satiation and food intake.

    PubMed

    Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Boelrijk, Alexandra E M; Burgering, Maurits J M; de Graaf, Cees; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-02-01

    The acute effect of complexity in aroma composition on perceived satiation and food intake was investigated in 41 young, healthy, and normal weight subjects. Subjects consumed 2 different strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt products (i.e., test and placebo product) in either an olfactometer-aided or an ad libitum eating experimental design. The test product was aromatized with a multicomponent strawberry aroma, whereas the placebo product was aromatized with a single-component strawberry aroma. Compared to placebo, subjects felt significantly more satiated during aroma stimulation with the multicomponent strawberry aroma in the olfactometer-aided setting. Additionally, perceived satiation was significantly increased 10-15 min after consumption of the multicomponent strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product in the ad libitum eating setting. There was no effect on the amount of strawberry-aromatized sweetened yogurt product consumed ad libitum. Apart from the differences in timing of the appetite-regulating effects, both experimental settings demonstrated that the multicomponent strawberry aroma, which was perceived as being more complex, yet of similar aroma quality, intensity, and pleasantness compared with the single-component strawberry aroma, was able to enhance perceived satiation. The methodology of the olfactometer-aided aroma stimulation proved to be representative of a real-life setting with regard to aroma exposure and satiation. Food products, which are perceived as being more complex, have been suggested to delay the development of sensory satiation as a result of implicitly cueing for variation. The present results may be explained by increased sensory stimulation, due to concurrent exposure to multiple aroma components cueing for sensorily similar strawberry perception.

  5. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  6. Comparative effects of energy restriction and resveratrol intake on glycemic control improvement.

    PubMed

    Milton-Laskibar, I; Aguirre, L; Macarulla, M T; Etxeberria, U; Milagro, F I; Martínez, J A; Contreras, J; Portillo, M P

    2017-02-20

    Resveratrol (RSV) has been proposed as an energy restriction mimetic. This study aimed to compare the effects of RSV and energy restriction on insulin resistance induced by an obesogenic diet. Any additive effect of both treatments was also analyzed. Rats were fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet for 6 weeks. They were then distributed in four experimental groups which were either fed a standard control diet (C), or treated with RSV (30 mg/kg/d), or submitted to energy restriction (R, 15%), or treated with RSV and submitted to energy restriction (RR). A glucose tolerance test was performed, and serum glucose, insulin, fructosamine, adiponectin, and leptin concentrations determined. Muscle triacylglycerol content and protein expression of insulin receptor (IRβ), protein kinase B (Akt), Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) were measured. In RSV rats, fructosamine concentrations were reduced, HOMA-IR remained unchanged, but glucose tolerance was improved, without changes in phosphorylation of IRβ, Akt, and AS160 or in GLUT-4 protein expression. Rats under energy restriction showed an improvement in all the markers related to glycemic control, as well as increased phosphorylation of AS160 and protein expression of GLUT-4. In rats from RR group the results were similar to R group, with the exception of IRβ and Akt phosphorylation, which were increased. In conclusion, mild energy restriction is more efficient than intake of RSV within a standard balanced diet, and acts by means of a different mechanism from that of RSV. No additive effects between RSV and energy restriction were observed. © 2016 BioFactors, 2016.

  7. Effects of oral intake of kimchi-derived Lactobacillus plantarum K8 lysates on skin moisturizing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangeun; Kim, Hye Rim; Jeong, Bong Jun; Lee, Seung Su; Kim, Tae-Rahk; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Miyeong; Lee, Sinai; Lee, Jong Suk; Chung, Dae Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Skin is the soft outer covering of vertebrates that provides protection from pathogenic infection, physical damage, or UV irradiation, and controls body temperature and water content. In this study, we examined the effects of oral intake of kimchi-derived Lactobacillus plantarum K8 lysates on skin moisturizing. In an in vitro study, we observed that the hyaluronic acid content increased in HaCaT cells treated with L. plantarum K8 lysates. Oral administration of L. plantarum K8 lysates effectively attenuated the horny layer formation and decreased epidermal thickening in DNCB-treated SKH-1 hairless mice skin. The damage to barrier function was reduced after 8 weeks of oral administration of L. plantarum K8 lysates as compared with that in the atopic dermatitis mice. For the test with volunteers, we manufactured experimental candy containing 2.1% L. plantarum K8 lysates, while control candy did not contain bacterial lysate. A significant increase in hydration in the experimental candy-administered group as compared with the control candy-administered group was observed on the face after 4 and 8 weeks, and on the forearm after 4 weeks. Decreases in horny layer thickness and TEWL value were observed on the face and forearm of the experimental group. Together, the in vitro cell line and in vivo mouse studies revealed that L. plantarum K8 lysates have a moisturizing effect. A clinical research study with healthy volunteers also showed an improvement in barrier repair and function when volunteers took L. plantarum K8 lysates-containing candy. Thus, our results suggest that L. plantarum K8 lysates may help to improve skin barrier function.

  8. Effects of discontinuing coffee intake on iron deficient Guatemalan toddlers' cognitive development and sleep.

    PubMed

    Engle, P L; VasDias, T; Howard, I; Romero-Abal, M E; Quan de Serrano, J; Bulux, J; Solomons, N W; Dewey, K G

    1999-01-01

    Coffee is commonly given daily to toddlers in Guatemala. Possible negative effects of coffee ingestion on cognitive development and sleep patterns were assessed in 132 children 12-24 months of age who had received coffee for > 2 months and were iron deficient on at least one indicator. Children were stratified by initial hemoglobin (A= anemic, Hgb < 10.5 g/dl; NA = 'non-anemic', Hgb > or = 10.5 g/dl) and were randomly assigned to an experimental group (S = substitute consisting of sugar and coloring), and a control group (C = continuation of coffee) (42 C-NA; 53 S-NA; 18 C-A; and 19 S-A). Anemic children were provided Fe supplements for 2-3 months. Compliance was assessed every 2 weeks. After 5 months, testers masked to treatment group and anemia evaluated children with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II in a central location. Scores were the Mental Development Index (MDI), the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), and scales from the Behavior Rating Scale (BRS). The child's sleep in the previous 24 h was assessed with a set of standardized sleep questions to the care giver on the first visit and every 2 weeks thereafter. No significant effects of treatment on test scores or BRS ratings were found. In the 24 h period reported on at the final visit, children in the Substitute group slept more during the night and overall (night plus naps) than children in the Coffee group, a difference not found at the first visit. No differences were found in sleep difficulty or number of times waking at night. Women's reported coffee intake per day during pregnancy was associated with lower BRS ratings, even after controlling for SES and child age. The effects of postnatal coffee ingestion in Guatemala were seen for sleep duration, but not for cognitive development. Prenatal coffee ingestion was negatively associated with Behavior Rating Scales and should be investigated further.

  9. The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qingtao; Li, Yun; Li, Ling; Cheng, Gaiping; Sun, Xin; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, −0.42%; 95% CI, −0.61% to −0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, −0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.58 to −0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, −0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.86 to −0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, −0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.48 to −0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required. PMID:26690472

  10. Effect of feeding varying levels of groundnut haulms on feed intake and growth performance in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Ribadiya, N. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, S. S.; Garg, D. D.; Gadariya, M. R.; Karangiya, V. K.; Gajera, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate groundnut haulms (GNH) as alternate feed source by its incorporation and assessment in terms of feed intake and growth performance in the diets of broilers. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates (n=60). Experimental Birds in group T1 were fed with conventional feed while birds in T2, T3, T4 were fed containing 2%, 4%, and 6% of GNH replacing maize and soyabean on iso-nitrogenous basis. Results: Feed intake increases significantly (p>0.05) with increasing level of GNH in the diets of experimental birds. Highest feed intake was recorded in T4 (6% GNH), followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). Birds fed GNH gained significantly (p<0.05) higher body weight than birds fed the control diet. Birds in T4 [6% GNH] gained highest body weight, followed by T3 (4% GNH) than T2 (2% GNH) and T1 (control). However, feed conversion ratio (FCR) remained non-significant for all treatment groups. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of GNH can successfully replace costly ingredients like maize and soybean meal in the diets of broiler birds up to the level of 6 percent of concentrate mixture without any harmful effects on feed intake, growth and FCR. PMID:27047062

  11. The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity.

  12. Reducing effect of an extract of Phaseolus vulgaris on food intake in mice--focus on highly palatable foods.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-03-01

    Different lines of experimental evidence indicate that treatment with extracts from and derivatives of Phaseolus vulgaris reduces intake of food, including highly palatable foods and beverages, in rats. The present study was designed to extend to mice these lines of evidence. To this end, CD1 mice were treated acutely with a standardized extract of P. vulgaris and then exposed to unlimited access to regular food pellets (Experiment 1) or 1-hour limited access to three different palatable foods/beverages, such as butter cookies (Experiment 2), a condensed-milk beverage (Experiment 3), and a chocolate-flavored beverage (Experiment 4). Treatment with P. vulgaris extract resulted in a significant reduction in the intake of regular food pellets, that was still evident 24h later, as well as of the three palatable nourishments. Together, these results (a) extend to mice several previous findings on the capacity of P. vulgaris extracts to suppress food intake in rats, (b) suggest that P. vulgaris extracts may interfere with the central mechanisms regulating appetite, food intake, palatability, and/or the rewarding and hedonic properties of food, and (c) P. vulgaris extracts may represent a potentially effective therapy for overeating, obesity, and food craving.

  13. The Effects of industrial workers' food choice attribute on sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction with Structural Equcation Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research analyzes the effects of the food choices of industrial workers according to their sugar intake pattern on their job satisfaction through the construction of a model on the relationship between sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS Surveys were collected from May to July 2015. A statistical analysis of the 775 surveys from Kyungsangnam-do was conducted using SPSS13.0 for Windows and SEM was performed using the AMOS 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model was proven to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis in conjunction with AMOS. The results of factor analysis on food choice, sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction were categorized into five categories. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all factors except confection (0.516) and dairy products (0.570). The multicollinearity results did not indicate a problem between the variables since the highest correlation coefficient was 0.494 (P < 0.01). In an attempt to study the sugar intake pattern in accordance with the food choices and job satisfaction of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests confirmed that the model satisfied the recommended levels for the goodness of fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proven to be appropriate. PMID:27478555

  14. The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingtao; Li, Yun; Li, Ling; Cheng, Gaiping; Sun, Xin; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2015-12-10

    The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, -0.42%; 95% CI, -0.61% to -0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, -0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, -0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required.

  15. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men.

  16. Circadian rhythms of water and alcohol intake: effect of REM-sleep deprivation and lesion of the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Aalto, J; Kiianmaa, K

    1984-01-01

    The recently discovered increase in alcohol drinking produced by a 7 day period of rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep deprivation with a modified flowerpot technique and the subsequent decrease during REM-rebound were now examined through continual monitoring of drinking with a computer attached to drinkometers. REM-sleep deprivation abolished the circadian rhythms of both alcohol and water intake. The circadian rhythm of water drinking returned during the first post-deprivation day but alcohol drinking was almost eliminated during the first 18 hr and there was no circadian rhythm to the alcohol drinking on the following 3 days. In an additional study, the circadian rhythms of both water and alcohol intake were abolished by electrolytic lesioning of the suprachiasmatic nuclei. The lesion did not, however, alter the mean level of alcohol drinking. Thus the abolition of circadian rhythms is not sufficient for increasing alcohol consumption and the increase produced during REM-sleep deprivation appears to be mediated by other mechanisms.

  17. Effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the distributions of lymphocyte subpopulations in rats with excessive alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yang-Ming; Tsai, Shih-Meng; Lin, Wen-Shan; Huang, Zih-Ru; Lin, Chun-Chin; Yeh, Wei-Hao; Wu, Yi-Ru; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2010-12-22

    To investigate the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on antioxidant statuses and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the rats with alcohol intake, the antioxidant statuses in the peripheral blood (PB) and the lymphocyte subpopulations in the PB, spleen, and bone marrow (BM) of the rats fed with WPC (0.334 g/kg) and alcohol (6 g/kg) for 3 months were analyzed. Results showed that the effects of WPC on the glutathione peroxidase and glutathione in the PB, the T and B cells in the spleen, and the B cells in the BM were more apparent in the rats with alcohol intake; however, they are not apparent in the controls. Taken together, our results indicated that the immunity of rats might be enhanced by the increased antioxidant ability after WPC supplementation and the effects of WPC on the lymphocyte subpopulations were mainly in the spleen and BM and not in the PB.

  18. Consuming organic versus conventional vegetables: the effect on nutrient and contaminant intakes.

    PubMed

    Hoefkens, Christine; Sioen, Isabelle; Baert, Katleen; De Meulenaer, Bruno; De Henauw, Stefaan; Vandekinderen, Isabelle; Devlieghere, Frank; Opsomer, Anne; Verbeke, Wim; Van Camp, John

    2010-11-01

    The health benefits of consuming organic compared to conventional foods are unclear. This study aimed at evaluating the nutrient and contaminant intake of adults through consumption of organic versus conventional vegetables, namely carrots, tomatoes, lettuce, spinach and potatoes. A probabilistic simulation approach was used for the intake assessment in two adult populations: (1) a representative sample of Belgians (n=3245) and (2) a sample of Flemish organic and conventional consumers (n=522). Although significant differences in nutrient and contaminant contents were previously found between organic and conventional vegetables, they were inconsistent for a component and/or vegetable. These findings were translated here into inconsistent intake assessments. This means that the intake of specific nutrients and contaminants can be higher or lower for organic versus conventional vegetables. However, when considering the consumption pattern of organic consumers, an increase in intake of a selected set of nutrients and contaminants is observed, which are explained by the general higher vegetable consumption of this consumer group. In public health terms, there is insufficient evidence to recommend organic over conventional vegetables. The general higher vegetable consumption of organic compared to conventional consumers outweighs usually the role of differences in nutrient and contaminant concentrations between organic and conventional vegetables.

  19. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  20. Review and meta-analysis of the short-term effects of a vegetable oil emulsion on food intake.

    PubMed

    Appleton, K M; Smit, H J; Rogers, P J

    2011-07-01

    Several short-term studies have investigated the effects of a vegetable oil emulsion on subsequent food intake, although findings have been inconsistent. This work aimed to review all studies, and investigate differences in study outcomes based on methodology. All known studies were identified. Data were abstracted from published studies (n = 7). Details of unpublished studies were gained from investigators/sponsors (n = 5), or were unavailable for reasons of confidentiality (n = 4). Available data were combined using meta-analyses. A combined appetite suppressant effect of the emulsion compared with control was found for test meal intake at approximately 4, 12 and 36 h post-treatment: smallest combined mean difference (random effects model) = 0.53 MJ (95% confidence interval 0.20, 0.86), P < 0.01. However, considerable heterogeneity (variability) between study results was also found (smallest I(2) = 94%, P < 0.01), questioning the predictive validity of the above findings. Meta-regression suggested this heterogeneity to be related to differences in the processed nature of the product, treatment dose and in particular year of study (smallest B = 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.06, 1.03, P = 0.04), although again heterogeneity was found. The only consistent finding was a lack of effect on food intake 4 h post-preload in studies conducted after 2003. These results suggest a small but inconsistent appetite suppressant effect of the vegetable oil emulsion. However, due to the large heterogeneity, no definitive conclusions can be drawn.

  1. Effects of dietary L-arginine intake on cardiorespiratory and metabolic adaptation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Bescós, Raul; Gonzalez-Haro, Carlos; Pujol, Pere; Drobnic, Franchek; Alonso, Eulalia; Santolaria, Maria Luisa; Ruiz, Olga; Esteve, Marc; Galilea, Pedro

    2009-08-01

    To assess the effect of diet enrichment with L-arginine or supplementation at high doses on physiological adaptation during exercise, 9 athletes followed 3 different diets, each over 3 consecutive days, with a wash-out period of 4 d between training sessions: control diet (CD), 5.5 +/- 0.3 g/d of L-arginine; Diet 1 (rich in L-arginine food), 9.0 +/- 1.1 g/d of L-arginine; and Diet 2 (the same as CD but including an oral supplement of 15 g/d), 20.5 +/- 0.3 g/d of L-arginine. Plasma nitrate levels of each participant were determined on the day after each treatment. Participants performed a submaximal treadmill test (initial speed 10-11 km/hr, work increments 1 km/hr every 4 min until 85-90% VO2max, and passive recovery periods of 2 min). Oxygen uptake and heart rate were monitored throughout the test. Blood lactate concentration ([La-]b) was determined at the end of each stage. Repeated-measures ANOVA and paired Student's t tests were used to compare the various physiological parameters between diets. The level of significance was set at p < .05. [La-]b showed a significant effect at the 5-min time point between CD and Diet 2 (CD 3.0 +/- 0.5 mM, Diet 2 2.5 +/- 0.5 mM, p = .03), but this tendency was not found at higher exercise intensities. No significant differences were observed in any of the cardiorespiratory or plasma nitrate levels. In conclusion, dietary L-arginine intake on the days preceding the test does not improve physiological parameters during exercise.

  2. Beneficial effects by intake of Euphausiacea pacifica on high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Sadzuka, Yasuyuki; Sugiyama, Ikumi; Miyashita, Michiko; Ueda, Tomohiro; Kikuchi, Sayaka; Oshiro, Eriko; Yano, Akira; Yamada, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem showing increased incidence in developed and developing countries. We examined the effect of Euphausia pacifica (E. pacifica) (Pacific Krill) on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in C57BL/6 mice. No significant differences were observed in average food intake between the HFD and HFD with E. pacifica group, or the low-fat diet (LFD) and LFD with E. pacifica group for 18 weeks. The increased ratio of body weight in the HFD containing E. pacifica group was significantly reduced, being 10% lower than that with HFD group in the 18th week (HFD, 298.6±18.8% vs. HFD with E. pacifica, 267.8±16.2%; p<0.05), while the ratio for the LFD containing E. pacifica group was reduced by 4% compared with LFD group (LFD, 244.2±11.6% vs. LFD with E. pacifica, 234.1±18.0%). There were no effects of E. pacifica on total cholesterol levels in serum and liver, whereas the supplement of E. pacifica tended to decrease triglyceride levels in the HFD groups. The leptin level in serum was significantly decreased in the HFD group (p<0.01) by E. pacifica. The adipocyte area (1926±1275 μm(2)) in the HFD containing E. pacifica group was significantly reduced by 20% (p<0.001) compared with the HFD group. These results suggested that E. pacifica supplementation in the diet is beneficial for the prevention of HFD-induced obesity.

  3. Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Ioannou, G.; Jay, J. Bennett; Kittleson, S.; Savard, C.; Roth, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5–15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight. PMID:19815021

  4. Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat.

    PubMed

    Figlewicz, D P; Ioannou, G; Bennett Jay, J; Kittleson, S; Savard, C; Roth, C L

    2009-12-07

    The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5-15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight.

  5. Effect of energy drink intake before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fares, Maiadah N.; Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Majeed, Farrukh; Badar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of energy drink consumption before exercise on indices of physical performance in untrained females. Methods: This single blind placebo controlled experimental study was carried out at the Physiology Department, University of Dammam, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to May 2012, on 32 healthy female students, in a crossover design. They were given either a standardized energy drink or the placebo 45 minutes before the exercise. Time to exhaustion and the stages of Bruce protocol achieved were noted. Heart rate, blood pressure, peripheral capillary oxygen saturation, and blood lactate were recorded before and after the exercise. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated by formula. Paired sample t-test was used for statistics. Results: The mean age was 19.93±0.8 years, mean height 156.40±3.83 cm, and the mean weight 51.73±3.65 kg. Time to exhaustion in the placebo group was 11.67±1.51 minutes and 11.41±1.56 in the energy drink group (p<0.157). The VO2max in the placebo group was 34.06±6.62, while it was 32.89±6.83 in the energy drink group (p<0.154). There were no significant differences between the placebo and the energy drinks groups in regards to heart rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate levels, before or after the exercise. However, there were significant differences before, immediately, and 30 minutes post exercise for all parameters between each group. Conclusion: The effects of energy drinks intake on physical performance during the exercise in our small sample does not significantly differ from placebo. PMID:25935179

  6. Effect of spray-dried bovine serum on intake, health, and growth of broilers housed in different environments.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J M; Quigley, J D; Russell, L E; Kidd, M T

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments utilizing broilers were conducted in different environments to evaluate the effects of Innavax (INX; spray-dried serum) administered in drinking water on broiler performance. In Exp. 1 (1 to 42 d), 252 Ross x Cobb male broilers were assigned randomly to one of six treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.25% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers (six broilers per pen; seven pens per treatment) were housed in Petersime battery cages (raised wire flooring) in temperature-controlled rooms. Average daily gain, and feed and water intake (as-fed) were not affected (P > 0.05) by experimental treatments. Feed efficiency tended to improve linearly (P = 0.076) from d 0 to 7 with increasing levels of INX, but was unaffected (P > 0.05) during the remaining periods. In Exp. 2 and 3, 800 Ross x Ross 308 male broilers (400 broilers in each trial; 10 broilers per pen; 10 pens per treatment) in two 21-d experiments were assigned randomly to one of four treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.35% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers were housed in floor pens containing clean (Exp. 2) or used (Exp. 3) litter. In Exp. 2, intake, ADG, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) during the first week with increasing levels of INX. During the second week (d 8 to 14), ADG, water intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of INX. In the third week (d 15 to 21), ADG and feed and water intake were not affected (P > 0.10) by level of INX. Overall (d 0 to 21), ADG, intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) with INX. In Exp. 3, ADG, water intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) during each period. Feed intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by experimental treatment during d 0 to 7, but was linearly increased (P < 0.05) from d 8 to 14 and 15 to 21. The greatest growth response of broilers to INX was observed when broilers were housed in floor pens with used

  7. QRFP in Female Rats: Effects on High Fat Food Intake and Hypothalamic Gene Expression across the Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Primeaux, Stefany D.

    2011-01-01

    Pyroglutamylated arginine-phenylalanineamide peptide (QRFP) is a neuropeptide involved in feeding behavior. Central administration of QRFP selectively increases the intake of a high fat diet in male rats. QRFP administration also stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in male and female rats. Prepro-QRFP mRNA is expressed in localized regions of the mediobasal hypothalamus which are abundant in neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and receptor systems important for food intake regulation and reproductive behaviors. The current experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of centrally administered QRFP-26 on the intake of a high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal from fat) in female rats and to investigate alterations in hypothalamic prepro-QRFP and its receptors, GPR130a and GPR103b, mRNA levels over the estrous cycle. In Experiment 1, female rats were administered QRFP-26 (intracerebroventricular; 0.3nmol, 0.5nmol, 1.0nmol) in rats consuming either a HFD or a low fat diet. All doses of QRFP-26 selectively increased the intake of the HFD in female rats. These data suggest that QRFP-26 regulates the intake of energy dense foods in female rats, which is similar to previous findings in male rats. In Experiment 2, hypothalamic levels of prepro-QRFP mRNA and its receptors were assessed during diestrus, proestrus, or estrus. The level of prepro-QRFP mRNA in the ventromedial/arcuate nucleus (VMH/ARC) of the hypothalamus was increased during proestrus, which suggests that endogenous estrogen levels regulate QRFP expression in the VMH/ARC. These data suggest that QRFP may play a role in coordinating feeding behaviors with reproductive function when energy demand is increased. PMID:21473894

  8. Effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition changes in mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F; DeMars, Lana C; Johnson, LuAnn K

    2011-07-01

    The present study investigated effects of the physical form of the diet on food intake, growth, and body composition in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed isocaloric diets (AIN93G or a modification containing 25% wheat) in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 1, mice were assigned into 4 groups offered the AIN93G or the wheat-modified diet in powdered or pelleted form. In experiment 2, mice were pair-fed the powdered diets to the ad libitum level of food intake of those fed the pelleted form of the respective diets. Body weight, food intake, and fecal excretion were recorded, and body composition was assessed on mice 1 wk before termination of the experiment. Mice fed the powdered diets showed greater increases in body weight in 2 wk of feeding than did mice fed the pelleted diets. Compared with the pelleted diets, the powdered diets supported an approximately 85% increase in the fat-mass:body-mass ratio and a 2-fold increase in the abdominal-fat-weight:carcass-weight ratio. In addition, mice fed the powdered diet showed significantly greater plasma concentrations of insulin and leptin and significantly lower plasma adiponectin, compared with their pellet-fed counterparts. Food intake of mice fed the powdered diet was 11% greater for the AIN93G and 16% greater for the wheat diet compared with that of the respective pelleted diet. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6 mice responded to the physical form of these diets in terms of food intake, which affected their growth, body composition, and plasma concentrations of insulin and adipocytokines.

  9. Acute effect of alginate-based preload on satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, Morten; Kristensen, Mette; Belza, Anita; Knudsen, Jes C; Astrup, Arne

    2012-09-01

    Viscous dietary fibers such as sodium alginate extracted from brown seaweed have received much attention lately for their potential role in energy regulation through the inhibition of energy intake and increase of satiety feelings. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect on postprandial satiety feelings, energy intake, and gastric emptying rate (GER), by the paracetamol method, of two different volumes of an alginate-based preload in normal-weight subjects. In a four-way placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial, 20 subjects (age: 25.9 ± 3.4 years; BMI: 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomly assigned to receive a 3% preload concentration of either low volume (LV; 9.9 g alginate in 330 ml) or high volume (HV; 15.0 g alginate in 500 ml) alginate-based beverage, or an iso-volume placebo beverage. The preloads were ingested 30 min before a fixed breakfast and again before an ad libitum lunch. Consumption of LV-alginate preload induced a significantly lower (8.0%) energy intake than the placebo beverage (P = 0.040) at the following lunch meal, without differences in satiety feelings or paracetamol concentrations. The HV alginate significantly increased satiety feelings (P = 0.038), reduced hunger (P = 0.042) and the feeling of prospective food consumption (P = 0.027), and reduced area under the curve (iAUC) paracetamol concentrations compared to the placebo (P = 0.05). However, only a 5.5% reduction in energy intake was observed for HV alginate (P = 0.20). Although they are somewhat contradictory, our results suggest that alginate consumption does affect satiety feelings and energy intake. However, further investigation on the volume of alginate administered is needed before inferring that this fiber has a possible role in short-term energy regulation.

  10. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium.

  11. Effects of dry matter intake restriction on diet digestion, energy partitioning, phosphorus retention, and ruminal fermentation by beef steers.

    PubMed

    Clark, J H; Olson, K C; Schmidt, T B; Linville, M L; Alkire, D O; Meyer, D L; Rentfrow, G K; Carr, C C; Berg, E P

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMI restriction on diet digestion, ruminal fermentation, ME intake, and P retention by beef steers. In Exp. 1, twelve Angus x steers (average initial BW = 450 +/- 18 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at intake levels corresponding approximately to 100% (ad libitum, AL), 90% (IR90), or 80% (IR80) of ad libitum DMI. In Exp. 2, twelve crossbred steers (average initial BW = 445 +/- 56 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at AL or IR80. All diets delivered similar total NE, MP, Ca, and P per day. During both experiments, fecal DM output by IR80 was less (P intake was similar (P >/= 0.20) among treatments during both experiments, whereas P retention was similar (P >/= 0.46) among treatments during Exp. 1. Total VFA and the molar proportion of acetate of AL were greater (P intakes constant decreased fecal DM output and changed ruminal fermentation patterns in finishing steers. Improvements in performance associated with programmed-feeding regimens of the type studied here do not appear to be related to changes in diet digestion or ME intake.

  12. Effect of different stressors on voluntary ethanol intake in ethanol-dependent and nondependent C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Marcelo F; Anderson, Rachel I; Becker, Howard C

    2016-03-01

    Several animal models have evaluated the effect of stress on voluntary ethanol intake with mixed results. The experiments reported here examined the effects of different stressors on voluntary ethanol consumption in dependent and nondependent adult male C57BL/6J mice. In Experiment 1, restraint, forced swim, and social defeat stress procedures all tended to reduce ethanol intake in nondependent mice regardless of whether the stress experience occurred 1 h or 4 h prior to ethanol access. The reduction in ethanol consumption was most robust following restraint stress. Experiment 2 examined the effects of forced swim stress and social defeat stress on drinking in a dependence model that involved repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure. Repeated exposure to forced swim stress prior to intervening test drinking periods that followed repeated cycles of CIE exposure further increased ethanol consumption in CIE-exposed mice while not altering intake in nondependent mice. In contrast, repeated exposure to the social defeat stressor in a similar manner reduced ethanol consumption in CIE-exposed mice while not altering drinking in nondependent mice. Results from Experiment 3 confirmed this selective effect of forced swim stress increasing ethanol consumption in mice with a history of CIE exposure, and also demonstrated that enhanced drinking is only observed when the forced swim stressor is administered during each test drinking week, but not if it is applied only during the final test week. Collectively, these studies point to a unique interaction between repeated stress experience and CIE exposure, and also suggest that such an effect depends on the nature of the stressor. Future studies will need to further explore the generalizability of these results, as well as mechanisms underlying the ability of forced swim stress to selectively further enhance ethanol consumption in dependent (CIE-exposed) mice but not alter intake in nondependent animals.

  13. Stimulus satiation: effects of repeated exposure to foods on pleasantness and intake.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, M M; Pirie, L M; Nabb, S

    2002-02-01

    Frequent and repeated exposure to foods produces stimulus satiation or monotony. To explore further the nature of stimulus satiation, two experiments were conducted. Experiment 1 investigated the influence of initial pleasantness and frequency of intake on monotony. Tests showed that bread and butter was eaten more frequently but was liked less than chocolate. Therefore, normal-weight, healthy males were randomly assigned to either a chocolate condition (CC, N=13) or bread and butter condition (BC, N=16). All subjects received fixed amounts of the assigned food (67g/1473kJ of chocolate or 95g/1355kJ of bread and butter) every day for 22 days. On days 1, 8, 15 and 22 subjects consumed this food ad libitum. Pleasantness of taste and desire to eat chocolate declined significantly over time but no such changes were observed for bread and butter. Experiment 2 examined intake, pleasantness and desire to eat chocolate in 53 subjects over a 15 day period, with 3 conditions: control (CS: N=15), fixed (FS: N=20) and variable (VS: N=18). CS received no chocolate except on test days (days 1, 8 and 15), FS received 67g/1473kJ of chocolate daily and VS received increasing amounts of chocolate from 57g/1251kJ on day 1 to 86g/1888kJ by day 12. Pleasantness and desire to eat chocolate declined over time with this being more pronounced for F and V subjects. However, ad libitum intake increased over time. Both experiments demonstrated significant changes in pleasantness and desire to eat chocolate, but no commensurate decline in intake. Thus, although stimulus satiation occurred for subjective ratings of pleasantness and desire to eat chocolate, intake remained unaffected. This apparent dissociation between pleasantness and intake may reflect different processes underlying liking and wanting.

  14. Reviewing the Effects of L-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, João A B; Zampieri, Thais T; Donato, Jose

    2015-05-22

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss.

  15. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Donato, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  16. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  17. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  18. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    PubMed

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk.

  19. Cardiovascular Effects of Dietary Salt Intake in Aged Healthy Cats: A 2-Year Prospective Randomized, Blinded, and Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Chetboul, Valérie; Reynolds, Brice Stéphane; Trehiou-Sechi, Emilie; Nguyen, Patrick; Concordet, Didier; Sampedrano, Carolina Carlos; Testault, Isabelle; Elliott, Jonathan; Abadie, Jérôme; Biourge, Vincent; Lefebvre, Hervé Pierre

    2014-01-01

    High salt dry expanded diets are commercially available for cats to increase water intake and urine volume, as part of the prevention or treatment of naturally occurring urinary stone formation (calcium oxalates and struvites). However, chronic high salt intake may have potential cardiovascular adverse effects in both humans, especially in aging individuals, and several animal models. The objective of this prospective, randomized, blinded, and controlled study was to assess the long-term cardiovascular effects of high salt intake in healthy aged cats. Twenty healthy neutered cats (10.1±2.4 years) were randomly allocated into 2 matched groups. One group was fed a high salt diet (3.1 g/Mcal sodium, 5.5 g/Mcal chloride) and the other group a control diet of same composition except for salt content (1.0 g/Mcal sodium, 2.2 g/Mcal chloride). Clinical examination, systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure measurements, standard transthoracic echocardiography and conventional Doppler examinations were repeatedly performed on non-sedated cats by trained observers before and over 24 months after diet implementation. Radial and longitudinal velocities of the left ventricular free wall and the interventricular septum were also assessed in systole and diastole using 2-dimensional color tissue Doppler imaging. Statistics were performed using a general linear model. No significant effect of dietary salt intake was observed on systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure values. Out of the 33 tested imaging variables, the only one affected by dietary salt intake was the radial early on late diastolic velocity ratio assessed in the endocardium of the left ventricular free wall, statistically lower in the high salt diet group at 12 months only (P = 0.044). In conclusion, in this study involving healthy aged cats, chronic high dietary salt intake was not associated with an increased risk of systemic arterial hypertension and myocardial dysfunction, as observed in some

  20. Dietary fat supplementation effects on in vitro nutrient disappearance and in vivo nutrient intake and total tract digestibility by horses.

    PubMed

    Bush, J A; Freeman, D E; Kline, K H; Merchen, N R; Fahey, G C

    2001-01-01

    Addition of fat to the diet of the equine is a popular method of increasing energy density of the diet while reducing feed intake. Reducing feed intake is of interest to race horse trainers because additional feed is seen as additional weight and, therefore, a hindrance to performance. Limited information is available regarding the interactions of fat with other dietary components, particularly fiber, in the equine digestive system. The effect of dietary fat on in vitro nutrient disappearance in equine cecal fluid was studied in Exp. 1 using a split-plot design within a 2 x 2 Latin square. Two ponies were fed alfalfa (ALF) alone or alfalfa plus 100 g/d corn oil. Five substrates were used to determine in vitro DM disappearance, OM disappearance, NDF disappearance, and total dietary fiber (TDF) disappearance. The substrates included: ALF, tall fescue (TF), red clover (RC), soybean hulls (SBH), and rolled oats (RO). Fat supplementation did not affect in vitro DM, OM, or NDF disappearance. Addition of fat to the diet increased (P < 0.05) the disappearance of NDF in RO. Among substrates, in vitro DM and OM disappearance were highest (P < 0.05) for RO, followed by SBH, ALF, RC, and TF. In vitro NDF and TDF disappearance were highest (P < 0.05) for SBH, followed by RO, ALF, RC, and TF. In Exp. 2, the effects of varying levels of fat on nutrient intake and total tract digestibility were examined using a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four mature mares were fed a 60% forage-40% concentrate diet containing different concentrations of fat: 0% supplemental fat control (C); 5% supplemental corn oil (5% CO); 10% supplemental corn oil (10% CO); or 15% supplemental corn oil (15% CO). Treatment did not affect intake of the concentrate portion of the diet or CP, gross energy, or NDF intake. Mares consuming the C diet had the highest (P < 0.05) intake of alfalfa cubes, DM, and OM, followed by those on the 10, 5, and 15% CO treatments, respectively. Treatment did not affect nutrient

  1. Effect of age and food intake on dietary carbon turnover recorded in sheep wool.

    PubMed

    Zazzo, Antoine; Moloney, Aidan P; Monahan, Frank J; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Schmidt, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    We present the results of a series of controlled feeding experiments with sheep, designed to investigate the effects of age and level of food intake on the kinetics of incorporation of the dietary carbon signal into wool. Four different groups of three sheep each, ranging in age from 6 to 78 months, were fed a C(3) diet and switched to a C(4) diet for up to 250 days. Different quantities of the same C(4) diet were provided to each group, in order to achieve different growth rates (high, low, and no growth). Wool was repeatedly shorn from each animal and processed for delta(13)C analyses. Results show that newly grown wool does not start recording the isotope composition of the new diet immediately after the diet-switch. The time-lag varies according to the age of the animal, from 6 +/- 1 days in lambs to up to 15 +/- 4 days in the older ewes. Wool from fast-growing lambs approached equilibrium faster than that from slow-growing lambs and young ewes, with old ewes being the slowest. However, 3 weeks after the diet-switch, the differences in wool delta(13)C values between the four different groups of animals were relatively small and represented less than 15% of the isotopic difference between the two diets. These results suggest that a single equation can be used to reconstruct previous diets for animals of different age, provided that the diet is similar and all individuals are in positive protein balance.

  2. The effects of railway noise on sleep medication intake: results from the ALPNAP-study.

    PubMed

    Lercher, P; Brink, M; Rudisser, J; Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Baulac, M; Defrance, J

    2010-01-01

    In the 1980s/90s, a number of socio-acoustic surveys and laboratory studies on railway noise effects have observed less reported disturbance/interference with sleep at the same exposure level compared with other modes of transportation. This lower grade of disturbance has received the label "railway bonus", was implemented in noise legislation in a number of European countries and was applied in planning and environmental impact assessments. However, majority of the studies investigating physiological outcomes did not find the bespoke difference. In a telephone survey (N=1643) we investigated the relationship between railway noise and sleep medication intake and the impact of railway noise events on motility parameters during night was assessed with contact-free high resolution actimetry devices. Multiple logistic regression analysis with cubic splines was applied to assess the probability of sleep medication use based on railway sound level and nine covariates. The non-linear exposure-response curve showed a statistically significant leveling off around 60 dB (A), Lden. Age, health status and trauma history were the most important covariates. The results were supported also by a similar analysis based on the indicator "night time noise annoyance". No railway bonus could be observed above 55 dB(A), Lden. In the actimetry study, the slope of rise of train noise events proved to be almost as important a predictor for motility reactions as was the maximum sound pressure level - an observation which confirms similar findings from laboratory experiments and field studies on aircraft noise and sleep disturbance. Legislation using a railway bonus will underestimate the noise impact by about 10 dB (A), Lden under the conditions comparable with those in the survey study. The choice of the noise calculation method may influence the threshold for guideline setting.

  3. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  4. Effectiveness of flavour nutrient learning and mere exposure as mechanisms to increase toddler's intake and preference for green vegetables.

    PubMed

    de Wild, Victoire W T; de Graaf, Cees; Jager, Gerry

    2013-05-01

    Children's consumption of vegetables is still below recommendations. Since preference is the most important predictor of children's intake and most children dislike vegetables, new strategies are needed to increase their preferences for vegetables. Flavour nutrient learning (FNL) could be an effective mechanism to change preferences. Forty healthy toddlers were included in a randomized intervention study. During an intervention period of 7weeks, they consumed vegetable soups (endive and spinach) twice per week. Half of the group received a high-energy variant of one soup (e.g. HE spinach) and a low energy variant of the other (LE endive), whereas for the other half the order was reversed (HE endive, LE spinach). Primary outcome measures were preference and ad libitum consumption (with a maximum of 200g) of both vegetable products (LE), measured before, shortly after the intervention period, and 2 and 6months following conditioning to assess longer-term effects. After completion of the intervention period, 28 children (14 girls and 14 boys, age 35months; SD±8.3) met criteria for FNL to occur, and were included in further data analysis. Results showed a significant increase (~58g) in ad libitum intake for both vegetable soups (stable over time), but irrespective of the energy content. This indicates a robust effect of mere exposure on intake, but no FNL. For preference, however, results showed a significant shift in liking for the vegetable soup consistently paired with high energy, supporting FNL.

  5. Effects of Carbohydrate and Dietary Fiber Intake, Glycemic Index and Glycemic Load on HDL Metabolism in Asian Populations.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Abe, Shinichi; Tada, Norio; Sako, Akahito

    2014-10-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is a lipoprotein which has anti-atherogenic property by reverse cholesterol transport from the peripheral tissues to liver. Low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are associated with the development of coronary artery diseases (CADs). Various epidemiological studies have suggested that the development of CAD increase in individuals with less than 40 mg/dL of HDL-C. In spite of accumulation of evidences which suggest a significant association between low HDL-C and cardiovascular diseases, effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism remained largely unknown. There may be interracial differences in effects of dietary factors on HDL metabolism. Here we reviewed published articles about effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake, glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL), on HDL-C metabolism, regarding meta-analyses and clinical studies performed in Asian population as important articles. Low carbohydrate intake, GI and GL may be beneficially associated with HDL metabolism. Dietary fiber intake may be favorably associated with HDL metabolism in Asian populations.

  6. Suppressive effect on food intake of a potato extract (Potein®) involving cholecystokinin release in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenya; Hira, Tohru; Nakajima, Shingo; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Tsubata, Masahito; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Hara, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We have recently reported that oral gavage of a potato extract (Potein®) suppressed the food intake in rats. The satiating effect of the potato extract was compared in the present study to other protein sources, and the involvement of endogenous cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion was examined. Food consumption was measured in 18-h fasted rats after oral gavage of the potato extract or other protein sources. The CCK-releasing activity of the potato extract was then examined in anesthetized rats with a portal cannula. Oral gavage of the potato extract reduced the food intake in the rats, the effect being greater than with casein and a soybean β-conglycinin hydrolysate. The suppressive effect on appetite of the potato extract was attenuated by treating with a CCK-receptor antagonist (devazepide). The portal CCK concentration was increased after a duodenal administration of the potato extract to anesthetized rats. These results indicate that the potato extract suppressed the food intake in rats through CCK secretion.

  7. Perseveration Augments the Effects of Cognitive Restraint on ad libitum Food Intake in Adults Seeking Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alexis L.; Gluck, Marci E.; Votruba, Suzanne B.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Thearle, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Differences in executive function have been associated with eating behaviors. Our aim was to determine whether measures of executive function predicted ad libitum food intake in subjects seeking weight loss. METHODS This cross-sectional study involved 78 obese, otherwise healthy, individuals (40 female /38 male; age 36±10y; BMI 37.8±7.2 kg/m2) enrolled in weight loss studies, but prior to any intervention. Participants completed the Iowa Gambling Task to evaluate decision making, the Stroop Word Color Task to assess attention, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) to measure perseverative errors, and the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) to measure disinhibition and cognitive restraint. Ad libitum energy intake over 3-days was then collected using a validated vending paradigm. RESULTS Only results from the WCST and the TFEQ correlated with mean daily energy intake. When expressed as a percentage of an individual's calculated weight maintaining energy needs (%WMEN; [mean daily energy consumed/WMEN]*100), intake correlated positively with number of perseverative errors (r = 0.24, p = 0.03) and negatively with cognitive restraint (r2 = −0.51, p<0.0001). In a regression model of %WMEN (r2 = 0.59, p<0.0001) including age, sex, race, disinhibition, restraint, and perseverative error T-score, an interaction between perseveration and restraint was observed (p = 0.05). Greater numbers of perseverative errors intensified the effect of restraint such that subjects with both high restraint and high perseveration, per manual-defined cut-offs, ate the least (median (IQR) = 70 (62, 94) % WMEN), while those with low restraint and high perseveration ate the most (130 (102, 153) %WMEN). Subjects with low perseveration and high versus low restraint ate a median of 84 (70, 86) and 112 (98, 133) %WMEN, respectively. CONCLUSION In obese subjects seeking weight loss, the effects of perseveration on food intake are conditional on the level of dietary restraint, and

  8. Effect of screening out implausible energy intake reports on relationships between diet and BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: We present an updated method for identifying physiologically implausible dietary reports by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) with predicted energy requirements (pER), and we examine the impact of excluding these reports. Research Methods and Procedures: Adult data from the Continu...

  9. Effect of intake pipe on the volumetric efficiency of an internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capetti, Antonio

    1929-01-01

    The writer discusses the phenomena of expansion and compression which alternately take place in the cylinders of four-stroke engines during the induction process at a high mean piston speed due to the inertia and elasticity of the mixture in the intake pipe. The present paper is intended to demonstrate theoretically the existence of a most favorable pipe length for charging.

  10. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  11. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Chascione, C.; Elwyn, D.H.; Davila, M.; Gil, K.M.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M. )

    1987-12-01

    Rates of synthesis, from ({sup 14}C)glucose, of fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis) and glycerol (triglyceride synthesis) were measured in biopsies of adipose tissue from nutritionally depleted patients given low- or high-carbohydrate intravenous nutrition. Simultaneously, energy expenditure and whole-body lipogenesis were measured by indirect calorimetry. Rates of whole-body lipogenesis were zero on the low-carbohydrate diet and averaged 1.6 g{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}{center dot}day{sup {minus}1} on the high-carbohydrate diet. In vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis increased 3-fold going from the low to the high intake; rates of fatty acid synthesis increased {approximately}80-fold. In vitro, lipogenesis accounted for <0.1% of triglyceride synthesis on the low intake and 4% on the high intake. On the high-carbohydrate intake, in vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis accounted for 61% of the rates of unidirectional triglyceride synthesis measured by indirect calorimetry. In vitro rates of lipogenesis accounted for 7% of whole-body lipogenesis. Discrepancies between in vitro rates of fatty acid synthesis from glucose, compared with acetate and citrate, as reported by others, suggest that in depleted patients on hypercaloric high-carbohydrate diets, adipose tissue may account for up to 40% of whole-body lipogenesis.

  12. Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based Incentives: Interaction with Intake Stimulant Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q.; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant…

  13. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal supplemental (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of BW). Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 tre...

  14. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing activated charcoal at 0.0, 0.33, 0.67 or 1.00 g / kg of body weight. Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment levels. La...

  15. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    24 (P=0.02) in HF than LF sows (at T0: 8.6±1.1 vs. 11.9±1.1 mg/mL; at T24: 2.5±0.7 vs. 4.8±0.7 mg/mL). In conclusion, dietary fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  16. Effects of feed intake and genetics on tissue nitrogen-15 enrichment and feed conversion efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Logan, C M; Dewhurst, R J; Hodge, S; Zhou, H; Edwards, G R

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sheep genetics and feed intake on nitrogen isotopic fractionation (ΔN) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE; live weight gain/DMI), using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 2 levels of genetic merit for growth (high vs. low) and 2 levels of feed intake (110 vs. 170% of ME for maintenance [MEm]). No effect of genetic merit was detected for live weight gain ( = 0.64), FCE ( = 0.46), plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.52), plasma glucose ( = 0.78), and ΔN of wool ( = 0.45), blood ( = 0.09), and plasma ( = 0.51). Sheep receiving 170% of MEm had 175% higher live weight gain ( < 0.001) and 77% higher FCE ( < 0.001) than sheep receiving 110% of MEm. There was no difference among treatments at the beginning of the study for either blood or plasma ∆N, but the treatment groups started to diverge in blood and plasma ∆N at 21 and 7 d, respectively. Blood, plasma, and wool samples were enriched in N compared with feed. There was a higher blood, plasma, and wool ∆N for the low feed intake group than the high feed intake group ( < 0.001 in all cases). Across the 4 treatment groups, higher FCE in sheep was associated with lower ∆N for plasma, blood, and wool. Overall, the results are consistent with the potential of ∆N as a rapid, low-cost biomarker of FCE in sheep, despite there being no effects of genetic treatment on FCE and ∆N.

  17. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure on energy intake in obstructive sleep apnea: A pilot sham-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Shechter, Ari; Kovtun, Kyle; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is among the leading risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A reciprocal relationship between obesity and OSA has been proposed, which may be due to excessive food intake. We conducted a pilot study to test the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on energy intake (EI) in OSA patients using a sham-controlled crossover design. In-laboratory total daily EI was assessed after 2 mo of active and sham CPAP. Four men were enrolled (age ± SEM: 51.8 ± 2.1 y; body mass index: 31.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2). All received active treatment first. Meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner, snack) were served in excess portions at fixed times and additional palatable snacks were freely available throughout the day. Total EI was lower after active (3744 ± 511 kcal/d) vs. sham (4030 ± 456 kcal/d) CPAP but this difference was not significant (p = 0.51) due to variability in the free snack intake. When only fixed eating occasions were considered, daily EI was significantly lower in the active (3105 ± 513 kcal/d) vs. sham (3559 ± 420 kcal/d) condition (p = 0.006). This small pilot and feasibility study is the first to utilize a sham-controlled design to investigate the effects of CPAP treatment on objective measures of EI. Findings suggest that CPAP may cause a reduction in fixed meal intake. In demonstrating feasibility of study methodology, our study also suggests a larger randomized sham-controlled trial be conducted to fully characterize the effects of CPAP treatment on EI and energy balance overall. PMID:27769851

  18. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  19. The assessment of doses and effects from intakes of radioactive particles.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, J D; Stather, J W

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides after entry into the body and the radiation doses received by individual tissues depend on the chemical nature of the element, the physicochemical form of the intake, the radioactive half-life of the isotope and the type and energy of the emissions. Ingestion of radionuclides in insoluble particles will result in radiation doses being delivered to tissues of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract; other tissues will also be irradiated by nuclides with penetrating photons emissions (gamma) but doses may be largely confined to the GI tract for charged particle emissions (alpha, beta). Ingestion of more soluble forms will lead to greater absorption to blood and deposition in other tissues and therefore may result in greater doses to other tissues. Similar considerations apply to inhaled material and to the entry of radionuclides through cuts or wounds. For ingested materials, including particles, more information is needed on uptake and retention in intestinal tissues and consequent doses to sensitive cells, particularly for alpha emitters. There has been concern that the pattern of distribution of activity throughout irradiated tissues may influence the extent of damage, particularly for alpha emitters because of the localised deposition of energy and their greater relative biological effectiveness compared with beta/gamma emitters. Aggregation of activity has the potential to result in greater acute tissue damage and has been shown, for example, to result in focalised pneumonitis and fibrosis in the lung and ulceration of the skin. The main long-term effect of irradiation of tissues is the induction of malignant change, although hereditary disease may also be of concern following irradiation of the gonads. There are only limited data available to compare the effect on cancer induction of heterogeneous and homogeneous irradiation of tissues. However, the available information, for irradiation of the lung, skin or liver, indicates that in

  20. Effects of different intermittent peptide YY (3-36) dosing strategies on food intake, body weight, and adiposity in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Reidelberger, Roger D; Haver, Alvin C; Chelikani, Prasanth K; Buescher, James L

    2008-08-01

    Chronic administration of anorexigenic substances to experimental animals by injections or continuous infusion typically produces either no effect or a transient reduction in food intake and body weight. Our aim here was to identify an intermittent dosing strategy for intraperitoneal infusion of peptide YY(3-36) [PYY(3-36)] that produces a sustained reduction in daily food intake and adiposity in diet-induced obese rats. Rats (665+/-10 g body wt, 166+/-7 g body fat) with intraperitoneal catheters tethered to infusion swivels had free access to a high-fat diet. Vehicle-treated rats (n=23) had relatively stable food intake, body weight, and adiposity during the 9-wk test period. None of 15 PYY(3-36) dosing regimens administered in succession to a second group of rats (n=22) produced a sustained 15-25% reduction in daily food intake for >5 days, although body weight and adiposity were reduced across the 9-wk period by 12% (594+/-15 vs. 672+/-15 g) and 43% (96+/-7 vs. 169+/-9 g), respectively. The declining inhibitory effect of PYY(3-36) on daily food intake when the interinfusion interval was >or=3 h appeared to be due in part to an increase in food intake between infusions. The declining inhibitory effect of PYY(3-36) on daily food intake when the interinfusion interval was <3 h suggested possible receptor downregulation and tolerance to frequent PYY(3-36) administration; however, food intake significantly increased when PYY(3-36) treatments were discontinued for 1 day following apparent loss in treatment efficacies. Together, these results demonstrate the development of a potent homeostatic response to increase food intake when PYY(3-36) reduces food intake and energy reserves in diet-induced obese rats.

  1. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  2. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake, palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gitte; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity. Methods: The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar. To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DIO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome, the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats. Liraglutide (200 μg/kg, sc) was administered bi-daily, and sibutramine (5 mg/kg, po) was administered once daily for 23 d. Results: Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake, body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance. Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubra-diet, the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet, indicating a shift in food preference. Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index, primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusion: This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference. PMID:22301859

  3. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  4. Physiological effects of seawater intake in adult harp seals during phase I of fasting.

    PubMed

    Storeheier, P V; Nordøy, E S

    2001-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that harp seals may drink considerable amounts of seawater. The current study was undertaken to study the physiological responses to bolus administration of seawater. Adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) were fasted without access to water for 48 h and then given 1000 or 1500 ml of seawater by a stomach tube. Changes in urine and plasma parameters were thereafter monitored for another 12-20 h. Urine production and urine excretion rate of Na+ and Cl- increased soon after administration and reached a maximum 3-4 h later. Urine osmolality was kept rather stable and high ( approximately 1500 mOsm x kg(-1)) following seawater administration, due to a drop in urine concentration of urea that was proportional to the simultaneous increase in urine concentration of NaCl. Plasma osmolality remained at approximately 340 mOsm x kg(-1), while plasma concentration of urea decreased some 20-25% due to increased excretion of urea when seawater was ingested. Despite bolus administrations of seawater of up to approximately 2% of body mass, homeostasis was maintained and no ill effects observed. It is concluded that the concentrating abilities of the kidneys of harp seals are sufficient to prevent net loss of body water following seawater ingestion. Seawater ingestion may, moreover, increase urinary osmotic space and thus serve as a mechanism to excrete additional urea produced during phase I of fasting.

  5. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  6. The effect of increasing dairy calcium intake of adolescent girls on changes in body fat and weight.

    PubMed

    Lappe, Joan M; McMahon, Donald J; Laughlin, Ann; Hanson, Corrine; Desmangles, Jean Claude; Begley, Margaret; Schwartz, Misty

    2017-03-15

    Background: Overweight is epidemic in adolescents and is a major concern because it tracks into adulthood. Evidence supports the efficacy of high-calcium, high-dairy diets in achieving healthy weight in adults. However, no randomized controlled trials of the effect of dairy food on weight and body fat in adolescents have been reported to our knowledge.Objective: The aim was to determine whether increasing calcium intake to recommended amounts with dairy foods in adolescent girls with habitually low calcium intakes would decrease body fat gain compared with girls who continued their low calcium intake. Participants had above-the-median body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)).Design: We enrolled 274 healthy postmenarcheal 13- to 14-y-old overweight girls who had calcium intakes of ≤600 mg/d in a 12-mo randomized controlled trial. Girls were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to 1 of 2 groups within each of 3 BMI percentiles: 50th to <70th, 70th to <85th, and 85th to <98th. The assignments were 1) dairy, which included low-fat milk or yogurt servings providing ≥1200 mg Ca/d or 2) control, which included the usual diet of ≤600 mg Ca/d.Results: We failed to detect a statistically significant difference between groups in percentage of body fat gain over 12 mo (mean ± SEM: dairy 0.40% ± 0.53% > control; P < 0.45). The effect of the intervention did not differ by BMI percentile stratum. There was no difference in weight change between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our findings that the dairy group gained body fat similar to the control group provide no support for dairy food as a stratagem to decrease body fat or weight gain in overweight adolescent girls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01066806.

  7. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  8. Effects of propionibacteria and yeast culture fed to steers on nutrient intake and site and extent of digestion.

    PubMed

    Lehloenya, K V; Krehbiel, C R; Mertz, K J; Rehberger, T G; Spicer, L J

    2008-02-01

    The effects of feeding Propionibacterium strain P169 (P169), yeast culture (XPY), and their combination on nutrient intake, site and extent of digestion, and ruminal kinetics were evaluated in a completely randomized experimental design. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus x Hereford steers (n = 12) were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in each of 2 periods: 1) control, fed a sorghum silage-based total mixed ration; 2) P169, fed the control plus P169 (6 x 10(11) cfu/steer per d); 3) XPY, fed the control plus XPY (56 g/steer per d); and 4) P169 + XPY, fed the control plus P169 and XPY (at 6 x 10(11) cfu/steer per d and 56 g/steer per d, respectively). Each period lasted 21 d; d 1 to 15 were used for diet adaptation and d 16 to 21 were used for fecal, duodenal, ruminal, and blood sample collection. Steers were individually housed and fed. Feeding XPY tended to decrease intake of organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and N, and decreased intake of neutral detergent fiber. However, feeding XPY alone tended to increase total tract digestibility of organic matter, N, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Ruminal digestibility, duodenal flow, microbial N synthesis, microbial efficiency, and fluid and particulate passage rates were not affected by dietary treatments. Feeding P169 tended to decrease molar proportion of acetate, increased molar proportion of propionate (by 9.7%), and tended to decrease acetate:propionate ratio compared with control steers. No other effects of XPY or P169 on ruminal fermentation were observed. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. Our results suggest that feeding P169 alters ruminal metabolism toward increased propionate without affecting feed intake or ruminal kinetics, whereas feeding XPY alone tended to increase total tract digestibilities of nutrients.

  9. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: effect on pasture intake and lactation performance.

    PubMed

    McCormick, M E; Ward, J D; Redfearn, D D; French, D D; Blouin, D C; Chapa, A M; Fernandez, J M

    2001-04-01

    One hundred twenty-four cows (92 multiparous and 32 primiparous) were used to evaluate the effect of grain supplements containing high crude protein [(22.8% CP, 5.3% rumen undegradable protein (RUP), dry matter basis], moderate CP (16.6% CP, 6.1% RUP), and moderate CP with supplemental RUP (16.2% CP, 10.8% RUP) on lactation performance of Holstein cows rotationally grazing annual ryegrass-oat pastures. Supplemental protein was provided by solvent extracted soybean meal in the high CP and moderate CP supplements and as a corn gluten meal-blood meal mixture (2.8:1) in the moderate CP, high RUP supplement. Cows were blocked according to previous mature milk equivalent production and calving date (partum group; 0 d in milk or postpartum group; 21 to 65 d in milk) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments. Grain was individually fed, at approximately a 1:3 grain to milk ratio, before a.m. and p.m milkings. The study was replicated during two grazing seasons that averaged 199 d. Cows had ad libitum access to bermudagrass hay while on pasture (dry matter intake = 1.3 kg/d). Protein supplementation had no effect on study long pasture dry matter (12.7 +/- 1.0 kg/d) or total dry matter (23.9 +/- 1.2 kg/d) consumption. Protein concentration did not affect actual milk yield of either calving group (high CP vs. moderate CP); however, postpartum group cows receiving high CP grain supplements maintained greater milk fat concentrations (3.34 vs. 3.11%), which led to higher fat-corrected milk (FCM) yields than control cows receiving moderate CP grain diets (30.3 vs. 28.9 kg/d). Crude protein concentration in milk of high CP-supplemented, postpartum group cows was also higher than moderate CP cows (3.42 vs. 3.27%). Additional RUP did not increase FCM yield above that generated by moderate CP grain diets for partum (34.3 vs. 32.9 kg/d) or postpartum-group cows (28.9 vs. 28.2 kg/d). Increasing CP concentration of grain supplement did not affect milk yield of Holstein cows grazing

  10. Effect of water hyacinth (eichhornia crassipes) silage on intake and nutrient digestibility in cattle fed rice straw and cottonseed cake.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients.

  11. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  12. Amino acid and energy interrelationships in growing beef steers: I. The effect of level of feed intake on ruminal characteristics and intestinal amino acid flows.

    PubMed

    Ludden, P A; Kerley, M S

    1997-09-01

    Five cannulated Holstein steers (538 +/- 35 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with extra observations to examine the influence of level of feed intake on postruminal flow and intestinal disappearance of N and amino acids (AA). Treatments consisted of a single diet fed at four levels of energy intake (1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 times NEm requirement). The diet was formulated on a DM basis to contain 13.25% CP using cracked corn (56.1%), soybean hulls (18%), cottonseed hulls (15%), soybean oil (4.25%), and corn gluten meal (5.6%). Increasing feed intake linearly increased (P < .0001) the quantity of OM truly digested in the stomach but tended to decrease (P = .11) OM digestion as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake had no effect (P > .10) on ruminal pH, NH3 N, or peptide concentration or on particulate and fluid passage rates. However, total VFA concentration increased linearly (P < .0001) and the acetate: propionate ratio decreased linearly (P < .0001) as feed intake increased. Flows of microbial and nonmicrobial N at the duodenum linearly increased (P < .002) with increasing intake but did not differ (P > .10) as a percentage of intake. Level of feed intake did not affect (P > .10) microbial efficiency, N disappearance from the small intestine, or total tract N digestibility. With the exception of tryptophan, flows of all individual AA increased linearly (P < .01) with increasing intake. As a percentage of duodenal flow, AA digestion in the small intestine did not differ (P > .10), leading to a linear increase (P < .10) in the net quantity of individual (with the exception of tryptophan) and total AA disappearing from the small intestine as feed intake increased. Likewise, the profile of AA (except tryptophan) disappearing from the small intestine was unaffected (P > .10) by level of feed intake. When compared with predicted requirements for a 227-kg growing beef steer, Arg, Met, His, and Lys were suggested to be the most limiting AA for

  13. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women.

  14. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, Janne K; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H; Yde, Christian C; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2016-02-23

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate, butyrate, propionate, malonate, cholesterol and glycerol tended to be affected. Overall, even though these effects were not accompanied by a higher weight loss, the present metabolomics data reveal that a high dairy intake is associated with endogenous metabolic effects and effects on gut microbial activity that potentially impact body weight regulation and health. Moreover, ASCA has a great potential for exploring the effect of intervention factors and identifying altered metabolites in a multi-factorial metabolomic study.

  15. Metabolic Effects of a 24-Week Energy-Restricted Intervention Combined with Low or High Dairy Intake in Overweight Women: An NMR-Based Metabolomics Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Lorenzen, Janne K.; Astrup, Arne; Larsen, Lesli H.; Yde, Christian C.; Clausen, Morten R.; Bertram, Hanne Christine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of a 24-week energy-restricted intervention with low or high dairy intake (LD or HD) on the metabolic profiles of urine, blood and feces in overweight/obese women by NMR spectroscopy combined with ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis (ASCA). A significant effect of dairy intake was found on the urine metabolome. HD intake increased urinary citrate, creatinine and urea excretion, and decreased urinary excretion of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and hippurate relative to the LD intake, suggesting that HD intake was associated with alterations in protein catabolism, energy metabolism and gut microbial activity. In addition, a significant time effect on the blood metabolome was attributed to a decrease in blood lipid and lipoprotein levels due to the energy restriction. For the fecal metabolome, a trend for a diet effect was found and a series of metabolites, such as acetate, butyrate, propionate, malonate, cholesterol and glycerol tended to be affected. Overall, even though these effects were not accompanied by a higher weight loss, the present metabolomics data reveal that a high dairy intake is associated with endogenous metabolic effects and effects on gut microbial activity that potentially impact body weight regulation and health. Moreover, ASCA has a great potential for exploring the effect of intervention factors and identifying altered metabolites in a multi-factorial metabolomic study. PMID:26907339

  16. The potential of peer social norms to shape food intake in adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of effects and moderators.

    PubMed

    Stok, F Marijn; de Vet, Emely; de Ridder, Denise T D; de Wit, John B F

    2016-09-01

    This systematic review aims to assess the role that peer social norms play in shaping young people's food intake, focusing on the important questions of for whom and when peer social norms are related to how much young people eat. Thirty-three eligible studies were reviewed (17 correlational, 16 experimental). All but one correlational studies found significant associations between norms and food intake. All experimental studies found effects of norm manipulations on food intake, and some evidence was found of behavioural spillover effects of norms. Four moderators were distilled from our literature synthesis that stipulate for whom and when peer social norms are related to food intake: identification with the norm referent group and eating-related habit strength were found to moderate the effects of social norms on food intake; forceful injunctive norms were found not to be related to food intake; and the influence of norms seemed restricted to types of foods typically consumed in the presence of peers. The findings from this literature synthesis have important implications for research, and moderators are discussed in light of psychological theory. Where applicable, potential implications for the development of social norm-based interventions to improve young people's food intake are also highlighted.

  17. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  18. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  19. Intake of phytate and its effect on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn) and calcium in Chinese preschool children

    SciTech Connect

    Lei Sian; Liu Shengjie )

    1991-03-15

    A metabolic balance experiment of 2 periods was conducted. In period 1, foods were eaten as usual. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 538 {plus minus} 18 mg/day, 829 {plus minus} 0.4 mg/day and 341 {plus minus} 8 mg/day respectively. The molar ratio of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 14 {plus minus} 2% and 29 {plus minus} 9%. According to the usual diet of children in rural areas of China, products of corn and soybean were added in period 2. Before period 2, subjects had been adapted to the diet for one week. Intakes of phytic acid, Zn and calcium were 826 {plus minus} 26 mg/day, 7.7 {plus minus} 0.16 mg/day and 343 {plus minus} 6 mg/day respectively. The molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn and calcium were 10.64 and 0.14. The absorption of Zn and calcium were 13 {plus minus} 2% and 16 {plus minus} 2%. In summary intake of Chinese children was 80% of US RDA and calcium was 43% of US RDA. The absorption of Zn and calcium were low. Phytic acid was one of the factors affecting the bioavailability of calcium while inhibitory effect of phytic acid could not be found on Zn absorption in current dietary condition of Chinese children.

  20. Long-term effects of repeated maternal separation and ethanol intake on HPA axis responsiveness in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Odeon, María Mercedes; Yamauchi, Laura; Grosman, Mauricio; Acosta, Gabriela Beatriz

    2017-02-15

    It has been shown that early life manipulations produce behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. The long term consequences of repeated maternal separation (RMS) plus cold stress and ethanol intake were evaluated during adolescence and adult rats on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in male adult Wistar rats. RMS+ cold stress was applied from postnatal day (PD) 2 in which the pups were separated from their mothers and exposed to cold stress (4°C) 1h per day for 20days; controls remained with their mothers. Then they were exposed to either voluntary ethanol (6%) or dextrose (1%) intake for 7days: PD22-29 and PD59-66. Half of the animals were sacrificed, while the others were exposed to acute stress (AS) for 2h and then they were killed. RMS+ cold stress: a) increased voluntary ethanol intake in adolescent and adult rats; b) reduced protein expression (Western measurements) in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in hypothalamus (Hyp) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in hippocampus (Hic) while increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in Hic; c) decreased plasmatic levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and increased corticosterone (COR) levels in HPA axis, d) adult rats exposure a new AS incremented ACTH and COR levels. However, this modification did not alter the HPA axis capacity to respond to a new type of stressor. These results demonstrate the consequences of early life stress on the vulnerability of ethanol consumption and HPA axis responsiveness to a stressor in adult rats.

  1. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  2. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc.

  3. Hypothalamic KLF4 mediates leptin's effects on food intake via AgRP.

    PubMed

    Imbernon, Monica; Sanchez-Rebordelo, Estrella; Gallego, Rosalia; Gandara, Marina; Lear, Pamela; Lopez, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2014-07-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger-type transcription factor expressed in a range of tissues that plays multiple functions. We report that hypothalamic KLF4 represents a new transcription factor specifically modulating agouti-related protein (AgRP) expression in vivo. Hypothalamic KLF4 colocalizes with AgRP neurons and is modulated by nutritional status and leptin. Over-expression of KLF4 in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) induces food intake and increases body weight through the specific stimulation of AgRP, as well as blunting leptin sensitivity in lean rats independent of forkhead box protein 01 (FoxO1). Down-regulation of KLF4 in the ARC inhibits fasting-induced food intake in both lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Silencing KLF4, however, does not, on its own, enhance peripheral leptin sensitivity in DIO rats.

  4. Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-10-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant abusers enrolled in outpatient counseling treatment (N. M. Petry, J. M. Peirce, et al., 2005) to examine this question. The first study urine was used to stratify participants into stimulant negative (n = 306) versus positive (n = 108) subgroups. Abstinence incentives significantly improved retention in those testing negative but not in those testing positive. Findings suggest that stimulant abusers presenting to treatment with a stimulant-negative urine benefit from abstinence incentives, but alternative treatment approaches are needed for those who test stimulant positive at intake.

  5. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men

    PubMed Central

    Wijlens, Anne G. M.; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m2) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration. PMID:26821045

  6. Developmental lead exposure induces opposite effects on ethanol intake and locomotion in response to central vs. systemic cyanamide administration.

    PubMed

    Mattalloni, Mara Soledad; Deza-Ponzio, Romina; Albrecht, Paula Alejandra; Cancela, Liliana Marina; Virgolini, Miriam Beatriz

    2017-02-01

    Lead (Pb) is a developmental neurotoxicant that elicits differential responses to drugs of abuse. Particularly, ethanol consumption has been demonstrated to be increased as a consequence of environmental Pb exposure, with catalase (CAT) and brain acetaldehyde (ACD, the first metabolite of ethanol) playing a role. The present study sought to interfere with ethanol metabolism by inhibiting ALDH2 (mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase) activity in both liver and brain from control and Pb-exposed rats as a strategy to accumulate ACD, a substance that plays a major role in the drug's reinforcing and/or aversive effects. To evaluate the impact on a 2-h chronic voluntary ethanol intake test, developmentally Pb-exposed and control rats were administered with cyanamide (CY, an ALDH inhibitor) either systemically or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on the last 4 sessions of the experiment. Furthermore, on the last session and after locomotor activity was assessed, all animals were sacrificed to obtain brain and liver samples for ALDH2 and CAT activity determination. Systemic CY administration reduced the elevated ethanol intake already reported in the Pb-exposed animals (but not in the controls) accompanied by liver (but not brain) ALDH2 inactivation. On the other hand, a 0.3 mg i.c.v. CY administration enhanced both ethanol intake and locomotor activity accompanied by brain ALDH2 inactivation in control animals, while an increase in ethanol consumption was also observed in the Pb-exposed group, although in the absence of brain ALDH2 blockade. No changes were observed in CAT activity as a consequence of CY administration. These results support the participation of liver and brain ACD in ethanol intake and locomotor activity, responses that are modulated by developmental Pb exposure.

  7. The Effect of a Dairy-Based Recovery Beverage on Post-Exercise Appetite and Energy Intake in Active Females

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meghan A.; Green, Benjamin P.; James, Lewis J.; Stevenson, Emma J.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of a dairy-based recovery beverage on post-exercise appetite and energy intake in active females. Thirteen active females completed three trials in a crossover design. Participants completed 60 min of cycling at 65% V̇O2peak, before a 120 min recovery period. On completion of cycling, participants consumed a commercially available dairy-based beverage (DBB), a commercially available carbohydrate beverage (CHO), or a water control (H2O). Non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and appetite-related peptides alongside measures of subjective appetite were sampled at baseline and at 30 min intervals during recovery. At 120 min, energy intake was assessed in the laboratory by ad libitum assessment, and in the free-living environment by weighed food record for the remainder of the study day. Energy intake at the ad libitum lunch was lower after DBB compared to H2O (4.43 ± 0.20, 5.58 ± 0.41 MJ, respectively; p = 0.046; (95% CI: −2.28, −0.20 MJ)), but was not different to CHO (5.21 ± 0.46 MJ), with no difference between trials thereafter. Insulin and GLP-17-36 were higher following DBB compared to H2O (p = 0.015 and p = 0.001, respectively) but not to CHO (p = 1.00 and p = 0.146, respectively). In addition, glucagon was higher following DBB compared to CHO (p = 0.008) but not to H2O (p = 0.074). The results demonstrate that where DBB consumption may manifest in accelerated recovery, this may be possible without significantly affecting total energy intake and subsequent appetite-related responses relative to a CHO beverage. PMID:27338460

  8. Fibrolytic enzyme and ammonia application effects on the nutritive value, intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass hay in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Romero, J J; Zarate, M A; Queiroz, O C M; Han, J H; Shin, J H; Staples, C R; Brown, W F; Adesogan, A T

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to compare the effect of exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (Biocellulase A20) or anhydrous ammonia (4% DM) treatment on the nutritive value, voluntary intake, and digestion kinetics of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon cultivar Coastal) hay harvested after 2 maturities (5- and 13-wk regrowths). Six individually housed, ruminally cannulated Brangus steers (BW 325 ± 10 kg) were used in an experiment with a 6 × 6 Latin square design with a 3 (additives) × 2 (maturities) factorial arrangement of treatments. Each period consisted of 14 d of adaptation and 7, 4, 1, 1, and 4 d for measuring in vivo digestibility, in situ degradability, no measurements, rumen liquid fermentation and passage indices, and rate of solid passage, respectively. Steers were fed hay for ad libitum intake and supplemented with sugarcane molasses and distillers grain (supplement total of 2.88 kg DM/d). Enzyme did not affect the nutritional composition of hay but ammonia treatment decreased hay NDF, hemicellulose, and ADL concentrations and increased the CP concentration particularly for the mature lignified 13-wk hay. The enzyme increased NDF and hemicellulose digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased those of the 13-wk hay. Ammoniation decreased intake of hay but increased digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, hemicellulose, ADF, and cellulose and increased the ruminal in situ soluble and potentially digestible fractions and the rate of DM degradation of the 13-wk hay. Also, ammoniation increased the concentrations of ruminal NH3, total VFA, acetate, and butyrate but enzyme treatment did not. Neither enzyme addition nor ammoniation affected rate of liquid and solid passage. In conclusion, ammoniation decreased the concentration of most fiber fractions, decreased the intake of hays, and increased their CP concentration, in vivo digestibility, and in situ degradability at both maturities whereas enzyme application increased fiber digestibility of the 5-wk hay but decreased it in the case of

  9. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shikha; Singh, Mahendra; Roy, Ashwani Kumar; Thakur, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG]) or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]). DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS) was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE) were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY), fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01). The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%), TDN intake, digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01) in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01) in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01) than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes. PMID:27057108

  10. Effects of supplementation of dairy cattle with fish oil on silage intake, milk yield and milk composition.

    PubMed

    Keady, T W; Mayne, C S; Fitzpatrick, D A

    2000-05-01

    The effects of level of fish oil inclusion in the diet on grass silage intake, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows offered either 5 or 10 kg concentrates/d were evaluated in a ten treatment, partly balanced, changeover design experiment involving 50 cows in early lactation. Concentrates were prepared to provide 0, 150, 300 or 450 g fish oil/cow per d or 300 g fish oil/cow per d from a premix when each animal was offered 5 kg/d. The fish oil was predominantly from herring and mackerel caught in the North Atlantic while the fish oil premix was obtained from a commercial source and used palm kernel expeller as a carrier. Increasing fish oil supplementation decreased silage dry matter intake and the concentrations of milk fat and protein, and increased milk yield and diet digestibility. There were significant interactions between concentrate feed level and level of fish oil for silage intake and milk yield. Other than for the concentrations of milk fat and protein, and 20:4n-6 fatty acids, the source of fish oil did not affect forage intake or animal performance. Fish oil supplementation also decreased the concentrations of milk protein by 0.9 g/kg for each 100 g increase in fish oil supplementation, the depression being similar at each level of concentrate feeding. Supplementing the feed of dairy cows with 450 g fish oil/cow per d decreased the concentration of milk fat by 15 g/kg. This study also showed that feeding dairy cattle with fish oil is an efficient method of increasing eicosapentaenoic acid in the human diet through transfer into milk.

  11. Effects of Oral Exposure Duration and Gastric Energy Content on Appetite Ratings and Energy Intake in Lean Men.

    PubMed

    Wijlens, Anne G M; de Graaf, Cees; Erkner, Alfrun; Mars, Monica

    2016-01-26

    Studies show that longer oral exposure to food leads to earlier satiation and lowers energy intake. Moreover, higher energy content of food has been shown to lead to higher satiety. Up to now, it has not been studied systematically how oral exposure duration and gastric energy content interact in satiety regulation. Thirty-seven men (22 ± 4 years, 22 ± 2 kg/m²) participated in a randomized cross-over trial, in which we independently manipulated: (1) oral exposure duration by modified sham feeding (MSF) for 1 or 8 min; and (2) energy content of gastric load (GL) by a nasogastric tube: 100 kcal/500 mL or 700 kcal/500 mL. Outcome measures were appetite ratings and subsequent energy intake from an ad libitum meal. Energy intake was 35% lower after the GLs with 700 kcal than with 100 kcal (p < 0.0001). All appetite ratings were lower in the 700 kcal than in the 100 kcal treatments (area under the curve (AUC); p-values ≤ 0.002); fullness was higher and prospective consumption was lower in the 8 min than in the 1 min MSF treatments (AUC; p-values ≤ 0.02). In conclusion, the current showed that a GL of 700 kcal/500 mL vs. 100 kcal/500 mL increased satiety and lowered energy intake. No additional effects of oral exposure duration could be observed, presumably due to the high contrast in energy between the manipulations. Future research should also focus on the role of oral exposure as such and not only the duration.

  12. The Health Equity and Effectiveness of Policy Options to Reduce Dietary Salt Intake in England: Policy Forecast

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Duncan O. S.; Allen, Kirk; Guzman-Castillo, Maria; Bandosz, Piotr; Moreira, Patricia; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Diggle, Peter J.; Capewell, Simon; O’Flaherty, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Public health action to reduce dietary salt intake has driven substantial reductions in coronary heart disease (CHD) over the past decade, but avoidable socio-economic differentials remain. We therefore forecast how further intervention to reduce dietary salt intake might affect the overall level and inequality of CHD mortality. Methods We considered English adults, with socio-economic circumstances (SEC) stratified by quintiles of the Index of Multiple Deprivation. We used IMPACTSEC, a validated CHD policy model, to link policy implementation to salt intake, systolic blood pressure and CHD mortality. We forecast the effects of mandatory and voluntary product reformulation, nutrition labelling and social marketing (e.g., health promotion, education). To inform our forecasts, we elicited experts’ predictions on further policy implementation up to 2020. We then modelled the effects on CHD mortality up to 2025 and simultaneously assessed the socio-economic differentials of effect. Results Mandatory reformulation might prevent or postpone 4,500 (2,900–6,100) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 500 (300–700) deaths or 85% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further voluntary reformulation was predicted to be less effective and inequality-reducing, preventing or postponing 1,500 (200–5,000) CHD deaths in total, with the effect greater by 100 (−100–600) deaths or 49% in the most deprived than in the most affluent. Further social marketing and improvements to labelling might each prevent or postpone 400–500 CHD deaths, but minimally affect inequality. Conclusions Mandatory engagement with industry to limit salt in processed-foods appears a promising and inequality-reducing option. For other policy options, our expert-driven forecast warns that future policy implementation might reach more deprived individuals less well, limiting inequality reduction. We therefore encourage planners to prioritise equity. PMID:26131981

  13. Addition of capsaicin and exchange of carbohydrate with protein counteract energy intake restriction effects on fullness and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Astrid J; Janssens, Pilou L H R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-04-01

    Energy intake restriction causes a yo-yo effect by decreasing energy expenditure (EE) and decreasing fullness. We investigated the 24-h effect of protein and capsaicin, singly or combined, on fullness and EE during 20% energy intake restriction. The 24 participants (12 male, 12 female; BMI, 25.2 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); age, 27 ± 4 y; body fat, 25.6 ± 5.7%; 3-factor eating questionnaire, F1: 6 ± 2, F2: 4 ± 2, F3: 3 ± 2) underwent eight 36-h sessions in a respiration chamber. The study had a randomized crossover design with 8 randomly sequenced conditions. The participants were fed 100 or 80% of their daily energy requirements. There were 2 control (C) conditions: 100%C and 80%C; 2 conditions with capsaicin (Caps): 100%Caps and 80%Caps; 2 conditions with elevated protein (P): 100%P and 80%P; and 2 conditions with a mixture of protein and capsaicin (PCaps): 100%PCaps and 80%PCaps. Appetite profile, EE, and substrate oxidation were monitored. Compared with 100%C, the 80%C group had expected negative energy-balance effects with respect to total EE, diet-induced thermogenesis, and fullness, whereas the 80%Caps diet counteracted these effects, and the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets exceeded these effects (P < 0.01). In energy balance and negative energy balance, fat balance was more negative in the 80%Caps, P, and PCaps groups than in the 80%C group (P < 0.05) and respiratory quotient values were lower. A negative protein balance was prevented with the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets compared with the 80%C diet. Our results suggest that protein and capsaicin, consumed singly or mixed, counteracted the energy intake restriction effects on fullness and EE. During energy restriction, protein and capsaicin promoted a negative fat balance and protein treatments also prevented a negative protein balance.

  14. Effect of fish oil intake on glucose levels in rat prefrontal cortex, as measured by microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain glucose sensing may contribute to energy homeostasis control. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) participates in the hedonic component of feeding control. As high-fat diets may disrupt energy homeostasis, we evaluated in male Wistar rats whether intake of high-fat fish-oil diet modified cortical glucose extracellular levels and the feeding induced by intracerebroventricular glucose or PFC glucoprivation. Methods Glucose levels in PFC microdialysates were measured before and after a 30-min meal. Food intake was measured in animals receiving intracerebroventricular glucose followed, 30-min. later, by 2-deoxy-D-glucose injected into the PFC. Results The fish-oil group showed normal body weight and serum insulin while fat pads weight and glucose levels were increased. Baseline PFC glucose and 30-min. carbohydrates intake were similar between the groups. Feeding-induced PFC glucose levels increased earlier and more pronouncedly in fish-oil than in control rats. Intracerebroventricular glucose inhibited feeding consistently in the control but not in the fish-oil group. Local PFC glucoprivation with 2-DG attenuated glucose-induced hypophagia. Conclusions The present experiments have shown that, following food intake, more glucose reached the prefrontal cortex of the rats fed the high-fat fish-oil diet than of the rats fed the control diet. However, when administered directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle, glucose was able to consistently inhibit feeding only in the control rats. The findings indicate that, an impairment of glucose transport into the brain does not contribute to the disturbances induced by the high-fat fish-oil feeding. PMID:24369745

  15. Effects of Stress and Social Enrichment on Alcohol Intake, Biological and Psychological Stress Responses in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-28

    factors such as stress and social enrichment might act separately or interact to affect alcohol intake. It is logistically and ethically impossible to...0.01]. This finding indicates that social enrichment is physiologically arousing for male rats. Further, there was a stress x housing interaction [F...baseline, socially enriched animals ate more food than did isolated animals (E > I) and there was a stress x housing interaction (NS E > S I 58 = S

  16. Effect of high daytime temperatures on the intake and utilisation of water in lactating Friesian cows.

    PubMed

    Richards, J I

    1985-11-01

    Four primiparous Friesian cows in mid-lactation and housed in climate chambers were simultaneously exposed to three sequential climate treatments: 1, a three-week period in a thermoneutral environment (ambient temperature Ta 14-21 degrees C and relative humidity r.h. 60-70%); 2, a similar period during which they were exposed to Ta max. 38 degrees C/r.h. max. 80% for up to 7 h and Ta 14-21 degrees C/r.h. 60-70% for 17 h each day; and 3, a three-week period during which they were subjected once more to the thermoneutral conditions described for 1. Water and a complete feed were constantly available. Compared with water intake (drinking water + feed water) under thermoneutral conditions cows exposed to treatment 2 significantly increased their mean intake by 12.2%; in three cows, this involved a phase-shift of greater than 20% in drinking habits from day (hot) to night (cool) time. Water balance trials conducted at the mid-point of each treatment revealed that the mean losses of water via urine, faeces, milk, sweat and saliva as a percentage of water intake changed significantly resulting in a net gain (retention) of body water. An accompanying significant increase in live weight despite a 9.1% decrease in DM intake during treatment 2 confirmed the water retention results. On return to thermoneutral conditions (3), the cows exhibited a marked weight loss and a significant increase in urinary water excretion over treatment 1 and 2 values, signifying that a large proportion of the water retained during 2 was of extracellular origin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Hydrogen water intake via tube-feeding for patients with pressure ulcer and its reconstructive effects on normal human skin cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pressure ulcer (PU) is common in immobile elderly patients, and there are some research works to investigate a preventive and curative method, but not to find sufficient effectiveness. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinical effectiveness on wound healing in patients with PU by hydrogen-dissolved water (HW) intake via tube-feeding (TF). Furthermore, normal human dermal fibroblasts OUMS-36 and normal human epidermis-derived cell line HaCaT keratinocytes were examined in vitro to explore the mechanisms relating to whether hydrogen plays a role in wound-healing at the cellular level. Methods Twenty-two severely hospitalized elderly Japanese patients with PU were recruited in the present study, and their ages ranged from 71.0 to 101.0 (86.7 ± 8.2) years old, 12 male and 10 female patients, all suffering from eating disorder and bedridden syndrome as the secondary results of various underlying diseases. All patients received routine care treatments for PU in combination with HW intake via TF for 600 mL per day, in place of partial moisture replenishment. On the other hand, HW was prepared with a hydrogen-bubbling apparatus which produces HW with 0.8-1.3 ppm of dissolved hydrogen concentration (DH) and −602 mV to −583 mV of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), in contrast to reversed osmotic ultra-pure water (RW), as the reference, with DH of < 0.018 ppm and ORP of +184 mV for use in the in vitro experimental research. In in vitro experiments, OUMS-36 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes were respectively cultured in medium prepared with HW and/or RW. Immunostain was used for detecting type-I collagen reconstruction in OUMS-36 cells. And intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified by NBT assay, and cell viability of HaCaT cells was examined by WST-1 assay, respectively. Results Twenty-two patients were retrospectively divided into an effective group (EG, n = 12) and a less effective group (LG, n = 10) according to

  18. The effects of oxygen-enriched intake air on FFV exhaust emissions using M85

    SciTech Connect

    Poola, R.B.; Sekar, R.; Ng, H.K.; Baudino, J.H.; Colucci, C.P.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents results of emission tests of a flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) powered by an SI engine, fueled by M85 (methanol), and supplied with oxygen-enriched intake air containing 21, 23, and 25 vol% O2. Engine-out total hydrocarbons (THCs) and unburned methanol were considerably reduced in the entire FTP cycle when the O2 content of the intake air was either 23 or 25%. However, CO emissions did not vary much, and NOx emissions were higher. HCHO emissions were reduced by 53% in bag 1, 84% in bag 2, and 59% in bag 3 of the FTP cycle with 25% oxygen-enriched intake air. During cold-phase FTP,reductions of 42% in THCs, 40% in unburned methanol, 60% in nonmethane hydrocarbons, and 45% in nonmethane organic gases (NMOGs) were observed with 25% enriched air; NO{sub x} emissions increased by 78%. Converter-out emissions were also reduced with enriched air but to a lesser degree. FFVs operating on M85 that use 25% enriched air during only the initial 127 s of cold-phase FTP or that use 23 or 25% enriched air during only cold-phase FTP can meet the reactivity-adjusted NMOG, CO, NO{sub x}, and HCHO emission standards of the transitional low-emission vehicle.

  19. Gestational ethanol and nicotine exposure: effects on maternal behavior, oxytocin, and offspring ethanol intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    McMurray, M S; Williams, S K; Jarrett, T M; Cox, E T; Fay, E E; Overstreet, D H; Walker, C H; Johns, J M

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol intake, and oxytocin levels in a rat model. Dams were tested for the onset of maternal behavior with litters of unexposed surrogate pups and then killed to examine oxytocin levels within specific brain regions. Drug-exposed offspring reared by surrogate dams were tested for ethanol intake at either adolescence or adulthood, and oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions after behavioral tests. Dams exhibited minor deficits in maternal care, which were associated with lower oxytocin levels in both the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic areas compared to control dams. Prenatal exposure altered sex-specific ethanol intake, with differential effects at adolescence and adulthood. Oxytocin system changes were also apparent in the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic regions of drug-exposed adolescent and adult offspring. These results suggest that dam treatment with ethanol and nicotine can somewhat negatively affect the early rearing environment, and that prenatal exposure to both of these drugs results in drinking behavior differing from what would be expected from either drug alone. Oxytocin's possible involvement in the mediation of these effects is highlighted.

  20. Gestational Ethanol and Nicotine Exposure: Effects on Maternal Behavior, Oxytocin, and Offspring Ethanol Intake in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    McMurray, M.S.; Williams, S.K.; Jarrett, T.M.; Cox, E.T.; Fay, E.E.; Overstreet, D.H.; Walker, C.H.; Johns, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and smoking during pregnancy is common, despite the known adverse effects of these drugs on fetal development. Though studies on the effects of each drug separately are published, little is known about the effect of concurrent use of alcohol and nicotine in humans or in preclinical models. In this report, we examined the impact of continuous gestational exposure to both ethanol via liquid diet and nicotine via an osmotic minipump on maternal behavior, offspring ethanol intake, and oxytocin levels in a rat model. Dams were tested for the onset of maternal behavior with litters of unexposed surrogate pups and then killed to examine oxytocin levels within specific brain regions. Drug-exposed offspring reared by surrogate dams were tested for ethanol intake at either adolescence or adulthood, and oxytocin levels were measured in relevant brain regions after behavioral tests. Dams exhibited minor deficits in maternal care, which were associated with lower oxytocin levels in both the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic areas compared to control dams. Prenatal exposure altered sex-specific ethanol intake, with differential effects at adolescence and adulthood. Oxytocin system changes were also apparent in the ventral tegmental and medial preoptic regions of drug-exposed adolescent and adult offspring. These results suggest that dam treatment with ethanol and nicotine can somewhat negatively affect the early rearing environment, and that prenatal exposure to both of these drugs results in drinking behavior differing from what would be expected from either drug alone. Oxytocin’s possible involvement in the mediation of these effects is highlighted. PMID:18664381

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination on feed intake, growth performance and economics in commercial broilers

    PubMed Central

    Karangiya, V. K.; Savsani, H. H.; Patil, Shrikant Soma; Garg, D. D.; Murthy, K. S.; Ribadiya, N. K.; Vekariya, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementation of garlic, ginger and their combination in the diets of broiler chickens and assessment in terms of feed intake, growth performance and economics of feeding. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 1-day-old Cobb-400 broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each with three replicates of 20 chicks per replicate (n=60). Four experimental diets were formulated in such a way that control diet (T1) contained neither ginger nor garlic. While, birds in group T2 and T3 were fed with diets containing 1% garlic and ginger, respectively. Diet 4 (T4 group) contained a combination of 1% of garlic and ginger. The feeding experiment was carried out for 42 days, and different parameters evaluated includes feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gut morphometry, and economics of feeding in terms of return over feed cost (ROFC) and European Performance Efficiency Index. Results: Feed intake of experimental birds in ginger and mixture of garlic and ginger supplemented groups, i.e., T3 and T4 groups have significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake as compared to control. While, feeding of garlic have non-significant effect on feed intake as compared to other groups. A body weight gain (g/bird) was found to be significantly (p<0.05) higher in garlic (T2 group) and ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to control and garlic and ginger mixture supplemented group (T4 group). Feed conversion ratio was significantly (p<0.05) lower in ginger (T3 group) supplemented group as compare to other groups. Mean villi length, villi width and cryptal depth were significantly (p<0.05) higher in T3 group than rest of all three groups, indicating increased absorptive surface area. ROFC was significantly (p<0.05) lower in T3 and T4 groups as compare to control. However, it was not significantly different between control and T2 group. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of the study

  2. Effect of resistance exercise, with or without carbohydrate supplementation, on plasma ghrelin concentrations and postexercise hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Tasha P; Melby, Christopher L; Camus, Heidi; Cianciulli, Matthew; Pitts, Julie; Schmidt, Stacy; Hickey, Matthew S

    2009-08-01

    The effects of resistance exercise with and without carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation on hunger, postexercise food intake, and plasma ghrelin, an orexigenic gastric peptide, are poorly characterized. We examined the individual and combined effects of a resistance exercise bout and CHO consumption on plasma ghrelin and postexercise food intake. Twenty-one apparently healthy young male participants ([mean +/- SD] age = 20 +/- 1.8 years, body mass index = 24.8 +/- 3.3 kg/m(2)) completed in random order 3 treatment conditions: (1) ExCHO-80-minute resistance exercise bout while consuming CHO ( approximately 77 g CHO, 306 kcal); (2) ExPLA-identical exercise with a non=caloric placebo; and (3) NoExCHO-no-exercise trial of quiet sitting and CHO consumption. Blood samples were obtained before, during, and immediately postexercise, and 110 minutes after exercise. At 2 hours postexercise, they were provided a buffet of food from which they ate ad libitum. There was a significant time x treatment interaction for plasma ghrelin caused by a decline from pre- to postexercise in the 2 exercise conditions compared with an increase over time in the NoExCHO condition. At 110 minutes postexercise, ghrelin was 21% and 13% lower in ExCHO and ExPLA compared with NoExCHO (both Ps < .05). However, despite the lower ghrelin concentrations for the 2 exercise conditions, the subjective ratings of hunger were not lower for these conditions compared with the NoExCHO. There were no differences in absolute ad libitum energy intake from the buffet among the 3 conditions, but relative energy intake from the buffet accounting for the estimated cost of exercise was lowest among the 2 exercise conditions. We conclude that (1) weight lifting lowers plasma ghrelin concentrations during exercise and attenuates its rise during the postexercise period in young men and (2) the lower plasma ghrelin concentration is not associated with lower subjective feelings of hunger measured 100 minutes postexercise

  3. Metabolic and Histopathological Effects of Fructose Intake During Pregestation, Gestation and Lactation in Rats and their Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Sarı, Erkan; Yeşilkaya, Ediz; Bolat, Ahmet; Topal, Turgut; Altan, Bilal; Fidancı, Kürşat; Saldır, Mehmet; Erdem, Galip; Gülgün, Mustafa; Gülcan Kurt, Yasemin; Güven, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studies have demonstrated a significant relationship between maternal fructose intake and metabolic outcome in their offspring. However, there is a paucity of data about the long-term effects of fructose intake on the offspring of fructose-fed dams. Therefore, we planned a study to evaluate the long-term effects of fructose intake on the offspring of dam rats fed a high-fructose diet. Methods: Sixteen virgin female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. Group 1 received a regular diet and Group 2 a high-fructose diet. Both groups received their experimental diets for 8 weeks before conception. They were mated and continued to feed with their experimental diet during mating and during their pregnancy and lactation periods. After weaning, the offspring from each group were divided into two groups. Group 1A received a regular diet, Group 1B - a fructose diet, Group 2A - a regular diet and Group 2B received a fructose diet. After weaning, the offspring were anesthetized and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Liver, kidney and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were harvested for histopathological examination. Primary antibodies against inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were determined as early inflammation markers. Results: After weaning, while daily water consumption was found to be significantly higher in Groups 2B and 1B (p<0.01), daily laboratory chow consumption was significantly lower in Groups 1A and 2A (p<0.01). Body weight was significantly higher in Groups 1B and 2B (p<0.01). Serum glucose, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were found to be increased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased in Group 2B (p<0.05). The intensities of iNOS staining in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue, COX-2 staining in the liver and both iNOS and COX-2 staining in the kidney were higher in Group 2B (p<0.05). Conclusion

  4. Effects of short-term alcohol on the hepatic microsomal monooxygenase system (HMO) in rats receiving nutrition sufficient to promote normal' weight gains

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, T.; Ronis, M.; Lumpkin, C.; Ingelman-Sundberg, M.; Shahare, M.; Mercado, C.; Huang, J.; Irby, D.; Crouch, J. )

    1991-03-15

    The present study was conducted to determine the effects of two clinically relevant diets on HMO and to determine if ethanol has demonstrable effects in the presence of dietary sources that promote normal growth rates. A model in which ethanol was infused directly into the stomach as part of a total enteral nutrition system (TEN) was used in the current study. The effects of the two liquid diets alone or of TEN where 35% of the total calories in the diets were replaced by ethanol for 8 days were examined on HMO of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. HMO activities were determined using standard enzyme assays with specific substrates and cytochrome P450 apoprotein levels were determined by Western blot analysis. The results of these studies suggest: that short-term dietary ethanol can induce CYP 2E1 in well nourished animals but that the level of induction is smaller than that previously reported using Lieber-DeCarli pair feeding regimens; that diet alone has a significant influence on constitutive levels of P450 isozymes including CYP 2E1; that diet influences the effects of ethanol on HMO; and that the TEN system is a useful model for the study of diet/drug interactions.

  5. The effects of ghrelin antagonists [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 or JMV2959 on ethanol, water, and food intake in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan L.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use and abuse patterns have created a need for novel treatment models. Current research has turned its focus on reward pathways associated with intrinsic necessities, such as feeding. Theories suggest that drugs of abuse seize control of natural reward pathways and disregulate normal function, leading to chronic addiction. One such pathway involving the hunger stimulating peptide, ghrelin, is the focus of our study. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to groups and treated with vehicle or a ghrelin antagonist, either [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) or JMV2959. Three experiments tested ghrelin antagonism using different doses; Experiment 1 – 12mg/kg JMV2959; Experiment 2 – 15mg/kg DLys; Experiment 3 – 9mg/kg JMV2959. Using a two-bottle choice 24-hour access paradigm, data was collected for ethanol intake, preference, water intake, and food intake at 4- and 24-hours after injection. Results Experiment 1 showed that 12mg/kg of JMV2959 decreased ethanol, water, and food intake, without affecting preference. Experiment 2 showed that 15mg/kg of DLys decreased ethanol intake, preference, and water intake only on the first day of treatment. Experiment 3 showed that 9mg/kg of JMV2959 decreased only ethanol and food intake. No change was seen during deprivation and JMV2959 was still effective at reducin