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Sample records for intake sufficiently effective

  1. Cultural factors, caloric intake and micronutrient sufficiency in rural Nepali households.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, J; Thapa, M; Landman, L T

    1997-06-01

    This study examined the allocation of food within 105 Nepali households using a combination of recall and observation methods. While a relationship exists between caloric intake and sufficiency of intake of several key micronutrients (i.e., beta carotene, vitamin C and iron) for the study population as a whole this relationship is weaker for certain subgroups. In particular, micronutrient intakes of adolescent girls and adult women are much less likely to be tried to total caloric consumption when compared with the intakes of other household members. This gender differential appears linked in part to specific food beliefs and practices that tend to reduce women's consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, such as dietary restrictions during menstruation, pregnancy and lactation. Overlapping with these beliefs and practices, an overall pattern of disfavoritism of females in the intrahousehold allocation of food is evident in the study communities. While staple food items (i.e. rice, lentil soup, bread, etc.) are distributed fairly equally, side dishes usually containing a higher proportion of micronutrients (i.e. vegetables, meat, yogurt, ghee, etc.) are often preferentially allocated to valued household members, including adult males and small children (of both sexes).

  2. Clinical effects of cesium intake.

    PubMed

    Melnikov, Petr; Zanoni, Lourdes Zélia

    2010-06-01

    The knowledge about cesium metabolism and toxicity is sparse. Oral intake of cesium chloride has been widely promoted on the basis of the hypothesis referred to as "high pH cancer therapy", a complimentary alternative medicine method for cancer treatment. However, no properly confirmed tumor regression was reported so far in all probability because of neither theoretical nor experimental grounds for this proposal. The aim of the present review was to resume and discuss the material currently available on cesium salts and their applications in medicine. The presence of cesium in the cell does not guarantee high pH of its content, and there is no clinical evidence to support the claims that cancer cells are vulnerable to cesium. Cesium is relatively safe; signs of its mild toxicity are gastrointestinal distress, hypotension, syncope, numbness, or tingling of the lips. Nevertheless, total cesium intakes of 6 g/day have been found to produce severe hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, prolonged QTc interval, episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, with or without torsade de pointes, and even acute heart arrest. However, full information on its acute and chronic toxicity is not sufficiently known. Health care providers should be aware of the cardiac complications, as a result of careless cesium usage as alternative medicine.

  3. Adequate Intake levels of choline are sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in Mexican American men but are not optimal for minimizing plasma total homocysteine increases after a methionine load2

    PubMed Central

    Veenema, Kristin; Solis, Claudia; Li, Rui; Wang, Wei; Maletz, Charles V; Abratte, Christian M; Caudill, Marie A

    2009-01-01

    Background An adequate intake of 550 mg choline/d was established for the prevention of liver dysfunction in men, as assessed by measuring serum alanine aminotransferase concentrations. Objective This controlled feeding study investigated the influence of choline intakes ranging from 300 to 2200 mg/d on biomarkers of choline status. The effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T genotype on choline status was also examined. Design Mexican American men (n = 60) with different MTHFR C677T genotypes (29 677TT, 31 677CC) consumed a diet providing 300 mg choline/d plus supplemental choline intakes of 0, 250, 800, or 1900 mg/d for total choline intakes of 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d, respectively, for 12 wk; 400 μg/d as dietary folate equivalents and 173 mg betaine/d were consumed throughout the study. Results Choline intake affected the response of plasma free choline and betaine (time × choline, P < 0.001); the highest concentrations were observed in the 2200 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine (P = 0.026) and total cholesterol (P = 0.002) were also influenced by choline intake; diminished concentrations were observed in the 300 mg/d group. Phosphatidylcholine was modified by MTHFR genotype (P = 0.035; 677TT < 677CC). After a methionine load (100 mg/kg body wt), choline intakes of 1100 and 2200 mg/d attenuated (P = 0.016) the rise in plasma homocysteine, as did the MTHFR 677TT genotype (P < 0.001). Serum alanine aminotransferase was not influenced by the choline intakes administered in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that 550 mg choline/d is sufficient for preventing elevations in serum markers of liver dysfunction in this population under the conditions of this study; higher intakes may be needed to optimize other endpoints. PMID:18779284

  4. Drug intake is sufficient, but conditioning is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking after extended self-administration.

    PubMed

    Jonkman, Sietse; Pelloux, Yann; Everitt, Barry J

    2012-06-01

    Compulsive drug seeking, which is characterized by continued instrumental effort despite contingent punishment, has been shown to emerge after extended drug self-administration. Exactly what aspect of drug self-administration drives the appearance of addictive behavior is unclear, but the mechanistic explanations that have been offered differ in one key respect. On one hand, it has been suggested that dysfunctional conditioning during self-administration drives unrealistic reward expectations, ultimately producing resistance to punishment. If this is indeed the pathological process that drives compulsive behavior, then compulsivity should be apparent only in the presence of the pavlovian and instrumental stimuli that underwent frequent pairing with the drug reward. On the other hand, it has also been suggested that extended drug intake produces general changes to reward and decision-making circuits that manifest as compulsive drug seeking. Unfortunately, conditioning history and drug intake are generally intrinsically intertwined. However, here we used an animal model of compulsive cocaine seeking to selectively manipulate drug intake and the degree of conditioning in the test context, to investigate which of the two is more important for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking. The results show that extended drug intake alone is sufficient, but extended conditioning in the test context is not necessary for the emergence of compulsive cocaine seeking, resolving a fundamental question in addiction research.

  5. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  6. The eyes are sufficient to produce a threat superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Fox, Elaine; Damjanovic, Ljubica

    2006-08-01

    The research described in this article used a visual search task and demonstrated that the eye region alone can produce a threat superiority effect. Indeed, the magnitude of the threat superiority effect did not increase with whole-face, relative to eye-region-only, stimuli. The authors conclude that the configuration of the eyes provides a key signal of threat, which can mediate the search advantage for threat-related facial expressions.

  7. [Effect water intake on body weight].

    PubMed

    Wiśniewska, Klaudia; Kurowska, Ewa; Okręglicka, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Water is essential for life. There wouldn't be the proper functioning of body processes without it. An inadequate water intake relative to recommendation contributes to the decline in physical capacity and adversely effects on cognitive function and mood. On the other hand, an adequate water intake helps maintain the balance between total energy intake and daily energy expenditure and determines the correct rate of fat oxidation. This might be useful and commonly used in weight reduction and thus might favorably affect on body composition in overweight and obese people by increasing the total body water and lean muscle mass and might contribute to a decrease in body fat. Research results indicate clearly that drinking water instead of caloric beverages might be an effective way to reduce daily total energy consumption and in this way might may contribute to the reduction of weight, body circumferences and body fat.

  8. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  9. SUFFICIENT IODINE INTAKE IN SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM THE ZAGREB AREA: ASSESSMENT WITH DRIED BLOD SPOT THYROGLOBULIN AS A NEW FUNCTIONAL BIOMARKER FOR IODINE DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Tomislav; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Granić, Roko; Prpić, Marin; Krilić, Drazena; Juresa, Vesna; Katalenić, Marijan; Kusić, Zvonko

    2015-12-01

    Current methods for assessment of iodine intake in a population comprise measurements of urinary iodine concentration (UIC), thyroid volume by ultrasound (US-Tvol), and newborn TSH. Serum or dried blood spot thyroglobulin (DBS-Tg) is a new promising functional iodine status biomarker in children. In 1996, a new act on universal salt iodination was introduced in Croatia with 25 mg of potassium iodideper kg of salt. In 2002, Croatia finally reached iodine sufficiency. However, in 2009, median UIC in 101 schoolchildren from Zagreb, the capital of Croatia, was 288 µg/L, posing to be excessive. The aim of the study was to assess iodine intake in schoolchildren from the Zagreb area and to evaluate the value of DBS-Tg in schoolchildren as a new functional biomarker of iodine deficiency (and iodine excess). The study was part of a large international study in 6- to 12-year-old children supported by UNICEF, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD). According to international study results, the median cut-off Tg < 13 µg/L and/or < 3% Tg values > 40 µg/L indicate iodine sufficiency. The study included 159 schoolchildren (median age 9.1 ± 1.4 years) from Zagreb and a nearby small town of Jastrebarsko with measurements of UIC, US-Tvol, DBS-Tg, T4, TSH and iodine content in salt from households of schoolchildren (KI/kg of salt). Overall median UIC was 205 µg/L (range 1-505 µg/L). Thyroid volumes in schoolchildren measured by US were within the normal range according to reference values. Median DBS-Tg in schoolchildren was 12.1 µg/L with 3% of Tg values > 40 µg/L. High Tg values were in the UIC range < 50 µg/L and > 300 µg/L (U-shaped curve of Tg plotted against UIC). All children were euthyroid with geometric mean TSH 0.7 ± 0.3 mU/L and arithmetic mean T4 62 ± 12.5 nmol/L. The mean KI content per kg of salt was 24.9 ± 3.1 mg/kg (range 19-36 mg/kg). Study results

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists suppress water intake independent of effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    McKay, Naomi J; Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Daniels, Derek

    2011-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is produced by and released from the small intestine following ingestion of nutrients. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists applied peripherally or centrally decrease food intake and increase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. These effects make the GLP-1 system an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. In addition to these more frequently studied effects of GLP-1R stimulation, previous reports indicate that GLP-1R agonists suppress water intake. The present experiments were designed to provide greater temporal resolution and site specificity for the effect of GLP-1 and the long-acting GLP-1R agonists, exendin-4 and liraglutide, on unstimulated water intake when food was and was not available. All three GLP-1R ligands suppressed water intake after peripheral intraperitoneal administration, both in the presence of and the absence of food; however, the magnitude and time frame of water intake suppression varied by drug. GLP-1 had an immediate, but transient, hypodipsic effect when administered peripherally, whereas the water intake suppression by IP exendin-4 and liraglutide was much more persistent. Additionally, intracerebroventricular administration of GLP-1R agonists suppressed water intake when food was absent, but the suppression of intake showed modest differences depending on whether the drug was administered to the lateral or fourth ventricle. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GLP-1 receptor agonists affecting unstimulated, overnight intake in the absence of food, the first test for antidipsogenic effects of hindbrain application of GLP-1 receptor agonists, and the first test of a central effect (forebrain or hindbrain) of liraglutide on water intake. Overall, these results show that GLP-1R agonists have a hypodipsic effect that is independent of GLP-1R-mediated effects on food intake, and this occurs, in part, through central nervous system GLP-1R activation.

  11. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Michael B; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Washburn, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT), 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy (< 1 dairy serving/d) or recommended dairy (> 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat) from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain

  12. The effect of ghrelin on water intake during dipsogenic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mietlicki, Elizabeth G; Nowak, Erica L; Daniels, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Ghrelin has been studied extensively in the context of food intake and energy homeostasis, but less is known about its role in other ingestive behaviors. The present studies investigated the effects of this orexigenic peptide on both food and water intake during dipsogenic conditions. Specifically, animals were exposed to one of five dipsetic stimuli: (1) 24-h water deprivation, (2) replacement of drinking water with 2.5% NaCl, (3) peripheral administration of hypertonic saline, (4) ICV injection of angiotensin II (AngII), or (5) the combination of peripheral hypertonic saline and central AngII. Animals then were given an ICV injection of ghrelin (0.5 microg) or vehicle, and subsequent food and water intakes were measured. Ghrelin reliably increased food intake under each stimulus condition. Ghrelin also affected water intake, but with less consistency across the conditions. Specifically, ghrelin attenuated water intake stimulated by acute injection of AngII or hypertonic saline, but failed to affect drinking in the other three stimulus conditions. Investigation of the temporal pattern of food and water intakes in three of these dipsogenic conditions failed to support a role of different intake patterns in the observed differences in water intake by ghrelin-treated rats. Although the effect of ghrelin on water intake was not present in every dipsogenic condition, these data provide evidence that the actions of ghrelin are not limited to food intake, but can also include alterations in water intake.

  13. Effect of piano-key shape inlet on critical submergence at a vertical pipe intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemshi, R.; Kabiri-Samani, A.

    2012-11-01

    Intake vortices are the result of angular momentum conservation at the flow constriction, where angular velocity increases with a decrease in the cross sectional area. The common solution for avoiding air-entrainment and swirl is to provide sufficient submergence to the intake. If the required approach flow conditions can not be met to avoid swirl and air entrainment, other approaches for preventing vortices at water intakes are considered. There are several means of avoiding air-entrainment, where the most cost-effective option is often determined by a physical model study. Among the most economical and common measures of reducing the effect of air-entrainment and swirl strength, is the optimized shape of inlet for instance by installing a Piano-Key inlet over the pipe intake. If Piano-Key inlet is used, then, its' optimum geometry should be studied experimentally. Since there is not any realized guidance for the use of Piano-Key inlets in pipe intakes, hence, a comprehensive set of model experiments have been carried out using Piano-Key inlets with different dimensions, with respect to the vertical pipe intakes, and four different pipe diameters of (D=) 75, 100, 125 and 150 mm. Results showed that by employing a Piano-Key inlet over the vertical pipe intake, the critical submergence reduces significantly. Fianally, according to the results, the effect of Piano-Key inlet geometry on critical submergence were evaluated in the form of realized relationships which would be of practical interest for design engineers.

  14. Effectiveness of Short-Term Training for Self-Sufficiency. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wonacott, Michael E.

    Reauthorization of welfare reform legislation has focused attention on the effectiveness of short-term training as a means for welfare recipients to attain self-sufficiency. Its effects on employment and earnings have been one focus of recent evaluations of federal programs. Although some Job Opportunities and Basic Skills programs produced…

  15. Effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Porikos, K P; Booth, G; Van Itallie, T B

    1977-10-01

    The present study investigated the feasibility of a new experimental approach for studying the effect of covert nutritive dilution on the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals. Eight obese subjects were studied as inpatients on a metabolic unit for 15 days during which time they were unaware that their food intake was being monitored. A platter method of food presentation encouraged ad libitum ingestion. Caloric dilution was achieved by replacing sucrose-containing products with aspartame-sweetened analogues in an otherwise normal diet. During the base-line period the subjects spontaneously ate sufficient conventional food to maintain or even slightly increase body weight. Covert substitution of aspartame-sweetened products for their sucrose counterparts resulted in an immediate reduction in spontaneous energy intake of approximately 25%. The aspartame analogues were as well accepted as their conventional counterparts, as indicated by the equal quantity of each consumed. These preliminary results demonstrate that, in a metabolic ward setting, it is possible to maintain the spontaneous food intake of obese individuals at levels sufficient to preserve body weight and arbitrarily to decrease those levels of intake by 25% or more through covert changes in the caloric density of the diet.

  16. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake.

  17. EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL ENDOTOXIN ON WATER INTAKE, FOOD INTAKE, AND BODY TEMPERATURE IN THE ALBINO RAT.

    PubMed

    HOLMES, J E; MILLER, N E

    1963-10-01

    Intraperitoneal injections of Escherichia coli endotoxin in albino rats produces a decrease in food and water intake and a drop in body temperature. The drop in temperature and in water intake is probably proportional to the size of the dose. Using a behavioral test in which animals are trained to press a bar at a steady rate for intermittent food or water reward, it is possible to demonstrate the sudden onset of the toxin effect at 30 to 45 minutes after injection. In any group of rats, all of whom were presumably exposed to E. coli, three types of response to toxin can be found: (a) Sharp reduction in water intake 30 minutes after injection. (b) Little or no change in intake or rate of working for water reward. (c) Immediate depression of work rate. These three types of reaction appear related to previous experience with the toxin. The "normal" or "inexperienced" reaction a was seen in animals who had not been given toxin before. The "protected" reaction b, with little or no effect of toxin injection on response rate was frequently found 4 to 5 days after a previous injection. The "susceptible" reaction c was found in three animals after 14 or more days had passed since a previous injection. Injections of toxin into the lateral hypothalamic region of four animals through implanted cannulae had no effect on the rate of bar pressing for water. Control injections of lidocaine blocked response rate completely for brief periods in three animals.

  18. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  19. High potassium intake blunts the effect of elevated sodium intake on blood pressure levels.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Sérgio Lamêgo; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Machado, Rebeca Caldeira; Forechi, Ludimila; Molina, Maria del Carmem Bisi; Mill, José Geraldo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary potassium on the sodium effect on blood pressure (BP) in the general population and the adherence of current recommendations for sodium and potassium intake. An overnight (12-hour) urine sample was collected in a population-based study to investigate cardiovascular risk. A sub-sample of 1285 subjects (age range, 25-64 years) free from any medication interfering with BP or potassium excretion was studied. Of the participants, 86.0% consumed over 6 g of salt/day and 87.7% less than the recommended intake of potassium (4.7 g). Potassium excretion and the sodium to potassium ratio were significantly related to systolic and diastolic BP only in subjects consuming more than 6 g/day of salt. Subjects in the highest sodium to potassium ratio quartile (surrogate of unhealthy diet) presented 8 mm Hg and 7 mm Hg higher values of systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, when compared with the first quartile, while individuals in the fourth quartile of urinary potassium excretion (healthier diet) showed 6 mm Hg and 4 mm Hg lower systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, compared with the first quartile. Our data indicate that when people have an increased intake of potassium, high intake of sodium is not associated with higher BP.

  20. The Current Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline for Diet and Supplements During Pregnancy Is Not Adequate to Achieve Vitamin D Sufficiency for Most Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Field, Catherine J.; Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Rabi, Doreen M.; Maggiore, Jack A.; O’Beirne, Maeve; Hanley, David A.; Eliasziw, Misha; Dewey, Deborah; Weinberg, Amy; Ross, Sue J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to determine if pregnant women consumed the recommended vitamin D through diet alone or through diet and supplements, and if they achieved the current reference range vitamin D status when their reported dietary intake met the current recommendations. Methods Data and banked blood samples collected in second trimester from a subset of 537 women in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) study cohort were examined. Frozen collected plasma were assayed using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) to determine 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations. Dietary data were obtained from questionnaires including a Supplement Intake Questionnaire and a 24-hour recall of the previous day’s diet. Results Participants were 87% Caucasian; mean (SD) age of 31.3 (4.3); BMI 25.8 (4.7); 58% were primiparous; 90% had education beyond high school; 80% had a family income higher than CAN $70,000/year. 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3, and 3-epi-25(OH)D3) were identified in all of the 537 plasma samples;3-epi-25(OH)D3 contributed 5% of the total vitamin D. The median (IQR) total 25(OH)D (D2+D3) was 92.7 (30.4) nmol/L and 20% of women had 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L. The median (IQR) reported vitamin D intake from diet and supplements was 600 (472) IU/day. There was a significant relationship between maternal reported dietary vitamin D intake (diet and supplement) and 25(OH)D and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 concentrations in an adjusted linear regression model. Conclusions We demonstrated the current RDA (600 IU/ day) may not be adequate to achieve vitamin D status >75 nmol/L in some pregnant women who are residing in higher latitudes (Calgary, 51°N) in Alberta, Canada and the current vitamin D recommendations for Canadian pregnant women need to be re-evaluated. PMID:27367800

  1. Effect of forage intake on bodyweight and performance.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J M; Hollands, T; Allen, D E

    2002-09-01

    The horse evolved to survive on rations high in forage. Many performance horses are fed rations containing reduced levels of forage, with a corresponding increase in concentrate supply. Such reductions in forage intake are widely established to be associated with a corresponding number of physiological and psychological adaptations. Therefore, the influence of forage intake on bodyweight (bwt) and performance was investigated. Four Thoroughbred-type geldings in light to moderate work received 4 diets (100% forage [100H]; 80% forage:20% concentrate [80H]; 60% forage:40% concentrate [60H] and 50% forage:50% concentrate [50H]) in a 4 x 4 Latin-square design. A submaximal standardised exercise test (SET) was performed for each diet. Rate of passage, bwt and water intakes were measured throughout the trial and maximum, recovery heart rates and postexercise rectal temperatures recorded for each SET. Mean +/- s.e. bwt was significantly (P<0.001) higher for the 100H compared to the 50H ration (556.89 and 546.28 kg, respectively). Rate of passage of digesta was significantly (P<0.01) slower for the 100H compared to the 50H ration. Water intakes and SET maximum and 1 min recovery heart rates were significantly (P<0.05) higher (mean +/- s.e. 44.72 and 39.07 l/day, 186 and 165 beats/min, and 105 and 96 beats/min, respectively) for 100H compared to the 50H diet. Post-SET rectal temperatures tended to increase with increasing forage intakes, although these effects were not significant (mean 39.85 and 38.65 degrees C for the 100H and 50H diets, respectively). In conclusion, forage intake has significant effects on equine bwt and submaximal performance and a compromise needs to be made between the potential detrimental effects of high forage intake on performance and the potential detrimental effects of low forage intake on equine welfare.

  2. Effects of sugar intake on body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, S H F; Pasman, W J; Schaafsma, G; Kardinaal, A F M

    2003-05-01

    Weight reduction programmes are mainly focused on reducing intake of fat and sugar. In this review we have evaluated whether the replacement of dietary (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or complex carbohydrates contributes to weight reduction. In two experimental studies, no short-term differences in weight loss were observed after use of aspartame as compared to sugar in obese subjects following a controlled energy-restricted diet. However, consumption of aspartame was associated with improved weight maintenance after a year. In two short-term studies in which energy intake was not restricted, substitution of sucrose by artificial sweeteners, investigated mostly in beverages, resulted in lower energy intake and lower body weight. Similarly, two short-term studies, comparing the effect of sucrose and starch on weight loss in obese subjects did not find differences when the total energy intake was equal and reduced. An ad libitum diet with complex carbohydrates resulted in lower energy intake compared to high-sugar diets. In two out of three studies, this was reflected in lower body weight in subjects consuming the complex carbohydrate diet. In conclusion, a limited number of relatively short-term studies suggest that replacing (added) sugar by low-energy sweeteners or by complex carbohydrates in an ad libitum diet might result in lower energy intake and reduced body weight. In the long term, this might be beneficial for weight maintenance. However, the number of studies is small and overall conclusions, in particular for the long term, cannot be drawn.

  3. Morphine intake and the effects of naltrexone and buprenorphine on the acquisition of methamphetamine intake.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, E C; Phillips, T J

    2014-02-01

    Some common genetic factors appear to influence risk for drug dependence across multiple drugs of abuse. In previous research, mice that were selectively bred for higher amounts of methamphetamine consumption, using a two-bottle choice methamphetamine drinking procedure, were found to be less sensitive to the locomotor stimulant effects of morphine and of the more selective μ-opioid receptor agonist fentanyl, compared to mice that were bred for low methamphetamine consumption. This suggested that μ-opioid receptor-mediated pathways may influence genetic risk for methamphetamine consumption. We hypothesized that these differences in opioid sensitivity would impact opioid intake in the methamphetamine drinking lines and that drugs with μ-opioid receptor activity would impact methamphetamine intake. Consumption of morphine was examined in 2, two-bottle choice studies, one that compared morphine to quinine consumption and another that used a saccharin fading procedure. Next, naltrexone (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, and buprenorphine (0, 1, 2 or 4 mg/kg), a μ-opioid receptor partial agonist, were each examined for their effects on the acquisition of methamphetamine consumption. Low methamphetamine drinking mice consumed more morphine compared to high methamphetamine drinking mice. Naltrexone did not alter methamphetamine consumption in either selected line; however, buprenorphine reduced methamphetamine intake in the high methamphetamine drinking line. These data show that greater sensitivity to opioids is associated with greater opioid intake and warrant further investigation of drugs with μ-opioid receptor-specific agonist activity in genetically determined differences in methamphetamine consumption.

  4. Beneficial but not sufficient: effects of condom packaging instructions on condom use skills.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Dana F; Harbke, Colin R; Huntoon, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    Among those who are sexually active, condom use is the only method of protection against HIV/AIDS. Poor condom skills may lead to condom use failures, which can lead to risk of exposure. Despite the wide availability of condom use instructional leaflets, it is unclear whether these instructions sufficiently teach condom use skills. Ninety-two male and 113 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to a control condition (read non-condom instructions) or a treatment condition (read condom instructions). Participants completed self-report measures related to condom use and performed a condom demonstration task. Participants who read the condom instructions did not perform significantly better on the demonstration task, F (1, 203) = 2.90, P = 0.09, η(2) = 0.014. At the item level, those who read the condom instructions better performed two of the seven condom use steps correctly. These data suggest that condom packaging instructions do not effectively teach condom use skills.

  5. Beneficial but not sufficient: effects of condom packaging instructions on condom use skills

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Dana F; Harbke, Colin R; Huntoon, Alishia

    2012-01-01

    Among those who are sexually active, condom use is the only method of protection against HIV/AIDS. Poor condom skills may lead to condom use failures, which can lead to risk of exposure. Despite the wide availability of condom use instructional leaflets, it is unclear whether these instructions sufficiently teach condom use skills. Ninety-two male and 113 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to a control condition (read non-condom instructions) or a treatment condition (read condom instructions). Participants completed self-report measures related to condom use and performed a condom demonstration task. Participants who read the condom instructions did not perform significantly better on the demonstration task, F (1, 203) = 2.90, P = 0.09, η2 = 0.014. At the item level, those who read the condom instructions better performed two of the seven condom use steps correctly. These data suggest that condom packaging instructions do not effectively teach condom use skills. PMID:22334800

  6. Effects of caffeine and Bombesin on ethanol and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Dietze, M.A.; Kulkosky, P.J. )

    1991-01-01

    The methylxanthine caffeine and ethyl alcohol are widely used and powerful psychotropic drugs, but their interactions are not well understood. Bombesin is a brain-gut neuropeptide which is thought to function as a neurochemical factor in the inhibitory control of voluntary alcohol ingestion. We assessed the effects of combinations of intraperitoneal doses of caffeine and bombesin on 5% w/v ethanol solution and food intake in deprived rats. Deprived male and female Wistar rats received access to 5% ethanol or Purina chow for 30 minutes after i.p. injections. In single doses, CAF and BBS significantly decreased both ethanol and food consumption, at 50 mg/kg and 10 {mu}g/kg, respectively. CAF and BBS combinations produced infra-additive, or less-than-expected inhibitory effects on ethanol intake, but simple additive inhibitory effects on food intake. This experimental evidence suggests a reciprocal blocking of effects of CAF and BBS on ethanol intake but not food intake. Caffeine, when interacting and bombesin, increases alcohol consumption beyond expected values. Caffeine could affect the operation of endogenous satisfy signals for alcohol consumption.

  7. [Effectiveness of the use of iodized milk protein to improve girls' sufficiency with iodine].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, L S; Lisitsin, A B; Chernukha, I M; Zubtsov, Iu N; Litvinova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of the research capabilities of the use of iodized milk protein as a component of food supplement and enriched food product for the correction of iodine sufficiency in girls. Milk iodinated protein was produced by the enzyme-effective iodization of amino acid residues of cow's milk whey proteins. The study involved 30 girls, whose average age was 19.9 +/- 1.4 years. Participants of observation were divided into three groups, for 10 people each. The first group received daily serving of meat cutlets (50g), enriched with dairy iodinated protein. Iodine content in the finished minced was 100 mcg. The second group received iodinated milk protein in the form of food supplement with iodine content of 100 mcg. The third group was a control one. The duration of observations was 30 days. To assess the effectiveness of measures the concentration of iodine in urine, blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine have been determined, changes in cognitive processes (memory and attention) with the use of psychological tests have been evaluated. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using of iodized milk protein for the correction of iodine deficiency in girls. The use of iodized protein, as part of the enriched product and in the form of food supplement increased urinary iodine level and had a positive influence on the state of the hypophysial-thyroid system. In addition, the use of iodized milk protein helped to improve the cognitive functions of the students, which can be considered as an additional positive effect of correction of iodine deficiency.

  8. Effects of dairy intake on hyperuricemia and gout.

    PubMed

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Palmano, Kate

    2011-04-01

    Dietary modification is frequently recommended for patients with gout. Longitudinal observational studies have shown a clear inverse relationship between low-fat dairy intake and gout risk. Several checkpoints in gout pathogenesis may be targeted by dairy intake. Cross-sectional and short-term intervention studies of healthy volunteers have demonstrated that low-fat dairy intake has a moderate urate-lowering effect. In addition, certain dairy fractions, particularly glyco-macropeptide and G600 milk fat extract, have anti-inflammatory properties in experimental models of acute gout. Such anti-inflammatory properties may contribute to the reduction in gout risk through inhibition of the inflammatory response to monosodium urate crystals within the joint. Well-controlled intervention studies in patients with gout are now needed to determine the clinical relevance of these observations in order to guide dietary recommendations for this disease.

  9. Preference or fat? Revisiting opioid effects on food intake.

    PubMed

    Taha, Sharif A

    2010-07-14

    It is well established that opioid signaling in the central nervous system constitutes a powerful stimulus for food intake. The role of opioids in determining food preference, however, is less well defined. Opioids have been proposed to promote intake of preferred foods, or, alternatively, to preferentially increase consumption of fat. In the present manuscript, I comprehensively review results from previous studies investigating this issue. Data from these studies suggests a mechanism for opioid action that may reconcile the previously proposed hypotheses: opioid effects on food intake do appear to be largely specific for fat consumption, but individual animals' sensitivity to this effect may be dependent on baseline food preferences. In addition, I highlight the possibility that the selectivity of endogenous opioid effects may importantly differ from that of exogenous agonists in the degree to which baseline preferences, rather than macronutrient intake, are altered. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20211638

  10. Antioxidant enzymes induced by repeated intake of excess energy in the form of high-fat, high-carbohydrate meals are not sufficient to block oxidative stress in healthy lean individuals.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sangbin; Won, Hyeran; Kim, Yeonghwan; Jang, Miran; Jyothi, K R; Kim, Youngseol; Dandona, Paresh; Ha, Joohun; Kim, Sung Soo

    2011-11-01

    It has been reported that high-fat, high-carbohydrate (HFHC) meals increase oxidative stress and inflammation. We examined whether repeated intake of excess energy in the form of HFHC meals alters reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and mitochondrial proteins in mononuclear cells, and to determine whether this is associated with insulin resistance. We recruited healthy lean individuals (n 10). The individuals were divided into two groups: one group (n 5) ingested 10878·4 kJ/d (2600 kcal/d; 55-70 % carbohydrate, 9·5-16 % fat, 7-20 % protein) recommended by the Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans for 4 d and the other group (n 5) ingested a HFHC meal containing 14 644 kJ/d (3500 kcal/d). Then, measurements of blood insulin and glucose levels, together with suppressor of cytokine signalling-3 (SOCS-3) expression levels, were performed in both groups. Also, cellular and mitochondrial ROS levels as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Expression levels of cytosolic and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, and mitochondrial complex proteins were analysed. Repeated intake of HFHC meals induced an increase in homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), together with an increase in SOCS-3 expression levels. While a single intake of the HFHC meal increased cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS, repeated intake of HFHC meals reduced them and increased the levels of MDA, cytosolic and mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, and several mitochondrial complex proteins. Repeated intake of HFHC meals induced cellular antioxidant mechanisms, which in turn increased lipid peroxidation (MDA) and SOCS-3 expression levels, induced hyperinsulinaemia and increased HOMA-IR, an index of insulin resistance. In conclusion, excess energy added to a diet can generate detrimental effects in a short period.

  11. Inhibitory effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1985-05-01

    The authors have previously shown, using a 99m-Tc scrambled egg meal, that pentose sugars (i.e. xylose and arabinose) markedly prolong gastric emptying. Others have reported that slowing of gastric emptying may decrease appetite and thus decrease food intake. In the present study, the authors utilized the effects of xylitol (an FDA-approved pentose sugar) on gastric emptying to study the correlation between gastric emptying and food intake. Initially, gastric emptying was measured in human volunteers utilizing a standardized 99m-Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water. Results demonstrated a significant reduction in food intake (892 +- 65 kcal with water vs 654 +- 26 kcal following the ingestion of 25 gm xylitol (p<0.05). We conclude that the effect of pentose sugars in prolonging gastric emptying directly influences food intake and contributes to early satiety. The data suggest a role of xylitol as an essentially non-caloric food additive potentially important in diet control.

  12. Antithyroid and goitrogenic effects of coal-water extracts from iodine-sufficient goiter areas.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E; Cooksey, R C; Legan, J; Cruse, J M; Lindsay, R H; Hill, J

    1993-01-01

    Goiter in iodine-sufficient areas has been linked to water-borne goitrogens in watersheds and aquifers rich in coal and shale. In the present study, the potential antithyroid and goitrogenic effects of coal-water extracts (CWE) were investigated in vivo in rats after chronic and acute oral administration of CWE, and in vitro by a thyroid peroxidase (TPO) enzyme system. CWE was prepared by continuous extraction of ground (40 mesh) Appalachian coal with goitrogen-free water (GFW). Female Buffalo rats fed on Purina iodine-rich diet (12 micrograms I-/day/rat), were given ad lib CWE (50 mg/ml; approximately 20 mL/day/rat) or GFW (controls) for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, 125I 1 microCi, was injected i.p. and 4 h later the thyroid glands were removed, weighed, and analyzed histologically and for total 125I and 125I-labeled compounds. Rats on CWE had larger thyroid glands [7.2 +/- 0.3 mg/100 g (mean +/- SE) vs 5.0 +/- 0.5 controls; p < 0.005] with distinct histological changes of smaller thyroid follicles, some with columnar epithelium, and with more dense colloid than in controls, and had significant inhibition of the coupling mechanism for production of thyroid hormones [125MIT + DIT/125T3 + T4: 5.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.9 +/- 0.1 controls, p < 0.005; and 125T3 + T4 (%): 10.6 +/- 0.3 vs 12.6 +/- 0.4 controls, p < 0.005]. Female Sprague-Dawley rats under the same conditions as Buffalo rats were given acutely by GI tube 2 mL of CWE (5 g/mL) or GFW (controls).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental. PMID:26614014

  14. Effects of caffeine intake and smoking on neurocognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Christian; Stephan-Otto, Christian; Cuevas-Esteban, Jorge; Maria Haro, Josep; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Ochoa, Susana; Usall, Judith; Brébion, Gildas

    2015-12-30

    Although most studies support the beneficial effects of caffeine on neurocognition, its effects have never been assessed in psychiatric patients. In addition, results from studies in smokers are contradictory. Moreover, there are no data available about the neurocognitive effects of caffeine and tobacco together. We explored the concomitant effects of regular caffeine and tobacco intake on neurocognition in 52 schizophrenic patients and 61 healthy controls. Verbal fluency, processing speed, and working, visual and verbal memory were assessed. For each measurement, two tasks with two levels of complexity were administered. Our results showed that caffeine intake had beneficial effects on male schizophrenic patients only in complex tasks requiring deeper cognitive processing (semantic fluency, cognitive speed, working memory, and visual memory). Female patients and controls were unaffected. In contrast, smoking had a negative effect on male, but not on female, schizophrenic patients in semantic fluency. The effects of smoking in controls were inconsistent. In conclusion, our data showed, for the first time, beneficial effects of caffeine intake on neurocognition in male schizophrenic patients. These data suggest that further research of therapeutics based on caffeine is needed, as this could be beneficial for schizophrenic patients. In contrast, smoking appears to be detrimental.

  15. Behavioral analysis of marijuana effects on food intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Foltin, R W; Brady, J V; Fischman, M W

    1986-09-01

    Nine male research volunteers, in three groups of three subjects each, resided in a residential laboratory for up to 25 days. All contact with the experimenter was through a networked computer system and subjects' behaviors including food intake were continuously recorded. Subjects brought their own activities such as model-making, and these in combination with those provided by the laboratory resulted in rich behavior repertoires. During the first part of the day, subjects remained in their private rooms doing planned work activities, and during the remainder of the day, they were allowed to socialize. Cigarettes containing active marijuana (1.84% THC) or placebo were smoked prior to the private work period and during the social access period. A single active marijuana cigarette prior to the private work period had no effect on food intake. The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake. The increased intake was due to an augmentation of calories consumed as between-meal snack items rather than an increase in meal size per se.

  16. Synergistic effects of resistance training and protein intake: practical aspects.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; Cholewa, Jason Michael; Naimo, Marshall Alan; Zhi, X I A; Magagnin, Daiane; de Sá, Rafaele Bis Dal Ponte; Streck, Emilio Luiz; Teixeira, Tamiris da Silva; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy

    2014-10-01

    Resistance training is a potent stimulus to increase skeletal muscle mass. The muscle protein accretion process depends on a robust synergistic action between protein intake and overload. The intake of protein after resistance training increases plasma amino acids, which results in the activation of signaling molecules leading to increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle hypertrophy. Although both essential and non-essential amino acids are necessary for hypertrophy, the intake of free L-leucine or high-leucine whole proteins has been specifically shown to increase the initiation of translation that is essential for elevated MPS. The literature supports the use of protein intake following resistance-training sessions to enhance MPS; however, less understood are the effects of different protein sources and timing protocols on MPS. The sum of the adaptions from each individual training session is essential to muscle hypertrophy, and thus highlights the importance of an optimal supplementation protocol. The aim of this review is to present recent findings reported in the literature and to discuss the practical application of these results. In that light, new speculations and questions will arise that may direct future investigations. The information and recommendations generated in this review should be of benefit to clinical dietitians as well as those engaged in sports.

  17. Analytical versus food table values for vitamin C in foods: the effect on calculated vitamin C intake of elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Black, A E; Ashby, D R; Day, K C; Bates, C J; Paul, A A

    1983-02-01

    During a longitudinal study of vitamin C nutrition in 23 healthy elderly people, samples of cooked vegetables and liver, canned meats, canned vegetables and fruit drinks were analysed for vitamin C content. The analytical data are presented here and the effect on calculated daily intake of vitamin C of using the analytical values in place of food table values is assessed. For cooked foods the analysed values were close to food table values; exceptions were spring cabbage, cauliflower and canned potatoes. Fortified fruit drinks contained 20-60 mg vitamin C per 100 ml and made an important contribution to intake. Canned meats contained 0.3-61.4 mg per 100 g (mean 14.9 mg), but their contribution to intake was considered small. The difference between daily intakes calculated using analytical and food table values was greater than 5 mg in 37 per cent of 1-day periods and in 17 per cent of 7-day periods. These differences were not sufficient to significantly alter the correlations between intake and biochemical indices found in the original study. Nevertheless, given the discrepancies between calculated and analysed vitamin C intakes reported in the literature, analytical work is probably essential in studies of vitamin C nutrition.

  18. No effects of Korean pine nut triacylglycerol on satiety and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Triacylglycerols (TAG) have been shown to have potential appetite suppressing effects. This study examined the effects of 3 g and 6 g Korean pine nut triacylglycerols (PinnoThin) on appetite and energy intake. Methods 130 g Isoenergetic yogurt containing either placebo (milk fat) or PinnoThin TAG was consumed as a breakfast, after an overnight fast, in a double blind randomized crossover design. Appetite profile ratings were determined by visual analogue scale at regular intervals for a period of 4 h after the breakfast. In phase I, 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo was tested in thirty-three healthy women (mean ± SD, BMI 26.4 ± 3.8 kg/m2; age 28 ± 10 y) to determine the appetite suppressing effect in time. In phase II, an additional dose of 3 g PinnoThin TAG, as well as 6 g PinnoThin TAG and placebo, was tested in thirty-four women (BMI 25.8 ± 2.9 kg/m2; age 25 ± 9 y) to determine energy intake from an ad libitum lunch offered at 210 min after the breakfast, at which maximal differences in appetite profile ratings were present in phase I. Results Area under the curve of appetite profile ratings was not significantly different between the conditions. Energy intake was 9.5% lower after 6 g PinnoThin TAG compared with 3 g PinnoThin TAG, but there was no significant difference with the placebo. Conclusion A dosage of 6 g PinnoThin TAG is not sufficient to suppress appetite and energy intake. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT01034605 PMID:22074178

  19. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation.

  20. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Garaulet, Marta; Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J; Lee, Yu-Chi; Ordovás, Jose M; Scheer, Frank AJL

    2013-01-01

    Background There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. Objective To evaluate the role of food-timing in weight-loss effectiveness in a sample of 420 individuals who followed a 20-week weight-loss treatment. Methods Participants (49.5% females; age [mean+/−SD]: 42±11 years; BMI: 31.4±5.4 kg/m2) were grouped in early-eaters and late-eaters, according to the timing of the main meal (lunch in this Mediterranean population). 51% of the subjects were early-eaters and 49% were late-eaters (lunch time before and after 3:00 PM, respectively), energy intake and expenditure, appetite hormones, CLOCK genotype, sleep duration and chronotype were studied. Results Late lunch eaters lost less weight and displayed a slower weight-loss rate during the 20 weeks of treatment than early-eaters (P=0.002). Surprisingly, energy intake, dietary composition, estimated energy expenditure, appetite hormones and sleep duration was similar between both groups. Nevertheless, late-eaters were more evening-types, had less energetic breakfasts, and skipped breakfast more frequently that early-eaters (P<0.05). CLOCK rs4580704 SNP associated with the timing of the main meal (P=0.015) with a higher frequency of minor allele (C) carriers among the late-eaters (P=0.041). Neither sleep duration, nor CLOCK SNPs or Morning/Evening chronotype was independently associated with weight-loss (P>0.05). Conclusions Eating late may influence the success of weight-loss therapy. Novel therapeutic strategies should incorporate not only the caloric intake and macronutrient distribution—as is classically done—but also the timing of food. PMID:23357955

  1. The effect of hydration status on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Corney, Robert Anthony; Sunderland, Caroline; James, Lewis John

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of hypohydration produced by exercise and sub-optimal rehydration on appetite and energy intake. Ten males lost ~2% body mass through evening exercise in the heat (35°C). Over the next 13 h, participants were re-fed and either rehydrated (RE: water equal to 175% of body mass loss (BML)) or remained hypohydrated (HYPO: 200 ml water), until the following morning. Urine samples, blood samples and subjective feelings were collected pre-exercise, post-exercise and 13 h post-exercise, with an ad libitum breakfast provided 13 h post-exercise. Total BML at 13 h post-exercise was greater during HYPO (2.8 (0.5)%) than RE (0.5 (0.5)%). Energy intake at the ad libitum breakfast was similar between trials (RE: 4237 (1459) kJ; HYPO: 4612 (1487) kJ; P = 0.436), with no difference in energy consumed in foods (P = 0.600) or drinks (P = 0.147). Total water ingestion at the ad libitum breakfast meal was greater during HYPO (1641 (367) ml) than RE (797 (275) ml) (P < 0.001), with this being explained by increased water intake through fluids (P < 0.001). Thirteen hours post-exercise, participants reported greater thirst (P < 0.001) and lower fullness (P < 0.01) during HYPO. Alterations in hydration status produced by exercise are unlikely to influence post-exercise food intake and consequently other aspects of recovery or adaptation. PMID:25495101

  2. Programs To Enhance the Self-Sufficiency of Welfare Families: Working towards a Model of Effects on Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha; Moore, Kristin; Coiro, Mary Jo; Morrison, Donna Ruane

    Although it has been assumed that increasing maternal education or family income will improve children's well-being, considering the impact on child care arrangements and home environment raises the possibility of negative effects. This paper reviews experimental evaluations of seven programs designed to enhance welfare families' self-sufficiency,…

  3. The Long-Term Effects of Public Housing on Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Sandra J.; Harkness, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine the effects of living in public housing as a child at some point between 1968-1982 on four young adult outcomes. Results indicated that having lived in public housing increased employment, raised earnings, and reduced welfare use but had no effect on household earnings relative to the…

  4. Effects of alcohol intake on time-based event expectations.

    PubMed

    Kunchulia, Marina; Thomaschke, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Previous evidence suggests that alcohol affects various forms of temporal cognition. However, there are presently no studies investigating whether and how alcohol affects on time-based event expectations. Here, we investigated the effects of alcohol on time-based event expectations. Seventeen healthy volunteers, aged between 19 and 36 years, participated. We employed a variable foreperiod paradigm with temporally predictable events, mimicking a computer game. Error rate and reaction time were analyzed in placebo (0 g/kg), low dose (0.2 g/kg) and high dose (0.6 g/kg) conditions. We found that alcohol intake did not eliminate, but substantially reduced, the formation of time-based expectancy. This effect was stronger for high doses, than for low doses, of alcohol. As a result of our studies, we have evidence that alcohol intake impairs time-based event expectations. The mechanism by which the level of alcohol impairs time-based event expectations needs to be clarified by future research. PMID:26680768

  5. [Cost-effectiveness alone is not sufficient as basis for prioritization].

    PubMed

    Laine, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness has been suggested as the sole ethical basis for prioritization systems. The methods of health economics per se may be beneficial in decision making situations of various types. The structure of Finnish healthcare system and value-based choices associated with the application of cost-effectiveness make, however, utilizability more difficult than thought. Analysis of cost- effectiveness is worth using, but criteria and methods of decision making of health economics cannot be harnessed as tools for technocratic decision-making. Value-based choices should be subjected to wide public debate.

  6. The Effect of Dietary Intake on Inflammation and Inflammatory Biomarkers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cailliau, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Within the Human Health and Performance Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center, it is the responsibility of the Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory to determine nutrient requirements and research the role of nutrition as a potential countermeasure to the negative effects of spaceflight on human physiology. As a part of the lab, the goal of my project was to determine if and how diet affects inflammation and immune system function during spaceflight. This project involved analysis of both dietary and biochemical data from 20 participants in a prior bed rest study as well as from 17 subjects' flight data. Specifically, I evaluated how the dietary inflammatory index (DII), a calculated estimate, compared to a set of immune and inflammatory blood and urine biomarkers. Comparing DII score and biomarkers helps to determine how intake of certain diet patterns influences inflammation in the body. My project will evaluate the effectiveness of this tool for use in the spaceflight analog bed rest.

  7. Thyroid function and prevalence of anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies in outpatients hospital setting in an area with sufficient iodine intake: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Legakis, Ioannis; Manousaki, Mina; Detsi, Stela; Nikita, Dimitra

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine the prevalence of thyroid disease in a hospital outpatient setting, in an area of sufficient iodine intake, serum levels of TSH, T4, T3, anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies were examined in 909 individuals with an age range of 12.4 to 88.5 years, participating in a checkup outpatient setting. The study was conducted in Henry Dynant Hospital located in the metropolitan area of Athens, Greece, during a 2 year period. Hormonal parameters were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. Overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.95% of the total population and subclinical thyrotoxicosis in 5.5%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.43% and subclinical hypothyroidism in 4.51%. In male population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 4.4 % and subclinical thyrotoxicosis was also found in 4.4%. On the other hand, overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.4% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 3.7% in males. In female population, overt thyrotoxicosis was found in 5.2% whereas subclinical thyrotoxicosis was found in 6.0%. Overt hypothyroidism was found in 1.5% and subclinical hypothyroidism was found in 4,9% in females. Positive anti-TPO antibodies were detected more often (30.4%) than anti-Tg (15.4%) in the tested population. The positivity in both anti-TPO and anti-Tg antibodies was correlated with abnormally high TSH concentrations after the age of 50 years, especially in female population. In conclusion distinct profile of thyroid hormonal parameters was observed in inhabitants in the metropolitan area of Athens, with overt thyrotoxicosis strikingly overcome overt hypothyroidism while subclinical forms of each dysfunction also exhibit analogous results.

  8. Modeling of eating style and its effect on intake.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Janet H W; Mars, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Observational research has indicated that modeling of eating style might occur when eating in the presence of an eating companion. This experiment investigated the effect of bite frequency of a same-sex eating companion on bite frequency, meal size and meal duration. A total of 30 normal weight young adults (m/f = 8/22, age: 21.2 ± 1.9 years, BMI: 21.2 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)) had three ad libitum meals together with a same-sex confederate (i.e. instructed eating companion). Confederates were instructed to eat at a slow (3 bites/min), medium (5 bites/min) or fast (7 bites/min) bite frequency in randomized order. Eating style was assessed through video registration and weighing left-overs. It was found that the participants' bite frequency was similar during all three conditions, i.e. slow: 3.9 ± 1.3, medium: 4.0 ± 1.1, fast: 4.0 ± 1.3 bites/min (p = 0.75), as was average bite size (11 ± 2.6 g). Time eaten of the participants was shorter in the medium (14.9 ± 3.6 min) and fast condition (14.4 ± 3.7 min) compared to the slow condition (16.8 ± 4.8 min) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.01), and intake was lower in the medium (634 ± 183 g) and fast condition (624 ± 190 g) compared to the slow condition (701 ± 220 g) (post hoc in both cases p < 0.05). This experimental study suggests that bite frequency is not affected by the confederate. However, the meal duration of the confederates showed a significant effect on the meal duration and meal size of the participants. It seems that intake was influenced as a result of copying meal termination.

  9. Retrocausal Effects As A Consequence of Orthodox Quantum Mechanics Refined To Accommodate The Principle Of Sufficient Reason

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-11-01

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  10. Modelling of food intake in Brazil and Germany: Examining the effects of self-construals.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Kühnen, Ulrich; Hermans, Roel C J; Lippke, Sonia

    2015-12-01

    The current research focused on the influence of informational eating norms on people's food intake, and examined whether this influence was moderated by participants' self-construal levels. In two experiments, a two (intake norm manipulation: low vs. high) by two (self-construal manipulation: interdependent versus independent) between-participant factorial design was used. The studies were conducted in Brazil (Experiment 1) and in Germany (Experiment 2) as participants' self-construal levels differ between these countries. In Experiment 1, results indicated that participants exposed to a high-intake norm ate more than participants exposed to a low-intake norm. However, self-construal was not found to moderate the influence of food intake norms on participants' intake. In Experiment 2, replicating the results of Experiment 1, exposure to a high-intake norm increased participants' food intake, but self-construals again did not moderate modelling effects on food intake. Although differences in individuals' self-construal were found between both countries, they did not affect the magnitude of modelling effects on eating. Our studies provide evidence for cross-cultural similarity in the extent to which Brazilian and German female young adults are vulnerable to modelling effects on food intake, independent on their self-construal. PMID:26348265

  11. Modelling of food intake in Brazil and Germany: Examining the effects of self-construals.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Elizabeth; Kühnen, Ulrich; Hermans, Roel C J; Lippke, Sonia

    2015-12-01

    The current research focused on the influence of informational eating norms on people's food intake, and examined whether this influence was moderated by participants' self-construal levels. In two experiments, a two (intake norm manipulation: low vs. high) by two (self-construal manipulation: interdependent versus independent) between-participant factorial design was used. The studies were conducted in Brazil (Experiment 1) and in Germany (Experiment 2) as participants' self-construal levels differ between these countries. In Experiment 1, results indicated that participants exposed to a high-intake norm ate more than participants exposed to a low-intake norm. However, self-construal was not found to moderate the influence of food intake norms on participants' intake. In Experiment 2, replicating the results of Experiment 1, exposure to a high-intake norm increased participants' food intake, but self-construals again did not moderate modelling effects on food intake. Although differences in individuals' self-construal were found between both countries, they did not affect the magnitude of modelling effects on eating. Our studies provide evidence for cross-cultural similarity in the extent to which Brazilian and German female young adults are vulnerable to modelling effects on food intake, independent on their self-construal.

  12. Responses to an intense sweetener in humans: immediate preference and delayed effects on intake.

    PubMed

    Monneuse, M O; Bellisle, F; Louis-Sylverstre, J

    1991-02-01

    Preferences for five aspartame concentrations (0.008, 0.028, 0.094, 0.235 and 0.627%) in a dairy product were assessed in men and women by 1) brief-exposure sensory evaluation tests and 2) intake tests. Sensory evaluation gave different preferred concentrations as compared to actual intake. In sensory evaluation tests, the lowest three intensities were preferred by most subjects; in intake tests, 0.028% was clearly preferred. The 24-h spontaneous food intake after intake test sessions was recorded. A peak of 24-h energy intake was observed after intake of 0.028% aspartame yogurt. This peak was 400 kcal higher than the 24-h caloric intake observed after tests of the sweetest yogurt (p less than 0.01), much more than accounted for by differences in yogurt intake. So the intake of yogurt plus aspartame exerted strong delayed effects. These effects are likely dependent on sensory factors (concentration) rather than postingestive mechanisms (dose).

  13. Adenosine A1 receptors determine effects of caffeine on total fluid intake but not caffeine appetite.

    PubMed

    Rieg, Timo; Schnermann, Jürgen; Vallon, Volker

    2007-01-26

    Adenosine A1 receptor wild-type (+/+) and knockout (-/-) mice were used to elucidate the role of adenosine A1 receptors in caffeine self-administration in a two-bottle choice test and in the effect of caffeine on total fluid intake and plasma renin concentration. With access to water only, adenosine A1 receptor -/- mice showed greater basal fluid intake and greater plasma renin concentration than +/+ mice. Free access to both water and a caffeinated solution (30 mg/100 ml) for 14 days increased total fluid intake only in adenosine A1 receptor +/+ mice (by 23+/-3%), and both total fluid intake and plasma renin concentration were no longer different between genotypes. Mean intake of water and caffeinated solution was not different between adenosine A1 receptor +/+ and -/- mice. These data reveal that adenosine A1 receptors do not contribute to caffeine consumption, but determine the effects of caffeine on fluid intake and plasma renin concentration. PMID:17126319

  14. Effects of Weather on Caloric and Nutritive Intake in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Babiarz, K.; Goldhaber-Fiebert, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have investigated effects of weather on production of key food crops, largely motivated by a desire to anticipate impacts of climate change. However, health outcomes are most directly affected by food consumption, not production. Consumption changes will not necessarily follow production changes, primarily because people can adjust their diets away from foods that are most negatively affected. To more directly evaluate the effects of weather on nutrition, we analyzed reported household expenditure and consumption data from 20 rounds of the National Sample Survey (NSS) of India along with aggregated weather data of the two main agricultural seasons, kharif and rabi. Per capita intake of calories, protein, fats, and micronutrients were calculated from reported data at the household level, and then aggregated to district level for comparison with weather data. Regression analysis revealed significant negative effects of increased temperatures on calorie consumption in rural areas, with lower sensitivities in urban areas. We also found a higher sensitivity of protein and fat consumption to weather than for calories, which likely reflects the ability of households to switch to cheaper sources of calories in lean times. The results of this analysis will be useful for assessing the overall health burdens associated with climate change in India.

  15. Brief report: effect of dietary restraint on fruit and vegetable intake following implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2013-07-01

    This study explored whether the effects of implementation intentions on increasing fruit and vegetable intake were moderated by dietary restraint. In total, 208 participants were randomly allocated to control or implementation intention conditions where they were asked to write down when, where and how they would increase their fruit and vegetable intake. Implementation intentions increased fruit and vegetable intake but only in participants scoring low (not high) on rigid dietary restraint. Motives underlying fruit and vegetable consumption may be different for restrained and unrestrained eaters. Efforts to increase their intake may need to be tailored, for example, through motivational rather than situational cues.

  16. Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Yalvac, Mehmet Emir; Emre, Sinem Hocaoglu; Karaca, Cetin; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2011-01-01

    Background: Boric acid is widely used in biology, but its body weight reducing effect is not researched. Methods: Twenty mice were divided into two equal groups. Control group mice drank standard tap water, but study group mice drank 0.28mg/250ml boric acid added tap water over five days. Total body weight changes, major organ histopathology, blood biochemistry, urine and feces analyses were compared. Results: Study group mice lost body weight mean 28.1% but in control group no weight loss and also weight gained mean 0.09% (p<0.001). Total drinking water and urine outputs were not statistically different. Cholesterol, LDL, AST, ALT, LDH, amylase and urobilinogen levels were statistically significantly high in the study group. Other variables were not statistically different. No histopathologic differences were detected in evaluations of all resected major organs. Conclusion: Low dose oral boric acid intake cause serious body weight reduction. Blood and urine analyses support high glucose, lipid and middle protein catabolisms, but the mechanism is unclear. PMID:22135611

  17. Antihypertensive effect of low ethanol intake in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Vasdev, S; Ford, C A; Longerich, L; Parai, S; Gadag, V

    1999-10-01

    Light to moderate drinking in humans lowers the risk of coronary heart disease and may lower blood pressure. We examined the effect of chronic low daily alcohol consumption on blood pressure, platelet cytosolic free calcium [Ca2+]i, tissue aldehyde conjugates and renal vascular changes in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). We also examined the effects of the same weekly amount of alcohol consumption over a one day period each week simulating weekend drinking in humans. Animals, age 7 weeks, were divided into six groups of six animals each and were treated as follows: WKY and SHR control, normal drinking water; WKY and SHR, 0.5% ethanol in drinking water; WKY and SHR, 3.5% ethanol in drinking water one day/week. After 14 weeks systolic blood pressure, platelet [Ca2+]i, liver, kidney and aortic aldehyde conjugates were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in untreated SHRs as compared to untreated WKYs. Daily 0.5% ethanol consumption in SHRs significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated these changes and also attenuated smooth muscle cell hyperplasia and narrowing of the lumen in small arteries and arterioles of the kidney. WKY rats treated with 0.5% ethanol had lower aldehyde conjugates without any significant effect on blood pressure and platelet [Ca2+]i as compared to WKY controls. Consumption of 3.5% ethanol one day/week did not affect blood pressure and associated changes in normotensive WKY rats or hypertensive SHRs as compared to their respective controls. These results suggest that chronic daily low ethanol intake lowers blood pressure in SHRs by lowering tissue aldehyde conjugates and cytosolic free calcium.

  18. 49 CFR 40.275 - What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in Alcohol Testing § 40.275 What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the effect of procedural problems that are not sufficient to cancel an alcohol test? 40.275 Section 40.275 Transportation Office of the...

  19. The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Vida; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the important reasons behind termination of breast-feeding in the first six months after childbirth is insufficient production of breast milk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of herbal tea containing fenugreek seed on the signs of breast milk sufficiency in Iranian girl infants aged 0 - 4 months, at the medical health centers of Tehran university of medical sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a control group. Seventy-eight girl infants, 0 - 4 months old that were exclusively breastfed by their mothers, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (received herbal tea containing 7.5 g fenugreek seed powder in addition to 3 g of black tea, three times a day) and the control group (received herbal tea containing 3 g of black tea powder, three times a day). Before and during the four weeks of study, the signs of breast milk sufficiency were evaluated through measurement of growth parameters and use of follow-up forms for measuring the number of wet diapers in one day, frequency of defecation and infant breast-feeding times in a day. Results: Before the intervention there was no significant difference between weight, height, head circumference, the number of wet diapers and frequency of defecation between the two groups (P > 0.05), yet the number of breast feeding times of the control group was more than the Fenugreek group. At the end of the fourth week in proportion to the pre-intervention conditions, the weight of the infants in the fenugreek group increased significantly from 5282.0513 ± 1021.51121 to 6383.0769 ± 952.06190, while head circumference increased from 38.3103 ± 1.62736 to 39.9256 ± 1.50660, number of wet diapers from 5.2821 ± 0.93044 to 8.1648 ± 1.20620, frequency of defecation from 1.8846 ± 1.08495 to 2.7326 ± 0.94771 and the number of breast feeding times from 9.1795 ± 1.39778 to 15.9597 ± 1.45056 (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant effect on

  20. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  1. Effects of Physical Training and Calcium Intake on Bone Mineral Density of Students with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical training and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with mental retardation. Forty mentally retarded boys (age 7-10 years old) were randomly assigned to four groups (no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake and physical activity): training groups with or…

  2. Sufficient utilization of natural fluctuating light intensity is an effective approach of promoting lipid productivity in oleaginous microalgal cultivation outdoors.

    PubMed

    He, Qiaoning; Yang, Haijian; Xu, Liangliang; Xia, Ling; Hu, Chunxiang

    2015-03-01

    The effects of fluctuating intensity of solar radiation on biomass and lipid in oleaginous microalgae are important. However, this topic has not been the subject of studies for a long time. In this study, four oleaginous microalgae from semi-arid areas were screened and cultivated outdoors under different fluctuating intensities. Results showed that the highest lipid productivities and neutral lipid (NL) contents occurred under high fluctuating intensity (HFI), in which 13-20% of the increased NL came from glycolipid transformation without phospholipid conversion. Chlorella sp. L1 and Monoraphidium dybowskii Y2 obtained from biological soil crusts in desert had the largest biomass (137.13, 106.61mgL(-1)d(-1)) and lipid yields (35.06, 32.45mgL(-1)d(-1)) under HFI. The highest areal lipid productivities of 9.06 and 8.95gm(-2)d(-1) and better biodiesel quality were observed under HFI. Accordingly, sufficiently adopting fluctuating light intensity outdoors to culture microalgae was an economic and effective approach.

  3. Metabolic effects of altering the 24 h energy intake in man, using direct and indirect calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Dauncey, M J

    1980-03-01

    1. The metabolic effects of increasing or decreasing the usual energy intake for only 1 d were assessed in eight adult volunteers. Each subject lived for 28 h in a whole-body calorimeter at 26 degrees on three separate occasions of high, medium or low energy intake. Intakes (mean +/- SEM) of 13830 +/- 475 (high), 8400 +/- 510 (medium) and 3700 +/- 359 (low) kj/24 h were eaten in three meals of identical nutrient composition. 2. Energy expenditure was measured continuously by two methods: direct calorimetry, as total heat loss partitioned into its evaporative and sensible components: and indirect calorimetry, as heat production calculated from oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. For the twenty-four sessions there was a mean difference of only 1.2 +/- 0.14 (SEM) % between the two estimates of 24 h energy expenditure, with heat loss being less than heat production. Since experimental error was involved in both estimates it would be wrong to ascribe greater accuracy to either one of the measures of energy expenditure. 3. Despite the wide variation in the metabolic responses of the subjects to over-eating and under-eating, in comparison with the medium intake the 24 h heat production increased significantly by 10% on the high intake and decreased by 6% on the low intake. Mean (+/- SEM) values for 24 h heat production were 8770 +/- 288, 7896 +/- 297 and 7495 +/- 253 kJ on the high, medium and low intakes respectively. The effects of over-eating were greatest at night and the resting metabolic rate remained elevated by 12% 14 h after the last meal. By contrast, during under-eating the metabolic rate at night decreased by only 1%. 4. Evaporative heat loss accounted for an average of 25% of the total heat loss at each level of intake. Changes in evaporative heat loss were +14% on the high intake and -10% on the low intake. Sensible heat loss altered by +9 and -5% on the high and low intakes respectively. 5. It is concluded that (a) the effects on 24 h energy

  4. Effects of aspartame and phenylalanine on meal-time food intake of humans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H; Leiter, L A

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews data relevant to the hypothesis that aspartame may have a unique effect on meal-time food intake regulation due to its amino acid composition and in addition to its effects as a high intensity sweetener. It is concluded that future studies involving aspartame should be directed towards developing a fundamental understanding of the effects of high intensity sweeteners on food intake, and not give undue attention to putative actions based on its amino acid constituents.

  5. Effect of flavored milk vs plain milk on total milk intake and nutrient provision in children.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Concerns surrounding added sugars and their effects on health have created a need to review the literature to assess consumption of flavored milk, consumer preferences for flavored milk, behavior related to the intake of flavored milk, and the effect of flavored milk on the diet and health of children. A review of the literature was performed using the following keywords: milk, flavored, flavoured, sweetened, and chocolate. The search was limited to articles published in English, studies conducted in children, and studies reporting on prevalence of consumption, trends in consumption, preferences for flavored milk, intakes of milk and nutrients, and health outcomes. Fifty-three studies were included. Flavored milk receives the highest palatability rating among children. Children drink more flavored milk than plain milk and, when flavored milk is not available, children drink less plain milk and, consequently, less milk overall. Consumers of flavored milk have a higher total milk intake. Micronutrient intake among consumers of flavored milk is similar to that among consumers of plain milk, while intakes of energy and sugars vary, owing to differences in reporting across studies. There is no association between flavored milk intake and weight status among normal-weight children, and some contradictory effects of flavored milk intake have been observed in subgroups of overweight children. Flavored milk is a palatable beverage choice that helps children to meet calcium targets. Further research to test the effect of flavored milk consumption among overweight children is warranted. PMID:26534904

  6. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague–Dawley rats—normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency. PMID:25966980

  7. The effects of energy intake of four different feeding patterns in rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Huan; Han, Yi-wen; Sun, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, En-yi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Tie-mei

    2016-01-01

    Energy intake can affect the metabolism. But it is not very clear that how and to what degree the metabolism can be changed by energy intake quantity and change. Here we applied four feeding patterns in male Sprague-Dawley rats--normal ad libitum diet (NFal), high-fat diet (HFal), caloric restriction (CR) after HFal (HFal-NFcr), and refeeding from CR to ad libitum (HFal-NFcr-NFal). Food intake and body weight, along with fat mass, insulin sensitivity, fasting plasma insulin, and glucose level were used to calculate the energy efficiency and compared the quantitative effects of energy intake. Energy intake changed little in NFal or HFal group; while it changed greatly and suddenly in HFal-NFcr or HFal-NFcr-NFal group. All the parameters we detected were different between these four feeding patterns. Excess of energy intake from high-fat diet induced adverse outcomes with low energy efficiency. CR reversed the impairment of high-fat diet with very high energy efficiency in a short period. However, dramatic response with high energy efficiency induced by recovery to feeding ad libitum after CR, which was possible harmful to health. In conclusion, energy intake quantity and change are key determinants of metabolism. Different energy intake quantity and change affect body weight, white adipose tissue weight, insulin sensitivity, etc. at different degrees and speeds because of different energy efficiency.

  8. Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats: response.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Bagchi, Manashi; Bagchi, Debasis

    2006-01-01

    A response to Louter-van de Haar J, Wielinga PY, Scheurink AJ, Nieuwenhuizen AG: Comparison of the effects of three different (-)-hydroxycitric acid preparations on food intake in rats. Nutr Metabol 2005, 2:23. PMID:16846513

  9. Effects of Anorectic Drugs on Food Intake under Progressive-Ratio and Free-Access Conditions in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSage, Mark G.; Stafford, David; Glowa, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of two anorectic drugs, dexfenfluramine and phentermine, on food intake under different food-access conditions were examined. Experiment 1 compared the effects of these drugs on food intake under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule and free-access conditions. Dexfenfluramine decreased food intake under both conditions, but the doses…

  10. Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China123

    PubMed Central

    Du, Shufa; Neiman, Andrea; Batis, Carolina; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Jiguo; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China. Objective: We analyzed the patterns and trends of dietary sodium intake, potassium intake, and the Na/K ratio and their relations with incident hypertension in China. Design: The China Health and Nutrition Survey cohort includes 16,869 adults aged 20–60 y from 1991 to 2009. Three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls and condiment and food weights provided detailed dietary data. Multinomial logistic regression models determined trends and patterns of sodium and potassium intake and the Na/K ratio. Models for survival-time data estimated the hazard of incident hypertension. Results: Sodium intake is decreasing but remains double the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Most sodium comes from added condiments. Adults in the central provinces have the highest sodium intake and the most rapid increase in hypertension. Potassium intake has increased slightly but is below half of the recommended amount. The Na/K ratio is significantly higher than the recommended amounts. Recent measurements of high sodium intake, low potassium intake, and high Na/K ratio have strong independent dose-response associations with incident hypertension. Conclusions: Reducing sodium in processed foods, the major public health strategy in Western countries, may be less effective in China, where salt intake remains high. Replacing sodium with potassium in salt to control and prevent hypertension in China should be considered along with other public health and clinical prevention options. PMID:24257724

  11. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-12-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled.

  12. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  13. Effect of Dietary Fiber Intake on Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Independent of Estradiol in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; VanderWeele, Tyler J.

    2011-01-01

    High-fiber diets are associated with improved lipid profiles. However, pre- and postmenopausal women respond differently to fiber intake, suggesting that endogenous estradiol mediates the effect. The authors' objective was to determine the direct effect of fiber intake on lipoprotein cholesterol levels independent of estradiol among premenopausal women. The BioCycle Study, a prospective cohort study conducted at the State University of New York at Buffalo from 2005 to 2007, followed 259 healthy women for up to 2 complete menstrual cycles. Serum lipoprotein and hormone levels were measured at 16 visits timed using fertility monitors. Fiber intake was assessed by 8 24-hour recalls. Marginal structural models with inverse probability weights for both lipoprotein and estradiol levels were used to estimate controlled direct effects of the highest category of fiber intake (≥22 g/day vs. <22 g/day) while accounting for age, body mass index, total energy, vitamin E intake, physical activity, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and progesterone. Reductions were observed in total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in women with higher fiber intakes. Direct effects were greater than total effects. These analyses suggested that estradiol mediates at least part of the association between fiber and cholesterol among premenopausal women. More research is needed to elucidate the biologic mechanisms driving these associations. PMID:21148240

  14. Effects of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen administered orally on normal food intake and intraperitoneally on fat intake in non-deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Bains, Rasneer S; Ebenezer, Ivor S

    2013-01-01

    It has been previously reported that the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen decreases food intake after oral administration and fat intake after intraperitoneal administration. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of baclofen (1-4 mg/ kg) administered orally (Experiment 1) on food intake in non-deprived rats (n=6) and intraperitoneally (Experiment 2) on fat intake in non-deprived rats (n=8) that were naïve to baclofen (1st set of trials) and in the same group of rats after they were sub-chronically exposed to baclofen (2nd set of trials). The results from Experiment 1 show that baclofen had no effects on food intake during the 1st set of trials, but the 2 and 4 mg/kg doses significantly increased food consumption during the 2nd set of trials. Baclofen produced sedation during the 1st set of trials, but tolerance occurred to this effect and was not apparent during the 2nd set of trials. These observations suggest that the motor effects may have competed with the hyperphagic effects of baclofen during the 1st set of trials. The data from Experiment 2 show that baclofen had no effects on fat intake during either the 1st or 2nd set of trials. The results of the study thus indicate that orally administrated baclofen increases food intake and intraperitoneal administration has no effect on fat intake in non-deprived rats under the conditions used in this study. These findings may have important implications for research on the use of baclofen in studies concerned with ingestive behaviours.

  15. Effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, nutrient intake, and digestibility in hair-breed sheep.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cruz, U; Álvarez-Valenzuela, F D; Soto-Navarro, S A; Aguila-Tepato, E; Avendaño-Reyes, L

    2013-04-01

    Twelve Dorper × Pelibuey wether lambs (26.8 ± 1.6 kg initial BW, 5 mo of age) were used to evaluate effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on feedlot performance, and effects of ZH and ZH supplementation period (15 and 30 d) on nutrient intake and digestibility. Lambs were blocked by initial BW, and assigned randomly within BW blocks to 1 of 2 treatments: i) control (no ZH), and ii) supplemented with ZH (10 mg ZH/wether lamb daily). Measurements of intake and digestibility were performed on d 9 to 15 and 24 to 30. Feedlot performance data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design, and nutrient intake and digestibility data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Final BW, ADG, total BW gain, and G:F were greater (P ≤ 0.04) for ZH than for control lambs. No treatment × feeding duration interaction for nutrient intake and apparent total tract digestibility were observed (P > 0.05). Intake of DM, OM, CP, and GE were less (P ≤ 0.03) for ZH than for control. Lambs fed for 30 d had greater (P ≤ 0.04) NDF and GE intake compared with those fed for 15 d. Total tract digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, and ADF (P ≤ 0.03) was less for ZH than control. Furthermore, calculated DE, ME, and TDN intake decreased (P < 0.01) with ZH supplementation. Also, DM, CP, and ether extract(EE) digestibility were greater (P < 0.01) for 30 d than for 15 d. Additionally, greater (P ≤ 0.01) DE, ME, and TDN intake was observed for 30 d compared with 15 d. In conclusion, ZH supplementation of wether lambs consuming feedlot diets resulted in improved feedlot performance and reduced the intake and digestibility of some nutrients.

  16. Comparative effects of fructose, aspartame, glucose, and water preloads on calorie and macronutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Rodin, J

    1990-03-01

    Using a within-subjects design, we gave over-weight and normal-weight subjects a 500-mL drink of fructose, glucose, or aspartame diluted in lemon-flavored water or plain water in a randomized fashion at about weekly intervals. Food intake was assessed at a buffet lunch that began 38 min after the preload was completed. Blood was drawn throughout and assayed for concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, and free fatty acid. When subjects drank the fructose preload, they subsequently ate fewer overall calories and fewer grams of fat than when they drank any of the other preloads. The aspartame load did not stimulate intake beyond the plain-water control. The effects of the oxidation of fructose as a possible mechanism for the reduction in food intake is discussed. The effects of insulin in stimulating intake are also discussed.

  17. Comparison of the effects of aspartame and sucrose on appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Rolls, B J; Hetherington, M; Laster, L J

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the effects of consumption of foods sweetened with either sucrose or aspartame on appetite ratings and food intake. Normal weight, non-dieting subjects ate the same amount of high- and low-calorie versions of pudding or jello and despite the resulting difference in caloric intake, showed only a non-significant trend towards compensation in a lunch one or two hours later. There were no significant differences between rated hunger, fullness, desire to eat, the amount subjects wanted to eat, or sensory-specific satiety following the high- and low-calorie foods. Knowing the caloric values of the foods did not influence intake or appetite ratings in that both informed and uninformed subjects responded similarly. Thus in the short term subjects tended to eat a constant amount of a particular food and this volume had a greater effect on appetite ratings and subsequent intake than the calories consumed.

  18. [Effect of alcohol intake on the ability to pilot aircraft].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, I B; Egorov, S V

    1996-01-01

    During the initial 4 hours after alcohol intake at a dose of 1.9 g/kg aircraft operators displayed disturbances in the psychic processes and functions responsible for each (from information reception and processing up to decision-making and building-up the controlling actions) structural elements in their activity resulting in considerable limitation or a complete failure to pilot aircraft. Main disorders included inability to correctly analyse flight situation and loss of skills to automatically control simulator, a sudden depletion of psychophysiological reserves and deterioration of operator's reliability. Less elaborated professional skills appear to be the most vulnerable.

  19. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (Kcarb) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this stu...

  20. Effect of melatonin on total food intake and macronutrient choice in rats.

    PubMed

    Angers, K; Haddad, N; Selmaoui, B; Thibault, L

    2003-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone secreted in a rhythmic manner over 24 h mainly by the pineal gland, is used to alleviate the symptoms of jetlag and treat sleeping problems. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of a 7-h phase-shift from the natural peak of melatonin secretion on total food intake and macronutrient selection. Forty-eight adult Wistar rats of both sexes were divided in three dietary groups, each group offered a simultaneous and different choice of a carbohydrate- and a protein-rich diet. Macronutrient intakes following intraperitoneal administration of four doses of melatonin (3000, 6000, 10000 and 15000 pg/ml blood) at dark onset were examined. Melatonin increased short- (4 h postinjection) and long-term (12 h postinjection) nocturnal total food intake in both male and female rats, mainly with the two highest doses. This effect of melatonin was mainly due to a short-term increase of intake across all carbohydrate-rich diet preparations (dextrin/cornstarch, cornstarch, and sucrose/cornstarch) and across genders. This consistent effect of melatonin on the intake of carbohydrate-rich diets with contrasting sensory attributes rules out the possibility that melatonin acts on sensorymotor pathways, thus suggesting that melatonin's effect on food intake is controlled by the carbohydrate content of the diet. In contrast, melatonin could be affecting some sensory or motor processes peculiar to the ingestion of protein since it increased protein-rich diet intake inconsistently across the various preparations (casein, soy isolate, and egg protein) as well as genders. This evidence supports the view that melatonin acts as a time indicator, reinforcing the animals with a "night cue", and favors predominant carbohydrate intake normally occurring at the beginning of the activity period.

  1. The effectiveness of a short food frequency questionnaire in determining vitamin D intake in children.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Russell, Caitlin Sundby; Luo, Ruiyan; Ganji, Vijay; Olabopo, Flora; Hopkins, Barbara; Holick, Michael F; Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children, yet few validated dietary vitamin D assessment tools are available for use in children. Our objective was to determine whether a short food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) can effectively assess vitamin D intake in children. Vitamin D intake ascertained by a SFFQ was compared with assessments by a previously validated long food frequency questionnaire (LFFQ) in a population of 296 healthy 6- to 14-y-old children (54% male, 60% African American) from Pittsburgh, PA. The questionnaires were completed at two points 6 mo apart. Median reported daily vitamin D intake from the SFFQ (baseline: 380 IU, follow-up: 363 IU) was higher than the LFFQ (255 IU and 254 IU, respectively). Reported median dairy intake, including milk, cheese, and yogurt, was 3.7 cups/day, which meets the USDA recommendation for children. Vitamin D intake reported by the 2 questionnaires was modestly correlated at baseline and follow-up (r = 0.35 and r = 0.37, respectively; p < 0.001). These associations were stronger in Caucasians (r = 0.48 and r = 0.49, p < 0.001) than in African Americans (r = 0.27 and r = 0.31; p = 0.001). The sensitivity of the SFFQ for predicting daily vitamin D intake, defined as intake of ≥ 400 IU on both the SFFQ and LFFQ, was 65%. Specificity, defined as intake of < 400 IU on both questionnaires, was 42%. Vitamin D requirements may not be met despite adequate consumption of dairy products. The SFFQ was found to be a modestly valid and sensitive tool for dietary assessment of vitamin D intake in children.

  2. Direct effects of food cues seen during TV viewing on energy intake in young women.

    PubMed

    van Nee, Roselinde L; Larsen, Junilla K; Fisher, Jennifer O

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have examined direct effects of food cues presented within television (TV) programs on eating behavior in adults. This research experimentally determined whether exposure to food cues in TV programs affects energy intake during TV viewing among young women, independently from food cues presented in TV advertisements. The experiment involved a 2 (TV program with or without food cues) by 2 (TV advertisements with or without food cues) between-participants design. While watching TV, participants could freely eat peanut chocolate candies and crisps (potato chips). Participants were 121 young women (mean age = 19.6 years; mean BMI = 22.5). Participants who watched a TV program with food cues tended to have a lower total energy intake and ate significantly less peanut chocolate candies than participants who watched the same TV program without food cues. This effect was particularly pronounced among participants with a higher BMI. Food advertisements did not affect energy intake. Findings may indicate that subtle continuous food cues during TV programs could make young females more aware of their own eating and/or weight, leading to reduced intake of particularly sweet snack foods during TV viewing. Considering the non-significant trend for the effect of the TV program with food cues on total energy intake, findings should be replicated to provide possible tools for prevention campaigns using food cue reminders to watch one's intake. PMID:26921486

  3. Effects of artificial sweeteners on body weight, food and drink intake.

    PubMed

    Polyák, Eva; Gombos, K; Hajnal, B; Bonyár-Müller, K; Szabó, Sz; Gubicskó-Kisbenedek, A; Marton, K; Ember, I

    2010-12-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used all over the world. They may assist in weight management, prevention of dental caries, control of blood glucose of diabetics, and also can be used to replace sugar in foods. In the animal experimentation mice were given oral doses of water solutions of table top artificial sweeteners (saccharin, cyclamate based, acesulfame-K based, and aspartame) the amount of maximum Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) ad libitum. The controls received only tap water with the same drinking conditions as the treated groups. The mice were fed chow ad libitum.We measured food intake and body weight once a week, water and solutions of artificial sweeteners intake twice a week. The data were analysed by statistical methods (T-probe, regression analysis).Consumption of sweeteners resulted in significantly increased body weight; however, the food intake did not change.These results question the effect of non-caloric artificial sweeteners on weight-maintenance or body weight decrease.

  4. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Kondrup, Jens; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were included. Out of a total of 5,718 abstracts, 412 full papers were identified as potentially relevant, and after careful scrutiny, 64 papers were quality graded as A (highest), B, or C. The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance studies, suggestive for a relationship between increased all-cause mortality risk and long-term low-carbohydrate–high-protein (LCHP) diets; but inconclusive for a relationship between all-cause mortality risk and protein intake per se; suggestive for an inverse relationship between cardiovascular mortality and vegetable protein intake; inconclusive for relationships between cancer mortality and cancer diseases, respectively, and protein intake; inconclusive for a relationship between cardiovascular diseases and total protein intake; suggestive for an inverse relationship between blood pressure (BP) and vegetable protein; probable to convincing for an inverse relationship between soya protein intake and LDL cholesterol; inconclusive for a relationship between protein intake and bone health, energy intake, BW control, body composition, renal function, and risk of kidney stones, respectively; suggestive for a relationship between increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and long-term LCHP-high-fat diets; inconclusive for impact of physical training on protein requirement; and suggestive for effect of physical training on whole-body protein retention. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the estimated requirement based on

  5. Comparison of three methods to reduce energy density. Effects on daily energy intake.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rachel A; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2013-07-01

    Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for 4 weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667 ± 77 kcal/day; 11,166 ± 322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396 ± 44 kcal/day (1658 ± 184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308 ± 41 kcal/day (1290 ± 172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230 ± 35 kcal/day (963 ± 147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake.

  6. Effects of supplemental feeding on intake by kid, yearling, and adult Angora goats on rangeland.

    PubMed

    Huston, J E

    1994-03-01

    Sixty female Angoras, including 20 each of kids (9 mo), pregnant yearlings (21 mo), and pregnant adults (2.5 to 4 yr), were used to determine the effects of supplemental feed and level of supplemental digestible DM (DDM) on voluntary intake on rangeland. Treatments included negative control (NC: no supplemental feed) and supplements to provide equal CP (3 g/kg of BW.75) and either 4.8, 9.8, or 19.8 g/kg of BW.75 of DDM per day. Forage intake (FI), gastrointestinal tract fill (FILL), mean particulate turnover, mean particulate whole-tract residence time, fecal output, and forage DM digestibility (FDMD) were measured in all goats using a pulse-dose marker technique when the yearling and adult goats were in late pregnancy. Forage intake increased (quadratic regression, P = .01) at the low level of feeding, but both FI and FDMD decreased in a quadratic pattern in the pregnant goats as DDM feeding level increased. Total DDM intake reached a maximum at the medium supplementation level. Stimulative, additive, and substitutive effects on forage intake were observed as feeding level increased. Yearling goats had lower FILL and intake than kids and adults (metabolic BW basis), which may explain problems associated with reproduction in young goats.

  7. Feed intake and protein skeletal muscle in growing mice treated with growth hormone: time course effects.

    PubMed

    López-Oliva, M E; Agis-Torres, A; Unzaga, M T; Muñoz-Martínez, E

    2000-03-01

    The exogenous recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) administration on gastrocnemius muscle growth performance and its contribution to body growth of male and female BALB/c mice fed a 12 % protein diet from 25 to 50 days of age, as well as the mechanism of utilization of feed intake to the lean muscle deposition were studied. Male and female weaning mice (21 days of age) were injected subcutaneously for 29 days with rhGH (74 ng x g(-1)) or saline vehicle (control). Feed intake and body weight (BW) were measured daily. At 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50 days of age twenty mice were killed by cervical dislocation and the gastrocnemius muscle was isolated, weighed and the protein content was measured. The rhGH administration caused a biphasic response of BW and muscle growth as a consequence of age-specific feed intake changes. The initial feed intake fall induced the allometric proportion decreases in both muscle growth versus body growth and protein muscle versus muscle growth. That effect was due to ineffient utilization of energy and protein intake on protein muscle store. Later on, the self-controlled increase of feed intake leads to the recovery of muscle weight to control values, through nutrient partitioning toward non protein tissue showing a compensatory muscle growth. This suggests that a higher dietary protein level should be necessary for promoting the protein anabolic effect of GH during weaning.

  8. Effects of sweetness perception and caloric value of a preload on short term intake.

    PubMed

    Brala, P M; Hagen, R L

    1983-01-01

    To determine the effects of calories and sweetness perception on intake, fasted normal weight subjects drank a preload sweetened with sucrose (1.1 g/kg) or L-asparthyl-L-phenylalanyl-methyl ester (Aspartame, 0.011 g/kg), or with no added sweetener. Sweetness perception of the load was reduced in half of the subjects by oral application of Gymnema sylvestre extracts. One hour after the preload, a meal of snack foods was presented and amounts of nutrients eaten were calculated. Subjects whose perception of sweetness had been decreased for the preload ate less total and sweet calories than did those with normal perception. Calories did not affect intake. The effect of calories and perception of the load was also assessed on variables presumed to correlate with satiety. Sucrose pleasantness ratings were not related to calories, perception or intake. Subjects' estimates of the amount of milkshake that they would drink if given the opportunity to do so and hunger ratings were related to overall intake and carbohydrate intake, respectively. The findings indicate that hedonistic aspects of taste are of greater importance than calories in determining short term intake.

  9. Effects of dietary macronutrient composition on exogenous neuropeptide Y's stimulation of food intake in chicks.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Laura A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Cline, Mark A

    2015-03-30

    In mammalian models it is well documented that the potent orexigenic factor, neuropeptide Y (NPY) causes preferential intake of high carbohydrate and fat diets; however, information on this is limited in non-mammalian species. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. Three isocaloric diets were formulated: high carbohydrate, fat and protein. In Experiment 1, chicks were fed the three diets and received intracerebroventricular injections of 0.2 or 2.0nmol NPY. Chicks that consumed the high carbohydrate and protein diets had a non-dose dependent similar magnitude of increased food intake after NPY injection, but those on the high fat diet had a dose dependent food intake increase. In Experiment 2, when chicks were given free access to all three diets, injection of 0.2nmol NPY caused preferential increase in intake of only the high protein diet whereas 2.0nmol NPY caused preferential increases in of both high carbohydrate and protein diets. Neither dose affected high fat diet intake. In Experiment 3, chicks were raised on one of the three diets and then switched to the others. When chicks were raised on the high fat and protein diets and then switched to the other diets, stimulation of food intake occurred for the same duration, 180min. However, when chicks were raised on the high carbohydrate and then switched to high fat, NPY injection caused a sustaining increase in cumulative food intake that lasted the entire observation period. These results suggest that NPY has selective effects on consumption of carbohydrate, fat and protein in chicks, and that diet in turn affects the NPY-mediated response in food intake, with a high fat diet enhancing NPY sensitivity that is associated with a greater magnitude and duration of feeding response. In turn, NPY caused preferential protein and carbohydrate intake instead of fat intake (in this order of preference), when chicks had the

  10. Effects of sweetness and energy in drinks on food intake following exercise.

    PubMed

    King, N A; Appleton, K; Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1999-04-01

    Exercise is known to cause physiological changes that could affect the impact of nutrients on appetite control. This study was designed to assess the effect of drinks containing either sucrose or high-intensity sweeteners on food intake following exercise. Using a repeated-measures design, three drink conditions were employed: plain water (W), a low-energy drink sweetened with artificial sweeteners aspartame and acesulfame-K (L), and a high-energy, sucrose-sweetened drink (H). Following a period of challenging exercise (70% VO2 max for 50 min), subjects consumed freely from a particular drink before being offered a test meal at which energy and nutrient intakes were measured. The degree of pleasantness (palatability) of the drinks was also measured before and after exercise. At the test meal, energy intake following the artificially sweetened (L) drink was significantly greater than after water and the sucrose (H) drinks (p < 0.05). Compared with the artificially sweetened (L) drink, the high-energy (H) drink suppressed intake by approximately the energy contained in the drink itself. However, there was no difference between the water (W) and the sucrose (H) drink on test meal energy intake. When the net effects were compared (i.e., drink + test meal energy intake), total energy intake was significantly lower after the water (W) drink compared with the two sweet (L and H) drinks. The exercise period brought about changes in the perceived pleasantness of the water, but had no effect on either of the sweet drinks. The remarkably precise energy compensation demonstrated after the higher energy sucrose drink suggests that exercise may prime the system to respond sensitively to nutritional manipulations. The results may also have implications for the effect on short-term appetite control of different types of drinks used to quench thirst during and after exercise.

  11. Effect of operative stress on food intake and feeding pattern in female rats.

    PubMed

    Varma, M; Chai, J K; Meguid, M M; Gleason, J R; Yang, Z J

    1999-05-01

    Effects of operative stress on food intake, meal size, and meal number were measured in 15 female rats before and after jugular vein catheterization. All rats had 5-d estrous cycles which correlated with cyclical feeding patterns that were most prominent during dark phase eating. In proestrous, meal number peaked (30.3+/-1.32), and meal size reached a nadir (0.33+/-0.02 g) with some corresponding change in food intake (9.8+/-0.38 g). Following operation on day 11, the cyclical variation of food intake, meal number, and meal size with estrous cycle was lost for the first 3 d, as was the diurnal rhythm in food intake. Eight rats recovered their dark phase feeding pattern by day 17 (recovered group), while 7 had not done so even by day 24 (non-recovered group). Food intake decreased to 40% of baseline in the recovered group and to 25% in the non-recovered group on day 11, increasing to 70% by day 14 in both groups and matching preoperative levels by day 17. Similar postoperative decreases were observed in meal number and meal size. Light phase feeding was increased, the ratio of day to night food intake being three times preoperative levels even at day 24. Preoperatively, non-recovered rats were similar to the recovered rats in all feeding indexes and continued to have estrous cycling in vaginal smears postoperatively. In the non-recovered rats, meal size more than doubled and meal number was depressed by 47% of preoperative levels and remained low until the end of the study. We conclude that operative stress disrupted cyclical and diurnal rhythms in food intake. In female rats, meal size is the first index to recover, increasing temporarily to maintain food intake.

  12. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of <5, 50 and 75 μg/kg BW, respectively. None of the horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  13. Vegetable variety: an effective strategy to increase vegetable intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Meengs, Jennifer S; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2012-08-01

    Effective strategies are needed to increase vegetable intake in accordance with health recommendations. Previous research has shown that increasing the variety of foods leads to increased consumption, yet this strategy has not been investigated for promoting vegetable intake. This crossover study, conducted in 2008 and 2009, tested whether filling half the plate with a variety of vegetables influences vegetable consumption and meal energy intake. Once a week for 4 weeks, a meal of pasta and cooked vegetables was consumed ad libitum by 66 adults (34 women, 32 men). The meals were varied in the type of vegetables offered: at three meals 600 g of a single vegetable was served (broccoli, carrots, or snap peas) and at one meal 200 g of each of the three vegetables was served side by side. Data were analyzed using a mixed linear model with repeated measures. In this study, serving a variety of vegetables increased vegetable intake at the meal (P<0.0001). Subjects ate more vegetables when served the variety than when served any single type; the mean increase was 48±6 g, or more than one-half serving. This increase remained significant when intake of the variety of vegetables was compared with the preferred vegetable of each participant (mean 25±8 g; P=0.002). Vegetable intake was not significantly related to energy intake at the meal. The results of this study demonstrate that increasing the variety of low-energy-dense vegetables served at a meal can be used as a strategy to increase vegetable intake.

  14. Model of voluntary ethanol intake in zebrafish: effect on behavior and hypothalamic orexigenic peptides.

    PubMed

    Sterling, M E; Karatayev, O; Chang, G-Q; Algava, D B; Leibowitz, S F

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies in zebrafish have shown that exposure to ethanol in tank water affects various behaviors, including locomotion, anxiety and aggression, and produces changes in brain neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine. Building on these investigations, the present study had two goals: first, to develop a method for inducing voluntary ethanol intake in individual zebrafish, which can be used as a model in future studies to examine how this behavior is affected by various manipulations, and second, to characterize the effects of this ethanol intake on different behaviors and the expression of hypothalamic orexigenic peptides, galanin (GAL) and orexin (OX), which are known in rodents to stimulate consumption of ethanol and alter behaviors associated with alcohol abuse. Thus, we first developed a new model of voluntary intake of ethanol in fish by presenting this ethanol mixed with gelatin, which they readily consume. Using this model, we found that individual zebrafish can be trained in a short period to consume stable levels of 10% or 20% ethanol (v/v) mixed with gelatin and that their intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture leads to pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations which are strongly, positively correlated with the amount ingested. Intake of this ethanol-gelatin mixture increased locomotion, reduced anxiety, and stimulated aggressive behavior, while increasing expression of GAL and OX in specific hypothalamic areas. These findings, confirming results in rats, provide a method in zebrafish for investigating with forward genetics and pharmacological techniques the role of different brain mechanisms in controlling ethanol intake.

  15. Biological effect of human serum collected before and after oral intake of Pygeum africanum on various benign prostate cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Larré, Stéphane; Camparo, Philippe; Comperat, Eva; Boulbés, Delphine; Haddoum, Mohammed; Baulande, Sylvain; Soularue, Pascal; Costa, Pierre; Cussenot, Olivier

    2012-05-01

    Pygeum africanum (Tadenan) is a popular phytotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active compounds of the drug have not been identified, and determining the plasma concentration of the drug is, therefore, not possible. Because there are conflicting results on the efficacy of this drug, we aimed to investigate its effect on prostate cell growth in vitro using human serum collected before and after Pygeum africanum intake. We used primary and organotypic cultures of human prostatic stromal myofibroblast cell line WPMY and prostatic epithelial cell line PNT2. We also used fresh benign prostatic tissue. The serum of a treated man induced decreases in the proliferation of primary cells, organotypic cells and WPMY cells but not PNT2 cells. We also analysed the effect of treated serum on the gene expression profile of WPMY cells. The transcriptome analysis revealed an upregulation of genes involved in multiple tumour suppression pathways and a downregulation of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative-stress pathways. The oral intake of Pygeum africanum resulted in serum levels of active substances that were sufficient to inhibit the proliferation of cultured myofibroblasts prostatic cells. This inhibition was associated with changes in the transcriptome.

  16. Biological effect of human serum collected before and after oral intake of Pygeum africanum on various benign prostate cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Larré, Stéphane; Camparo, Philippe; Comperat, Eva; Boulbés, Delphine; Haddoum, Mohammed; Baulande, Sylvain; Soularue, Pascal; Costa, Pierre; Cussenot, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Pygeum africanum (Tadenan) is a popular phytotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. The active compounds of the drug have not been identified, and determining the plasma concentration of the drug is, therefore, not possible. Because there are conflicting results on the efficacy of this drug, we aimed to investigate its effect on prostate cell growth in vitro using human serum collected before and after Pygeum africanum intake. We used primary and organotypic cultures of human prostatic stromal myofibroblast cell line WPMY and prostatic epithelial cell line PNT2. We also used fresh benign prostatic tissue. The serum of a treated man induced decreases in the proliferation of primary cells, organotypic cells and WPMY cells but not PNT2 cells. We also analysed the effect of treated serum on the gene expression profile of WPMY cells. The transcriptome analysis revealed an upregulation of genes involved in multiple tumour suppression pathways and a downregulation of genes involved in inflammation and oxidative-stress pathways. The oral intake of Pygeum africanum resulted in serum levels of active substances that were sufficient to inhibit the proliferation of cultured myofibroblasts prostatic cells. This inhibition was associated with changes in the transcriptome. PMID:22198631

  17. Effects of intraruminal infusions of sodium acetate and sodium chloride on silage intake by lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Forbes, J M; Mbanya, J N; Anil, M H

    1992-12-01

    Lactating dairy cows prepared with rumen fistulas were fed on grass silage and concentrates and used in two experiments to compare the effects of sodium acetate and sodium chloride infused over 3 h into the rumen on the voluntary intake of silage. Silage intake was depressed in an approximately linear manner by increasing amounts (6-15 mol) of sodium acetate (NaOAc) and 15 mol NaCl had an effect similar to that of 12 mol NaOAc. Sodium in rumen fluid was significantly correlated with intake as was osmolality. 5.5, 7.4 or 9.1 mol of NaOAc significantly depressed silage intake, while 7.4 and 9.1 mol NaCl had significant effects. There were significant negative relationships between intake and the level of NaOAc or NaCl. It is concluded that the major effect of either salt was via the elevation of osmolality of rumen fluid and the relevance to normal control of feeding is discussed.

  18. Effects of vagal neuromodulation and vagotomy on control of food intake and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Laskiewicz, J; Królczyk, G; Zurowski, G; Sobocki, J; Matyja, A; Thor, P J

    2003-12-01

    Food induced neurohumoral signals are conduced to data processing brain centers mainly as vagal afferent discharge resulting in food intake regulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of vagal nerve neuromodulation in control of food intake with fed-pattern microchip (MC) pacing. Experiments were performed on 60 rats divided on 5 groups: I group 0,05Hz left vagal pacing, II - pacing of both vagal nerves with MC 0,05Hz, III- left vagal MC 0,1Hz pacing, IV - pacing of both vagal nerves with MC 0,1 Hz was performed. In group V left vagal pacing was combined with right side abdominal vagotomy. Body weight and total food intake decreased by 12% and 14% (I), 26% and 30%(II), 8% and 21%(III), 14% and 30%(IV), 38% and 41%(IV), respectively (p<0.05). Effects of both vagal nerves stimulation on final body weight and food intake was significantly more effective than only single nerve MC pacing however most effective was stimulation with 0,1Hz combined with right vagotomy. We conclude that vagal stimulation reduce food intake and body weight by increasing vagal afferent signals. Our results suggest that information in vagal afferents can be modulated resulting in changes of feeding behaviour and body weight.

  19. Effect of cholecystokinin on food intake at different stages of the estrous cycle in female rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y S; Doi, R; Chowdhury, P; Pasley, J N; Nishikawa, M; Huang, T J; Rayford, P L

    1993-01-01

    Effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on feeding behavior were examined in male and female rats. After an 18-hour fast, ad lib food intake for 30 minutes was measured for each rat. In male rats, food intake measured for 30 minutes was significantly decreased by intraperitoneal injection of 0.25 to 1 microgram/kg of CCK-8 in a dose-dependent manner. The satiety effect of CCK-8 was blocked by L-364,718 (20 nmol/kg), a specific cholecystokinin receptor antagonist. In female rats, food intake at proestrus and estrus was significantly less than that at diestrus. Food intake of female rats at diestrus and metestrus was significantly decreased by an intraperitoneal injection of CCK-8 prior to feeding, but it was not affected at proestrus and estrus. The effect of CCK-8 on food intake at diestrus and metestrus was dose dependent and was nearly abolished when 20 nmol/kg of L-364,718 was administered simultaneously. The results of this study suggest that stages of the estrous cycle affect feeding behavior of rats. Further, cholecystokinin's regulatory action on feeding behavior appears to be effective at diestrus and metestrus, but not at proestrus and estrus.

  20. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  1. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  2. How Important Are 'Entry Effects' in Financial Incentive Programs for Welfare Recipients? Experimental Evidence from the Self-Sufficiency Project. SRDC Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David; Robins, Philip K.; Lin, Winston

    The Self-Sufficiency Project (SSP) entry effect experiment was designed to measure the effect of the future availability of an earnings supplement on the behavior of newly enrolled income assistance (IA) recipients. It used a classical randomized design. From a sample of 3,315 single parents who recently started a new period of IA, one-half were…

  3. What do we know about dietary fiber intake in children and health? The effects of fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Sibylle; Brauchla, Mary; Slavin, Joanne L; Miller, Kevin B

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dietary fiber intake on chronic diseases has been explored in adults but is largely unknown in children. This paper summarizes the currently existing evidence on the implications of dietary fiber intake on constipation, obesity, and diabetes in children. Current intake studies suggest that all efforts to increase children's dietary fiber consumption should be encouraged. Available data, predominantly from adult studies, indicate significantly lower risks for obesity, diabetes, and constipation could be expected with higher dietary fiber consumption. However, there is a lack of data from clinical studies in children of various ages consuming different levels of dietary fiber to support such assumptions. The existing fiber recommendations for children are conflicting, a surprising situation, because the health benefits associated with higher dietary fiber intake are well established in adults. Data providing conclusive evidence to either support or refute some, if not all, of the current pediatric fiber intake recommendations are lacking. The opportunity to improve children's health should be a priority, because it also relates to their health later in life. The known health benefits of dietary fiber intake, as summarized in this paper, call for increased awareness of the need to examine the potential benefits to children's health through increased dietary fiber.

  4. Internal and External Moderators of the Effect of Variety on Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remick, Abigail K.; Polivy, Janet; Pliner, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to how much we eat. One such factor is the variety of different foods available. The current article reviews the variety literature with a specific focus on the factors that moderate the effects of variety on food intake and that moderate the processes that may underlie the variety effect (i.e., sensory-specific satiety and…

  5. Scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake: effects of glucose intake, antimuscarinic activity and anticonvulsant drugs.

    PubMed

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye; Celik, Pinar Yamantürk; Açikmeşe, Bariş

    2005-09-01

    The present study was performed to further evaluate the contribution of antimuscarinic activity and hypoglycaemia to the development of scopolamine-induced convulsions in fasted mice after food intake. The effects of anticonvulsant drugs on convulsions were also evaluated. Antimuscarinic drugs atropine (3 mg/kg) and biperiden (10 mg/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p) to animals fasted for 48 h. Like scopolamine, both drugs induced convulsions after animals were allowed to eat ad libitum. Another group of animals was given glucose (5%) in drinking water during fasting. These animals, although they had normoglycaemic blood levels after fasting, also developed convulsions after treated with scopolamine i.p. (3 mg/kg), atropine (3 mg/kg) or biperiden (10 mg/kg) and allowed to eat ad libitum. Among the drugs studied, only valproate (340 mg/kg), gabapentin (50 mg/kg) and diazepam (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) markedly reduced the incidence of scopolamine-induced convulsions. The present results indicate that antimuscarinic activity, but not hypoglycaemia, underlies these convulsions which do not respond to most of the conventional anticonvulsant drugs.

  6. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function. PMID:26997623

  7. Effect of increased protein intake on renal acid load and renal hemodynamic responses.

    PubMed

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F M; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Bakker, Stephan J L; Brink, Elizabeth J; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Baak, Marleen A

    2016-03-01

    Increased protein intake versus maltodextrin intake for 4 weeks lowers blood pressure. Concerns exist that high-protein diets reduce renal function. Effects of acute and 4-week protein intake versus maltodextrin intake on renal acid load, glomerular filtration rate and related parameters were compared in this study. Seventy-nine overweight individuals with untreated elevated blood pressure and normal kidney function were randomized to consume a mix of protein isolates (60 g/day) or maltodextrin (60 g/day) for 4 weeks in energy balance. Twenty-four-hour urinary potential renal acid load (uPRAL) was compared between groups. A subgroup (maltodextrin N = 27, protein mix N = 25) participated in extra test days investigating fasting levels and postprandial effects of meals supplemented with a moderate protein- or maltodextrin-load on glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, plasma renin, aldosterone, pH, and bicarbonate. uPRAL was significantly higher in the protein group after 4 weeks (P ≤ 0.001). Postprandial filtration fraction decreased further after the protein-supplemented breakfast than after the maltodextrin-supplemented breakfast after 4 weeks of supplementation (P ≤ 0.001). Fasting and postprandial levels of glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renin, aldosterone, angiotensin-converting enzyme, pH and bicarbonate did not differ between groups. In conclusion, 4 weeks on an increased protein diet (25% of energy intake) increased renal acid load, but did not affect renal function. Postprandial changes, except for filtration fraction, also did not differ between groups. These data suggest that a moderate increase in protein intake by consumption of a protein mix for 4 weeks causes no (undesirable) effects on kidney function in overweight and obese individuals with normal kidney function.

  8. Necessary, but also Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Martens, Sascha

    2016-07-01

    Cell biologists are equipped with a plethora of techniques and approaches to unravel the fascinating inner working of the cell. Among these, biochemistry has the ability to define the machinery that is both necessary and sufficient for a given process and, therefore, to define its core mechanism. PMID:27142894

  9. Self-Sufficiency Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    These instructional materials were developed as a supplement to the "Alaska State Model Curriculum in Renewable Natural Resources/Agriculture." The topics covered focus on competencies from the curriculum for which materials were not readily available to Alaskan teachers and provide information that may not be sufficiently covered by existing…

  10. Controversies Surrounding High-Protein Diet Intake: Satiating Effect and Kidney and Bone Health12

    PubMed Central

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake. PMID:25979491

  11. Controversies surrounding high-protein diet intake: satiating effect and kidney and bone health.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Sánchez, Marta; Navas-Carrillo, Diana; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    Long-term consumption of a high-protein diet could be linked with metabolic and clinical problems, such as loss of bone mass and renal dysfunction. However, although it is well accepted that a high-protein diet may be detrimental to individuals with existing kidney dysfunction, there is little evidence that high protein intake is dangerous for healthy individuals. High-protein meals and foods are thought to have a greater satiating effect than high-carbohydrate or high-fat meals. The effect of high-protein diets on the modulation of satiety involves multiple metabolic pathways. Protein intake induces complex signals, with peptide hormones being released from the gastrointestinal tract and blood amino acids and derived metabolites being released in the blood. Protein intake also stimulates metabolic hormones that communicate information about energy status to the brain. Long-term ingestion of high amounts of protein seems to decrease food intake, body weight, and body adiposity in many well-documented studies. The aim of this article is to provide an extensive overview of the efficacy of high protein consumption in weight loss and maintenance, as well as the potential consequences in human health of long-term intake.

  12. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake and abdominal fat distribution in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gur, EB; Turan, GA; Ince, O; Karadeniz, M; Tatar, S; Kasap, E; Sahin, N; Guclu, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VFT) in pregnancy. Methods: Seventy-eight healthy pregnant subjects who had fasted for at least 15 days during the month of Ramadan in 2012 and 2013 and 78 controls were included in this study. Metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and ultrasonographic VFT were calculated for each subject before and after Ramadan fasting. Results: When before and after Ramadan values in the fasting group were compared, we found that daily protein intake was increased (p <0.001), but fat and carbohydrate intake remained unchanged. A significant reduction was observed in liquid consumption while the frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria was increased. High-density lipoprotein significantly increased, and glycated hemoglobin, insulin, and homeostasis model index significantly decreased (p =0.005, p =0.01, p <0.001, and p =0.03, respectively). A significant increase in ferritin was found (p =0.02). No change was observed in subcutaneous fat thickness, while VFT significantly decreased (p =0.08, p =0.005). However, in the control group, only ferritin level increased. Conclusion: A combined change in the number and timing of meals and the portioning of the entire daily intake into only two meals per day may have beneficial metabolic effects and reduction in VFT during pregnancy. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 298-303. PMID:27688692

  13. Effects of Yohimbine and Tolazoline on Isoproterenol and Angiotensin 2-Induced Water Intake in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists, yohimbine and tolazoline, at doses up to 1000 micro-g/kg, had no effect on water intake of female rats. However, when these compounds were administered SC in combination with either the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, isoproterenol (10 to 25 micro-g/kg, SC), or with angiotensin 2 (200 micro-g/kg, SC). water intake was enhanced. In contrast, intraventricular administration of either tolazoline (10 and 20 micro-g/kg) or yohimbine (300 micro-g/kg) failed to augment the dipsogenic response to angiotensin 2 (150 micro-g/kg, SC). Thus, the enhancing effect of these alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists on isoproterenol- and angiotensin 2-induced water intakes appears to be manifested peripherally, rather than centrally. In view of the fact that clonidine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor agonist, has been shown to inhibit water intake induced by both isoproterenol and angiotensin 2, the results suggest that the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor may play a role in modulating water intake induced by these two dipsogenic agents.

  14. Circulating Leptin Moderates the Effect of Stress on Snack Intake Independent of Body Mass

    PubMed Central

    Appelhans, Bradley M.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated influences of leptin on hunger and satiety, the processing of food reward, and taste and palatability perception. This pilot study tested whether leptin accounts for variability in stress-induced changes in snack intake, and explores potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Thirty-four normal weight and class I obese women were exposed to a 30-minute mental stressor and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order on consecutive days. Higher serum leptin concentrations predicted decreases in snack intake following the stressor. Leptin was not a significant predictor of overall hunger or stress-induced changes in hunger, but was associated with greater perceived palatability of one of the four snacks. Overall, findings suggest that leptin may moderate the effect of stress on energy intake through non-homeostatic mechanisms. PMID:20434061

  15. Effect of WIC Food Package Changes on Dietary Intake of Preschool Children in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Morshed, Alexandra B.; Davis, Sally M.; Greig, Elizabeth A.; Myers, Orrin B.; Cruz, Theresa H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined WIC policy change effects on dietary intake of preschool children from WIC-participating households in rural New Mexico communities. Methods Dietary intake of children enrolled in Head Start in 8 communities was compared before and after 2009 WIC food package changes. Results Following the policy change, participants reported significantly increased consumption of lower-fat milk, reduced consumption of saturated fat (grams), and decreased consumption of vegetables without potatoes. No significant differences in fruit, fruit juice, vegetables including potatoes, whole-grains and saturated fat (percent-energy) consumption were observed. Conclusions WIC policy changes have the potential to improve children’s saturated fat intake. More research with robust designs is necessary to examine long-term effects of WIC policy changes.

  16. Effects of aspartame and sucrose on hunger and energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattes, R

    1990-06-01

    Physiological and behavioral responses to high intensity sweeteners have been poorly characterized, leading to questions regarding their utility in weight management regimens. To address this issue, studies must independently control attributes such as the taste properties, chemical composition and energy contribution of a given sweetener, as well as subject expectations of its effects. In the present study, 24 adults of normal weight consumed breakfasts including unsweetened or sweetened (sucrose or aspartame) cereal for 5 days, during which hunger and energy intake were monitored. The cereals were rated as equally sweet and pleasant and were equicaloric. Half of the subjects were aware of the cereal composition. Neither sweet taste nor aspartame alone significantly affected reported hunger, daily energy intake or subsequent selection of foods with varying taste qualities. Energy intake tended to be more strongly influenced by perceptions of the energy value of the experimental breakfast. Thus, this study failed to find an appetite stimulating effect of either sweetness or sweetener (aspartame or sucrose).

  17. Stimulation of food intake and growth of chickens by cyproheptadine: lack of interaction with the effects of pinealectomy and melatonin.

    PubMed

    Injidi, M H; Forbes, J M

    1987-03-01

    Cyproheptadine stimulates food intake and growth in some species of mammal; its effects are reported here in chickens. Growing cockerels of an egg-laying strain were given 0.32 mg/d by mouth, which resulted in significant increases in weight gain and food intake, including feeding during the night. Increasing daily doses of up to 1.6 mg/kg body weight stimulated intake in a dose-related manner, while 1.92 mg/kg had the same effect as 0.96 mg/kg. Neither pinealectomy, which is known to stimulate food intake, nor treatment with melatonin, which depresses intake, interacted with the effects of cyproheptadine on food intake, showing that its effect is not mediated by the pineal gland.

  18. Inhibitory effect of high protein intake on nephrocalcinogenesis in female rats.

    PubMed

    Sterck, J G; Ritskes-Hoitinga, J; Beynen, A C

    1992-03-01

    Increased intakes of protein have been shown to reduce kidney calcification (nephrocalcinosis) in female rats. Two questions were addressed in the present study. First, can protein-induced inhibition of nephrocalcinosis be demonstrated when the diets used are balanced for calcium, magnesium and phosphorus in the added protein? Second, can the protein effect be explained by the frequently observed magnesiuria after giving high-protein diets? Nephrocalcinosis was induced in female rats by giving purified diets containing 151 g casein/kg and either an increased concentration of P (6 v. 2 g/kg) or a decreased concentration of Mg (0.1 v. 0.4 g/kg). To these diets 151 g ovalbumin/kg was added at the expense of glucose, and the diets were balanced for Ca, Mg and P in ovalbumin. The diets were given for 29 d. In rats fed on the diet containing 151 g protein/kg, an increased intake of P or a decreased intake of Mg caused nephrocalcinosis as measured chemically by analysis of kidney Ca as well as histologically by scoring kidney sections stained according to Von Kossa's method. The addition of ovalbumin to the diet prevented the induction of nephrocalcinosis. High P intake and low Mg intake with the low-protein diets induced enhanced loss of albumin in urine, suggesting that nephrocalcinosis caused kidney damage. Increased protein intake with a non-calcinogenic diet also caused increased albumin excretion in urine. Irrespective of the composition of the background diet, increased protein intake caused increased urinary excretion of Mg. When all dietary groups were considered, differences in nephrocalcinosis and urinary Mg output were not proportionally related.

  19. Effect of antioxidant intake on sperm chromatin stability in healthy nonsmoking men.

    PubMed

    Silver, Elana W; Eskenazi, Brenda; Evenson, Donald P; Block, Gladys; Young, Suzanne; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is detrimental to sperm function and a significant factor in the etiology of male infertility. This report examines the association between dietary and supplementary intake of the antioxidants vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene and sperm chromatin integrity. Eighty-seven healthy male volunteers donated semen samples, completed food-frequency questionnaires, and provided information about their sociodemographic characteristics, medical and reproductive histories, and lifestyle habits. Sperm chromatin integrity was measured using the DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and related parameters, obtained from the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). SCSA measures the susceptibility of sperm DNA to acid-induced denaturation in situ. After adjusting for age and duration of abstinence, there was no dose-response association between any DFI outcome and any antioxidant intake measure. Non-dose-related associations were found between beta-carotene intake and both the standard deviation of DFI (SD DFI) and the percent of immature sperm. Participants with moderate, but not high, beta-carotene intake had an increase in SD DFI compared with participants with low intake (adjusted means 206.7 and 180.5, respectively; P = .03), as well as an increase in the percentage of immature sperm (adjusted means 6.9% and 5.0%, respectively; P = .04). If antioxidant intake in the range studied is indeed beneficial for fertility in healthy men, it does not appear to be mediated through the integrity of sperm chromatin. The results of this study do not preclude possible beneficial effects of high antioxidant intake on sperm chromatin integrity for men with fertility problems.

  20. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest—posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19–55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. “Taste” was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs. PMID:26938555

  1. A Pre and Post Survey to Determine Effectiveness of a Dietitian-Based Nutrition Education Strategy on Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Energy Intake among Adults.

    PubMed

    Pem, Dhandevi; Bhagwant, Suress; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent nutrition education program among adults. A pretest-posttest design was used assessing Nutritional Knowledge (NK), BMI, Energy Intake (EI), Physical Activity Level (PAL), Dietary Intake (DI) and attitudes. 353 adults aged 19-55 years (178 control group (CG) and 175 intervention group (IG)) were recruited. IG participants attended nutrition education sessions evaluated through a post-test given at the end of the 12-week program. Statistical tests performed revealed that compared to CG, participants in IG increased fruit intake and decreased intake of snacks high in sugar and fat significantly (p < 0.05). NK and attitudinal scores also increased significantly in the IG (p < 0.05). No intervention effect was found for vegetables intake, EI, BMI and PAL (p > 0.05). Factors influencing NK were age, gender and education level. "Taste" was the main barrier to the application of the nutrition education strategy. Findings are helpful to health practitioners in designing their intervention programs.

  2. Effects of supplementation on intake, digestion, and performance of beef cattle consuming fertilized, stockpiled bermudagrass forage.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, J S; Lalman, D L; Horn, G W; Redmon, L A; Lents, C A

    2002-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing supplement protein concentration on performance and forage intake of beef cows and forage utilization of steers consuming stockpiled bermudagrass forage. Bermudagrass pastures were fertilized with 56 kg of N/ha in late August. Grazing was initiated during early November and continued through the end of January each year. Treatments for the cow performance trials were: no supplement or daily equivalents of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g of supplemental protein per kilogram of BW. Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, fed at the equivalent of 0.91 kg/d, and prorated for 4 d/wk feeding. Varying the concentration of soybean hulls and soybean meal in the supplements created incremental increases in protein. During yr 1, supplemented cows lost less weight and condition compared to unsupplemented animals (P < 0.05). During yr 2, supplemented cows gained more weight (P = 0.06) and lost less condition (P < 0.05) compared to unsupplemented cows. Increasing supplement protein concentration had no affect on cumulative cow weight change or cumulative body condition score change. Forage intake tended to increase (P = 0.13, yr 1 and P = 0.07, yr 2) in supplemented cows. Supplement protein concentration did not alter forage intake. In a digestion trial, four crossbred steers were used in a Latin square design to determine the effects of supplement protein concentration on intake and digestibility of hay harvested from stockpiled bermudagrass pasture. Treatments were no supplement; or 0.23, 0.46, and 0.69 g of supplemental protein per kilogram of BW. Forage intake increased (P < 0.05) 16% and OM intake increased (P < 0.01) 30% in supplemented compared to unsupplemented steers. Diet OM digestibility increased (P = 0.08) 14.5% and total digestible OM intake increased (P < 0.05) 49% in supplemented compared to unsupplemented steers. Supplement protein concentration did not alter forage intake, total digestible OM intake

  3. A meta-analysis of the effects of energy intake on risk of digestive cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yi-Qian; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To quantitatively assess the relationship between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% CIs of digestive cancers with respect to total energy intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Data were extracted independently by two investigators and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed fixed-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to compute the summary RR for highest versus lowest category of energy intake and for per unit energy intake and digestive cancer incidence by giving each study-specific RR a weight that was proportional to its precision. RESULTS: Nineteen studies consisting of 13 independent cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The studies included 995 577 participants and 5620 incident cases of digestive cancer with an average follow-up of 11.1 years. A significant inverse association was observed between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers. The RR of digestive cancers for the highest compared to the lowest caloric intake category was 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-0.98, P < 0.05). The RR for an increment of 239 kcal/d energy intake was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99, P < 0.05) in the fixed model. In subgroup analyses, we noted that energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, P < 0.05) and an increased risk of gastric cancer (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.31, P < 0.01). There appeared to be no association with esophageal (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, P > 0.05) or pancreatic (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49-1.09, P > 0.05) cancer. Associations were also similar in studies from North America and Europe. The RR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.79-1.25, P > 0.05) when

  4. Effect of Dietary Intake of Stable Iodine on Dose-per-unit-intake Factors for 99Tc

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    It is well-known that the human thyroid concentrates iodine more than 100 times the concentration in plasma. Also well-known is the fact that large amounts of stable iodine in the diet can limit thyroid uptake of total iodine; this is the basis for administering potassium iodide following a release of radioiodine from a nuclear reactor accident or nuclear weapon detonation. Many researchers have shown enhanced concentrations of both organic and inorganic iodine in saliva and breast milk. Technetium-99 is a long-lived (231,000 year half-life) radionuclide of concern in the management of high-level radioactive waste. There is no doubt that 99Tc, if it is in groundwater, will be found in the chemical form of pertechnetate, 99TcO4?. Pertechnetate is a large anion, almost identical in size to iodide, I?. The nuclear medicine literature shows that pertechnetate concentrates in the thyroid, salivary glands, and lactating breast in addition to the stomach, liver, and alimentary tract as currently recognized by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The fact that large intakes of stable iodine (127I) in the diet limit uptake of iodine by the thyroid leads one to generalize that stable iodine in the diet may also limit thyroid uptake of pertechnetate. While there is at least one report that iodine in the diet blocks uptake of 99mTcO4? by the thyroid and salivary glands (which have the same Na/I symporter, the biochemical concentration mechanism), the level of protective effect seen for blocking radioactive iodine is not expected for 99TcO4? because pertechnetate does not become organically bound in the thyroid and thus is not retained for months the way iodide is. While it does account for Tc concentration in the thyroid, the existing ICRP biokinetic model for technetium does not take enhanced concentrations in salivary gland and breast tissue into account. From the survey of the nuclear medicine literature, it is not possible to compute the effect

  5. Repeated administration of angiotensin II reduces its dipsogenic effect without affecting saline intake.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2010-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts at central type 1 (AT(1)) receptors to increase intake of water and saline. In vitro studies demonstrated rapid desensitization of the AT(1) receptor after Ang II exposure, and behavioural studies in rats suggest that exposure to Ang II decreases the dipsogenic potency of subsequent Ang II. Nevertheless, the effect of repeated Ang II injections on saline intake remains untested, and a reliable protocol for examining this purported behavioural desensitization has not emerged from the literature. To address these issues, we established a reliable approach to study Ang II-induced dipsetic desensitization and used this approach to test the requirement of central AT(1) receptors and the specificity of the effect for water intake. Rats given a treatment regimen of three injections of Ang II (300 ng, intracerebroventricular), each separated by 20 min, drank less water than control rats after a subsequent test injection of Ang II. The effect was relatively short lasting, dependent on the dose and timing of Ang II, and was almost completely blocked by the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan. In further testing, when rats were given access to both water and 1.5% saline, animals that received an Ang II treatment regimen drank less water than control animals, but saline intake was unaffected. These data support previous suggestions that Ang II-induced water and saline intakes are separable. Given the role of G protein uncoupling in desensitization of the AT(1) receptor, these data are consistent with the emerging hypothesis that AT(1) receptor G protein-dependent intracellular signalling pathways are more relevant for water, but not saline, intake.

  6. Effects of excessive intakes of iodine upon growth and thyroid function of growing Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Fish, R E; Swanson, E W

    1982-04-01

    Thirty Holstein heifer calves averaging 120 days of age and 102 kg of body weight were allocated to one control and four treatment groups of six each. Iodine, as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, was mixed 1:9 with dextrose and administered once daily atop feed at .625, 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg iodine per kilogram body weight. Calves were housed individually in unheated, well-ventilated barns and fed complete mixed feeds containing less than 1 ppm iodine. Feed intakes were recorded daily and body weights weekly. Jugular venous blood was collected from iodine treated calves at 0, 4, 8, and 12 wk of the experiment and analyzed for iodine, thyroxine, and triiodothyronine of plasma. Feed intake per unit body weight and per unit gain were not significantly different between treated and control calves. However, daily feed intake and average daily gain decreased slightly at the highest iodine intake. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine were not different among treatments. Thyroxine declined in all calves from 0 to 12 wk. Thyroxine of calves fed 5.0 mg of iodine per kilogram body weight decreased more than of calves fed less iodine. Iodine intake as high as 5.0 mg/kg body weight was tolerated without morbidity, although a minor effect on performance and thyroid activity was indicated.

  7. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality. PMID:23557811

  8. Implementation Intentions on the Effect of Salt Intake among Hypertensive Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cornélio, Marilia Estevam; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; Gallani, Maria-Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was aimed at assessing the potential effect of a theory-driven intervention—implementation intentions—on reducing salt intake among hypertensive Brazilian women. Ninety-eight participants were randomly assigned to participate in an implementation intentions intervention aimed at promoting lower salt intake through decreased addition of salt and salty spices to meals (intervention group, n = 49; group, n = 49). Endpoints were assessed at baseline and at the 2-month follow-up. Primary endpoints were a self-reporting measure of salt intake given by salt addition to meals (discretionary salt + salty spices = total added salt) and the 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. Secondary endpoints included intention, self-efficacy, and habit related to adding salt to meals. Patients in the intervention group showed a significant reduction in salt intake as assessed by 24 h urinary-sodium excretion. A significant reduction in the measure of habit was observed for both groups. No differences were observed for intention and self-efficacy. The results of this pilot study suggest the efficacy of planning strategies to help hypertensive women reduce their salt intake. PMID:25243084

  9. Effect of food intake on left and right ventricular systolic tissue Doppler measurements.

    PubMed

    Dieden, Anna; Gårdinger, Ylva; Hlebowicz, Joanna; Björgell, Ola; Dencker, Magnus

    2016-09-01

    Systolic tissue Doppler measurements (s') have been used to measure the velocity in myocardial motion and are a valuable tool for evaluating the systolic function of the left and right ventricles. Digestion of food is known to significantly alter hemodynamics and may therefore affect s'. The effect of food intake on s' parameters has not yet been studied. We assessed whether s' is affected by food intake. Nineteen healthy subjects aged 26·2 ± 4·2 years were investigated. s' was measured with pulsed tissue Doppler imaging in the right and left ventricles before the subjects ate a standardized meal and also 30 and 110 min after the meal. Three measurements were taken in each projection, and a mean value was calculated for each. s' increased significantly (P<0·05) from fasting to 30 min after food intake in every measured site except in the left inferolateral wall (P = 0·15, NS). Several, but not all, variables returned to base value 110 min after food intake. This study shows that food intake affects the tissue Doppler variables used to evaluate systolic heart function. Further studies are needed in older healthy subjects and older subjects with various cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Effect of repeated oral therapeutic doses of methylphenidate on food intake and growth rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Alam, Nausheen; Najam, Rahila

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system stimulants are known to produce anorexia. Previous data suggest that methylphenidate can have variable effects on caloric intake and growth rate. A dose-response study was performed to monitor caloric intake, liquid intake and growth rate in rats following repeated administration of human oral therapeutic doses 2 mg/kg/day, 5mg/kg/day and 8mg/kg/day of methylphenidate. We found that food intake and water intake, increased in all weeks and at all doses used in the study. Growth rate increased more at higher dose (8mg/kg/day) and at low dose (2mg/kg/day) of methylphenidate in 1(st) and 2(nd) week whereas more decreased by the above doses in 3(rd) week, suggesting that food stimulation leads to initial increase in growth rate but long term administration of methylphenidate attenuate growth rate that is not due to modulation of appetite but may be due to anxiety and increased activity produce by stimulants. A possible role of DA, 5HT receptors in modulation of appetite and anxiety is discussed.

  11. Acute and chronic effects of gum chewing on food reinforcement and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L

    2013-04-01

    Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality.

  12. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gustavo R; Ortiz, Pablo A

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure.

  13. Direct renal effects of a fructose-enriched diet: interaction with high salt intake.

    PubMed

    Ares, Gustavo R; Ortiz, Pablo A

    2015-11-01

    Consumption of fructose has increased during the last 50 years. Excessive fructose consumption has a detrimental effect on mammalian health but the mechanisms remain unclear. In humans, a direct relationship exists between dietary intake of added sugars and increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (52). While the causes for this are unclear, we recently showed that fructose provided in the drinking water induces a salt-dependent increase in blood pressure in Sprague-Dawley rats in a matter of days (6). However, little is known about the effects of fructose in renal salt handling and whether combined intake of high fructose and salt can lead to salt-sensitive hypertension before the development of metabolic abnormalities. The long-term (more than 4 wk) adverse effects of fructose intake on renal function are not just due to fructose but are also secondary to alterations in metabolism which may have an impact on renal function. This minireview focuses on the acute effect of fructose intake and its effect on salt regulation, as they affect blood pressure. PMID:26447210

  14. The effects of nicotine self-administration and withdrawal on concurrently available chow and sucrose intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Bunney, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Hernandez, Christine; LeSage, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate intake, preference, and taste thresholds may be altered in current and former cigarette smokers, which may mediate weight gain and risk for obesity in individuals who quit smoking. Attempts to model these effects in rodents have primarily used noncontingent nicotine administration. The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in chow and sucrose intake in rats during a 23-h access model of i.v. nicotine self-administration (NSA), in which rats lever-pressed for chow, sucrose, and nicotine under concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. Male rats were assigned to one of three groups that differed in food and drug availability. The Nicotine C+S group had concurrent access to nicotine, chow, and sucrose. The Saline C+S group had access to saline, chow, and sucrose. The Nicotine C-Only group had access to nicotine and chow, but not sucrose. Changes in food intake and weight gain were assessed during baseline, NSA, and nicotine withdrawal (i.e., saline extinction). Weight gain was significantly slowed during NSA and increased during withdrawal, but did not differ between the nicotine groups. NSA produced a significant decrease in both chow and sucrose intake. Gradual tolerance to nicotine's effects on sucrose, but not chow intake, occurred. During withdrawal, chow and sucrose intake increased, with a larger percent increase in sucrose intake compared to chow. The proportion of total food intake from sucrose was greater at the end of withdrawal compared to baseline, indicating a history of nicotine intake changed dietary preference. Combined, these results indicate that sucrose intake is more resistant to nicotine's appetite suppressant effects and withdrawal from nicotine produces a greater increase in sweet food intake alongside general increases in chow intake. Changes in overall food intake in current and ex-smokers may lead to increased risk for obesity and other health problems, potentially limiting the benefit of quitting smoking. PMID

  15. The effects of nicotine self-administration and withdrawal on concurrently available chow and sucrose intake in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Bunney, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Hernandez, Christine; LeSage, Mark G

    2016-02-01

    Carbohydrate intake, preference, and taste thresholds may be altered in current and former cigarette smokers, which may mediate weight gain and risk for obesity in individuals who quit smoking. Attempts to model these effects in rodents have primarily used noncontingent nicotine administration. The purpose of this research was to characterize changes in chow and sucrose intake in rats during a 23-h access model of i.v. nicotine self-administration (NSA), in which rats lever-pressed for chow, sucrose, and nicotine under concurrent fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedules. Male rats were assigned to one of three groups that differed in food and drug availability. The Nicotine C+S group had concurrent access to nicotine, chow, and sucrose. The Saline C+S group had access to saline, chow, and sucrose. The Nicotine C-Only group had access to nicotine and chow, but not sucrose. Changes in food intake and weight gain were assessed during baseline, NSA, and nicotine withdrawal (i.e., saline extinction). Weight gain was significantly slowed during NSA and increased during withdrawal, but did not differ between the nicotine groups. NSA produced a significant decrease in both chow and sucrose intake. Gradual tolerance to nicotine's effects on sucrose, but not chow intake, occurred. During withdrawal, chow and sucrose intake increased, with a larger percent increase in sucrose intake compared to chow. The proportion of total food intake from sucrose was greater at the end of withdrawal compared to baseline, indicating a history of nicotine intake changed dietary preference. Combined, these results indicate that sucrose intake is more resistant to nicotine's appetite suppressant effects and withdrawal from nicotine produces a greater increase in sweet food intake alongside general increases in chow intake. Changes in overall food intake in current and ex-smokers may lead to increased risk for obesity and other health problems, potentially limiting the benefit of quitting smoking.

  16. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C; Schmitz, Gerd; John, Swen; Carrera-Bastos, Pedro; Lindeberg, Staffan; Cordain, Loren

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual's pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  17. Metabolic effects of milk protein intake strongly depend on pre-existing metabolic and exercise status

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Milk protein intake has recently been suggested to improve metabolic health. This Perspective provides evidence that metabolic effects of milk protein intake have to be regarded in the context of the individual’s pre-existing metabolic and exercise status. Milk proteins provide abundant branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and glutamine. Plasma BCAAs and glutamine are increased in obesity and insulin resistance, but decrease after gastric bypass surgery resulting in weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity. Milk protein consumption results in postprandial hyperinsulinemia in obese subjects, increases body weight of overweight adolescents and may thus deteriorate pre-existing metabolic disturbances of obese, insulin resistant individuals. PMID:24225036

  18. 'Finish your soup': counterproductive effects of pressuring children to eat on intake and affect.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Amy T; Fiorito, Laura M; Francis, Lori A; Birch, Leann L

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined whether pressuring preschoolers to eat would affect food intake and preferences, using a repeated-measures experimental design. In the experimental condition, children were pressured to eat by a request to finish their food. We collected intake data, heights and weights, child-feeding practices data, and children's comments about the food. Children consumed significantly more food when they were not pressured to eat and they made overwhelmingly fewer negative comments. Children who were pressured to eat at home had lower body mass index percentile scores and were less affected by the pressure in the lab setting than children who were not pressured at home. These data provide experimental evidence supporting previous correlational research indicating that pressure can have negative effects on children's affective responses to and intake of healthy foods. PMID:16626838

  19. Effect of peripheral administration of cholecystokinin on food intake in apolipoprotein AIV knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimichi, Go; Lo, Chunmin C; Tamashiro, Kellie L K; Ma, Liyun; Lee, Dana M; Begg, Denovan P; Liu, Min; Sakai, Randall R; Woods, Stephen C; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Tso, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Apolipoprotein AIV (apo AIV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) are satiation factors secreted by the small intestine in response to lipid meals. Apo AIV and CCK-8 has an additive effect to suppress food intake relative to apo AIV or CCK-8 alone. In this study, we determined whether CCK-8 (1, 3, or 5 μg/kg ip) reduces food intake in fasted apo AIV knockout (KO) mice as effectively as in fasted wild-type (WT) mice. Food intake was monitored by the DietMax food system. Apo AIV KO mice had significantly reduced 30-min food intake following all doses of CCK-8, whereas WT mice had reduced food intake only at doses of 3 μg/kg and above. Post hoc analysis revealed that the reduction of 10-min and 30-min food intake elicited by each dose of CCK-8 was significantly larger in the apo AIV KO mice than in the WT mice. Peripheral CCK 1 receptor (CCK1R) gene expression (mRNA) in the duodenum and gallbladder of the fasted apo AIV KO mice was comparable to that in WT mice. In contrast, CCK1R mRNA in nodose ganglia of the apo AIV KO mice was upregulated relative to WT animals. Similarly, upregulated CCK1R gene expression was found in the brain stem of apo AIV KO mice by in situ hybridization. Although it is possible that the increased satiating potency of CCK in apo AIV KO mice is mediated by upregulation of CCK 1R in the nodose ganglia and nucleus tractus solitarius, additional experiments are required to confirm such a mechanism.

  20. Effects of acute exercise on appetite hormones and ad libitum energy intake in men and women.

    PubMed

    Hagobian, Todd Alan; Yamashiro, Megan; Hinkel-Lipsker, Jake; Streder, Katherine; Evero, Nero; Hackney, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Acute exercise suppresses relative energy intake; however, it remains unclear whether this occurs in both men and women exposed to the same relative exercise treatment. Eleven healthy men (22 ± 2 years; 16% ± 6% body fat (BF); 26 ± 4 body mass index (BMI); 42.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O(2peak))) and 10 healthy women (21 ± 2 years; 24 ± 2 BMI; 23% ± 3% BF; 39.9 ± 5.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) rested for 60 min or exercised on a cycle ergometer at 70% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) until 30% of total daily energy expenditure was expended (men, expenditure = 975 ± 195 kcal in 82 ± 13 min; women, expenditure = 713 ± 86 kcal in 84 ± 17 min) in a counterbalanced, crossover fashion. Appetite hormones and appetite ratings were assessed in response to each condition. Forty minutes after both conditions, ad libitum total and relative energy intake (energy intake minus energy cost of exercise) were assessed at a buffet meal. There was no significant sex or condition effect in appetite hormones (PYY(3-36), acylated ghrelin, insulin) and appetite ratings (hunger, satisfaction, fullness). Total energy intake in men was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in exercise and rest conditions (1648 ± 950, 1216 ± 633 kcal, respectively) compared with women (591 ± 183, 590 ± 231 kcal, respectively). Relative energy intake was significantly lower (P < 0.05) after exercise compared with rest in men (672 ± 827, 1133 ± 619 kcal, respectively) and women (-121 ± 243, 530 ± 233 kcal, respectively). These data highlight the effectiveness of acute exercise to suppress relative energy intake regardless of sex.

  1. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to environmental influences on eating is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on intake of large and self-selected portions among children 2 to 9 years of age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE...

  2. Effect of prebiotic supplementation and calcium intake on body mass index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the effects of a prebiotic supplement and usual calcium intake on body composition changes during pubertal growth. We measured anthropometry and body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptionmetry in 97 young adolescents who were randomized to receive either a daily prebiotic...

  3. Effect of forage energy intake and supplementation on marbling deposition in growing beef cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glucose is the primary carbon source for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular fat, whereas, acetate is primarily utilized by subcutaneous fat. Our objective was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of fermentation on marbling deposition by stocker cattle grazing dormant native ra...

  4. Effect of delayed wrapping and wrapping source on digestibility and intake of alfalfa silage in sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Delays often occur between baling and wrapping during production of baled silage that increases exposure time of the forage to oxygen. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of two different wrapping sources and time intervals between baling and wrapping on intake and digestibility of al...

  5. Health effects of protein intake in healthy adults: A systematic literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy adults. The literature search covered the years 2000-2011. Prospective cohort, case-control, and intervention studies were i...

  6. Metabolizable energy intake effects on carcass quality of steers finished in southern Chile during summer time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan, USA) to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on beef carcass quality during the summer ti...

  7. THE CONTEXTUAL EFFECT OF THE PREVALENCE OF LIQOUR STORES AND BARS ON INTAKE OF HARD LIQOUR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Contextual Effect of the Prevalence of Liquor Stores and Bars on Intake of Hard Liquor

    Kimberly B. Morland PhD?, Steve Wing PhD?, Ana Diez Roux MD PhD?

    ?Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; ?The Department of Epidemiology an...

  8. Liraglutide, leptin, and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signaling mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kanoski, Scott E.; Ong, Zhi Yi; Fortin, Samantha M.; Schlessinger, Elizabeth S.; Grill, Harvey J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and leptin each exert anorexigenic effects. In combination, the intake inhibitory and weight loss effects are greater than either treatment alone, however the mechanisms unclear. Materials and methods Effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (SC) or to the 3rd ventricle respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns, and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signaling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] were examined in lean rats. Results A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25μg/kg) and leptin (0.75μg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75μg/kg) and leptin (4μg) examined separately each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake, and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot showed elevated pSTAT3 in hypothalamic tissue following liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect greater than leptin treatment alone. In addition, SC liraglutide reduced expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signaling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response following liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Conclusions Collectively, these results provide novel behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight following liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. PMID:25475828

  9. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term.

  10. Increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight subjects: effects on body weight, body composition, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Järvi, A; Karlström, B; Vessby, B; Becker, W

    2016-05-28

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has been associated with several health benefits. However, the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic markers are not fully known. The present study investigated the effects of increased intake of fruits and vegetables in overweight and obese men and women on dietary habits, anthropometry and metabolic control. In a 16-week controlled intervention, thirty-four men and thirty-four women aged 35-65 years (BMI>27 kg/m2) were randomised to an intervention (IN) or a reference (RG) group. All participants received general dietary advice, and subjects in the IN group received fruits and vegetables for free, of which ≥500 g had to be eaten daily. BW, waist circumference (WC), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), plasma insulin, blood glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), serum lipids, blood pressure, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, urinary isoprostane (iso-8-PGF 2α) and serum carotenoids were measured. Diet was assessed using 3-d weighed food records. In all, thirty subjects in the IN group and thirty-two in the RG group completed the intervention. Intake of fruits and vegetables doubled in the IN group, whereas intake of fruits increased in the RG group. Serum α- and β-carotene concentrations and intakes of folate and vitamin C increased significantly in the IN group. Energy intake, BW, WC and SAD decreased significantly in both groups. Supine systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in the IN group, with no between-group differences. No significant changes were observed for other metabolic markers. Provision of fruits and vegetables led to substantially increased intakes, with subsequent favourable changes in anthropometry and insulin levels, which tended to be more pronounced in the IN group. The observed improvements may, in combination with improved nutritional markers, have health benefits in the long term. PMID:26996228

  11. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    PubMed

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P < 0.05) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams. Body weight gain, ADG, FS, DMI, and RFI were not significant (P > 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P < 0.01) for BW gain, ADG, FS, and DMI. Among RFI classifications, beginning and end BW, BW gain, ADG, and FS were not different (P > 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared

  12. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans.

  13. Multiday administration of ivermectin is effective in reducing alcohol intake in mice at doses shown to be safe in humans.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Megan M; Neely, Michael; Huynh, Nhat; Asatryan, Liana; Louie, Stan G; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-09-10

    Ivermectin (IVM), an FDA approved anthelmintic agent, can significantly reduce ethanol intake in mice following acute administration. The current study evaluates the sustainability and safety of multiday IVM administration in reducing 10% v/v ethyl alcohol (10E) intake in mice at a dose shown to be safe in humans. We tested the effect of 10-day administration of IVM (3.0 mg/kg/day; intraperitoneally) on reducing 10E intake in C57BL/6J mice using a 24-h, two-bottle choice paradigm. On the 10th day of IVM administration, mice were sacrificed at 0, 0.5, 2, 8, 32, 48, and 72 h after injection. Brain tissue and plasma samples were collected and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess the effect of 10-day IVM administration on 10E intake, 10E preference, water intake, and total fluid intake with Dunnett's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Individual Student's t-tests were also used to further quantify changes in these dependent variables. IVM significantly decreased 10E intake over a 9-day period (P<0.01). Pre-IVM 10E intake was 9.1±3.2 g/kg/24 h. Following the 9th day of IVM injections, intake dropped by almost 30% (P<0.05). IVM had no effect on total water intake or mouse weight throughout the study; however, there was a significant decrease in both preference for 10E (P<0.01) and total fluid intake (P<0.05). Multiday administration of IVM significantly reduces 10E intake and preference in animals without causing any apparent adverse effects at a dose shown to be safe in humans. PMID:25004078

  14. Effect of zinc intake on mental and motor development in infants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Fuentes Lugo, Daniel; Henríquez Sánchez, Patricia; Doreste Alonso, Jorge; Skinner, Anna L; Medina, Marisol W; Lowe, Nicola M; Hall Moran, Victoria; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on mental and motor development in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 5 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on mental and motor development was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Indices of mental and motor development assessed were the Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI). Additionally we carried out a sensitivity analysis. The pooled β was -0.01 (95 %CI -0.02, 0) for MDI and 0 (95 %CI -0.03, 0.02) for PDI, with a substantial heterogeneity in both analyses. When we performed a meta-regression, the effect of Zn supplementation on MDI changed depending on the dose of supplementation. Regarding PDI, there was a differential effect of Zn intake depending on intervention duration, dose of supplementation, nutritional situation, and risk of bias. Zn supplementation showed a negative, weak and significant effect on PDI score in those studies with a length of 4 to 20 weeks (β= -0.05; CI 95 % -0.06 to -0.04). In conclusion, no association was found between Zn intake and mental and motor development in infants. Further standardized research is urgently needed to clarify the role of Zn supplementation upon infant mental and motor development, particularly in Europe.

  15. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: Differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  16. Recall of recent lunch and its effect on subsequent snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne; Williamson, Amy C; Attwood, Angela S

    2008-06-01

    Recall of food eaten at lunch decreases afternoon snack intake, suggesting that awareness of a recent eating episode may be an important factor influencing appetite. The aim of the present studies was to investigate whether the inhibitory effect of remembering a recent lunch meal on subsequent snack intake is dependent upon 1) the type and palatability of the snack offered; 2) participants' level of dietary restraint and tendency towards disinhibition; and 3) the delay between lunch and recall. Popcorn snacks differing in amount of added salt and rated palatability were offered to male participants in Experiment 1. Participants who recalled the lunch they had eaten that day consumed less of all types of popcorn than participants who recalled lunch eaten the previous day, suggesting that the effect of recent meal recall is not dependent upon the palatability of the snack food. In Experiment 2, a similar pattern of results was observed but only for women who scored low, and not high, on a measure of tendency toward dietary disinhibition, possibly because a tendency toward disinhibition is associated with impaired memory for the lunch. In Experiment 3, decreased cookie intake by women was observed after remembering today's lunch relative to a neutral control condition, but this effect was similarly only observed for participants scoring low in tendency toward disinhibition. In addition, the effect was dependent on the time elapsed between the lunch and recall, since intake was only reduced at a snack tasting session 3-hours post-lunch (when some forgetting of the meal occurred) and not 1-hour post-lunch. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of recalling foods eaten at lunch on subsequent snack intake is a robust phenomenon that is related to memory of that lunch and is moderated by tendency toward dietary disinhibition.

  17. Effects of neutering on food intake, body weight and body composition in growing female kittens.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lucille G; Salt, Carina; Thomas, Gaelle; Butterwick, Richard

    2011-10-01

    To understand the effects of neutering on food intake, body weight (BW) and body composition in kittens, data from an unrelated study were subjected to post hoc analysis. A total of twelve pairs of 11-week-old female littermates were randomly assigned to either a neutered group (neutered at 19 weeks old) or an entire group (kept entire) and offered free access to a dry diet until the age of 1 year. Neutered kittens exhibited increased food intake and increased BW after neutering (both P < 0.00 001). Food intake (per kg BW) peaked 10 weeks after neutering; the mean intake of neutered kittens was 17 (95 % CI 8, 27) % more than entire littermates (P = 0.00 014). The intake was then reduced until there was no significant difference between the groups 18 weeks post-neutering. By 52 weeks of age, the neutered kittens were 24 (95 % CI 11, 39) % heavier than entire littermates (P < 0.0001) with a body condition score (BCS) 16.6 (95 % CI 0.9, 34.8) % higher (P = 0.0028). Neutered kittens continued to grow significantly fatter after neutering (all P < 0.0014), while entire kittens showed no significant change after 18 weeks of age. As neutered kittens consumed similar amounts of energy to their entire littermates from 18 weeks post-neutering, while their BW, BCS and percentage fat continued to increase, we suggest that neutered kittens have a reduced metabolisable energy requirement, and should therefore be fed to maintain an ideal BCS rather than ad libitum. Moreover, to maintain an ideal BCS, entire kittens consumed 93 (95 % CI 87, 100) % of their theoretical intake at 26 weeks of age, and 79 (95 % CI 72, 87) % at 52 weeks of age, suggesting that the current energy recommendation is inappropriate for these kittens. PMID:22005425

  18. Effect of chronic intake of liquid nutrition on stomach and duodenum morphology.

    PubMed

    Vrabcova, Michaela; Mikuska, Livia; Vazan, Rastislav; Miko, Michal; Varga, Ivan; Mravec, Boris

    2016-05-01

    Changes in the quantity and/or quality of food intake have been shown to be associated with morphological and functional alterations of the gastrointestinal system. To examine this, we investigated the effect of chronic liquid nutrition intake (Fresubin) on stomach and duodenum morphology in Wistar rats fed liquid nutrition during different developmental periods. We used four groups of rats: a) control group (CON) fed pelleted chow for 130days; b) liquid nutrition group (LN) fed liquid nutrition for 130days; c) liquid nutrition juvenile group (LNJ) fed liquid nutrition for 70days and then pelleted food for 60days; d) liquid nutrition adult group (LNA) fed pelleted chow for 70days and then liquid nutrition for 60days. We found that LN and LNA rats showed a significant reduction of empty stomach mass compared to CON animals, while stomach and duodenal longitudinal muscle layer thickness did not differ between groups. Villus height was increased only in LNA animals, while villus width was increased in both LN and LNA rats. Crypt depth was reduced in LNJ. However, liquid nutrition intake did not affect villus height/crypt depth ratio, nor number of goblet cells. We found that chronic intake of liquid nutrition affects some morphological parameters of the stomach and duodenum but these changes were not homogenous between experimental groups. Interestingly, transition from liquid nutrition to solid food reversed the alterations of stomach weight as well as villus width induced by intake of liquid nutrition in LNA rats. Our data indicate that morphological and functional changes in the gastrointestinal system induced by qualitative and quantitative changes in food intake are at least partially reversible. Therefore, specific diets may be used potentially as adjuvant treatment for modulating the progression of gastrointestinal diseases by affecting stomach and small intestine morphology.

  19. Sufficient Statistics: an Example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quirein, J.

    1973-01-01

    The feature selection problem is considered resulting from the transformation x = Bz where B is a k by n matrix of rank k and k is or = to n. Such a transformation can be considered to reduce the dimension of each observation vector z, and in general, such a transformation results in a loss of information. In terms of the divergence, this information loss is expressed by the fact that the average divergence D sub B computed using variable x is less than or equal to the average divergence D computed using variable z. If D sub B = D, then B is said to be a sufficient statistic for the average divergence D. If B is a sufficient statistic for the average divergence, then it can be shown that the probability of misclassification computed using variable x (of dimension k is or = to n) is equal to the probability of misclassification computed using variable z. Also included is what is believed to be a new proof of the well known fact that D is or = to D sub B. Using the techniques necessary to prove the above fact, it is shown that the Brattacharyya distance as measured by variable x is less than or equal to the Brattacharyya distance as measured by variable z.

  20. Effects of increased iodine intake on thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2014-09-01

    Iodine is a micronutrient essential for the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Universal salt iodization (USI) has been introduced in many countries as a cost-effective and sustainable way to eliminate iodine deficiency disorders for more than 25 years. Currently, the relationship between USI and iodine excess has attracted more attention. Iodine excess can lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis, especially for susceptible populations with recurring thyroid disease, the elderly, fetuses, and neonates. Nationwide USI was introduced in China in 1996. This review focused on the effects of iodine excess worldwide and particularly in China. PMID:25309781

  1. The effects of intake valve detergent structure on combustion chamber deposits (CCD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, S.R.; Maxey, C.T.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion chamber deposits (CCD) have been heavily researched in the past with regard to Octane Requirement Increase (ORI). New concerns about their role in combustion chamber deposit interference (CCDI) and their potential contribution to exhaust emissions have reinforced interest in defining the underlying factors that contribute to CCD. In this study, intake valve detergents were evaluated in the absence of any fluidizer in L-6 1987 BMW 325e engines using 10,000 mile tests run with a BMW IVD driving cycle. The chemical structure of detergents used to reduce Intake Valve Deposits (IVD) has been systematically varied to determine its effect on the quantity and the composition of CCD. In general, chemical changes in the intake valve detergent had little effect on the amount and chemical composition of CCD. The composition of CCD was determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). All CCDs produced with fuels containing intake valve detergents showed the same types and similar levels of organic oxygen, sulfur and aromatic carbon. The CCDs did not contain intact additive backbone fragments or detergent head groups. The only distinguishing feature of these CCDs was the varying nitrogen content that appeared to depend on the type and number of amine groups in the detergent. However, the types of nitrogen present in the CCDs were chemically different from those present in the initial detergent suggesting that, although some of the nitrogen in the detergent head group remains in the CCD, it is chemically transformed.

  2. Cognitive performance effects of low zinc (Zn) intakes in healthy adult men

    SciTech Connect

    Penland, J.G. )

    1991-03-15

    A battery of tasks assessing sensory-motor skills and cognitive performance was administered to 14 healthy men participating in a 7-month, live-in metabolic study of Zn nutrition. Following a 33-day equilibration period, during which Zn intake was approximately 10 mg/2,500 kcal/day, all subjects were fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Zn/day during each of four consecutive 35-day depletion periods administered in a random, double-blind manner. The study concluded with a 35-day repletion period providing 10 mg Zn/day. When contrasted with performance during the Zn repletion period, measures of response time and/or error on 10 of the 15 tasks administered showed a significant negative relationship to dietary Zn intake. Two sensory-motor tasks, two attention tasks, three perceptual tasks, two memory tasks, and one spatial task showed impaired performance with the low Zn intakes. However, there were few differences among the four depletion periods to support a dose effect of dietary Zn. Results suggest that even marginally low Zn intakes may have a negative effect on psychological and behavioral function in otherwise healthy young adult men.

  3. Effects of Life-long Fluoride Intake on Bone Measures of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Levy, S.M.; Warren, J.J.; Phipps, K.; Letuchy, E.; Broffitt, B.; Eichenberger-Gilmore, J.; Burns, T.L.; Kavand, G.; Janz, K.F.; Torner, J.C.; Pauley, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Controversy persists concerning the impact of community water fluoridation on bone health in adults, and few studies have assessed relationships with bone at younger ages. Ecological studies of fluoride’s effects showed some increase in bone mineral density of adolescents and young adults in areas with fluoridated water compared with non-fluoridated areas. However, none had individual fluoride exposure measures. To avoid ecological fallacy and reduce bias, we assessed associations of average daily fluoride intake from birth to age 15 yr for Iowa Bone Development Study cohort members with age 15 yr dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) bone outcomes (whole body, lumbar spine, and hip), controlling for known determinants (including daily calcium intake, average daily time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity, and physical maturity). Mean (SD) daily fluoride intake was 0.66 mg (0.24) for females and 0.78 mg (0.30) for males. We found no significant relationships between daily fluoride intake and adolescents’ bone measures in adjusted models (for 183 females, all p values ≥ .10 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.02; for 175 males, all p values ≥ .34 and all partial R2 ≤ 0.01). The findings suggest that fluoride exposures at the typical levels for most US adolescents in fluoridated areas do not have significant effects on bone mineral measures. PMID:24470542

  4. Dose-dependent effects of beverage protein content upon short-term intake.

    PubMed

    Bertenshaw, Emma J; Lluch, Anne; Yeomans, Martin R

    2009-06-01

    Protein is considered to be more satiating than carbohydrate, quantified by energy adjustment and subjective appetite. However, the effect of increasing protein content upon short-term energy adjustment in beverage contexts is unclear. This study used a repeated-measures, cross-over design. 28 male volunteers (18-35 years) ate a standard breakfast in the laboratory and 210 min later consumed one of four preloads 30 min prior to an ad libitum pasta meal. Three of the preloads were isocaloric ( approximately 1155 kJ) mixed composition dairy fruit drinks (300 g) of low (13% protein energy/87% carbohydrate energy), medium (25% protein energy/75% carbohydrate energy) and high (50% protein energy/50% carbohydrate energy) protein content. The control drink was a low energy (328 kJ) alternative. Results indicated a dose response effect of preload protein level on intake (g) at the ad libitum meal. Ad libitum intake was: control (637.6g+/-39.7), low (596.9 g+/-40.5), medium (546.9 g+/-34.7), and high protein (533.6g+/-42.3). 100% compensation was not achieved; however total energy intake after the medium and high protein drinks did not differ significantly from control. There were no significant differences in hunger and fullness ratings. Our findings support the view that increasing the protein composition of beverages relative to carbohydrate proportionally affects short-term subsequent intake in controlled conditions. PMID:19501753

  5. The role of reminding in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall: sufficient but not necessary.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N; Maddox, Geoffrey B; Jacoby, Larry L

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments examined the role of study-phase retrieval (reminding) in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. Remindings were brought under task control to evaluate their effects. Participants studied 2 lists of word pairs containing 3 item types: single items that appeared once in List 2, within-list repetitions that appeared twice in List 2, and between-list repetitions that appeared once in List 1 and once in List 2. Our primary interest was in performance on between-list repetitions. Detection of between-list repetitions was encouraged in an n-back condition by instructing participants to indicate when a presented item was a repetition of any preceding item, including items presented in List 1. In contrast, detection of between-list repetitions was discouraged in a within-list back condition by instructing participants only to indicate repetitions occurring in List 2. Cued recall of between-list repetitions was enhanced when instructions encouraged detection of List 1 presentations. These results accord with those from prior experiments showing a role of study-phase retrieval in effects of spacing repetitions. Past experiments have relied on conditionalized data to draw conclusions, producing the possibility that performance benefits merely reflected effects of item selection. By bringing effects under task control, we avoided that problem. Our results provide evidence that reminding resulting from retrieval of earlier presentations plays a role in the effects of spaced repetitions on cued recall. However, our results also reveal that such retrievals are not necessary to produce an effect of spacing repetitions.

  6. Differential effect on cell-mediated immunity in human volunteers after intake of different lactobacilli.

    PubMed

    Rask, C; Adlerberth, I; Berggren, A; Ahrén, I L; Wold, A E

    2013-05-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms which have beneficial effects on the host when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic bacteria may stimulate immune effector functions in a strain-specific manner. In this blind placebo-controlled trial, we investigated the effects on the immune system following daily intake of six different strains of lactobacilli or the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas lundensis for 2 or 5 weeks. Blood lymphocyte subsets were quantified by fluorescence activated cell sorter and the expression of activation and memory markers was determined. The bacterial strains were also examined for their capacity to adhere to human intestinal cells and to be phagocytosed by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Intake of Lactobacillus plantarum strain 299v increased the expression of the activation marker CD25 (P = 0·01) on CD8(+) T cells and the memory cell marker CD45RO on CD4(+) T cells (P = 0·03), whereas intake of L. paracasei tended to expand the natural killer T (NK T) cell population (P = 0·06). The phagocytic activity of granulocytes was increased following intake of L. plantarum 299v, L. plantarum HEAL, L. paracasei or L. fermentum. In contrast, ingestion of L. rhamnosus decreased the expression of CD25 and CD45RO significantly within the CD4(+) cell population. The observed immune effects after in-vivo administration of the probiotic bacteria could not be predicted by either their adherence capacity or the in-vitro-induced cytokine production. The stimulation of CD8(+) T cells and NK T cells suggests that intake of probiotic bacteria may enhance the immune defence against, e.g. viral infections or tumours.

  7. [The effect of fatty component of diet and coenzyme Q10 on rat sufficiency with vitamins-antioxidans in chronic experiments].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Karagodina, Z V; Pereverzeva, O G; Zhminchenko, V M; Kodentsova, V M; Vasil'ev, A V

    2012-01-01

    The full replacement of fatty component of a diet (10% of feed mass, sunflower-seed oil and lard 1:1) on enriched with alpha-tocopherol acetate fish oil or on linen oil under additional coenzyme Q10 intake (100 mg per 1 kg body weight) within 12 months led to a significant vitamin A blood serum decrease on 23-31%, 2-2,8 fold fall of vitamin E blood serum level and vitamin C rat liver diminution due to significant dehydroascorbic acid reduction on 28-45%. In both cases, the intensification of POL was not observed. The use of palm-oil as a fatty component led to a significant vitamin A blood serum decrease on 31%, but didn't effect on all other investigated parameters. The deterioration of antioxidant status indexes (MDA in blood serum and liver and diene conjugates in serum), observed after 3 months of the additional PUFA omega-3 introduction into the diet under coenzyme Q10 intake, after the 12-month use of modified diet leveled. Age increase of vitamin A blood serum concentration in rats fed diets with high PUFA omega-3 content was 2-fold higher and amounted to 68-78% compared to 31-33% in the control group of rats and rats treated with palm oil. Alpha-Tocopherol serum content was significantly increased in all groups with increasing of rats age. 8,9 fold elevation was observed in the group of animals treated with linseed oil, and 2,5-3,2 fold in all other groups. The conclusion about the necessity of supplementary intake of vitamin E or a complex of vitamins-antioxidants under enrichment of a diet with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has been done.

  8. Dispelling urban myths about default uncertainty factors in chemical risk assessment--sufficient protection against mixture effects?

    PubMed

    Martin, Olwenn V; Martin, Scholze; Kortenkamp, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the detrimental health effects of chemicals requires the extrapolation of experimental data in animals to human populations. This is achieved by applying a default uncertainty factor of 100 to doses not found to be associated with observable effects in laboratory animals. It is commonly assumed that the toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic sub-components of this default uncertainty factor represent worst-case scenarios and that the multiplication of those components yields conservative estimates of safe levels for humans. It is sometimes claimed that this conservatism also offers adequate protection from mixture effects. By analysing the evolution of uncertainty factors from a historical perspective, we expose that the default factor and its sub-components are intended to represent adequate rather than worst-case scenarios. The intention of using assessment factors for mixture effects was abandoned thirty years ago. It is also often ignored that the conservatism (or otherwise) of uncertainty factors can only be considered in relation to a defined level of protection. A protection equivalent to an effect magnitude of 0.001-0.0001% over background incidence is generally considered acceptable. However, it is impossible to say whether this level of protection is in fact realised with the tolerable doses that are derived by employing uncertainty factors. Accordingly, it is difficult to assess whether uncertainty factors overestimate or underestimate the sensitivity differences in human populations. It is also often not appreciated that the outcome of probabilistic approaches to the multiplication of sub-factors is dependent on the choice of probability distributions. Therefore, the idea that default uncertainty factors are overly conservative worst-case scenarios which can account both for the lack of statistical power in animal experiments and protect against potential mixture effects is ill-founded. We contend that precautionary regulation should provide an

  9. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase-3 by levosimendan is sufficient to account for its inotropic effect in failing human heart

    PubMed Central

    Ørstavik, Ø; Ata, S H; Riise, J; Dahl, C P; Andersen, G Ø; Levy, F O; Skomedal, T; Osnes, J-B; Qvigstad, E

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Levosimendan is known as a calcium sensitizer, although it is also known to inhibit PDE3. We aimed to isolate each component and estimate their contribution to the increased cardiac contractility induced by levosimendan. Experimental Approach Contractile force was measured in electrically stimulated ventricular strips from explanted failing human hearts and left ventricular strips from normal male Wistar rats. PDE activity was measured in a two-step PDE activity assay on failing human ventricle. Key Results Levosimendan exerted a positive inotropic effect (PIE) reaching maximum at 10−5 M in ventricular strips from failing human hearts. In the presence of the selective PDE3 inhibitor cilostamide, the PIE of levosimendan was abolished. During treatment with a PDE4 inhibitor and a supra-threshold concentration of isoprenaline, levosimendan generated an amplified inotropic response. This effect was reversed by β-adrenoceptor blockade and undetectable in strips pretreated with cilostamide. Levosimendan (10−6 M) increased the potency of β-adrenoceptor agonists by 0.5 log units in failing human myocardium, but not in the presence of cilostamide. Every inotropic response to levosimendan was associated with a lusitropic response. Levosimendan did not affect the concentration–response curve to calcium in rat ventricular strips, in contrast to the effects of a known calcium sensitizer, EMD57033 [5-(1-(3,4-dimethoxybenzoyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-6-yl)-6-methyl-3,6-dihydro-2H-1,3,4-thiadiazin-2-one]. PDE activity assays confirmed that levosimendan inhibited PDE3 as effectively as cilostamide. Conclusions and Implications Our results indicate that the PDE3-inhibitory property of levosimendan was enough to account for its inotropic effect, leaving a minor, if any, effect to a calcium-sensitizing component. PMID:24547784

  10. Effects of prolonged ethanol intake and malnutrition on rat pancreas.

    PubMed Central

    López, J M; Bombi, J A; Valderrama, R; Giménez, A; Parés, A; Caballería, J; Imperial, S; Navarro, S

    1996-01-01

    Nutritional factors, especially the protein and fat content of the diet, may change pancreatic morphology after ethanol induced injury. This study was performed to delineate the combined effects of a low fat diet and longterm ethanol ingestion on the rat pancreas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained with five different diets for 12 weeks and the pancreas removed on the day they were killed. Rats fed a very low fat diet without ethanol (5% of total calories as lipid) developed malnutrition, pancreatic steatosis, and reduction in zymogen granules content. Animals fed a 35% lipid diet with ethanol also developed pancreatic steatosis but changes in zymogen granules content were not detected. Both malnutrition and longterm ethanol consumption increased pancreatic cholesterol ester content, and their effects were additive. Pancreatic steatosis was accompanied with hypercholesterolaemia. Amylase, lipase, and cholesterol esterase content were reduced in malnourished rats; but longterm ethanol ingestion, regardless of the nutritional state, increased lipase content and decreased amylase. It is suggested that high serum cholesterol concentrations and increased pancreatic lipase activity could cause accumulation of cholesterol esters in acinar cells. Fat accumulation in the pancreas has been reported as the earliest histopathological feature in alcoholic patients and may be responsible for cytotoxic effects on the acinar cells at the level of the cell membrane. Although it is difficult to extrapolate results in this animal study to the human situation, the results presented in this work might explain the higher incidence of pancreatitis is malnourished populations as well as in alcoholic subjects that is reported in dietary surveys. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8801213

  11. Effects of Coffee and Caffeine Anhydrous Intake During Creatine Loading.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Roelofs, Erica J; Hirsch, Katie R; Persky, Adam M; Mock, Meredith G

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 5 days of creatine (CRE) loading alone or in combination with caffeine anhydrous (CAF) or coffee (COF) on upper-body and lower-body strength and sprint performance. Physically active males (n = 54; mean ± SD; age = 20.1 ± 2.1 years; weight = 78.8 ± 8.8 kg) completed baseline testing, consisting of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to fatigue with 80% 1RM for bench press and leg press, followed by a repeated sprint test of five, 10-second sprints separated by 60-second rest on a cycle ergometer to determine peak power (PP) and total power (TP). At least 72 hours later, subjects were randomly assigned to supplement with CRE (5 g of CRE monohydrate, 4 times per day; n = 14), CRE + CAF (CRE +300 mg·d of CAF; n = 13), CRE + COF (CRE +8.9 g of COF, yielding 303 mg of CAF; n = 13), or placebo (PLA; n = 14) for 5 days. Serum creatinine (CRN) was measured before and after supplementation, and on day 6, participants repeated pretesting procedures. Strength measures were improved in all groups (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant time × treatment interactions. No significant interaction or main effects were observed for PP. For TP, a time × sprint interaction was observed (p ≤ 0.05), with no significant interactions among treatment groups. A time × treatment interaction was observed for serum CRN values (p ≤ 0.05) that showed increases in all groups except PLA. Four subjects reported mild gastrointestinal discomfort with CRE + CAF, with no side effects reported in other groups. These findings suggest that neither CRE alone nor in combination with CAF or COF significantly affected performance compared with PLA. PMID:26439785

  12. Effect of sucrose and sweeteners on appetite and energy intake.

    PubMed

    Blundell, J E; Green, S M

    1996-03-01

    The effect of sweetness on appetite control has become important for two reasons. First, the problem of unwanted overconsumption associated with the tendency to gain weight. Second, the desire to lose weight by dieting. Two questions arise: does sweetness (with or without energy) contribute to over-consumption?, and does the replacement of a high energy sweetener (such as sucrose) with an artificial sweetener (such as saccharine or aspartame) lead to weight loss? How do these issues relate to processes involved in weight maintenance?

  13. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (P<0.01). Ovarian activity started earlier (P=0.03) in the HFI than LFI group. The weight at breeding, the diameter of the dominant follicle, number of heifers showing ovulations, number of services per conception, pregnancy rate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.01) in the HFI than in the LFI group. The level of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the HFI group. Restriction of the daily feed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point. PMID:23212835

  14. Lipase inhibition attenuates the acute inhibitory effects of oral fat on food intake in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Deirdre; Feinle-Bisset, Christine; Wishart, Judith; Horowitz, Michael

    2003-11-01

    The lipase inhibitor, orlistat, is used in the treatment of obesity and reduces fat absorption by about 30%. However, the mean weight loss induced by orlistat is less than expected for the degree of fat malabsorption. It was hypothesised that lipase inhibition with orlistat attenuates the suppressive effects of oral fat on subsequent energy intake in normal-weight subjects. Fourteen healthy, lean subjects (nine males, five females; aged 25 +/- 1.3 years) were studied twice, in a double-blind fashion. The subjects received a high-fat yoghurt 'preload' (males 400 g (2562 kJ); females 300 g (1923 kJ)), containing orlistat (120 mg) on one study day (and no orlistat on the other 'control' day), 30 min before ad libitum access to food and drinks; energy intake was assessed during the following 8 h. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals for the measurement of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK). Each subject performed a 3 d faecal fat collection following each study. Energy intake during the day was greater following orlistat (10,220 (SEM 928) kJ) v. control (9405 (SEM 824) kJ) (P=0.02). On both days plasma CCK increased (P<0.05) after the preload. Plasma CCK 20 min following ingestion of the preload was less after orlistat (4.1 (SEM 0.9) pmol/l) v. control (5.3 (SEM 0.9) pmol/l (P=0.028); however there was no difference in the area under the curve 0-510 min between the two study days. Fat excretion was greater following orlistat (1017 (SEM 168) kJ) v. control (484 (SEM 90) kJ) (P=0.004). In conclusion, in healthy, lean subjects the acute inhibitory effect of fat on subsequent energy intake is attenuated by orlistat and the increase in energy intake approximates the energy lost due to fat malabsorption. PMID:14667178

  15. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark E; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B; Bartness, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal's wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity.

  16. Effects of Royal Jelly Supplementation on Body Weight and Dietary Intake in Type 2 Diabetic Females

    PubMed Central

    Pourmoradian, Samira; Mahdavi, Reza; Mobasseri, Majid; Faramarzi, Elnaz; Mobasseri, Mehrnoosh

    2012-01-01

    Background: The objective of the current study was to assess the effects of royal jelly supple-mentation on body weight, total daily energy and macronutrients intakes in type2 diabetic fe-males. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, fifty female volunteers with type2 diabetes were as-signed into the supplemented (n=25) and placebo (n=25) groups, given a daily dose of 1000 mg royal jelly soft gel or placebo, for 8 weeks, respectively. Before and after the intervention, body weight and height of subjects were measured and body mass index was calculated. Dietary intake of patients was assessed using 24-hour food recall questionnaire for three non consecutive days (including 1 weekend day) and analyzed with Nutritionist IV software. The normally distributed data were compared using paired and independent t-tests, where appropriate. Results: Royal jelly supplementation significantly (P<0.01) decreased the mean body weight (72.45±4.42 vs. 71.00±6.44 kg) while it increased insignificantly in placebo group (73.02±6.44 vs 73.52±6.80 kg). Royal jelly supplementation resulted in significant decrease of mean daily total energy (P<0.01) and carbohydrate (P<0.01) intakes, while in placebo group the mean daily total energy and fat intakes were increased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: Supplementation with royal jelly may be beneficial in weight management of di-abetic patients. PMID:24688939

  17. Should bioactive trace elements not recognized as essential, but with beneficial health effects, have intake recommendations.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    Today, most nutritionists do not consider a trace element essential unless it has a defined biochemical function in higher animals or humans. As a result, even though it has been found that trace elements such as boron and silicon have beneficial bioactivity in higher animals and humans, they generally receive limited attention or mention when dietary guidelines or intake recommendations are formulated. Recently, the possibility of providing dietary intake recommendations such as an adequate intake (AI) for some bioactive food components (e.g., flavonoids) has been discussed. Boron, chromium, nickel, and silicon are bioactive food components that provide beneficial health effects by plausible mechanisms of action in nutritional and supra nutritional amounts, and thus should be included in the discussions. Although the science base may not be considered adequate for establishing AIs, a significant number of findings suggest that statements about these trace elements should be included when dietary intake guidance is formulated. An appropriate recommendation may be that diets should include foods that would provide trace elements not currently recognized as essential in amounts shown to reduce the risk of chronic disease and/or promote health and well-being.

  18. The effect of gastric loads of sugars and amino acids on milk intake of suckling pigs.

    PubMed

    Houpt, K A; Houpt, T R; Pond, W G

    1983-08-01

    A 3 h fast of suckling pigs less than a week of age decreased plasma glucose (P less than .005), but did not affect plasma protein, osmolality or hematocrit. After fasting, solutions (40 ml/kg body weight) of 5% glucose, 5% fructose, 5% xylose, 5% mannitol, 5% sorbitol, 2.5% leucine, 2.5% phenylalanine (50 ml/kg), .9% NaCl, 5% lactose, 5% sucrose and a 50% egg yolk-distilled water mixture were administered by stomach tube and the piglet then returned to the sow. Weight gain was used as a measure of sow's milk intake. Milk consumption during the first 3 h after fasting was lower (P less than .05) for pigs given glucose than for sham-loaded controls, but no differences were observed between glucose and mannitol or sorbitol for the same period. Mannitol and sorbitol were more effective than NaCl (P less than .01) in lowering consumption for the 3 h after loading. Also during the first hour after loading, xylose caused lower (P less than .001) food intake than glucose. Egg yolk suppressed intake in comparison to sham-loaded controls (P less than .05). D-phenylalanine suppressed intake more than L-phenylalanine (P less than .05), but no differences were observed between the D and L isomers of leucine.

  19. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  20. Effects of glucose and fructose solutions on food intake and gastric emptying in nonobese women.

    PubMed

    Guss, J L; Kissileff, H R; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1994-12-01

    The differential effects of fructose and glucose on food intake were studied by giving two concentrations (1 and 10%) of glucose and fructose solutions (500 ml) to one group of women 30 min, and to another 135 min, before a meal of macaroni and beef. The 1% solutions of each sugar were sweetened to match 10% fructose by selective additions of aspartame. Gastric emptying of the 10% solutions and water was measured for 90 min. Under the 30-min delay, subjects ate a mean of 75.8 g more (P < 0.05) after the 1% solutions than after water, and 52.2 g (P > 0.05) less after the 10% solutions than after water, but there were no differences in intake between types of sugar under either delay nor between concentrations at the 135-min delay. However, 10% fructose and 1% glucose sweetened to match it reduced intake significantly compared with water. Glucose (10%) emptied significantly slower (t1/2 = 93.61 min) than water (t1/2 = 29.77 min), while fructose (10%) was intermediate (t1/2 = 65.45 min). Therefore, gastric emptying differences did not account for these results. We conclude that sweetener-enhanced dilute sugar solutions may increase subsequent intake at 30 min, but dilute glucose solutions may have potential for substantial energy savings if consumed 135 min before a meal.

  1. Health effects of protein intake in healthy elderly populations: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Agnes N.; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to assess the evidence behind the dietary requirement of protein and to assess the health effects of varying protein intake in healthy elderly persons in order to evaluate the evidence for an optimal protein intake. The literature search covered year 2000–2011. Prospective cohort, case–control, and intervention studies of a general healthy population in settings similar to the Nordic countries with protein intake from food-based sources were included. Out of a total of 301 abstracts, 152 full papers were identified as potentially relevant. After careful scrutiny, 23 papers were quality graded as A (highest, n=1), B (n=18), or C (n=4). The grade of evidence was classified as convincing, probable, suggestive, or inconclusive. The evidence is assessed as: probable for an estimated average requirement (EAR) of 0.66 g good-quality protein/kg body weight (BW)/day based on nitrogen balance (N-balance) studies and the subsequent recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of 0.83 g good-quality protein/kg BW/day representing the minimum dietary protein needs of virtually all healthy elderly persons. Regarding the optimal level of protein related to functional outcomes like maintenance of bone mass, muscle mass, and strength, as well as for morbidity and mortality, the evidence is ranging from suggestive to inconclusive. Results from particularly prospective cohort studies suggest a safe intake of up to at least 1.2–1.5 g protein/kg BW/day or approximately 15–20 E%. Overall, many of the included prospective cohort studies were difficult to fully evaluate since results mainly were obtained by food frequency questionnaires that were flawed by underreported intakes, although some studies were ‘calibrated’ to correct for under- or over-reporting. In conclusion, the evidence is assessed as probable regarding the EAR based on N-balance studies and suggestive to inconclusive regarding an optimal protein intake higher than the estimated

  2. Reanalysis of the effects of phenylalanine, alanine, and aspartame on food intake in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Blundell, J E

    1994-08-01

    In 1987 Ryan-Harshman et al. reported finding no effects on food intake after administering high doses (up to 10.08 g) of phenylalanine and aspartame in capsules to human volunteers. However, this is contrary to the results of other studies, and trends in their tabulated data suggest that certain effects may have been overlooked. This is confirmed by a reanalysis of the raw data (available from a Ph.D. thesis: Ryan-Harshman, 1987) that can be interpreted as showing a dose-related suppression of food intake by phenylalanine. Furthermore, the data are consistent with an anorexic action of aspartame and perhaps also of alanine (which was designated as the placebo treatment by Ryan-Harshman et al.). These, together with other findings, suggest that the appetite effects of amino acids and small peptides should be investigated further. In addition to its theoretical importance, such work may have potential for therapeutic applications.

  3. Prebiotic supplementation and adequate calcium intake have beneficial effects on body mass index changes during early adolescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...

  4. Bone Mineral Density Accrual in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Effects of Calcium Intake and Physical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodarzi, Mahmood; Hemayattalab, Rasool

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of weight bearing exercise and calcium intake on bone mineral density (BMD) of students with autism spectrum disorders. For this reason 60 boy students with autism disorder (age 8-10 years old) were assigned to four groups with no differences in age, BMD, calcium intake, and physical…

  5. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.

  6. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  7. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE’s effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE’s vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  8. Protective Effect of Salicornia europaea Extracts on High Salt Intake-Induced Vascular Dysfunction and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Panth, Nisha; Park, Sin-Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Deuk-Hoi; Oak, Min-Ho

    2016-01-01

    High salt intake causes and aggravates arterial hypertension and vascular dysfunction. We investigated the effect of Salicornia europaea extracts (SE) on vascular function and blood pressure. SE constituents were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography, and SE's effect on vascular function was evaluated in isolated porcine coronary arteries. SE's vascular protective effect was also evaluated in vivo using normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). SE mainly contained sodium chloride (55.6%), 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, p-coumaric acid, and trans-ferulic acid. High sodium (160 mmol/L) induced vascular dysfunction; however, SE containing the same quantity of sodium did not cause vascular dysfunction. Among the compounds in SE, trans-ferulic acid accounts for the vascular protective effect. Normotensive rats fed a high-salt diet showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), which decreased significantly in the SE-treated groups. In SHRs, high edible salt intake significantly increased SBP, DBP, and MAP, but SE intake was associated with a significantly lower MAP. Thus, SE did not induce vascular dysfunction, and trans-ferulic acid might be at least partly responsible for the vasoprotective effect of SE. Taken together, SE could be used as an alternative to purified salt to prevent and ameliorate hypertension. PMID:27455235

  9. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  10. Effects of straw treatment and nitrogen supplementation on digestibility, intake and physiological responses of water intake as well as urine and faecal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, E; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Elmamouz, F

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of feeding diet based on untreated (UT) or ensiled alkali-treated (ET) barley straw with either urea or casein supplementation, on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal pH, water intake and faecal and urinary characteristics. Four sheep fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Barley straw was treated by the dry (spraying) method in pH adjusted of hydrogen peroxide (pH 11.5), ensiled for 6 weeks and included at 65% of the diet dry matter (DM). The results showed that straw pH reduced from 11.58 to 8.60 after 6 weeks of ensilage. The ET diet increased average DM digestibility and intake by 19% and 43% respectively. Total water intake was similar across treatments, while the water/DM intake ratio was 23% higher with the UT diet than with the ET one. Ruminal (6.73 vs. 6.84) and faecal (8.67 vs. 9.05) pH decreased but urinary pH (6.14 vs. 8.13) increased as a result of feeding animals on the ET diet compared with the UT diet. Compared with the UT diet, the ET one decreased faecal fibre (12%), moisture (32%) and water holding capacity, while it increased faecal ash (10%) and density (20%). The volume of urine excreted by the sheep fed with the ET diet increased by 67%, but their urine specific gravity (SG) decreased. No significant effects were observed for the dietary N supplementation and interactions between straw type × N supplementation with regard to any of the measured characteristics except for DM intake, which reduced due to the casein supplementation in the ET diet. These results indicate that the alkali treatment and ensilage of barley straw increased digestibility, intake, faecal consistency and urinary pH and dilution but decreased straw alkalinity as well as ruminal and faecal pH.

  11. Do Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, or Other Anticonvulsants Exert Sufficient Radioprotective Effects to Alter Responses From Trigeminal Neuralgia Radiosurgery?

    SciTech Connect

    Flickinger, John C.; Kim, Hyun; Kano, Hideyuki; Greenberger, Joel S.; Arai, Yoshio; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L. Dade; Kondziolka, Douglas; Flickinger, John C.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: Laboratory studies have documented radioprotective effects with carbamazepine. We sought to determine whether carbamazepine or other anticonvulsant/neuroleptic drugs would show significant radioprotective effects in patients undergoing high-dose small-volume radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: We conducted a retrospective review of 200 patients undergoing Gamma Knife (Elekta Instrument AB, Stockholm, Sweden) stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia between February 1995 and May 2008. We selected patients treated with a maximum dose of 80 Gy with 4-mm diameter collimators, with no previous microvascular decompression, and follow-up {>=}6 months (median, 24 months; range, 6-153 months). At the time of radiosurgery, 28 patients were taking no anticonvulsants, 62 only carbamazepine, 35 only gabapentin, 21 carbamazepine plus gabapentin, 17 carbamazepine plus other anticonvulsants, and 9 gabapentin plus other anticonvulsants, and 28 were taking other anticonvulsants or combinations. Results: Pain improvement developed post-radiosurgery in 187 of 200 patients (93.5%). Initial complete pain relief developed in 84 of 200 patients (42%). Post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy developed in 27 of 200 patients (13.5%). We could not significantly correlate pain improvement or initial complete pain relief with use of carbamazepine, gabapentin, or use of any anticonvulsants/neuroleptic drugs or other factors in univariate or multivariate analysis. Post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias correlated with the use of gabapentin (1 of 36 patients with gabapentin vs. 7 of 28 without, p = 0.017). In multivariate analysis, decreasing age, purely typical pain, and use of gabapentin correlated (p = 0.008, p = 0.005, and p = 0.021) with lower risks of developing post-radiosurgery trigeminal neuropathy. New post-radiosurgery numbness/paresthesias developed in 3% (1 of 36), 5% (4 of 81), and 13% (23 of 187) of patients on gabapentin alone, with age

  12. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  13. Improving the Understanding of Intake and Charge Effects for Increasing RCCI Engine Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Reitz, Rolf; Wissink, martin; DelVescovo, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The present experimental engine efficiency study explores the effects of intake pressure and temperature, and premixed and global equivalence ratios on gross thermal efficiency (GTE) using the reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion strategy. Experiments were conducted in a heavy-duty single-cylinder engine at constant net load (IMEPn) of 8.45 bar, 1300 rev/min engine speed, with 0% EGR, and a 50% mass fraction burned combustion phasing (CA50) of 0.5 CA ATDC. The engine was port fueled with E85 for the low reactivity fuel and direct injected with 3.5% 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) doped into 91 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline for the high-reactivity fuel. The resulting reactivity of the enhanced fuel corresponds to an AKI of approximately 56 and a cetane number of approximately 28. The engine was operated with a wide range of intake pressures and temperatures, and the ratio of low- to high-reactivity fuel was adjusted to maintain a fixed speed-phasing-load condition. This allowed for the investigation of several combinations of intake temperature, intake pressure, and charge stratification at otherwise constant thermodynamic conditions. The results show that sources of engine inefficiency compete as functions of premixed and global equivalence ratios. Losses are minimized through proper balancing of intake pressure and temperature, such that the global equivalence ratio ( global) is as lean as possible without overly lean regions of the stratified charge causing an increase in incomplete combustion. The explored speed-load-phasing combination shows that losses are minimized at conditions where approximately 2/3 of the fuel is fully premixed. The results exhibit a pathway for achieving simultaneous increases in combustion and fuel efficiency through proper fuel reactivity and initial condition management.

  14. Individual Effects of Estradiol and Progesterone on Food Intake and Body Weight in Ovariectomized Binge Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiping; Geary, Nori; Corwin, Rebecca L.

    2011-01-01

    The individual roles of estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) in the control of food intake and body weight in ovariectomized (OVX) rats were investigated. Six groups of OVX Sprague-Dawley rats (n=9/group) were assigned to one of three 4-day cyclic hormone treatments: two groups were treated with E benzoate; two groups were treated with P; two groups were treated with both (EP). All rats had continuous access to chow and water throughout this 4-week study. One group of rats within each hormone treatment condition was fed chow ad libitum, and the second was subjected to a binge schedule: chow ad libitum plus 1-h access to an optional fat source on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. A seventh OVX group (n = 8) received the oil vehicle and chow. This group was included to monitor body weight and to verify hormone efficacy. The main findings were: (1) relative to rats receiving only P, E alone or EP attenuated 24-h chow intake tonically and cyclically, i.e. intake on Day 4, which models estrus, was lower in E and EP than in P, and also was lower than intake on Day 2, which models diestrus. In contrast, (2) neither E nor EP detectably affected optional fat intake during the 1-h fat access period relative to rats receiving only P when data were collapsed across the entire study. However, (3) E and EP had large effects on fat intake relative to P during the 1-h fat access period at the start of the study, but not at the end, when bingeing was fully established. (4) E and EP led to lower and apparently normal levels of body weight compared to rats receiving only the oil vehicle or only P. These results indicate that (1) administration of E alone has similar effects as co-administration of E and P on feeding and body weight in rats bingeing on fat, (2) with or without P, the inhibitory effects of E on meal size are compromised when bingeing on fat, and (3) the effects of E on binge size change dynamically as bingeing develops. PMID:21801735

  15. Effects of protein intake on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Voortman, Trudy; Vitezova, Anna; Bramer, Wichor M; Ars, Charlotte L; Bautista, Paula K; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Felix, Janine F; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Sajjad, Ayesha; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Tharner, Anne; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-14

    High protein intake in early childhood is associated with obesity, suggesting possible adverse effects on other cardiometabolic outcomes. However, studies in adults have suggested beneficial effects of protein intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Whether dietary protein intake is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the evidence on the associations of protein intake with BP, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and PubMed for interventional and observational studies in healthy children up to the age of 18 years, in which associations of total, animal and/or vegetable protein intake with one or more of the following outcomes were reported: BP; measures of insulin sensitivity; cholesterol levels; or TAG levels. In the search, we identified 6636 abstracts, of which fifty-six studies met all selection criteria. In general, the quality of the included studies was low. Most studies were cross-sectional, and many did not control for potential confounders. No overall associations were observed between protein intake and insulin sensitivity or blood lipids. A few studies suggested an inverse association between dietary protein intake and BP, but evidence was inconclusive. Only four studies examined the effects of vegetable or animal protein intake, but with inconsistent results. In conclusion, the literature, to date provides insufficient evidence for effects of protein intake on BP, insulin sensitivity or blood lipids in children. Future studies could be improved by adequately adjusting for key confounders such as energy intake and obesity.

  16. Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Helgason, Lisa Bjørnsdatter; Arukwe, Augustine; Wolkers, Hans; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Harju, Mikael; Berg, Vidar; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how contaminant exposure and reduced food intake affect tissue distribution and biotransformation of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in Arctic seabirds using herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a model species. Herring gull chicks were exposed for 44 d to cod liver oil containing a typical mixture of contaminants. Following exposure, food intake was reduced for a one-week period in a subgroup of the chicks. Polyclorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and brominated flame retardants, as well as a wide range of hydroxy, methyl sulfone, and methoxy compounds were measured in liver, brain, and plasma samples. Additionally, phase I biotransformation enzyme activities and phase I and II messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were investigated in the liver, brain, or both. Both contaminant exposure and reduced food intake had an increasing effect on the concentrations of HOCs and their metabolites. The HOC exposure and reduced food intake also led to increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) activity, whereas mRNA expression of the biotransformation enzymes increased only following the reduced food intake. Tissue distribution of HOCs and their metabolites was not affected by either contaminant exposure or reduced food intake. In conclusion, the results indicate that biotransformation capacity and formation of HOC metabolites increase during reduced food intake. This finding supports the hypothesis that reduced food intake increases the susceptibility of Arctic animals to the effects of lipophilic HOCs.

  17. Effect of reduced food intake on toxicokinetics of halogenated organic contaminants in herring gull (Larus argentatus) chicks.

    PubMed

    Routti, Heli; Helgason, Lisa Bjørnsdatter; Arukwe, Augustine; Wolkers, Hans; Heimstad, Eldbjørg Sofie; Harju, Mikael; Berg, Vidar; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how contaminant exposure and reduced food intake affect tissue distribution and biotransformation of halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in Arctic seabirds using herring gull (Larus argentatus) as a model species. Herring gull chicks were exposed for 44 d to cod liver oil containing a typical mixture of contaminants. Following exposure, food intake was reduced for a one-week period in a subgroup of the chicks. Polyclorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, and brominated flame retardants, as well as a wide range of hydroxy, methyl sulfone, and methoxy compounds were measured in liver, brain, and plasma samples. Additionally, phase I biotransformation enzyme activities and phase I and II messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression were investigated in the liver, brain, or both. Both contaminant exposure and reduced food intake had an increasing effect on the concentrations of HOCs and their metabolites. The HOC exposure and reduced food intake also led to increased 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) activity, whereas mRNA expression of the biotransformation enzymes increased only following the reduced food intake. Tissue distribution of HOCs and their metabolites was not affected by either contaminant exposure or reduced food intake. In conclusion, the results indicate that biotransformation capacity and formation of HOC metabolites increase during reduced food intake. This finding supports the hypothesis that reduced food intake increases the susceptibility of Arctic animals to the effects of lipophilic HOCs. PMID:23060285

  18. The effect of diet on vitamin E intake and oxidative stress in response to acute exercise in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Sacheck, J M; Decker, E A; Clarkson, P M

    2000-09-01

    Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant found in foods, and its bioavailability is affected by the presence of dietary fats. Athletes often consume lowfat diets and may be more susceptible to the oxidative stress produced by exercise due to the low availability of vitamin E. In this study, the effects of a low-fat diet on vitamin E intake and oxidative stress markers were assessed in collegiate female rowers. All subjects habitually consumed either a low-fat (LF; <40 g fat x day(-1)) or a high-fat (HF; >60 g fat x day(-1) diet. Subjects ran downhill for 45 min at 75% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected immediately pre- and post-exercise, and at 6, 24, and 48 h post-exercise. Subjects in the LF group consumed significantly less vitamin E (2.9 mg vitamin E x day(-1)) than advised by the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA; 8.0 mg vitamin E x day(-1)) and than those in the HF group (9.8 mg vitamin E x day(-1); P<0.05). Plasma concentrations of vitamin E, malondialdehyde, and conjugated dienes were not significantly different between LF and HF before or after exercise. Creatine kinase became significantly elevated above baseline at 6 h and 24 h post-exercise in both groups (P<0.05). We can conclude from these data that although the subjects in the LF group were not consuming the recommended amount of vitamin E in their diets, their vitamin E intake appears to be sufficient to protect against the oxidative stress produced by this moderate-intensity exercise. PMID:11072772

  19. Mimicking corticosterone's daily rhythm with specific receptor agonists: effects on food, water, and sodium intake.

    PubMed

    Devenport, L; Stith, R

    1992-06-01

    The endogenous pattern of type I and II corticosteroid receptor stimulation was systematically assembled from specific agonists in order to detect any unique receptor interactions in the control of ingestive behavior. The type II agonists dexamethasone (0, 5, or 25 micrograms/kg) or RU28362 (0, 5, or 25 micrograms/kg) were injected daily in the final hour of the light phase of the illumination cycle of adrenalectomized rats. This was carried out in the presence or absence of continuous aldosterone (type I agonist) infusion. Additional comparisons were made with sham-operated groups and animals receiving type II agonists by continuous infusion. Type II agonists increased the intake of 2% saline and the proportion of food taken at night, but had negligible effects on total food intake. Type II agonists did not interact with the type I agonist. Type II effects were greatly potentiated by continuous infusion, though administered at the same doses as acute injection. When the effects of type II receptor stimulation emerged, they always consisted of an exacerbation of the adrenalectomy syndrome, not a return to normal quantities or patterns. In contrast, type I receptor stimulation restored both the quantities and unique day-night patterns of saline, water, and food intake to values matching intact animals. The findings suggest that the behavioral significance of corticosterone's nocturnal peak of type II stimulation is small, and that its most important function may lie in the metabolic processes it instigates during its steady rise in the light phase.

  20. Metabolomics Insights into the Modulatory Effects of Long-Term Low Calorie Intake in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Yang, Liu; Li, Shoufeng; Huang, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that calorie restriction without malnutrition can extend longevity and delay the onset of age-associated disorders. Identifying the biochemical perturbations associated with different dietary habits would provide valuable insights into associations between metabolism and longevity. To reveal the effects of long-term dietary interventions on metabolic perturbations, we investigated serum and urinary metabolic changes induced by interactive high/low fat diet in combination with/without reduced caloric intake over a life span in mice using NMR-based metabonomics. We found that the high calorie dietary regime disturbed lipid metabolism, suppressed glycolysis and TCA cycles, stimulated oxidative stress, promoted nucleotide metabolism and gluconeogenesis, and perturbed gut microbiota-host interactions. Such changes could be modified by long-term low calorie intake. Most importantly, we found that the calorie intake index exerts a dominant effect on metabolic perturbations irrespective of dietary regime. Our investigation provides a holistic view of the metabolic impact of long-term dietary interventions, which are important for detecting physiological changes and dietary effects on mammalian metabolism.

  1. Effects of fludrocortisone on water and sodium intake of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ralph F; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about steroidal control of thirst- and salt-appetite behaviors of mice. The current study investigates effects of fludrocortisone acetate (FCA), a steroid with potent glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid effects, on thirst- and salt-appetite responses of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with FCA produced dose-dependent (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) increases in both magnitude and duration of water and sodium intake. Chronic elevation of water and saline intake was achieved with daily injections of FCA. Daily injection of FCA, when only 0.9% saline was available, produced a remarkably rapid increase in saline intake. A single injection of FCA stimulated brisk diuresis and natriuresis in fluid-restricted animals. This work is the first to demonstrate copious water drinking by mice in response to FCA. The results are discussed in terms of the possibility that the renal effects of FCA promote increases in water and sodium turnover and thereby, increases in water and sodium ingestion.

  2. The effect of glutamine intake on complications of colorectal and colon cancer treatment: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Jolfaie, Nahid Ramezani; Mirzaie, Safiye; Ghiasvand, Reza; Askari, Gholamreza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improvement in complications of antitumor agents and surgery is important to enhance life quality and survival among patients with colon and colorectal cancer. It has been reported that some dietary components such as glutamine (Gln) have beneficial effects on these complications of cancer therapies. However, the results of studies are inconsistent in this area. We performed a review on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of Gln intake on complications related to therapeutic strategies of the colon and colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and SID databases to find the relevant literature, published before July 2015. Results: Nine RCTs of 217 screened articles were included in this systematic review. The results of the present review suggested that Gln intake among colon and colorectal cancer patients could reduce some complications induced by chemotherapy such as gut mucositis and diarrhea and improve nitrogen balance, immune system and wound healing after surgery, whereas benefits role of Gln on radiochemotherapy side effects were not provided. Conclusion: The role of Gln intake on some improvement of complications induced by cancer therapeutic methods and shorten the length of hospital stay may be promising and one that is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26759580

  3. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI. PMID:26596899

  4. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  5. The Effects of Playing with Thin Dolls on Body Image and Food Intake in Young Girls

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2010-01-01

    This study experimentally tested the effects of playing with thin dolls on body image and food intake in 6- to 10-year-old Dutch girls (N = 117). Girls were randomly assigned to play with a thin doll, an average-sized doll, or Legos in a no doll control condition. After 10 min, they participated in a taste-test and completed questionnaires about body image. No differences were found between conditions for any of the body image variables. However, girls who played with the average-sized doll ate significantly more food than girls in other exposure conditions. Although no support was found for the assumption that playing with thin dolls influences body image, the dolls directly affected actual food intake in these young girls. PMID:21212808

  6. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  7. Effects of Vitamin D Intake on FEV1 and COPD Exacerbation: A Randomized Clinical Trial Study

    PubMed Central

    Zendedel, Abolfazl; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Anbari, Khatereh; Ghanadi, Kourosh; Bachari, Elham Ceneicel; Azargon, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D intake on COPD exacerbation and FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. Methods: This double blind placebo control randomized clinical trial study was done in the Ashayer university hospital in Khorramabad in 2012. Eighty eight patients with severe and very severe COPD were randomly selected from those who recoursed to the internal medicine clinic of Ashayer hospital. They were randomly allocated to case and placebo group. The patients received routine treatment for COPD. Along with the routine treatment, placebo group received 100,000 IU of oral vitamin D per month, for 6 months. Data was analyzed using SPSS computer software, paired t-test, independent t-test, non parametric t-test and Pearson correlation coefficients. Results: In each group, there were 44 patients. After the intervention, there were significant differences in FEV1 and the number of COPD exacerbation between the case and control group patients. Also, after the study, in the case group, FEV1 was increased and the number of COPD exacerbation was decreased significantly. Conclusion: Vitamin D intake decreased COPD exacerbation and improved FEV1 in the patients with severe and very severe COPD. It is suggested that baseline serum vitamin D levels will recorded in similar studies and the effect of vitamin D intake will evaluated regarding the baseline serum vitamin D levels. PMID:25946929

  8. Central histaminergic system interplay with suppressive effects of immune challenge on food intake in chicken.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, M; Baghbanzadeh, A; Aghelkohan, P; Hassanpour, S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the interaction of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and histaminergic systems on appetite regulation in broilers. Effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH, histidine decarboxylase inhibitor), chlorpheniramine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), famotidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist) and thioperamide (histamine H3 receptor antagonist) on LPS-induced hypophagia in broilers were studied. A total of 128 broilers were randomly allocated into 4 experiments (4 groups and 8 replications in each experiment). A cannula was surgically implanted into the lateral ventricle. In Experiment 1, broilers were ICV injected with LPS (20 ng) prior to α-FMH (250 nmol). In Experiment 2, chickens were ICV injected with LPS followed by chlorpheniramine (300 nmol). In Experiment 3, broilers were ICV injected with famotidine (82 nmol) after LPS (20 ng). In Experiment 4, ICV injection of LPS was followed by thioperamide (300 nmol). Then, cumulative food intake was recorded until 4 h post-injection. According to the results, LPS significantly decreased food intake. Chlorpheniramine significantly amplified food intake, and LPS-induced hypophagia was lessened by injection of chlorpheniramine. α-FMH, famotidine and thioperamide had no effect on LPS-induced hypophagia. These results suggest that there is an interaction between central LPS and the histaminergic system where LPS-induced hypophagia is mediated by H1 histamine receptors in 3 h food-deprived broilers.

  9. The Effect of a Moderately Low and High Carbohydrate Intake on Crossfit Performance

    PubMed Central

    ESCOBAR, KURT A.; MORALES, JACOBO; VANDUSSELDORP, TRISHA A.

    2016-01-01

    CrossFit is a metabolically demanding strength and conditioning method which performance may benefit from a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich diet. This study investigated the effect of three consecutive days of high CHO intake on CrossFit performance and corresponding metabolically -related variables in strength trained individuals. Eighteen subjects with a CHO intake of <6 g/kg/day were randomly assigned into a CHO (n = 9) or control (C) group (n =9) and underwent a 9-day training protocol. During days 1, 5, and 9, performance was measured as repetitions completed during a 12 minute CrossFit workout. Oxygen consumption (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (BL) were also measured. Days 6–8, the CHO group increased CHO intake from <6 g/kg/day to 6–8 g/kg/day; the C group maintained their current intake of <6 g/kg/day. On days 6 and 7 both groups performed CrossFit workouts followed by a day of rest prior to day 9. There was a significant increase in repetitions completed in both groups in day 9 (vs. means score of day 1 + 5) (p = 0.002), but no differences between C and CHO groups (p = 0.111). However, the CHO group displayed a 15.2 repetition increase (+10.9%) in day 9, compared to 5.7 (+4.2%) by the C group. VO2, RER, and BL were not influenced by the experimental intervention. Our results suggest that the CrossFit-embraced practice of moderately-low CHO diets may be adequate in CHO during short periods of training, however, given the noted trend, extended training periods may be effected. PMID:27766133

  10. [Vitamin sufficiency of young basketball players].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Pereverzeva, O G; Beketova, N A; Isaeva, V A; Kharitonchik, L A; Kodentsova, V M; Martinchik, A N; Baturin, A K

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of vitamin sufficiency of young basket-ball players 14-16 years old (17 girls and 14 boys) has been carried out 59-77 per cent of the children had the deficiency of B group vitamins, 24-54 per cent--vitamin E insufficiency, most of them (82-100 per cent)--deficit of carotenoids while they were sufficiently vitamins C and A supplied. The girls were supplied with vitamins better than boys. There was no one adequately supplied with all vitamins among boys while 12 per cent of girls had adequately sufficiency. The girls had deficit of 1-2 vitamins more often whereas the combined insufficiency of 3-4 vitamins took place in 1.8-2.3 fold more frequently among boys. Daily intake of multivitamin containing 10 vitamins in daily recommended doses, lipoic acid, methionin and 9 minerals by boys lead to their blood plasma vitamin C, E, B-2 and beta-carotene level increase. Vitamin C insufficiency disappeared. Deficit of beta-carotene and vitamin B-6 became 1.5 fold rarely, vitamin B-2--2 fold, vitamin E--6 fold. Thus daily intake of recommended doses of vitamins eliminates biochemical signs of vitamin deficiency.

  11. Activation of Pyramidal Neurons in Mouse Medial Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Food-Seeking Behavior While Reducing Impulsivity in the Absence of an Effect on Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Warthen, Daniel M.; Lambeth, Philip S.; Ottolini, Matteo; Shi, Yingtang; Barker, Bryan Scot; Gaykema, Ronald P.; Newmyer, Brandon A.; Joy-Gaba, Jonathan; Ohmura, Yu; Perez-Reyes, Edward; Güler, Ali D.; Patel, Manoj K.; Scott, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is involved in a wide range of executive cognitive functions, including reward evaluation, decision-making, memory extinction, mood, and task switching. Manipulation of the mPFC has been shown to alter food intake and food reward valuation, but whether exclusive stimulation of mPFC pyramidal neurons (PN), which form the principle output of the mPFC, is sufficient to mediate food rewarded instrumental behavior is unknown. We sought to determine the behavioral consequences of manipulating mPFC output by exciting PN in mouse mPFC during performance of a panel of behavioral assays, focusing on food reward. We found that increasing mPFC pyramidal cell output using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) enhanced performance in instrumental food reward assays that assess food seeking behavior, while sparing effects on affect and food intake. Specifically, activation of mPFC PN enhanced operant responding for food reward, reinstatement of palatable food seeking, and suppression of impulsive responding for food reward. Conversely, activation of mPFC PN had no effect on unconditioned food intake, social interaction, or behavior in an open field. Furthermore, we found that behavioral outcome is influenced by the degree of mPFC activation, with a low drive sufficient to enhance operant responding and a higher drive required to alter impulsivity. Additionally, we provide data demonstrating that DREADD stimulation involves a nitric oxide (NO) synthase dependent pathway, similar to endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor stimulation, a finding that provides novel mechanistic insight into an increasingly widespread method of remote neuronal control. PMID:27065827

  12. Effects of intracerebroventricularly and intraperitoneally administered growth hormone on body weight and food intake in fa/fa Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Carla; Wieczorek, Ingo; Reschke, Kirsten; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2002-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) possesses multiple metabolic effects, in particular with regard to glucose and lipid homeostasis. Studies on the effects of GH on body weight and food and water intake are scarce and have yielded controversial results. We investigated the effects of different modes of GH administration on the parameters of body weight and food intake as well as on insulin and leptin concentrations in fa/fa Zucker rats. In control experiments, aqua pro injection was given. GH was administered over a time period of 11 days at a daily dose of 250 microg intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 25 microg intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). While both food intake and body weight were found to be unaltered in the four groups after this observation period, there was an enhanced food intake and consecutively an increase in body weight over the day period when compared to the night period in the groups of rats that received GH i.c.v. or i.p. This tendency was also shown for water intake. Insulin and leptin concentrations were similar in all groups. Thus, injection of GH appears to modify food intake-related behavior, since the periods of enhanced food and water intake were shifted from night- to daytime. Thus, while in general the metabolic parameters remained unchanged, the activity pattern was clearly modified.

  13. Reducing effect of a Phaseolus vulgaris dry extract on food intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Noemi; Cabras, Claudia; Lobina, Carla; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Donzelli, Fabio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Carai, Mauro A M

    2009-10-14

    Extracts of kidney beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) are known to reduce food intake and glycemia in rodents and humans. This study evaluated the effect of a novel extract of P. vulgaris on food (regular food pellets, starch-enriched diet, and chocolate-flavored beverage) intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats. The effect of the combination of the colecistokinin (CCK) receptor antagonist, lorglumide, and P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake was also investigated. Administration of doses of P. vulgaris dry extract devoid of any behavioral toxicity dose-dependently decreased food intake (irrespective of the diet), body weight gain, and glycemia. Pretreatment with lorglumide blocked the reducing effect of P. vulgaris dry extract on food intake. The capacity of this P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce food intake, body weight, and glycemia in rats may be due to (a) inhibition of alpha-amylase, (b) stimulation of CCK release from the intestinal brush border cells, and/or (c) interference with the central mechanism(s) regulating appetite, food intake, and food palatability. PMID:19731962

  14. Feasibility of cooling emplacement drifts by ventilation air and effects of pre-cooling intake air by refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Hang; Bhattacharyya, K.K.

    1995-12-01

    This study evaluates effects of applying refrigerated air to cool emplacement drifts and provides a preliminary basis for future design analyses. Evaluations include impacts of airflow rates, intake air temperature, ventilation systems capability, and effectiveness of pre-cooling. Representative results provided from this study include the heat removal capability of ventilation air, effects of refrigerating intake air on continuous cooling, and effects of refrigerating intake air on rapid (blast cooling). It is possible to cool emplacement drifts within a reasonable time period, using airflow at ambient temperature is reasonable quantity. Refrigerating intake air can significantly reduce required cooling time or airflow rate, but it is inefficient as far as power consumption is concerned.

  15. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M K; Silva, J A da; Mendes, L C; Santos, N A da; Simas, M L B

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions.

  16. Effects of cholecystokinin on liquid diet intake of early weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Baranyiová, E; Hullinger, R L

    The effect of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on the consumption of a liquid diet was investigated in 10 piglets, weaned on Day 1, housed individually in cages, and offered a commercial diet for suckling from feeding bottles nine times a day at 2-h intervals with an 8-h break during the night. CCK-8 was administered to piglets (n = 5) on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 20, and 23 in single intraperitoneal doses of 4 microg x kg(-1) in saline, 5-7 min before the first morning feeding at 0600 h. The relative diet intake in CCK-treated animals was reduced significantly (p < 0.05) on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 23 compared to saline-treated controls, and on Days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 23 when the consumption at 0600 and 0800 h in CCK-treated piglets was compared. Our data support the notion that the short-term mechanisms involved in food intake control of piglets are relatively complex and operative at the time of birth, and that CCK plays a role in their food intake regulatory cascade.

  17. Differential effect of caffeine intake in subjects with genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prakash M; Paing, Swe Swe Thet; Li, HuiHua; Pavanni, R; Yuen, Y; Zhao, Y; Tan, Eng King

    2015-11-02

    We examined if caffeine intake has a differential effect in subjects with high and low genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder. A case control study involving 812 subjects consisting of PD and healthy controls were conducted. Caffeine intake assessed by a validated questionnaire and genotyping of PD gene risk variant (LRRK2 R1628P) was carried out. Compared to caffeine takers with the wild-type genotype (low genetic susceptibility), non-caffeine takers with R1628P variant (high genetic susceptibility) had a 15 times increased risk of developing PD (OR = 15.4, 95% CI = (1.94, 122), P = 0.01), whereas caffeine takers with R1628P (intermediate susceptibility) had a 3 times risk (OR = 3.07, 95% CI = (2.02, 4.66), P < 0.001). Caffeine intake would significantly reduce the risk of PD much more in those with high genetic susceptibility compared to those with low genetic susceptibility.

  18. Effect of advanced glycation end product intake on inflammation and aging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Puyvelde, Katrien; Mets, Tony; Njemini, Rose; Beyer, Ingo; Bautmans, Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory status that contributes to chronic diseases such as age-related muscle wasting, kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to be proinflammatory, this systematic review examined the relation between the dietary intake of AGEs and inflammatory processes. The PubMed and Web of Science databases were screened systematically. Seventeen relevant studies in humans or animals were included. The intervention studies in humans showed mainly a decrease in inflammation in subjects on a low-AGE diet, while an increase in inflammation in subjects on a high-AGE diet was less apparent. About half of the observational studies found a relationship between inflammatory processes and AGEs in food. When the results are considered together, the dietary intake of AGEs appears to be related to inflammatory status and the level of circulating AGEs. Moreover, limiting AGE intake may lead to a decrease in inflammation and chronic diseases related to inflammatory status. Most of the trials were conducted in patients with chronic kidney disease or diabetes, and thus additional studies in healthy individuals are needed. Further investigation is needed to elucidate the effects of lifetime exposure of dietary AGEs on aging and health.

  19. Maternal encouragement to be thin moderates the effect of commercials on children's snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Van Strien, Tatjana

    2010-08-01

    The present study experimentally tested the effects of adult targeted food commercials (energy-dense and light food products) on actual snack food intake in young children while watching television. Furthermore, the moderating role of maternal behaviors was investigated. The children (N=121, aged between 8 and 12 years) were exposed to a neutral movie that was interrupted by two commercial breaks. These breaks contained commercials promoting either energy-dense foods, low energy versions of the same energy-dense foods (light food commercials), or neutral commercials aimed at adults. Snack food intake during watching television was measured. Children filled out questionnaires and were weighed and measured afterwards. Children who perceived maternal encouragement to be thin ate slightly more when exposed to energy-dense food commercials and especially when exposed to light food commercials than when exposed to neutral commercials. In contrast, children who perceived no maternal encouragement to be thin ate more when exposed to neutral commercials than when exposed to either energy-dense food commercials or light food commercials. These findings suggest that exposure to adult targeted light food cues produced disinhibition in children who experienced maternal encouragement to be thin, resulting in elevated snack food intake. PMID:20362022

  20. The Effect of Camellia Seed Oil Intake on Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    PubMed

    Satou, Tadaaki; Sato, Naoko; Kato, Haruyo; Kawamura, Mana; Watanabe, Sanae; Koike, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    Camellia seed oil has mainly been applied to the production of cosmetics, and research into its dietary effects is required. Alterations in lipid metabolism by the intake of camellia seed oil were investigated. Health parameters such as diet intake, weight gain, fat mass, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels were measured in mice fed a high fat diet containing camellia seed oil; comparisons were made to a normal diet and a high fat diet containing either soybean oil or olive oil as controls. No significant differences in weight gain and diet intake were observed between the groups. However, the camellia seed oil diet suppressed epididymal fat weight similarly to the olive oil diet. In total cholesterol and HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels, the soybean oil, olive oil and camellia seed oil diet groups showed significant increases compared with the normal diet. However, increases in LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were inhibited by the camellia seed oil diet similarly to the olive oil diet. As the high oleic acid content of camellia seed oil is similar to that of olive oil, it is proposed that its presence mitigated fat accumulation and plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:27396207

  1. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  2. Children's food intake following drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame: time course effects.

    PubMed

    Birch, L L; McPhee, L; Sullivan, S

    1989-02-01

    In two experiments, 2-5-year-old children's responsiveness to caloric density cues was examined. In a preloading protocol, consumption of fixed volumes of drinks (205 ml in Experiment 1; 150 ml in Experiment 2), sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, aspartame plus low glucose maltodextrin, or a water control, was followed by ad lib consumption from among a variety of foods. Caloric drinks had about 90 kcal in Experiment 1, 65 kcal in Experiment 2. The delay interval between the preload and the ad lib consumption was 0, 30 or 60 minutes. In Experiment 1, 24 4- and 5-year-old children participated in only one delay interval, while in Experiment 2, all 20 2- and 3-year-old children were seen in all conditions. Results revealed evidence of caloric compensation, but no evidence of preload x time delay interaction. In both experiments, aspartame also produced a significant suppression of intake relative to water, primarily due to the pattern at 30 min following the preload. Across conditions, the suppression following aspartame was usually significantly less than that produced by the caloric sweet drinks, providing evidence for postingestive effects. In Experiment 1, suppression of intake was related to the children's preferences for the foods, not to macronutrient content; consumption of nonpreferred foods was most suppressed. Consumption of sweetened drinks as long as 1 hour prior to eating suppressed food intake, and this common feeding practice may also reduce dietary variety.

  3. Aspartame: effect on lunch-time food intake, appetite and hedonic response in children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G H; Saravis, S; Schacher, R; Zlotkin, S; Leiter, L A

    1989-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted, each with 20 healthy 9-10-year-old children. After an overnight fast, subjects were given a standardized breakfast at 0830 hrs, the treatments at 1030 hrs, and a lunch containing an excess of foods at 1200 hrs. Visual analog scales of hunger, fullness, and desire to eat were administered 5 min before and 20 and 85 min after treatment. Lunch-time food intake was measured. In experiment 1, either aspartame (34 mg/kg), or the equivalent sweetness of sodium cyclamate, was given in an ice slurry (300 ml) of unsweetened strawberry Kool-Aid with carbohydrate (1.75 g/kg polycose). In experiment 2, drinks (300 ml) contained either sucrose (1.75 g/kg) or aspartame (9.7 mg/kg). In both experiments, significant meal- and time-dependent effects were observed for subjective feelings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. Treatments, however, did not affect either subjective feelings of appetite or lunch-time food intake. Thus, aspartame consumed without or with carbohydrate, did not affect either hunger or food intake of children when compared with the sweeteners sodium cyclamate and sucrose, respectively.

  4. Decelerated and linear eaters: effect of eating rate on food intake and satiety.

    PubMed

    Zandian, Modjtaba; Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Bergh, Cecilia; Brodin, Ulf; Södersten, Per

    2009-02-16

    Women were divided into those eating at a decelerated or linear rate. Eating rate was then experimentally increased or decreased by asking the women to adapt their rate of eating to curves presented on a computer screen and the effect on food intake and satiety was studied. Decelerated eaters were unable to eat at an increased rate, but ate the same amount of food when eating at a decreased rate as during the control condition. Linear eaters ate more food when eating at an increased rate, but less food when eating at a decreased rate. Decelerated eaters estimated their level of satiety lower when eating at an increased rate but similar to the control condition when eating at a decreased rate. Linear eaters estimated their level of satiety similar to the control level despite eating more food at an increased rate and higher despite eating less food at a decreased rate. The cumulative satiety curve was fitted to a sigmoid curve both in decelerated and linear eater under all conditions. Linear eaters rated their desire to eat and estimated their prospective intake lower than decelerated eaters and scored higher on a scale for restrained eating. It is suggested that linear eaters have difficulty maintaining their intake when eating rate is dissociated from its baseline level and that this puts them at risk of developing disordered eating. It is also suggested that feedback on eating rate can be used as an intervention to treat eating disorders.

  5. The role of expectations in the effect of food cue exposure on intake.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Herman, C Peter; Hollitt, Sarah; Polivy, Janet; Prichard, Ivanka; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure to food cues has often been shown to increase food intake, especially in restrained eaters. This study investigated the role of expectations in the effect of such pre-exposure on food intake. A sample of 88 undergraduate women was exposed to visual food cues (photos of grapes and chocolate-chip cookies). In a 2 × 2 × 2 design, participants were explicitly told to expect that they would be tasting and rating either grapes or chocolate-chip cookies. Participants subsequently completed an ostensible taste test, in which they tasted and rated either grapes or cookies, such that half were given the food that they had been led to expect and the other half were given the other food. Participants' restraint status (restrained versus unrestrained) was based on their scores on the Revised Restraint Scale (Herman & Polivy, 1980). A significant interaction between expected food and restraint status was found. When participants were led to expect that they would be tasting grapes, restrained and unrestrained eaters did not differ in their subsequent consumption (of either grapes or cookies). However, when participants were led to expect that they would be tasting cookies, restrained eaters ate significantly less (of both grapes and cookies) than did unrestrained eaters, even though craving ratings were similarly elevated for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. The findings are consistent with counteractive control theory in that restrained eaters who expected to eat a high caloric food may have been able to activate their dieting goal, thereby limiting their food intake. The findings further point to an important role for expectations in the understanding and regulation of food intake in restrained eaters. PMID:27120095

  6. The role of expectations in the effect of food cue exposure on intake.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Herman, C Peter; Hollitt, Sarah; Polivy, Janet; Prichard, Ivanka; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-08-01

    Pre-exposure to food cues has often been shown to increase food intake, especially in restrained eaters. This study investigated the role of expectations in the effect of such pre-exposure on food intake. A sample of 88 undergraduate women was exposed to visual food cues (photos of grapes and chocolate-chip cookies). In a 2 × 2 × 2 design, participants were explicitly told to expect that they would be tasting and rating either grapes or chocolate-chip cookies. Participants subsequently completed an ostensible taste test, in which they tasted and rated either grapes or cookies, such that half were given the food that they had been led to expect and the other half were given the other food. Participants' restraint status (restrained versus unrestrained) was based on their scores on the Revised Restraint Scale (Herman & Polivy, 1980). A significant interaction between expected food and restraint status was found. When participants were led to expect that they would be tasting grapes, restrained and unrestrained eaters did not differ in their subsequent consumption (of either grapes or cookies). However, when participants were led to expect that they would be tasting cookies, restrained eaters ate significantly less (of both grapes and cookies) than did unrestrained eaters, even though craving ratings were similarly elevated for both restrained and unrestrained eaters. The findings are consistent with counteractive control theory in that restrained eaters who expected to eat a high caloric food may have been able to activate their dieting goal, thereby limiting their food intake. The findings further point to an important role for expectations in the understanding and regulation of food intake in restrained eaters.

  7. Effect of dietary intake of trimethylamine on human metabolism of the industrial catalyst dimethylethylamine.

    PubMed Central

    Lundh, T; Akesson, B; Skerfving, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim was to study the effect of trimethylamine (TMA) on the metabolism of the industrial catalyst dimethylethylamine (DMEA) to ascertain whether biological monitoring of industrial exposure to DMEA is compromised and excretion of the malodorous DMEA in sweat and urine is increased by dietary intake of TMA. METHODS--DMEA (0/25 mg) and TMA (0/300/600 mg) were given simultaneously once weekly for six weeks to five healthy volunteers. Plasma was collected before and one hour after the doses, and urine 0-2, 2-4, 4-6, 6-8, and 8-24 hours after the doses. Specimens were analysed by gas chromatography with a nitrogen sensitive detector. RESULTS--Both amines were readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and excreted in urine within 24 hours (DMEA 80%; TMA 86%). Oral intake of TMA increased the DMEA content of plasma and urine dose dependently, although there were large individual differences. Plasma and urinary TMA concentrations also increased, but not dose dependently. Moreover, the findings suggested the formation of endogenous TMA, little dealkylation of DMEA and TMA, and considerable first-pass metabolism. CONCLUSIONS--Although intake of TMA reduced N-oxygenation of DMEA and TMA, total urinary DMEA values (aggregate of DMEA and its oxide DMEAO excretion) were unaffected. Thus, monitoring occupational exposure to DMEA by analysis of biological specimens is not confounded by dietary intake of TMA, provided that total urinary DMEA is monitored. Although the increased urinary and hidrotic excretion of DMEA may contribute to body odour problems, they were primarily due to TMA excretion, which is much the greater. PMID:7670623

  8. Altering physically effective fiber intake through forage proportion and particle length: digestion and milk production.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A

    2007-07-01

    Intake of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) of dairy cows was altered by adjusting the proportion of forage in the diet and forage particle length, and effects on nutrient intake, site and extent of digestion, microbial N synthesis, and milk production were measured. The experiment was designed as a triplicated 4 x 4 Latin square using 12 lactating dairy cows, with 4 that were ruminally and duodenally cannulated, 4 that were ruminally cannulated, and 4 that were intact. Thus, the site and extent of digestion, and microbial N synthesis were measured in a single 4 x 4 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design; 2 forage particle lengths (FPL) of alfalfa silage (short and long) were combined with low (35:65) and high (60:40) forage:concentrate (F:C) ratios (dry matter basis). Dietary peNDF content was determined from the sum of the proportion (dry matter basis) of dietary dry matter retained either on the 2 screens (8- and 19-mm) or on the 3 screens (1.18-, 8-, and 19-mm) of the Penn State Particle Separator multiplied by the neutral detergent fiber content of the diet. An increased F:C ratio reduced intakes of dry matter and starch by 9 and 46%, respectively, but increased intake of fiber from forage sources by 53%. Digestibility of dry matter in the total tract was not affected, whereas total digestion of fiber and N was improved by increasing the F:C ratio. Improved total fiber digestion resulted from higher ruminal digestion, which was partially due to a shift in starch digestion from the rumen to the intestine with the increased F:C ratio. Actual milk yield was decreased but production of 4% fat-corrected milk was similar between the low and high F:C diets because of increased milk fat content. Increased FPL increased intake of peNDF, especially when the high F:C diet was fed. However, nutrient intakes, N metabolism in the digestive tract, and milk production were not affected. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber in

  9. Effects of 7-keto dehydroepiandrosterone on voluntary ethanol intake in male rats.

    PubMed

    Worrel, Mary E; Gurkovskaya, Olga V; Leonard, Stuart T; Lewis, Peter B; Winsauer, Peter J

    2011-06-01

    Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a neurosteroid that can negatively modulate the GABA A receptor, has been shown to decrease voluntary intake of ethanol in rats. In vivo, DHEA can be metabolized to a variety of metabolites, including 3β-acetoxyandrost-5-ene-7,17-dione (7-keto DHEA), a metabolite without the prohormonal effects of DHEA. This study compared the effectiveness of 7-keto DHEA with DHEA for reducing ethanol intake in the same group of rats. The subjects, previously trained to drink ethanol using a saccharin-fading procedure, had access to ethanol for 30 min daily and the amount consumed was recorded. Subjects were administered 10 and 56 mg/kg of DHEA or 7-keto DHEA intraperitoneally 15 min before drinking sessions. Subjects received each particular dose daily until one of two criteria was met, that is, either ethanol intake did not differ by more than 20% of the mean for 3 consecutive days or for a maximum of 8 days. Both 10 and 56 mg/kg of 7-keto DHEA significantly reduced the dose of ethanol consumed. Although 10mg/kg of 7-keto DHEA produced decreases similar to those found with DHEA, the 56-mg/kg dose of 7-keto DHEA was significantly more effective at decreasing the dose of ethanol consumed than the same dose of DHEA. These results show that 7-keto DHEA is comparable with, or possibly more effective than, DHEA at decreasing ethanol consumption in rats, and that 7-keto DHEA is a compound deserving further investigation as a possible clinical treatment for alcohol abuse without the prohormonal effects of DHEA.

  10. Differential effects of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong; Wu, Congqing; Howatt, Deborah A; Balakrishnan, Anju; Charnigo, Richard J; Cassis, Lisa A; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The amount of dietary sodium intake regulates the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and blood pressure, both of which play critical roles in atherosclerosis. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the effects of dietary sodium intake on atherosclerosis. This study applied a broad range of dietary sodium concentrations to determine the concomitant effects of dietary sodium intake on the RAS, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in mice. Eight-week-old male low-density lipoprotein receptor -/- mice were fed a saturated fat-enriched diet containing selected sodium concentrations (Na 0.01%, 0.1%, or 2% w/w) for 12 weeks. Mice in these three groups were all hypercholesterolemic, although mice fed Na 0.01% and Na 0.1% had higher plasma cholesterol concentrations than mice fed Na 2%. Mice fed Na 0.01% had greater abundances of renal renin mRNA than those fed Na 0.1% and 2%. Plasma renin concentrations were higher in mice fed Na 0.01% (14.2 ± 1.7 ng/ml/30 min) than those fed Na 0.1% or 2% (6.2 ± 0.6 and 5.8 ± 1.6 ng/ml per 30 min, respectively). However, systolic blood pressure at 12 weeks was higher in mice fed Na 2% (138 ± 3 mm Hg) than those fed Na 0.01% and 0.1% (129 ± 3 and 128 ± 4 mmHg, respectively). In contrast, mice fed Na 0.01% (0.17 ± 0.02 mm(2)) had larger atherosclerotic lesion areas in aortic roots than those fed Na 2% (0.09 ± 0.01 mm(2)), whereas lesion areas in mice fed Na 0.1% (0.12 ± 0.02 mm(2)) were intermediate between and not significantly different from those in Na 0.01% and Na 2% groups. In conclusion, while high dietary sodium intake led to higher systolic blood pressure, low dietary sodium intake augmented atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice.

  11. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS. PMID:25808180

  12. Sex-specific effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on reproduction but not lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kim; McClure, Colin; Priest, Nicholas K; Hunt, John

    2015-08-01

    Modest dietary restriction extends lifespan (LS) in a diverse range of taxa and typically has a larger effect in females than males. Traditionally, this has been attributed to a stronger trade-off between LS and reproduction in females than in males that is mediated by the intake of calories. Recent studies, however, suggest that it is the intake of specific nutrients that extends LS and mediates this trade-off. Here, we used the geometric framework (GF) to examine the sex-specific effects of protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) intake on LS and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that LS was maximized at a high intake of C and a low intake of P in both sexes, whereas nutrient intake had divergent effects on reproduction. Male offspring production rate and LS were maximized at the same intake of nutrients, whereas female egg production rate was maximized at a high intake of diets with a P:C ratio of 1:2. This resulted in larger differences in nutrient-dependent optima for LS and reproduction in females than in males, as well as an optimal intake of nutrients for lifetime reproduction that differed between the sexes. Under dietary choice, the sexes followed similar feeding trajectories regulated around a P:C ratio of 1:4. Consequently, neither sex reached their nutritional optimum for lifetime reproduction, suggesting intralocus sexual conflict over nutrient optimization. Our study shows clear sex differences in the nutritional requirements of reproduction in D. melanogaster and joins the growing list of studies challenging the role of caloric restriction in extending LS.

  13. Necessary but Not Sufficient...

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Gill; Kitson, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of mobilizing knowledge to improve patient care, population health and ensure effective use of resources is an enduring one in healthcare systems across the world. This commentary reflects on an earlier paper by Ferlie and colleagues that proposes the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm as a useful theoretical lens through which to study knowledge mobilization in healthcare. Specifically, the commentary considers 3 areas that need to be addressed in relation to the proposed application of RBV: the definition of competitive advantage in healthcare; the contribution of macro level theory to understanding knowledge mobilization in healthcare; and the need to embrace and align multiple theories at the micro, meso, and macro levels of implementation. PMID:26673476

  14. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  15. The short-term effects of soybean intake on oxidative and carbonyl stress in men and women.

    PubMed

    Celec, Peter; Hodosy, Július; Pálffy, Roland; Gardlík, Roman; Halčák, Lukáč; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Beyond other beneficial effects, a soy-rich diet has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetic complications. Reduction of oxidative and carbonyl stress has been proposed as the underlying mechanism, but the evidence for this is lacking. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of short-term increased soy intake on oxidative and carbonyl stress parameters in young volunteers. Young healthy probands (omnivores) of both genders (55 women, 33 men) were given soybeans (2 g/kg bodyweight daily) for one week. Markers of oxidative and carbonyl stress were measured in plasma at the beginning and at the end of one week soybean intake and after another week of a wash-out period. Total antioxidant capacity was increased by soybean intake in both genders. This led to decreased levels of advanced oxidation protein products in women, but not in men. On the contrary, in men, soybean intake increased lipoperoxidation. No effects on carbonyl stress markers (advanced glycation end products-specific fluorescence and fructosamine) were found. Soybean intake has gender-specific effects on oxidative stress in young healthy probands potentially due to divergent action and metabolism of phytoestrogens in men and women. Effects of soybean intake on carbonyl stress should be evaluated in longer studies.

  16. Effects of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on prepartum intake and postpartum intake and milk production of Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    Dann, H M; Drackley, J K; McCoy, G C; Hutjens, M F; Garrett, J E

    2000-01-01

    Yeast cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; YC) have been added to diets for dry and lactating dairy cows to attempt to improve ruminal fermentation, potentially increasing dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield. Jersey cows (14 primigravid and 25 multigravid) were fed total mixed rations prepartum and postpartum that were either supplemented or not supplemented with YC. The YC was a dried product that was top-dressed at 60 g/d for approximately 21 d prepartum and 140 d postpartum. The DMI was increased by YC during both the last 7 d prepartum (9.8 vs. 7.7 kg) and during the first 42 d of lactation (13.7 vs. 11.9 kg). The treatment-by-day interaction was significant for DMI during the first 21 d postpartum, indicating that cows supplemented with YC increased DMI more rapidly than did nonsupplemented cows. A significant treatment-by-day interaction indicated that cows supplemented with YC lost body weight less rapidly postpartum than did non-supplemented cows. A significant interaction of treatment by day indicated that cows supplemented with YC reached peak milk production more quickly than did nonsupplemented cows. However, total milk produced during the first 140 d of lactation did not differ. Concentrations of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and urea N in milk, as well as somatic cell count, were not significantly affected by YC. Supplementation of YC increased DMI during the transition period and increased DMI postpartum.

  17. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:21978882

  18. Hippocampal effects of neuronostatin on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Carlini, V P; Ghersi, M; Gabach, L; Schiöth, H B; Pérez, M F; Ramirez, O A; Fiol de Cuneo, M; de Barioglio, S R

    2011-12-01

    A 13-amino acid peptide named neuronostatin (NST) encoded in the somatostatin pro-hormone has been recently reported. It is produced throughout the body, particularly in brain areas that have significant actions over the metabolic and autonomic regulation. The present study was performed in order to elucidate the functional role of NST on memory, anxiety-like behavior and food intake and the hippocampal participation in these effects. When the peptide was intra-hippocampally administered at 3.0 nmol/μl, it impaired memory retention in both, object recognition and step-down test. Also, this dose blocked the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) generation. When NST was intra-hippocampally administered at 0.3 nmol/μl and 3.0 nmol/μl, anxiolytic effects were observed. Also, the administration in the third ventricle at the higher dose (3.0 nmol/μl) induced similar effects, and both doses reduced food intake. The main result of the present study is the relevance of the hippocampal formation in the behavioral effects induced by NST, and these effects could be associated to a reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  19. The Effect of Digestive Capacity on the Intake Rate of Toxic and Non-Toxic Prey in an Ecological Context

    PubMed Central

    Oudman, Thomas; Hin, Vincent; Dekinga, Anne; van Gils, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Digestive capacity often limits food intake rate in animals. Many species can flexibly adjust digestive organ mass, enabling them to increase intake rate in times of increased energy requirement and/or scarcity of high-quality prey. However, some prey species are defended by secondary compounds, thereby forcing a toxin limitation on the forager’s intake rate, a constraint that potentially cannot be alleviated by enlarging digestive capacity. Hence, physiological flexibility may have a differential effect on intake of different prey types, and consequently on dietary preferences. We tested this effect in red knots (Calidris canutus canutus), medium-sized migratory shorebirds that feed on hard-shelled, usually mollusc, prey. Because they ingest their prey whole and crush the shell in their gizzard, the intake rate of red knots is generally constrained by digestive capacity. However, one of their main prey, the bivalve Loripes lucinalis, imposes a toxin constraint due to its symbiosis with sulphide-oxidizing bacteria. We manipulated gizzard sizes of red knots through prolonged exposure to hard-shelled or soft foods. We then measured maximum intake rates of toxic Loripes versus a non-toxic bivalve, Dosinia isocardia. We found that intake of Dosinia exponentially increased with gizzard mass, confirming earlier results with non-toxic prey, whereas intake of Loripes was independent of gizzard mass. Using linear programming, we show that this leads to markedly different expected diet preferences in red knots that try to maximize energy intake rate with a small versus a large gizzard. Intra- and inter-individual variation in digestive capacity is found in many animal species. Hence, the here proposed functional link with individual differences in foraging decisions may be general. We emphasize the potential relevance of individual variation in physiology when studying trophic interactions. PMID:26287951

  20. Effect of drinker type on water intake and waste in newly weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Toth Tamminga, E L M; Widowski, T M

    2008-06-01

    During the first few days after weaning, pigs often experience BW loss as they adapt to eating solid food. During this time period, they are also known to drink excessively and develop abnormal oral behavior such as belly nosing. The excessive drinking may stem from the piglets' attempt to satiate hunger through gut fill from a familiar ingestive source. Gut fill through water intake may affect the establishment of feeding behavior. Using drinker devices other than the standard nipple drinker may ease the piglets' transition at weaning by facilitating the initiation of feeding and preventing the development of behavioral problems such as excessive drinking and belly nosing. In this experiment, we examined the effect of drinker type on water and food intake, growth rates, and belly nosing in newly weaned piglets. Eighteen pens of 15 piglets each (270 piglets total) were weaned at 18.1 +/- 0.1 d of age and housed in pens containing 1 of 3 drinker devices (standard nipple, push-lever bowl, and float bowl). Piglets' water and feed intake, water use, BW, and behavior were examined on a pen basis through 2 wk after weaning. Piglets with nipple drinkers wasted more water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 295 +/- 70 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); nipple, 1,114 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); and push-lever, 186 +/- 63 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)), whereas piglets with float bowls consumed less water than the other piglets (P < 0.001; float, 475 +/- 81 mL . pig(-1) x d(-1); nipple, 870 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1); push-lever, 774 +/- 76 mL x pig(-1) . d(-1)). Drinker type affected feeding behavior (P = 0.02); piglets with push-lever bowls spent less time at the feeder than the other piglets, although no difference was detected for feed intake (P = 0.64) or overall ADG (P = 0.16). Piglets with push-lever bowls also tended to perform less piglet-directed nosing behavior than piglets with the float bowl (P = 0.04). Piglets appear to use more water during the first 2 d after weaning with

  1. Simvastatin Hydroxy Acid Fails to Attain Sufficient Central Nervous System Tumor Exposure to Achieve a Cytotoxic Effect: Results of a Preclinical Cerebral Microdialysis Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Yogesh T; Jacus, Megan O; Davis, Abigail D; Boulos, Nidal; Turner, David C; Vuppala, Pradeep K; Freeman, Burgess B; Gilbertson, Richard J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-04-01

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors were potent hits against a mouse ependymoma cell line, but their effectiveness against central nervous system tumors will depend on their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and attain a sufficient exposure at the tumor. Among 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A inhibitors that had activity in vitro, we prioritized simvastatin (SV) as the lead compound for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies based on its potential for central nervous system penetration as determined from in silico models. Furthermore, we performed systemic plasma disposition and cerebral microdialysis studies of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in a murine model of ependymoma to characterize plasma and tumor extracellular fluid (tECF) pharmacokinetic properties. The murine dosage of SV (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was equivalent to the maximum tolerated dose in patients (7.5 mg/kg, p.o.) based on equivalent plasma exposure of simvastatin acid (SVA) between the two species. SV is rapidly metabolized in murine plasma with 15 times lower exposure compared with human plasma. SVA exposure in tECF was <33.8 ± 11.9 µg/l per hour, whereas the tumor to plasma partition coefficient of SVA was <0.084 ± 0.008. Compared with in vitro washout IC50 values, we did not achieve sufficient exposure of SVA in tECF to suggest tumor growth inhibition; therefore, SV was not carried forward in subsequent preclinical efficacy studies. PMID:26802130

  2. Effects of tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Mi, Xue-Nan; Zheng, Xin-Xin; Xu, Yan-Lu; Lu, Jie; Huang, Xiao-Hong

    2014-10-14

    The effect of tea intake on blood pressure (BP) is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to determine the changes in systolic and diastolic BP due to the intake of black and green tea. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to May 2014. The weighted mean difference was calculated for net changes in systolic and diastolic BP using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to explore the influence of study characteristics. A total of twenty-five eligible studies with 1476 subjects were selected. The acute intake of tea had no effects on systolic and diastolic BP. However, after long-term tea intake, the pooled mean systolic and diastolic BP were lower by - 1·8 (95 % CI - 2·4, - 1·1) and - 1·4 (95 % CI - 2·2, - 0·6) mmHg, respectively. When stratified by type of tea, green tea significantly reduced systolic BP by 2·1 (95 % CI - 2·9, - 1·2) mmHg and decreased diastolic BP by 1·7 (95 % CI - 2·9, - 0·5) mmHg, and black tea showed a reduction in systolic BP of 1·4 (95 % CI - 2·4, - 0·4) mmHg and a decrease in diastolic BP of 1·1 (95 % CI - 1·9, - 0·2) mmHg. The subgroup analyses showed that the BP-lowering effect was apparent in subjects who consumed tea more than 12 weeks (systolic BP - 2·6 (95 % CI - 3·5, - 1·7) mmHg and diastolic BP - 2·2 (95 % CI - 3·0, - 1·3) mmHg, both P< 0·001). The present findings suggest that long-term ( ≥ 12 weeks) ingestion of tea could result in a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP.

  3. Effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition and blood lipid concentration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keuneil; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Park, Sok; Cho, Hyunchul; Chun, Yoonseok

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of potato and lotus leaf extract intake on body composition, abdominal fat, and blood lipid concentration in female university students. [Methods] A total of 19 female university students participated in this 8-week study, and they were randomly assigned into 2 groups; potato and lotus leaf extract (skinny-line) administered group (SKG, n =9) and placebo group (PG, n = 10). The main results of the present study are presented below. [Results] 1) Body mass index, and percent body fat and abdominal fat in students of the SKG showed a decreasing tendency without significant interaction, 2) total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an averagely decreasing tendency and there was a significant interaction of TC only, 3) high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) in students of the SKG showed an increasing tendency without significant interaction, and 4) Z-score of fatness testing interaction in group × repetition did not show a significant interaction; however, there was a significant interaction of TC in group × repetition. Based on these results, 8-week intake of potato and lotus leaf extract had a positive effect of lowering TC. On the other hand, it had no significant effect on other types of lipids and percent body fat changes. [Conclusion] There was a positive tendency of blood lipids in students of the SKG and it seems that potato and lotus leaf extract intake might prevent obesity and improve obesity related syndromes. PMID:25960952

  4. Children eat their school lunch too quickly: an exploratory study of the effect on food intake

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Speed of eating, an important aspect of eating behaviour, has recently been related to loss of control of food intake and obesity. Very little time is allocated for lunch at school and thus children may consume food more quickly and food intake may therefore be affected. Study 1 measured the time spent eating lunch in a large group of students eating together for school meals. Study 2 measured the speed of eating and the amount of food eaten in individual school children during normal school lunches and then examined the effect of experimentally increasing or decreasing the speed of eating on total food intake. Methods The time spent eating lunch was measured with a stop watch in 100 children in secondary school. A more detailed study of eating behaviour was then undertaken in 30 secondary school children (18 girls). The amount of food eaten at lunch was recorded by a hidden scale when the children ate amongst their peers and by a scale connected to a computer when they ate individually. When eating individually, feedback on how quickly to eat was visible on the computer screen. The speed of eating could therefore be increased or decreased experimentally using this visual feedback and the total amount of food eaten measured. Results In general, the children spent very little time eating their lunch. The 100 children in Study 1 spent on average (SD) just 7 (0.8) minutes eating lunch. The girls in Study 2 consumed their lunch in 5.6 (1.2) minutes and the boys ate theirs in only 6.8 (1.3) minutes. Eating with peers markedly distorted the amount of food eaten for lunch; only two girls and one boy maintained their food intake at the level observed when the children ate individually without external influences (258 (38) g in girls and 289 (73) g in boys). Nine girls ate on average 33% less food and seven girls ate 23% more food whilst the remaining boys ate 26% more food. The average speed of eating during school lunches amongst groups increased to 183 (53

  5. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Redner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition is developed such that there exists a continous linear sufficient statistic T for a dominated collection of totally finite measures defined on the Borel field generated by the open sets of a Banach space X. In particular, corollary necessary and sufficient conditions are given so that there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T for any finite collection of probability measures having n-variate normal densities. In this case a simple calculation, involving only the population means and covariances, determines the smallest integer K for which there exists a rank K linear sufficient statistic T (as well as an associated statistic T itself).

  6. The effect of different amounts of calcium intake on bone metabolism and arterial calcification in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Agata, Umon; Park, Jong-Hoon; Hattori, Satoshi; Iimura, Yuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Akimoto, Takayuki; Omi, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Low calcium (Ca) intake is the one of risk factors for both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis in an estrogen deficiency state. To examine the effect of different amounts of Ca intake on the relationship between bone mass alteration and medial elastocalcinosis, 6-wk-old female SD rats were randomized into ovariectomized (OVX) control or OVX treated with vitamin D(3) plus nicotine injection (VDN) groups. The OVX treated with VDN group was then divided into 5 groups depending on the different Ca content in their diet, 0.01%, 0.1%, 0.6%, 1.2%, and 2.4% Ca intakes. After 8 wk of experimentation, the low Ca intake groups of 0.01% and 0.1% showed a low bone mineral density (BMD) and bone properties significantly different from those of the other groups, whereas the high Ca intake groups of 1.2% and 2.4% showed no difference compared with the OVX control. Only in the 0.01% Ca intake group, a significantly higher Ca content in the thoracic artery was found compared with that of the OVX control. Arterial tissues of the 0.01% Ca intake group showed an increase of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) activity, a marker of bone mineralization, associated with arterial Ca content. However, the high Ca intake did not affect arterial Ca content nor arterial BAP activity. These results suggested that a low Ca intake during periods of rapid bone loss caused by estrogen deficiency might be one possible cause for the complication of both bone loss and medial elastocalcinosis.

  7. Examining the effects of remote-video confederates on young women's food intake.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Roel C J; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne; Larsen, Junilla K; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-08-01

    One's decisions about eating are at times, largely based on the observations of other people's eating behavior. Previous studies have shown that modeling of eating is a robust effect. The current research examined the impact of a video remote confederate on young women's food intake. Experiment 1 examined the effect of an eating or non-eating video confederate. Participants (N=77 female undergraduate students, M age=20.29) were exposed to a same-sex video confederate (i.e., a 25 year old woman) who was modeling eating (i.e., 4 winegums; pastille-type sweets) or not eating (i.e. no food visible). Results indicated that participants exposed to the eating confederate did not eat more than participants exposed to the non-eating confederate. Experiment 2 was conducted to address some of the limitations of Experiment 1. In this experiment, participants (N=51, M age=20.43) were exposed to one of three intake conditions: No-eating (i.e. food visible but not consumed), Small portion-size condition (i.e., 8 M&Ms) or Large portion-size condition (i.e., 20 M&Ms). The same video confederate as in Experiment 1 modeled these three conditions. Results indicated that participants did not adjust their intake to that of a video model. The current findings provide preliminary evidence for the assumption that modeling only exists if people have clear indications about how much others have consumed in the same context (as was the case in previous modeling studies). Future research is needed to further examine this proposition.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of high-fructose intake in rats with nitric oxide deficiency.

    PubMed

    Zemančíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) system damage in the deleterious effects of high-fructose intake in rats. Fructose was administered as 10% solution in drinking water to twelve-week-old male Wistar rats for the period of 8 weeks. Blood pressure was measured by tail-cuff plethysmography. After sacrificing the rats at the end of the treatment, relative weights of heart and liver and biochemical parameters in blood plasma were determined. Reactivity of isolated conduit arteries was measured using a force-displacement transducer for recording isometric tension. Fructose drinking rats had increased blood pressure and impaired acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the thoracic aorta in comparison with control rats drinking just tap water. Relative liver weight and plasma concentrations of glucose and triglycerides were also elevated after fructose administration. In a further group of Wistar rats, inhibition of NO production by administration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 40 mg/kg/day) was performed throughout fructose intake. L-NAME treatment itself induces increase in blood pressure and relative heart weight as well as impairment in arterial relaxation and contractility. However, in these rats, fructose administration did not cause further elevation of blood pressure and other abnormalities observed in rats receiving fructose without L-NAME. Our results showed that in the state of NO deficiency (induced by L-NAME administration) fructose does not induce cardiovascular and metabolic alterations which develop in rats with a functional NO system. This indicates that impairment of the NO system may participate in many of the adverse effects induced by high-fructose intake.

  9. Effects of a proteolytic feed enzyme on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Eun, J-S; Beauchemin, K A

    2005-06-01

    The effects of exogenous proteolytic enzyme (EPE) on intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance were determined using 8 lactating Holstein cows in a double 4 x4 Latin square experiment with a 2 x2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets based on barley silage and alfalfa hay as the forage sources were formulated to maintain different forage to concentrate ratios [60:40 vs. 34:66, dry matter (DM) basis]. Four dietary treatments were tested: high forage (HF) without EPE (HF-EPE), HF with EPE (HF+EPE), low forage (LF) without EPE (LF-EPE), and LF with EPE (LF+EPE). The EPE, which contained proteolytic activity but negligible fibrolytic activity, was added to the concentrate portion of the diets after pelleting at a rate of 1.25 mL/kg of DM. Adding EPE to the diet increased total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, N, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber, with larger increases in digestibility observed for cows fed LF+EPE. Effects of added EPE on in vivo digestibility were consistent with improvements in gas production and degradability of the individual components of the TMR observed in vitro. Ruminal enzymic activities of xylanase and endoglucanase increased with addition of EPE to the diet, which may have accounted for improvements in fiber digestion. However, feeding EPE unexpectedly decreased feed intake of cows, which offset the benefits of improved feed digestibility. Consequently, milk yield of cows fed high or low forage diets decreased with adding EPE. Nevertheless, dairy efficiency, expressed as milk/DM intake, was highest for the LF+EPE diet. Addition of EPE to the diet increased milk fat and milk lactose percentages, but decreased milk protein percentage of cows fed a low forage diet. For cows fed high forage diets, EPE only increased milk lactose percentage. Efficiency of N use for milk production was decreased for both the high and low forage diets when EPE was added to the diet. Mean ruminal pH was

  10. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation. PMID:23207186

  11. Acute effects of a herb extract formulation and inulin fibre on appetite, energy intake and food choice.

    PubMed

    Harrold, J A; Hughes, G M; O'Shiel, K; Quinn, E; Boyland, E J; Williams, N J; Halford, J C G

    2013-03-01

    The impact of two commercially available products, a patented herb extract Yerbe Maté, Guarana and Damiana (YGD) formulation and an inulin-based soluble fermentable fibre (SFF), alone or in combination, on appetite and food intake were studied for the first time in a double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design. 58 normal to slightly overweight women consumed a fixed-load breakfast followed 4h later by an ad libitum lunch. They were administered YGD (3 tablets) and SFF (5g in 100ml water), YGD and water (100ml), SFF and placebo (3 tablets) or water and placebo 15min before meals. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales, and energy intake was measured at lunch. Significant reductions in food intake and energy intake were observed when YGD was present (59.5g, 16.3%; 112.4kcal, 17.3%) and when SFF was present (31.9g, 9.1%; 80kcal, 11.7%) compared with conditions were products were absent. The lowest intake (gram and kcal) was in the YGD+SFF condition. Significant reductions in AUC hunger and AUC desire to eat were also observed after YGD+SFF combination. The data demonstrate that YGD produces a robust short-term effect on caloric intake, an effect augmented by SFF. Caloric compensation for SFF indicates independent effects on appetite regulation.

  12. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H; Norman, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    Proper maintenance can help vehicles perform as designed, positively affecting fuel economy, emissions, and the overall drivability. This effort investigates the effect of one maintenance factor, intake air filter replacement, with primary focus on vehicle fuel economy, but also examining emissions and performance. Older studies, dealing with carbureted gasoline vehicles, have indicated that replacing a clogged or dirty air filter can improve vehicle fuel economy and conversely that a dirty air filter can be significantly detrimental to fuel economy. The effect of clogged air filters on the fuel economy, acceleration and emissions of five gasoline fueled vehicles is examined. Four of these were modern vehicles, featuring closed-loop control and ranging in model year from 2003 to 2007. Three vehicles were powered by naturally aspirated, port fuel injection (PFI) engines of differing size and cylinder configuration: an inline 4, a V6 and a V8. A turbocharged inline 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine powered vehicle was the fourth modern gasoline vehicle tested. A vintage 1972 vehicle equipped with a carburetor (open-loop control) was also examined. Results reveal insignificant fuel economy and emissions sensitivity of modern vehicles to air filter condition, but measureable effects on the 1972 vehicle. All vehicles experienced a measured acceleration performance penalty with clogged intake air filters.

  13. Reduction in Ribosomal Protein Synthesis Is Sufficient To Explain Major Effects on Ribosome Production after Short-Term TOR Inactivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae▿

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Alarich; Steinbauer, Robert; Philippi, Anja; Gerber, Jochen; Tschochner, Herbert; Milkereit, Philipp; Griesenbeck, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Ribosome synthesis depends on nutrient availability, sensed by the target of rapamycin (TOR) signaling pathway in eukaryotes. TOR inactivation affects ribosome biogenesis at the level of rRNA gene transcription, expression of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) and biogenesis factors, preribosome processing, and transport. Here, we demonstrate that upon TOR inactivation, levels of newly synthesized ribosomal subunits drop drastically before the integrity of the RNA polymerase I apparatus is severely impaired but in good correlation with a sharp decrease in r-protein production. Inhibition of translation by cycloheximide mimics the rRNA maturation defect observed immediately after TOR inactivation. Both cycloheximide addition and the depletion of individual r-proteins also reproduce TOR-dependent nucleolar entrapment of specific ribosomal precursor complexes. We suggest that shortage of newly synthesized r-proteins after short-term TOR inactivation is sufficient to explain most of the observed effects on ribosome production. PMID:21149576

  14. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria.

    PubMed

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-06-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material. PMID:21617296

  15. Comparing the effects of aspartame and sucrose on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes in humans.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Massien, C; Louis-Sylvestre, J; Fricker, J; Chapelot, D; Apfelbaum, M

    1994-02-01

    This study compared the effects of four breakfast preloads on motivational ratings, taste preferences, and energy intakes of 24 normal-weight nondieting young men and women. The preloads, composed of creamy white cheese (fromage blanc), were either plain or sweetened with aspartame or sucrose. Their energy value was either 1255 or 2929 kJ (300 or 700 kcal). Taste preferences were measured before and 150 min after breakfast. Motivational ratings were obtained at 30-min intervals. The subjects ate lunch, snack, and dinner meals in the laboratory. The consumption of low-energy as opposed to high-energy breakfasts, regardless of sweetness, led to elevated motivational ratings and increased energy intakes at lunch. However, intakes at subsequent meals were the same for all preloads, and no overall compensation in energy was observed. Aspartame did not promote hunger or lead to increased energy intakes in normal-weight subjects.

  16. The effect of very low food intake on digestive physiology and forage digestibility in horses.

    PubMed

    Clauss, M; Schiele, K; Ortmann, S; Fritz, J; Codron, D; Hummel, J; Kienzle, E

    2014-02-01

    Equid digestion is often conceptualized as a high-throughput/low-efficiency system, in particular compared with ruminants. It is commonly assumed that ruminants have an advantage when resources are limited; the effect of low food intake on digestive physiology of horses has, however, not been explored to our knowledge. We used four adult ponies [initial body mass (BM) 288 ± 65 kg] in two subsequent trials with grass hay-only diets [in dry matter (DM): hay1, mid-early cut, crude protein (CP) 10.5%, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) 67.6%; hay2, late cut, CP 5.8%, NDF 69.5%], each fed subsequently at four different dry matter intake (DMI) levels: ad libitum and at 75, 55 and 30 g/kg(0.75) /day. We particularly expected digesta mean retention times (MRT) to increase, and hence fibre digestibility to increase, with decreasing DMI. Ponies maintained BM on the first, but lost BM and body condition on DMI55 and DMI30. MRTs were negatively correlated to DMI and ranged (for particles <2 mm) from 23/31 h (hay1/2) on the ad libitum to 38/48 h on DMI30. Digestibilities of DM, nutrients and fibre components decreased from DMI75 to DMI30; apparent digestibilities of organic matter and NDF (hay1/2) dropped from 47/43% and 42/37%, respectively, on the ad libitum DMI to 35/35% and 30/28% on DMI30. Additional differences evident between the two hays included a higher estimated 'true' protein digestibility for hay1 and finer faecal particles on hay2; there were no differences in faecal particle size between intake levels. The results suggest that below a certain food intake threshold, the major digestive constraint is not fermentation time but nutrient supply to gut bacteria. The threshold for such an effect probably varies between feeds and might differ between ruminants and equids.

  17. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  18. Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Martin, Corby K.; Han, Hongmei; Coulon, Sandra; Cefalu, William T.; Geiselman, Paula; Williamson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low-calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. Design: 19 healthy lean (BMI = 20.0 – 24.9) and 12 obese (BMI = 30.0 – 39.9) individuals 18 to 50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290 kcal), aspartame (290 kcal), or sucrose (493 kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20 minutes after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290 vs. 493 kcals), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia = 301 kcal, p < .01; aspartame = 330 kcal, p < .01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly lowered postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p < .01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p < .05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload. PMID:20303371

  19. Effect of adaptation strategies when feeding fresh cassava foliage on intake and physiological responses of lambs.

    PubMed

    Hue, Khuc Thi; Van, Do Thi Thanh; Spörndly, Eva; Ledin, Inger; Wredle, Ewa

    2012-02-01

    The objective of the experiment was to study different adaptation strategies to avoid HCN intoxication when feeding fresh cassava foliage to sheep. Twenty-four Phan Rang lambs (initial weight = 19.6 kg at 5.5 months of age) were used in the study. The four experimental diets contained guinea grass (Panicum maximum) supplemented with concentrate at 1.5% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM) (control) or supplemented with fresh cassava foliage (FCF) that was introduced into the diet with an adaptation period of 0 (FCF-0), 7 (FCF-7) or 21 (FCF-21) days before reaching the target feeding level of 2% of BW. The average intake of FCF expressed as DM was not different amongst the supplemented treatments and ranged from 1.4 to 1.5% of BW but gradually increased during the first 7 days without any adaptation. The hydrogen cyanide consumed varied from 5.1 to 5.4 mg/kg BW and no difference between treatments with cassava foliage in the diet was found. The live weight gain was significantly higher in the treatments control and FCF-7 compared to FCF-21. No significant differences in heart rate, respiration rate and rumen movement were found between diets. The thiocyanate concentration in the urine of the lambs increased concomitantly with the increase in fresh cassava foliage offered during the first part of the experiment. In conclusion, an adaptation period of approximately 7 days seems to be favourable in combined diets where cassava foliage is offered in quantities up to 2% of BW. This level of intake could enhance the intake and LWG of the lambs without any documented effects on heart rate, respiration rate or rumen movements.

  20. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed. PMID:26606886

  1. The structure of a food product assortment modulates the effect of providing choice on food intake.

    PubMed

    Parizel, Odile; Sulmont-Rossé, Claire; Fromentin, Gilles; Delarue, Julien; Labouré, Hélène; Benamouzig, Robert; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2016-09-01

    Several authors showed that providing choice may increase food liking and food intake. However, the impact of choice may be modulated by assortment's characteristics, such as the number of alternatives or their dissimilarity. The present study compared the impact of choice on food liking and intake under the two following conditions: (1) when choosing a product to consume from among similar products versus dissimilar products; and (2) when choosing a product to consume from among pleasant products versus unpleasant products. Two experiments were carried out using the same design: the "apple puree" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among similar products (apple purees varying in texture) and the "dessert" experiment (n = 80), where the volunteers choose from among dissimilar products (fruit dessert, dairy dessert, custard, pudding). During the first session, participants rated their liking for 12 products (apples purees or desserts). Then the participants were divided into a "pleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three pleasant products, and an "unpleasant" group (n = 40) in which volunteers were assigned three unpleasant products. Finally, all of the volunteers participated in a choice session - volunteers were presented with their three assigned products and asked to choose one of the products, and a no-choice session - volunteers were served with one product that was randomly selected from among their three assigned products. Providing choice led to an increase in food liking in both experiments and an increase in food intake only for the desserts, namely only when the volunteers chose the product to consume from among "not too similar" alternatives. No effect of assortment's pleasantness was observed.

  2. Effects of voluntary alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during rat adolescence.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Matthew S; Amodeo, Leslie R; Roitman, Jamie D

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is common in adolescence, with a large portion of intake occurring during episodes of binging. This pattern of alcohol consumption coincides with a critical period for neurocognitive development and may impact decision-making and reward processing. Prior studies have demonstrated alterations in adult decision-making following adolescent usage, but it remains to be seen if these alterations exist in adolescence, or are latent until adulthood. Here, using a translational model of voluntary binge alcohol consumption in adolescents, we assess the impact of alcohol intake on risk preference and behavioral flexibility during adolescence. During adolescence (postnatal day 30-50), rats were given 1-hour access to either a 10% alcohol gelatin mixture (EtOH) or a calorie equivalent gelatin (Control) at the onset of the dark cycle. EtOH consuming rats were classified as either High or Low consumers based on intake levels. Adolescent rats underwent behavioral testing once a day, with one group performing a risk preference task, and a second group performing a reversal-learning task during the 20-day period of gelatin access. EtOH-High rats showed increases in risk preference compared to Control rats, but not EtOH-Low animals. However, adolescent rats did a poor job of matching their behavior to optimize outcomes, suggesting that adolescents may adopt a response bias. In addition, adolescent ethanol exposure did not affect the animals' ability to flexibly adapt behavior to changing reward contingencies during reversal learning. These data support the view that adolescent alcohol consumption can have short-term detrimental effects on risk-taking when examined during adolescence, which does not seem to be attributable to an inability to flexibly encode reward contingencies on behavioral responses.

  3. The effects of social contact on cocaine intake under extended-access conditions in male rats.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrea M; Lacy, Ryan T; Strickland, Justin C; Magee, Charlotte P; Smith, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Social learning theories of drug use propose that drug use is influenced by the behavior of peers. We previously reported that cocaine self-administration under limited-access conditions can be either facilitated or inhibited by social contact, depending on the behavior of a peer. The purpose of this study was to determine whether social contact influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that are more representative of problematic patterns of drug use. Male rats were assigned to either isolated or pair-housed conditions in which a social partner either had access to cocaine or did not have access to cocaine. Pair-housed rats were tested in custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed both rats to be tested simultaneously in the same chamber. In Experiment 1, rats were tested for 14 consecutive days during daily 6-hr test sessions. In Experiment 2, different doses of cocaine were tested in 23-hr test sessions conducted every 3 days. All groups of rats escalated their cocaine intake in Experiment 1; however, pair-housed rats with a partner without access to cocaine had lower levels of intake throughout the 14 days of testing. In Experiment 2, pair-housed rats with a partner without access to cocaine had lower levels of cocaine intake than did rats with a partner with access to cocaine, and this effect was observed at all doses of cocaine tested. These data indicate that the behavior of a social partner (i.e., whether or not that partner is also self-administering cocaine) influences cocaine self-administration under conditions that model problematic patterns of drug use. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454676

  4. The effect of dietary intake changes on nutritional status in acute leukaemia patients after first induction chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Malihi, Z; Kandiah, M; Chan, Y M; Esfandbod, M; Vakili, M; Hosseinzadeh, M; Zarif Yeganeh, M

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate how changes in dietary intake among acute lymphoblastic and acute myeloid leukaemia (ALL and AML) patients affect nutritional status after the first induction chemotherapy. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-h recall and a 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed by Patients Subjective Global Assessment questionnaire before starting induction therapy and again after 1 month. All newly diagnosed acute leukaemia patients aged 15 years old and older who attended three referral hospitals for initiation of their induction chemotherapy were included in the sample selection provided that they gave informed consent. A total of 30 AML and 33 ALL patients participated in the study. Dietary intake and nutritional status worsened after the chemotherapy treatment. Dietary intake in terms of macronutrients, micronutrients, food variety and diet diversity score changed significantly after the induction chemotherapy. No significant relationship was found between the changes in dietary indices and nutritional status. Chemotherapy-related side effects as an additional factor to cancer itself could affect dietary intake of leukaemia patients. The effectiveness of an early assessment of nutritional status and dietary intake should be further investigated in order to deter further deterioration.

  5. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-08-02

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures.

  6. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-01-01

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures. PMID:20678223

  7. Opposite effects of oxytocin on water intake induced by hypertonic NaCl or polyethylene glycol administration.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Mediavilla, Cristina; Puerto, Amadeo

    2015-03-15

    Oxytocin (OT), a neurohormone, has been related to natriuretic and diuretic effects and also to water intake and sodium appetite. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of subcutaneous OT administration on water intake and urine-related measures induced by the administration of hypertonic NaCl (experiment 1) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) (experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that OT administration increases the urine volume, urinary sodium concentration, and natriuresis and reduces the water intake, water and sodium balances, and estimated plasma sodium concentration induced by hypertonic NaCl administration. Conversely, experiment 2 showed that OT administration increases the water intake and the antidiuretic response induced by PEG administration. These results show that the opposite effects of OT on the water intake induced by hypertonic NaCl or PEG administration are accompanied by differential regulatory effects, enhancing a natriuretic response in the first experiment and generating an antidiuretic reaction in the second experiment. This study suggests a differential regulatory effect of OT during states of intra- and extracellular thirst.

  8. Effect of fat-free potato chips with and without nutrition labels on fat and energy intakes.

    PubMed

    Miller, D L; Castellanos, V H; Shide, D J; Peters, J C; Rolls, B J

    1998-08-01

    This study investigated the effect on fat and energy intakes of fat-free potato chips made with olestra compared with regular potato chips. Ninety-five participants (unrestrained and restrained males and females) were tested in 2 conditions. In the information condition, participants were given nutrition information about the chips and were aware that the chips differed in fat and energy contents. In the no-information condition, participants were not aware of the differences. In both conditions, participants ate either regular or fat-free potato chips ad libitum for an afternoon snack in a crossover design in two 10-d periods. To assess 24-h intake, participants completed food diaries twice in each 10-d period. The results showed that all groups significantly reduced their fat and energy intakes in the snack when eating the fat-free chips compared with the regular chips (P< 0.0001). Also, potato chip intake did not differ across time for either type of chip. Over 24 h all participants had lower fat intakes (P< 0.05) when eating the fat-free potato chips compared with the regular chips, but 24-h energy intake was not significantly different between groups. When information was provided, restrained participants ate more of the fat-free chips than the regular chips; however, this increase did not negate the reductions in fat and energy associated with eating the fat-free chips. This study showed that substituting fat-free (olestra-containing) potato chips for regular-fat chips can help reduce fat and energy intakes in short-term (within meal) situations and reduce fat intake over 24 h. PMID:9701184

  9. Effects of doubling the portion size of fruit and vegetable side dishes on children's intake at a meal.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Kabay, April C; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2010-03-01

    Increasing the portion size of energy-dense entrées has been shown to increase children's energy intake during a meal. It remains to be investigated whether serving larger portions to children can be used to promote intake of more healthful foods, such as fruits and vegetables (F&V). The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of increasing the portion size of F&V side dishes on children's intake. Forty-three children (22 boys, 21 girls), aged 5-6 years, were served dinner once a week for 2 weeks. Each dinner consisted of pasta with tomato sauce, three F&V side dishes (broccoli, carrots, and applesauce), and milk. The portion size of the F&V was doubled between experimental conditions whereas the size of the pasta remained constant. Doubling the portion size of the side dishes resulted in a 43% increase in children's intake of the fruit side dish (P = 0.001), but did not affect children's intake of the two vegetable side dishes (P > 0.60). Further, when the portion size of F&V side dishes was doubled, children ate significantly less of the pasta (P = 0.04). The difference in meal energy intake between portion size conditions (19.5 +/- 16.3 kcal) was not significant (P = 0.24). Although more studies are needed to understand whether increases in portion size can influence vegetable intake, children did eat more in response to a large quantity of a preferred low energy-dense fruit side dish at meals. Thus variations in portion size can be used strategically to help children achieve the recommended intake of fruits.

  10. Combined low-saturated fat intake and high fitness may counterbalance diabetogenic effects of obesity: the DR's EXTRA Study.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, H M; Krachler, B; Savonen, K; Hassinen, M; Rauramaa, R; Schwab, U S

    2013-09-01

    We report associations of saturated fat (SF) intake with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), concurrent IFG+IGT and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) at different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI). In a population-based sample (n=1261, age 58-78 years), oral glucose tolerance, 4-day food intake and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. High intake of SF (>11.4 E%) was associated with elevated risk for IFG (4.36; 1.93-9.88), concurrent IFG+IGT (6.03; 1.25-29.20) and T2DM (4.77; 1.93-11.82) in the category of high BMI (>26.5) and high fitness, whereas there was no significantly elevated risk in individuals reporting low intake of SF. Concurrent high BMI and low fitness were associated with elevated risks. In general, SF intake and fitness did not differentiate the risk of abnormal glucose metabolism among subjects with low BMI. Limited intake of SF may protect from diabetogenic effects of adiposity, but only in individuals with high level of fitness.

  11. The Effects of Fructose Intake on Serum Uric Acid Vary among Controlled Dietary Trials1234

    PubMed Central

    Wang, D. David; Sievenpiper, John L.; de Souza, Russell J.; Chiavaroli, Laura; Ha, Vanessa; Cozma, Adrian I.; Mirrahimi, Arash; Yu, Matthew E.; Carleton, Amanda J.; Di Buono, Marco; Jenkins, Alexandra L.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Wolever, Thomas M. S.; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W. C.; Jenkins, David J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is linked to gout and features of metabolic syndrome. There is concern that dietary fructose may increase uric acid concentrations. To assess the effects of fructose on serum uric acid concentrations in people with and without diabetes, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant trials (through August 19, 2011). Analyses included all controlled feeding trials ≥7 d investigating the effect of fructose feeding on uric acid under isocaloric conditions, where fructose was isocalorically exchanged with other carbohydrate, or hypercaloric conditions, and where a control diet was supplemented with excess energy from fructose. Data were aggregated by the generic inverse variance method using random effects models and expressed as mean difference (MD) with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Q statistic and quantified by I2. A total of 21 trials in 425 participants met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrate did not affect serum uric acid in diabetic and nondiabetic participants [MD = 0.56 μmol/L (95% CI: −6.62, 7.74)], with no evidence of inter-study heterogeneity. Hypercaloric supplementation of control diets with fructose (+35% excess energy) at extreme doses (213–219 g/d) significantly increased serum uric acid compared with the control diets alone in nondiabetic participants [MD = 31.0 mmol/L (95% CI: 15.4, 46.5)] with no evidence of heterogeneity. Confounding from excess energy cannot be ruled out in the hypercaloric trials. These analyses do not support a uric acid-increasing effect of isocaloric fructose intake in nondiabetic and diabetic participants. Hypercaloric fructose intake may, however, increase uric acid concentrations. The effect of the interaction of energy and fructose remains unclear. Larger, well-designed trials of fructose feeding at “real world” doses are needed. PMID:22457397

  12. Prolonged oral cyanide effects on feed intake, growth rate and blood parameters in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Avais, Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Sarwar; Khan, Muhammad Arif; Ashraf, Kamran; Khan, Jawaria Ali; Hameed, Sajid

    2014-07-01

    Twelve adult rabbits bred locally were divided into two equal groups of 6; experimental and control groups. Rabbits in the experimental group were orally dosed with KCN at 3mg/kg body weight for 40 consecutive days. Members in control group were given placebo (distilled water) for the same period. Animals in both groups were offered feed at 90gm/kg/day while ample drinking water was available ad lib. Feed consumption and body weight of rabbits in both the groups were recorded. Blood samples were also drawn to determine various hematological parameters. Statistical analysis revealed a non-significant difference of total and daily feed intakes in rabbits of experimental and control groups. Whereas the feed efficiency of rabbits in the experimental group were significantly reduced (P<0.05) compared to controls. Likewise a significant decrease in body weight gain of rabbits in experimental group (P<0.05) was observed. A non-significant difference (P>0.05) was observed in leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count and platelets of rabbits in both the groups. Erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin were significantly decreased in treated rabbits. It was concluded that chronic cyanide intake had a deleterious effect on feed efficiency, growth rate and blood components of rabbits. PMID:25015439

  13. Mechanism of body weight reducing effect of oral boric Acid intake.

    PubMed

    Aysan, Erhan; Sahin, Fikrettin; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss.

  14. Effects of different types of isocaloric parenteral nutrients on food intake and metabolic concomitants.

    PubMed

    Bodoky, G; Meguid, M M; Yang, Z J; Laviano, A

    1995-07-01

    Whether spontaneous food intake (SFI) is controlled by infused nutrient type or its caloric content, irrespective of nutrient type, was investigated. Rats were infused for 4 days with isocaloric solutions of different nutrient type but sharing the same intermediary metabolic oxidative pathway, providing 25% of daily caloric needs. One parenteral solution was a glucose, fat and amino acid mix (TPN-25%); the other provided ketone bodies (TRI-3.5%). Effects of parenteral infusions on SFI and metabolic concomitants were compared and contrasted to that in a group of orally fed rats. Both infusions reduced SFT by 50%. Rats receiving TRI-3.5% had lower blood glucose and insulin concentrations, but increased hepatic glycogen content compared to TPN-25% or orally fed rats. No differences in hepatic triglycerides occurred between the three groups. However, serum free fatty acids were significantly lower in TRI-3.5% and in TPN-25% groups vs. fed rats. Data indicate food intake suppression is mediated by caloric content rather than nutrient type, suggesting that a mediator of SFI regulation could be at the citric acid cycle level.

  15. Mechanism of Body Weight Reducing Effect of Oral Boric Acid Intake

    PubMed Central

    Aysan, Erhan; Telci, Dilek; Erdem, Merve; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut; Yardımcı, Erkan; Bektasoglu, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The effect of oral boric acid intake on reducing body weight has been previously demonstrated although the mechanism has been unclear. This research study reveals the mechanism. Subjects. Twelve mice were used, in groups of six each in the control and study groups. For five days, control group mice drank standard tap water while during the same time period the study group mice drank tap water which contains 0.28 mg/250 mL boric acid. After a 5-day period, gene expression levels for uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in the white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle tissue (SMT) and total body weight changes were analyzed. Results. Real time PCR analysis revealed no significant change in UCP3 expressions, but UCP2 in WAT (P: 0.0317), BAT (P: 0.014), and SMT (P: 0.0159) and UCP1 in BAT (P: 0.026) were overexpressed in the boric acid group. In addition, mice in the boric acid group lost body weight (mean 28.1%) while mice in the control group experienced no weight loss but a slight weight gain (mean 0.09%, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Oral boric acid intake causes overexpression of thermogenic proteins in the adipose and skeletal muscle tissues. Increasing thermogenesis through UCP protein pathway results in the accelerated lipolysis and body weight loss. PMID:23861682

  16. Effect of elevated selenium intakes on mammary cell proliferation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salbe, A.D.; Albanes, D.; Winick, M.; Taylor, P.R.; Levander, O.A. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Elevated selenium (Se) intakes and calorie restriction (CR) inhibit mammary tumorigenesis in experimental animals. The present study was designed to investigate cell proliferation in the mammary tissue gland. Female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control, 40% CR, 4 or 6 ppm Se in water as selenate. Control rats and Se rats were fed a control diet ad lib. CR rats were pair-fed 40% less than controls with a diet providing equal nutrients except carbohydrate calories. After 3 weeks, rats were injected with ({sup 3}H)-thymidine and killed 1 hr later. Se at 4 ppm significantly decreased only the number of ducts, whereas 6 ppm Se decreased both the number of ducts as well as the number and percent of labeled cells. CR had no effect on mammary cell proliferation. These results suggest that elevated Se intakes may protect against mammary tumorigenesis by decreasing cell proliferation, a mechanism which may affect the dose-response of the genotoxic chemicals frequently used as initiating agents in animal experiments.

  17. Chronic effects of interleukin-1 beta on fever, oxygen consumption and food intake in the rat.

    PubMed

    Busbridge, N J; Dascombe, M J; Rothwell, N J

    1993-04-01

    Chronic subcutaneous infusion (from osmotic minipumps) of IL-1 beta (1 microgram/d) in male rats over seven days caused transient (1-3 d) increases in body temperature and reductions in body weight gain and food intake. By day 3, when colonic temperature was similar for vehicle and IL-1 infused groups, the acute responses (increases in temperature and VO2) to a maximal dose (1 microgram, sc) of IL-1 beta was almost identical in all animals. In a separate study intraperitoneal infusion of the same dose of IL-1 beta (1 microgram/d) increased the duration of changes in body temperature, weight and food intake, compared to subcutaneous infusion. In further groups of rats, pyrogenic responses to daily injections of IL-1 beta (1 microgram ip) were sustained for the entire 7 d period, but this treatment did not affect body weight. These data demonstrate that tolerance to infusion of IL-1 is not accompanied by reduced maximal responses to acute administration of IL-1, and indicate that more sustained effects of IL-1 are achieved by intraperitoneal rather than subcutaneous infusions, or by repetitive daily injections of the cytokine. These observations indicate that low levels of IL-1 release, maintained over periods of several days could be responsible for changes in body temperature and energy balance during chronic infections or inflammation.

  18. Oral intake of a toluene-containing thinner. Effects and headspace gas chromatographic analytical diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zahlsen, K; Rygnestad, T; Nilsen, O G

    1985-01-01

    After an accidental oral intake of a paint thinner, the constituents were identified in stomach content using headspace gas chromatography. The composition indicated ingestion of a commonly used thinner containing 60-70% toluene, 20-25% n-butylacetate and 10-15% of ethanol. A toluene concentration of 22.0 mg/kg was measured in serum in contrast to n-butylacetate which was not detected. Ethanol concentration was 1.85 g/kg, most of this was due to ethanol ingestion before the intake of thinner. The half life of toluene in serum was 8.5 h initially, which increased to 14 h after 19 h. An effect on liver function was demonstrated by increased activity of serum transaminases. Compared with the upper normal limits ASAT and ALAT were increased by 6 and 2.5 times, respectively. For both parameters the highest activity was seen 40 hours after admission and normal levels were achieved after 7 days. It is concluded that toluene is readily absorbed by ingestion of toluene-containing thinners, and that the function of the human liver is transiently affected. For screening purposes gas chromatography proved to be a useful method for the analytical diagnosis in cases of organic solvent intoxication. The use of the headspace technique further improved the speed of analysis and eliminated contamination of the gas chromatographic system. PMID:3868371

  19. Effects of flavor and macronutrient composition of food servings on liking, hunger and subsequent intake.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J; Vickers, Z

    1993-08-01

    The effects of consuming foods with different macronutrient compositions and flavors on hedonic changes and development of satiety were investigated. Subjects rated their hunger and liking of a set of foods (rating set) before and after eating a serving (preload) of one of the foods in the rating set. The liking of the preload foods dropped more than the liking of the uneaten foods. Foods having the same flavor as the preload generally dropped more in liking than foods having similar macronutrients. The drops in liking increased with the caloric content of the preload but were unrelated to specific macronutrients. Less weight and calories of food were eaten after the high calorie preloads. Eating the high protein or the high-carbohydrate preload decreased hunger more than eating the high-fat food. Eating a high-protein preload decreased the weight of food eaten more than eating a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate preload and decreased total caloric intake more than eating a high-fat preload. However, macronutrient intake was not differentially affected by the macronutrient composition of a preload. Sensory-specific satiety appears to be more related to the sensory characteristics of a food than to the macronutrient composition of a food.

  20. Activation of membrane-associated estrogen receptors decreases food and water intake in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Santollo, Jessica; Marshall, Anikó; Daniels, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol (E2) decreases food and water intake in a variety of species, including rats. Available evidence suggests that this is mediated by genomic mechanisms that are most often attributed to nuclear estrogen receptors. More recent studies indicate that membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) also can influence gene expression through the activation of transcription factors, yet it is unclear whether mERs are involved in mediating the hypophagic and antidipsetic effects of E2. In the present experiments, we injected E2 or a membrane-impermeable form of E2 (E2-BSA) into the lateral cerebral ventricle of ovariectomized female rats and evaluated the effect on 23 h food and water intake. First, we found that higher doses of E2 were necessary to reduce water intake than were sufficient to reduce food intake. Analysis of drinking microstructure revealed that the decrease in water intake after E2 treatment was mediated by both a decrease in burst number and burst size. Next, the activation of mERs with E2-BSA decreased both overnight food and water intake and analysis of drinking microstructure indicated that the decreased water intake resulted from a decrease in burst number. Finally, E2-BSA did not condition a taste aversion, suggesting that the inhibitory effects on food and water intake were not secondary to malaise. Together these findings suggest that activation of mERs is sufficient to decrease food and water intake in female rats.

  1. Repeated ethanol administration modifies the temporal structure of sucrose intake patterns in mice: effects associated with behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Raúl; Kamens, Helen M; McKinnon, Carrie S; Ford, Matthew M; Phillips, Tamara J

    2010-07-01

    Neuroadaptations supporting behavioral sensitization to abused drugs are suggested to underlie pathological, excessive motivation toward drugs and drug-associated stimuli. Drug-induced sensitization has also been linked to increased appetitive responses for non-drug, natural reinforcers. The present research investigated whether ethanol (EtOH)-induced neural changes, inferred from psychomotor sensitization, can modify consumption and intake dynamics for the natural reinforcer, sucrose. The effects of EtOH-induced sensitization in mice on the temporal structure of sucrose intake patterns were measured using a lickometer system. After sensitization, sucrose intake dynamics were measured for 1 hour daily for 7 days and indicated more rapid initial approach and consumption of sucrose in EtOH-sensitized groups; animals showed a shorter latency to the first intake bout and an increased number of sucrose bottle licks during the initial 15 minutes of the 1-hour sessions. This effect was associated with increased frequency and size of bouts. For the total 1-hour session, sucrose intake and bout dynamics were not different between groups, indicating a change in patterns of sucrose intake but not total consumption. When sensitization was prevented by the gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptor agonist, baclofen, the increased rate of approach and consumption of sucrose were also prevented. Thus, EtOH-induced sensitization, and not the mere exposure to EtOH, was associated with changes in sucrose intake patterns. These data are consistent with current literature suggesting an enhancing effect of drug-induced sensitization on motivational processes involved in reinforcement.

  2. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants.

    PubMed

    Maloiy, G M O; Kanui, T I; Towett, P K; Wambugu, S N; Miaron, J O; Wanyoike, M M

    2008-10-01

    Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 h at 22 degrees C and 12 h at 40 degrees C) compared to 22 degrees C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest. The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 degrees C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart. PMID:18644247

  3. Effects of dehydration and heat stress on food intake and dry matter digestibility in East African ruminants.

    PubMed

    Maloiy, G M O; Kanui, T I; Towett, P K; Wambugu, S N; Miaron, J O; Wanyoike, M M

    2008-10-01

    Comparative investigations were made between wild and domestic ruminants from arid and semi-arid regions and those species from non-arid areas in an attempt to evaluate the adaptations of these ruminants in terms of the effects of heat stress and dehydration on food intake and digestibility. The effect of (a) an intermittent heat load (a daily light cycle of 12 h at 22 degrees C and 12 h at 40 degrees C) compared to 22 degrees C throughout the day and (b) dehydration level of 15% weight loss, with and without the heat load, on the intake and digestibility of a poor quality hay was investigated in the Grant's gazelle, Oryx, the domestic Turkana goats, fat-tailed sheep, zebu cattle, Thomson's gazelle and wildebeest. The intermittent heat load with water available ad libitum depressed the food intake of zebu cattle and Turkana goats by more than 40%. It had no significant effect on the food intake of the other species. The Thomson's and Grants gazelle, oryx, wildebeest and fat-tailed sheep appear well adapted to withstanding a periodic heat load. Dehydration at 22 degrees C caused a marked depression on food intake of all the species investigated. Dehydration together with a heat load caused no further reduction in the food intake by the Grants's gazelle, oryx, and goats but it did cause a further reduction in the intake in the other species. The small non-domestic ruminants (i.e. Grant's and Thomson's gazelle) appear much more digestive efficient than any of their domestic counterpart.

  4. Regulation of heart rate and rumen temperature in red deer: effects of season and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Turbill, Christopher; Ruf, Thomas; Mang, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Red deer, Cervus elaphus, like other temperate-zone animals, show a large seasonal fluctuation in energy intake and expenditure. Many seasonal phenotypic adjustments are coordinated by endogenous signals entrained to the photoperiod. The cues determining variation in the resting metabolism of ungulates remain equivocal, however, largely because of the confounding effects of food intake and thus the heat increment of feeding. To distinguish endogenous seasonal and environmental effects on metabolism, we subjected 15 female red deer to two feeding treatments, 80% food restriction and low/high protein content, over two winter seasons in a cross-over design experiment. We used rumen-located transmitters to measure heart rate and rumen temperature, which provided indices of metabolism and core body temperature, respectively. Our mixed model (R2=0.85) indicated a residual seasonal effect on mean daily heart rate that was unexplained by the pellet food treatments, activity, body mass or air temperature. In addition to an apparently endogenous down-regulation of heart rate in winter, the deer further reduced heart rate over about 8 days in response to food restriction. We found a strong correlation between rumen temperature and seasonal or periodic variation in heart rate. An effect of lowered rumen (and hence core body) temperature was enhanced during winter, perhaps owing to peripheral cooling, which is known to accompany bouts of hypometabolism. Our experimental results therefore support the hypothesis that a reduction in body temperature is a physiological mechanism employed even by large mammals, like red deer, to reduce their energy expenditure during periods of negative energy balance. PMID:21346124

  5. Modulatory factors in the effect of energy density on energy intake.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2004-08-01

    The effect of energy density (ED) on energy intake (EI) has been assessed in short-term and long-term experiments. In the short term, it was found that ED affects EI directly in situations when the subjects cannot estimate the ED of the food; then subjects mainly monitor the weight of the food ingested. In the long term, the effects of ED on EI are modulated. Average daily EI appears to be related to ED of the food and drinks when ED is determined by specific macronutrients, but not when ED is only determined by the weight of water. Thus, the short-term effect ED has on EI cannot be extrapolated to the long term, because a possible dominating effect of the weight of water determining ED undoes the relationship of ED with EI. Moreover, in the long-term portion sizes are used to compensate for correctly estimated ED, resulting in less variation in EI than ED alone would imply. Finally, dietary restraint compensates for the effect of a relatively high ED on daily EI, whereas dietary unrestraint compensates for the effect of relatively low ED on daily EI. We conclude that the short-term effect of ED on EI is modulated by the effect of water on ED, and compensated for by the effect of dietary restraint and adapted portion sizes. PMID:15384321

  6. Manipulations of attention during eating and their effects on later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Manipulation of attention during eating has been reported to affect later consumption via changes in meal memory. The aim of the present studies was to examine the robustness of these effects and investigate moderating factors. Across three studies, attention to eating was manipulated via distraction (via a computer game or TV watching) or focusing of attention to eating, and effects on subsequent snack consumption and meal memory were assessed. The participants were predominantly lean, young women students and the designs were between-subjects. Distraction increased later snack intake and this effect was larger when participants were more motivated to engage with the distracter and were offset when the distractor included food-related cues. Attention to eating reduced later snacking and this effect was larger when participants imagined eating from their own perspective than when they imagined eating from a third person perspective. Meal memory was impaired after distraction but focusing on eating did not affect later meal memory, possibly explained by ceiling effects for the memory measure. The pattern of results suggests that attention manipulations during eating have robust effects on later eating and the effect sizes are medium to large. The data are consistent with previous reports and add to the literature by suggesting that type of attention manipulation is important in determining effects on later eating. The results further suggest that attentive eating may be a useful target in interventions to help with appetite control.

  7. Manipulations of attention during eating and their effects on later snack intake.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Manipulation of attention during eating has been reported to affect later consumption via changes in meal memory. The aim of the present studies was to examine the robustness of these effects and investigate moderating factors. Across three studies, attention to eating was manipulated via distraction (via a computer game or TV watching) or focusing of attention to eating, and effects on subsequent snack consumption and meal memory were assessed. The participants were predominantly lean, young women students and the designs were between-subjects. Distraction increased later snack intake and this effect was larger when participants were more motivated to engage with the distracter and were offset when the distractor included food-related cues. Attention to eating reduced later snacking and this effect was larger when participants imagined eating from their own perspective than when they imagined eating from a third person perspective. Meal memory was impaired after distraction but focusing on eating did not affect later meal memory, possibly explained by ceiling effects for the memory measure. The pattern of results suggests that attention manipulations during eating have robust effects on later eating and the effect sizes are medium to large. The data are consistent with previous reports and add to the literature by suggesting that type of attention manipulation is important in determining effects on later eating. The results further suggest that attentive eating may be a useful target in interventions to help with appetite control. PMID:26032197

  8. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence. PMID:26742058

  9. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-04

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  10. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence. PMID:26742058

  11. Time-dependent effects of leptin on food intake and locomotor activity in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Y; Azpeleta, C; Feliciano, A; Velarde, E; Isorna, E; Delgado, M J; De Pedro, N

    2011-05-01

    The present study investigates the possible circadian dependence of leptin effects on food intake, locomotor activity, glycemia and plasma cortisol levels in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Fish were maintained under 12L:12D photoperiod and subjected to two different feeding schedules, one group fed during photophase (10:00) and the other one during scotophase (22:00). Leptin or saline were intraperitoneally injected at two different times (10:00 or 22:00), coincident or not with the meal time. To eliminate the entraining effect of the light/dark cycle, goldfish maintained under 24h light (LL) were fed and leptin-injected at 10:00. A reduction in food intake and locomotor activity and an increase in glycemia were found in goldfish fed and leptin-injected at 10:00. No significant changes in circulating cortisol were observed. Those effects were not observed when leptin was administered during the scotophase, regardless the feeding schedule; neither in fish maintained under LL, suggesting that a day/night cycle would be necessary to observe the actions of leptin administered during the photophase. Changes in locomotor activity and glycemia were only observed in goldfish when leptin was injected at daytime, coincident with the feeding schedule, suggesting that these leptin actions could be dependent on the feeding time as zeitgeber. In view of these results it appears that the circadian dependence of leptin actions in goldfish can be determined by the combination of both zeitgebers, light/dark cycle and food. Our results point out the relevance of the administration time when investigating regulatory functions of hormones.

  12. The association of alcohol intake with gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels: evidence for correlated genetic effects

    PubMed Central

    van Beek, Jenny H.D.A.; de Moor, Marleen H.M.; Geels, Lot M.; Sinke, Michel R.T.; de Geus, Eco. J.C.; Lubke, Gitta H.; Kluft, Cornelis; Neuteboom, Jacoline; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) are used as a marker for (heavy) alcohol use. The role of GGT in the anti-oxidant defense mechanism that is part of normal metabolism supposes a causal effect of alcohol intake on GGT. However, there is variability in the response of GGT to alcohol use, which may result from genetic differences between individuals. This study aimed to determine whether the epidemiological association between alcohol intake and GGT at the population level is necessarily a causal one or may also reflect effects of genetic pleiotropy (genes influencing multiple traits). Methods Data on alcohol intake (grams alcohol/day) and GGT, originating from twins, their siblings and parents (N=6,465), were analyzed with structural equation models. Bivariate genetic models tested whether genetic and environmental factors influencing alcohol intake and GGT correlated significantly. Significant genetic and environmental correlations are consistent with a causal model. If only the genetic correlation is significant, this is evidence for genetic pleiotropy. Results Phenotypic correlations between alcohol intake and GGT were significant in men (r=.17) and women (r=.09). The genetic factors underlying alcohol intake correlated significantly with those for GGT, whereas the environmental factors were weakly correlated (explaining 4-7% vs. 1-2% of the variance in GGT respectively). Conclusions In this healthy population sample, the epidemiological association of alcohol intake with GGT is at least partly explained by genetic pleiotropy. Future longitudinal twin studies should determine whether a causal mechanism underlying this association might be confined to heavy drinking populations. PMID:24120856

  13. A low effective dose of interleukin-7 is sufficient to maintain cord blood T cells alive without potentiating allo-immune responses.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Laurent; Hivert, Bénédicte; Trauet, Jacques; Deberranger, Eva; Dessaint, Jean-Paul; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; Labalette, Myriam

    2015-04-01

    Slow reconstitution of T cell immunity remains a critical issue after umbilical cord blood (CB) transplantation. Although this may be a consequence of the low cell dose, it may also reflect the propensity of naïve T cells, which predominate in CB, to undergo apoptotic cell death. Exogenous interleukin 7 (IL-7) can prevent apoptosis of naïve T cells, but at high concentrations, IL-7 may also expand alloreactive T cells, thereby aggravating the risk of graft-versus-host disease. We evaluated the survival of CB T cells from 34 healthy full-term pregnancies, and we found wide interdonor variation, from 17.4% to 79.7%, of CB T cells that were still alive after being rested for 4 days in culture medium without cytokine supplementation. The viability of CB T cells was negatively correlated to infant birth weight (Spearman's ρ = .376; P = .031) and positively correlated to venous CB pH (ρ = .397; P = .027); both associations were confirmed by multivariate analysis (P = .023 and P = .005, respectively). A low supplemental concentration (100 pg/mL) of recombinant human IL-7 was sufficient to maintain the viability of cryopreserved/thawed CB T cells, with most (>80%) cells remaining in a quiescent state and without significant changes in their CD4/CD8 ratio and the proportion of CD4(+) CD31(+) PTK7(+) recent thymic emigrants. IL-7 at 100 pg/mL did not lead to any significant enhancement of the alloreactive response of CB T cells, as evaluated by proliferation rates (thymidine incorporation and carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester dilution) and interferon-gamma production (ELISPOT). This effective concentration of IL-7 is far lower than that obtained in vivo after pharmacological administration of the cytokine. This study suggests that administration of lower doses of recombinant human IL-7 than used in previous clinical trials may be sufficient to sustain the viability of infused CB T cells and, thus, help to accelerate naïve T cell reconstitution without

  14. The effect of dystocia on the dry matter intake and behavior of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, K L; Huzzey, J M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2009-10-01

    Dairy cows that have a difficult calf delivery (dystocia) are more likely to develop health complications after calving, reducing productivity and welfare. Understanding the behavioral cues of dystocia may facilitate prompt obstetric assistance and reduce the long-term effect of the challenging delivery. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of dystocia on dairy cow behavior during the period around calving and to assess the use of these behaviors as potential indicators of dystocia. Individual dry matter intake, water intake, feeding and drinking time, meal size, standing time, and number of transitions from standing to lying positions (bouts) were recorded during the 48-h period before and after the time of calf delivery for 22 Holstein cows [11 cows with dystocia and 11 cows with unassisted delivery (eutocia)]. Cows with dystocia consumed 1.9 kg less during the 48 h before calving compared with cows with eutocia (14.3 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.2 +/- 1.0 kg, respectively), and this difference increased to 2.6 kg in the 24 h before calving (8.3 +/- 0.7 vs. 10.9 +/- 0.7 kg/d). There were no differences in drinking time between the groups, but cows with dystocia consumed less water 24 h before calving (22.4 +/- 4.4 vs. 36.2 +/- 4.4 kg/d, respectively) and consumed more water during the 24-h period after calving (56.9 +/- 3.1 vs. 48.7 +/- 3.1 kg/d) compared with cows with eutocia. Cows with dystocia transitioned from standing to lying positions more frequently than cows without dystocia beginning 24 h before calving (10.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.7 bouts/d). Dry matter intake and standing bouts in the 24 h before calving were the most accurate variables in discriminating between cows with and without dystocia, suggesting that cows with dystocia begin to alter their behavior beginning 24 h before calving.

  15. Chronic intake of honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup exert equivalent effects on glucose and insulin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of nutritive sweeteners is high with ‘added sugars’ intake from the WWEIA (2009-2010) survey in all individuals = 2 yr at 76.2 g or 295 kcal daily. Controversy continues regarding the metabolic effects of the source of sweetener. Our goal was to evaluate the glycemic and insulin effect o...

  16. The effect of saliva and oral intake on the tensile properties of sutures: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Robert E H; Schuler, Kevin; Thornton, Brian P; Vasconez, Henry C; Rinker, Brian

    2007-03-01

    The plastic surgeon often operates in the oral cavity. Little or no information exists regarding the effect of saliva and oral intake upon the tensile properties of suture. Polyglactin 910 (Vicryl) and chromic gut were studied. Five sutures of each type were subjected to saline, saliva, milk, or soy milk over different durations of exposure. Suture breaking strength was tested. A 4-way interaction between suture type, size, liquid, and time was significant (P = 0.0046). Sutures soaked in saliva were significantly weaker. No significant difference was observed between sutures soaked in milk or soy. Saliva appears to enhance degradation rates in both sutures. Suture selection in the oral cavity should be predicated upon the demands of the repair and surgeon's preference. Postoperative feeding instructions should limit tension across mucosal repairs, but the selection of formula should be based upon nutritional requirements and preferences of the child rather than concern over suture degradation.

  17. Synergistic effects of cannabinoid inverse agonist AM251 and opioid antagonist nalmefene on food intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Richard Z; Huang, Ruey-Ruey C; Shen, Chun-Pyn; MacNeil, Douglas J; Fong, Tung M

    2004-03-01

    Oral administration of the opioid antagonist nalmefene alone (up to 20 mg/kg) failed to show a significant effect on acute food intake in mice. However, combined oral dosing of nalmefene and subthreshold doses of AM251, a cannabinoid CB1 receptor inverse agonist, led to a significant reduction in food intake in both lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Furthermore, the anorectic effect of a high dose of AM251 was further enhanced when co-administered with nalmefene. The results support a synergistic interaction between opioid and cannabinoid systems in regulating feeding behavior.

  18. The effect of supplementing maize stover with cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata) haulms on the intake and growth performance of Ethiopian sheep.

    PubMed

    Koralagama, K D N; Mould, F L; Fernandez-Rivera, S; Hanson, J

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the effect of supplementing maize stover (MS) with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) haulms or commercial concentrate (CC) on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, live weight gain and carcass yield of male Ethiopian Highland sheep. Two cowpea genotypes, 12688 (forage) and IT96D-774 (dual-purpose), were used. A randomised block design was applied with groups of eight sheep, blocked by weight, allocated to one of six treatments; MS ad libitum either unsupplemented or supplemented daily with 150 or 300 g dry matter (DM) of either cowpea or CC. MS contained more neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and lignin than either cowpeas or CC. Crude protein (CP) content of the forage-type cowpeas was higher than either dual-purpose or CC, while MS had the lowest CP content. Relative to the negative control group, cowpea at either level significantly (P < 0.01) increased both MS intake and total NDF and lignin. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.01) increased nitrogen (N) intakes relative to the negative control, with N intake for CC and dual-purpose cowpea (high level) being similar to the intakes for cowpeas at 150 g. N intake with the forage-type cowpea offered at higher levels was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than the other groups. No significant differences (P > 0.01) in MS intake were identified between cowpeas at either level or CC and, although intake level of CC increased, it did not differ significantly from the negative control group. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.01) improved average daily gain, with the negative control group losing weight over the experimental period, and increased final live weight, carcass cold weight and dressing percentage. Supplementation significantly improved the apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter and NDF, with no significant difference found between cowpeas at either level. N retention was negative for sheep offered only MS, but positive with all supplements, with cowpeas improving N

  19. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Reoner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A surjective bounded linear operator T from a Banach space X to a Banach space Y must be a sufficient statistic for a dominated family of probability measures defined on the Borel sets of X. These results were applied, so that they characterize linear sufficient statistics for families of the exponential type, including as special cases the Wishart and multivariate normal distributions. The latter result was used to establish precisely which procedures for sampling from a normal population had the property that the sample mean was a sufficient statistic.

  20. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, R A; Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; de Graaf, C; Prinz, J F

    2008-10-20

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy semi-solid, matched for energy density. In the first study, subjects consumed 47% more from the liquid than from the semi-solid to reach the same degree of satiation, with larger bite sizes for the liquid throughout the 15 minute period (8.7+/-0.45 g) compared to the semi-solid (5.8+/-0.3 g, p<0.01). In the second study bite effort was eliminated by using a peristaltic pump to present the products every 20 s. Oral processing time before swallowing was set at 5 s (both products) or 8 s (semi-solid). With the elimination of bite effort and a standardized oral processing time, subjects consumed as much from the semi-solid as from the liquid to reach the same degree of satiation. Bite size for liquids started relatively small and grew gradually over successive bites, whereas the bite size for the semi-solid food started relatively large and became gradually smaller. The latter effect was even more pronounced when the oral processing time was increased from 5 to 8 s. In conclusion, semi-solids resulted in smaller bite sizes and lower intake than liquids, but these differences disappeared when differences in bite effort were eliminated.

  1. The effects of food viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, R A; Zijlstra, N; Mars, M; de Graaf, C; Prinz, J F

    2008-10-20

    Two studies investigated the effect of a food's viscosity on bite size, bite effort and food intake using a standardized protocol in which subjects sipped through a straw every 20 s for a period of 15 min from one of two products, a chocolate-flavored dairy drink and a chocolate-flavored dairy semi-solid, matched for energy density. In the first study, subjects consumed 47% more from the liquid than from the semi-solid to reach the same degree of satiation, with larger bite sizes for the liquid throughout the 15 minute period (8.7+/-0.45 g) compared to the semi-solid (5.8+/-0.3 g, p<0.01). In the second study bite effort was eliminated by using a peristaltic pump to present the products every 20 s. Oral processing time before swallowing was set at 5 s (both products) or 8 s (semi-solid). With the elimination of bite effort and a standardized oral processing time, subjects consumed as much from the semi-solid as from the liquid to reach the same degree of satiation. Bite size for liquids started relatively small and grew gradually over successive bites, whereas the bite size for the semi-solid food started relatively large and became gradually smaller. The latter effect was even more pronounced when the oral processing time was increased from 5 to 8 s. In conclusion, semi-solids resulted in smaller bite sizes and lower intake than liquids, but these differences disappeared when differences in bite effort were eliminated. PMID:18721823

  2. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on food and water intake and body temperature in rats.

    PubMed

    Pénicaud, L; Thompson, D A; Le Magnen, J

    1986-01-01

    Comparisons between early daytime and early nighttime effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) injections on food and water intake and rectal temperature were made. Food intake was significantly enhanced by 2DG injections regardless of the phase of the light cycle. In the daytime, water intake was increased by a lower dose of 2DG (200 mg/kg, IP) but there was no further increase at a higher dose (400 mg/kg). At night, the lower dose of 2DG had no effect on water intake but the higher dose suppressed the water intake normally associated with feeding. Administration of 2DG reduced preprandial rectal temperature in a dose dependent fashion in both phases of the light cycle. However, preprandial rectal temperatures were decreased more at night than during the daytime after injection of the higher dose of 2DG. Therefore, 2DG-induced hypothermia is dependent on both the dose of 2DG injected and the phase of the light cycle in which glucoprivation is produced. Furthermore, below a certain level of body temperature, rats markedly reduced drinking behavior while maintaining but not increasing their feeding response to 2DG-induced glucoprivation. These results suggest that behaviors may be directed toward preservations of body temperature in preference to relief of hunger by eating and of thirst by drinking.

  3. Lithium clearance in man: effects of dietary salt intake, acute changes in extracellular fluid volume, amiloride and frusemide.

    PubMed

    Atherton, J C; Green, R; Hughes, S; McFall, V; Sharples, J A; Solomon, L R; Wilson, L

    1987-12-01

    1. The effects of amiloride and frusemide on lithium clearance were studied during changes in dietary sodium chloride intake and during infusion of 0.9% NaCl in normal human volunteers. 2. Lithium and fractional lithium clearances were less on the low than on the high salt diet. Values for the medium salt diet were intermediate. Acute extracellular fluid volume expansion with 0.9% NaCl infusion and extracellular fluid volume contraction 3-4 h after intravenous frusemide caused lithium and fractional lithium clearances to increase and decrease respectively. 3. Amiloride caused small changes in lithium and fractional lithium clearances on a low salt diet, but was without effect when salt intake was medium or high. 4. Increases in lithium clearance occurred immediately after frusemide irrespective of dietary salt intake and in subjects infused with 0.9% NaCl. Only in salt-depleted subjects did frusemide cause a substantial increase in fractional lithium clearance. Changes induced under other circumstances were small. 5. It is concluded that the lithium clearance method for assessment of proximal tubule salt and water reabsorption can be used with some degree of confidence in certain circumstances (medium and high salt intake as well as in acute volume expansion) but may not be reliable when dietary salt intake is low. PMID:3690979

  4. Effectiveness of a theory-driven nutritional education program in improving calcium intake among older Mauritian adults.

    PubMed

    Bhurosy, Trishnee; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P < 0.001) at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P < 0.05) after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults.

  5. Effectiveness of a Theory-Driven Nutritional Education Program in Improving Calcium Intake among Older Mauritian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background. Low calcium intake, a risk factor of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures, has been previously reported among post-menopausal women in Mauritius. Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a theory-based educational intervention in improving the calcium intake, self-efficacy, and knowledge of older Mauritians. Methodology. The study was conducted as a pre- and post-test design which was evaluated through a baseline, immediate postintervention, and 2-month follow-up assessments. Participants were adults (n = 189) aged ≥40 years old from 2 urban community-based centres. The intervention group (IG) (n = 98) participated in 6 weekly interactive lessons based on the health belief model (HBM). The main outcome measures were calcium intake, HB scale scores, knowledge scores, and physical activity level (PAL). Anthropometric measurements were also assessed. Results. The IG significantly increased its baseline calcium intake, knowledge and self-efficacy (P < 0.001) at post-assessments. A significant decrease in waist circumference in the IG was noted (P < 0.05) after intervention. PAL significantly increased by 12.3% at post-test and by 29.6% at follow-up among intervention adults when compared to the CG (P < 0.001). Conclusion. A theory-driven educational intervention is effective in improving the dietary calcium intake, knowledge, self-efficacy, and PAL of older community-based Mauritian adults. PMID:24453901

  6. Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of sucrose on appetite and mood remain unclear. Normal weight subjects compensate for sucrose added blind to the diet (Reid et al., 2007). Overweight subjects, however, may differ. In a single-blind, between-subjects design, soft drinks (4x25cl per day; 1800kJ sucrose sweetened versus 67kJ aspartame sweetened) were added to the diet of overweight women (n=53, BMI 25-30, age 20-55) for 4 weeks. A 7-day food diary gave measures of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients. Mood and hunger were measured by ten single Likert scales rated daily at 11.00, 14.00, 16.00, and 20.00. Activity levels were measured by diary and pedometer. Baseline energy intake did not differ between groups. During the first week of the intervention energy intake increased slightly in the sucrose group, but not in the aspartame group, then decreased again, so by the final week intake again did not differ from the aspartame group. Compensation was not large enough to produce significant changes in the composition of the voluntary diet. There were no effects on hunger or mood. It is concluded that overweight women do not respond adversely to sucrose added blind to the diet, but compensate for it by reducing voluntary energy intake. Alternative explanations for the correlation between sugary soft drink intake and weight gain are discussed. PMID:20470840

  7. Effects of sucrose drinks on macronutrient intake, body weight, and mood state in overweight women over 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Reid, Marie; Hammersley, Richard; Duffy, Maresa

    2010-08-01

    The long-term effects of sucrose on appetite and mood remain unclear. Normal weight subjects compensate for sucrose added blind to the diet (Reid et al., 2007). Overweight subjects, however, may differ. In a single-blind, between-subjects design, soft drinks (4x25cl per day; 1800kJ sucrose sweetened versus 67kJ aspartame sweetened) were added to the diet of overweight women (n=53, BMI 25-30, age 20-55) for 4 weeks. A 7-day food diary gave measures of total energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients. Mood and hunger were measured by ten single Likert scales rated daily at 11.00, 14.00, 16.00, and 20.00. Activity levels were measured by diary and pedometer. Baseline energy intake did not differ between groups. During the first week of the intervention energy intake increased slightly in the sucrose group, but not in the aspartame group, then decreased again, so by the final week intake again did not differ from the aspartame group. Compensation was not large enough to produce significant changes in the composition of the voluntary diet. There were no effects on hunger or mood. It is concluded that overweight women do not respond adversely to sucrose added blind to the diet, but compensate for it by reducing voluntary energy intake. Alternative explanations for the correlation between sugary soft drink intake and weight gain are discussed.

  8. Effect of high sodium intake during 14 days of bed-rest on acid-base balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frings, P.; Baecker, N.; Heer, M.

    Lowering mechanical load like in microgravity is the dominant stimulus leading to bone loss However high dietary sodium intake is also considered as a risk factor for osteoporosis and thereby might exacerbate the microgravity induced bone loss In a metabolic balance non bed-rest study we have recently shown that a very high sodium intake leads to an increased bone resorption most likely because of a mild metabolic acidosis Frings et al FASEB J 19 5 A1345 2005 To test if mild metabolic acidosis also occurs during immobilization we examined the effect of increased dietary sodium on bone metabolism and acid-base balance in eight healthy male test subjects mean age 26 25 pm 3 49 years body weight 77 98 pm 4 34 kg in our metabolic ward during a 14-day head-down tilt HDT bed-rest study The study was designed as a randomized crossover study with two study periods Each period was divided into three parts 4 ambulatory days with 200 mmol sodium intake 14 days of bed-rest with either 550 mmol or 50 mmol sodium intake and 3 recovery days with 200 mmol sodium intake The sodium intake was altered by variations in dietary sodium chloride content Blood pH P CO2 and P O2 were analyzed in fasting morning fingertip blood samples several times during the entire study Bicarbonate HCO 3 - and base excess BE were calculated according to the Henderson-Hasselbach equation Preliminary results in the acid-base balance from the first study period 4 subjects with 550 mmol and 4 subjects with 50 mmol sodium intake strongly

  9. Short-term effects of chewing gum on satiety and afternoon snack intake in healthy weight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Inui, Taichi; Kergoat, Sophie; Kelley, Michael; Burton-Freeman, Britt

    2016-05-15

    Afternoon snacking contributes significantly to total energy intake. Strategies to enhance the satiety value of lunch and reduce afternoon snacking are of interest for body weight management. To assess whether between-meal gum chewing would enhance the satiety response to a fixed lunch meal; and assess the role of cholecystokinin (CCK) as a potential mediator of the response in non-obese healthy weight and obese women. Fifty unrestrained obese (n=25) and non-obese healthy weight (n=25) women participated in a two-arm cross-over study assessing multiple (15min per hour×3h) gum chewing (GUM) occurrences or no gum (Control) on subjective ratings of satiety, subsequent sweet and salty snack intake, CCK and general metabolic responses. GUM compared to Control resulted in significant suppression of hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption (p<0.05). Total snack energy intake was reduced ~9.3% by GUM, but not significantly different from Control (p=0.08). However, overall carbohydrate intake was reduced by GUM (p=0.03). This was consistent with a reduction in snacks characterized as high carbohydrate, low fat (p=0.02). BMI specific effects indicated GUM reduced pretzel intake in obese women (p=0.05) and Oreo cookie intake in healthy weight women (p=0.03) 3h after lunch. Metabolic responses and CCK did not differ between experimental conditions. Chewing gum intermittently post-lunch enhances perceptions of satiety and may have important implications in reducing afternoon high carbohydrate-snack intake. PMID:26948161

  10. The effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Soon Bae; Chang, Jai Won; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2016-07-01

    Introduction High sodium intake is the main cause of fluid overload in hemodialysis (HD) patients, leading to increased cardiovascular mortality. High sodium intake is known to be associated with low salt taste acuity and/or high preference. As the zinc status could influence taste acuity, we analyzed the effect of zinc deficiency on salt taste acuity, preference, and dietary sodium intake in HD patients. Methods A total of 77 HD patients was enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Zinc deficiency was defined as serum zinc level with below 70 µg/mL. The patients were divided into two groups based on serum zinc level. Salt taste acuity and preference were determined by a sensory test using varying concentrations of NaCl solution, and dietary sodium intake was estimated using 3-day dietary recall surveys. Findings The mean salt recognition threshold and salt taste preference were significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group. And there was significant positive correlation between salt taste preference and dietary sodium intake in zinc deficient group (r = 0.43, P = 0.002). Although, the dietary sodium intake showed a high tendency with no significance (P = 0.052), interdialytic weight gain was significantly higher in the zinc deficient group than in the non-zinc deficient group (2.68 ± 1.02 kg vs. 3.18 ± 1.02 kg; P = 0.047). Discussion Zinc deficiency may be related to low salt taste acuity and high salt preference, leading to high dietary sodium intake in HD patients.

  11. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  12. Effect of macronutrient composition on short-term food intake and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized.

  13. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day. PMID:16429825

  14. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves.

    PubMed

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël

    2005-12-01

    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p < 0.05). Daily gain during the entire experimental period averaged 0.84, 0.85 and 0.88 kg for the respective groups (p = 0.065). Daily concentrate intake was not different among groups, with only a small effect of CL on intake around weaning. Early weaning resulted in a significant reduction of hay intake (p = 0.032). Total daily net energy intake increased slightly with a higher CL at weaning, so that energy conversion was slightly improved, amounting to 17.7, 17.6 and 17.4 MJ/kg gain, respectively. Energy balance during the first week after weaning was negative for CL 0.5 kg (-22%), while it was close to 0 for CL 0.75 kg (-2%) or positive for CL 1.0 kg. Most effects of CL at weaning were similar for males and females, but male calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day.

  15. The effects of restricted energy and fluid intake on simulated amateur boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Dyson, R; Hale, T; Hamilton, M; Kelly, J; Wellington, P

    2001-06-01

    This study examined the effects of serial reductions in energy and fluid intake on two simulated boxing performances separated by 2 days recovery. Eight amateur boxers (age: 23.6 +/- 3.2 years; height 175 +/- 5 cm; body mass [BM] 73.3 +/- 8.3 kg [Mean +/- SD]) performed two simulated boxing bouts (BB) under normal (N-trial) and restricted (R-trial) diets in a counterbalanced design over 5 days. The trials were separated by a 9-day period of normal dietary behavior (X-trial). BM was recorded on days 1, 3, and 5 of each trial. Simulated bouts of three, 3-min rounds with 1-min recovery were completed on days 3 (BB1) and 5 (BB2) of each 5-day trial. Punching force (N) was recorded from 8 sets of 7 punches by a purpose-built boxing ergometer. Heart rate (fC) was monitored continuously (PE3000 Polar Sports Tester, Kempele, Finland), and blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BG) were determined 4-min post-performance (2300 StaPlus, YSI, Ohio). Energy and fluid intakes were significantly lower in the R-trial (p < .05). Body mass was maintained during the N-trial but fell 3% (p < .05) during the R-trial. There were no significant differences in end-of-bout fC or post-bout BG, but BLa was higher in the N- than the R-trial (p < .05). R-trial punching forces were 3.2% and 4.6% lower, respectively, compared to the corresponding N-trial bouts, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that energy and fluid restrictions in weight-governed sports do not always lead to a significant decrease in performance, but because of the small sample size and big variations in individual performances, these findings should be interpreted with care.

  16. Effects of oral intake of water in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dysphagia is associated with numerous medical conditions and the major intervention to avoid aspiration in people with dysphagia involves modifying the diet to thickened fluids. This is associated with issues related to patient quality of life and in many cases non-compliance leading to dehydration. Given these concerns and in the absence of conclusive scientific evidence, we designed a study, to further investigate the effects of oral intake of water in people with dysphagia. Methods We monitored lung related complications, hydration levels and assessed quality of life in two groups of people with dysphagia. The control group was allowed only thickened fluids and patients in the intervention group were allowed access to water for a period of five days. Results Our findings indicate a significantly increased risk in the development lung complications in patients given access to water (6/42; 14.3%) compared to the control group (0/34; no cases). We have further defined patients at highest risk, namely those with degenerative neurologic dysfunction who are immobile or have low mobility. Our results indicate increased total fluid intake in the patients allowed access to water, and the quality of life surveys, albeit from a limited number of patients (24% of patients), suggest the dissatisfaction of patients to diets composed of only thickened fluids. Conclusions On the basis of these findings we recommend that acute patients, patients with severe neurological dysfunction and immobility should be strongly encouraged to adhere to a thickened fluid or modified solid consistency diet. We recommend that subacute patients with relatively good mobility should have choice after being well-informed of the relative risk. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12608000107325 PMID:21356121

  17. Effects of altered calcium intake on diurnal and calcium-stimulated plasma calcitonin in normal women.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, R D; Heath, H

    1989-06-01

    We sought to determine if any protective effect of dietary calcium (Ca) or Ca supplements on bone could be at least partially mediated by increased calcitonin (CT) secretion. First we studied 10 healthy premenopausal women (median age, 35.5 years) who were randomized to high or low dietary Ca intake (1752 versus 391 mg elemental Ca per day) for 2 weeks and then crossed over. At the end of each dietary period, blood was drawn on 1 day at 0800, 1200, 1700, and 2000 h to assess diurnal variation of plasma CT levels. CT secretory reserve was assessed on the next day by Ca infusion (2 mg Ca per kg body weight over 5 minutes). Next, we studied 10 healthy premenopausal women who took a low-Ca diet (approximately 400 mg Ca per day) for a 2 week control period. The women were then randomized to high- or low-Ca intake [400 mg dietary Ca +/- 1500 mg Ca per day (as supplemental CaCO3)] and then crossed over. At the end of each study period, the diurnal variation in CT was tested on day 1; the CT secretory reserve was assessed on day 3 by an oral Ca load (500 mg as CaCO3)] and on day 5 by Ca infusion. Plasma immunoreactive CT was measured in whole plasma (iCT) and after silica extraction (exCT), predominantly monomeric CT. Neither increased dietary Ca nor Ca supplements affected the diurnal levels of iCT or exCT or augmented plasma CT responses to an oral Ca load.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Effects of temperature and feed intake on astaxanthin digestibility and metabolism in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Ytrestøyl, T; Struksnaes, G; Koppe, W; Bjerkeng, B

    2005-12-01

    The effects of feed intake, growth rate and temperature (8 and 12 degrees C) on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC), blood uptake of individual astaxanthin E/Z isomers and metabolism of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) were determined in Atlantic salmon. Accumulation of idoxanthin (3,4,3'-trihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4-one) in plasma was used to indicate metabolic transformation of astaxanthin. Quadruplicate groups of fish were subjected to three different treatments; one treatment was kept at 12 degrees C and fed to satiation. Another treatment kept at 12 degrees C was pair-fed with fish fed to satiation at 8 degrees C, resulting in a restricted feeding regime for the former treatment. After 2 months of feeding, the fish were fed a single meal containing ballotini glass beads to determine individual feed intake and Y(2)O(3) as an inert marker to determine ADCs. The faeces samples were pooled into 6 categories according to individual meal size (range 0.2-1.5% of body weight) and the ADCs for different meal sizes were determined. ADCs of astaxanthin ranged from 20% to 60% but were not significantly correlated with meal size. However, fish kept at 12 degrees C had approximately 10% higher ADC than fish kept at 8 degrees C (p=0.032). Growth rate and plasma astaxanthin concentration were higher at higher temperature and higher ration. Plasma concentration of idoxanthin was not affected by temperature or by meal size. The incidence of fin erosion and non-feeding individuals was significantly higher among fish fed a restricted ration indicating more aggressive interactions. Fish with visible fin damage had a tendency for having higher idoxanthin content in plasma than fish without noticeable fin damage. It is concluded that temperature but not individual meal size affect ADC of astaxanthin, whereas both influence plasma astaxanthin levels and may therefore affect the efficiency of astaxanthin utilization.

  19. Caffeine consumption around an exercise bout: effects on energy expenditure, energy intake, and exercise enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Matthew M; Hall, Susan; Leveritt, Michael; Grant, Gary; Sabapathy, Surendran; Desbrow, Ben

    2014-10-01

    Combining an exercise and nutritional intervention is arguably the optimal method of creating energy imbalance for weight loss. This study sought to determine whether combining exercise and caffeine supplementation was more effective for promoting acute energy deficits and manipulations to substrate metabolism than exercise alone. Fourteen recreationally active participants (mean ± SD body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) completed a resting control trial (CON), a placebo exercise trial (EX), and a caffeine exercise trial (EX+CAF, 2 × 3 mg/kg of caffeine 90 min before and 30 min after exercise) in a randomized, double-blinded design. Trials were 4 h in duration with 1 h of rest, 1 h of cycling at ∼65% power at maximum O2 consumption or rest, and a 2-h recovery. Gas exchange, appetite perceptions, and blood samples were obtained periodically. Two hours after exercise, participants were offered an ad libitum test meal where energy and macronutrient intake were recorded. EX+CAF resulted in significantly greater energy expenditure and fat oxidation compared with EX (+250 kJ; +10.4 g) and CON (+3,126 kJ; +29.7 g) (P < 0.05). A trend for reduced energy and fat intake compared with CON (-718 kJ; -8 g) (P = 0.055) was observed. Consequently, EX+CAF created a greater energy deficit (P < 0.05). Caffeine also led to exercise being perceived as less difficult and more enjoyable (P < 0.05). Combining caffeine with exercise creates a greater acute energy deficit, and the implications of this protocol for weight loss or maintenance over longer periods of time in overweight/obese populations should be further investigated. PMID:25123196

  20. The Acute Effects of Swimming on Appetite, Food Intake, and Plasma Acylated Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    King, James A.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Stensel, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Swimming may stimulate appetite and food intake but empirical data are lacking. This study examined appetite, food intake, and plasma acylated ghrelin responses to swimming. Fourteen healthy males completed a swimming trial and a control trial in a random order. Sixty min after breakfast participants swam for 60 min and then rested for six hours. Participants rested throughout the control trial. During trials appetite was measured at 30 min intervals and acylated ghrelin was assessed periodically (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7.5 h. N = 10). Appetite was suppressed during exercise before increasing in the hours after. Acylated ghrelin was suppressed during exercise. Swimming did not alter energy or macronutrient intake assessed at buffet meals (total trial energy intake: control 9161 kJ, swimming 9749 kJ). These findings suggest that swimming stimulates appetite but indicate that acylated ghrelin and food intake are resistant to change in the hours afterwards. PMID:20953411

  1. The effects of subacute ruminal acidosis on sodium bicarbonate-supplemented water intake for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cottee, G; Kyriazakis, I; Widowski, T M; Lindinger, M I; Cant, J P; Duffield, T F; Osborne, V R; McBride, B W

    2004-07-01

    Four multiparous ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in an 8-wk experiment utilizing a repeated measures block design to determine the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on supplemented water intake. Animals were subjected to SARA, which was induced by replacing 25% of the ad libitum intake of the total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with 50:50 wheat:barley pellets utilizing a grain challenge model. Cows had free choice from 2 water bowls. One bowl contained water with sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplemented at 2.5 g/L. The other bowl contained unsupplemented water. Ruminal pH was monitored continuously during the trial using indwelling pH probes. The induction of SARA reduced daily mean ruminal pH and increased the duration when ruminal pH was below 6. The total mixed ration intake by the cows decreased during the SARA periods. The overall preference for SB-supplemented water did not change, as the preference ratio was similar during the control and SARA periods. During the period of greatest ruminal pH depression, total water intake was higher during the SARA periods than during the control periods. During SARA, there was no difference in the preference of a SB water source to unsupplemented water. During the period of day with the most severe ruminal pH depression, the lactating dairy cows subjected to SARA increased their total water intake. PMID:15328239

  2. Effect of Increased Water Intake on Urinary DNA Adduct Levels and Mutagenicity in Smokers: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Buendia Jimenez, Inmaculada; Richardot, Pascaline; Picard, Pascaline; Lepicard, Eve M.; De Meo, Michel; Talaska, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    The association between fluid intake and bladder cancer risk remains controversial. Very little is known about to which extent the amount of water intake influences the action of excreting toxics upon the urinary system. This proof of concept trial investigates the effect of water intake on mutagenesis in smokers, a high risk population for bladder cancer. Methods. Monocentric randomized controlled trial. Inclusion Criteria. Male subjects aged 2045–45 y/o, smokers, and small drinkers (24-hour urinary volume <1 L and osmolality >700 mOsmol/kg). Outcomes. 4-ABP DNA adducts formation in exfoliated bladder cells in 24-hour urine collection and urinary mutagenicity in 24-hour urine. Test Group. Subjects consumed 1.5 L daily of the study product (EVIAN) on top of their usual water intake for 50 days. Control Group. Subjects continued their usual lifestyle habits. Results. 65 subjects were randomized. Mean age was 30 y/o and mean cigarettes per day were 20. A slight decrease in adducts formation was observed between baseline and last visit but no statistically significant difference was demonstrated between the groups. Urinary mutagenicity significantly decreased. The study shows that increasing water intake decreases urinary mutagenicity. It is not confirmed by urinary adducts formation. Further research would be necessary. PMID:26357419

  3. An economic analysis of community-level fast food prices and individual-level fast food intake: longitudinal effects

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2011-01-01

    Background While dietary intake is shaped by cost, there is minimal research on the association between community-level food prices and dietary intake. Methods We used nationally representative, longitudinal data to examine how community-level food price variation was associated with individual-level fast food intake by race/ethnicity and income across waves II (1996) and III (2001–02) of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=11,088) from 158 baseline and 363 follow-up US counties. Results Negative binomial regression models predicting the number of fast food meals per week show strong relationships between fast food consumption and prices of fast food and soda that varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We found relatively stronger association between food prices and fast food intake for males and relatively greater price sensitivity for soda versus burgers. In the group with strongest associations (black males), a 20% increase in price of soda was associated with a decrease of a 0.25 visits to a fast food restaurant per week. Conclusions Economic incentives may be an effective mechanism to address fast food intake in an age group at high risk for obesity. PMID:21852178

  4. Food intake in healthy young adults: effects of time pressure and social factors.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, Jim; Bailey, Laura; Tomlinson, Faye; Edwards, Benjamin; Atkinson, Greg; Reilly, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Some factors influencing food intake and subjective responses to meals were assessed in 2 groups (n=40 and n=36) of healthy university students. Both groups were studied for 6 days and included both "structured" and "unstructured" times. A questionnaire was completed by all subjects at 3 h intervals while awake. The questionnaires asked the subjects to state the factors that led them to choose to eat or not to eat a meal in the previous 3 h. If they ate a meal, they were required to describe the type of meal eaten and their responses to it-their hunger before it, their enjoyment of the meal itself, and their degree of satisfaction afterwards. Subjects were also asked to describe the type of meal that they would like to have eaten (the desired meal) in the absence of any restraints due to time pressure, cost, and so on. In the first group, 3 "structured" (working) and 3 "unstructured" (rest) days were chosen. Consistant with our previous studies, structured days, as compared to unstructured days, were associated with smaller meals and less positive subjective responses to them. Also, the meals that were eaten were often smaller than those that were desired, or were even missed altogether, due to time pressure. Not only were the meals eaten on unstructured days larger and rated, to by the subjects more positively, but also there was an additional positive effect if the meal played a social role. In the second group, 6 days were chosen, during which there were structured and unstructured 3 h periods. Many of the findings (with regard to reasons for eating or not eating a meal, and the effect of meal size upon subjective responses to it, for example) were the same as in the first group. However, the effect of structured vs. unstructured 3 h periods was significantly less marked than the effect of structured vs. unstructured days that had been found in the first group, and effects due to social factors and time pressure were less reliably present. The results indicate

  5. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  6. Effects of Excess Energy Intake on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jing; Xi, Chao; Huang, Xiuqing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy intake correlates with the development of metabolic disorders. However, different energy-dense foods have different effects on metabolism. To compare the effects of a high-fat diet, a high-fructose diet and a combination high-fat/high-fructose diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, male C57BL/6 mice were fed with one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow; standard diet and access to fructose water; a high fat diet; and a high fat diet with fructose water. After 3 months of feeding, the high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups showed significantly increased body weights, accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; however, the high-fructose group was not different from the control group. All three energy-dense groups showed significantly higher visceral fat weights, total cholesterol concentrations, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with the control group. Assays of basal metabolism showed that the respiratory quotient of the high-fat, the high-fructose, and the high-fat/high-fructose groups decreased compared with the control group. The present study confirmed the deleterious effect of high energy diets on body weight and metabolism, but suggested that the energy efficiency of the high-fructose diet was much lower than that of the high-fat diet. In addition, fructose supplementation did not worsen the detrimental effects of high-fat feeding alone on metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26745179

  7. Effects of Excess Energy Intake on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiuqing; Cui, Ju; Gong, Huan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2016-01-01

    Excess energy intake correlates with the development of metabolic disorders. However, different energy-dense foods have different effects on metabolism. To compare the effects of a high-fat diet, a high-fructose diet and a combination high-fat/high-fructose diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, male C57BL/6 mice were fed with one of four different diets for 3 months: standard chow; standard diet and access to fructose water; a high fat diet; and a high fat diet with fructose water. After 3 months of feeding, the high-fat and the combined high-fat/high-fructose groups showed significantly increased body weights, accompanied by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance; however, the high-fructose group was not different from the control group. All three energy-dense groups showed significantly higher visceral fat weights, total cholesterol concentrations, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with the control group. Assays of basal metabolism showed that the respiratory quotient of the high-fat, the high-fructose, and the high-fat/high-fructose groups decreased compared with the control group. The present study confirmed the deleterious effect of high energy diets on body weight and metabolism, but suggested that the energy efficiency of the high-fructose diet was much lower than that of the high-fat diet. In addition, fructose supplementation did not worsen the detrimental effects of high-fat feeding alone on metabolism in C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26745179

  8. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour. PMID:26210606

  9. The effect of pelleting on the voluntary intake and digestibility of leaf and stem fractions of three grasses.

    PubMed

    Laredo, M A; Minson, D J

    1975-03-01

    1. Leaf is eaten in greater quantities than stem of similar digestibility. To determine whether this difference is caused by physical or chemical factors, leaf and stem fractions from Digitaria decumbens, Chloris gayana and Setaria splendida were fed ad lib, to sheep in the chopped and pelleted forms. Pellets were made from leaf and stem which had been ground through a screen with 3 mm holes. All sheep received a protein and mineral supplement. 2. Voluntary intake of chopped leaf was 34 percent higher than that of the chopped stem fraction (40-3 and 30-0 g/kg body-weight 0-75 respectively, P smaller than 0.01) although dry matter digestibility ratios were similar (0-478 and 0-450 respectively, P greater than 0-05). The higher intake of leaf was associated with a larger surface area (13 400 and 5200 mm2/g for chopped leaf and stem respectively), lower bulk density (60 and 180 kg/m3 respectively) and lower neutral-detergent fibre (706 and 724 g/kg respectively), acid-detergent fibre (383 and 413 g/kg respectively) and lignin (42 and 59 g/kg respectively) contents. Chopped leaf was retained in the reticulo-rumen for a shorter time than the stem fraction (19.9 and 26.4 h respectively). 3. Grinding and pelleting increased the voluntary intake of the leaf fraction by 88 percent and the stem fraction by 60 percent. This increased voluntary intake caused by grinding and pelleting was not accompanied by any significant changes in the chemical composition of the diet. Grinding and pelleting reduced the time that the food was retained in the reticulo-rumen and this change appeared sufficient to account for the observed increases in voluntary intake. 4. It was concluded that the higher intake of the leaf fraction of grasses is caused by differences in retention time of food in the reticulo-rumen. These differences in retention time are caused by differences in physical properties and not chemical composition.

  10. Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety in vital community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Ziylan, Canan; Kremer, Stefanie; Eerens, Jessie; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal.

  11. Effects of ambient temperature and soybean meal supplementation on intake and digestion of two sheep breeds differing in mature size.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, A L; Cone, J W; Fontes, P; Dias-da-Silva, A A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the intake and digestive physiology of mature ewes of two breeds--Ile-de-France (mature weight: 75-80 kg) and Churra-da-Terra-Quente (CTQ; mature weight: 45-50 kg)--and evaluate the effects of ambient temperature and protein supplementation in the comparison. The temperature (25 °C vs. 11 °C) and soybean meal supplementation (150 g/kg of ingested hay on dry matter basis vs. unsupplemented control) were evaluated in 48 adult ewes of two breeds fed hay ad libitum and at a restricted level of intake. The intake, digestibility, rumen pH and NH(3)-N, rumen outflow rates, faeces particle size and thyroid hormones levels were measured. These hormones can be related with gastrointestinal motility, thus explaining rumen outflow rate patterns. Dry matter intake per kg of body weight was higher in CTQ ewes (p < 0.05). This breed also exhibited lower organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibility (p < 0.001) and higher solid (p < 0.001) and liquid (p < 0.01) rumen outflow rates irrespective of intake level, supplementation or temperature. Rumen pH remained above 6.6 in all treatments. NH(3)-N rumen content was similar (p > 0.05) when breeds were fed only hay. There was no breed effect (p > 0.05) on faeces particle size. Triiodothyronine was not affected (p > 0.05) by breed and thyroxine was higher (p < 0.10) in the CTQ breed but only at the lower temperatures (breed × temperature, p < 0.05). Ile-de-France sheep showed a lack of adaptation to lower temperatures. This study suggests that the native CTQ breed fulfils its metabolic needs by having a higher intake and inherits faster flow through the gastrointestinal tract, as a result, its digestive ability is diminished.

  12. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  13. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects. PMID:27442225

  14. Effects of Carbohydrate Intake Before and During An Ice Hockey Game on Blood and Muscle Energy Substrates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Clermont; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study of the effect of a supplemental carbohydrate intake for seven elite ice hockey players before and during a game demonstrated that the supplement could result in less glycogen usage per distance skated, which had important implications for athletes who may participate in more than one game a day. (Author/CB)

  15. Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: assess the effect of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents’ motivation to eat and their energy intake. Methods Participants (n¼103; M age¼13.6 years) were either ostracized or included when playing a computer game, Cyberball. Next, they wrote about their friend...

  16. Reducing effect of a combination of Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus extracts on food intake and glycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Fantini, Noemi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Riva, Antonella; Bombardelli, Ezio; Morazzoni, Paolo; Carai, Mauro A M

    2013-02-01

    Extracts from Phaseolus vulgaris and Cynara scolymus may reduce food intake and/or postprandial glycemia. This study investigated the effect of standardized extracts of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus and their combination on food intake and glycemia in rats. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts, and their 1:2 combination, were administered acutely to rats (a) given access to regular food and water, (b) given access to regular food, water, and a chocolate-flavored beverage, or (c) infused with a starch bolus. P. vulgaris extract and the combination produced comparable reductions in intake of regular food and chocolate-flavored beverage; conversely, C. scolymus extract was ineffective on both parameters. P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts additively contributed to the reducing effect of the combination on glycemic rise. These results suggest that a mixture of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts is preferable over each single extract, as it combines the anorectic effect of the P. vulgaris extract with the hypoglycemic effect of both extracts. These data support the recent clinical use of the combination of P. vulgaris and C. scolymus extracts in the control of appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia and represent a successful example of translational research in the nutraceutical field.

  17. Effect of black tea intake on blood cholesterol concentrations in individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia: A diet-controlled randomized trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Habitual intake of black tea has predominantly been associated with relatively lower serum cholesterol concentrations in observational studies. However, clinical trials evaluating the potential effects of black tea on serum cholesterol have had inconsistent results. These mixed results could be expl...

  18. Metabolizable energy intake effects on tympanic temperature and ADG of steers finished in southern Chile during summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 24 red Angus steers (BW = 431.16 ± 10.44) were used to assess the effect of metabolizable energy intake (MEI) on ADG and tympanic temperature (TT) during the summer time in southern Chile. Steers were sorted by BW (lighter or heavier) and allocated in 4 pens (6 head/pen) equipped with a C...

  19. Temporal Consequences, Message Framing, and Consideration of Future Consequences: Persuasion Effects on Adult Fruit Intake Intention and Resolve.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Budding, Jeen

    2016-08-01

    Message framing is a persuasive strategy that has seen mixed evidence for promoting fruit intake intentions, potentially because framed messages for fruit intake have not (a) explicitly compared short-term consequences versus long-term consequences, (b) considered individual-level differences in time perspective, and (c) used alternative measures of fruit intake intentions. In the present online study, the effects of persuasive messages created from temporal context (short term vs. long term) and message frame (gain framed vs. loss framed) were investigated on fruit intake intentions and resolve among a sample of Dutch adults who were categorized as either present oriented or future oriented. For intention and resolve, results showed a significant Type of Frame × Type of Temporal Context interaction, such that gain-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with long-term consequences and loss-framed messages were more persuasive when combined with short-term consequences. The effect sizes for these differences were similar for resolve and intention, but only differences for intentions were significant. No other effects were found. These results demonstrate that message framing theory may usefully consider the inclusion of temporal context of outcomes and alternative motivation measures to maximize their persuasive effects.

  20. Effects of dairy slurry application and bale moisture concentration on voluntary intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage by sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy slurry is used commonly as a fertilizer in agriculture. However, residual effects of slurry application on intake and digestibility of alfalfa silage from subsequent harvests are not well known. The objective of this study was to determine if moisture concentration of alfalfa silage and timing...

  1. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  2. Effect of Task-Centered Instructional Programs on Hypertensives' Ability to Achieve and Maintain Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Karen V.; Sullivan, Patricia L.

    This study sought to determine the effectiveness of systematically designed instructional programs in helping adult hypertensives to achieve and maintain dietary sodium intake. Sixty-six subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups: task-centered instruction; task-centered instruction plus goal-setting and self-monitoring; or control.…

  3. The effect of level of feed intake on the pharmacokinetic disposition of oxfendazole in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ali, D N; Hennessy, D R

    1995-01-01

    Oxfendazole (OFZ) containing a trace of [14C]-OFZ was administered intraruminally and intravenously to sheep fitted with rumen and abomasal cannulae and which were being fed 800 and 400 g of 50:50 lucerne:wheaten chaff daily. The [14C] was extensively associated with rumen particulate digesta, the shorter residence time of digesta in sheep on high compared to low feed intake reduced the duration of OFZ absorption. Abomasal fluid flow was greater in sheep on high than low intake and was attributed to increased gastric secretions. At high intake a greater proportion of the [14C] dose flowed from the abomasum in digesta fluid, but its residence time in the abomasum was of shorter duration compared with low intake. The more rapid passage of digesta through the gastrointestinal tract in the former sheep reduced the duration for drug desorption from particulate material and absorption into the bloodstream. In these high intake sheep and availability of [14C]-compounds in plasma was lower and more rapidly cleared than in sheep on low feed intake. Concomitant with the reduced absorption a greater proportion of the dose was excreted in faeces, and a lower proportion in the urine of sheep on high compared with low feed intake. The extensive association of OFZ and its metabolites with rumen digesta, is a principal determinant of OFZ kinetics.

  4. Effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight women

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli; Cetin, Cansu; Besler, H. Tanju

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of smaller plates to control food intake is a commonly recommended strategy for restricting energy intake, despite conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not three different sizes of plates influence energy intake during a multi-itemed buffet meal in normal weight women. SUBJECTS/METHODS This was a cross-over study conducted on 37 female participants aged 19-25 years with normal BMI levels. Participants were recruited from Hacettepe University and the surrounding community. On experimental days, participants ate a standard breakfast and were then randomly assigned to eat lunch using a small (19 cm), medium (23 cm), or large (28 cm) diameter plate. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores on sensory and satiety outcomes were measured for all meals. Energy and macronutrient intakes during lunch were recorded. RESULTS There was no evidence that use of a smaller plate size reduced energy or specific macronutrient intake during the free choice lunch meal. Multiple visits to the serving table were not associated with energy or macronutrient intake. Plate size did not affect VAS scores during the test days. CONCLUSIONS Plate size did not influence energy intake, meal composition, or palatability in normal weight women during a multi-itemed open buffet lunch. Studies in natural settings at the population level are needed to clarify current outcomes.

  5. Effect of plate size on meal energy intake in normal weight women

    PubMed Central

    Akyol, Asli; Cetin, Cansu; Besler, H. Tanju

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Use of smaller plates to control food intake is a commonly recommended strategy for restricting energy intake, despite conflicting results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether or not three different sizes of plates influence energy intake during a multi-itemed buffet meal in normal weight women. SUBJECTS/METHODS This was a cross-over study conducted on 37 female participants aged 19-25 years with normal BMI levels. Participants were recruited from Hacettepe University and the surrounding community. On experimental days, participants ate a standard breakfast and were then randomly assigned to eat lunch using a small (19 cm), medium (23 cm), or large (28 cm) diameter plate. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores on sensory and satiety outcomes were measured for all meals. Energy and macronutrient intakes during lunch were recorded. RESULTS There was no evidence that use of a smaller plate size reduced energy or specific macronutrient intake during the free choice lunch meal. Multiple visits to the serving table were not associated with energy or macronutrient intake. Plate size did not affect VAS scores during the test days. CONCLUSIONS Plate size did not influence energy intake, meal composition, or palatability in normal weight women during a multi-itemed open buffet lunch. Studies in natural settings at the population level are needed to clarify current outcomes. PMID:27698960

  6. The Effect of Selected Intervention Tactics on Self-Sufficient Behaviors of the Homeless: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moroz, Pauline

    A sample of 24 voluntary participants in a federally funded vocational training and placement program for homeless people in El Paso, Texas, was studied to identify specific interventions that increase self-sufficient behaviors of homeless individuals. Case study data were collected from orientation discussions, career counseling sessions, and…

  7. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake.

    PubMed

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David M; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; DiLeone, Ralph J

    2014-02-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake.

  8. Effects of different lipid sources on intake, digestibility and purine derivatives in hair lambs.

    PubMed

    Pereira, E S; Pereira, M W F; Arruda, P C L; Cabral, L S; Oliveira, R L; Mizubuti, I Y; Pinto, A P; Campos, A C N; Gadelha, C R F; Carneiro, M S S

    2016-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different lipid sources on the nutrient intake, digestibility and purine derivative excretion of lambs. Thirty-five 60-day-old, male, non-castrated Santa Ines lambs with an initial average body weight (BW) of 13.00 ± 1.80 kg were used in a randomized complete block design with seven blocks and five treatments. The experimental treatments consisted of a control diet without supplemental lipids and four test diets with different lipid supplements, selected according to the degree of ruminal protection from hydrogenation: supplementation, being supplementation with whole cottonseed (WC), supplementation with cashew nut meal (CNM), supplementation with both cottonseed and cashew nut meal (WC-CNM) and supplementation with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (Ca-LCFA). The lambs were slaughtered after reaching 28 kg average BW for each treatment. The ether extract intake (EEI) was higher (p < 0.01) for the lipid supplemented compared to control diet lambs. Supplementation with WC decreased the digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and total carbohydrate (TC) (p < 0.01), whereas supplementation with CNM, WC-CNM and Ca-LCFA reduced non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC) digestibility (p < 0.01). The ether extract (EE) digestibility coefficient was higher with CNM, followed by Ca-LCFA and WC, when compared to WC-CNM and control diets. Nitrogen balance (NB) was not influenced (p > 0.05) by the different lipid sources. A lower purine derivative (PD) excretion and thus lower microbial protein supply (MPS) was observed for animals supplemented with Ca-LCFA (p < 0.01) compared to the WC-CNM and control diets. In conclusion, WC, CNM and WC-CNM supplementation did not have negative effects on MPS, although negative effects have been observed on nutrient digestibility. PMID:26854276

  9. Type D personality and dietary intake: The mediating effects of coping style.

    PubMed

    Booth, Lorna; Williams, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between Type D and dietary intake and to determine whether this relationship is mediated by coping. In a cross-sectional study, 187 healthy participants completed a self-report questionnaire measuring Type D personality, dietary intake and coping. Results showed that Type D was associated with maladaptive coping and significantly less healthy food intake, including more consumption of fat and sugar, and significantly less consumption of fruit and vegetables. Regression analyses showed that this relationship was partially mediated by coping. The results suggest that Type D personality may represent a risk factor for unhealthy eating.

  10. Stopping to food can reduce intake. Effects of stimulus-specificity and individual differences in dietary restraint☆

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Natalia S.; Verbruggen, Frederick; Morrison, Sinead; Adams, Rachel C.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Overeating in our food-rich environment is a key contributor to obesity. Computerised response-inhibition training could improve self-control in individuals who overeat. Evidence suggests that training people to inhibit motor responses to specific food pictures can reduce the subsequent choice and consumption of those foods. Here we undertook three experiments using the stop-signal task to examine the effects of food and non-food related stop-training on immediate snack food consumption. The experiments examined whether training effects were stimulus-specific, whether they were influenced by the comparator (control) group, and whether they were moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. Experiment 1 revealed lower intake of one food following stop- vs. double- (two key-presses) response training to food pictures. Experiment 2 offered two foods, one of which was not associated with stopping, to enable within- and between-subjects comparisons of intake. A second control condition required participants to ignore signals and respond with one key-press to all pictures. There was no overall effect of training on intake in Experiment 2, but there was a marginally significant moderation by dietary restraint: Restrained eaters ate significantly less signal-food following stop- relative to double-response training. Experiment 3 revealed that stop- vs. double-response training to non-food pictures had no effect on food intake. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest some stimulus-specific effects of stop-training on food intake that may be moderated by individual differences in dietary restraint. PMID:25447023

  11. Effects of estradiol on food intake and meal patterns for diets that differ in flavor and fat content.

    PubMed

    Butera, Peter C; Wojcik, Danielle M; Clough, Shannon J

    2010-01-12

    Apart from the well known inhibitory effects of estradiol on food intake, meal size, and body weight in female rats that have been documented over the past thirty years, a more recent report presents the opposite finding; that a large dose of estradiol can increase food intake and weight gain in gonadally intact female rats presented with a palatable diet. The purpose of the present experiment was to further examine this hypothesis by evaluating the ability of estradiol to influence feeding behavior in ovariectomized rats presented with diets that differ in flavor and fat content. Female rats were given a cyclic regimen of estradiol benzoate treatment (5.0 or 20.0 microg) or the oil vehicle and were presented with the standard chow diet or a diet with a higher fat content and chocolate flavor. Food intake, meal size, and meal number were monitored three days after the first injection of estradiol or oil. Compared to the chow diet, food intake increased when animals had access to the chocolate/fat diet during the vehicle treatment condition. Both doses of estradiol significantly decreased food intake, meal size, and body weight gain when animals were presented with either the standard chow diet or the chocolate/fat diet. These findings indicate that estradiol does not stimulate the intake of a palatable diet in ovariectomized rats, and suggest that previous results showing that estradiol enhanced eating and weight gain stemmed from a disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis when intact females received a large dose of exogenous estradiol.

  12. Effects of different concentrations of sugarcane alcohol on food intake and nutritional status of male and female periadolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves de Orange, Luciana; Bion, Francisca Martins; Rolim de Lima, Cybelle

    2009-03-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of food and alcohol intake on the nutritional and metabolic status of male and female periadolescent rats submitted to single (15%) and multiple (10%, 20%, 30%) concentrations of hydroalcoholic solutions of sugar-based alcohol associated with a feed mixture. Thirty-six periadolescent Wistar rats were used and randomly arranged into three groups: Group A (control; 0% ethanol; six males and six females), Group B (15% ethanol; six males and six females), and Group C (10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol; six males and six females). Food consumption, body weight, water intake (mL), ethanol intake (g/kg/day), ethanol preference in relation to water and different concentrations, and serum biochemical dosages (glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein fraction, triglycerides, cholesterol/HDL [CT/HDL], albumin) were analyzed. Males from Group C ingested more feed than females, which consumed reducing amounts throughout the weeks studied. Males also had heavier body weight, which increased throughout the experimental period. The animals ingested more water (females ingested more than males) in the first experimental week. Group C had a higher ethanol intake and greater preference for ethanol over water in both genders than Group B, which decreased over the subsequent weeks. Serum glucose was lower in Group A, whereas the CT/HDL ratio was lower in Group C. These findings allow the conclusion that nutritional and metabolic impact resulting from alcohol intake is different between genders and between the different forms in which the drug is offered. It is important to warn the population about the concentrations of alcohol intake, which may influence the growth and development of adolescents, thereby compromising their quality of life.

  13. Intraduodenal milk protein concentrate augments the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of DPP-IV inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Olivos, Diana R.; McGrath, Lauren E.; Turner, Christopher A.; Montaubin, Orianne; Mietlicki-Baase, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to food entering into the gastrointestinal tract. GLP-1-based pharmaceuticals improve blood glucose regulation and may hold promise for obesity treatment, as GLP-1 drugs reduce food intake and body weight in humans and animals. In an effort to improve GLP-1 pharmacotherapies, we focused our attention on macronutrients that, when present in the gastrointestinal tract, may enhance GLP-1 secretion and improve glycemic regulation and food intake suppression when combined with systemic administration of sitagliptin, a pharmacological inhibitor of DPP-IV (enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation). In particular, previous data suggest that specific macronutrient constituents found in dairy foods may act as potent secretagogues for GLP-1 and therefore may potentially serve as an adjunct dietary therapy in combination with sitagliptin. To directly test this hypothesis, rats received intraperitoneal injections of sitagliptin (6 mg/kg) or saline vehicle followed by intraduodenal infusions of either milk protein concentrate (MPC; 80/20% casein/whey; 4 kcal), soy protein (nondairy control infusate; 4 kcal), or 0.9% NaCl. Food intake was assessed 30 min postinfusion. In separate studies, regulation of blood glucose was examined via a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/kg) following identical sitagliptin treatment and intraduodenal nutrient infusions. Collectively, results show that intraduodenal MPC, but not soy protein, significantly enhances both the food intake suppression and improved control of blood glucose produced by sitagliptin. These data support the hypothesis that dietary intake of dairy protein may be beneficial as an adjunct behavioral therapy to enhance the glycemic and food intake suppressive effects of GLP-1-based pharmacotherapies. PMID:24352410

  14. The effect of extended grazing time and supplementary forage on the dry matter intake and foraging behaviour of cattle kept under traditional african grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Smith, D G; Cuddeford, D; Pearson, R A

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out at Alemaya University in Ethiopia to investigate the effect of night kraaling on the dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and foraging behaviour of Ogaden cattle. Three groups of four animals were given either 7 h access to pasture per day, simulating traditional grazing (TG) practice; extended grazing (EG) access for 11 h per day; or traditional grazing access plus a nocturnal forage supplement (TF). Live weight gain, DMI and foraging behaviour were measured during the late dry season (EP1) and the wet season (EP2). None of the treatments had any significant effect on either DMI or LWG during EP1 or EP2. Extending pasture access time from 7 h to 11 h did not significantly increase the amount time spent grazing, but grazing intensity was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced during the non-common grazing hours. Step rate was significantly lower (p < 0.01) during EP2 than during EP1 and bites per step were significantly higher (p < 0.001) during EP2 than EP1, indicating that animals had to travel a shorter distance before selecting material to eat during the wet season (EP2). Providing supplementary forage (TF) had no significant effect on any measured parameter. In this study neither of the two low-cost methods (EG and TF) of improving access to forage had any beneficial effect on cattle productivity. It is concluded that, under the prevailing conditions, the traditional grazing practices of this part of Ethiopia do provide sufficient pasture access time to achieve daily voluntary food intake.

  15. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, Charlotte A.; Rogers, Peter J.; Etchells, Katie A.; Houstoun, Katie V. E.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N = 60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered. PMID:24025548

  16. The effects of food-related attentional bias training on appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Etchells, Katie A; Houstoun, Katie V E; Munafò, Marcus R

    2013-12-01

    Obese and overweight individuals show a marked attentional bias to food cues. Food-related attentional bias may therefore play a causal role in over-eating. To test this possibility, the current study experimentally manipulated attentional bias towards food using a modified version of the visual probe task in which cake-stationery item image pairs were presented for 500 ms each. Participants (N=60) were either trained to attend to images of cake, trained to avoid images of cake, or assigned to a no-training control group. Hunger was measured before and after the training. Post-training, participants were given the opportunity to consume cake as well as a non-target food (crisps) that was not included in the training. There was weak evidence of an increase in attentional bias towards cake in the attend group only. We found no selective effects of the training on hunger or food intake, and little evidence for any gender differences. Our study suggests that attentional bias for food is particularly ingrained and difficult to modify. It also represents a first step towards elucidating the potential functional significance of food-related attentional biases and the lack of behavioural effects is broadly consistent with single-session attentional training studies from the addiction literature. An alternative hypothesis, that attentional bias represents a noncausal proxy for the motivational impact of appetitive stimuli, is considered.

  17. The Effects of Social Contact on Drug Use: Behavioral Mechanisms Controlling Drug Intake

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Justin C.; Smith, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    The social environment plays a critical role in determining the likelihood that an individual will use drugs or will develop a drug use disorder. Recent evidence obtained from preclinical studies reveals that proximal social factors (i.e., those factors that are immediately present at the time of drug exposure) exert a particularly strong influence on both drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. These studies are advancing our understanding of the role of the social environment in drug use by showing that the rewarding and reinforcing effects of drugs depend on (1) whether other individuals are immediately present and (2) whether those individuals are also using drugs. Furthermore, the preclinical literature examining the role of social learning in behavior maintained by nondrug reinforcers reveals a number of behavioral mechanisms by which social contact may influence drug use, as well as potential ways the social environment may be modified to prevent or reduce drug use. Additional research is needed to determine potential age and sex differences in the effects of social contact on drug use, to determine the generality of the current findings across different pharmacological classes of drugs, and to determine the role of social contact on drug intake during different transitional stages of drug use disorders; however, enough evidence now exists to begin implementing social interventions in clinical and at-risk populations. PMID:24188170

  18. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, rate and variation in feed intake, and acid-base balance in feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Abney, C S; Vasconcelos, J T; McMeniman, J P; Keyser, S A; Wilson, K R; Vogel, G J; Galyean, M L

    2007-11-01

    Two experiments evaluated effects of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on performance, intake patterns, and acid-base balance of feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 360 crossbred steers (Brangus, British, and British x Continental breeding; initial BW = 545 kg) were used in a study with a 3 x 3 factorial design to study the effects of dose [0, 100, or 200 mg/(steer x d) of RAC] and duration (28, 35, or 42 d) of feeding of RAC in a randomized complete block design (9 treatments, 8 pens/treatment). No dose x duration interactions were detected (P > 0.10). As RAC dose increased, final BW (FBW; P = 0.01), ADG (P < 0.01), and G:F (P < 0.01) increased linearly. As duration of feeding increased, ADG increased quadratically (P = 0.04), with tendencies for quadratic effects for FBW (P = 0.06), DMI (P = 0.07), and G:F (P = 0.09). Hot carcass weight increased linearly (P = 0.02) as dose of RAC increased. Thus, increasing the dose of RAC from 0 to 200 mg/(steer x d) and the duration of feeding from 28 to 42 d improved feedlot performance, although quadratic responses for duration of feeding indicated little improvement as the duration was extended from 35 to 42 d. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred beef steers (BW = 593 kg) were used in a completely random design to evaluate the effects of RAC [0 or 200 mg/(steer x d) for 30 d; 6 steers/treatment] on rate of intake, daily variation in intake patterns, and acid-base balance. To assess intake patterns, absolute values of daily deviations in feed delivered to each steer relative to the total quantity of feed delivered were analyzed as repeated measures. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in feedlot performance, urine pH, blood gas measurements, or variation in intake patterns between RAC and control cattle, but steers fed RAC had increased (P = 0.04) LM area, decreased (P = 0.03) yield grade, and increased (P < 0.10) time to consume 50 and 75% of daily intake relative to control steers. Our results suggest that feeding RAC for 35 d at 200 mg

  19. Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Poorkasegaran, Simin; Yansari, Asadollah Teimouri

    2014-01-13

    To investigate the effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance, nine lactating Holstein dairy cows (day in milk= 100±21 d; body weight=645.7 ± 26.5 kg) were allotted to a 3 × 3 Latin square design at three 23-d periods. The three treatments included 34.91% (B), 18.87% (BC), and 18.86% (BB) barley that in treatment B was partially replaced with only corn or corn plus beet pulp in treatments BC and BB, respectively. The concentration of starch and neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate varied (22.2, 20.2, and 14.5; 13.6, 15.9, and 20.1% of DM in treatments B, BC, and BB, respectively). Cows in treatment BB showed a higher DMI and improved digestibility of DM, NDF, and EE compared with treatments B or BC. Ruminal pH was higher in cows fed on BB (6.83) compared with those that received B or BC treatments (6.62 and 6.73, respectively). A lower proportion of propionate accompanied the higher pH in the BB group; however, a greater proportion of acetate and acetate: propionate ratio was observed compared with cows fed either on the B or BC diet. Moreover, cows fed on the BB diet showed the lowest ruminal passage rate and longest ruminal and total retention time. Eating time did not differ among treatments, rumination time was greater among cows fed on the BB diet compared with the others, whereas total chewing activity was greater than those fed on BC, but similar to those fed on B. The treatments showed no effect on milk yield. Partially replacing barley with corn or beet pulp resulted in an increase in milk fat and a lower protein concentration. Changing dietary NFC with that of a different degradability thus altered intake, chewing activity, ruminal environment, retention time or passage rate, and lactation performance. The results of this study showed that beet pulp with a higher NDF and a detergent-soluble carbohydrate or pectin established a more consistent ruminal mat than barley and corn, thus resulting in

  20. Effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance of Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of different sources of carbohydrates on intake, digestibility, chewing, and performance, nine lactating Holstein dairy cows (day in milk= 100±21 d; body weight=645.7 ± 26.5 kg) were allotted to a 3 × 3 Latin square design at three 23-d periods. The three treatments included 34.91% (B), 18.87% (BC), and 18.86% (BB) barley that in treatment B was partially replaced with only corn or corn plus beet pulp in treatments BC and BB, respectively. The concentration of starch and neutral detergent soluble carbohydrate varied (22.2, 20.2, and 14.5; 13.6, 15.9, and 20.1% of DM in treatments B, BC, and BB, respectively). Cows in treatment BB showed a higher DMI and improved digestibility of DM, NDF, and EE compared with treatments B or BC. Ruminal pH was higher in cows fed on BB (6.83) compared with those that received B or BC treatments (6.62 and 6.73, respectively). A lower proportion of propionate accompanied the higher pH in the BB group; however, a greater proportion of acetate and acetate: propionate ratio was observed compared with cows fed either on the B or BC diet. Moreover, cows fed on the BB diet showed the lowest ruminal passage rate and longest ruminal and total retention time. Eating time did not differ among treatments, rumination time was greater among cows fed on the BB diet compared with the others, whereas total chewing activity was greater than those fed on BC, but similar to those fed on B. The treatments showed no effect on milk yield. Partially replacing barley with corn or beet pulp resulted in an increase in milk fat and a lower protein concentration. Changing dietary NFC with that of a different degradability thus altered intake, chewing activity, ruminal environment, retention time or passage rate, and lactation performance. The results of this study showed that beet pulp with a higher NDF and a detergent-soluble carbohydrate or pectin established a more consistent ruminal mat than barley and corn, thus resulting in

  1. Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake, and body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Rolls, B J

    1991-04-01

    The sweet taste of aspartame, saccharin, and acesulfame-K has been reported to increase ratings of hunger and, after saccharin consumption, to increase food intake. However, most investigators have found that aspartame consumption is associated with decreased or unchanged ratings of hunger. Even if aspartame consumption increases ratings of hunger in some situations, it apparently has little impact on the controls of food intake and body weight. Aspartame has not been found to increase food intake; indeed, both short-term and long-term studies have shown that consumption of aspartame-sweetened foods or drinks is associated with either no change or a reduction in food intake. Preliminary clinical trials suggest that aspartame may be useful aid in a complete diet-and-exercise program or in weight maintenance. Intense sweeteners have never been found to cause weight gain in humans.

  2. Fruit and vegetable intake and eating behaviors mediate the effect of a randomized text-message based weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Kolodziejczyk, Julia K.; Adams, Marc A.; Patrick, Kevin; Marshall, Simon J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction We hypothesized that fruit/vegetable intake and eating behaviors mediate the relationship between experimental condition and weight loss in a randomized trial evaluating a text-message based weight loss program. Methods Overweight/obese individuals from San Diego, CA (N=52 with complete data) were randomly assigned in 2007 into one of two groups for four months: 1) the intervention group that received 2-5 weight management text-messages p/day; 2) the usual-care comparison group. Three 24-hour recalls assessed fruit/vegetable intake change and the Eating Behavior Inventory (EBI) measured change in eating behaviors. Regression path models tested intervention mediation. Results Direct effects of the intervention were found for change in body weight (b=-3.84, R2=0.074), fruit/vegetable intake (b=2.00, R2=0.083), and EBI scores (b=7.15, R2=0.229) (ps < 0.05). The treatment group to weight change path was not statistically significant (b=-0.673, R2=0.208) when fruit/vegetable intake change and EBI score change were specified as intervention mediators in the model. The total indirect effect was 3.17 lbs. indicating that the indirect paths explained 82.6% of the total effect on weight change. Discussion Fruit/vegetable intake and eating behaviors mediated the intervention's effect on weight change. The findings suggest that sending text-messages that promote healthy eating strategies resulted in moderate short-term weight loss. PMID:23085329

  3. Temporal Pattern of Cocaine Intake Determines Tolerance vs Sensitization of Cocaine Effects at the Dopamine Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Calipari, Erin S; Ferris, Mark J; Zimmer, Benjamin A; Roberts, David CS; Jones, Sara R

    2013-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) is responsible for terminating dopamine (DA) signaling and is the primary site of cocaine's reinforcing actions. Cocaine self-administration has been shown previously to result in changes in cocaine potency at the DAT. To determine whether the DAT changes associated with self-administration are due to differences in intake levels or temporal patterns of cocaine-induced DAT inhibition, we manipulated cocaine access to produce either continuous or intermittent elevations in cocaine brain levels. Long-access (LgA, 6 h) and short-access (ShA, 2 h) continuous self-administration produced similar temporal profiles of cocaine intake that were sustained throughout the session; however, LgA had greater intake. ShA and intermittent-access (IntA, 6 h) produced the same intake, but different temporal profiles, with ‘spiking' brain levels in IntA compared with constant levels in ShA. IntA consisted of 5-min access periods alternating with 25-min timeouts, which resulted in bursts of high responding followed by periods of no responding. DA release and uptake, as well as the potency of cocaine for DAT inhibition, were assessed by voltammetry in the nucleus accumbens slices following control, IntA, ShA, and LgA self-administration. Continuous-access protocols (LgA and ShA) did not change DA parameters, but the ‘spiking' protocol (IntA) increased both release and uptake of DA. In addition, high continuous intake (LgA) produced tolerance to cocaine, while ‘spiking' (IntA) produced sensitization, relative to ShA and naive controls. Thus, intake and pattern can both influence cocaine potency, and tolerance seems to be produced by high intake, while sensitization is produced by intermittent temporal patterns of intake. PMID:23719505

  4. The role of sleep duration in the regulation of energy balance: effects on energy intakes and expenditure.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-15

    Short sleep duration and obesity are common occurrence in today's society. An extensive literature from cross-sectional and longitudinal epidemiological studies shows a relationship between short sleep and prevalence of obesity and weight gain. However, causality cannot be inferred from such studies. Clinical intervention studies have examined whether reducing sleep in normal sleepers, typically sleeping 7-9 h/night, can affect energy intake, energy expenditure, and endocrine regulators of energy balance. The aim of this review is to evaluate studies that have assessed food intake, energy expenditure, and leptin and ghrelin levels after periods of restricted and normal sleep. Most studies support the notion that restricting sleep increases food intake, but the effects on energy expenditure are mixed. Differences in methodology and component of energy expenditure analyzed may account for the discrepancies. Studies examining the effects of sleep on leptin and ghrelin have provided conflicting results with increased, reduced, or unchanged leptin and ghrelin levels after restricted sleep compared to normal sleep. Energy balance of study participants and potential sex differences may account for the varied results. Studies should strive for constant energy balance and feeding schedules when assessing the role of sleep on hormonal profile. Although studies suggest that restricting sleep may lead to weight gain via increased food intake, research is needed to examine the impact on energy expenditure and endocrine controls. Also, studies have been of short duration, and there is little knowledge on the reverse question: does increasing sleep duration in short sleepers lead to negative energy balance?

  5. Effect of quantity and route of administration of manganese monoxide on feed intake and serum manganese in ruminants

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.R.; Ammerman, C.B.; Henry, P.R.

    1985-02-01

    The experiment investigated effects of high quantities of manganese and route of administration (diet versus capsule-dosed) on feed intake and blood characteristics in sheep. Twenty-four Florida native or Florida native by St. Croix crossbred wethers, 47 kg initially, were assigned randomly to eight treatments including basal diet supplemented with 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese as a reagent grade manganese monoxide or basal diet plus gelatin capsules containing the equivalent of 0, 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm manganese based on intake of the previous day. Three sheep per treatment were provided feed and tap water for ad libitum intake. Sheep were fed basal diet for 7 days followed by a 21-day experimental period, then placed back on the basal diet for 7 days. Average daily feed intake was reduced by increasing supplemental manganese, regardless of route. Animals dosed by capsule consumed less feed than those administered manganese in the diet. Serum manganese increased as manganese supplementation increased, but route of administration had no effect.

  6. Effect of concurrent saccharin intake on ethanol consumption by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats.

    PubMed

    Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, Maria Elena

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent presentation of a highly palatable saccharin solution on ethanol consumption during the acquisition or maintenance of ethanol drinking by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol (10% v/v) and water under a home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day. After 7 days (acquisition) of ethanol exposure, a third bottle containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) was concomitantly offered for an additional seven consecutive days, and the same process was repeated after 3 months (maintenance) of ethanol exposure. We found that concurrent saccharin intake significantly reduced ethanol intake by UChB rats after 7 days of ethanol exposure indicating that preference for sweet taste tends to override the preference for ethanol. However, the concurrent saccharin presentation to rats after 3 months of stable ethanol consumption did not reduce ethanol intake, whereas their saccharin consumption reached polydipsic-like values. These results support the notion that in UChB rats, a time-dependent sensitization to the rewarding effects of ethanol is developed that may account for the increases in ethanol volition seen following chronic ethanol intake.

  7. Soft drinks with aspartame: effect on subjective hunger, food selection, and food intake of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Black, R M; Tanaka, P; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1991-04-01

    Ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverages has been reported to increase subjective measures of appetite. This study examined the effects of familiar carbonated soft drinks sweetened with aspartame on subjective hunger, energy intake and macronutrient selection at a lunch-time meal. Subjects were 20 normal weight young adult males, classified as either restrained or nonrestrained eaters. Four treatments of carbonated beverages included 280 ml of mineral water, one can of a soft drink (280 ml) consumed in either 2 or 10 minutes, or two cans of a soft drink (560 ml) consumed in 10 minutes, administered at 11:00 a.m. Subjective hunger and food appeal were measured from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m., and food intake data were obtained from a buffet lunch given at 12:00 noon. There were no treatment effects on energy intake, macronutrient selection or food choice at the lunch-time meal, or food appeal, though restrained eaters consumed more than nonrestrained eaters in all four treatment conditions. Consumption of two soft drinks (560 ml, 320 mg aspartame) significantly reduced subjective hunger from 11:05 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. compared to one soft drink (280 ml, 160 mg aspartame) or 280 ml of mineral water. Thus ingestion of soft drinks containing aspartame did not increase short-term subjective hunger or food intake.

  8. Effect of a strict vegan diet on energy and nutrient intakes by Finnish rheumatoid patients.

    PubMed

    Rauma, A L; Nenonen, M; Helve, T; Hänninen, O

    1993-10-01

    Dietary intake data of 43 Finnish rheumatoid arthritis patients were collected using 7-day food records. The subjects were randomized into a control and a vegan diet groups, consisting of 22 and 21 subjects, respectively. The subjects in the vegan diet group received an uncooked vegan diet ('living food') for 3 months, and they were tutored daily by a living-food expert. The subjects in the control group continued their usual diets and received no tutoring. Adherence to the strict vegan diet was assessed on the basis of urinary sodium excretion and by the information on consumption of specific food items (wheatgrass juice and the rejuvelac drink). The use of these drinks was variable, and some boiled vegetables were consumed occasionally. However, only one of the subjects in the vegan diet group lacked a clear decrease in urinary sodium excretion. Rheumatoid patients had lower than recommended intakes of iron, zinc and niacin, and their energy intake was low compared to mean daily energy intake of the healthy Finnish females of the same age. Shifting to the uncooked vegan diet significantly increased the intakes of energy and many nutrients. In spite of the increased energy intake, the group on the vegan diet lost 9% of their body weight during the intervention period, indicating a low availability of energy from the vegan diet. PMID:8269890

  9. Immediate and residual effects of heat stress and restricted intake on milk protein and casein composition and energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Cowley, F C; Barber, D G; Houlihan, A V; Poppi, D P

    2015-04-01

    The effects of heat stress on dairy production can be separated into 2 distinct causes: those effects that are mediated by the reduced voluntary feed intake associated with heat stress, and the direct physiological and metabolic effects of heat stress. To distinguish between these, and identify their effect on milk protein and casein concentration, mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 24) were housed in temperature-controlled chambers and either subjected to heat stress [HS; temperature-humidity index (THI) ~78] or kept in a THI<70 environment and pair-fed with heat-stressed cows (TN-R) for 7 d. A control group of cows was kept in a THI<70 environment with ad libitum feeding (TN-AL). A subsequent recovery period (7 d), with THI<70 and ad libitum feeding followed. Intake accounted for only part of the effects of heat stress. Heat stress reduced the milk protein concentration, casein number, and casein concentration and increased the urea concentration in milk beyond the effects of restriction of intake. Under HS, the proportion in total casein of αS1-casein increased and the proportion of αS2-casein decreased. Because no effect of HS on milk fat or lactose concentration was found, these effects appeared to be the result of specific downregulation of mammary protein synthesis, and not a general reduction in mammary activity. No residual effects were found of HS or TN-R on milk production or composition after THI<70 and ad libitum intake were restored. Heat-stressed cows had elevated blood concentrations of urea and Ca, compared with TN-R and TN-AL. Cows in TN-R had higher serum nonesterified fatty acid concentrations than cows in HS. It was proposed that HS and TN-R cows may mobilize different tissues as endogenous sources of energy.

  10. High potassium intake enhances the inhibitory effect of 11,12-EET on ENaC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Lin, Dao-Hong; Yue, Peng; Jiang, Houli; Gotlinger, Katherine H; Schwartzman, Michal L; Falck, John R; Goli, Mohan; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2010-10-01

    High dietary potassium stimulates the renal expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase 2C23, which metabolizes arachidonic acid (AA). Because the AA metabolite 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) can inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the cortical collecting duct, we tested whether dietary potassium modulates ENaC function. High dietary potassium increased 11,12-EET in the isolated cortical collecting duct, an effect mimicked by inhibiting the angiotensin II type I receptor with valsartan. In patch-clamp experiments, a high potassium intake or treatment with valsartan enhanced AA-induced inhibition of ENaC, an effect mediated by a CYP-epoxygenase-dependent pathway. Moreover, high dietary potassium and valsartan each augmented the inhibitory effect of 11,12-EET on ENaC. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry showed that the rate of EET conversion to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHET) was lower in renal tissue obtained from rats on a high-potassium diet than from those on a control diet, but this was not a result of altered expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). Instead, suppression of sEH activity seemed to be responsible for the 11,12-EET-mediated enhanced inhibition of ENaC in animals on a high-potassium diet. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that 11,12-DHET was a weak inhibitor of ENaC compared with 11,12-EET, whereas 8,9- and 14,15-DHET were not. Furthermore, inhibition of sEH enhanced the 11,12-EET-induced inhibition of ENaC similar to high dietary potassium. In conclusion, high dietary potassium enhances the inhibitory effect of AA and 11,12-EET on ENaC by increasing CYP epoxygenase activity and decreasing sEH activity, respectively.

  11. Intakes of PUFAs were inversely associated with plasma C-reactive protein 12 years later in a middle-aged population with vitamin E intake as an effect modifier.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Touvier, Mathilde; Meunier, Nathalie; Papet, Isabelle; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-11-01

    Although n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered anti-inflammatory components, the role of dietary n-6 PUFAs in inflammation remains controversial. Some mechanistic evidence suggests vitamin E as a potential effect modifier in the relationship between PUFAs and inflammation. Our objectives were to evaluate the long-term associations between dietary intakes of PUFAs and elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and to investigate potential effect modification by vitamin E. Individuals in the placebo group of the SU.VI.MAX trial who had available CRP measurements in 2007-2009 were included in the study (n = 843). Dietary intakes of n-3 PUFAs, n-6 PUFAs, and vitamin E were assessed in 1994-1996 with at least 6 dietary records. The logistic regression OR for elevated CRP (>3 mg/L) and 95% CI were estimated for individual PUFAs and for total n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes. Models were adjusted for sociodemographical, lifestyle, anthropometric, and dietary variables. Interactions with vitamin E intakes were also assessed. Inverse associations were observed between intakes of total n-3 PUFAs [α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), ALA + eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), EPA + docosapentaenoic acid (DPA; 22:5n-3), DPA + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)] and n-6 PUFA [linoleic acid (18:2n-6) + arachidonic acid (20:4n-6)] and elevated CRP (OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 of intake: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77; P-trend = 0.01; and OR 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.70; P-trend = 0.002, respectively). Stratification on vitamin E intakes showed that inverse associations between dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA intakes and elevated CRP were substantial only in individuals with low intakes of vitamin E. Our results supported the contention that intakes of both n-3 and n-6 PUFAs are inversely associated with plasma CRP concentrations. Vitamin E is a potential effect modifier and should therefore be taken into account in such investigations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials

  12. Interactive effect of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype and salt intake on PAI-1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Brown, N J; Murphey, L J; Srikuma, N; Koschachuhanan, N; Williams, G H; Vaughan, D E

    2001-06-01

    Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is associated with increased circulating PAI-1 antigen and increased risk of thrombotic cardiovascular events. A 4G/5G polymorphism located 675 bp upstream from the transcription start site of the PAI-1 gene affects PAI-1 antigen concentrations. To test the hypothesis that PAI-1 4G/5G genotype influences the effect of activation of the RAAS on PAI-1 expression, we measured morning PAI-1 antigen concentrations in 76 subjects with essential hypertension during low (10 mmol/d) and high (200 mmol/d) salt intake. Low salt intake was associated with activation of the RAAS as measured by plasma renin activity (2.3+/-0.2 versus 0.5+/-0.0 ng angiotensin I. mL(-1). h(-1), P<0.001) and aldosterone (529+/-40 versus 145+/-12 pmol/L). PAI-1 antigen concentrations were 17.9+/-2.7, 19.2+/-2.5, and 27.8+/-4.0 ng/mL during high salt intake and 19.2+/-2.7, 21.6+/-2.9, and 38.9+/-7.2 ng/mL during low salt intake in the 5G/5G (n=14), 4G/5G (n=40), and 4G/4G (n=22) groups, respectively. There was a significant effect of both salt intake (F=6.0, P=0.017) and PAI-1 4G/5G genotype (F=7.6, P=0.001) on PAI-1 antigen. More importantly, there was a significant interactive effect (F=7.8, P=0.001) of salt intake and PAI-1 4G/5G genotype on PAI-1 antigen. PAI-1 4G/5G genotype influenced the relationship between serum triglycerides and PAI-1 antigen such that the relationship was significant only in 4G homozygotes during either high (R(2)=0.31, P=0.014) or low (R(2)=0.37, P=0.006) salt intake. This study identifies an important gene-by-environment interaction that may influence cardiovascular morbidity and the response to pharmacological therapies that interrupt the RAAS.

  13. Effect of carbohydrate intake on half-marathon performance of well-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Wood, Clare; Pyne, David B; Telford, D Richard; Saunders, Philo U

    2005-12-01

    Eighteen highly-trained runners ran two half marathons in mild environmental conditions, 3 wk apart, consuming either 426 +/- 227 mL of a flavored placebo drink (PLACEBO) or an equivalent volume of water (386 +/- 185 mL) and a commercial gel (GEL) supplying 1.1 +/- 0.2 g/kg body mass (BM) carbohydrate (CHO). Voluntary consumption of this fluid was associated with a mean BM change of approximately 2.4%. Runners performed better in their second race by 0.9% or 40 s (P = 0.03). Three runners complained of gastrointestinal discomfort in GEL trial, which produced a clear impairment of half-marathon performance by 2.4% or 105 s (P=0.03). The effect of GEL on performance was trivial: time was improvedby 0.3% or 14 s compared with PLACEBO (P = 0.52). Consuming the gel was associated with a 2.4% slower time through the 2 x 200 m feed zone; adding a trivial approximately 2 s to race time. Although benefits to half marathon performance were not detected, the theoretical improvement during 1-h exercise with CHO intake merits further investigation. PMID:16521844

  14. Assessment of the effects of iodine value on fatty acid digestibility, feed intake, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Firkins, J L; Eastridge, M L

    1994-08-01

    Data were pooled from 11 studies evaluating supplemental fat sources differing primarily in degree of saturation (tallow, animal-vegetable fat, vegetable oil, and hydrogenated fats). Data were standardized as proportions of the respective controls to reduce variation among individual studies and were subjected to stepwise multiple regression against the iodine value of fats, the percentage increases of total fatty acids in diets above the respective controls, or the ratio of total C16 to C18 fatty acids in fats (only for hydrogenated fats). Increased iodine value (increasing unsaturation) of fats increased apparent fatty acid digestibility, especially as iodine value increased from 11 to 27. For partially hydrogenated fat sources, as the ratio of C16 to C18 fatty acids increased, digestibility also increased, especially with increasing iodine value (positive interaction). Beneficial effects of higher C16:C18 ratio were reduced as amount of added fat increased (negative interaction). Dry matter intake and FCM production decreased as iodine value increased, perhaps because of inhibition of fiber digestion or metabolic regulation of DMI. Milk protein percentage depression averaged .2 percentage units for most fats. However, as partially hydrogenated fat sources became more saturated, milk protein depression appeared to be less evident; increased ratio of C16:C18 of fatty acids appeared to increase milk protein percentage. Despite the lower apparent digestibility of fatty acids of hydrogenated fats, increased milk production and percentages of fat and protein appeared to make them more economical than more unsaturated fats.

  15. Effect of long term intake of aspartame on antioxidant defense status in liver.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Paul, M V Sauganth; Varghese, Mathews V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2011-06-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of long term intake of aspartame, the artificial sweetener, on liver antioxidant system and hepatocellular injury in animal model. Eighteen adult male Wistar rats, weighing 150-175 g, were randomly divided into three groups as follows: first group was given aspartame dissolved in water in a dose of 500 mg/kg b.wt.; the second group was given a dose of 1000 mg/kg b.wt.; and controls were given water freely. Rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.) in the drinking water for 180 days showed a significant increase in activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT). The concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) were significantly reduced in the liver of rats that had received aspartame (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). Glutathione was significantly decreased in both the experimental groups. Histopathological examination revealed leukocyte infiltration in aspartame-treated rats (1000 mg/kg b.wt.). It can be concluded from these observations that long term consumption of aspartame leads to hepatocellular injury and alterations in liver antioxidant status mainly through glutathione dependent system.

  16. Effect of dietary nucleotides on degree of fibrosis and steatosis induced by oral intake of thioacetamide.

    PubMed

    Torres, M I; Fernandez, M I; Gil, A; Rios, A

    1997-06-01

    The administration of thioacetamide in rats induces nodular cirrhosis of the liver, characterized by fibrous septae, parenchymal nodules, proliferation of the bile ducts, and excessive deposition of connective tissue elements. Nodular cirrhosis is also associated with changes in lipid metabolism, as shown by the accumulation of lipid droplets in the hepatocyte cytoplasm. Adequate nutritional support during cirrhosis is important to sustain liver function and promote recovery after the lesions have been induced. Supplementation with nucleotides may increase cellular proliferation and thus optimize hepatic recovery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation on the degree of fibrosis and steatosis in rats with liver cirrhosis induced by four months of oral intake of thioacetamide. The use of dietary nucleotides after thioacetamide administration was found to decrease the percentage area of fibrous septae. In animals with liver cirrhosis fed the nucleotide-supplemented diet for two weeks, the total area of fibrosis was reduced. Withdrawal of the hepatotoxic agent led to a decrease in the degree of steatosis in cirrhotic animals, which was significant in rats given the nucleotide-supplemented diet during a two-week recovery period. In conclusion, dietary nucleotides may be an important factor in the histological recovery of damaged liver in experimental cirrhosis.

  17. Effects of Eucommia leaf extracts on autonomic nerves, body temperature, lipolysis, food intake, and body weight.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuko; Tanida, Mamoru; Shen, Jiao; Hirata, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Naomi; Wada, Atsunori; Nagai, Katsuya

    2010-08-01

    Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf extracts (ELE) have been shown to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Therefore, it was hypothesized that ELE might affect lipid metabolism via changes in autonomic nerve activities and causes changes in thermogenesis and body weight. We examined this hypothesis, and found that intraduodenal (ID) injection of ELE elevated epididymal white adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (WAT-SNA) and interscapular brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats and elevated the plasma concentration of free fatty acids (FFA) (a marker of lipolysis) and body temperature (BT) (a marker of thermogenesis) in conscious rats. Furthermore, it was observed that ID administration of ELE decreased gastric vagal nerve activity (GVNA) in urethane-anesthetized rats, and that ELE given as food reduced food intake, body and abdominal adipose tissue weights and decreased plasma triglyceride level. These findings suggest that ELE stimulates lipolysis and thermogenesis through elevations in WAT-SNA and BAT-SNA, respectively, suppresses appetite by inhibiting the activities of the parasympathetic nerves innervating the gastrointestinal tract, including GVNA, and decreases the amount of abdominal fat and body weight via these changes.

  18. Caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community dwellers living in a rural Ecuadorian village (The Atahualpa Project)

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Mera, Robertino M.; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R.

    2016-01-01

    More information is needed to better understand the effect of caffeine on sleep quality at the community level. In a population-based, cross-sectional study design, we aimed to assess the effect of caffeine intake on sleep quality by the use of a multivariate exposure-effect model, adjusted for relevant confounders. All Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a structured instrument designed to estimate the daily amount of caffeine intake. An exposure-effect model was built using augmented inverse probability weighting taking into account variables that were associated with exposure (using a probit model) and variables that were associated with outcome (in a linear model). Out of 779 eligible individuals, 716 (92%) were included. Consumption of <100 mg/day of caffeine was recorded in 320 (45%) participants, from 100 to 200 mg/day in 299 (42%), and >200 mg/day in 97 (13%). Mean score in the PSQI was 4.5±2.2 points, with 203 (28%) individuals classified as poor sleepers (≥6 points). The exposure-effect model, adjusted for variables associated with the exposure (symptoms of depression, total cholesterol blood levels and smoking) and the outcome (age, symptoms of depression, physical activity and fasting glucose levels), revealed no effect of caffeine intake in sleep quality (average exposure effect: 0.027, 95% C.I.: −0.284 to 0.338, p=0.866). This population-based study shows that caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community-dwelling adults living in a rural village of Ecuador. PMID:27217907

  19. Caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community dwellers living in a rural Ecuadorian village (The Atahualpa Project).

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio; Castillo, Pablo R

    2016-01-01

    More information is needed to better understand the effect of caffeine on sleep quality at the community level. In a population-based, cross-sectional study design, we aimed to assess the effect of caffeine intake on sleep quality by the use of a multivariate exposure-effect model, adjusted for relevant confounders. All Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years were identified during a door-to-door survey and interviewed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and a structured instrument designed to estimate the daily amount of caffeine intake. An exposure-effect model was built using augmented inverse probability weighting taking into account variables that were associated with exposure (using a probit model) and variables that were associated with outcome (in a linear model). Out of 779 eligible individuals, 716 (92%) were included. Consumption of <100 mg/day of caffeine was recorded in 320 (45%) participants, from 100 to 200 mg/day in 299 (42%), and >200 mg/day in 97 (13%). Mean score in the PSQI was 4.5±2.2 points, with 203 (28%) individuals classified as poor sleepers (≥6 points). The exposure-effect model, adjusted for variables associated with the exposure (symptoms of depression, total cholesterol blood levels and smoking) and the outcome (age, symptoms of depression, physical activity and fasting glucose levels), revealed no effect of caffeine intake in sleep quality (average exposure effect: 0.027, 95% C.I.: -0.284 to 0.338, p=0.866). This population-based study shows that caffeine intake has no effect on sleep quality in community-dwelling adults living in a rural village of Ecuador. PMID:27217907

  20. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  1. Effects of milk replacer program fed 2 or 4 times daily on nutrient intake and calf growth.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; da Silva, D N L; Linn, J G; Litherland, N B

    2013-02-01

    of MOD calves did not have this effect. Due to differences in starter intake, total dry matter by calves through d 56 was similar across treatments. Additionally, increased FF tended to increase serum NEFA concentrations. Serum NEFA concentration was negatively correlated with starter intake. The BW of calves fed STD2 and STD4 treatments almost doubled and the BW of calves on the MOD2 and MOD4 treatments doubled by d 56. Increased FF of the conventional MR program but not accelerated MR program increased starter intake. Increased FF did not affect growth, starter intake, or gain:feed ratio.

  2. Effects of chronic intrahypothalamic infusion of insulin on food intake and diurnal meal patterning in the rat.

    PubMed

    McGowan, M K; Andrews, K M; Kelly, J; Grossman, S P

    1990-04-01

    In Experiment 1, rats were chronically infused with insulin (2.7, 27, or 270 ng/hr) or 0.9% saline into the ventromedial (VMH), medial perifornical (PF), or lateral (LH) hypothalamus. VMH infusions of insulin caused a significant, dose-dependent decrease in food intake and body weight; PF infusion of insulin was less effective, but significant; whereas LH infusions of insulin were ineffective. In Experiment 2, rats were chronically infused with insulin (0.54 ng/hr) or 0.9% saline into the VMH, paraventricular (PVN), or posterior (PN) hypothalamic nucleus. Subjects that received VMH or PN infusions of insulin failed to regain weight lost as a result of surgery even 2 weeks after infusion; subjects that received PVN infusions of insulin regained their preoperative weights faster than did controls. All of the groups that received insulin significantly increased their daytime food intake during the infusion period and decreased their night food intake slightly; 24-hr food intake remained unchanged.

  3. The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingtao; Li, Yun; Li, Ling; Cheng, Gaiping; Sun, Xin; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, -0.42%; 95% CI, -0.61% to -0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, -0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, -0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required.

  4. Risk Factors for Food Residue after Distal Gastrectomy and a New Effective Preparation for Endoscopy: The Water-Intake Method

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Bum; Yoon, Kyoung-Won; Park, Seon-Young; Lee, Wan-Sik; Park, Chang-Hwan; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims Food residue is frequently observed in the gastric remnant after distal gastrectomy, despite adequate preparation. We devised a water-intake method to reduce food residue in the gastric remnant by drinking large quantities of water in a short time. The aims of this study were to identify the risk factors for food residue and to study the effectiveness of this new method for endoscopy preparation. Methods A cohort of 708 patients who underwent distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer was reviewed prospectively. Sixty patients with large amounts of food residue were randomly divided into two groups: a water-intake group (n=40) and a prolonged fasting group (n=20). Results The incidences of a large amount of food residue were 15.7%, 5.8%, 7.5%, and 2.8% at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after distal gastrectomy. Independent risk factors for food residue were endoscopy at 3 months, diabetes mellitus, a body mass index of <19.5, and laparoscopic surgery. The proportion of successful preparations at follow-up endoscopy was higher for the water-intake group (70%) than for the prolonged fasting group (40%, p=0.025). Conclusions The water-intake method can be recommended as a preparation for endoscopy in patients who have had repetitive food residue or risk factors after distal gastrectomy. PMID:20431744

  5. The effect of sugar solution type, sugar concentration and viscosity on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Erika; Dey, Tania; Kevan, Peter G

    2013-09-01

    Nectar is an essential resource for bumblebees and many other flower-visiting insects. The main constituents of nectar are sugars, which vary in both composition and concentration between plant species. We assessed the influence of sugar concentration, sugar solution viscosity and sugar solution composition on the imbibition and energy intake rate of bumblebees, Bombus impatiens Cresson (Hymenoptera: Apidae). To do this, we measured their rate of solution intake for 49 different sugar solution treatments, which varied in both sugar composition and concentration. In general, the imbibition rates of bumblebees were found to increase with increasing sugar concentration, probably due to their preference for high sugar concentrations, up to a concentration of 27% (w/w), at which point solutions reached a threshold viscosity of approximately 1.5-1.6 mPa.s. Above this threshold, the increasing viscosity of the solutions physically inhibited the imbibition rates of bees, and imbibition rate began to decrease as the concentration increased. Nevertheless, bumblebee energy intake rate increased with increasing concentration up to about 42-56%. Although we found that sugar solution composition had an impact on both imbibition and energy intake rate, its effect was not as straightforward as that of sugar concentration and viscosity.

  6. The Effects of industrial workers' food choice attribute on sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction with Structural Equcation Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young Il

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This research analyzes the effects of the food choices of industrial workers according to their sugar intake pattern on their job satisfaction through the construction of a model on the relationship between sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction. SUBJECTS/METHODS Surveys were collected from May to July 2015. A statistical analysis of the 775 surveys from Kyungsangnam-do was conducted using SPSS13.0 for Windows and SEM was performed using the AMOS 5.0 statistics package. RESULTS The reliability of the data was confirmed by an exploratory factor analysis through a Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and the measurement model was proven to be appropriate by a confirmatory factor analysis in conjunction with AMOS. The results of factor analysis on food choice, sugar intake pattern and job satisfaction were categorized into five categories. The reliability of these findings was supported by a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.6 and higher for all factors except confection (0.516) and dairy products (0.570). The multicollinearity results did not indicate a problem between the variables since the highest correlation coefficient was 0.494 (P < 0.01). In an attempt to study the sugar intake pattern in accordance with the food choices and job satisfaction of industrial workers, a structural equation model was constructed and analyzed. CONCLUSIONS All tests confirmed that the model satisfied the recommended levels for the goodness of fit index, and thus, the overall research model was proven to be appropriate. PMID:27478555

  7. The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Qingtao; Li, Yun; Li, Ling; Cheng, Gaiping; Sun, Xin; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, -0.42%; 95% CI, -0.61% to -0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, -0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.58 to -0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, -0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.86 to -0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, -0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required. PMID:26690472

  8. The Metabolic Effects of Oats Intake in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Qingtao; Li, Yun; Li, Ling; Cheng, Gaiping; Sun, Xin; Li, Sheyu; Tian, Haoming

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to comprehensively assess if oats intake is beneficial for diabetic patients. The literature search was conducted in PubMed database up to 23 August 2015. Fourteen controlled trials and two uncontrolled observational studies were included. Compared with the controls, oats intake significantly reduced the concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (MD, −0.42%; 95% CI, −0.61% to −0.23%), fasting blood glucose (FBG) (MD, −0.39 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.58 to −0.19 mmol/L), total cholesterol (TC) (MD, −0.49 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.86 to −0.12 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (MD, −0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI, −0.48 to −0.09 mmol/L). Oatmeal significantly reduced the acute postprandial glucose and insulin responses compared with the control meal. The present study has revealed a beneficial effect of oats intake on glucose control and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Further investigations of oats intake in patients with type 1 diabetes and the safety of oats consumption are required. PMID:26690472

  9. Effects of NUTRIOSE® dietary fiber supplementation on body weight, body composition, energy intake, and hunger in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Li, Shuguang; Pochat, Marine; Wils, Daniel; Mubasher, Mohamed; Reifer, Cheryl; Miller, Larry E

    2011-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effectiveness of a soluble dietary fiber, NUTRIOSE(®), on body weight, body composition, energy intake and hunger in overweight Chinese men. The volunteers were randomized in double-blind fashion to 250 ml fruit juice supplemented with NUTRIOSE(®) (Test, n = 60) or a maltodextrin (Control, n = 60) at a dosage of 17 g twice daily for 12 weeks. Body weight, body composition were performed at 0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks while daily energy intake and hunger were assessed every 3 days. Test subjects had reductions in body weight (1.5 kg, P < 0.001), body mass index (0.5 kg/m(2), P < 0.001) and body fat percentage (0.3%, P < 0.001) versus Controls. NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation resulted in a lower daily energy intake (3,079 kJ/day, P < 0.001) with group differences noted as early as 3 days. Test subjects reported less hunger across the study period versus Controls (P < 0.01). NUTRIOSE(®) supplementation for 12 weeks results in body composition improvements and reduces body weight, energy intake and hunger in overweight men.

  10. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs.

    PubMed

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish stage. Data from 17,743 grow-finish pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were recorded between May 2001 and February 2010 at the experimental farm of the Institute for Pig Genetics (Beilen, the Netherlands). The grow-finish stage was divided into 2 phases (phase 1: 26 to 75 kg; phase 2: 75 to 115 kg). The sow history features were birth litter size, birth year and season, birth farm, weaning age, age of transfer to the experimental farm, and age at first insemination. The sow features were added to the basic model one at a time to study their effect on the grow-finish traits of the pigs. Subsequently, significant sow features (P < 0.1) were fitted simultaneously in an animal model. With every extra piglet in the birth litter of the sow, the GR of her offspring decreased by 1 g/d and the FI decreased by 4 g/d. Every extra day to the first insemination increased the GR of grow-finish pigs by 0.1 g/d. The heritability estimates for GR and FI (only in phase 2 of the grow-finish stage) decreased after adding the sow features to the model. No differences were found in estimates of the common litter effects between the basic model and the model with all significant sow features. The estimates of the permanent sow effect changed for FI from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.00 (model with sow features), and for FI in phase 1, the permanent sow effect decreased from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.01 (model with sow features). In conclusion, selected sow features do affect the grow

  11. [Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake and residents' health effects in an air pollution area--relationship between arsenic accumulative intake level and arsenicism prevalence].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-10-01

    This paper reports the results of epidemiological survey on health effects of residents exposed to arsenic in a pollution area and estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level (EAAIL) based on calculating accumulative rice consumption and via inhalation way. 795 persons were sampled randomly from the polluted area, among whom 674 persons and 83 persons were diagnosed with Chronic Arsenic Absorption (CAA) and Chronic Arsenicism (CA) according to the National Diagnose Standard respectively. There were 60.98% CAA in 30 years old and younger age-groups and 97.59% CA in 30 years old and older age-groups. The one youngest case of CA occurred in 15 years old age group, while its EAAIL was at 1846.47 mg. The highest EAAIL was at 8706.47 mg. The rate of CA had gone obviously up at 30 years old age group. Its EAAIL was at 3833.42 mg. One equation of relationship between the rate of CA (%) and EAAIL (mg) was fitted by means of curve fitting, its is followed: Y = X1.843/e12.694 -2.866, r2 = 0.945.

  12. Ammonia losses from urine and dung of grazing cattle. effect of N intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Sommer, Sven G.; Aaes, Ole; Søegaard, Karen

    Nitrogen excretion by cattle during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. In this study the relation between NH 3 volatilization and N intake was investigated in wind tunnel experiments with simulated urine patches and dung pats. Excreta were collected from four groups of dairy cattle grazing continuously on either ryegrass fertilized with 300 kg N ha -1 or unfertilized white clover-ryegrass. The two groups of cattle in each grazing system received either 139 or 304 g N cow -1 d -1 in concentrates, corresponding to average total N intakes in the range of 500-700 g N cow -1 d -1. Ammonia losses from dung were insignificant, while total losses from urine, which were estimated by curve-fitting, ranged from 3 to 52% of urinary N. Urea-N in the urine applied in the experiments constituted, with one exception, 64-94% of urinary N. The fraction of urea-N increased significantly with total N concentration in subsamples from individual animals. In the soil, hydrolysis of urea to NH 3 was almost complete within 24 h, and release of NH 3 was indicated by scorching. Milk yield and the production of milk protein was not related to N intake or grazing system, while estimated NH 3 losses were significantly reduced at the lower N intake level within the range of N intakes obtained.

  13. Effects of drinks sweetened with sucrose or aspartame on hunger, thirst and food intake in men.

    PubMed

    Rolls, B J; Kim, S; Fedoroff, I C

    1990-07-01

    Forty-two nondieting adult males were given 8 or 16 oz of lemonade, sweetened to equal intensity with either aspartame or sucrose, or the same volumes of water, or no drink. Subjects were separated into three groups receiving the drinks at different times: with a self-selection lunch, or 30, or 60 min before lunch. Food intakes did not differ when subjects received the drinks with lunch; however, when the calories from the drinks were included, intake was significantly greater with the sucrose-sweetened lemonades than in the other conditions. When subjects received the drinks 30 or 60 min before lunch, food intakes were not significantly different. Appetite ratings were not different among the conditions. When the drinks were consumed with the meal, the 8-oz sucrose-sweetened lemonade differed from the other drinks in that it did not significantly reduce thirst. The results indicate that in nondieting males, aspartame in concentrations similar to those in commercially available drinks did not increase hunger ratings or food intake. However, caloric drinks taken with lunch increased total energy intake in that meal. Also, sucrose-sweetened drinks may decrease thirst less than water or aspartame-sweetened drinks when taken with a meal.

  14. Effects of repeated light-dark phase shifts on voluntary ethanol and water intake in male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Foster, James A

    2010-05-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate reciprocal interactions between excessive alcohol (ethanol) intake and dysregulation of circadian biological rhythms. Thus, chronic alcohol intake leads to widespread circadian disruption in both humans and experimental animals, while in turn, chronobiological disruption has been hypothesized to promote or sustain excessive alcohol intake. Nevertheless, the effects of circadian disruption on voluntary ethanol intake have not been investigated extensively, and prior studies have reported both increased and decreased ethanol intake in rats maintained under "shift-lag" lighting regimens mimicking those experienced by shift workers and transmeridian travelers. In the present study, male and female inbred Fischer and Lewis rats were housed in running wheel cages with continuous free-choice access to both water and 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution and exposed to repeated 6-h phase advances of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, whereas controls were kept under standard LD 12:12 conditions. Shift-lag lighting reduced overall ethanol and water intake, and reduced ethanol preference in Fischer rats. Although contrary to the hypothesis that circadian disruption would increase voluntary ethanol intake, these results are consistent with our previous report of reduced ethanol intake in selectively bred high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats housed under a similar lighting regimen. We conclude that chronic circadian disruption is a form of chronobiological stressor that, like other stressors, can either increase or decrease ethanol intake, depending on a variety of poorly understood variables.

  15. Effects of repeated light-dark phase shifts on voluntary ethanol and water intake in male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Foster, James A

    2010-05-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate reciprocal interactions between excessive alcohol (ethanol) intake and dysregulation of circadian biological rhythms. Thus, chronic alcohol intake leads to widespread circadian disruption in both humans and experimental animals, while in turn, chronobiological disruption has been hypothesized to promote or sustain excessive alcohol intake. Nevertheless, the effects of circadian disruption on voluntary ethanol intake have not been investigated extensively, and prior studies have reported both increased and decreased ethanol intake in rats maintained under "shift-lag" lighting regimens mimicking those experienced by shift workers and transmeridian travelers. In the present study, male and female inbred Fischer and Lewis rats were housed in running wheel cages with continuous free-choice access to both water and 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution and exposed to repeated 6-h phase advances of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, whereas controls were kept under standard LD 12:12 conditions. Shift-lag lighting reduced overall ethanol and water intake, and reduced ethanol preference in Fischer rats. Although contrary to the hypothesis that circadian disruption would increase voluntary ethanol intake, these results are consistent with our previous report of reduced ethanol intake in selectively bred high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats housed under a similar lighting regimen. We conclude that chronic circadian disruption is a form of chronobiological stressor that, like other stressors, can either increase or decrease ethanol intake, depending on a variety of poorly understood variables. PMID:20488643

  16. Postprandial effects on plasma lipids and satiety hormones from intake of liposomes made from fractionated oat oil: two randomized crossover studies

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Lena; Rosenquist, Anna; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Härröd, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background The composition and surface structure of dietary lipids influence their intestinal degradation. Intake of liposomes made of fractionated oat oil (LOO) is suggested to affect the digestion process and postprandial lipemia and also induce satiety. Objective In the present study, the metabolic effects on plasma lipids and gut hormones related to satiety were investigated in healthy individuals after intake of LOO, with dairy lipids as placebo. Design Two blinded randomized studies with crossover design were performed. In the first study, 19 subjects consumed 35 g lipids from LOO or yoghurt in a breakfast meal. In a follow-up study, 15 women consumed 14 or 1.8 g lipids from LOO mixed in yoghurt. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids, insulin, glucose, and intestinal hormones CCK, PYY, GLP-1, and GLP-2 before and four times after the meal. Subjective analysis of satiety was measured using a visual analog scale questionnaire. Participants recorded their food intake during the rest of the day. Results Intake of 35 and 14 g lipids from LOO significantly increased plasma concentrations of CCK, GLP-1, GLP-2, and PYY postprandially. This coincided with a prolonged elevation of triglycerides and large cholesterol-containing particles. Non-esterified fatty acids decreased after intake of 14 and 1.8 g lipids from LOO. The subjective sensation of satiety in women was increased 7 h after intake of 35 g lipids from LOO without any difference in food intake. Our results indicate that intake of 14 g lipids from LOO at breakfast substantially reduced energy intake during the rest of the day. Conclusions This study suggests that intake of LOO prolong lipid digestion, affect postprandial plasma lipids and have an effect on satiety. The effect of LOO on GLP-2 indicates that intake of LOO also improve gut health. PMID:25317122

  17. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (N-3) Fatty Acid: Effect on Humans during Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. These are some of the systems on which intakes of fish and n-3 fatty acids have positive effects. These effects are likely to occur through inhibition of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNFalpha) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-KB activation. We documented this effect in a 3D cell culture model, where NF-KB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have extended these studies and report here (a) NF-KB expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews on 2-wk missions, (b) the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog), and (c) the effects of fish intake in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo on the International Space Station. After Shuttle flights of 2 wk, NFKB p65 expression at landing was increased (P less than 0.001). After 60 d of bed rest, higher intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = -0.46, P less than 0.05). Together with our earlier findings, these data provide mechanistic cellular and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with spaceflight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  18. Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat.

    PubMed

    Figlewicz, D P; Ioannou, G; Bennett Jay, J; Kittleson, S; Savard, C; Roth, C L

    2009-12-01

    The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5-15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF FOOD INTAKE AND ITS FAT COMPOSITION ON INTESTINAL ECHOGENICITY IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Granger, L Abbigail; Oubre, Olivia; Shannon, Dylan; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Dogs presenting for ultrasonography due to suspected gastrointestinal disease might have residual ingesta and this could have an affect on the appearance of intestinal mucosa unrelated to pathology. The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to determine effects of a recent meal consisting of the recommended daily fat content (meal 1) and a higher fat one (meal 2) on mucosal echogenicity in healthy dogs. Sixty client-owned and clinically healthy dogs were recruited. Two meals, one with 15% fat dry matter basis (meal 1) and a second with 1.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil added to result in a range of 41-63% fat dry matter basis (meal 2), were fed 1 week apart after a 12 h fast. Mucosal echogenicity scores were assigned at fasting, immediate postprandial and at 60 min after each meal. Duodenal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at 60 min (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the duodenal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) at the immediate and 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Jejunal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at the 60-min data point (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the jejunal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) only at the 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Intestinal mucosal echogenicity can be increased in healthy dogs after food intake, regardless of fat content. This effect should be taken into consideration when increased mucosal echogenicity is identified in clinical patients. PMID:27363531

  20. Research needs for assessing iodine intake, iodine status, and the effects of maternal iodine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ershow, Abby G; Goodman, Gay; Coates, Paul M; Swanson, Christine A

    2016-09-01

    The Office of Dietary Supplements of the NIH convened 3 workshops on iodine nutrition in Rockville, Maryland, in 2014. The purpose of the current article is to summarize and briefly discuss a list of research and resource needs developed with the input of workshop participants. This list is composed of the basic, clinical, translational, and population studies required for characterizing the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation, along with related data, analyses, evaluations, methods development, and supporting activities. Ancillary studies designed to use the participant, biological sample, and data resources of ongoing and completed studies (including those not originally concerned with iodine) may provide an efficient, cost-effective means to address some of these research and resource needs. In the United States, the foremost question is whether neurobehavioral development in the offspring of mildly to moderately iodine-deficient women is improved by maternal iodine supplementation during pregnancy. It is important to identify the benefits and risks of iodine supplementation in all population subgroups so that supplementation can be targeted, if necessary, to avoid increasing the risk of thyroid dysfunction and related adverse health effects in those with high iodine intakes. Ultimately, there will be a need for well-designed trials and other studies to assess the impact of maternal supplementation on neurodevelopmental outcomes in the offspring. However, 2 basic information gaps loom ahead of such a study: the development of robust, valid, and convenient biomarkers of individual iodine status and the identification of infant and toddler neurobehavioral development endpoints that are sensitive to mild maternal iodine deficiency during pregnancy and its reversal by supplementation. PMID:27534640

  1. THE EFFECTS OF FOOD INTAKE AND ITS FAT COMPOSITION ON INTESTINAL ECHOGENICITY IN HEALTHY DOGS.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Granger, L Abbigail; Oubre, Olivia; Shannon, Dylan; Kearney, Michael; Gaschen, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    Dogs presenting for ultrasonography due to suspected gastrointestinal disease might have residual ingesta and this could have an affect on the appearance of intestinal mucosa unrelated to pathology. The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to determine effects of a recent meal consisting of the recommended daily fat content (meal 1) and a higher fat one (meal 2) on mucosal echogenicity in healthy dogs. Sixty client-owned and clinically healthy dogs were recruited. Two meals, one with 15% fat dry matter basis (meal 1) and a second with 1.5 ml/kg body weight corn oil added to result in a range of 41-63% fat dry matter basis (meal 2), were fed 1 week apart after a 12 h fast. Mucosal echogenicity scores were assigned at fasting, immediate postprandial and at 60 min after each meal. Duodenal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at 60 min (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the duodenal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) at the immediate and 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Jejunal scores were significantly greater for meal 1 at the 60-min data point (P < 0.001) as opposed to fasting and immediate postprandial. With meal 2, the jejunal score was significantly different (P < 0.001) only at the 60-min data point compared to meal 1. Intestinal mucosal echogenicity can be increased in healthy dogs after food intake, regardless of fat content. This effect should be taken into consideration when increased mucosal echogenicity is identified in clinical patients.

  2. Effect of moderate intake of sweeteners on metabolic health in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Figlewicz, D.P.; Ioannou, G.; Jay, J. Bennett; Kittleson, S.; Savard, C.; Roth, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The rise in prevalence of obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease has been linked to increased consumption of fructose-containing foods or beverages. Our aim was to compare the effects of moderate consumption of fructose-containing and non-caloric sweetened beverages on feeding behavior, metabolic and serum lipid profiles, and hepatic histology and serum liver enzymes, in rats. Behavioral tests determined preferred (12.5–15%) concentrations of solutions of agave, fructose, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a combination of HFCS and Hoodia (a putative appetite suppressant), or the non-caloric sweetener Stevia (n=5/gp). HFCS intake was highest, in preference and self-administration tests. Groups (n=10/gp) were then assigned to one of the sweetened beverages or water as the sole source of liquid at night (3 nights/wk, 10wks). Although within the normal range, serum cholesterol was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups, and serum triglycerides were higher in the Agave, HFCS, and HFCS/Hoodia groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Liver histology was normal in all groups with no evidence of steatosis, inflammation, or fibrosis; however serum alanine aminotransferase was higher in the fructose and HFCS groups (vs. water-controls, p<0.05). Serum inflammatory marker levels were comparable among Stevia, agave, fructose, HFCS, and water-consuming groups, however levels of IL-6 were significantly lower in association with the ingestion of Hoodia. There were no differences in terminal body weights, or glucose tolerance assessed by 120-min IVGTTs performed at the end of the 10-week regimen. We conclude that even moderate consumption of fructose-containing liquids may lead to the onset of unfavorable changes in the plasma lipid profile and one marker of liver health, independent of significant effects of sweetener consumption on body weight. PMID:19815021

  3. Effect of spray-dried bovine serum on intake, health, and growth of broilers housed in different environments.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J M; Quigley, J D; Russell, L E; Kidd, M T

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments utilizing broilers were conducted in different environments to evaluate the effects of Innavax (INX; spray-dried serum) administered in drinking water on broiler performance. In Exp. 1 (1 to 42 d), 252 Ross x Cobb male broilers were assigned randomly to one of six treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.25% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers (six broilers per pen; seven pens per treatment) were housed in Petersime battery cages (raised wire flooring) in temperature-controlled rooms. Average daily gain, and feed and water intake (as-fed) were not affected (P > 0.05) by experimental treatments. Feed efficiency tended to improve linearly (P = 0.076) from d 0 to 7 with increasing levels of INX, but was unaffected (P > 0.05) during the remaining periods. In Exp. 2 and 3, 800 Ross x Ross 308 male broilers (400 broilers in each trial; 10 broilers per pen; 10 pens per treatment) in two 21-d experiments were assigned randomly to one of four treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.35% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers were housed in floor pens containing clean (Exp. 2) or used (Exp. 3) litter. In Exp. 2, intake, ADG, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) during the first week with increasing levels of INX. During the second week (d 8 to 14), ADG, water intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of INX. In the third week (d 15 to 21), ADG and feed and water intake were not affected (P > 0.10) by level of INX. Overall (d 0 to 21), ADG, intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) with INX. In Exp. 3, ADG, water intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P < 0.05) during each period. Feed intake was not affected (P > 0.05) by experimental treatment during d 0 to 7, but was linearly increased (P < 0.05) from d 8 to 14 and 15 to 21. The greatest growth response of broilers to INX was observed when broilers were housed in floor pens with used

  4. Calcium intake and prostate cancer among African Americans: effect modification by vitamin D receptor calcium absorption genotype.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Glovioell W; Schwartz, Gary G; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    High dietary intake of calcium has been classified as a probable cause of prostate cancer, although the mechanism underlying the association between dietary calcium and prostate cancer risk is unclear. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key regulator of calcium absorption. In the small intestine, VDR expression is regulated by the CDX-2 transcription factor, which binds a polymorphic site in the VDR gene promoter. We examined VDR Cdx2 genotype and calcium intake, assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, in 533 African-American prostate cancer cases (256 with advanced stage at diagnosis, 277 with localized stage) and 250 African-American controls who participated in the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study. We examined the effects of genotype, calcium intake, and diet-gene interactions by conditional logistic regression. Compared with men in the lowest quartile of calcium intake, men in the highest quartile had an approximately twofold increased risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.40, 3.46), with a significant dose-response. Poor absorbers of calcium (VDR Cdx2 GG genotype) had a significantly lower risk of advanced prostate cancer (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.19, 0.90). The gene-calcium interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.03). Among men with calcium intake below the median (680 mg/day), carriers of the G allele had an approximately 50% decreased risk compared with men with the AA genotype. These findings suggest a link between prostate cancer risk and high intestinal absorption of calcium.

  5. QRFP in female rats: effects on high fat food intake and hypothalamic gene expression across the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Primeaux, Stefany D

    2011-06-01

    Pyroglutamylated arginine-phenylalanineamide peptide (QRFP) is a neuropeptide involved in feeding behavior. Central administration of QRFP selectively increases the intake of a high fat diet in male rats. QRFP administration also stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis via gonadotrophin-releasing hormone in male and female rats. Prepro-QRFP mRNA is expressed in localized regions of the mediobasal hypothalamus which are abundant in neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and receptor systems important for food intake regulation and reproductive behaviors. The current experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of centrally administered QRFP-26 on the intake of a high fat diet (HFD, 60%kcal from fat) in female rats and to investigate alterations in hypothalamic prepro-QRFP and its receptors, GPR130a and GPR103b, mRNA levels over the estrous cycle. In Experiment 1, female rats were administered QRFP-26 (intracerebroventricular; 0.3nmol, 0.5nmol, 1.0nmol) in rats consuming either a HFD or a low fat diet. All doses of QRFP-26 selectively increased the intake of the HFD in female rats. These data suggest that QRFP-26 regulates the intake of energy dense foods in female rats, which is similar to previous findings in male rats. In Experiment 2, hypothalamic levels of prepro-QRFP mRNA and its receptors were assessed during diestrus, proestrus, or estrus. The level of prepro-QRFP mRNA in the ventromedial/arcuate nucleus (VMH/ARC) of the hypothalamus was increased during proestrus, which suggests that endogenous estrogen levels regulate QRFP expression in the VMH/ARC. These data suggest that QRFP may play a role in coordinating feeding behaviors with reproductive function when energy demand is increased.

  6. The acute effects of four protein meals on insulin, glucose, appetite and energy intake in lean men.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sebely; Ellis, Vanessa

    2010-10-01

    Different dietary proteins vary in their ability to influence satiety and reduce food intake. The present study compared the effects of four protein meals, whey, tuna, turkey and egg albumin, on postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations as well as on appetite measures and energy intake in twenty-two lean, healthy men. This was a randomised, cross-over design study where participants consumed four liquid test meals on separate occasions followed by the collection of regular blood samples (fasting, +30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 min). They were then offered a buffet meal 4 h later. The blood glucose response after the consumption of the test meal, as an incremental area under the curve (AUC), was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the turkey (P < 0.023) and egg (P < 0.001) meals, but it was not lower than with the tuna meal (P < 0.34). The AUC blood insulin after the consumption of the test meal was significantly higher with the whey meal than with the tuna, turkey and egg meals (all P < 0.001). The AUC rating of hunger was significantly lower with the whey meal than with the tuna (P < 0.033), turkey (P < 0.001) and egg (P < 0.001) meals. Mean energy intake at the ad libitum meal was significantly lower (P < 0.001) with the whey meal than with the tuna, egg and turkey meals. There was a strong relationship between self-rated appetite, postprandial insulin response and energy intake at lunch. Whey protein meal produced a greater insulin response, reduced appetite and decreased ad libitum energy intake at a subsequent meal compared with the other protein meals, indicating a potential for appetite suppression and weight loss in overweight or obese individuals.

  7. Effect of restricted potassium intake on its excretion and on physiological responses during heat stress.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, M S; Sridharan, K; Venkataswamy, Y; Rai, R M; Pichan, G; Radhakrishnan, U; Grover, S K

    1981-01-01

    The effect of low potassium (K+) intake on its excretion, concentration in sweat and on physiological responses during heat stress was evaluated on eight Indian male soldiers in winter months at Delhi. After a stabilization period of 3 days on each diet, i.e., 85 mEq of K+/d (diet I, normal), 55 mEq of K+/d (diet II), and 45 mEq of K+/d (diet III), the physiological responses and the sodium and potassium concentrations in sweat, plasma, RBC, and urine were measured when the subjects were exposed to heat for 3 h daily in a climatic chamber maintained at 40 degrees C DB and 32 degrees C WB. The subjects worked in the chamber at the rate of 465 W/h for 20 min periods with 40 min rest between each period of exercise. The whole body sweat was collected after the spell of work and was analysed for sodium and potassium levels. Throughout the study the subjects remained on positive sodium balance except on day 4 in diet III. Fluid balance also remained positive while potassium balance was negative in subjects on diet II and diet III. There was no significant change in heart rate, sweat volume, oral temperature, sodium, and potassium concentrations in plasma and RBC during the entire period of the study. Even in the subjects with negative potassium balance there was no change in the sodium and potassium concentrations in sweat during exercise in heat. The only evidence of potassium conservation was a reduced excretion in urine. Out of the eight subjects, in one subject there was a flattening of the 'T' wave in the ECG and reduction in amplitude of the 'T' wave in two more subjects. As there is no reduction in sweat potassium concentration and the urine volume is low, the marginal level of reduced excretion of potassium in urine with a high rate of sweating (7-81) in subjects doing work in the tropics, there is every likelihood of potassium deficiency if a liberal intake is not ensured. In our earlier studies (Malhotra et al. 1976) we found that the concentration of

  8. Reviewing the Effects of l-Leucine Supplementation in the Regulation of Food Intake, Energy Balance, and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Pedroso, João A.B.; Zampieri, Thais T.; Donato, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Leucine is a well-known activator of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Because mTOR signaling regulates several aspects of metabolism, the potential of leucine as a dietary supplement for treating obesity and diabetes mellitus has been investigated. The objective of the present review was to summarize and discuss the available evidence regarding the mechanisms and the effects of leucine supplementation on the regulation of food intake, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Based on the available evidence, we conclude that although central leucine injection decreases food intake, this effect is not well reproduced when leucine is provided as a dietary supplement. Consequently, no robust evidence indicates that oral leucine supplementation significantly affects food intake, although several studies have shown that leucine supplementation may help to decrease body adiposity in specific conditions. However, more studies are necessary to assess the effects of leucine supplementation in already-obese subjects. Finally, although several studies have found that leucine supplementation improves glucose homeostasis, the underlying mechanisms involved in these potential beneficial effects remain unknown and may be partially dependent on weight loss. PMID:26007339

  9. Effects of high selenomethionine (L-SeMet) intakes on female long-tailed macaques and their offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, W.C.; Craig, K.A.; Omaye, S.T.; Willhite, C.C. Letterman Army Inst. of Research, San Francisco, CA Department of Health Services, Berkeley, CA )

    1991-03-11

    Pregnant females were treated daily for 30 days with 0, 25, 150 or 300 {mu}g Se as L-SeMet per kg body weight. Maternal Se toxicity was evident in the 150 and 300 {mu}g/kg-d groups. There were no effects of L-SeMet on pregnancy outcome, fetal morphology or neonatal development. Erythrocyte (RBC) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), RBC Se, plasma (PL) Se, PL GPx, hair (HR) Se, fecal Se and daily urinary Se excretion (UR Se) in dams were significantly correlated to L-SeMet intake. HR Se and UR Se showed the greatest responses to L-SeMet intake. RBC GPx increased 2.5-fold in the 150 {mu}g/kg-d group, casting doubt on use of RBC GPx saturation as a criterion of nutritional adequacy. Neonatal RBC and PL and fetal RBC, PL, liver, kidney, muscle and placental Se were significantly correlated to L-SeMet intake and maternal Se status, but GPx was not. There was no effect of L-SeMet on milk Se or milk GPx, showing the dominant effect of intrauterine exposure on neonatal Se status. PL Se was 3-fold higher in dams than in fetuses, suggesting a role of the placenta in regulating fetal Se. In control RBC and PL, fetal GPx {gt} neonatal GPx {gt} maternal GPx, suggesting an effect of development on GPx.

  10. Uncoupling sweet taste and calories: comparison of the effects of glucose and three intense sweeteners on hunger and food intake.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Carlyle, J A; Hill, A J; Blundell, J E

    1988-01-01

    This study was carried out to disclose effects generated by the uncoupling of the sensory and energetic components of sweet solutions. A comparison was made between equi-sweet preloads of three intense sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame and acesulfame-K), a bulk sweetener (glucose) and a nonsweet water control. Measures were made of subjective ratings of motivation to eat, food preferences and energy intake in a test meal. The glucose load produced a consistent pattern of changes on all measures. The intense sweeteners tended to facilitate motivational ratings and food preference checklist responses, but marginally lowered intake in the test meal. The facilitative action is probably due to the stimulation of sensory receptors for sweetness by the high-intensity agents, while the effects on intake are most likely due to a ceiling effect imposed by methodological limitations of this particular design. The results of this study must be interpreted with reference to the prevailing experimental conditions, but they suggest that intense sweeteners can produce significant changes in appetite. Of the intense sweeteners, aspartame gave rise to the most pronounced effects.

  11. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population. PMID:25245834

  12. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  13. Positive fantasies or negative contrasts: the effect of media body ideals on restrained eaters' mood, weight satisfaction, and food intake.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jessica A; Kuijer, Roeline G; Gleaves, David H

    2013-09-01

    Although viewing media body ideals promotes body dissatisfaction and problematic eating among women (e.g., extreme restraint/overeating), some argue that women only report such negative effects because they think that they are meant to (i.e., demand characteristics). Because restrained eaters are trying to lose weight, they might be vulnerable to such media exposure. However, because of demand characteristics, evidence is mixed. Therefore, we minimized demand characteristics and explored whether media body ideals would trigger restrained eaters to report negative (negative mood, weight dissatisfaction) or positive (positive mood, weight satisfaction) effects. We also hypothesized that this change (negative or positive) would encourage food intake. Restrained and unrestrained eaters (n=107) memorized media or control images. Restrained eaters exposed to media images reported decreased weight satisfaction and increased negative mood, but their food intake was not significantly affected. Perhaps paying advertent attention to the images caused goal-related negative affect, which triggered restraint.

  14. Effects of chronic heat exposure and protein intake on growth performance, nitrogen retention and muscle development in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Temim, S; Chagneau, A M; Guillaumin, S; Michel, J; Peresson, R; Geraert, P A; Tesseraud, S

    1999-01-01

    The respective effects of ambient temperature, dietary crude protein and feed intake were investigated in finishing chickens and the consequence of protein supplementation under high temperature conditions was analysed in particular. Heat-related reduction in growth was associated with decreased nitrogen retention (-30 or -35% according to the diet), which could not be explained by the observed lower feed intake alone. Tissue samples performed in 5- to 6-week-old chicks showed varying effects of heat according to the muscles studied: at 32 degrees C, the proportion of Pectoralis major muscle (in percentage of body weight) appeared slightly reduced (reduction lower than 10%), whereas the proportion of two leg muscles were increased (+10 to +15% for the Sartorius muscle; +5% for the gastrocnemius muscle). At 32 degrees C, providing a high protein diet significantly (P < 0.05) increased weight gain and feed efficiency, and slightly improved whole body protein deposition.

  15. Repetition counts: repeated exposure increases intake of a novel vegetable in UK pre-school children compared to flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning.

    PubMed

    Caton, Samantha J; Ahern, Sara M; Remy, Eloise; Nicklaus, Sophie; Blundell, Pam; Hetherington, Marion M

    2013-06-01

    Children are not consuming sufficient amounts of fruits and vegetables in their habitual diet. Methods derived from associative learning theories could be effective at promoting vegetable intake in pre-school children. The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of different learning strategies in promoting the intake of a novel vegetable. Children aged between 9 and 38 months were recruited from UK nurseries. The children (n 72) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions (repeated exposure, flavour-flavour learning or flavour-nutrient learning). Each child was offered ten exposures to their respective version of a novel vegetable (artichoke). Pre- and post-intervention measures of artichoke purée and carrot purée (control vegetable) intake were taken. At pre-intervention, carrot intake was significantly higher than artichoke intake (P<0·05). Intake of both vegetables increased over time (P<0·001); however, when changes in intake were investigated, artichoke intake increased significantly more than carrot intake (P<0·001). Artichoke intake increased to the same extent in all three conditions, and this effect was persistent up to 5 weeks post-intervention. Five exposures were sufficient to increase intake compared to the first exposure (P<0·001). Repeated exposure to three variants of a novel vegetable was sufficient to increase intake of this vegetable, regardless of the addition of a familiar taste or energy. Repetition is therefore a critical factor for promoting novel vegetable intake in pre-school children. PMID:23110783

  16. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the lactation diet on the feed intake and fertility of sows.

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    A diet contaminated with 2.8 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg was fed at 6 kg per day to 32 mycotoxin-exposed pluriparous sows (M) during lactation. The 31 control sows (C) received 6 kg of an uncontaminated diet. Although more contaminated diet was refused (P = 0.05), DON exposure had no effect (P > 0.1) on body weight loss of the sows during lactation (M: 27.9 ± 12.3 kg; C: 29.7 ± 10.2 kg), the number of weaned piglets (M: 9.8 ± 1.4; C: 9.7 ± 1.6) and their daily weight gain (M: 266 ± 70 g; C: 272 ± 64 g). Several sows were culled after weaning for reasons unrelated to the experiment. Compared with the remaining 21 C sows, the remaining 26 M sows had an identical interval between weaning and the next farrowing (M: 120 ± 1 days; C: 120 ± 1 days) and a similar litter size (M: 14.5 ± 2.7; C: 14.9 ± 3.0; P > 0.10). The daily intake of 17 mg DON during lactation thus did not affect the reproductive performance of the sows.

  17. Effects of aging and dietary protein intake on uninephrectomized geriatric dogs.

    PubMed

    Finco, D R; Brown, S A; Crowell, W A; Brown, C A; Barsanti, J A; Carey, D P; Hirakawa, D A

    1994-09-01

    Thirty-one clinically normal Cocker Spaniels, Miniature Schnauzers, and Doberman Pinschers (28 female, 3 male) 7 to 8 years old were uninephrectomized (month -2) to increase the risk of renal damage associated with reduction of renal mass. Two diets, differing principally in protein concentration, were used to test the hypothesis that high dietary protein intake causes renal damage in aging dogs. For 2 months after uninephrectomy, all dogs were fed diet A (18% protein). After glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured (month 0), 16 dogs were assigned to group A and were fed diet A for an additional 48 months. The other 15 dogs were assigned to group B, and were fed diet B (34% protein) for the subsequent 48 months. At 6-month intervals, GFR and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) were determined. At 48 months, terminal studies were done, survivors were euthanatized, and tissues were examined. Of 16 dogs in group A, 10 survived, compared with 13 of 15 in group B. Among survivors, a significant difference in GFR was not found between groups A and B, and decrease in GFR was not evident with time in either group. At 48 months, oral administration of casein caused minor acute effects on GFR and renal plasma flow in dogs of groups A and B. The UP/C values increased significantly (P = 0.001) from baseline values, but the increase was not progressive. The UP/C values were not affected by diet. Some dogs in both groups developed UP/C > 1.0.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The effect of green tea intake on risk of liver disease: a meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xueru; Yang, Jiqiao; Li, Tony; Song, Liyan; Han, Tinglu; Yang, Mei; Liao, Huihua; He, Jianjun; Zhong, Xiaozhu

    2015-01-01

    Aim: There have been many reports on the reduction of liver disease with green tea consumption. This study aims to evaluate the body of evidence related to green tea consumption on the risk of liver disease and determine the effectiveness. Methods: Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, CNKI, Wanfang and Weipu databases. Statistical analysis was performed using the software Revman 5.2 and Stata 12.0. Results: Meta-analysis revealed that among green tea drinkers, there was a significant reduction in the risk of liver disease (RR=0.68, 95% CI=0.56-0.82, P=0.000). This trend extends to a broad spectrum of liver conditions including hepatocellular carcinoma (RR=0.74, 95% CI=0.56-0.97, P=0.027), liver steatosis (RR=0.65, 95% CI=0.44-0.98, P=0.039), hepatitis (RR=0.57, 95% CI=0.45-0.73, P=0.000), liver cirrhosis (RR=0.56, 95% CI=0.31-1.01, P=0.053) and chronic liver disease (RR=0.49, 95% CI=0.29-0.82, P=0.007). This trend is also observed regardless of the race of the individual concerned where the Asian, American and European subgroups all demonstrated a reduced risk of liver disease. Conclusions: Green tea intake reduces the risk of liver disease. However, more long term randomized clinical trials are needed to comprehensively evaluate the health benefits of green tea. PMID:26309486

  19. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  20. Effects of iodine intake and teat-dipping practices on milk iodine concentrations in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, S I Borucki; Berthiaume, R; Robichaud, A; Lacasse, P

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary iodine and teat-dipping practices on iodine concentrations in milk. In the first study, 63 cows in mid lactation were assigned to a 3×3 factorial design in which the main effects were dietary iodine levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mg of dietary I/kg of dry matter) and 3 different postdip managements (chlorhexidine with dip cup, 1% iodine dip cup, and 1% iodine by manual spray). During the 13-d pre-experimental period and the 15-d experimental period, noniodized sanitizers were used in premilking management. During the pre-experimental period, the levels of milk iodine averaged 241.2±5.8 μg/kg, and no relationship was found with lactation number, days in milk, or milk production. Milk iodine concentrations increased linearly with iodine intake. Although teat dipping with 1% iodine had no effect on milk iodine concentration, the same solution applied by spraying greatly increased milk iodine levels. The second study was conducted to determine the effects of udder preparation before milking on milk iodine concentrations. Thirty-two lactating cows were assigned to 4 treatments: no predip (Con); predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+complete cleaning (Comp); predip with a postdip solution containing 1% iodine+complete cleaning (Post); and predip with a predip solution containing 0.5% iodine+incomplete cleaning (Inc). During the 14-d pre-experimental period and the 19-d experimental period, cows were fed the same diet, and noniodized sanitizers were used for postmilking dipping. During the last week of treatment, milk iodine averaged 164, 189, 218, and 252±9.8 μg/kg for Con, Comp, Post, and Inc, respectively. Preplanned orthogonal contrasts indicated that predipping with a 0.5% iodine predip solution completely wiped off (Comp) tended to increase milk iodine content above that of the control and that the iodine content of Post and Inc were higher than that of the Comp treatment. The results of

  1. Effect of Vitamin K Intake on the Stability of Treatment with Vitamin K Antagonists: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Dentali, Francesco; Crowther, Mark; Galli, Matteo; Pomero, Fulvio; Garcia, David; Clark, Nathan; Spadafora, Laura; Witt, Daniel M; Ageno, Walter

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) are highly effective for the primary and secondary prevention of arterial and venous thromboembolic events. However, patients treated with VKA have on average only 60% of their international normalized ratio (INR) values within the therapeutic range and INR instability is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis and bleeding events. Recent evidence suggests that poor dietary vitamin K intake may affect anticoagulation control, but the role of vitamin K in INR stability remains to be established. We performed a systematic review of the literature to assess the role of vitamin K dietary intake on the stability of VKA and the potential effect of daily vitamin K supplementation on VKA therapy. After a search in Medline and EMBASE databases, 15 studies for a total of 1,838 patients were included in our systematic review. Observational studies suggest an increased risk of unstable anticoagulation control in patients with lower daily vitamin K intake. On the other hand, the role of daily vitamin K supplementation or a diet with controlled vitamin K content in patients on VKA treatment remains to be established. Use of daily vitamin K supplementation may be associated with a clinically relevant increase in the time in therapeutic range in patients with unstable anticoagulation control. Conversely, this effect appears small and not clinically relevant when vitamin K was administered to an unselected population receiving VKA. Other large prospective studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary findings.

  2. Necessary and sufficient factors in classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Damianopoulos, E N

    1982-01-01

    The issue of necessary and sufficient factors (pairing-contiguity vs. contingency-correlation) in classical (Pavlovian) excitatory conditioning is examined: first, in terms of definitional (logical) and manipulational requirements of "necessary" and "sufficient"; second, in terms of Boolean logic test models indicating experimental and control manipulations in tests of pairing and contingency as necessary and sufficient factors; and, third, by a selective review of reference experiments showing appropriate experimental and control manipulations of pairing and contingency indicated in the Boolean logic test models. Results of examination show pairing-contiguity as the sole necessary and sufficient factor for excitatory conditioning, while contingency-correlation is conceptualized as a modulating factor controlling minimal-maximal effects of pairing-contiguity. Reservations and diagnostic experiments are indicated to assess effects of uncontrolled conditioned stimulus--unconditioned stimulus (--CS--US) probability characteristics (e.g., p (CS--US)/p (--CS--US) in truly random (TR) schedule manipulations). Similar analysis of conditioned inhibition reveals insufficient evidence to support a choice among current alternatives.

  3. Effect of screening out implausible energy intake reports on relationships between diet and BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: We present an updated method for identifying physiologically implausible dietary reports by comparing reported energy intake (rEI) with predicted energy requirements (pER), and we examine the impact of excluding these reports. Research Methods and Procedures: Adult data from the Continu...

  4. Effect of intake pipe on the volumetric efficiency of an internal combustion engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capetti, Antonio

    1929-01-01

    The writer discusses the phenomena of expansion and compression which alternately take place in the cylinders of four-stroke engines during the induction process at a high mean piston speed due to the inertia and elasticity of the mixture in the intake pipe. The present paper is intended to demonstrate theoretically the existence of a most favorable pipe length for charging.

  5. Effectiveness of Abstinence-Based Incentives: Interaction with Intake Stimulant Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q.; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-01-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant…

  6. QTL with dominance effect affecting residual feed intake on BTA6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency and therefore an economically relevant trait. A genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting RFI in beef cattle was conducted. Approximately equally spaced microsatellite markers (n = 229) spanned the 29 bovine autosomes. Tw...

  7. Effect of carbohydrate intake on de novo lipogenesis in human adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Chascione, C.; Elwyn, D.H.; Davila, M.; Gil, K.M.; Askanazi, J.; Kinney, J.M. )

    1987-12-01

    Rates of synthesis, from ({sup 14}C)glucose, of fatty acids (de novo lipogenesis) and glycerol (triglyceride synthesis) were measured in biopsies of adipose tissue from nutritionally depleted patients given low- or high-carbohydrate intravenous nutrition. Simultaneously, energy expenditure and whole-body lipogenesis were measured by indirect calorimetry. Rates of whole-body lipogenesis were zero on the low-carbohydrate diet and averaged 1.6 g{center dot}kg{sup {minus}1}{center dot}day{sup {minus}1} on the high-carbohydrate diet. In vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis increased 3-fold going from the low to the high intake; rates of fatty acid synthesis increased {approximately}80-fold. In vitro, lipogenesis accounted for <0.1% of triglyceride synthesis on the low intake and 4% on the high intake. On the high-carbohydrate intake, in vitro rates of triglyceride synthesis accounted for 61% of the rates of unidirectional triglyceride synthesis measured by indirect calorimetry. In vitro rates of lipogenesis accounted for 7% of whole-body lipogenesis. Discrepancies between in vitro rates of fatty acid synthesis from glucose, compared with acetate and citrate, as reported by others, suggest that in depleted patients on hypercaloric high-carbohydrate diets, adipose tissue may account for up to 40% of whole-body lipogenesis.

  8. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing four levels of activated charcoal supplemental (0.0, 0.33, 0.67 and 1.00 g/kg of BW). Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 tre...

  9. Effect of supplementing activated charcoal on the intake of honey mesquite leaves by lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine if intake of honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) leaves by sheep could be increased by supplementing activated charcoal at 0.0, 0.33, 0.67 or 1.00 g / kg of body weight. Twenty wether lambs (36.6 ± 0.6 kg) were randomly assigned to the 4 treatment levels. La...

  10. Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

  11. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    PubMed

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    24 (P=0.02) in HF than LF sows (at T0: 8.6±1.1 vs. 11.9±1.1 mg/mL; at T24: 2.5±0.7 vs. 4.8±0.7 mg/mL). In conclusion, dietary fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  12. Selection for residual feed intake in growing pigs: effects on sow performance in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J L; Fleury, J; Ferchaud, S; Billon, Y; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of a divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during growth in a temperate environment (TEMP) on sow performance in a tropical environment (TROP). Sows came from a selection experiment conducted at INRA in which 2 lines were selected for larger (RFI(+)) or smaller (RFI(─)) feed intake than predicted from performance. In the first analysis, a subsample of data obtained in TROP conditions (49 lactations) was compared to those obtained in TEMP on their sibs mated with the same boars (54 lactations). In the second analysis, data obtained in the TROP environment (82 lactations) were analyzed for testing the effect of season (warm vs. hot) and line on sow performance. Except for the lactation length, the interaction between line and climatic environment was not significant for the others traits (P > 0.05). The ADFI expressed per kilogram of litter BW gain tended to be higher in the RFI(+) line bred in the TROP environment (P = 0.080), together with piglet BW at weaning, which tended to be lower (P = 0.080). The ADFI was lower in TROP than in TEMP (4.56 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.003), with negative consequence on litter BW gain and maternal BW loss. The RFI(-) sows tended to eat less feed than RFI(+) sows during lactation (4.55 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.099). Litter BW at weaning was higher in the RFI(─) line. The RFI(─) sows ate significantly less feed to produce 1 kg of litter than the RFI(+) sows and tended to lose a larger amount of BW during lactation than the RFI(+) sows (2.40 vs. 3.02 kg/kg and -0.66 vs. -0.39 kg/d, respectively, P < 0.10). Whatever the line, ADFI was reduced by about 21% in the hot season (P < 0.05). Litter BW gain was depressed (P < 0.05) in the hot season (1.72 vs. 2.08 kg/d in the warm season; P = 0.023). Lactation maternal BW loss tended to increase in the hot season (1.10 vs. 0.71 kg/d in the warm season; P = 0.016), but back fat loss remained constant (P = 0.295). In the TROP

  13. Intake of Fish and Omega-3 (n-3) Fatty Acids: Effect on Humans During Actual and Simulated Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Zwart, S. R.

    2011-01-01

    Space flight has many negative effects on human physiology, including bone and muscle loss. Bone and muscle are two systems that are positively affected by dietary intake of fish and n-3 fatty acids. The mechanism is likely to be related to inhibition by n-3 fatty acids of inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF) and thus inhibition of downstream NF-kB activation. We have documented this effect in a 3-dimensional cell culture model, where NF-kB activation in osteoclasts was inhibited by eicosapentaenoic acid, an n-3 fatty acid. We have also indentified that NF-kB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Space Shuttle crews. We found that after Shuttle flights of 2 wk, expression of the protein p65 (evidence of NF-kB activation) was increased at landing (P less than 0.001). When evaluating the effects of n-3 fatty acid intake on bone breakdown after 60 d of bed rest (a weightlessness analog). We found that after 60 d of bed rest, greater intake of n-3 fatty acids was associated with less N-telopeptide excretion (Pearson r = -0.62, P less than 0.05). We also evaluated the relationship of fish intake and bone loss in astronauts after 4 to 6 mo missions on the International Space Station. Higher consumption of fish during flight was associated with higher bone mineral density (Pearson r = 0.46, P less than 0.05). Together, these findings provide evidence of the cellular mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids can inhibit bone loss, and preliminary human evidence of the potential for n-3 fatty acids to counteract bone loss associated with space flight. This study was supported by the NASA Human Research Program.

  14. Effects of feed intake and genetics on tissue nitrogen-15 enrichment and feed conversion efficiency in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Logan, C M; Dewhurst, R J; Hodge, S; Zhou, H; Edwards, G R

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of sheep genetics and feed intake on nitrogen isotopic fractionation (ΔN) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE; live weight gain/DMI), using a 2 × 2 factorial design, with 2 levels of genetic merit for growth (high vs. low) and 2 levels of feed intake (110 vs. 170% of ME for maintenance [MEm]). No effect of genetic merit was detected for live weight gain ( = 0.64), FCE ( = 0.46), plasma urea nitrogen ( = 0.52), plasma glucose ( = 0.78), and ΔN of wool ( = 0.45), blood ( = 0.09), and plasma ( = 0.51). Sheep receiving 170% of MEm had 175% higher live weight gain ( < 0.001) and 77% higher FCE ( < 0.001) than sheep receiving 110% of MEm. There was no difference among treatments at the beginning of the study for either blood or plasma ∆N, but the treatment groups started to diverge in blood and plasma ∆N at 21 and 7 d, respectively. Blood, plasma, and wool samples were enriched in N compared with feed. There was a higher blood, plasma, and wool ∆N for the low feed intake group than the high feed intake group ( < 0.001 in all cases). Across the 4 treatment groups, higher FCE in sheep was associated with lower ∆N for plasma, blood, and wool. Overall, the results are consistent with the potential of ∆N as a rapid, low-cost biomarker of FCE in sheep, despite there being no effects of genetic treatment on FCE and ∆N.

  15. The effect of eating frequency on appetite control and food intake: brief synopsis of controlled feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Leidy, Heather J; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    Increased eating frequency is postulated to increase metabolism, reduce hunger, improve glucose and insulin control, and reduce body weight, making it an enticing dietary strategy for weight loss and/or the maintenance of a healthy body weight. Because past research has primarily focused on the effects of eating frequency on changes in energy expenditure and body weight, limited data exist surrounding the impact of eating frequency on appetite control and energy intake. We provide a brief review of the controlled-feeding studies that primarily targeted the appetitive, hormonal, and food intake responses potentially altered with eating frequency. The 3 meal/d pattern served as the reference for defining increased or reduced eating frequency. In general, increased eating frequency led to lower peaks (P < 0.05) in perceived appetite, satiety, glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and PYY responses compared with reduced eating frequency. However, when examining these responses over the course of the day (i.e. using area under the curve assessments), no differences in any of these outcomes were observed. The rate of gastric emptying also appears to be unaltered with increased eating frequency. Subsequent food intake was examined in several studies with conflicting results. Regarding the effect of reduced eating frequency, several studies indicate significant increases in perceived appetite and reductions in perceived satiety when 1 or 2 meals were eliminated from the daily diet. Taken together, these findings suggest that increased eating frequency (>3 eating occasions/d) has minimal, if any, impact on appetite control and food intake, whereas reduced eating frequency(<3 eating occasions/d) negatively effects appetite control.

  16. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women. PMID:25138661

  17. Mild cold effects on hunger, food intake, satiety and skin temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Langeveld, M; Tan, C Y; Virtue, S; Ambler, G K; Watson, L P E; Murgatroyd, P R; Chatterjee, V K; Vidal-Puig, A

    2016-01-01

    Background Mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure and can influence energy balance, but at the same time it does not increase appetite and energy intake. Objective To quantify dermal insulative cold response, we assessed thermal comfort and skin temperatures changes by infrared thermography. Methods We exposed healthy volunteers to either a single episode of environmental mild cold or thermoneutrality. We measured hunger sensation and actual free food intake. After a thermoneutral overnight stay, five males and five females were exposed to either 18°C (mild cold) or 24°C (thermoneutrality) for 2.5 h. Metabolic rate, vital signs, skin temperature, blood biochemistry, cold and hunger scores were measured at baseline and for every 30 min during the temperature intervention. This was followed by an ad libitum meal to obtain the actual desired energy intake after cold exposure. Results We could replicate the cold-induced increase in REE. But no differences were detected in hunger, food intake, or satiety after mild cold exposure compared with thermoneutrality. After long-term cold exposure, high cold sensation scores were reported, which were negatively correlated with thermogenesis. Skin temperature in the sternal area was tightly correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Conclusions It is concluded that short-term mild cold exposure increases energy expenditure without changes in food intake. Mild cold exposure resulted in significant thermal discomfort, which was negatively correlated with the increase in energy expenditure. Moreover, there is a great between-subject variability in cold response. These data provide further insights on cold exposure as an anti-obesity measure. PMID:26864459

  18. Effect of intake on whole body plasma amino acid kinetics in sheep.

    PubMed

    Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Hoskin, Simone O; Lobley, Gerald E

    2003-01-01

    While both the quantity and quality of food ingested are potent regulators of whole body protein metabolism in ruminants, little data are available on responses across a wide range of intakes. The current study examined the responses in whole body protein flux (PrF) to such intake changes and compared these with the responses across the hind-quarters (in a companion study). Six growing sheep (6-8 months, 30-35 kg) received each of four intakes of dried grass pellets (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.5 times maintenance energy; M) for a minimum of 7 days. At each intake, a mixture of U-13C amino-acids (AA) was infused intravenously for 10 h. Arterial plasma and blood were obtained over the last 4 h of infusion and the concentrations and the enrichments of thirteen 13C labelled AA were determined. The absolute values for plasma Irreversible Loss Rate (ILR) but also converted PrF varied between the AA. PrF values were lower for histidine, methionine, aspartate, glycine and proline (range 68 to 174 g x d(-1) at 1.5 M) than for isoleucine, leucine, valine and glutamate (range 275 to 400 g x d(-1) at 1.5 M). These discrepancies may be explained by (1) the differential AA removal by the splanchnic tissues, (2) the de novo synthesis of the non-essential AA, (3) the transfer of AA from the erythrocytes or plasma to the tissues. The first two assumptions require further investigation whereas recent work has shown a minor role for AA transfers between erythrocytes and tissues. For most AA, ILR and PrF responded linearly to intake but curvilinear responses were observed for phenylalanine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine. These differences were not due to hind-quarter metabolism and may involve the digestive tract and liver. PMID:12785454

  19. Effect of High Sugar Intake on Glucose Transporter and Weight Regulating Hormones in Mice and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ritze, Yvonne; Bárdos, Gyöngyi; D’Haese, Jan G.; Ernst, Barbara; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd; Bischoff, Stephan C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sugar consumption has increased dramatically over the last decades in Western societies. Especially the intake of sugar-sweetened beverages seems to be a major risk for the development of obesity. Thus, we compared liquid versus solid high-sugar diets with regard to dietary intake, intestinal uptake and metabolic parameters in mice and partly in humans. Methods Five iso-caloric diets, enriched with liquid (in water 30% vol/vol) or solid (in diet 65% g/g) fructose or sucrose or a control diet were fed for eight weeks to C57bl/6 mice. Sugar, liquid and caloric intake, small intestinal sugar transporters (GLUT2/5) and weight regulating hormone mRNA expression, as well as hepatic fat accumulation were measured. In obese versus lean humans that underwent either bariatric surgery or small bowel resection, we analyzed small intestinal GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression. Results In mice, the liquid high-sucrose diet caused an enhancement of total caloric intake compared to the solid high-sucrose diet and the control diet. In addition, the liquid high-sucrose diet increased expression of GLUT2, GLUT5, and cholecystokinin expression in the ileum (P<0.001). Enhanced liver triglyceride accumulation was observed in mice being fed the liquid high-sucrose or -fructose, and the solid high-sucrose diet compared to controls. In obese, GLUT2 and GLUT5 mRNA expression was enhanced in comparison to lean individuals. Conclusions We show that the form of sugar intake (liquid versus solid) is presumably more important than the type of sugar, with regard to feeding behavior, intestinal sugar uptake and liver fat accumulation in mice. Interestingly, in obese individuals, an intestinal sugar transporter modulation also occurred when compared to lean individuals. PMID:25010715

  20. Satiety effects of a whole-grain fibre composite ingredient: reduced food intake and appetite ratings.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Joanne; Breslin, Leanne; Walsh, Jennifer; Halford, Jason; Pelkman, Christine

    2014-10-01

    The current study assesses the impact on appetite and food intake of a novel co-processed ingredient containing a viscous fibre and whole-grain high-amylose corn flour, a source of type 1 and type 2 resistant starch (HAM-RS). Ninety adults completed a crossover, placebo-controlled study comparing two doses of the ingredient (20 and 30 g) to a maltodextrin control in a fruit-based smoothie served with breakfast. Ad libitum food intake was measured over the day and visual analogue scales were used to assess subjective appetite sensations. Subjects consumed 7% less energy intake at dinner following the 30 g dose (p = 0.02) compared to control. In addition, a trend for lower lunch intake (5% less weight of food) was observed for the 20 g dose (p = 0.10). Reductions were also observed for the two meals combined, with 3% lower energy intake for the 20 g dose (p = 0.04) and 5% less weight of food consumed for the 30 g dose (p = 0.04). Lower ratings of hunger were reported at 3 h after breakfast for both doses and also at 2 and 3 h after lunch for the 30 g dose. With ratings combined to compute an overall appetite score, a trend for lower appetite scores at 3 h after breakfast was found for both doses. Consistent with this, significant reductions in AUC hunger and prospective consumption were identified in the 30 g condition. A similar pattern of results was observed for fullness and desire to eat. The results of this study show that a new composite satiety ingredient comprised of a viscous fibre and whole-grain corn flour can affect acute satiety responses in men and women.

  1. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement. PMID:25451582

  2. Effects of liraglutide and sibutramine on food intake, palatability, body weight and glucose tolerance in the gubra DIO-rats

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gitte; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To validate the gubra DIO-rats as a useful animal model of human obesity. Methods: The gubra diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model was based on male Sprague-Dawley rats with ad libitum access to regular chow and a palatable diet rich in fat and sugar. To evaluate the versatility of the gubra DIO-rats as a valid model of human obesity syndrome, the efficacy of 2 weight loss compounds liraglutide and sibutramine with different mechanisms of action were examined in 7-month-old gubra DIO-rats. Liraglutide (200 μg/kg, sc) was administered bi-daily, and sibutramine (5 mg/kg, po) was administered once daily for 23 d. Results: Both the compounds effectively reduced the food intake, body weight and total fat mass as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance. Whereas the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor/5-HT receptor agonist sibutramine reduced the intake of both chow and the gubra-diet, the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide predominantly reduced the intake of the highly palatable diet, indicating a shift in food preference. Sibutramine lowered the insulin sensitivity index, primarily via reductions in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Conclusion: This animal model responds well to 2 weight loss compounds with different mechanisms of action. Moreover, the gubra DIO-rat can be particularly useful for the testing of compounds with potential effects on diet preference. PMID:22301859

  3. The role of attentional bias in the effect of food advertising on actual food intake among children.

    PubMed

    Folkvord, Frans; Anschütz, Doeschka J; Wiers, Reinout W; Buijzen, Moniek

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the potential moderating role of attentional bias (i.e., gaze duration, number of fixations, latency of initial fixation) in the effect of advergames promoting energy-dense snacks on children's snack intake. A randomized between-subject design was conducted with 92 children who played an advergame that promoted either energy-dense snacks or nonfood products. Eye movements and reaction times to food and nonfood cues were recorded to assess attentional bias during playtime using eye-tracking methods. Children could eat freely after playing the game. The results showed that playing an advergame containing food cues increased total intake. Furthermore, children with a higher gaze duration for the food cues ate more of the advertised snacks. In addition, children with a faster latency of initial fixation to the food cues ate more in total and ate more of the advertised snacks. The number of fixations on the food cues did not increase actual snack intake. Food advertisements are designed to grab attention, and this study shows that the extent to which a child's attention is directed to a food cue increases the effect of the advertisement.

  4. Postnatal growth of infants of less than 1.3 kg birth weight: effects of metabolic acidosis, of caloric intake, and of calcium, sodium, and phosphate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Chance, G W; Radde, I C; Willis, D M; Roy, R N; Park, E; Ackerman, I

    1977-11-01

    Weekly increments of length, weight, head circumference, and skinfold thickness in response to a series of dietary changes were measured in 108 healthy infants who weighed less than 1.3 kg at birth. The serial manipulations included prevention of late metabolic acidosis, increased caloric intake, and calcium, sodium, and phosphorus supplementation. The study comprised four phases; the infants were divided into ten groups according to dietary regimen. AGA and SGA infants were studied separately. Growth in length was primarily influenced by a change to a formula providing a higher caloric intake and a 60:40 whey protein/casein ratio. Correction of late metabolic acidosis, sodium, and phosphorus supplementation had minor additive effects on growth in length. Increased caloric intake also influenced growth of head circumference, but only in AGA infants. Only the sodium intake was shown to influence body weight increments significantly with the range of caloric intake used in the study (132 to 160 calories/kg/day).

  5. Children's Executive Function and High-Calorie, Low-Nutrient Food Intake: Mediating Effects of Child-Perceived Adult Fast Food Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Eleanor B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann; Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the relationships among child executive function (EF), child-perceived parent fast food intake, and child self-reported subsequent consumption of high-calorie, low-nutrient (HCLN) food. Design: One year and 6-month longitudinal observation from a larger randomized controlled trial. Setting. Southern California…

  6. Effect of caloric intake on Western-style diet-induced intestinal tumors in a mouse model for hereditary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Itano, Osamu; Fan, Kunhua; Yang, Kan; Suzuki, Keiich; Quimby, Fred; Dong, Zhiqian; Jin, Bo; Edelmann, Winfried; Lipkin, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Increased caloric intake has been associated with increased risk for cancer of the large intestine. We studied caloric intake effect on tumor formation in Apc1638( N/+ ) mice, a preclinical model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice were fed a controlled AIN-76A diet or a new Western-style diet (NWD). Intestinal tumor development was evaluated after 6 mo of feeding 1) AIN-76A diet (fed ad libitum) vs. AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30%); 2) NWD (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (caloric intake reduced 30%); and 3) AIN-76A (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (paired-fed with NWD providing equal caloric intakes to AIN-76A). Intestinal tumor incidences were 78-100% with intergroup variation P > 0.05; however, tumor multiplicity responded differently to dietary treatment: 1) Tumor multiplicity was unchanged after AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum); 2) tumor multiplicity was unchanged after NWD (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. NWD ad libitum); and 3) tumor multiplicity increased 130% after NWD was paired-fed with the same caloric intake as mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum (P < 0.05). Body weights showed no association with tumor development. Findings indicated modified nutrients in NWD were mainly responsible for increased tumors in mice fed NWD vs. AIN-76A in this preclinical mouse model for human FAP.

  7. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05) in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  8. The effects of changing dairy intake on trans and saturated fatty acid levels- results from a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy food is an important natural source of saturated and trans fatty acids in the human diet. This study evaluates the effect of dietary advice to change dairy food intake on plasma fatty acid levels known to be present in milk in healthy volunteers. Methods Twenty one samples of whole fat dairy milk were analyzed for fatty acids levels. Changes in levels of plasma phospholipid levels were evaluated in 180 healthy volunteers randomized to increase, not change or reduce dairy intake for one month. Fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and levels are normalized to d-4 alanine. Results The long chain fatty acids palmitic (13.4%), stearic (16.7%) and myristic (18.9%) acid were most common saturated fats in milk. Four trans fatty acids constituted 3.7% of the total milk fat content. Increased dairy food intake by 3.0 (± 1.2) serves/ day for 1 month was associated with small increases in plasma levels of myristic (+0.05, 95% confidence level-0.08 to 0.13, p = 0.07), pentadecanoic (+0.014, 95% confidence level -0.016 to 0.048, p = 0.02) and margaric acid (+0.02, -0.03 to 0.05, p = 0.03). There was no significant change in plasma levels of 4 saturated, 4 trans and 10 unsaturated fatty acids. Decreasing dairy food intake by 2.5 (± 1.2) serves per day was not associated with change in levels of any plasma fatty acid levels. Conclusion Dietary advice to change dairy food has a minor effect on plasma fatty acid levels. Trial registration ACTRN12612000574842. PMID:24708591

  9. The effects of functional fiber on postprandial glycemia, energy intake, satiety, palatability and gastrointestinal wellbeing: a randomized crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fiber intakes in developed countries are generally below those recommended by relevant authorities. Given that many people consume fiber-depleted refined-grain products, adding functional fiber will help to increase fiber intakes. The objective of the study was to determine metabolic and sensory effects of adding fiber to bread. Methods A double-blind pair of randomized crossover trials with a two-week washout in which two fiber-containing breads were compared with control bread. The functional fiber (fruit fiber and FibreMax™) was added to yield 10 g fiber per serve (two slices). Eighty participants (n = 37 fruit fiber and n = 43 FibreMax™) consumed one serve of bread (fiber or control) followed three hours later by a pasta meal consumed ad libitum. Outcome measures included glycemia, satiety, palatability, gastrointestinal wellbeing, visual appeal and subsequent energy intake of the pasta meal. Multivariate regression was undertaken to test for differences between treatment and control for blood glucose, satiety, and cumulative energy intake. Satiety responses were also compared by splitting the data into an immediate response after eating (0–30 min) and a return to hunger analysis (30–180 min). A Wilcoxon sign rank test was used for the first component (0–30 min) and Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test for the second component (30–180 min). Between treatment differences for gastrointestinal wellbeing were tested using Pearson’s chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test. Results Consumption of the fruit fiber bread reduced postprandial glycemia by 35% (95% CI 13 to 51; P = 0.004) and cumulative energy intake by 368 kJ (95% CI 163 to 531; P = 0.001). There was little influence on satiety and the bread was rated as having poor taste and smell whilst generating feelings of nausea in some participants. FibreMax™ enriched bread reduced glycemia by 43% (95% CI 17 to 61; P = 0.004) without influence on energy

  10. Effect of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes) Silage on Intake and Nutrient Digestibility in Cattle Fed Rice Straw and Cottonseed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Tham, Ho Thanh; Udén, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred Sindhi heifers with an average body weight (BW) of 135 kg and a mean age of 17 months were used to investigate the effect of feeding different combinations of rice straw and ensiled water hyacinth (EWH) supplemented with a source of protein in the form of cottonseed cake (CSC) on intake and digestibility. Four treatments consisting of graded levels of EWH were arranged in a 4×4 Latin square. The levels of EWH were set at: 0 (EWH0), 15 (EWH15), 30 (EWH30), and 45% (EWH45) of an expected total dietary dry matter (DM) intake of 30 g total DM per kg BW per day. Rice straw was offered ad libitum, while CSC was given at a fixed level of 5 g DM/kg body weight (BW). Voluntary intake and digestibility were measured consecutively in the 4 experimental periods which each lasted 28 days. The crude protein (CP) content of EWH, rice straw and CSC were 174, 53 and 370 g/kg DM, respectively. Rice straw had the highest neutral detergent fibre (NDFom) content (666 g/kg DM), followed by EWH (503 g/kg DM) and the lowest content was 418 g/kg DM in the CSC. The actual EWH contents in the consumed diets were 0, 17, 32 and 52% for EWH0, EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45, respectively. Rice straw intake decreased with level of EWH offered from 3049 for EWH0 to 1014 g/day for EWH45. Crude protein intake was 16, 25 and 33% higher (p<0.001) in EWH15, EWH30 and EWH45 treatments, respectively, as compared to EWH0. Digestibility of organic matter (OM), CP, NDFom and acid detergent fibre (ADFom) increased with increasing level of EWH offered. The highest OM digestibility (72.2%) was found for treatment EWH45 and the lowest (47.4%) for treatment EWH0. In spite of similar dietary CP contents, CP digestibility increased by 21 (EWH15), 31 (EWH30) and 40% (EWH45) with increasing level of EWH in comparison with treatment EWH0. It is concluded that increasing level of EWH in cattle diets considerably improved CP intake and digestibility of nutrients. PMID:25049834

  11. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    PubMed

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk.

  12. Effect of the consumption of high energy dense and fortified gruels on energy and nutrient intakes of 6-10-month-old Vietnamese infants.

    PubMed

    Van Hoan, Nguyen; Van Phu, Pham; Salvignol, Bertrand; Berger, Jacques; Trèche, Serge

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to test the ability of two new products, an instant infant flour and a food supplement containing amylases, to increase energy and micronutrient intakes of infants older than 6 months. Three groups of 48 infants were randomly constituted. Infants in groups 1 and 2 consumed at least twice a day gruel made either from the instant flour or from the food supplement. Infants from the control group received complementary foods prepared in the usual way. Each infant was surveyed during a whole day in order to measure feeding frequencies and characteristics as well as amounts of the different types of complementary foods consumed. Foods consumed by infants in the two experimental groups differed considerably in energy, micronutrient density and in consistency from the home-made complementary foods. Due to the incorporation of amylases, gruels made from the food supplement had a higher energy density, a more appropriate consistency and resulted in higher intakes per meal than gruels made from instant flour. In comparison with home-made complementary foods, both experimental products resulted in significantly higher energy and nutrient intakes. The two experimental products appeared to increase sufficiently both energy and nutrient intakes of infants to complement their breastmilk intake.

  13. Randomized Controlled Trials Evaluating Effect of Television Advertising on Food Intake in Children: Why Such a Sensitive Topic is Lacking Top-Level Evidence?

    PubMed

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vecchio, Maria Gabriella; Sciré, Antonella Silvia; Foltran, Francesca; Berchialla, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of evidence coming from randomized controlled trials (RCT) aimed at assessing the effect of television advertising on food intake in children from 4 to 12 years old. Randomized controlled trials were searched in PubMed database and included if they assessed the effect of direct exposure to television food advertising over the actual energy intake of children. Seven studies out of 2166 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The association between television advertising and energy intake is based on a very limited set of randomized researches lacking a solid ground of first-level evidence. PMID:25105865

  14. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P < 0.001; effect size = 1.19) after dietary NO3(-) intake. This was accompanied by a 4% (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.74) increase in peak knee extensor power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.63) after dietary NO3(-) intake, as was the calculated maximal velocity (i.e., 14.5 ± 0.9 vs. 13.1 ± 0.8 rad/s; P < 0.05; effect size = 0.67). No differences in muscle function were observed during 50 consecutive knee extensions performed at 3.14 rad/s. We conclude that acute dietary NO3(-) intake increases whole-body NO production and muscle speed and power in healthy men and women.

  15. Dual effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on food intake in the rat: inhibition at night and stimulation in the day-time.

    PubMed

    Larue-Achagiotis, C; Le Magnen, J

    1979-11-01

    The effect of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on food intake in rats has been reexamined. The effects were compared following administration of 2-DG IP (250, 500, 750 mg/kg and saline) either at the beginning of a 12-hr dark or 12-hr light period. Ad lib food intake was recorded during the subsequent 24 hours. In the day-time 2-DG enhanced food intake. The increase was not dose-dependent. It was apparent only during the first four hours and was compensated during the following eight hours. At night, an inhibition in food intake was observed. This inhibition was mainly manifested during the first four hours and was not dose-dependent. However, a dose related compensation during the subsequent hours resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the nocturnal intake. A second expermient indicated that after an overnight fast 2-DG also inhibited the high food intake induced in the day-time. In a third experiment, insulin 10 IV SC combined to 2-DG was shown to further increase food intake in the day-time. At night the combined administration of insulin and 2-DG cancelled their respective opposite effects and no change of food consumption was observed. The results are interpreted in terms of the contrasted neuroendocrine and metabolic patterns prevailing in the two parts of the diurnal cycle.

  16. Effect of variable water intake as mediated by dietary potassium carbonate supplementation on rumen dynamics in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Fraley, S E; Hall, M B; Nennich, T D

    2015-05-01

    Water is a critical nutrient for dairy cows, with intake varying with environment, production, and diet. However, little work has evaluated the effects of water intake on rumen parameters. Using dietary potassium carbonate (K2CO3) as a K supplement to increase water intake, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of K2CO3 supplementation on water intake and on rumen parameters of lactating dairy cows. Nine ruminally cannulated, late-lactation Holstein cows (207±12d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design with 18-d periods. Dietary treatments (on a dry matter basis) were no added K2CO3 (baseline dietary K levels of 1.67% dietary K), 0.75% added dietary K, and 1.5% added dietary K. Cows were offered treatment diets for a 14-d adaption period followed by a 4-d collection period. Ruminal total, liquid, and dry matter digesta weights were determined by total rumen evacuations conducted 2h after feeding on d 4 of the collection period. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH, volatile fatty acids, and NH3 concentrations, and Co-EDTA was used to determine fractional liquid passage rate. Milk samples were collected twice daily during the collection period. Milk, milk fat, and protein yields showed quadratic responses with greatest yields for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment. Dry matter intake showed a quadratic response with 21.8kg/d for the 0.75% added dietary K treatment and 20.4 and 20.5kg/d for control and the 1.5% added dietary K treatment, respectively. Water intake increased linearly with increasing K2CO3 supplementation (102.4, 118.4, and 129.3L/d) as did ruminal fractional liquid passage rate in the earlier hours after feeding (0.118, 0.135, and 0.141 per hour). Total and wet weights of rumen contents declined linearly and dry weight tended to decline linearly as dietary K2CO3 increased, suggesting that the increasing water intake and fractional liquid passage rate with increasing

  17. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  18. Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-10-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant abusers enrolled in outpatient counseling treatment (N. M. Petry, J. M. Peirce, et al., 2005) to examine this question. The first study urine was used to stratify participants into stimulant negative (n = 306) versus positive (n = 108) subgroups. Abstinence incentives significantly improved retention in those testing negative but not in those testing positive. Findings suggest that stimulant abusers presenting to treatment with a stimulant-negative urine benefit from abstinence incentives, but alternative treatment approaches are needed for those who test stimulant positive at intake.

  19. Effect of protein intake on bone and muscle mass in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Genaro, Patrícia de Souza; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2010-10-01

    The aging process is frequently characterized by an involuntary loss of muscle (sarcopenia) and bone (osteoporosis) mass. Both chronic diseases are associated with decreased metabolic rate, increased risk of falls/fracture, and, as a result, increased morbidity and loss of independence in the elderly. The quality and quantity of protein intake affects bone and muscle mass in several ways and there is evidence that increased essential amino acid or protein availability can enhance muscle protein synthesis and anabolism, as well as improve bone homeostasis in older subjects. A thorough evaluation of renal function is important, since renal function decreases with age. Finally, protein and calcium intake should be considered in the prevention or treatment of the chronic diseases osteoporosis and sarcopenia. PMID:20883419

  20. Effectiveness of abstinence-based incentives: interaction with intake stimulant test results.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, Maxine L; Petry, Nancy; Peirce, Jessica; Kirby, Kimberly; Killeen, Therese; Roll, John; Hamilton, John; Stabile, Patricia Q; Sterling, Robert; Brown, Chanda; Kolodner, Ken; Li, Rui

    2007-10-01

    Intake urinalysis test result (drug positive vs. negative) has been previously identified as a strong predictor of drug abuse treatment outcome, but there is little information about how this prognostic factor may interact with the type of treatment delivered. The authors used data from a multisite study of abstinence incentives for stimulant abusers enrolled in outpatient counseling treatment (N. M. Petry, J. M. Peirce, et al., 2005) to examine this question. The first study urine was used to stratify participants into stimulant negative (n = 306) versus positive (n = 108) subgroups. Abstinence incentives significantly improved retention in those testing negative but not in those testing positive. Findings suggest that stimulant abusers presenting to treatment with a stimulant-negative urine benefit from abstinence incentives, but alternative treatment approaches are needed for those who test stimulant positive at intake. PMID:17907862

  1. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  2. The effects of varying protein and energy intakes on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of high dietary protein and energy intake on the growth and body composition of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Study design Thirty-eight VLBW infants whose weights were appropriate for their gestational ages were assessed for when they could tolerate oral intake for all their nutritional needs. Thirty-two infants were included in a longitudinal, randomized clinical trial over an approximate 28-day period. One control diet (standard preterm formula, group A, n = 8, 3.7 g/kg/d of protein and 129 kcal/kg/d) and two high-energy and high-protein diets (group B, n = 12, 4.2 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d; group C, n = 12, 4.7 g/kg/d and 150 kcal/kg/d) were compared. Differences among groups in anthropometry and body composition (measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis) were determined. An enriched breast milk group (n = 6) served as a descriptive reference group. Results Groups B and C displayed greater weight gains and higher increases in fat-free mass than group A. Conclusion An intake of 150 kcal/kg/d of energy and 4.2 g/kg/d of protein increases fat-free mass accretion in VLBW infants. PMID:22206271

  3. Feed intake limitation strategies for the growing rabbit: effect on feeding behaviour, welfare, performance, digestive physiology and health: a review.

    PubMed

    Gidenne, T; Combes, S; Fortun-Lamothe, L

    2012-09-01

    This review aims to present the different effects produced by a post-weaning intake limitation strategy on the growing rabbit, now largely used by French professional rabbit breeders. Although a quantitative feed restriction leads to slower growth, feed conversion (FC) is improved, particularly when the rabbits are again fed freely, as compensatory growth occurs. This better FC or the healthy rabbit is because of better digestion resulting from slower passage through the intestine, whereas the digestive physiology is slightly modified (morphometry of the intestinal mucosa, fermentation pattern, microbiota). Meat quality and carcass characteristics are not greatly affected by feed restriction, except for a lower dressing-out percentage. One of the main advantages of limiting post-weaning intake of the rabbit is to reduce the mortality and morbidity rate due to digestive disorders (particularly epizootic rabbit enteropathy syndrome). The consequences for animal welfare are debatable, as feed restriction probably leads to hunger, but it reduces the incidence of digestive troubles after weaning. However, the growing rabbit adapts very well to an intake limitation strategy, without any aggressive behaviour for congener. In conclusion, restriction strategies could improve profitability of rabbit breeding, but they should be adapted to any specific breeding situation, according to the national market, feed prices, etc. PMID:23031513

  4. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  5. Sex Differences in the Effects of Mental Work and Moderate-Intensity Physical Activity on Energy Intake in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Drapeau, Vicky; Sénécal, Caroline; Tremblay, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of mental work and moderate-intensity physical activity on various components of energy balance in young and healthy adults. With the use of a randomized crossover design, 35 participants aged 24 ± 3 years completed three 45-min conditions, namely, (i) resting in a sitting position (control), (ii) reading and writing (mental work (MW)), and (iii) exercising on a treadmill at 40% of peak oxygen uptake (exercise), followed by an ad libitum lunch. The endpoints were spontaneous energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), appetite sensations, and EI for the remainder of the day. We observed that the energy cost of the control and MW conditions was about the same whereas the exercise condition increased EE to a greater extent in men than women. Exercise induced a