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Sample records for integral source igr

  1. On the Near-infrared Identification of the INTEGRAL Source IGR J16328-4726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persi, P.; Fiocchi, M.; Tapia, M.; Roth, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Parisi, P.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to identify the infrared (IR) counterpart of the Galactic high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16328-4726 discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite, and to derive the extinction and distance to the system. We present new deep sub-arcsecond JHKs imaging and low-resolution near-IR spectroscopy in the 1.5 and 2.4 μm range of IGR J16328-4726. We report the presence of two near-IR stellar sources separated by about 1.″8 at the location of the unresolved 2MASS source J16323791-4723409, previously considered to be the near-IR counterpart of the X-ray source. From the analysis of their near-IR colors and spectra as well as accurate positions, we uniquely identify the true IR counterpart of IGR J16328-4726. Our 1.5-2.4 μm spectrum of this star is consistent with the published classification O8Iafpe. Assuming this, and in combination with new JHKs photometry, a reddening AV = 23.6 ± 0.7 and a distance of 7.2 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun are derived.

  2. ON THE NEAR-INFRARED IDENTIFICATION OF THE INTEGRAL SOURCE IGR J16328–4726

    SciTech Connect

    Persi, P.; Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Parisi, P.; Roth, M.

    2015-07-15

    The aim of this work is to identify the infrared (IR) counterpart of the Galactic high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16328–4726 discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite, and to derive the extinction and distance to the system. We present new deep sub-arcsecond JHK{sub s} imaging and low-resolution near-IR spectroscopy in the 1.5 and 2.4 μm range of IGR J16328–4726. We report the presence of two near-IR stellar sources separated by about 1.″8 at the location of the unresolved 2MASS source J16323791–4723409, previously considered to be the near-IR counterpart of the X-ray source. From the analysis of their near-IR colors and spectra as well as accurate positions, we uniquely identify the true IR counterpart of IGR J16328–4726. Our 1.5–2.4 μm spectrum of this star is consistent with the published classification O8Iafpe. Assuming this, and in combination with new JHK{sub s} photometry, a reddening A{sub V} = 23.6 ± 0.7 and a distance of 7.2 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun are derived.

  3. Swift/XRT follow-up of the unidentified INTEGRAL source IGR J14043-6148

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-02-01

    We report the results of an X-ray follow-up observation performed with Swift/XRT of the unidentified INTEGRAL source IGR J14043-6148 listed in the 4th IBIS Survey Catalogue (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). Inside the 90% IBIS error circle, we find an X-ray source detected at 6.5 sigma c.l. (0.3-10 keV), which is still observed at 6.1 sigma c.l. above 3 keV. It is positioned at R.A.(J2000) = 14h 04m 29.63s and Dec.(J2000) = -61d 47m 19.7s (4.5 arcsec uncertainty).

  4. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE INTEGRAL SOURCES: NEW X-RAY POSITIONS FOR IGR J16393-4643 AND IGR J17091-3624

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rahoui, F.; Rodriguez, J.

    2012-06-01

    The Chandra High Resolution Camera observed the fields of five hard X-ray sources in order to help us obtain X-ray coordinates with subarcsecond precision. These observations provide the most accurate X-ray positions known for IGR J16393-4643 and IGR J17091-3624. The obscured X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 lies at R.A. (J2000) = 16{sup h}39{sup m}05.{sup s}47, and decl. = -46 Degree-Sign 42'13.''0 (error radius of 0.''6 at 90% confidence). This position is incompatible with the previously proposed counterpart 2MASS J16390535-4642137, and it points instead to a new counterpart candidate that is possibly blended with the Two Micron All Sky Survey star. The black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 was observed during its 2011 outburst providing coordinates of R.A. = 17{sup h}09{sup m}07.{sup s}59, and decl. = -36 Degree-Sign 24'25.''4. This position is compatible with those of the proposed optical/IR and radio counterparts, solidifying the source's status as a microquasar. Three targets, IGR J14043-6148, IGR J16358-4726, and IGR J17597-2201, were not detected. We obtained 3{sigma} upper limits of, respectively, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} on their 2-10 keV fluxes.

  5. Discovery of X-Ray Pulsations from the INTEGRAL Source IGR J11014-6103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Tomsick, J. A.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bodaghee, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Rahoui, F.

    2014-11-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J1101-6101, a 62.8 ms pulsar in IGR J11014-6103, a hard X-ray source with a jet and a cometary tail that strongly suggests it is moving away from the center of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-61A at v > 1000 km s-1. Two XMM-Newton observations were obtained with the EPIC pn in small window mode, resulting in the measurement of its spin-down luminosity \\dot{E}=1.36× 1036 erg s-1, characteristic age τ c = 116 kyr, and surface magnetic field strength Bs = 7.4 × 1011 G. In comparison to τ c , the 10-30 kyr age estimated for MSH 11-61A suggests that the pulsar was born in the SNR with initial period in the range 54 <= P 0 <= 60 ms. PSR J1101-6101 is the least energetic of the 15 rotation-powered pulsars detected by INTEGRAL, and has a high efficiency of hard X-ray radiation and jet power. We examine the shape of the cometary nebula in a Chandra image, which is roughly consistent with a bow shock at the velocity inferred from the SNR age and the pulsar's \\dot{E}. However, its structure differs in detail from the classic bow shock, and we explore possible reasons for this.

  6. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY PULSATIONS FROM THE INTEGRAL SOURCE IGR J11014–6103

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, J. P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Tomsick, J. A.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bodaghee, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of PSR J1101–6101, a 62.8 ms pulsar in IGR J11014–6103, a hard X-ray source with a jet and a cometary tail that strongly suggests it is moving away from the center of the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11–61A at v > 1000 km s{sup –1}. Two XMM-Newton observations were obtained with the EPIC pn in small window mode, resulting in the measurement of its spin-down luminosity E-dot =1.36×10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}, characteristic age τ {sub c} = 116 kyr, and surface magnetic field strength B{sub s} = 7.4 × 10{sup 11} G. In comparison to τ {sub c}, the 10-30 kyr age estimated for MSH 11–61A suggests that the pulsar was born in the SNR with initial period in the range 54 ≤ P {sub 0} ≤ 60 ms. PSR J1101–6101 is the least energetic of the 15 rotation-powered pulsars detected by INTEGRAL, and has a high efficiency of hard X-ray radiation and jet power. We examine the shape of the cometary nebula in a Chandra image, which is roughly consistent with a bow shock at the velocity inferred from the SNR age and the pulsar's E-dot . However, its structure differs in detail from the classic bow shock, and we explore possible reasons for this.

  7. RXTE Observations of the Strongly Absorbed Sources IGR J16318-4848 and IGR J16358-4726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M. G.

    2003-10-01

    We analyzed the RXTE observations of two strongly absorbed sources, IGR J16318-4848 and IGR J16358-4726. We were able to obtain the 3-25 keV spectra of the sources by taking into account the contribution of the Galactic diffuse background to the X-ray flux recorded with the RXTE/PCA spectrometer. The spectra of the sources are well described by a power-law decrease of the photon flux with energy with a photon index of 1 and strong photoabsorption. The photoabsorption column density nHL for IGR J16318-4848 derived from the RXTE observation on March 14.1, 2003, is shown to be much higher than its value obtained by the XMM observatory on February 10.7, 2003. This result may suggest that the source has variable absorption that may depend on the orbital phase of the system. We point out that all of the three X-ray sources discovered by the INTEGRAL observatory in the region (l, b) (336, 0) (IGR J16318-4848, IGR J16320-4751, and IGR J16358-4726) have strong intrinsic photoabsorption and may be high-mass binaries. Their proximity to the region where the tangent to the Galactic spiral arm passes, i.e., to the region of enhanced concentration of young high-mass stars, can serve as an indirect confirmation of this assumption. If our assumption about the positions of the sources in the Norma spiral arm is valid, then we can roughly estimate their heliocentric distances: 6-8 kpc.

  8. IGR J16318-4848: 7 Years of INTEGRAL Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barragan, Laura; Wilms, Joern; kreykenbohm, Ingo; Hanke, manfred; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of IGR 116318-4848 in 2003 January, INTEGRAL has accumulated more than 5.8 Ms in IBIS/ISGRI. We present the first extensive analysis of the archival INTEGRAL data (IBIS/ISGRI, and JEM-X when available) for this source, together with the observations carried out by XMM-Newton (twice in 2003, and twice in 2004) and Suzaku (2006). The source is very variable in the long-term, with periods of low activity, where the source is almost not detected, and flares with a luminosity approximately 10 times greater than its average value (5.4 cts/s). IGR 116318-4848 is a HMXB containing a sgB[e] star and a compact object (most probably a neutron star) deeply embedded in the stellar wind of the mass donor. The variability of the source (also in the short-term) can be ascribed to the wind of the optical star being very clumpy. We study the variation of the spectral parameters in time scales of INTEGRAL revolutions. The photoelectric absorption is, with NH around 10(exp 24)/ square cm, unusually high. During brighter phases the strong K-alpha iron line known from XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations is also detectable with the JEM-X instrument.

  9. Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Spitzer Reveal IGR J16283-4838

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Gehrels, N.; Markwardt, C.; Barthelmy S.; Soldi, S.; Paizis, A.; Mowlavi, N.; Kennca, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Chester, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first combined study of the recently discovered source IGR J16283-4838 with Swift, INTEGRAL, and RXTE. The source, discovered by INTEGRAL on April 7, 2005, shows a highly absorbed (variable N(sub H) = 0.4-1.7 x 10(exp 23) /sq cm) and flat (Gamma approx. 1) spectrum in the Swift/XRT and RXTE/PCA data. No optical counterpart is detectable (V > 20 mag), but a possible infrared counterpart within the Swift/XRT error radius is detected in the 2MASS and Spitzer/GLIMPSE survey. The observations suggest that IGR J16283-4838 is a high mass X-ray binary containing a neutron star embedded in Compton thick material. This makes IGR J16283-4838 a member of the class of highly absorbed HMXBs, discovered by INTEGRAL.

  10. Swift/XRT detection of the hard X-ray source IGR J14549-6459

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Bird, A. J.

    2010-04-01

    We report the result of a short (900 sec) Swift/XRT observation of the field containing IGR J14549-6459, a new INTEGRAL source recently reported in the 4th IBIS catalogue (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). The XRT data analysis is performed using the standard procedure described in details in Landi et al. 2010 (MNRAS, 403, 945). The XRT observation locates the X-ray counterpart of IGR J14549-6459 at RA(J2000)= 14h 55m 23.9s, Dec(J2000)= -65d 00m 03.2s with an error of 6".

  11. INTEGRAL confirms activity in EXO 1722-363 / IGR J17252-3616

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreykenbohm, I.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilms, J.; Grinberg, V.; Kuulkers, E.; Hirsch, M.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.

    2016-08-01

    INTEGRAL observations taken on 2016 August 23 between MJD 57623.26 and 57623.84 clearly confirm the highly absorbed super-giant high mass X-ray binary pulsar EXO 1722-363 (IGR J17252-3616) to be the source reported as flaring in ATel #9412 by MAXI.

  12. SOURCE IDENTIFICATION IN THE IGR J17448-3232 FIELD: DISCOVERY OF THE SCORPIUS GALAXY CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Barrière, Nicolas M.; Tomsick, John A.; Wik, Daniel R.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jérome

    2015-01-20

    We use a 43 ks XMM-Newton observation to investigate the nature of sources first distinguished by a follow-up Chandra observation of the field surrounding INTEGRAL source IGR J17448-3232, which includes extended emission and a bright point source previously classified as a blazar. We establish that the extended emission is a heretofore unknown massive galaxy cluster hidden behind the Galactic bulge. The emission-weighted temperature of the cluster within the field of view is 8.8 keV, with parts of the cluster reaching temperatures of up to 12 keV; no cool core is evident. At a redshift of 0.055, the cluster is somewhat under-luminous relative to the X-ray luminosity-temperature relation, which may be attributable to its dynamical state. We present a preliminary analysis of its properties in this paper. We also confirm that the bright point source is a blazar, and we propose that it is either a flat spectrum radio quasar or a low-frequency peaked BL Lac object. We find four other fainter sources in the field, which we study and tentatively identify. Only one, which we propose is a foreground Galactic X-ray binary, is hard enough to contribute to IGR J17448-3232, but it is too faint to be significant. We thus determine that IGR J17448-3232 is in fact the galaxy cluster up to ≈45 keV and the blazar beyond.

  13. IGR J12319-0749: Evidence for Another Extreme Blazar Found with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Marshall, F. E.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Ubertini, P.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, IGR J12319-0749, detected with the IBIS imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The source, which has an observed 20-100 keV flux of approx 8.3 × 10(exp -12) erg/sq. cm/ s, is spatially coincident with an active galactic nucleus (AGN) at redshift z = 3.12. The broad-band continuum, obtained by combining XRT and IBIS data, is flat (Gamma = 1.3) with evidence for a spectral break around 25 keV (100 keV in the source restframe). X-ray observations indicate flux variability, which is also supported by a comparison with a previous ROSAT measurement. IGR J12319-0749 is also a radio-emitting object likely characterised by a flat spectrum and high radio loudness; optically it is a broad-line emitting object with a massive black hole (2.8 × 10(exp 9) solar masses) at its centre. The source spectral energy distribution is similar to another high-redshift blazar, 225155+2217 at z = 3.668: both objects are bright, with a high accretion disk luminosity and a Compton peak located in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. IGR J12319-0749 is likely the second-most distant blazar detected so far by INTEGRAL.

  14. IGR J12319-0749: Evidence for Another Extreme Blazar Found with INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Marshall, F. E.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Ubertini, P.; Masetti, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, IGR J12319 C0749, detected with the IBIS imager on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The source, which has an observed 20 C100 keV flux of 8.3 10.12 erg cm.2 s.1, is spatially coincident with an AGN at redshift z = 3.12. The broad-band continuum, obtained by combining XRT and IBIS data, is flat ( =1.3) with evidence for a spectral break around 25 keV (100 keV in the source rest frame). X-ray observations indicate flux variability which is further supported by a comparison with a previous ROSAT measurement. IGR J12319 C0749 is also a radio emitting object likely characterized by a flat spectrum and high radio loudness; optically it is a broad-line emitting object with a massive black hole (2.8 109 solar masses) at its center. The source Spectral Energy Distribution is similar to another high redshift blazar, 225155+2217 at z = 3.668: both objects are bright, with a large accretion disk luminosity and a Compton peak located in the hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray band. IGR J12319 C0749 is likely the second most distant blazar detected so far by INTEGRAL.

  15. A possible WISE blazar counterpart of the faint INTEGRAL active galactic nucleus IGR J02341+0228

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.

    2012-05-01

    Following the Swift-XRT identification of the counterpart for the faint INTEGRAL active galactic nucleus IGR J02341+0228, associated with a new extragalactic source: QSO B0231+022 (ATEL #4102), we searched in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ, 140, 1868) catalog at the position of the QSO B0231+022 source for an infrared counterpart.

  16. The Nature of the X-Ray Binary IGR J19294+1816 from INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Swift Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; ZuritaHeras, J.-A.; Chaty, S.; Paizis, A.; Corbel, S.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of a high-energy multi-instrumental campaign with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and Swift of the recently discovered INTEGRAL source IGR J19294+ 1816. The Swift/XRT data allow us to refine the position of the source to R.A. (J2000) = 19h 29m 55.9s, Decl. (J2000) = +18 deg 18 feet 38 inches . 4 (+/- 3 inches .5), which in turn permits us to identify a candidate infrared counterpart. The Swift and RXTE spectra are well fitted with absorbed power laws with hard (Gamma approx 1) photon indices. During the longest Swift observation, we obtained evidence of absorption in true excess to the Galactic value, which may indicate some intrinsic absorption in this source. We detected a strong (P = 40%) pulsations at 12.43781 (+/- 0.00003) s that we interpret as the spin period of a pulsar. All these results, coupled with the possible 117 day orbital period, point to IGR J19294+ 1816 being an high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) with a Be companion star. However, while the long-term INTEGRAL/IBIS/ISGRI 18-40 keV light curve shows that the source spends most of its time in an undetectable state, we detect occurrences of short (2000-3000 s) and intense flares that are more typical of supergiant fast X-ray transients. We therefore cannot make firm conclusions on the type of system, and we discuss the possible implication of IGR J19294+1816 being an Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT).

  17. Chandra Localizations and Spectra of INTEGRAL Sources in the Galactic Plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jerome; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip

    2008-10-01

    We report on the results of observations of hard X-ray sources in the Galactic plane with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The hard X-ray "IGR" sources were discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite, and the goals of the Chandra observations are to provide subarcsecond localizations to obtain optical and infrared counterparts and to provide constraints on their 0.3-10 keV spectra. We obtained relatively short, ~5 ks, observations for 20 IGR sources and find a bright Chandra source in INTEGRAL error circles in 12 cases. In 11 of these cases, a cross-correlation with optical and/or infrared source catalogs yields a counterpart, and the range of J-band magnitudes is 8.1-16.4. Also, in four cases, the Chandra X-ray spectra show evidence for absorbing material surrounding the compact object with a column density of local material in excess of 5 × 1022 cm-2. We confirm that IGR J00234+6141 is a cataclysmic variable and IGR J14515-5542 is an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We also confirm that IGR J06074+2205, IGR J10101-5654, IGR J11305-6256, and IGR J17200-3116 are high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). Our results (along with follow-up optical spectroscopy reported elsewhere) indicate that IGR J11435-6109 is an HMXB and IGR J18259-0706 is an AGN. We find that IGR J09026-4812, IGR J18214-1318, and IGR J18325-0756 may be HMXBs. In cases where we do not find a Chandra counterpart, the flux upper limits place interesting constraints on the luminosities of black hole and neutron star X-ray transients in quiescence.

  18. Identifications of Four Integral Sources in the Galactic Plane via CHANDRA Localizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriquez, Jerome; Foschini, Luigi; Walter, Roland; Kaaret, Philip

    2006-01-01

    Hard X-ray imaging of the Galactic plane by the INTEGRAL satellite is uncovering large numbers of 20-100 keV "IGR" sources. We present results from Chandra, INTEGRAL, optical, and IR observations of four IGR sources: three sources in the Norma region of the Galaxy(1GR J16195-4945,IGR J16207-5129, and IGR J16167-4957) and one that is closer to the Galactic center (IGR 5171 95-4100). In all four cases, one relatively bright Chandra source is seen in the INTEGRAL error circle, and these are likely to be the soft X-ray counterparts of the IGR sources. They have hard 0.3-10 keV spectra with power-law photon indices of Gamma = 0.5-1.1. While many previously studied IGR sources show high column densities (NH approx. 10(exp 23)-10(exp 24)/sq cm), only IGR J16195-4945 has a column density that could be as high as 10(exp 23)/sq cm. Using optical and IR sky survey catalogs and our own photometry, we have obtained identifications for all four sources. The J-band magnitudes are in the range 14.9-10.4, and we have used the optical/IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to constrain the nature of the sources. Blackbody components with temperature lower limits of >9400 K for IGR J16195-4945 and >18,000 K for IGR J16207-5129 indicate that these are very likely high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs). However, for IGR 516167-4957 and IGR J17195-4100, low extinction and the SEDs indicate later spectral types for the putative companions, suggesting that these are not HMXBs.

  19. First simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624. ATCA, INTEGRAL, Swift, and RXTE views of the 2011 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J.; Corbel, S.; Caballero, I.; Tomsick, J. A.; Tzioumis, T.; Paizis, A.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Kuulkers, E.

    2011-09-01

    We present the results of the first four (quasi-)simultaneous radio (ATCA), X-ray (Swift, RXTE), and γ-ray (INTEGRAL) observations of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624, performed in February and March 2011. The X-ray analysis shows that the source was in the hard state, and then it transited to a soft intermediate state. We study the correlated radio/X-ray behaviour of this source for the first time. The radio counterpart to IGR J17091-3624 was detected during all four observations with the ATCA. In the hard state, the radio spectrum is typical of optically thick synchrotron emission from a self-absorbed compact jet. In the soft intermediate state, the detection of optically thin synchrotron emission is probably due to a discrete ejection event associated with the state transition. The position of IGR J17091-3624 in the radio versus X-ray luminosity diagram (aka fundamental plane) is compatible with that of the other black hole sources for distances greater than 11 kpc. IGR J17091-3624 also appears as a new member of the few sources that show a strong quenching of radio emission after the state transition. Using the estimated luminosity at the spectral transition from the hard state, and for a typical mass of 10 M⊙, we estimate a distance to the source between ~11 and ~17 kpc, compatible with the radio behaviour of the source. Table 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Identifications of Five INTEGRAL Sources via Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Suzanne; Tomsick, J. A.; Chaty, S.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Walter, R.; Kaaret, P.; Kalemci, E.; Özbey, M.

    2009-05-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is discovering hundreds of new hard X-ray sources, many of which remain unidentified. We report on optical spectroscopy of five such sources for which X-ray observations at lower energies (˜0.5-10 keV) and higher angular resolutions than INTEGRAL have allowed for unique optical counterparts to be located. We find that IGR J16426+6536 and IGR J22292+6647 are Type 1 Seyfert active galactic nuclei (with IGR J16426+6536 further classified as a Seyfert 1.5) which have redshifts of z = 0.323 and z = 0.113, respectively. IGR J18308-1232 is identified as a cataclysmic variable (CV), and we confirm a previous identification of IGR J19267+1325 as a magnetic CV. IGR J18214-1318 is identified as an obscured high mass X-ray binary (HMXB), which are systems thought to have a compact object embedded in the stellar wind of a massive star. We combine Chandra fluxes with distances based on the optical observations to calculate X-ray luminosities of the HMXB and CVs, finding L0.3-10 keV = 5 x 1036 erg s-1 for IGR J18214-1318, L0.3-10 keV =1.3 x1032 erg s-1 for IGR J18308-1232, and L0.3-10 keV = 6.7 x 1032 erg s-1 for IGR J19267+1325. SCB acknowledges partial support from Chandra awards GO7-8050X and GO8-9055X issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center. Also, SCB is partially supported by a UC Berkeley Chancellor's Fellowship and an SSL Summer Science Fellowship.

  1. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton Observations of the X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16320-4751/AX J1691.9-4752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J.; Bodaghee, A.; Kaaret, P.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Malaguti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Cabanac, C.; Chernyakova, M.; Corbel, S.; Deluit, S.; DiCocco, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Goldwurm, A.; Henri, G.; Lebrun, F.; Paizis, A.; Walter, R.; Foschini, L.

    2006-01-01

    We report on observations of the X-ray pulsar IGR J16320-4751 (also known as AX J1631.9-4752) performed simultaneously with International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton. We refine the source position and identify the most likely infrared counterpart. Our simultaneous coverage allows us to confirm the presence of X-ray pulsations at approximately 1300 s, that we detect above 20 keV with INTEGRAL for the first time. The pulse fraction is consistent with being constant with energy, which is compatible with a model of polar accretion by a pulsar. We study the spectral properties of IGR J16320-4751 during two major periods occurring during the simultaneous coverage with both satellites, namely a flare and a non-flare period. We detect the presence of a narrow 6.4 keV iron line in both periods. The presence of such a feature is typical of supergiant wind accretors such as Vela X-1 or GX 301-2. We inspect the spectral variations with respect to the pulse phase during the non-flare period, and show that the pulse is solely due to variations of the X-ray flux emitted by the source and not due to variations of the spectral parameters. Our results are therefore compatible with the source being a pulsar in a High Mass X-ray Binary. We detect a soft excess appearing in the spectra as a blackbody with a temperature of approximately 0.07 keV. We discuss the origin of the X-ray emission in IGR J16320-4751: while the hard X-rays are likely the result of Compton emission produced in the close vicinity of the pulsar, based on energy argument we suggest that the soft excess is likely the emission by a collisionally energized cloud in which the compact object is embedded.

  2. XSS J00564+4548 and IGR J00234+6141: New cataclysmic variables from the RXTE and INTEGRAL all-sky surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Burenin, R. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2006-09-01

    We present the results of our optical identification of two X-ray sources from the RXTE and INTEGRAL all-sky surveys: XSS J00564+4548 and IGR J00234+6141. Using optical observations with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT150) and publicly accessible X-ray data from the SWIFT Orbital Observatory, we show that these sources are most likely intermediate polars, i.e., binary systems with accreting white dwarfs that possess a moderately strong magnetic field (≲10 MG). We have found periodic optical oscillations with periods of ≈480 and ≈570 s. These periods most likely correspond to the rotation periods of the white dwarfs in these systems. Further optical RTT150 observations of these systems will allow their parameters to be studied in more detail.

  3. Discovery of an Energetic 38.5 ms Pulsar Powering the Gamma-ray Source IGR J18490-0000/HESS J1849-000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Halpern, J. P.; Terrier, R.; Mattana, F.

    2011-03-01

    We report the discovery of a 38.5 ms X-ray pulsar in observations of the soft γ-ray source IGR J18490-0000 with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). PSR J1849-0001 is spinning down rapidly with period derivative 1.42 × 10-14 s s-1, yielding a spin-down luminosity \\dot{E} = 9.8 × 1036 erg s-1, characteristic age τ_c ≡ P/2\\dot{P} = 42.9 kyr, and surface dipole magnetic field strength Bs = 7.5 × 1011 G. Within the INTEGRAL/IBIS error circle lies a point-like XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray source that shows evidence of faint extended emission consistent with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The XMM-Newton spectrum of the point source is well fitted by an absorbed power-law model with photon index ΓPSR = 1.1 ± 0.2, N H = (4.3 ± 0.6) × 1022 cm-2, and F PSR(2-10 keV) = (3.8 ± 0.3) × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, while the spectral parameters of the extended emission are roughly ΓPWN ≈ 2.1 and F PWN(2-10 keV) ≈ 9 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. IGR J18490-0000 is also coincident with the compact TeV source HESS J1849-000. For an assumed distance of 7 kpc in the Scutum arm tangent region, the 0.35-10 TeV luminosity of HESS J1849-000 is 0.13% of the pulsar's spin-down energy, while the ratio F(0.35-10 TeV)/F PWN(2-10 keV) ≈ 2. These properties are consistent with leptonic models of TeV emission from PWNe, with PSR J1849-0001 in a stage of transition from a synchrotron X-ray source to an inverse Compton γ-ray source.

  4. Flat-Spectrum Radio Sources as Likely Counterparts of Unidentified INTEGRAL Sources (Research Note)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molina, M.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    Many sources in the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue are still unidentified since they lack an optical counterpart. An important tool that can help in identifying and classifying these sources is the cross-correlation with radio catalogues, which are very sensitive and positionally accurate. Moreover, the radio properties of a source, such as the spectrum or morphology, could provide further insight into its nature. In particular, flat-spectrum radio sources at high Galactic latitudes are likely to be AGN, possibly associated to a blazar or to the compact core of a radio galaxy. Here we present a small sample of 6 sources extracted from the fourth INTEGRAL/IBIS catalogue that are still unidentified or unclassified, but which are very likely associated with a bright, flat-spectrum radio object. To confirm the association and to study the source X-ray spectral parameters, we performed X-ray follow-up observations with Swift/XRT of all objects. We report in this note the overall results obtained from this search and discuss the nature of each individual INTEGRAL source. We find that 5 of the 6 radio associations are also detected in X-rays; furthermore, in 3 cases they are the only counterpart found. More specifically, IGR J06073-0024 is a flat-spectrum radio quasar at z = 1.08, IGR J14488-4008 is a newly discovered radio galaxy, while IGR J18129-0649 is an AGN of a still unknown type. The nature of two sources (IGR J07225-3810 and IGR J19386-4653) is less well defined, since in both cases we find another X-ray source in the INTEGRAL error circle; nevertheless, the flat-spectrum radio source, likely to be a radio loud AGN, remains a viable and, in fact, a more convincing association in both cases. Only for the last object (IGR J11544-7618) could we not find any convincing counterpart since the radio association is not an X-ray emitter, while the only X-ray source seen in the field is a G star and therefore unlikely to produce the persistent emission seen by INTEGRAL.

  5. INTEGRAL IGR J18135-1751 = HESS J1813-178: A New Cosmic High-Energy Accelerator from keV to TeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; De Rosa, A.; Lebrun, F.; Moran, L.; Renaud, M.; Stephen, J. B.; Terrier, R.; Walter, R.

    2005-08-01

    We report the discovery of a soft gamma-ray source, namely, IGR J18135-1751, detected with IBIS, the Imager on Board the INTEGRAL Satellite. The source is persistent and has a 20-100 keV luminosity of ~5.7× 1034 ergs s-1 (assuming a distance of 4 kpc). This source is coincident with one of the eight unidentified objects recently reported by the HESS collaboration as part of the first TeV survey of the inner part of the Galaxy. Two of these new sources found along the Galactic plane, HESS J1813-178 and HESS J1614-518, have no obvious lower energy counterparts, a fact that motivated the suggestion that they might be dark cosmic ray accelerators. HESS J1813-178 has a strongly absorbed X-ray counterpart, the ASCA source AGPS 273.4-17.8, showing a power-law spectrum with photon index ~1.8 and a total (Galactic plus intrinsic) absorption corresponding to NH~5×1022 cm-2. We hypothesize that the source is a pulsar wind nebula embedded in its supernova remnant. The lack of X-ray or gamma-ray variability, the radio morphology, and the ASCA spectrum are all compatible with this interpretation. In any case we rule out the hypothesis that HESS J1813-178 belongs to a new class of TeV objects or that it is a cosmic ``dark particle'' accelerator. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data center funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Spain), the Czech Republic, and Poland and with the participation of Russia and the US.

  6. The XMM-Newton1 and INTEGRAL2 Observations of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient IGR J16328-4726

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Sguera, V.; Bird, A. J.; Boon, C. M.; Persi, P.; Piro, L.

    2016-10-01

    The accretion mechanism producing the short flares observed from the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT) is still highly debated and forms a major part in our attempts to place these X-ray binaries in the wider context of the High Mass X-ray Binaries. We report on a 216 ks INTEGRAL observation of the SFXT IGR J16328-4726 (2014 August 24–27) simultaneous with two fixed-time observations with XMM-Newton (33 and 20 ks) performed around the putative periastron passage, in order to investigate the accretion regime and the wind properties during this orbital phase. During these observations, the source has shown luminosity variations, from ∼ 4× {10}34 to ∼ {10}36 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, linked to spectral properties changes. The soft X-ray continuum is well modeled by a power law with a photon index varying from ∼1.2 up to ∼1.7 and with high values of the column density in the range of ∼ 2{--}4× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. We report on the presence of iron lines at ∼6.8–7.1 keV, suggesting that the X-ray flux is produced by the accretion of matter from the companion wind characterized by density and temperature inhomogeneities.

  7. A Possible Magnetar Nature for IGR J16358-4726

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, S. K.; Zurita, J.; DelSanto, M.; Finger, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Eichler, D.; Gogus, E.; Ubertini, P.; Walter, R.; Woods, P.; Wilson, C. A.; Wachter, S.; Bazzano, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present detailed spectral and timing analysis of the hard X-ray transient IGR J16358-4726 using multisatellite archival observations. A study of the source flux time history over 6 yr suggests that lower luminosity transient outbursts can be occurring in intervals of at most 1 yr. Joint spectral fits of the higher luminosity outburst using simultaneous Chandra ACIS and INTEGRAL ISGRI data reveal a spectrum well described by an absorbed power-law model with a high-energy cutoff plus an Fe line. We detected the 1.6 hr pulsations initially reported using Chandra ACIS also in the INTEGRAL ISGRI light curve and in subsequent XMM-Newton observations. Using the INTEGRAL data, we identified a spin-up of 94 s (P(sup(.)) = 1.6 x 10(exp -4), which strongly points to a neutron star nature for IGR J16358-4726. Assuming that the spin-up is due to disk accretion, we estimate that the source magnetic field ranges between 10(exp 13) and 10(exp 15) G, depending on its distance, possibly supporting a magnetar nature for IGR J16358-4726.

  8. A Possible Magnetar Nature for IGR J16358-4726

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, S.; Zurita, J.; DelSanto, M.; Finger, M.; Koueliotou, C.; Eichler, D.; Gogus, E.; Ubertini, P.; Walter, R.; Woods, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present detailed spectral and timing analysis of the hard x-ray transient IGR J16358-4726 using multi-satellite archival observations. A study of the source flux time history over 6 years, suggests that this transient outbursts can be occurring in intervals of at most 1 year. Joint spectral fits using simultaneous Chandra/ACIS and INTEGRAL/ISGRI data reveal a spectrum well described by an absorbed cut-off power law model plus an Fe line. We detected the pulsations initially reported using Chandra/ACIS also in the INTEGRAL/ISGRI light curve and in subsequent XMM-Newton observations. Using the INTEGRAL data we identified a pulse spin up of 94 s (P = 1.6 x 10(exp -4), which strongly points to a neutron star nature for IGR J16358-4726. Assuming that the spin up is due to disc accretion, we estimate that the source magnetic field ranges between 10(sup 13) approximately 10(sup 15) depending on its distance, possibly supporting a magnetar nature for IGR J16358-4726.

  9. On the Nature of the Hard X-Ray Sources SWIFT J1907.3-2050, IGR J12123-5802 and IGR J19552+0044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardini, F.; deMartino, D; Mukai, K.; Falanga, M.; Andruchow, I.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Masetti, N.; GonzalezBuitrago, D. H.; Mouchet, M.; Tovmassian, G.

    2014-01-01

    The INTEGRAL and Swift hard X-ray surveys have identified a large number of new sources, among which many are proposed as Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). Here we present the first detailed study of three X-ray selected CVs, Swift J1907.3-2050, IGRJ12123-5802, and IGRJ19552+0044 based on XMM-Newton, Suzaku, Swift observations and ground based optical and archival nIR/IR data. Swift J1907.3-2050 is highly variable from hours to monthsyears at all wavelengths. No coherent X-ray pulses are detected but rather transient features. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma absorbed by complex neutral material and a soft black body component arising from a small area. These characteristics are remarkably similar to those observed in magnetic CVs. A supra-solar abundance of nitrogen could arise from nuclear processed material from the donor star. Swift J1907.3-2050 could be a peculiar magnetic CV with the second longest (20.82 h) binary period. IGRJ12123-5802 is variable in the X-rays on a timescale of approximately or greater than 7.6 h. No coherent pulsations are detected, but its spectral characteristics suggest that it could be a magnetic CV of the Intermediate Polar (IP) type. IGRJ19552+0044 shows two X-ray periods, approximately 1.38 h and approximately 1.69 h and a X-ray spectrum characterized by a multi-temperature plasma with little absorption.We derive a low accretion rate, consistent with a CV below the orbital period gap. Its peculiar nIR/IR spectrum suggests a contribution from cyclotron emission. It could either be a pre-polar or an IP with the lowest degree of asynchronism.

  10. On the Nature of the Hard X-ray Sources SWIFT J1907.3-2050, IGR J12123-5802 and IGR J19552+0044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardini, F.; De Martino, D.; Mukai, K.; Falanga, M.; Andruchow, I.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Masetti, N.; Gonzalez Buitrago, D. H.; Mouchet, M.; Tovmassian, G.

    2013-01-01

    The INTEGRAL and Swift hard X-ray surveys have identified a large number of new sources, among which many are proposed as Cataclysmic Variables (CVs). Here we present the first detailed study of three X-ray selected CVs, Swift J1907.3-2050, IGRJ12123-5802, and IGRJ19552+0044 based on XMM-Newton, Suzaku, Swift observations and ground based optical and archival near-infrared/infrared data. Swift J1907.3-2050 is highly variable from hours to months-years at all wavelengths. No coherent X-ray pulses are detected but rather transient features. The X-ray spectrum reveals a multi-temperature optically thin plasma absorbed by complex neutral material and a soft black body component arising from a small area. These characteristics are remarkably similar to those observed in magnetic CVs. A supra-solar abundance of nitrogen could arise from nuclear processed material from the donor star. Swift J1907.3-2050 could be a peculiar magnetic CV with the second longest (20.82 hours) binary period. IGRJ12123-5802 is variable in the X-rays on a timescale of greater than or approximately 7.6 hours. No coherent pulsations are detected, but its spectral characteristics suggest that it could be a magnetic CV of the Intermediate Polar (IP) type. IGRJ19552+0044 shows two X-ray periods, approximately 1.38 hours and approximately 1.69 hours and a X-ray spectrum characterized by a multi-temperature plasma with little absorption. We derive a low accretion rate, consistent with a CV below the orbital period gap. Its peculiar near-infrared/infrared spectrum suggests a contribution from cyclotron emission. It could either be a pre-polar or an IP with the lowest degree of asynchronism.

  11. Spectrum and timing phenomena in IGR J17091-3624 2011 outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Qu, J. L.; Gao, H. Q.; Zhou, J. N.

    2013-02-01

    X-ray source IGR J17091-3624 was discovered by INTEGRAL observatory on 2003 April (Kuulkers 2003). A outburst was detected with Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) in late January 2011 (Krimm 2011). IGR J17091-3624 has a similar timing phenomena to microquasar GRS 1915+105(Belloni 2000; Altamirano 2011). We have analyzed the evolution of temporal and spectral characteristic of IGR J17091-3624 during the 2011 outburst. We find that (1) all the QPOs can be divided into two types, QPO-AB and QPO-C, (2) a small outburst tracks clockwise in the HID, (3) the relationship between hardness and disk color temperature forms a V-shape. Those results will give a strong constraint on the disk radiative process.

  12. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF FIVE INTEGRAL SOURCES LOCATED TOWARD THE SCUTUM ARM

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriguez, J.

    2012-07-01

    Results are presented for XMM-Newton observations of five hard X-ray sources discovered by INTEGRAL in the direction of the Scutum Arm. Each source received {approx}>20 ks of effective exposure time. We provide refined X-ray positions for all five targets enabling us to pinpoint the most likely counterpart in optical/infrared archives. Spectral and timing information (much of which is provided for the first time) allow us to give a firm classification for IGR J18462-0223 and to offer tentative classifications for the others. For IGR J18462-0223, we discovered a coherent pulsation period of 997 {+-} 1 s, which we attribute to the spin of a neutron star in a highly obscured (N{sub H} =2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB). This makes IGR J18462-0223 the seventh supergiant fast X-ray transient candidate with a confirmed pulsation period. IGR J18457+0244 is a highly absorbed (N{sub H} =8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}) source in which the possible detection of an iron line suggests an active galactic nucleus (AGN) of type Sey-2 situated at z = 0.07(1). A periodic signal at 4.4 ks could be a quasi-periodic oscillation which would make IGR J18457+0244 one of a handful of AGNs in which such features have been claimed, but a slowly rotating neutron star in an HMXB cannot be ruled out. IGR J18482+0049 represents a new obscured HMXB candidate with N{sub H} =4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. We tentatively propose that IGR J18532+0416 is either an AGN or a pulsar in an HMXB system. The X-ray spectral properties of IGR J18538-0102 are consistent with the AGN classification that has been proposed for this source.

  13. Discovery of two new Fast X-ray Transients with INTEGRAL: IGR J03346+4414 and IGR J20344+3913

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sguera, V.; Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.; Bird, A. J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the discovery of two Fast X-ray Transients (FXTs) from analysis of archival INTEGRAL data. Both are characterized by a remarkable hard X-ray activity above 20 keV, in term of duration (˜ 15 and 30 minutes, respectively), peak-flux (˜ 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1) and dynamic range (˜ 2400 and 1360, respectively). Swift/XRT follow-up observations failed to detect any quiescent or low level soft X-ray emission from either of the two FXTs, providing an upper limit of the order of a few times 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1. The main spectral and temporal IBIS/ISGRI characteristics are presented and discussed with the aim of infering possible hints on their nature.

  14. Chandra Observations of Eight Sources Discovered by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Wang, Qinan; Bodaghee, Arash; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid; Rodriguez, Jerome; Fornasini, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on 0.3-10 keV observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory of eight hard X-ray sources discovered within 8° of the Galactic plane by the International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory satellite. The short (˜5 ks) Chandra observations of the IGR source fields have yielded very likely identifications of X-ray counterparts for three of the IGR sources: IGR J14091-6108, IGR J18088-2741, and IGR J18381-0924. The first two have very hard spectra in the Chandra band that can be described by a power law with photon indices of Γ = 0.6 ± 0.4 and -{0.7}-0.3+0.4, respectively (90% confidence errors are given), and both have a unique near-IR counterpart consistent with the Chandra position. IGR J14091-6108 also displays a strong iron line and a relatively low X-ray luminosity, and we argue that the most likely source type is a cataclysmic variable (CV), although we do not completely rule out the possibility of a high mass X-ray binary. IGR J18088-2741 has an optical counterpart with a previously measured 6.84 hr periodicity, which may be the binary orbital period. We also detect five cycles of a possible 800-950 s period in the Chandra light curve, which may be the compact object spin period. We suggest that IGR J18088-2741 is also most likely a CV. For IGR J18381-0924, the spectrum is intrinsically softer with {{Γ }}={1.5}-0.4+0.5, and it is moderately absorbed, NH = (4 ± 1) × 1022 cm-2. There are two near-IR sources consistent with the Chandra position, and they are both classified as galaxies, making it likely that IGR J18381-0924 is an active galactic nucleus. For the other five IGR sources, we provide lists of nearby Chandra sources, which may be used along with further observations to identify the correct counterparts, and we discuss the implications of the low inferred Chandra count rates for these five sources.

  15. Orbit Solution for the Millisecond Pulsar IGR J00291+5934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, C. B.; Galloway, D. K.; Chakrabarty, D.; Morgan, E. H.; Strohmayer, T. E.

    2004-12-01

    The INTEGRAL Transient IGR J00291+5934 (ATEL #352), now known to be a 1.67 millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATEL #353), was observed by the RXTE PCA on Dec 5 and 6. The source has decayed to approximately 27 mCrab (2-10 keV). The data were barycentered using the Fox & Kulkarni optical counterpart position (ATEL #354). Pulsations with a sinusoidal frequency modulation are clearly detected in each observation.

  16. INTEGRAL and RXTE spectral analysis of IGR J17480-2446, the new transient in Terzan 5.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrigno, C.; Brandt, S.; Kuulkers, E.; Bordas, P.; Bozzo, E.; Chenevez, J.; Kouveliotou, C.; van der Horst, A. J.

    2010-10-01

    During the ongoing INTEGRAL ToO observation of MAXI J1659-152, IBIS/ISGRI detected again the recently discovered X-ray transient located in the direction of Terzan 5 (ATels #2919, #2920, #2922 ,#2924, #2929, #2932, #2933, #2937, #2939). An association of the source with the transient LMXB EXO 1745-248 was initially suggested (ATels #2919, #2920), but this was considered less likely after the reanalysis of archival Chandra and RXTE observations (ATels #2933, #2937).

  17. How to reveal the mysteries of the most obscured high-energy sources of our Galaxy, discovered by INTEGRAL?

    SciTech Connect

    Chaty, Sylvain

    2007-07-12

    A new type of high-energy binary systems has been revealed by the INTEGRAL satellite. These sources are in the course of being unveiled by means of multi-wavelength optical, near- and mid-infrared observations. Among these sources, two distinct classes are appearing: the first one is constituted of intrinsically obscured high-energy sources, of which IGR J16318-4848 seems to be the most extreme example. The second one is populated by the so-called supergiant fast X-ray transients, with IGR J17544-2619 being the archetype. We report here on multi-wavelength optical to mid-infrared observations of these systems. We show that in the case of the obscured sources our observations suggest the presence of absorbing material (dust and/or cold gas) enshrouding the whole binary system. We then discuss the nature of these two different types of systems.

  18. IGR J17361-4441: a possible new accreting X-ray binary in NGC 6388

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Stevens, J.; Belloni, T. M.; Rodriguez, J.; den Hartog, P. R.; Papitto, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Fontani, F.; Gibaud, L.

    2011-11-01

    IGR J17361-4441 is a newly discovered INTEGRAL hard X-ray transient, located in the globular cluster NGC 6388. We report here the results of the X-ray and radio observations performed with Swift, INTEGRAL, RXTE, and the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) after the discovery of the source on 2011 August 11. In the X-ray domain, IGR J17361-4441 showed virtually constant flux and spectral parameters up to 18 days from the onset of the outburst. The broad-band (0.5-100 keV) spectrum of the source could be reasonably well described by using an absorbed power-law component with a high energy cut-off (NH ≃ 0.8 × 1022 cm-2, Γ ≃ 0.7-1.0, and Ecut ≃ 25 keV) and displayed some evidence of a soft component below ~2 keV. No coherent timing features were found in the RXTE data. The ATCA observation did not detect significant radio emission from IGR J17361-4441, and provided the most stringent upper limit (rms 14.1 μJy at 5.5 GHz) to date on the presence of any radio source close to the NGC 6388 center of gravity. The improved position of IGR J17361-4441 in outburst determined from a recent target of opportunity observation with Chandra, together with the X-ray flux and radio upper limits measured in the direction of the source, argue against its association with the putative intermediate-mass black hole residing in the globular cluster and with the general hypothesis that the INTEGRAL source is a black hole candidate. IGR J17361-4441 might be more likely a new X-ray binary hosting an accreting neutron star. The ATCA radio non-detection also permits us to derive an upper limit to the mass of the suspected intermediate massive black hole in NGC 6388 of ≲ 600 M⊙. This is a factor of 2.5 lower than the limit reported previously.

  19. Time-resolved optical observations of five cataclysmic variables detected by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretorius, Magaretha L.

    2009-05-01

    The European Space Agency γ-ray telescope, INTEGRAL, is detecting relatively more intrinsically rare cataclysmic variables (CVs) than were found by surveys at lower energies. Specifically, a large fraction of the CVs that are INTEGRAL sources consists of asynchronous polars and intermediate polars (IPs). IP classifications have been proposed for the majority of CVs discovered by INTEGRAL, but, in many cases, there is very little known about these systems. In order to address this, I present time-resolved optical data of five CVs discovered through INTEGRAL observations. The white dwarf spin modulation is detected in high-speed photometry of three of the new CVs (IGR J15094-6649, IGR J16500-3307 and IGR J17195-4100), but two others (XSS J12270-4859 and IGR J16167-4957) show no evidence of magnetism, and should be considered unclassified systems. Spectroscopic orbital period (Porb) measurements are also given for IGR J15094-6649, IGR J16167-4957, IGR J16500-3307 and IGR J17195-4100.

  20. IGR J18293-1213 is an eclipsing cataclysmic variable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Bodaghee, A.; Chiu, J.-L.; Fornasini, F. M.; Hong, J.; Krivonos, R.; Ponti, G.; Rahoui, F.; Stern, D.

    2016-09-01

    Studying the population of faint hard X-ray sources along the plane of the Galaxy is challenging because of high extinction and crowding, which make the identification of individual sources more difficult. IGR J18293-1213 is part of the population of persistent sources which have been discovered by the INTEGRAL satellite. We report on NuSTAR and Swift/XRT observations of this source, performed on 2015 September 11. We detected three eclipsing intervals in the NuSTAR light curve, allowing us to constrain the duration of these eclipses, Δ t= 30.8^{+6.3}_{-0.0} min, and the orbital period of the system, T = 6.92 ± 0.01 h. Even though we only report an upper limit on the amplitude of a putative spin modulation, the orbital period and the hard thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum of IGR J18293-1213 provide strong evidence that this source is a magnetic cataclysmic variable. Our NuSTAR and Swift/XRT joint spectral analysis places strong constraints on the white dwarf mass M_wd = 0.78^{+0.10}_{-0.09} M⊙. Assuming that the mass to radius ratio of the companion star M⋆/R⋆ = 1 (solar units) and using T, Δt, and Mwd, we derived the mass of the companion star M⋆ = 0.82 ± 0.01 M⊙, the orbital separation of the binary system a = 2.14 ± 0.04 R⊙, and its orbital inclination compared to the line of sight i=(72.2°^{+2.4}_{-0.0})± 1.0°.

  1. Swift J0525.6+2416 and IGR J04571+4527: two new hard X-ray-selected magnetic cataclysmic variables identified with XMM-Newton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, F.; de Martino, D.; Mukai, K.; Israel, G.; Falanga, M.; Ramsay, G.; Masetti, N.

    2015-11-01

    IGR J04571+4527 and Swift J0525.6+2416 are two hard X-ray sources detected in the Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL/IBIS surveys. They were proposed to be magnetic cataclysmic variables of the intermediate polar (IP) type, based on optical spectroscopy. IGR J04571+4527 also showed a 1218 s optical periodicity, suggestive of the rotational period of a white dwarf, further pointing towards an IP classification. We here present detailed X-ray (0.3-10 keV) timing and spectral analysis performed with XMM-Newton, complemented with hard X-ray coverage (15-70 keV) from Swift/BAT. These are the first high-S/N observations in the soft X-ray domain for both sources, allowing us to identify the white dwarf X-ray spin period of Swift J0525.6+2416 (226.28 s), and IGR J04571+4527 (1222.6 s). A model consisting of multitemperature optically thin emission with complex absorption adequately fits the broad-band spectrum of both sources. We estimate a white dwarf mass of about 1.1 and 1.0 M⊙ for IGR J04571+4527 and Swift J0525.6+2416, respectively. The above characteristics allow us to unambiguously classify both sources as IPs, confirming the high incidence of this subclass among hard X-ray emitting cataclysmic variables.

  2. Swift-XRT follow-up of 2 unidentified INTEGRAL sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malizia, A.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Bird, A. Bazzano A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    In this telegram we report the X-ray follow-up observations performed with Swift-XRT of 2 unidentified INTEGRAL sources listed in Bird et al. 2010 (ApJS, 186, 1). IGR J11014-6103. Within the IBIS error circle, XRT detects an X-ray source with coordinates R.A.(J2000) = 11h 01m 46.4s and Dec.(J2000) = -61d 01m 21s and 6 arcsec positional uncertainty. XRT detection is at 7.7 sigma in the 0.3-10 keV band and 4.6 sigma above 3 keV.

  3. Infrared identification of IGR J09026-4812 as a Seyfert 1 galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurita Heras, J. A.; Chaty, S.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2009-08-01

    Context: IGR J09026-4812 was discovered by INTEGRAL in 2006 as a new hard X-ray source. Thereafter, an observation with Chandra pinpointed a single X-ray source within the ISGRI error circle, showing a hard spectrum, and improving its high-energy localisation to a subarcsecond accuracy. Thus, the X-ray source was associated with the infrared counterpart 2MASS J09023731-4813339 whose JHKS photometry indicated a highly reddened source. The high-energy properties and the counterpart photometry suggested a high-mass X-ray binary with a main sequence companion star located 6.3-8.1 kpc away and with a 0.3-10 keV luminosity of 8-1^+13 × 1034 erg s-1. Aims: New optical and infrared observations were needed to confirm the counterpart and to reveal the nature of IGR J09026-4812. Methods: We performed optical and near infrared observations on the counterpart 2MASS J09023731-4813339 with the ESO/NTT telescope on March 2007. We carried out photometry and spectroscopy in near infrared wavelengths and photometry in optical wavelengths. Results: The accurate astrometry at both optical and near infrared wavelengths confirmed 2MASS J09023731-4813339 as the counterpart of IGR J09026-4812. However, the near infrared images show that the source is extended, thus excluding the possibility of a Galactic compact source. The source spectrum shows three main emission lines identified as the HeI λ1.0830~μm line, and the HI Pa β and Pa α lines, typical of galaxies with an active galactic nucleus. The broadness of these lines reached values as large as 4000 km s-1, suggesting a type 1 Seyfert galaxy. The redshift of the source is z = 0.0391 ± 0.0004. Thus, the near infrared photometry and spectroscopy allowed us to classify IGR J09026-4812 as a type 1 Seyfert galaxy. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 078.D-0268(B).

  4. Integrated Power Source Grant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Traditional spacecraft power systems incorporate a solar array energy source, an energy storage element (battery), and battery charge control and bus voltage regulation electronics to provide continuous electrical power for spacecraft systems and instruments. Dedicated power conditioning components provide limited fault isolation between systems and instruments, while a centralized power-switching unit provides spacecraft load control. Battery undervoltage conditions are detected by the spacecraft processor, which removes fault conditions and non-critical loads before permanent battery damage can occur. Cost effective operation of a micro-sat constellation requires a fault tolerant spacecraft architecture that minimizes on-orbit operational costs by permitting autonomous reconfiguration in response to unexpected fault conditions. A new micro-sat power system architecture that enhances spacecraft fault tolerance and improves power system survivability by continuously managing the battery charge and discharge processes on a cell-by-cell basis has been developed. This architecture is based on the Integrated Power Source (US patent 5644207), which integrates dual junction solar cells, Lithium Ion battery cells, and processor based charge control electronics into a structural panel that can be deployed or used to form a portion of the outer shell of a micro-spacecraft. The first generation Integrated Power Source is configured as a one inch thick panel in which prismatic Lithium Ion battery cells are arranged in a 3x7 matrix (26VDC) and a 3x1 matrix (3.7VDC) to provide the required output voltages and load currents. A multi-layer structure holds the battery cells, as well as the thermal insulators that are necessary to protect the Lithium Ion battery cells from the extreme temperatures of the solar cell layer. Independent thermal radiators, located on the back of the panel, are dedicated to the solar cell array, the electronics, and the battery cell array. In deployed

  5. The long helical jet of the Lighthouse nebula, IGR J11014-6103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Bordas, P.; Pühlhofer, G.; Filipović, M. D.; De Horta, A.; O'Brien, A.; Balbo, M.; Walter, R.; Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Crawford, E.; Stella, L.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Jets from rotation-powered pulsars so far have only been observed in systems moving subsonically through their ambient medium and/or embedded in their progenitor supernova remnant (SNR). Supersonic runaway pulsars are also expected to produce jets, but they have not been confirmed to so far. Aims: We investigated the nature of the jet-like structure associated with the INTEGRAL source IGR J11014-6103 (the "Lighthouse nebula"). The source is a neutron star escaping its parent SNR MSH 11-61A supersonically at a velocity exceeding 1000 km s-1. Methods: We observed the Lighthouse nebula and its jet-like X-ray structure through dedicated high spatial resolution observations in X-rays (with Chandra) and in the radio band (with ATCA). Results: Our results show that the feature is a true pulsar's jet. It extends highly collimated over ≳11pc, displays a clear precession-like modulation, and propagates nearly perpendicular to the system direction of motion, implying that the neutron star's spin axis in IGR J11014-6103 is almost perpendicular to the direction of the kick received during the supernova explosion. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that jets are common to rotation-powered pulsars, and demonstrate that supernovae can impart high kick velocities to misaligned spinning neutron stars, possibly through distinct, exotic, core-collapse mechanisms.

  6. Swift/XRT follow-up observations of unidentified INTEGRAL sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorano, E.; Landi, R.; Parisi, P.; Masetti, N.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.; Jimenez-Bailon, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Galaz, G.; Minniti, D.; Morelli, L.

    2010-10-01

    We report on X-ray follow-up observations performed with Swift/XRT of 3 unidentified INTEGRAL sources listed in the fourth IBIS Survey Catalogue (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). IGR J08190-3835 Within the IBIS uncertainty XRT detects one source with a statistical significance of 5.8 sigma in the energy range 0.3-10 keV and 5.6 sigma above 3 keV. This object, located at RA(J2000) = 08h 19m 11.3s and Dec(J2000) = -38d 33m 09s (5 arcsec uncertainty), is associated with a 2MASS extended object (2MASX J08191136-3833104) classified as a galaxy in the NED archive and is positionally coincident with radio source NVSS J081910-383307.

  7. Swift/XRT follow-up of two unidentified INTEGRAL sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Bazzano, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-02-01

    We report the results of X-ray follow-up observations performed with Swift/XRT of two unidentified INTEGRAL sources listed in the 4th IBIS Survey Catalogue (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). IGR J06523+5334 There are two sources detected by XRT above 3 sigma c.l. and located within the 90% IBIS positional uncertainty: Source #1, detected at 6.1 sigma c.l. (0.3-10 keV), is located at R.A.(J2000) = 06h 52m 31.35s and Dec.(J2000) = +53d 31m 26.2s (4.7 arcsec uncertainty).

  8. The optical counterpart to IGR J06074+2205: a Be/X-ray binary showing disc loss and V/R variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, P.; Zezas, A.; Gkouvelis, L.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Current X-ray missions are regularly discovering new X/γ-ray sources, so identifying the counterparts of these high-energy sources at other wavelengths is important for determining their nature. In particular, optical observations are crucial in the study of X-ray binary populations in our Galaxy. Aims: The main goal of this work is to determine the properties of the optical counterpart to the INTEGRAL source IGR J06074+2205 and study its long-term optical variability. Although its nature as a high-mass X-ray binary has been suggested, little is known about its physical parameters. Methods: We have been monitoring IGR J06074+2205 since 2006 in the optical band. We present optical photometric BVRI and spectroscopic observations covering the wavelength band 4000-7000 Å. The blue spectra allow us to determine the spectral type and luminosity class of the optical companion and the red spectra, together with the photometric magnitudes, were used to derive the colour excess E(B-V) and estimate the distance. Results: We have carried out the first detailed optical study of the massive component in the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J06074+2205. We find that the optical counterpart to IGR J06074+2205 is a V = 12.3 B0.5Ve star located at a distance of ~4.5 kpc. Monitoring of the Hα line reveals V/R variability and an overall decline in its equivalent width. The Hα line has been seen to revert from an emission to an absorption profile. We attribute this variability to global changes in the structure of the Be star's circumstellar disc that eventually led to the complete loss of the disc. The density perturbation that gives rise to the V/R variability vanishes when the disc becomes too small.

  9. Swift-XRT follow-up of 2 unidentified INTEGRAL sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malizia, A.; Landi, R.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    In this telegram we report the X-ray follow-up observations performed with Swift-XRT of 2 unidentified INTEGRAL sources listed in Bird et al. 2010 (ApJS, 186, 1). IGR J17472-7319. Within the IBIS error circle, XRT detects an X-ray source with coordinates R.A. (J2000) = 17h 43m 11.1s and Dec.(J2000) = -73d 19m 22.6s (5.0 arcsec positional uncertainty). The XRT detection is of 4.6 sigma in the 0.3-10 keV band and 2.4 sigma above 3 keV.

  10. X-RAY AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE OBSCURED ACCRETING PULSAR IGR J18179-1621

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, M. A.; Paizis, A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Grinberg, V.; Wilms, J.; Chini, R. E-mail: ada@iasf-milano.inaf.it

    2012-10-01

    IGR J18179-1621 is an obscured accreting X-ray pulsar discovered by INTEGRAL on 2012 February 29. We report on our 20 ks Chandra-High Energy Transmission Gratings Spectrometer observation of the source performed on 2012 March 17, on two short contemporaneous Swift observations, and on our two near-infrared (K{sub s} , H{sub n} , and J{sub n} ) observations performed on 2012 March 13 and 26. We determine the most accurate X-ray position of IGR J18179-1621, {alpha}{sub J2000} = 18{sup h}17{sup m}52.{sup s}18, {delta}{sub J2000} = -16 Degree-Sign 21'31.''68 (90% uncertainty of 0.''6). A strong periodic variability at 11.82 s is clearly detected in the Chandra data, confirming the pulsating nature of the source, with the light-curve softening at the pulse peak. The quasi-simultaneous Chandra-Swift spectra of IGR J18179-1621 can be well fit by a heavily absorbed hard power law (N{sub H} = 2.2 {+-} 0.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} and photon index {Gamma} = 0.4 {+-} 0.1) with an average absorbed 2-8 keV flux of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. At the Chandra-based position, a source is detected in our near-infrared (NIR) maps with K{sub s} 13.14 {+-} 0.04 mag, H{sub n} = 16 {+-} 0.1 mag, and no J{sub n} -band counterpart down to {approx}18 mag. The NIR source, compatible with 2MASS J18175218-1621316, shows no variability between 2012 March 13 and 26. Searches of the UKIDSS database show similar NIR flux levels at epochs six months prior to and after a 2007 February 11 archival Chandra observation where the source's X-ray flux was at least 87 times fainter. In many ways IGR J18179-1621 is unusual: its combination of a several week long outburst (without evidence of repeated outbursts in the historical record), high absorption column (a large fraction of which is likely local to the system), and 11.82 s period does not fit neatly into existing X-ray binary categories.

  11. Be Star Counterpart of X-ray Transient IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Tyagi, S.

    2005-12-01

    We report a probable optical counterpart of the transient X-ray source IGR J06074+2205 (Chenevez et al., ATel #223) discovered by the JEM-X telescopes on INTEGRAL. On 2005 Dec. 27, using the MDM 2.4m telescope to obtain low-resolution spectra of bright stars in the 2' radius X-ray error circle, we find a Be star at R.A. = 06h 07m 26.6s, Decl. = +22d 05' 48". Its magnitudes in the USNO A2.0 and 2MASS catalogs are B=13.3, R=12.1, J=10.49, H=10.19, K=9.96.

  12. The 1-50 keV spectral and timing analysis of IGR J18027-2016: an eclipsing, high mass X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, A. B.; Walter, R.; Knigge, C.; Bazzano, A.; Bélanger, G.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; Galache, J. L.; Malizia, A.; Renaud, M.; Stephen, J.; Ubertini, P.

    2005-08-01

    We report the association of the INTEGRAL source IGR J18027-2016 with the BeppoSAX source SAX J1802.7-2017. IGR J18027-2016 is seen to be a weak, persistent source by the IBIS/ISGRI instrument on board INTEGRAL with an average source count rate of 0.58 counts s-1 ( 6.4 mCrab) in the 20-40 keV band. Timing analysis performed on the ISGRI data identifies an orbital period of of 4.5696 ± 0.0009 days and gives an ephemeris of mid-eclipse as, T_mid = 52 931.37 ± 0.04 MJD. Re-analysis of archival BeppoSAX data has provided a mass function for the donor star, f(m) = 16 ± 1 M⊙ and a projected semimajor axis of axsin{i} = 68 ± 1 lt-s. We conclude that the donor is an OB-supergiant with a mass of 18.8-29.3 M⊙ and a radius of 15.0-23.4 R⊙. Spectra obtained by XMM-Newton and ISGRI indicate a high hydrogen column density of NH = 6.8 × 1022 cm-2, which suggests intrinsic absorption. The source appears to be a high mass X-ray binary with the neutron star emitting X-rays through wind-fed accretion while in an eclipsing orbit around an OB-supergiant.

  13. BROADBAND SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF IGR J16207-5129

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Walter, R.

    2010-08-10

    An analysis of IGR J16207-5129 is presented based on observations taken with Suzaku. The data set represents {approx}80 ks of effective exposure time in a broad energy range between 0.5 and 60 keV, including unprecedented spectral sensitivity above 15 keV. The average source spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law in which we measured a large intrinsic absorption of N {sub H} =(16.2{sup +0.9} {sub -1.1}) x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. This confirms that IGR J16207-5129 belongs to the class of absorbed high-mass X-ray binaries. We were able to constrain the cutoff energy at 19{sup +8} {sub -4} keV, which argues in favor of a neutron star as the primary. Our observation includes an epoch in which the source count rate is compatible with no flux suggesting a possible eclipse. We discuss the nature of this source in light of these and of other recent results.

  14. THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO THE X-RAY TRANSIENT IGR J1824-24525 IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M28

    SciTech Connect

    Pallanca, C.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.

    2013-08-20

    We report on the identification of the optical counterpart to the recently detected INTEGRAL transient IGR J1824-24525 in the Galactic globular cluster M28. From analysis of a multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope data set, we have identified a strongly variable star positionally coincident with the radio and Chandra X-ray sources associated with the INTEGRAL transient. The star has been detected during both a quiescent and an outburst state. In the former case it appears as a faint, unperturbed main-sequence star, while in the latter state it is about two magnitudes brighter and slightly bluer than main-sequence stars. We also detected H{alpha} excess during the outburst state, suggestive of active accretion processes by the neutron star.

  15. IGR J17451–3022: a dipping and eclipsing low mass X-ray binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the available X-ray data collected by INTEGRAL, Swift, and XMM-Newton during the first outburst of the INTEGRAL transient IGR J17451-3022, discovered in 2014 August. The emission of the source during the 9 months-long outburst was dominated by a thermal component (kT˜1.2 keV), most likely produced by an accretion disk. The XMM-Newton observation carried out during the outburst revealed the presence of multiple absorption features in the soft X-ray emission that could be associated to the presence of an ionized absorber lying above the accretion disk, as observed in many high-inclination low mass X-ray binaries. The XMM-Newton data also revealed the presence of partial and rectangular X-ray eclipses (lasting about 820 s), together with dips. The latter can be associated with increases in the overall absorption column density in the direction of the source. The detection of two consecutive X-ray eclipses in the XMM-Newton data allowed us to estimate the source orbital period at Porb=22620.5(‑1.8,+2.0) s (1σ c.l.).

  16. IGR NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. [Quarterly] report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-25

    This reporting term covers the first full quarter subsequent to the program kick-off meeting and the DOE authorization to proceed with the contract work. As such the work of this term principally involves ordering, assembling, and de-bugging equipment as well as the development of the solid electrolyte materials and some initial electrochemical studies. These initial studies make use of the above instrumentation and act as a source of calibration for subsequent studies. Specifically the work during this reporting term has involved the optimization of the sintering of the ceramic electrolyte freeze dried powder to allow for optimum performance of the IGR ceramic composite, the determination of the electrochemical properties in air of the above stabilized ceramic solid oxide electrolyte material over the relevant ranges of applied voltage and temperatures, and the detailed planning, equipment/parts ordering, acquisition, and integration for the computer controlled electrochemical test apparatus for the electrocatalytic materials.

  17. DISENTANGLING THE SYSTEM GEOMETRY OF THE SUPERGIANT FAST X-RAY TRANSIENT IGR J11215-5952 WITH SWIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, P.; Cusumano, G.; Vercellone, S.; Mangano, V.; Sidoli, L.; Krimm, H. A.

    2009-05-10

    IGR J11215-5952 is a hard X-ray transient source discovered in 2005 April with the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and a member of the new class of high-mass X-ray binaries, the supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs). While INTEGRAL and Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations have shown that the outbursts occur with a periodicity of {approx}330 days, Swift data have recently demonstrated that the true outburst period is {approx}165 days. IGR J11215-5952 is the first discovered SFXT displaying periodic outbursts, which are possibly related to the orbital period. The physical mechanism responsible for the X-ray outbursts in SFXTs is still debated. The main hypotheses proposed to date involve the structure of the companion wind or gated mechanisms related to the properties of the compact object. We test our proposed model which explains the outbursts from SFXTs as being due to the passage of the neutron star inside the equatorially enhanced wind from the supergiant companion. We performed a Guest Investigator observation with Swift that lasted 20 ks and several follow-up Target of Opportunity (ToO) observations, for a total of {approx}32 ks, during the expected 'apastron' passage (defined assuming an orbital period of {approx}330 days), between 2008 June 16 and July 4. The characteristics of this 'apastron' outburst are quite similar to those previously observed during the 'periastron' outburst of 2007 February 9. The mean spectrum of the bright peaks can be fitted with an absorbed power-law model with a photon index of 1 and an absorbing column of {approx}10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. This outburst reached luminosities of {approx}10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} (1-10 keV), comparable with those measured in 2007. The light curve can be modeled with the parameters obtained by Sidoli et al. for the 2007 February 9 outburst, although some differences can be observed in its shape. The properties of the rise to this new outburst and the comparison with the

  18. THE FAINT 'HEARTBEATS' OF IGR J17091-3624: AN EXCEPTIONAL BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Kalamkar, M.; Belloni, T.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Linares, M.; Curran, P. A.; Krimm, H.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that IGR J17091-3624 shows the {nu}, {rho}, {alpha}, {lambda}, {beta}, and {mu} classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the {chi} class, all occurring at 2-60 keV count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+105. The so-called {rho} class 'heartbeats' occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as {approx}100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+105. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR J17091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR J17091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known (<3 M{sub Sun }).

  19. IS IGR J11014-6103 A PULSAR WITH THE HIGHEST KNOWN KICK VELOCITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Fornasini, Francesca; Rodriguez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid

    2012-05-10

    We report on Chandra X-ray and Parkes radio observations of IGR J11014-6103, which is a possible pulsar wind nebula with a complex X-ray morphology and a likely radio counterpart. With the superb angular resolution of Chandra, we find evidence that a portion of the extended emission may be related to a bow shock due to the putative pulsar moving through the interstellar medium. The inferred direction of motion is consistent with IGR J11014-6103 having been born in the event that produced the supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 11-61A. If this association is correct, then previous constraints on the expansion of MSH 11-61A imply a transverse velocity for IGR J11014-6103 of 2400-2900 km s{sup -1}, depending on the SNR model used. This would surpass the kick velocities of any known pulsars and rival or surpass the velocities of any compact objects that are associated with SNRs. While it is important to confirm the nature of the source, our radio pulsation search did not yield a detection.

  20. Learning models for multi-source integration

    SciTech Connect

    Tejada, S.; Knoblock, C.A.; Minton, S.

    1996-12-31

    Because of the growing number of information sources available through the internet there are many cases in which information needed to solve a problem or answer a question is spread across several information sources. For example, when given two sources, one about comic books and the other about super heroes, you might want to ask the question {open_quotes}Is Spiderman a Marvel Super Hero?{close_quotes} This query accesses both sources; therefore, it is necessary to have information about the relationships of the data within each source and between sources to properly access and integrate the data retrieved. The SIMS information broker captures this type of information in the form of a model. All the information sources map into the model providing the user a single interface to multiple sources.

  1. IGR J16328-4726: A NEW CANDIDATE SUPERGIANT FAST X-RAY TRANSIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Natalucci, L.; Ubertini, P.; Sguera, V.; Bassani, L.; Bird, A. J.

    2010-12-10

    The unidentified source IGR J16328-4726 was covered with INTEGRAL observations for a long period ({approx}9.8 Ms) and was undetectable for most of the time while showing a very recurrent micro-activity with a duration from tens of minutes to several hours. We report the discovery of two strong outbursts started at 53420.65 MJD and 54859.99 MJD, respectively, the first with a duration of {approx}1 hr and the second with a lower limit on the duration of {approx}3.5 hr. Furthermore, the sources have been detected in nine other short pointings with significance between 4{sigma} and 5{sigma} as well as in one of the revolutions (during the exposure {approx}130 ks) at a significance level of {approx}7{sigma}. The stronger outburst spectrum is well described by a power-law model with a photon index of {approx}2.0 and a flux of {approx}3.3 x10{sup -10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the 20-50 keV energy band. The weaker outburst and revolution spectra show the same spectral shape and different fluxes. The combined timing and spectral properties observed during the outburst, the recurrent nature of this transient source, the Galactic plane location, a dynamic range >170 in the 0.3-10 keV band and >165 in the 20-50 keV, and the presence of an IR star in the error circle of a Swift X-ray Telescope pointing are suggesting this source as a member of the class of the supergiant fast X-ray transients.

  2. IMPLICATIONS OF BURST OSCILLATIONS FROM THE SLOWLY ROTATING ACCRETING PULSAR IGR J17480-2446 IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Cavecchi, Y.; Patruno, A.; Haskell, B.; Watts, A. L.; Altamirano, D.; Wijnands, R.; Van der Klis, M.; Levin, Y.; Linares, M.

    2011-10-10

    The recently discovered accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446 spins at a frequency of {approx}11 Hz. We show that Type I X-ray bursts from this source display oscillations at the same frequency as the stellar spin. IGR J17480-2446 is the first secure case of a slowly rotating neutron star (NS) which shows Type I burst oscillations (BOs), all other sources featuring such oscillations spin at hundreds of Hertz. This means that we can test BO models in a completely different regime. We explore the origin of Type I BOs in IGR J17480-2446 and conclude that they are not caused by global modes in the NS ocean. We also show that the Coriolis force is not able to confine an oscillation-producing hot spot on the stellar surface. The most likely scenario is that the BOs are produced by a hot spot confined by hydromagnetic stresses.

  3. X-ray scattered halo around IGR J17544–2619

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Junjie; Ling, Zhixing; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2014-04-10

    X-ray photons coming from an X-ray point source not only arrive at the detector directly, but also can be strongly forward-scattered by the interstellar dust along the line of sight (LOS), leading to a detectable diffuse halo around the X-ray point source. The geometry of small-angle X-ray scattering is straightforward, namely, the scattered photons travel longer paths and thus arrive later than the unscattered ones; thus, the delay time of X-ray scattered halo photons can reveal information of the distances of the interstellar dust and the point source. Here we present a study of the X-ray scattered halo around IGR J17544–2619, which is one of the so-called supergiant fast X-ray transients. IGR J17544–2619 underwent a striking outburst when observed with Chandra on 2004 July 3, providing a near δ-function light curve. We find that the X-ray scattered halo around IGR J17544–2619 is produced by two interstellar dust clouds along the LOS. The one that is closer to the observer gives the X-ray scattered halo at larger observational angles, whereas the farther one, which is in the vicinity of the point source, explains the halo with a smaller angular size. By comparing the observational angle of the scattered halo photons with that predicted by different dust grain models, we are able to determine the normalized dust distance. With the delay times of the scattered halo photons, we can determine the point source distance, given a dust grain model. Alternatively, we can discriminate between the dust grain models, if the point source distance is known independently.

  4. Integrated-Circuit Broadband Infrared Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, G.; Jhabvala, M.; Burgess, A.

    1989-01-01

    Microscopic devices consume less power, run hotter, and are more reliable. Simple, compact, lightweight, rapidly-responding reference sources of broadband infrared radiation made available by integrated-circuit technology. Intended primarily for use in calibration of remote-sensing infrared instruments, devices eventually replace conventional infrared sources. New devices also replace present generation of miniature infrared sources. Self-passivating nature of poly-crystalline silicon adds to reliability of devices. Maximum operating temperature is 1,000 K, and power dissipation is only one-fourth that of prior devices.

  5. Integrating Electronic Information Sources into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Lori E.; And Others

    Integrating the use of technology-based library resources into the curriculum is necessary for students to acquire vital information-seeking skills. Learning to select and use electronic information sources found on CD-ROM, mainframe computers, and via the Internet enables students to function better in today's information society. This paper…

  6. Thermonuclear X-ray bursts from the 401-Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17498-2921: indication of burning in confined regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-05-01

    We use the 2011 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) data of the 401-Hz accreting pulsar and burster IGR J17498-2921 to perform timing analysis and time-resolved spectroscopy of 12 thermonuclear X-ray bursts. We confirm previously reported burst oscillations from this source with a much higher significance (8.8σ). We note that the bursts can be divided into three groups: big photospheric radius expansion (PRE) bursts are about 10 times more luminous than medium bursts, while the latter are about 10 times more luminous than small bursts. The PCA field of view of these observations contains several known bursters, and hence some of the observed bursts might not be from IGR J17498-2921. The oscillations during big bursts at the known pulsar frequency show that these bursts were definitely from IGR J17498-2921. We find that at least several of the other bursts were also likely originated from IGR J17498-2921. Spectral analysis reveals that the luminosity differences among various bursts are primarily due to differences in normalizations, and not temperatures, even when we consider the effects of colour factor. This shows burning on a fraction of the stellar surface for those small and medium bursts, which originated from IGR J17498-2921. The low values of the upper limits of burst oscillation amplitude for these bursts suggest a small angle between the spin axis and the magnetic axis. We find indications of the PRE nature of a medium burst, which likely originated from IGR J17498-2921. If true, then, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that two PRE bursts with a peak count rate ratio of as high as ≈12 have been detected from the same source.

  7. A far field estimate for source integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, H.

    A mathematical stratagem, based on a relation of asymptotic equivalence, is proposed for ascertaining far field source behavior. The relation associates a plane wave function at locations remote from a central reference point with a combination of converging and diverging spherical wave functions along the direction of its normal or propagating vector. An integral extended over all directions in space of a unit vector leads to an asymptotic characterization of a Fourier transform of the integrand function.

  8. The Seyfert 1 AGN nature of IGR J20450+7530

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, P.; Masetti, N.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.

    2010-09-01

    We report on an optical spectroscopic observation of object USNO-A2.0 1650-02316572 (RA(J2000) = 20h 44m 34.49s, Dec(J2000) = +75d 31m 58.9s), located in the Swift/XRT error box of the soft X-ray source #2 of Landi et al. (ATel #2830). This object according to these authors, is the likely counterpart of the hard X-ray object IGR J20450+7530 listed in the 4th IBIS Survey Catalog (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1).

  9. Terzan 5 transient IGR J17480-2446: variation of burst and spectral properties with spectral states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Mukherjee, Arunava

    2011-11-01

    We study the spectral-state evolution of the Terzan 5 transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary IGR J17480-2446, and how the best-fitting spectral parameters and burst properties evolved with these states, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data. As reported by other authors, this is the second source that showed transitions between atoll state and 'Z' state. We find large-scale hysteresis in the almost 'C'-like hardness-intensity track of the source in the atoll state. This discovery is likely to provide a missing piece of the jigsaw puzzle involving various types of hardness-intensity tracks from 'q' shaped for Aquila X-1, 4U 1608-52 and many black holes to 'C' shaped for many atoll sources. Furthermore, the regular pulsations, a diagonal transition between soft and hard states, and the large-scale hysteresis observed from IGR J17480-2446 argue against some of the previous suggestions involving magnetic field about atolls and millisecond pulsars. Our results also suggest that the nature of spectral evolution throughout an outburst does not, at least entirely, depend on the peak luminosity of the outburst. Besides, the source took at least a month to trace the softer banana state, as opposed to a few hours to a day, which is typical for an atoll source. In addition, while the soft colour usually increases with intensity in the softer portion of an atoll source, IGR J17480-2446 showed an opposite behaviour. From the detailed spectral fitting, we conclude that a blackbody+power-law model is the simplest one, which describes the source continuum spectra well throughout the outburst. We find that these two spectral components were plausibly connected to each other, and they worked together to cause the source-state evolution. Spectral parameters smoothly changed as IGR J17480-2446 transitioned between the atoll state and 'Z' state, and thermonuclear bursts disappeared in the softer parts of 'Z' tracks. Finally, based on the burst properties, we suggest that IGR

  10. HD 74194, a new binary supergiant fast X-ray transient?, possible optical counterpart of INTEGRAL hard X-ray source IGR J08408-4503

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Rodolfo; Gamen, Roberto; Morrell, Nidia

    2006-05-01

    HD 74194 is an O-type supergiant, classified as O8.5 Ib (f) (Walborn 1973, AJ 78, 1067), also suspected as single-lined binary (see Maiz Apellaniz et al. 2004, ApJS 151, 103). This star is being spectroscopically monitored as part of our program of study of massive binaries. We have obtained high-resolution spectra of HD 74194 with the Echelle spectrograph attached to the du Pont 2.5-m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in 2006 May 18.00, 20.96, 22.00, and 22.97.

  11. Variability study of the High Mass X-ray Binary IGR J18027-2016 with Swift-XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Nafisa; Islam, Nazma; Paul, Biswajit

    2016-08-01

    We report the results from pulsations and spectral analysis of a large number of observations of the HMXB pulsar IGR J18027-2016 with Swift-XRT, carried out at different orbital phases. In some orbital phases, as seen in different XRT observations, the X-ray intensity is found to vary by a large factor, of about ˜50. In all the observations with sufficient number of source X-ray photons, pulsations have been detected around the previously known pulse period of ˜140 sec, When detected, the pulse profiles do not show any significant variation over a flux difference of a factor of ˜3. The absorption column density is found to be large before and after the eclipse. We discuss various possible reasons for intensity and spectral variations in IGR J18027-2016, such as clumpy wind and hydrodynamic instabilities.

  12. The Faint "Heartbeats" of IGR J17091-3624: An Exceptional Black Hole Candidate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altamirano, D.; Belloni, T.; Linares, M.; VanDerKlis, M.; Wunands, R.; Curran, P. A.; Kalamkar, M.; Stiele, H.; Motta, S.; Munoz-Darias, T.; Casella, P.; Krimm, H.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the first 180 days of Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer observations of the outburst of the black hole candidate IGR Jl7091-3624. This source exhibits a broad variety of complex light curve patterns including periods of strong flares alternating with quiet intervals. Similar patterns in the X-ray light curves have been seen in the (up to now) unique black hole system GRS 1915+105. In the context of the variability classes defined by Belloni et al. for GRS 1915+105, we find that JGR J17091-3624 shows the nu, rho, alpha, lambda, Beta, and mu classes as well as quiet periods which resemble the chi class, all occurring at 2-60 keY count rate levels which can be 10-50 times lower than observed in GRS 1915+\\05. The so-called rho class "heartbeats" occur as fast as every few seconds and as slow as approx 100 s, tracing a loop in the hardness-intensity diagram which resembles that previously seen in GRS 1915+\\05. However, while GRS 1915+105 traverses this loop clockwise, IGR Jl7091-3624 does so in the opposite sense. We briefly discuss our findings in the context of the models proposed for GRS 1915+105 and find that either all models requiring near Eddington luminosities for GRS 1915+105-like variability fail, or IGR Il7091-3624 lies at a distance well in excess of 20 kpc, or it harbors one of the least massive black holes known( <3 solar M).

  13. Open Source GIS based integrated watershed management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, J. M.; Lindsay, J.; Berg, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Optimal land and water management to address future and current resource stresses and allocation challenges requires the development of state-of-the-art geomatics and hydrological modelling tools. Future hydrological modelling tools should be of high resolution, process based with real-time capability to assess changing resource issues critical to short, medium and long-term enviromental management. The objective here is to merge two renowned, well published resource modeling programs to create an source toolbox for integrated land and water management applications. This work will facilitate a much increased efficiency in land and water resource security, management and planning. Following an 'open-source' philosophy, the tools will be computer platform independent with source code freely available, maximizing knowledge transfer and the global value of the proposed research. The envisioned set of water resource management tools will be housed within 'Whitebox Geospatial Analysis Tools'. Whitebox, is an open-source geographical information system (GIS) developed by Dr. John Lindsay at the University of Guelph. The emphasis of the Whitebox project has been to develop a user-friendly interface for advanced spatial analysis in environmental applications. The plugin architecture of the software is ideal for the tight-integration of spatially distributed models and spatial analysis algorithms such as those contained within the GENESYS suite. Open-source development extends knowledge and technology transfer to a broad range of end-users and builds Canadian capability to address complex resource management problems with better tools and expertise for managers in Canada and around the world. GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science input) is an innovative, efficient, high-resolution hydro- and agro-meteorological model for complex terrain watersheds developed under the direction of Dr. James Byrne. GENESYS is an outstanding research and applications tool to address

  14. Varactor with integrated micro-discharge source

    DOEpatents

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.

    2016-10-18

    An apparatus that includes a varactor element and an integrated micro-discharge source is disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the apparatus includes at least one np junction and at least one voltage source that is configured to apply voltage across the np junction. The apparatus further includes an aperture that extends through the np junction. When the voltage is applied across the np junction, gas in the aperture is ionized, forming a plasma, in turn causing a micro-discharge (of light, charge particles, and space charge) to occur. The light (charge particles, and space charge) impinges upon the surface of the np junction exposed in the aperture, thereby altering capacitance of the np junction. When used within an oscillator circuit, the effect of the plasma on the np-junction extends the capacitance changes of the np-junction and extends the oscillator frequency range in ways not possible by a conventional voltage controlled oscillator (VCO).

  15. SUBARCSECOND LOCATION OF IGR J17480-2446 WITH ROSSI XTE

    SciTech Connect

    Riggio, A.; Burderi, L.; Egron, E.; Di Salvo, T.; D'Ai, A.; Iaria, R.; Robba, N. R.; Papitto, A.; Belloni, T.; Motta, S.; Floris, M.; Testa, V.; Menna, M. T.

    2012-07-20

    On 2010 October 13, the X-ray astronomical satellite Rossi XTE, during the observation of the newly discovered accretion powered X-ray pulsar IGR J17480-2446, detected a lunar occultation of the source. From knowledge of the lunar topography and Earth, Moon, and spacecraft ephemerides at the epoch of the event, we determined the source position with an accuracy of 40 mas (1{sigma} c.l.), which is interesting, given the very poor imaging capabilities of RXTE ({approx}1 Degree-Sign ). For the first time, using a non-imaging X-ray observatory, the position of an X-ray source with a subarcsecond accuracy is derived, demonstrating the neat capabilities of a technique that can be fruitfully applied to current and future X-ray missions.

  16. Discovery of the radio counterpart for 2MASX J20183871+4041003 within the error-box of IGR J2018-4043 and of the AGILE variable gamma-ray source in the Cygnus region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Giacani, E.; Bykov, A. M.; Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Uvarov, Yu. A.

    2008-05-01

    Based on C-configuration VLA observations carried out on December 9 and 12, 2006 at 1423 and 4885 MHz (program ag728), we report on the presence of a radio point source centered exactly at the position of 2MASX J20183871+4041003 within the error box of the discovered AGILE variable gamma-ray source (ATEL #1492, ATEL #1497 and ATEL #1498).

  17. A New Decretion Disk Around IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Andrew; Bondar, A. V.; Metlova, N. V.

    2012-06-01

    The IGR J06074+2205 is a NS Be/X-ray binary of B0.5V spectral type. P.Reig et al. (2010, arXiv:1006.4935v1, A&A 522, A107) after five years of the spectral monitoring of IGR J06074+2205 reports about the fact of reversion from emission to absorption of the H-alpha line and hence disappearance of the equatorial disk. We report spectral observations obtained with the 2m Ritchey-Chretein-Coude telescope with Cassegrain Multi Mode Spectrograph (CMMS) (with R = 14000) at Terskol observatory as a part of spectral monitoring of the selected Be/X-ray binaries.

  18. Integrating multiple data sources for malware classification

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Blake Harrell; Storlie, Curtis B; Lane, Terran

    2015-04-28

    Disclosed herein are representative embodiments of tools and techniques for classifying programs. According to one exemplary technique, at least one graph representation of at least one dynamic data source of at least one program is generated. Also, at least one graph representation of at least one static data source of the at least one program is generated. Additionally, at least using the at least one graph representation of the at least one dynamic data source and the at least one graph representation of the at least one static data source, the at least one program is classified.

  19. The spectral type of the optical counterpart to the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Pablo; Zezas, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the optical counterpart to the high- mass X-ray binary IGR J06074+2205 were obtained from the 1.3m telescope of the Skinakas observatory in Crete (Greece) and from the 1.5m telescope of the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory at Mt. Hopkins (Arizona) on several occasions throughout 2006-2008.These observations allowed us to identify the spectral type of this source and study its long-term spectral variability.

  20. Archivists as Educators: Integrating Primary Sources into the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carini, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Primary source materials are increasingly being thought of as curricular resources and archivists are being asked to play the role of educator. This article, based on the session "Archivists as Educators: Integrating Primary Sources into the Curriculum" looks at the role of the primary source in undergraduate and secondary school curricula and…

  1. Integrating perioperative information from divergent sources.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A M

    2012-01-01

    The enormous diversity of physician practices, including specialists, and patient requirements and comorbidities make integration of appropriate perioperative information difficult. Lack of communicating computer systems adds to the difficulty of assembling data. Meta analysis and evidence-based studies indicate that far too many tests are performed perioperatively. Guidelines for appropriate perioperative management have been formulated by several specialties. Education as to current findings and requirements should be better communicated to surgeons, consultants, and patients to improve healthcare needs and at the same time decrease costs. Means to better communication by interpersonal collaboration are outlined.

  2. The effects of four insect growth-regulating (IGR) insecticides on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colony development, queen rearing and drone sperm production.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen M; Wilkins, Selwyn; Battersby, Alastair H; Waite, Ruth J; Wilkinson, David

    2005-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposure to IGRs on the long-term development of the honeybee colony, viability of queens and sperm production in drones and integrated the data into a honeybee population model. Colonies treated with diflubenzuron resulted in a short-term reduction in the numbers of adult bees and brood. Colonies treated with fenoxycarb declined during the season earlier and started the season slower. The number of queens that successfully mated and laid eggs was affected in the fenoxycarb treatment group but there were no significant differences in the drone sperm counts between the colonies. An existing honeybee population model was modified to include exposure to IGRs. In the model, fenoxycarb reduced the winter size of the colony, with the greatest effects following a June or an August application. Assuming a 'larvae per nurse bee' ratio of 1.5 for brood rearing capability, the reduction in winter size of a colony following a fenoxycarb application was at its worst about 8%. However, even if only those bees reared within 2 weeks of the IGR being applied are subject to premature ageing, this might significantly reduce the size of over-wintering colonies, and increase the chance of the bee population dwindling and dying in late winter or early spring. PMID:16160749

  3. The effects of four insect growth-regulating (IGR) insecticides on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colony development, queen rearing and drone sperm production.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Helen M; Wilkins, Selwyn; Battersby, Alastair H; Waite, Ruth J; Wilkinson, David

    2005-10-01

    This study assessed the effects of exposure to IGRs on the long-term development of the honeybee colony, viability of queens and sperm production in drones and integrated the data into a honeybee population model. Colonies treated with diflubenzuron resulted in a short-term reduction in the numbers of adult bees and brood. Colonies treated with fenoxycarb declined during the season earlier and started the season slower. The number of queens that successfully mated and laid eggs was affected in the fenoxycarb treatment group but there were no significant differences in the drone sperm counts between the colonies. An existing honeybee population model was modified to include exposure to IGRs. In the model, fenoxycarb reduced the winter size of the colony, with the greatest effects following a June or an August application. Assuming a 'larvae per nurse bee' ratio of 1.5 for brood rearing capability, the reduction in winter size of a colony following a fenoxycarb application was at its worst about 8%. However, even if only those bees reared within 2 weeks of the IGR being applied are subject to premature ageing, this might significantly reduce the size of over-wintering colonies, and increase the chance of the bee population dwindling and dying in late winter or early spring.

  4. Integrating an Automatic Judge into an Open Source LMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgouli, Katerina; Guerreiro, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the successful integration of the evaluation engine of Mooshak into the open source learning management system Claroline. Mooshak is an open source online automatic judge that has been used for international and national programming competitions. although it was originally designed for programming competitions, Mooshak has also…

  5. Integrated Photon Source Project at Tohoku University

    SciTech Connect

    Hama, H.; Hinode, F.; Kasagi, J.; Kurihara, A.; Miyamoto, A.; Mutoh, M.; Nanao, M.; Shibasaki, Y.; Shinto, K.; Takahashi, S.; Tanaka, T.; Satoh, S.; Suzuki, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2004-05-12

    A new accelerator complex project to provide photons of which the energy range covers far-infrared, VUV, X-ray and hundreds MeV has been developed at Tohoku University. Based on an infrastructure of an accelerator facility, Laboratory of Nuclear Science (LNS), a new injector linac and a light source storage ring are designed. The 150 MeV injector linac may contain a thermionic RF gun to have simple configuration of accelerating structure. The RF gun allows us to operate infrared free electron laser (FEL). A 1.5 GeV storage ring is designed to realize relatively low emittance and capability of inserting a couple of superconducting wigglers for x-ray. Furthermore a storage ring FEL is also taken account to provide coherent higher harmonic photons and high energy gamma-rays via Compton backscattering and Bremsstrahlung. At the present, the lattice of the storage ring is considered to have eight-hold Chasman-Green cells and two 8 m-long straight sections. Because of limited budget and site area, the storage ring should be small, so that we will employ multipole magnets which produce both quadrupole and sextupole magnetic fields.

  6. Building a global normalized ontology for integrating geographic data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, Agustina; Cechich, Alejandra; Gendarmi, Domenico; Lanubile, Filippo; Semeraro, Giovanni; Colagrossi, Attilio

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, the proliferation of geographic information systems has caused great interest in integration. However, an integration process is not as simple as joining several systems, since any effort at information sharing runs into the problem of semantic heterogeneity, which requires the identification and representation of all semantics useful in performing schema integration. On several research lines, including research on geographic information system integration, ontologies have been introduced to facilitate knowledge sharing among various agents. Particularly, one of the aspects of ontology sharing is performing some sort of mapping between ontology constructs. Further, some research suggests that we should also be able to combine ontologies where the product of this combination will be, at the very least, the intersection of the two given ontologies. However, few approaches built integrations upon standard and normalized information, which might improve accuracy of mappings and therefore commitment and understandability of the integration. In this work, we propose a novel system (called GeoMergeP) to integrate geographic sources by formalizing their information as normalized ontologies. Our integral merging process—including structural, syntactic and semantic aspects—assists users in finding the more suitable correspondences. The system has been empirically tested in the context of projects of the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA, ex APAT), providing a consistent and complete integration of their sources.

  7. Spectroscopic Evidence for Appearance of a New Decretion Disk Around IGR J06074+2205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A.; Bondar, A.; Metlova, N.

    2012-08-01

    We report on a new episode of decretion disk formation in the IGR J06074+2205 system. Our spectroscopic data permit us to measure peak separation in the double-peaked H-alpha line as 408+/-55 km/s and hence to determine the disk radius as 1.6 star's radii. These findings permit us to predict possible new X-ray activity of IGR J06074+2205 in the nearest future.

  8. An integrated system for nonpoint source pollution modelling and management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Chen, J; Du, P; He, W

    2006-01-01

    Modelling the impact of nonpoint source pollution (NSP) is a complex problem that has troubled water resource managers for many years when trying to set up proper management practices in catchment areas. In this paper, an integrated decision support system, NPSDSS (nonpoint source decision support system), was introduced to resolve this problem in a relatively easy way. The system was developed in a unique platform and integrated with the IMPULSE (integrated model of nonpoint source pollution processes) model, a stand alone geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, a well-structured database, a measure screening model, and an expert system, as well. The system has been applied in the Dianchi Lake catchment area and shown to give a good perspective on providing useful recommendations for appropriate NSP management.

  9. Identifying IGR J14091-6108 as a magnetic CV with a massive white dwarf using X-ray and optical observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Rahoui, Farid; Krivonos, Roman; Clavel, Maïca; Strader, Jay; Chomiuk, Laura

    2016-07-01

    INTEGRAL Gamma-Ray (IGR) J14091-6108 is a Galactic X-ray source known to have an iron emission line, a hard X-ray spectrum, and an optical counterpart. Here, we report on X-ray observations of the source with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR as well as optical spectroscopy with European Southern Obseratory/Very Large Telescope and National Optical Astronomy Observatory/Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope. In the X-rays, this provides data with much better statistical quality than the previous observations, and this is the first report of the optical spectrum. Timing analysis of the XMM data shows a very significant detection of 576.3 ± 0.6 s period. The signal has a pulsed fraction of 30 ± 3 per cent in the 0.3-12 keV range and shows a strong drop with energy. The optical spectra show strong emission lines with significant variability in the lines and continuum, indicating that they come from an irradiated accretion disc. Based on these measurements, we identify the source as a magnetic cataclysmic variable of intermediate polar (IP) type where the white dwarf spin period is 576.3 s. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with the continuum emission mechanism being due to thermal bremsstrahlung, but partial covering absorption and reflection are also required. In addition, we use the IP mass model, which suggests that the white dwarf in this system has a high mass, possibly approaching the Chandrasekhar limit.

  10. Source integrals of multipole moments for static space–times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pastora, J. L.; Martín-Martín, J.; Ruiz, E.

    2016-11-01

    The definition of Komar for the mass of a relativistic source is used as a starting point to introduce volume integrals for relativistic multipole moments. A certain generalisation of the classical Gauss theorem is used to rewrite these multipole moments as integrals over a surface at infinity. It is shown that this generalisation leads to asymptotic relativistic multipole moments, recovering the multipoles of Geroch or Thorne, when the integrals are evaluated in asympotically cartesian harmonic coordinates. Relationships between this result and the Thorne definition and the classical theory of moments are shown.

  11. Method and system of integrating information from multiple sources

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Francine A.; Brinkerhoff, David L.

    2006-08-15

    A system and method of integrating information from multiple sources in a document centric application system. A plurality of application systems are connected through an object request broker to a central repository. The information may then be posted on a webpage. An example of an implementation of the method and system is an online procurement system.

  12. Chinese Localisation of Evergreen: An Open Source Integrated Library System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zou, Qing; Liu, Guoying

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate various issues related to Chinese language localisation in Evergreen, an open source integrated library system (ILS). Design/methodology/approach: A Simplified Chinese version of Evergreen was implemented and tested and various issues such as encoding, indexing, searching, and sorting…

  13. INTEGRAL/SPI data segmentation to retrieve source intensity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, L.; Amestoy, P. R.; Buttari, A.; Rouet, F.-H.; Chauvin, M.

    2013-07-01

    Context. The INTEGRAL/SPI, X/γ-ray spectrometer (20 keV-8 MeV) is an instrument for which recovering source intensity variations is not straightforward and can constitute a difficulty for data analysis. In most cases, determining the source intensity changes between exposures is largely based on a priori information. Aims: We propose techniques that help to overcome the difficulty related to source intensity variations, which make this step more rational. In addition, the constructed "synthetic" light curves should permit us to obtain a sky model that describes the data better and optimizes the source signal-to-noise ratios. Methods: For this purpose, the time intensity variation of each source was modeled as a combination of piecewise segments of time during which a given source exhibits a constant intensity. To optimize the signal-to-noise ratios, the number of segments was minimized. We present a first method that takes advantage of previous time series that can be obtained from another instrument on-board the INTEGRAL observatory. A data segmentation algorithm was then used to synthesize the time series into segments. The second method no longer needs external light curves, but solely SPI raw data. For this, we developed a specific algorithm that involves the SPI transfer function. Results: The time segmentation algorithms that were developed solve a difficulty inherent to the SPI instrument, which is the intensity variations of sources between exposures, and it allows us to obtain more information about the sources' behavior. Based on observations with INTEGRAL, an ESA project with instruments and science data centre funded by ESA member states (especially the PI countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Switzerland), Czech Republic and Poland with participation of Russia and the USA.

  14. Building integrated business environments: analysing open-source ESB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, M. A.; García Jimenez, F. J.; Gómez Skarmeta, A. F.

    2015-05-01

    Integration and interoperability are two concepts that have gained significant prominence in the business field, providing tools which enable enterprise application integration (EAI). In this sense, enterprise service bus (ESB) has played a crucial role as the underpinning technology for creating integrated environments in which companies may connect all their legacy-applications. However, the potential of these technologies remains unknown and some important features are not used to develop suitable business environments. The aim of this paper is to describe and detail the elements for building the next generation of integrated business environments (IBE) and to analyse the features of ESBs as the core of this infrastructure. For this purpose, we evaluate how well-known open-source ESB products fulfil these needs. Moreover, we introduce a scenario in which the collaborative system 'Alfresco' is integrated in the business infrastructure. Finally, we provide a comparison of the different open-source ESBs available for IBE requirements. According to this study, Fuse ESB provides the best results, considering features such as support for a wide variety of standards and specifications, documentation and implementation, security, advanced business trends, ease of integration and performance.

  15. Suzaku Captures a Possible Eclipse in IGR J16207-5129 and Identifies a Weak-Flaring State in IGR J17391-3021

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Rodriquez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Pottschmidt, Katja; Walter, Roland; Romano, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from analyses of Suzaku observations of the supergiant X-ray binaries IGR Jl6207-5129 and IGR Jl7391-3021. For IGR Jl6207-5129, we provide the first broadband (0.5-60 keV) spectrum from which we confirm a large intrinsic column density (N(sub H) = 16 X 10(exp 22)/square cm), and constrain the cutoff energy for the first time (E(sub c) 19 keV). We observed a prolonged (> 30 ks) attenuation of the X-ray flux which we tentatively attribute to an eclipse of the probable neutron star by its massive companion. For IGR Jl739J-3021, we witnessed a transition from quiescence to a low-activity phase punctuated by weak flares whose peak luminosities in the 0.5-10 keV band are only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare emission. The weak flaring is accompanied by an increase in the absorbing column which suggests the accretion of obscuring clumps of wind. Placing this observation in the context of the recent Swift monitoring campaign, we now recognize that these low-activity epochs constitute the most common emission phase for this system, and perhaps in other supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) as well.

  16. Possible Twin kHz Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Accreting Millisecond X-ray Pulsar IGR J17511-3057

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamkar, Maithili; Altamirano, Diego; van der Klis, M.

    2011-03-01

    We report on the aperiodic X-ray timing and color behavior of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (AMXP) IGR J17511-3057, using all the pointed observations obtained with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array since the source's discovery on 2009 September 12. The source can be classified as an atoll source on the basis of the color and timing characteristics. It was in the hard state during the entire outburst. In the beginning and at the end of the outburst, the source exhibited what appear to be twin kHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). The separation Δν between the twin QPOs is ~120 Hz. Contrary to expectations for slow rotators, instead of being close to the 244.8 Hz spin frequency, it is close to half the spin frequency. However, identification of the QPOs is not certain as the source does not fit perfectly in the existing scheme of correlations of aperiodic variability frequencies seen in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs), nor can a single shift factor make it fit as has been reported for other AMXPs. These results indicate that IGR J17511-3057 is a unique source differing from other AMXPs and could play a key role in advancing our understanding of not only AMXPs, but also of NS LMXBs in general.

  17. OpenStudio: An Open Source Integrated Analysis Platform; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielmetti, R.; Macumber, D.; Long, N.

    2011-12-01

    High-performance buildings require an integrated design approach for all systems to work together optimally; systems integration needs to be incorporated in the earliest stages of design for efforts to be cost and energy-use effective. Building designers need a full-featured software framework to support rigorous, multidisciplinary building simulation. An open source framework - the OpenStudio Software Development Kit (SDK) - is being developed to address this need. In this paper, we discuss the needs that drive OpenStudio's system architecture and goals, provide a development status report (the SDK is currently in alpha release), and present a brief case study that illustrates its utility and flexibility.

  18. Evaluated Rayleigh integrals for pulsed planar expanding ring sources

    SciTech Connect

    Warshaw, S.I.

    1985-12-20

    Time-domain analytic and semianalytic pressure fields acoustically radiated from expanding pulsed ring sources imbedded in a planar rigid baffle have been calculated. The source functions are radially symmetric delta-function distributions whose amplitude and argument have simple functional dependencies on radius and time. Certain cases yield closed analytic results, while others result in elliptic integrals, which are evaluated to high accuracy by Gauss-Chebyshev and modified Gauss-Legendre quadrature. These results are of value for calibrating computer simulations and convolution procedures, and estimating fields from more complex planar radiators. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Neuronal integration of dynamic sources: Bayesian learning and Bayesian inference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegelmann, Hava T.; Holzman, Lars E.

    2010-09-01

    One of the brain's most basic functions is integrating sensory data from diverse sources. This ability causes us to question whether the neural system is computationally capable of intelligently integrating data, not only when sources have known, fixed relative dependencies but also when it must determine such relative weightings based on dynamic conditions, and then use these learned weightings to accurately infer information about the world. We suggest that the brain is, in fact, fully capable of computing this parallel task in a single network and describe a neural inspired circuit with this property. Our implementation suggests the possibility that evidence learning requires a more complex organization of the network than was previously assumed, where neurons have different specialties, whose emergence brings the desired adaptivity seen in human online inference.

  20. How to Integrate Variable Power Source into a Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Hiroshi

    This paper discusses how to integrate variable power source such as wind power and photovoltaic generation into a power grid. The intermittent renewable generation is expected to penetrate for less carbon intensive power supply system, but it causes voltage control problem in the distribution system, and supply-demand imbalance problem in a whole power system. Cooperative control of customers' energy storage equipment such as water heater with storage tank for reducing inverse power flow from the roof-top PV system, the operation technique using a battery system and the solar radiation forecast for stabilizing output of variable generation, smart charging of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for load frequency control (LFC), and other methods to integrate variable power source with improving social benefits are surveyed.

  1. Towards A Topological Framework for Integrating Semantic Information Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Robinson, Michael

    2014-09-07

    In this position paper we argue for the role that topological modeling principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward.

  2. XMM-Newton discovery of mHz quasi-periodic oscillations in the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J19140+0951

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Motta, S. E.; Israel, G. L.; Rodríguez Castillo, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the discovery of mHz quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) from the high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) IGR J19140+0951, during a 40 ks XMM-Newton observation performed in 2015, which caught the source in its faintest state ever observed. At the start of the observation, IGR J19140+0951 was at a low flux of 2 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1 (2-10 keV; LX = 3 × 1033 erg s-1 at 3.6 kpc), then its emission rose reaching a flux ˜10 times higher, in a flare-like activity. The investigation of the power spectrum reveals the presence of QPOs, detected only in the second part of the observation, with a strong peak at a frequency of 1.46 ± 0.07 mHz, together with higher harmonics. The X-ray spectrum is highly absorbed (NH = 1023 cm-2), well fitted by a power law with a photon index in the range 1.2-1.8. The re-analysis of a Chandra archival observation shows a modulation at ˜0.17 ± 0.05 mHz, very likely the neutron-star spin period (although a QPO cannot be excluded). We discuss the origin of the 1.46 mHz QPO in the framework of both disc-fed and wind-fed HMXBs, favouring the quasi-spherical accretion scenario. The low flux observed by XMM-Newton leads to about three orders of magnitude the source dynamic range, overlapping with the one observed from Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs). However, since its duty cycle is not as low as in SFXTs, IGR J19140+0951 is an intermediate system between persistent supergiant HMXBs and SFXTs, suggesting a smooth transition between these two sub-classes.

  3. The counterpart/s of IGR J20159+3713/SWIFT J2015.9+3715: dissecting a complex region with emission from keV to TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, L.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Ubertini, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the identification of a new soft gamma-ray source, namely IGR J20159+3713/SWIFT J2015.9+3715, first detected by INTEGRAL/IBIS and then confirmed by Swift/BAT. The source, which has an observed 20-100 keV flux in the range (0.7-1.4) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, encloses a Fermi variable source (2FGL J2015.6+3709) and is spatially close to a TeV emitter (VER J2016+372). Thanks to X-ray follow-up observations performed with the X-ray telescope on board Swift, we have been able to identify the new IBIS/BAT detection with the combined emission of the blazar B2013+370 and the cataclysmic variable RX J2015.6+3711. Both objects show variability in X-rays, with the cataclysmic variable being the most variable of the two. At high energies (above 20 keV) the emission is likely dominated by B2013+370, but the contribution from RX J2015.6+3711 is not negligible, The blazar emits up to GeV frequencies where it is seen by Fermi, while the cataclysmic variable has a bremsstrahlung temperature which is too low to provide any contribution at these high energies. These findings also indicate that the INTEGRAL/Swift source is not associated with the TeV emission, which is most likely due to the supernova remnant (SNR)/pulsar wind nebula (PWN) CTB 87.

  4. Drug discovery from plant sources: An integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Chandrakant; Gupta, Arun; Kanjilal, Satyajyoti; Katiyar, Shefali

    2012-01-01

    New drug discovery is facing serious challenges due to reduction in number of new drug approvals coupled with exorbitant rising cost. Advent of combinatorial chemistry provided new hope of higher success rates of new chemical entities (NCEs); however, even this scientific development has failed to improve the success rate in new drug discovery. This scenario has prompted us to come out with a novel approach of integrated drug discovery, where Ayurvedic wisdom can synergize with drug discovery from plant sources. Initial steps in new drug discovery involve identification of NCEs, which can be either sourced through chemical synthesis or can be isolated from natural products through biological activity guided fractionation. The sources of many of the new drugs and active ingredients of medicines are derived from natural products. The starting point for plant-based new drug discovery should be identification of the right candidate plants by applying Ayurvedic wisdom, traditional documented use, tribal non-documented use, and exhaustive literature search. Frequency analysis of the ingredients of the ancient documented formulations and analysis of their Ayurvedic attributes may provide an in-depth idea of the predominance of particular Ayurvedic characteristics based on which appropriate candidate plants may be selected for bioactivity-based fractionation. The integration of Ayurvedic wisdom with drug discovery also brings the need for a paradigm shift in the extraction process from sequential to parallel extraction. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the identified plant may lead to standardized extract or isolated bioactive druggable compound as the new drug. This integrated approach would lead to saving of cost and time, coupled with enhanced success rate in drug discovery. PMID:23049178

  5. Closer view of the IGR J11014-6103 outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, L.; Pühlhofer, G.; Bordas, P.; Audard, M.; Balbo, M.; Bozzo, E.; Eckert, D.; Ferrigno, C.; Filipović, M. D.; Verdugo, M.; Walter, R.

    2016-06-01

    IGR J11014-6103 (also known as the Lighthouse Nebula) is composed of a bow-shock pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and large-scale X-ray jet-like features, all powered by PSR J1101-6101. Previous observations suggest that the jet features stem from a ballistic jet of relativistic particles. In order to confirm the nature of the jet and the counter-jet, we obtained a new deep 250 ks Chandra observation of the Lighthouse Nebula. We performed detailed spatial and spectral analysis of all X-ray components of the system. The X-ray PWN is now better resolved and shows a peculiar morphology resembling the shape of an arrow. The overall helical pattern of the main jet is confirmed. However, there are large deviations from a simple helical model at small and large scales. Significant extended emission is now detected, encompassing the main jet all along its length. The presence of an apparent gap along the main jet at ~50″ distance from the pulsar is confirmed; however, the surrounding extended emission prevents conclusions on the coherence at this position of the jet. The counter-jet is now detected at high statistical significance. In addition, we found two small-scale arcs departing from the pulsar towards the jets. We also looked for possible bow-shock emission due to the pulsar motion, with a short VLT/FORS2 H-α observation. No clear emission is found, most likely because of the contamination from a diffuse nebulosity. The results of our X-ray analysis show that both a ballistic jet scenario and an alternative scenario involving the diffusion of particles along pre-existing interstellar magnetic field lines are able to satisfactorily explain some of the observational evidence, but cannot fully reproduce the observations.

  6. Towards monolithic integration of germanium light sources on silicon chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shinichi; Zaher Al-Attili, Abdelrahman; Oda, Katsuya; Ishikawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) is a group-IV indirect band gap semiconductor, and therefore bulk Ge cannot emit light efficiently. However, the direct band gap energy is close to the indirect one, and significant engineering efforts are being made to convert Ge into an efficient gain material monolithically integrated on a Si chip. In this article, we will review the engineering challenges of developing Ge light sources fabricated using nano-fabrication technologies compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes. In particular, we review recent progress in applying high-tensile strain to Ge to reduce the direct band gap. Another important technique is doping Ge with donor impurities to fill the indirect band gap valleys in the conduction band. Realization of carrier confinement structures and suitable optical cavities will be discussed. Finally, we will discuss possible applications of Ge light sources in potential photonics-electronics convergent systems.

  7. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-07-19

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs.

  8. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs' biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels' production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  9. Carbon Sources for Polyhydroxyalkanoates and an Integrated Biorefinery

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David J.; Kowalczuk, Marek; Johnston, Brian; Adamus, Grazyna; Irorere, Victor; Radecka, Iza

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a group of bioplastics that have a wide range of applications. Extensive progress has been made in our understanding of PHAs’ biosynthesis, and currently, it is possible to engineer bacterial strains to produce PHAs with desired properties. The substrates for the fermentative production of PHAs are primarily derived from food-based carbon sources, raising concerns over the sustainability of their production in terms of their impact on food prices. This paper gives an overview of the current carbon sources used for PHA production and the methods used to transform these sources into fermentable forms. This allows us to identify the opportunities and restraints linked to future sustainable PHA production. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol are identified as two promising carbon sources for a sustainable production of PHAs. Hemicellulose hydrolysates and crude glycerol can be produced on a large scale during various second generation biofuels’ production. An integration of PHA production within a modern biorefinery is therefore proposed to produce biofuels and bioplastics simultaneously. This will create the potential to offset the production cost of biofuels and reduce the overall production cost of PHAs. PMID:27447619

  10. Building an Open Source Framework for Integrated Catchment Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagers, B.; Meijers, E.; Villars, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to develop effective strategies and associated policies for environmental management, we need to understand the dynamics of the natural system as a whole and the human role therein. This understanding is gained by comparing our mental model of the world with observations from the field. However, to properly understand the system we should look at dynamics of water, sediments, water quality, and ecology throughout the whole system from catchment to coast both at the surface and in the subsurface. Numerical models are indispensable in helping us understand the interactions of the overall system, but we need to be able to update and adjust them to improve our understanding and test our hypotheses. To support researchers around the world with this challenging task we started a few years ago with the development of a new open source modeling environment DeltaShell that integrates distributed hydrological models with 1D, 2D, and 3D hydraulic models including generic components for the tracking of sediment, water quality, and ecological quantities throughout the hydrological cycle composed of the aforementioned components. The open source approach combined with a modular approach based on open standards, which allow for easy adjustment and expansion as demands and knowledge grow, provides an ideal starting point for addressing challenging integrated environmental questions.

  11. MASTER Optical Flare Detection from the Fastes Accretor in Our Galaxy - IGR J00291+5934.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipunov, V.; Rebolo, R.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Lodieu, N.; Israelian, G.; Lipunov, V.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Kornilov, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Tiurina, N.; Kuznetsov, A.; Chazov, V.; Vlasenko, D.; Gorbunov, I.; Buckley, D.; Potter, S.; Kotze, M.; Gress, O.; Budnev, N. M.; Ivanov, K.; Tlatov, A.; Dormidontov, D.; Senik, V.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Krushinski, V.; Zalozhnykh, I.; Sergienko, Yu.; Gabovich, A.; Yurkov, V.

    2015-07-01

    MASTER II robotic telescope (MASTER-Net: http://observ.pereplet.ru, Lipunov et al., Advances in Astronomy, MASTER Global Robotic Net, 2010) located in IAC was pointed to the Swift IGR J00291+5934 (Cummings et al., GCN 18051) 24 sec after notice time and 1103 sec after trigger time at 2015-07-24 05:42:03 UT.

  12. BioZone Exploting Source-Capability Information for Integrated Access to Multiple Bioinformatics Data Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, L; Buttler, D; Paques, H; Pu, C; Critchlow

    2002-01-28

    Modern Bioinformatics data sources are widely used by molecular biologists for homology searching and new drug discovery. User-friendly and yet responsive access is one of the most desirable properties for integrated access to the rapidly growing, heterogeneous, and distributed collection of data sources. The increasing volume and diversity of digital information related to bioinformatics (such as genomes, protein sequences, protein structures, etc.) have led to a growing problem that conventional data management systems do not have, namely finding which information sources out of many candidate choices are the most relevant and most accessible to answer a given user query. We refer to this problem as the query routing problem. In this paper we introduce the notation and issues of query routing, and present a practical solution for designing a scalable query routing system based on multi-level progressive pruning strategies. The key idea is to create and maintain source-capability profiles independently, and to provide algorithms that can dynamically discover relevant information sources for a given query through the smart use of source profiles. Compared to the keyword-based indexing techniques adopted in most of the search engines and software, our approach offers fine-granularity of interest matching, thus it is more powerful and effective for handling queries with complex conditions.

  13. A DOUBLE OUTBURST FROM IGR J00291+5934: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACCRETION DISK INSTABILITY THEORY

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, Jacob M.; Galloway, Duncan K.; Chakrabarty, Deepto

    2011-01-01

    The accretion-powered millisecond pulsar IGR J00291+5934 underwent two {approx}10 day long outbursts during 2008, separated by 30 days in quiescence. Such a short quiescent period between outbursts has never been seen before from a neutron star X-ray transient. X-ray pulsations at the 599 Hz spin frequency are detected throughout both outbursts. For the first time, we derive a pulse phase model that connects two outbursts, providing a long baseline for spin frequency measurement. Comparison with the frequency measured during the 2004 outburst of this source gives a spin-down during quiescence of -(4 {+-} 1) x 10{sup -15} Hz s{sup -1}, approximately an order of magnitude larger than the long-term spin-down observed in the 401 Hz accretion-powered pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. If this spin-down is due to magnetic dipole radiation, it requires a 2 x 10{sup 8} G field strength, and its high spin-down luminosity may be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Alternatively, this large spin-down could be produced by gravitational wave emission from a fractional mass quadrupole moment of Q/I = 1 x 10{sup -9}. The rapid succession of the outbursts also provides a unique test of models for accretion in low-mass X-ray binaries. Disk instability models generally predict that an outburst will leave the accretion disk too depleted to fuel a second outburst after such a brief quiescence. We suggest a modification in which the outburst is shut off by the onset of a propeller effect before the disk is depleted. This model can explain the short quiescence and the unusually slow rise of the light curve of the second 2008 outburst.

  14. Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source (ORSNS) target station design integration

    SciTech Connect

    McManamy, T.; Booth, R.; Cleaves, J.; Gabriel, T.

    1996-06-01

    The conceptual design for a 1- to 3-MW short pulse spallation source with a liquid mercury target has been started recently. The design tools and methods being developed to define requirements, integrate the work, and provide early cost guidance will be presented with a summary of the current target station design status. The initial design point was selected with performance and cost estimate projections by a systems code. This code was developed recently using cost estimates from the Brookhaven Pulsed Spallation Neutron Source study and experience from the Advanced Neutron Source Project`s conceptual design. It will be updated and improved as the design develops. Performance was characterized by a simplified figure of merit based on a ratio of neutron production to costs. A work breakdown structure was developed, with simplified systems diagrams used to define interfaces and system responsibilities. A risk assessment method was used to identify potential problems, to identify required research and development (R&D), and to aid contingency development. Preliminary 3-D models of the target station are being used to develop remote maintenance concepts and to estimate costs.

  15. An integrated analysis of controlled- and passive source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpfhuber, Eva-Maria

    This dissertation consists of two parts, which include a study using passive source seismic data, and one using the dataset from a large-scale refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment as the basis for an integrated analysis. The goal of the dissertation is the integration of the two different datasets and a combined interpretation of the results of the "Continental Dynamics of the Rocky Mountains" (CD-ROM) 1999 seismic experiment. I have determined the crustal structure using four different receiver function methods using data collected from the northern transect of the CD-ROM passive seismic experiment. The resulting migrated image and crustal thickness determinations confirm and define prior crustal thickness measurements based on the CD-ROM and Deep Probe datasets. The new results show a very strong lower crustal layer (LCL) with variable thickness beneath the Wyoming Province. In addition, I was able to show that it terminates at 42° latitude and provide a seismic tie between the CD-ROM and Deep Probe seismic experiments so they represent a continuous N-S transect extending from New Mexico into Alberta, Canada. This new tie is particularly important because it occurs close to a major tectonic boundary, the Cheyenne belt, between an Archean craton and a Proterozoic terrane. The controlled-source seismic dataset was analyzed with the aid of forward modeling and inversion to establish a two-dimensional velocity and interface model of the area. I have developed a picking strategy, which helps identify the seismic phases, and improves quality and quantity of the picks. In addition, I was able to pick and identify S-wave phases, which furthermore allowed me to establish an independent S-wave model, and hence the Poisson's and Vp/Vs ratios. The final velocity and interface model was compared to prior results, and the results were jointly interpreted with the receiver function results. Thanks to the integration of the controlled-source and receiver function

  16. Dissolved organic carbon source integration in an agricultural watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernes, P. J.; Spencer, R. G.; Dyda, R. Y.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) chemistry and concentration at the mouth of a watershed represents an integrated signal of all sources and process that occur upstream of the mouth, however, the relative contributions of all those sources and processes to the chemistry and concentration is not equal. We sampled an agricultural watershed in the Sacramento River valley in California synoptically on multiple occasions in order to better identify the most important contributors to DOC chemistry. Our samples included headwater samples from native grasslands in three sub-catchments, samples within the agricultural portions of those sub-watersheds, samples near the conjunctions, and irrigation field inputs and outputs. DOC concentrations increase considerably in the agricultural portion of the watershed, demonstrating the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance of landscapes as well as the potential for local landscapes to contribute significantly to the overall DOC concentration and chemistry. The central sub-catchment in particular had significantly greater DOC concentrations, which appears to correspond to the much greater proportion of flood irrigation land management in this portion, as our field runoff measurements indicate much higher added DOC during flood irrigation than during furrow irrigation. Flow-weighted averaging of the three sub-catchment DOC concentrations does not replicate concentrations at the mouth (1-6 km downstream of the confluences), indicating the importance of in-stream processing and/or source inputs from riparian zones even along the mainstem. Optical characterization of DOC demonstrates changing chemistry from season to season, and differences in chemistry from different areas of the catchment. The storm-influenced spring sampling yielded higher carbon-specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254), indicating a higher proportion of aromaticity, while the southern sub-catchment consistently yielded the highest spectral slope values, which

  17. Fiber-integrated diamond-based single photon source.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Tim; Schell, Andreas W; Kewes, Günter; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver

    2011-01-12

    An alignment free, micrometer-scale single photon source consisting of a single quantum emitter on an optical fiber operating at room temperature is demonstrated. It easily integrates into fiber optic networks for quantum cryptography or quantum metrology applications.(1) Near-field coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center is achieved in a bottom-up approach by placing a preselected nanodiamond directly on the fiber facet. Its high photon collection efficiency is equivalent to a far-field collection via an objective with a numerical aperture of 0.82. Furthermore, simultaneous excitation and re-collection through the fiber is possible by introducing a fiber-connected single emitter sensor. PMID:21138271

  18. Hybrid silicon free-space source with integrated beam steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doylend, J. K.; Heck, M. J. R.; Bovington, J. T.; Peters, J. D.; Davenport, M. L.; Coldren, L. A.; Bowers, J. E.

    2013-02-01

    Free-space beam steering using optical phase arrays are desirable as a means of implementing Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and free-space communication links without the need for moving parts, thus alleviating vulnerabilities due to vibrations and inertial forces. Implementing such an approach in silicon photonic integrated circuits is particularly desirable in order to take advantage of established CMOS processing techniques while reducing both device size and packaging complexity. In this work we demonstrate a free-space diode laser together with beam steering implemented on-chip in a silicon photonic circuit. A waveguide phased array, surface gratings, a hybrid III-V/silicon laser and an array of hybrid III/V silicon amplifiers were fabricated on-chip in order to achieve a fully integrated steerable free-space optical source with no external optical inputs, thus eliminating the need for fiber coupling altogether. The chip was fabricated using a modified version of the hybrid silicon process developed at UCSB, with modifications in order to incorporate diodes within the waveguide layer as well as within the III-V gain layer. Beam steering across a 12° field of view with +/-0.3° accuracy and 1.8°x0.6° beam width was achieved, with background peaks suppressed 7 dB relative to the main lobe within the field of view for arbitrarily chosen beam directions.

  19. Similarilies in accretion dynamics in IGR J17091-3624 and GRS 1915+105 as revealed by the study of Comptonizing Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarathi Pal, Partha; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Variability classes in the enigmatic black hole candidate GRS 1915+105 are known to be correlated with the variation of the Comptonizing Efficiency (CE) which is defined to be the ratio between the number of power-law (hard) photons and seed (soft) photons injected into the Compton cloud. Similarities of light curves of several variability classes of GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, some of which are already reported in the literature, motivated us to compute CE for IGR J17091-3624 as well. We find that they are similar to what were reported earlier for GRS 1915+105, even though masses of these objects could be different. The reason is that the both the sizes of the sources of the seed photons and of the Comptonizing corona scale in the same way as the mass of the black hole. This indicates that characterization of variability classes based on CE is likely to be black hole mass independent, in general.

  20. WHY IS IGR J17091-3624 SO FAINT? CONSTRAINTS ON DISTANCE, MASS, AND SPIN FROM 'PHASE-RESOLVED' SPECTROSCOPY OF THE 'HEARTBEAT' OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Anjali; Vadawale, S. V.

    2012-09-20

    IGR J17091-3624 is a transient X-ray source and is believed to be a Galactic black hole candidate. Recently, it has received considerable attention due to the detection of peculiar variability patterns known as 'heartbeats', which are quasi-periodic mini-outbursts repeated over timescales ranging between 5 and 70 s. So far, such variability patterns have been observed only in GRS 1915+105 and these are classified as {rho}- and {nu}-variability classes. Here, we present the results of 'phase-resolved' spectroscopy of the 'heartbeat' oscillations of IGR J17091-3624 using data from simultaneous observations made by RXTE and XMM-Newton. We find that the 0.7-35 keV spectra can be fitted with a 'canonical' model for black hole sources consisting of only two components-a multi-temperature disk blackbody and a power law (or its equivalent). We attempt to constrain the system parameters of the source by simultaneously fitting spectra during different phases of the burst profile while tying the system parameters across the phases. The results indicate that the source is a high inclination binary (i > 53 Degree-Sign ). Further, the observed low flux from the source can be explained only if the black hole spin is very low, along with constraints on the black hole mass (<5 M{sub Sun }) and distance (>20 kpc). For higher inclination angles, which is favored by the data, the black hole spin is required to be negative. Thus, low or retrograde spin could be the reason for the low luminosity of the source.

  1. 8th INTEGRAL Workshop "The Restless Gamma-ray Universe"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The main goal of this workshop is to present and to discuss (via invited and contributed talks and posters) latest results obtained in the field of high energy astrophysics using the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory INTEGRAL, as well as results from related observations from other ground- and space-based high energy observatories. Topics: X-ray binaries (IGR sources, black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs) Isolated neutron stars (gamma-ray pulsars, magnetars) Nucleosynthesis (SNe and SNRs), gamma-ray lines, diffuse line and continuum emission Massive black holes in AGNs, elliptical galaxies, nucleus of the Galaxy Surveys, source populations and unidentified sources Cosmic background radiation Gamma-ray bursts Coordinated observations with other ground- and space-based observatories Science data processing and analysis (posters only) Future instruments and missions (posters only)

  2. Astrophysical parameters of the peculiar X-ray transient IGR J11215-5952

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, J.; Negueruela, I.; Castro, N.; Norton, A. J.; Vilardell, F.; Herrero, A.

    2014-02-01

    Context. The current generation of X-ray satellites has discovered many new X-ray sources that are difficult to classify within the well-described subclasses. The hard X-ray source IGR J11215-5952 is a peculiar transient, displaying very short X-ray outbursts every 165 days. Aims: To characterise the source, we obtained high-resolution spectra of the optical counterpart, HD 306414, at different epochs, spanning a total of three months, before and around the 2007 February outburst with the combined aims of deriving its astrophysical parameters and searching for orbital modulation. Methods: We fit model atmospheres generated with the fastwind code to the spectrum, and used the interstellar lines in the spectrum to estimate its distance. We also cross-correlated each individual spectrum to the best-fit model to derive radial velocities. Results: From its spectral features, we classify HD 306414 as B0.5 Ia. From the model fit, we find Teff ≈ 24 700 K and log g ≈ 2.7, in good agreement with the morphological classification. Using the interstellar lines in its spectrum, we estimate a distance to HD 306414 d ≳ 7 kpc. Assuming this distance, we derive R∗ ≈ 40 R⊙ and Mspect ≈ 30 M⊙ (consistent, within errors, with Mevol ≈ 38 M⊙, and in good agreement with calibrations for the spectral type). Analysis of the radial velocity curve reveals that radial velocity changes are not dominated by the orbital motion, and provide an upper limit on the semi-amplitude for the optical component Kopt ≲ 11 ± 6 km s-1. Large variations in the depth and shape of photospheric lines suggest the presence of strong pulsations, which may be the main cause of the radial velocity changes. Very significant variations, uncorrelated with those of the photospheric lines are seen in the shape and position of the Hα emission feature around the time of the X-ray outburst, but large excursions are also observed at other times. Conclusions: HD 306414 is a normal B0.5 Ia supergiant. Its

  3. IGR combined NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Phase 1, volume 1.

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.Z.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a new, simple, modular, all solid-state electrochemical technology for the simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} pollutants from coal-fired combustors, in a cost effective, reliable and practical manner. The work accomplished in this Phase 1 project involved the formulation and testing of proprietary materials for NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal under conditions appropriate to coal-fired combustors for electric power production. The Phase 1 work also explored methods for reduction of the operating temperatures of the process, reduction of its power requirements, and increasing the levels of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal at higher levels of oxygen. The Phase 1 work has demonstrated the basic technical feasibility of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology. We have successfully achieved NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} removal in the presence of large concentrations of oxygen (including the range of oxygen levels in coal-fired combustors). We have demonstrated successful operation of IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology at greatly reduced operating temperatures. Significant progress has been made in the reduction of the electrical power requirement of the removal process. In particular, NO{sub x} removal has been accomplished at power consumption levels that are economically feasible. In addition, the ability of this technology to remove SO{sub 2} from a high concentration gas stream (such as that generated from the copper oxide absorption process) has been demonstrated. In summary, the Phase 1 work has served to resolve the basic feasibility questions associated with this technology. The importance of the Phase 1 work is that it has greatly reduced the technical risk associated with IGR`s NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} removal technology, which makes the development of commercially feasible devices highly probable.

  4. Measuring the stellar wind parameters in IGR J17544-2619 and Vela X-1 constrains the accretion physics in supergiant fast X-ray transient and classical supergiant X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez-García, A.; Shenar, T.; Torrejón, J. M.; Oskinova, L.; Martínez-Núñez, S.; Hamann, W.-R.; Rodes-Roca, J. J.; González-Galán, A.; Alonso-Santiago, J.; González-Fernández, C.; Bernabeu, G.; Sander, A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Classical supergiant X-ray binaries (SGXBs) and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are two types of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) that present similar donors but, at the same time, show very different behavior in the X-rays. The reason for this dichotomy of wind-fed HMXBs is still a matter of debate. Among the several explanations that have been proposed, some of them invoke specific stellar wind properties of the donor stars. Only dedicated empiric analysis of the donors' stellar wind can provide the required information to accomplish an adequate test of these theories. However, such analyses are scarce. Aims: To close this gap, we perform a comparative analysis of the optical companion in two important systems: IGR J17544-2619 (SFXT) and Vela X-1 (SGXB). We analyze the spectra of each star in detail and derive their stellar and wind properties. As a next step, we compare the wind parameters, giving us an excellent chance of recognizing key differences between donor winds in SFXTs and SGXBs. Methods: We use archival infrared, optical and ultraviolet observations, and analyze them with the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) Potsdam Wolf-Rayet model atmosphere code. We derive the physical properties of the stars and their stellar winds, accounting for the influence of X-rays on the stellar winds. Results: We find that the stellar parameters derived from the analysis generally agree well with the spectral types of the two donors: O9I (IGR J17544-2619) and B0.5Iae (Vela X-1). The distance to the sources have been revised and also agree well with the estimations already available in the literature. In IGR J17544-2619 we are able to narrow the uncertainty to d = 3.0 ± 0.2 kpc. From the stellar radius of the donor and its X-ray behavior, the eccentricity of IGR J17544-2619 is constrained to e< 0.25. The derived chemical abundances point to certain mixing during the lifetime of the donors. An important difference between the stellar winds of the

  5. Variability study of the High Mass X-ray binary IGR J18027-2016 with Swift -XRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aftab, Nafisa; Islam, Nazma

    2016-07-01

    We report the results from pulsations and spectral analysis of a large number of observations of the HMXB pulsar IGR J18027-2016 with Swift-XRT,carried out at different orbital phases. We found a significant intensity variations in the system at different orbital phases, higher than the orbital intensity modulation. In some orbital phases, as seen in different XRT observations, the X-ray intensity is found to vary by a large factor, of about ˜50. In all the observations with sufficient number of source X-ray photons, pulsations have been detected around the previously known pulse period of ˜140 sec, consistent with the source being a persistent pulsator. The pulse profiles,however, show a significant change from a double peaked pulse profiles in most cases to a singled peaked pulse profiles in some observations. The nature of the pulse profiles are found to be independent of the X-ray intensity. In some of the observations, a 6.4 keV Fe Kα emission line is detected with a high equivalent width (˜1 keV). The absorption column density is found to be large before and after the eclipse, consistent with most of it being due to the stellar wind of the companion star. Such X-ray intensity variations outside the X-ray eclipse and associated spectral properties indicates a variable accretion onto the neutron star, which could be caused by a clumpy nature of the stellar wind of the companion star.

  6. Swift/XRT Monitoring of the Candidate Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16418-4532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Evans, P. A.; Vercellone, S.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the Swift monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16418.4532, for which both orbital and spin periods are known (approx. 3.7d and approx. 1250 s, respectively). Our observations, for a total of approx. 43 ks, span over three orbital periods and represent the most intense and complete sampling of the light curve of this source with a sensitive X-ray instrument. With this unique set of observations we can address the nature of this transient. By applying the clumpy wind model for blue supergiants to the observed X-ray light curve, and assuming a circular orbit, the X-ray emission from this source can be explained in terms of the accretion from a spherically symmetric clumpy wind, composed of clumps with different masses, ranging from 5 X 10(exp 16) g to 10(exp 21) g. Our data suggest, based on the X-ray behaviour, that this is an intermediate SFXT

  7. Swift-X-Ray Telescope Monitoring of the Candidate Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16418-4532

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romano, P.; Mangano, V.; Ducci, L.; Esposito, P.; Evans, P. A.; Vercellone, S.; Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the Swift monitoring of the candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16418-4532, for which both orbital and spin periods are known (approx. 3.7 d and approx.1250 s, respectively). Our observations, for a total of approx. 43 ks, span over three orbital periods and represent the most intense and complete sampling of the light curve of this source with a sensitive X-ray instrument. With this unique set of observations, we can address the nature of this transient. By applying the clumpy wind model for blue supergiants to the observed X-ray light curve, and assuming a circular orbit, the X-ray emission from this source can be explained in terms of the accretion from a spherically symmetric clumpy wind, composed of clumps with different masses, ranging from approx. 5 × 10(exp 16) to 10(exp 21) g. Our data suggest, based on the X-ray behaviour, that this is an intermediate SFXT.

  8. A Close Investigation into Source Use in Integrated Second Language Writing Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia; Gebril, Atta

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of writing programs and assessments are employing writing-from-sources tasks in which reading and writing are integrated. The integration of reading and writing in such contexts raises a number of questions with regard to writers' use of sources in their writing, the functions these sources serve, and how proficiency affects…

  9. THE PECULIAR EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Patruno, Alessandro; Alpar, M. Ali; Van der Klis, Michiel; Van den Heuvel, Ed P. J.

    2012-06-10

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) IGR J17480-2446 in the globular cluster Terzan 5 harbors an 11 Hz accreting pulsar. This is the first object discovered in a globular cluster with a pulsar spinning at such low rate. The accreting pulsar is anomalous because its characteristics are very different from the other five known slow accreting pulsars in galactic LMXBs. Many features of the 11 Hz pulsar are instead very similar to those of accreting millisecond pulsars, spinning at frequencies >100 Hz. Understanding this anomaly is valuable because IGR J17480-2446 could be the only accreting pulsar discovered so far which is in the process of becoming an accreting millisecond pulsar. We first verify that the neutron star (NS) in IGR J17480-2446 is indeed spinning up by carefully analyzing X-ray data with coherent timing techniques that account for the presence of timing noise. We then study the present Roche lobe overflow epoch and the two previous spin-down epochs dominated by magneto-dipole radiation and stellar wind accretion. We find that IGR J17480-2446 is very likely a mildly recycled pulsar and suggest that it has started a spin-up phase in an exceptionally recent time, which has lasted less than a few 10{sup 7} yr. We also find that the total age of the binary is surprisingly low ({approx}< 10{sup 8} yr) when considering typical parameters for the newborn NS and propose different scenarios to explain this anomaly.

  10. IGR NO[sub x]/SO[sub x] control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-25

    The technical work during this reporting term has principally involved the continued development, optimization and improvement of freezing drying techniques for solid ceramic oxide electrolyte powder preparation, preliminary optimization of the calcining of the ceramic electrolyte freeze dried powders to allow for optimum processing to the IGR composite, and determining (initial) electrochemical properties of the stabilized ceramic solid electrolyte at a variety of temperatures in air.

  11. IGR J17451-3022: constraints on the nature of the donor star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Ziółkowski, Janusz; Bozzo, Enrico; Pjanka, Patryk

    2016-10-01

    We constrain the binary parameters and the nature of the donor star of the eclipsing accreting X-ray binary IGR J17451-3022. The donor mass, its radius, and the system inclination angle are computed based on the system orbital period and eclipse duration recently reported. We find that the donor is most likely a main-sequence star with the mass comprised within the range (0.5-0.8) M⊙ and a radius of 0.7 R⊙. Assuming that the accreting compact object in IGR J17451-3022 is a neutron star, the duration of the nearly total rectangular eclipses yields an inclination angle of the system of 71° ≲ i ≲ 76°, compatible with the presence of dips in this system. We rule out the presence of either a brown or white dwarf. However, we find an alternative possibility that the donor star in IGR J17451-3022 could be a partially stripped giant with a very low mass, 0.2 M⊙. This case requires a substantial mass loss prior to the formation of the giant-star He core. According to that solution, the radius would be 0.4 R⊙, at i 80°. We additionally show that the well-known approximate dependence of the giant-star radius exclusively on its core mass, breaks down below 0.3 M⊙.

  12. Hubbell rectangular source integral calculation using a fast Chebyshev wavelets method.

    PubMed

    Manai, K; Belkadhi, K

    2016-07-01

    An integration method based on Chebyshev wavelets is presented and used to calculate the Hubbell rectangular source integral. A study of the convergence and the accuracy of the method was carried out by comparing it to previous studies. PMID:27152913

  13. Fast spectral source integration in black hole perturbation calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Seth; Forseth, Erik; Osburn, Thomas; Evans, Charles R.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new technique for achieving spectral accuracy and fast computational performance in a class of black hole perturbation and gravitational self-force calculations involving extreme mass ratios and generic orbits. Called spectral source integration (SSI), this method should see widespread future use in problems that entail (i) a point-particle description of the small compact object, (ii) frequency domain decomposition, and (iii) the use of the background eccentric geodesic motion. Frequency domain approaches are widely used in both perturbation theory flux-balance calculations and in local gravitational self-force calculations. Recent self-force calculations in Lorenz gauge, using the frequency domain and method of extended homogeneous solutions, have been able to accurately reach eccentricities as high as e ≃0.7 . We show here SSI successfully applied to Lorenz gauge. In a double precision Lorenz gauge code, SSI enhances the accuracy of results and makes a factor of 3 improvement in the overall speed. The primary initial application of SSI—for us its the raison d'être—is in an arbitrary precision mathematica code that computes perturbations of eccentric orbits in the Regge-Wheeler gauge to extraordinarily high accuracy (e.g., 200 decimal places). These high-accuracy eccentric orbit calculations would not be possible without the exponential convergence of SSI. We believe the method will extend to work for inspirals on Kerr and will be the subject of a later publication. SSI borrows concepts from discrete-time signal processing and is used to calculate the mode normalization coefficients in perturbation theory via sums over modest numbers of points around an orbit. A variant of the idea is used to obtain spectral accuracy in a solution of the geodesic orbital motion.

  14. Ground Source Integrated Heat Pump (GS-IHP) Development

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, V. D.; Rice, K.; Murphy, R.; Munk, J.; Ally, Moonis; Shen, Bo; Craddick, William; Hearn, Shawn A.

    2013-05-24

    Between October 2008 and May 2013 ORNL and ClimateMaster, Inc. (CM) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop a groundsource integrated heat pump (GS-IHP) system for the US residential market. A initial prototype was designed and fabricated, lab-tested, and modeled in TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) to predict annual performance relative to 1) a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater) and 2) a state-of-the-art (SOA) two-capacity ground-source heat pump with desuperheater water heater (WH) option (GSHPwDS). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a 2600 ft{sup 2} (242 m{sup 2}) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 52 to 59%, averaging 55%, relative to the minimum efficiency suite. Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 68 to 78% relative to resistance WH. Predicted total annual savings for the GSHPwDS relative to the same baseline averaged 22.6% with water heating energy use reduced by 10 to 30% from desuperheater contributions. The 1st generation (or alpha) prototype design for the GS-IHP was finalized in 2010 and field test samples were fabricated for testing by CM and by ORNL. Two of the alpha units were installed in 3700 ft{sup 2} (345 m{sup 2}) houses at the ZEBRAlliance site in Oak Ridge and field tested during 2011. Based on the steady-state performance demonstrated by the GS-IHPs it was projected that it would achieve >52% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite at this specific site. A number of operational issues with the alpha units were identified indicating design changes needed to the system before market introduction could be accomplished. These were communicated to CM throughout the field test period. Based on the alpha unit test results and the diagnostic information coming from the field test

  15. Source Text Borrowing in an Integrated Reading/Writing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigle, Sara Cushing; Parker, Keisha

    2012-01-01

    Source-based writing is becoming more common in tests of academic English, in part to make tests more reflective of authentic academic writing. However, the concern has been raised that over-reliance on language from the source texts in essays may mask gaps in proficiency and thus lead to an inaccurate assessment of writing skill. In this paper,…

  16. Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needle by a LED light source integrated transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agano, Toshitaka; Sato, Naoto; Nakatsuka, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Morisono, Koji; Shigeta, Yusuke; Tanaka, Chizuyo

    2016-03-01

    We have achieved penetration depth of 30mm by photoacoustic imaging system using LED light source integrated transducer to image a clinical metal needle inserted into a tissue mimicking phantom. We developed the transducer that integrated near-infrared LED array light source, which was connected to a photoacoustic imaging system which drove LED array light source and controlled photoacoustic data acquisition process. Conventionally solid-state laser has been used as the light source for photoacoustic imaging system. Because LED is diffused light source, laser safety glasses is not necessary, also inflexible fibers are not used to guide light close to a transducer, and we integrated LED light source inside the transducer, which became compact and practical size for conventional ultrasound equipment users. We made LED light source unit as detachable to the transducer easily, so wave-length of light can be selectable by changing the LED light source unit.

  17. Swift observes an outburst of the high mass X-ray binary IGR J01572-7259 in the SMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimm, H. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.; Ukwatta, T.

    2016-05-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary IGR J01572-7259 (IGR J015712-7259 = SXP 11.6) in the Small Magellanic Cloud is undergoing an outburst. An increase in counts was first detected in the BAT in a 4-day period beginning 15 April 2016 (MJD 57493), when it was detected at 0.0016 +/- 0.0004 ct cm-2 s-1 (~7 mCrab) . The flux peaked on 25 April 2016 (MJD 57503) at 0.0027 +/- 0.0005 ct cm-2 s-1 (~12 mCrab).

  18. Source-Message-Receiver in Integrated Marketing Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Sharee LeBlanc

    2011-01-01

    This is an abbreviation of the author's dissertation. Because integrated marketing communication (IMC) research has traditionally been problematic, this study used an existing scale to determine that higher educational institutional advancement (alumni, marketing-communications, development) is an appropriate venue to study the process model of…

  19. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communication system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.; Udalov, S.

    1974-01-01

    This study investigated the configuration and integration of a wideband communication system with a Ku-band rendezvous radar system. The goal of the study was to provide as much commonality between the two systems as possible. The antenna design was described with the only change being the requirement for dual polarization (linear for the radar system and circular for the communication system).

  20. A CHANDRA OBSERVATION OF THE BURSTING MILLISECOND X-RAY PULSAR IGR J17511-3057

    SciTech Connect

    Paizis, A.; Nowak, M. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P. E-mail: mnowak@space.mit.edu

    2012-08-10

    IGR J17511-3057 is a low-mass X-ray binary hosting a neutron star and is one of the few accreting millisecond X-ray pulsars with X-ray bursts. We report on a 20 ks Chandra grating observation of IGR J17511-3057, performed on 2009 September 22. We determine the most accurate X-ray position of IGR J17511-3057, {alpha}{sub J2000} = 17{sup h}51{sup m}08.{sup s}66, {delta}{sub J2000} = -30 Degree-Sign 57'41.''0 (90% uncertainty of 0.''6). During the observation, a {approx}54 s long type-I X-ray burst is detected. The persistent (non-burst) emission has an absorbed 0.5-8 keV luminosity of 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1} (at 6.9 kpc) and can be well described by a thermal Comptonization model of soft, {approx}0.6 keV, seed photons upscattered by a hot corona. The type-I X-ray burst spectrum, with average luminosity over the 54 s duration L{sub 0.5-8{sub keV}} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}, can be well described by a blackbody with kT{sub bb} {approx} 1.6 keV and R{sub bb} {approx} 5 km. While an evolution in temperature of the blackbody can be appreciated throughout the burst (average peak kT{sub bb} = 2.5{sup +0.8}{sub -0.4} keV to tail kT{sub bb} = 1.3{sup +0.2}{sub -0.1} keV), the relative emitting surface shows no evolution. The overall persistent and type-I burst properties observed during the Chandra observation are consistent with what was previously reported during the 2009 outburst of IGR J17511-3057.

  1. Spectroscopic observations of the counterpart of IGR J00291+5934

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, G.; Jonker, P. G.; Steeghs, D.; Torres, M.; Nelemans, G.

    2004-12-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the optical counterpart of the millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 (Atel #352, 353) reported in an Atel by Fox & Kulkarni were obtained (Dec 5 00:29-01:15 UT) with the ISIS spectrograph mounted on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope on La Palma. Weather conditions were not optimal with a seeing of ~2" and thin clouds. The spectra show weak evidence for broad emission line features near the HeII line at 4686 Angstrom and near the Halpha line at 6563 Angstrom.

  2. Precise uniform light source based on optically connected integrating spheres for optical instrument calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheenko, Leonid; Borovytsky, Volodymyr

    2011-09-01

    The paper proposes the uniform light sources which have a form of several or multiple optically connected integrating spheres. The principal advantages of these light sources are high photometric and metrological characteristics. As a result they have good perspectives in optical radiometry and calibration of imaging systems and optical instruments. The principal field of their application is calibration of remote sensing instruments and sensitive megapixel cameras. The light source contains several (3 ... 11) primary integrating spheres of small diameters which are installed on a secondary integrating sphere of bigger diameter. The initial light sources - halogen lamps or light emitted diodes are installed inside the primary integrating spheres. These spheres are mounted on the secondary integrating sphere. The radiation comes from the primary integrating spheres to the secondary one through diaphragms which diameters can be varied. The secondary integrating sphere has an output aperture where uniform radiance emits. It is investigated the light source design with an output aperture diameter 0.2 m and 3 or 5 primary integrating spheres. It guarantees the output radiance in range from 0.01 to 1000 W/(st•m2), radiance uniformity bigger 99.5% in an output aperture, non-linearity of an output radiance control - smaller 0.1 %. The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental research of these light sources including the techniques for radiance calculation and the recommendations for light source design. The proposed light sources can be considered as one of the best candidates for calibration of remote sensing instruments working in optical range 0.4 - 2.2 mkm. Key words: integrating sphere, light source, calibration, uniformity, radiance, remote sensing, optical instrument.

  3. Integrating Print and Electronic Resources: Joyner Library's "Pirate Source"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nall, Clark; Lewis, Janice Steed

    2005-01-01

    Valuable information in print is often neglected because of the rapid proliferation of electronic resources and the bias of many library users against print sources. At Joyner Library, it was decided to construct an interactive subject guide database that included resources in all formats to offer users a convenient starting point for research and…

  4. Integrating HCI Specialists into Open Source Software Development Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, Henrik; Iivari, Netta

    Typical open source software (OSS) development projects are organized around technically talented developers, whose communication is based on technical aspects and source code. Decision-making power is gained through proven competence and activity in the project, and non-technical end-user opinions are too many times neglected. In addition, also human-computer interaction (HCI) specialists have encountered difficulties in trying to participate in OSS projects, because there seems to be no clear authority and responsibility for them. In this paper, based on HCI and OSS literature, we introduce an extended OSS development project organization model that adds a new level of communication and roles for attending human aspects of software. The proposed model makes the existence of HCI specialists visible in the projects, and promotes interaction between developers and the HCI specialists in the course of a project.

  5. Integrated Management Program Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, A.; Cochran, J. R.; El-Adham, K.; El-Sorougy, R.

    2003-02-26

    The radioactive materials in ''public'' locations are typically contained in small, stainless steel capsules known as sealed radiation sources (RS). These capsules seal in the radioactive materials, but not the radiation, because it is the radiation that is needed for a wide variety of applications at hospitals, medical clinics, manufacturing plants, universities, construction sites, and other facilities in the public sector. Radiation sources are readily available, and worldwide there are hundreds of thousands of RS. The IMPRSS Project is a cooperative development between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA), Egyptian Ministry of Health (MOH), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), New Mexico Tech University (NMT), and Agriculture Cooperative Development International (ACDI/VOCA). SNL will coordinate the work scope between the participant organizations.

  6. The role of octopamine receptor agonists in the synergistic toxicity of certain insect growth regulators (IGRs) in controlling Dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Ahmed Ibrahim; Vogel, Christoph Franz Adam

    2016-03-01

    The synergistic action of octopamine receptor agonists (OR agonists) on many insecticide classes (e.g., organophosphorus, pyrethroids, and neonicotinoids) on Aedes aegypti L. has been reported recently. An investigation of OR agonist's effect on insect growth regulators (IGRs) was undertaken to provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action. Based on the IGR bioassay, pyriproxyfen was the most potent IGR insecticide tested (EC50=0.0019ng/ml). However, the lethal toxicity results indicate that diafenthiuron was the most potent insecticide (LC50=56ng/cm(2)) on A. aegypti adults after 24h of exposure. The same trend was true after 48 and 72h of exposure. Further, the synergistic effects of OR agonists plus amitraz (AMZ) or chlordimeform (CDM) was significant on adults. Among the tested synergists, AMZ increased the potency of the selected IGRs on adults the greatest. As results, OR agonists were largely synergistic with the selected IGRs. OR agonists enhanced the lethal toxicity of IGRs, which is a valuable new tool in the field of A. aegypti control. However, further field experiments need to be done to understand the unique potential role of OR agonists and their synergistic action on IGRs.

  7. Metrological advantages of the light source based on optically connected integrating spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikheenko, Leonid; Borovytsky, Volodymyr

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the metrological analysis of the light sources which have a form of several optically connected integrating spheres. This light sources contain several (3 ... 11) primary integrating spheres of small diameters that are installed on a secondary integrating sphere of bigger diameter. The initial light sources - halogen lamps or light emitted diodes are installed inside the primary integrating spheres. These spheres are mounted on the secondary integrating sphere. The radiation comes from the primary integrating spheres to the secondary one through the diaphragms which diameters can be varied. It makes possible to control the total flux coming through the diaphragms and to set the required output radiance. The secondary integrating sphere has an output aperture where uniform radiance emits. The paper discusses the technique for calculation of the precision of the output radiance according to variations of optical and geometrical parameters of the light source. There are investigated influences of power supply, reflectance properties, diameters of internal surfaces of the integrating spheres and diameters of diaphragms between the integrating spheres. The precision of the output radiance is better than 1.9 % for the non-expensive light sources. For the high-quality light sources it can reach 0.7 %. The possible range of the output radiance is from 0 to 1 200 W/(st•m2). These facts confirm the sufficient metrological advantages of the proposed light sources for absolute radiometric measurements. The proposed light sources can be considered as one of the best candidates for calibration of the modern remote sensing instruments and high quality imaging systems working in optical range 0.4 - 2.2 μkm.

  8. Integrated source and channel encoded digital communications system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huth, G. K.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the digital communication system for the direct communication links from ground to space shuttle and the links involving the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS). Three main tasks were performed:(1) Channel encoding/decoding parameter optimization for forward and reverse TDRS links,(2)integration of command encoding/decoding and channel encoding/decoding; and (3) modulation coding interface study. The general communication environment is presented to provide the necessary background for the tasks and to provide an understanding of the implications of the results of the studies.

  9. Development of alternate methods of determining integrated SMR source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Kenneth

    2014-06-10

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Task Force (TF) has been evaluating licensing issues unique and important to iPWRs, ranking these issues, and developing NEI position papers for submittal to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the past three years. Papers have been developed and submitted to the NRC in a range of areas including: Price-Anderson Act, NRC annual fees, security, modularity, and staffing. In December, 2012, NEI completed a draft position paper on SMR source terms and participated in an NRC public meeting presenting a summary of this paper, which was subsequently submitted to the NRC. One important conclusion of the source term paper was the evaluation and selection of high importance areas where additional research would have a significant impact on source terms. The highest ranked research area was iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition. The NRC accepts the use of existing aerosol deposition correlations in Regulatory Guide 1.183, but these were developed for large light water reactor (LWR) containments. Application of these correlations to an iPWR design has resulted in greater than a ten-fold reduction of containment airborne aerosol inventory as compared to large LWRs. Development and experimental justification of containment aerosol natural deposition correlations specifically for the unique iPWR containments is expected to result in a large reduction of design basis and beyond-design-basis accident source terms with concomitantly smaller dose to workers and the public. Therefore, NRC acceptance of iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition correlations will directly support the industry’s goal of reducing the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for SMRs. Based on the results in this work, it is clear that thermophoresis is relatively unimportant for iPWRs. Gravitational settling is well understood, and may be the dominant process for a dry environment. Diffusiophoresis and enhanced

  10. An integrated source/mask/DSA optimization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fühner, Tim; Michalak, Przemysław; Welling, Ulrich; Orozco-Rey, Juan Carlos; Müller, Marcus; Erdmann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The introduction of DSA for lithography is still obstructed by a number of technical issues including the lack of a comprehensive computational platform. This work presents a direct source/mask/DSA optimization (SMDSAO) method, which incorporates standard lithographic metrics and figures of merit such as the maximization of process windows. The procedure is demonstrated for a contact doubling example, assuming grapho-epitaxy-DSA. To retain a feasible runtime, a geometry-based Interface Hamiltonian DSA model is employed. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated through several results and their comparison with more rigorous DSA models.

  11. Broadband Suzaku Observations of IGR J16207-5129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Walter, R.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of IGRJ16207-5129 is presented based on observations taken with Suzaku. The data set represents approximately 80 ks of effective exposure time in a broad energy range between 0.5 and 60 keV, including unprecedented spectral sensitivity above 15 keV. The average source spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law in which we measured a large intrinsic absorption of N(sub H) = (16.2 (sup +0.9)(sub -1.1) x 10(sup 22) per square centimeter. This confirms that IGRJ16207-5129 belongs to the class of absorbed HMXBs. We were able to constrain the cutoff energy at 19(sup +8)(sub -4)keV which argues in favor of a neutron star as the primary. Our observation includes an epoch in which the source count rate is compatible with no flux suggesting a possible eclipse. We discuss the nature of this source in light of these and of other recent results.

  12. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas.

    PubMed

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-10-17

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  13. The ecological impact of four IGR insecticides in adults of Hyposoter didymator (Hym., Ichneumonidae): pharmacokinetics approach.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marcela; Smagghe, Guy; Pineda, Samuel; Viñuela, Elisa

    2008-04-01

    Adults of the parasitoid Hyposoter didymator were topically treated with four insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides at different doses, including their respective maximum field recommended concentrations (MFRCs) [registered in Spain or recommended by manufacturers]. Methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/l) did not affect any life parameter or the first parasitoid's offspring. In contrast, diflubenzuron (100, 500 and 1,000 mg/l) and pyriproxyfen (75, 500 and 1,000 mg/l) caused sublethal effects, decreasing the offspring emergence as a result of the parasitoid mortality during its immature stages inside the host and the life span of female offspring. In a second part, pharmacokinetic studies using a (14)C isotope of each IGR showed similar patterns of penetration through the cuticle, but different absorption and distribution rates inside the insect body. Cuticular penetration of pyriproxyfen reached about 99% in 3 days and those of diflubenzuron, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide ranged from 82% to 86%. All insecticides were recovered from the reproductive system of insects and eggs. For pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron absorption in the adult body tissues reach >65%, whereas this was only 40% for tebufenozide and methoxyfenozide. No statistical differences were found between sexes. The current data reflect that several mechanisms are likely to be involved in the selectivity of these products towards this parasitoid.

  14. Space Nuclear Facility test capability at the Baikal-1 and IGR sites Semipalatinsk-21, Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. J.; Stanley, M. L.; Martinell, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The International Space Technology Assessment Program was established 1/19/92 to take advantage of the availability of Russian space technology and hardware. DOE had two delegations visit CIS and assess its space nuclear power and propulsion technologies. The visit coincided with the Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space Nuclear Rocket Engines at Semipalatinsk-21 (Kurchatov, Kazakhstan) on Sept. 22-25, 1992. Reactor facilities assessed in Semipalatinski-21 included the IVG-1 reactor (a nuclear furnace, which has been modified and now called IVG-1M), the RA reactor, and the Impulse Graphite Reactor (IGR), the CIS version of TREAT. Although the reactor facilities are being maintained satisfactorily, the support infrastructure appears to be degrading. The group assessment is based on two half-day tours of the Baikals-1 test facility and a brief (2 hr) tour of IGR; because of limited time and the large size of the tour group, it was impossible to obtain answers to all prepared questions. Potential benefit is that CIS fuels and facilities may permit USA to conduct a lower priced space nuclear propulsion program while achieving higher performance capability faster, and immediate access to test facilities that cannot be available in this country for 5 years. Information needs to be obtained about available data acquisition capability, accuracy, frequency response, and number of channels. Potential areas of interest with broad application in the U.S. nuclear industry are listed.

  15. Satellite Technology as a Source of Integration. A Comparative Analyze: Europe MERCOSUR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo Argañarás, Luis F.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite technology as a source of integration. A comparative several changes in the field of international law, creating the need to build a new framework for integration and cooperation. analysis between the development of the European Integration for space activities and the first steps towards the same target by the MERCOSUR with a comparative point of view will show the positive and negative side effects of its development up to our present time.

  16. 76 FR 47085 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 40 RIN 3150-AI50 Domestic Licensing of Source Material... (NRC) is correcting a notice appearing in the Federal Register on July 27, 2011 (76 FR 44865), that..., ``Domestic Licensing of Source Material--Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis.'' This action is necessary...

  17. Beyond the Reading Room: Integrating Primary and Secondary Sources in the Library Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Shan; Knight, Lorrie

    2006-01-01

    Information-literate students should understand the relationships between primary and secondary sources. This article presents a new model for integrating primary and secondary sources into general library instruction. The model is based on collaboration between a Special Collections librarian and an instruction librarian. It emphasizes the use of…

  18. Low-cost organic pulse sources for integrated optical modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jussi A.; Rantala, Juha T.

    2001-05-01

    The transient and steady state performance of organic light- emitting devices (OLEDs) has been investigated with a view towards suitability for pulse sources. The rise and fall times of the electroluminescence of the different structures and materials were afforded special attention. The tested devices cover single and multi-layer structures with different layer thicknesses. Both molecular and polymeric- based devices were tested. Molecular materials used in the OLEDs were N, N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD) as a hole transporter, tris-(8-hydroxyquinolate) aluminum (Alq3) as an electron transporter/emitter and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (BCP) as a hole blocking material. Poly)2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexoxy)-1,4- phenylene-vinylene) (MEH-PPV) and poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrene) (PEDOT/PSS) were the polymeric materials used in the devices. The effect of the driving voltage on the response time and the current density in transients was under investigation. In addition, changes in the response time were studied, when the bias voltage was applied.

  19. An ontology for the integration of multiple genetic disorder data sources.

    PubMed

    Gong, P; Qu, W; Feng, D D

    2005-01-01

    As a huge amount of gene disorder information is available on the Internet, there is an increasing requirement to integrate these data sources. The integration of gene disorder data sources provides an important tool in the research of life science, therapeutics, and genetic disease prevention and inhibition. The key challenge of such integration is how to deal with semantic heterogeneity of multiple information resources. The paper proposes an ontology-based approach to describe and extract the semantics of genetic disorder terminologies and provides a mechanism for sharing and reusing genetic disorder knowledge. According to this unified meta model, heterogeneous gene disorder data sources can be integrated, and a semantic middleware has the ability to do reasoning on the knowledge base of gene disorder for users and applications' various queries.

  20. Development and Performance of a Filter Radiometer Monitor System for Integrating Sphere Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Leibo; Kowalewski, Matthew G.; Cooper, John W.; Smith, GIlbert R.; Barnes, Robert A.; Waluschka, Eugene; Butler, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Radiometric Calibration Laboratory (RCL) maintains several large integrating sphere sources covering the visible to the shortwave infrared wavelength range. Two critical, functional requirements of an integrating sphere source are short and long-term operational stability and repeatability. Monitoring the source is essential in determining the origin of systemic errors, thus increasing confidence in source performance and quantifying repeatability. If monitor data falls outside the established parameters, this could be an indication that the source requires maintenance or re-calibration against the National Institute of Science and Technology (NIST) irradiance standard. The GSFC RCL has developed a Filter Radiometer Monitoring System (FRMS) to continuously monitor the performance of its integrating sphere calibration sources in the 400 to 2400nm region. Sphere output change mechanisms include lamp aging, coating (e.g. BaSO4) deterioration, and ambient water vapor level. The Filter Radiometer Monitor System (FRMS) wavelength bands are selected to quantify changes caused by these mechanisms. The FRMS design and operation are presented, as well as data from monitoring four of the RCL s integrating sphere sources.

  1. Source Region Modeling of Explosions 2 and 3 from the Source Physics Experiment Using the Rayleigh Integral Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.; Whitaker, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    The overall mission of the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiment at the National Nuclear Security Site (SPE-N) near Las Vegas, Nevada is to improve upon and develop new physics based models for underground nuclear explosions using scaled, underground chemical explosions as proxies. To this end, we use the Rayleigh integral as an approximation to the Helmholz-Kirchoff integral, [Whitaker, 2007 and Arrowsmith et al., 2011], to model infrasound generation in the far-field. Infrasound generated by single-point explosive sources above ground can typically be treated as monopole point-sources. While the source is relatively simple, the research needed to model above ground point-sources is complicated by path effects related to the propagation of the acoustic signal and out of the scope of this study. In contrast, for explosions that occur below ground, including the SPE explosions, the source region is more complicated but the observation distances are much closer (< 5 km), thus greatly reducing the complication of path effects. In this case, elastic energy from the explosions radiates upward and spreads out, depending on depth, to a more distributed region at the surface. Due to this broad surface perturbation of the atmosphere we cannot model the source as a simple monopole point-source. Instead, we use the analogy of a piston mounted in a rigid, infinite baffle, where the surface area that moves as a result of the explosion is the piston and the surrounding region is the baffle. The area of the "piston" is determined by the depth and explosive yield of the event. In this study we look at data from SPE-N-2 and SPE-N-3. Both shots had an explosive yield of 1 ton at a depth of 45 m. We collected infrasound data with up to eight stations and 32 sensors within a 5 km radius of ground zero. To determine the area of the surface acceleration, we used data from twelve surface accelerometers installed within 100 m radially about ground zero

  2. Towards virtual knowledge broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Ian; Filsell, Wendy; Woollard, Peter; Dix, Ian; Braxenthaler, Michael; Gedye, Richard; Hoole, David; Kidd, Richard; Wilson, Jabe; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems.

  3. Towards virtual knowledge broker services for semantic integration of life science literature and data sources.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Ian; Filsell, Wendy; Woollard, Peter; Dix, Ian; Braxenthaler, Michael; Gedye, Richard; Hoole, David; Kidd, Richard; Wilson, Jabe; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2013-05-01

    Research in the life sciences requires ready access to primary data, derived information and relevant knowledge from a multitude of sources. Integration and interoperability of such resources are crucial for sharing content across research domains relevant to the life sciences. In this article we present a perspective review of data integration with emphasis on a semantics driven approach to data integration that pushes content into a shared infrastructure, reduces data redundancy and clarifies any inconsistencies. This enables much improved access to life science data from numerous primary sources. The Semantic Enrichment of the Scientific Literature (SESL) pilot project demonstrates feasibility for using already available open semantic web standards and technologies to integrate public and proprietary data resources, which span structured and unstructured content. This has been accomplished through a precompetitive consortium, which provides a cost effective approach for numerous stakeholders to work together to solve common problems. PMID:23247259

  4. Integrating a Traveling Wave Tube into an AECR-U ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff; Benitez, Janilee Y.; Ratti, Alessandro; Vujic, Jasmina L.

    2011-07-01

    An RF system of 500W - 10.75 to 12.75 GHz was designed and integrated into the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance - Upgrade (AECR-U) ion source of the 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The AECR-U produces ion beams for the Cyclotron giving large flexibility of ion species and charge states. The broadband frequency of a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT) allows modifying the volume that couples and heats the plasma. The TWT system design and integration with the AECR-U ion source and results from commissioning are presented.

  5. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors' data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  6. Multi-Sensor Integration to Map Odor Distribution for the Detection of Chemical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Acar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of mapping odor distribution derived from a chemical source using multi-sensor integration and reasoning system design. Odor localization is the problem of finding the source of an odor or other volatile chemical. Most localization methods require a mobile vehicle to follow an odor plume along its entire path, which is time consuming and may be especially difficult in a cluttered environment. To solve both of the above challenges, this paper proposes a novel algorithm that combines data from odor and anemometer sensors, and combine sensors’ data at different positions. Initially, a multi-sensor integration method, together with the path of airflow was used to map the pattern of odor particle movement. Then, more sensors are introduced at specific regions to determine the probable location of the odor source. Finally, the results of odor source location simulation and a real experiment are presented. PMID:27384568

  7. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Dykas, W.P.; Kirby, B.J.; Purucker, S.L.; Lawler, J.S.

    1995-07-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar thermal power plants, and wind turbines are nonconventional, environmentally attractive sources of energy that can be considered for electric power generation. Many of the areas with abundant renewable energy resources (very sunny or windy areas) are far removed from major load centers. Although electrical power can be transmitted over long distances of many hundreds of miles through high-voltage transmission lines, power transmission systems often operate near their limits with little excess capacity for new generation sources. This study assesses the available capacity of transmission systems in designated abundant renewable energy resource regions and identifies the requirements for high-capacity plant integration in selected cases. In general, about 50 MW of power from renewable sources can be integrated into existing transmission systems to supply local loads without transmission upgrades beyond the construction of a substation to connect to the grid. Except in the Southwest, significant investment to strengthen transmission systems will be required to support the development of high-capacity renewable sources of 1000 MW or greater in areas remote from major load centers. Cost estimates for new transmission facilities to integrate and dispatch some of these high-capacity renewable sources ranged from several million dollars to approximately one billion dollars, with the latter figure an increase in total investment of 35%, assuming that the renewable source is the only user of the transmission facility.

  8. IGR NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control technology. Second technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-25

    The technical work during this reporting term has principally involved the continued development, optimization and improvement of freezing drying techniques for solid ceramic oxide electrolyte powder preparation, preliminary optimization of the calcining of the ceramic electrolyte freeze dried powders to allow for optimum processing to the IGR composite, and determining (initial) electrochemical properties of the stabilized ceramic solid electrolyte at a variety of temperatures in air.

  9. Three transient X-ray sources during the INTEGRAL revolution 1710

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Charles, Phil; Chenevez, J.; Ubertini, P.

    2016-08-01

    During recent INTEGRAL observations of the Musca and Norma regions (revolutions 1710) performed between 2016-08-05 16:00:36 UTC and 2016-08-07 21:02:14 UTC a renewed activity from the following transient X-ray sources has been detected.

  10. On the Prospects and Concerns of Integrating Open Source Software Environment in Software Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamthan, Pankaj

    2007-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) has introduced a new dimension in software community. As the development and use of OSS becomes prominent, the question of its integration in education arises. In this paper, the following practices fundamental to projects and processes in software engineering are examined from an OSS perspective: project management;…

  11. A CMOS microdisplay with integrated controller utilizing improved silicon hot carrier luminescent light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Petrus J.; Alberts, Antonie C.; du Plessis, Monuko; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen; Goosen, Marius E.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter; Fauré, Nicolaas M.

    2013-03-01

    Microdisplay technology, the miniaturization and integration of small displays for various applications, is predominantly based on OLED and LCoS technologies. Silicon light emission from hot carrier electroluminescence has been shown to emit light visibly perceptible without the aid of any additional intensification, although the electrical to optical conversion efficiency is not as high as the technologies mentioned above. For some applications, this drawback may be traded off against the major cost advantage and superior integration opportunities offered by CMOS microdisplays using integrated silicon light sources. This work introduces an improved version of our previously published microdisplay by making use of new efficiency enhanced CMOS light emitting structures and an increased display resolution. Silicon hot carrier luminescence is often created when reverse biased pn-junctions enter the breakdown regime where impact ionization results in carrier transport across the junction. Avalanche breakdown is typically unwanted in modern CMOS processes. Design rules and process design are generally tailored to prevent breakdown, while the voltages associated with breakdown are too high to directly interact with the rest of the CMOS standard library. This work shows that it is possible to lower the operating voltage of CMOS light sources without compromising the optical output power. This results in more efficient light sources with improved interaction with other standard library components. This work proves that it is possible to create a reasonably high resolution microdisplay while integrating the active matrix controller and drivers on the same integrated circuit die without additional modifications, in a standard CMOS process.

  12. Integrated MEMS mass sensor and atom source for a ``Fab on a Chip''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Han; Imboden, Matthias; Stark, Thomas; Bishop, David

    2014-03-01

    ``Fab on a Chip'' is a new concept suggesting that the semiconductor fabrication facility can be integrated into a single silicon chip for nano-manufacturing. Such a chip contains various MEMS devices which can work together, operating in a similar way as a conventional fab does, to fabricate nano-structures. Here we present two crucial ``Fab on a chip'' components: the MEMS mass sensor and atomic evaporation source. The mass sensor is essentially a parallel plate capacitor with one suspended plate. When incident atoms deposit on the suspended plate, the mass change of the plate can be measured by detecting the resonant frequency shift. Using the mass sensor, a mass resolution of 3 fg is achieved. The MEMS evaporation source consists of a polysilicon plate suspended by two electrical leads with constrictions. By resistively heating the plate, this device works as a tunable atom flux source. By arranging many of these devices into an array, one can build a multi-element atom evaporator. The mass sensor and atom source are integrated so that the mass sensor is used to monitor and characterize the atomic flux. A material source and a sensor to monitor the fabrication are two integral components for our ``Fab on a Chip.''

  13. The eye in hand: predicting others' behavior by integrating multiple sources of information

    PubMed Central

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Costantini, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    The ability to predict the outcome of other beings' actions confers significant adaptive advantages. Experiments have assessed that human action observation can use multiple information sources, but it is currently unknown how they are integrated and how conflicts between them are resolved. To address this issue, we designed an action observation paradigm requiring the integration of multiple, potentially conflicting sources of evidence about the action target: the actor's gaze direction, hand preshape, and arm trajectory, and their availability and relative uncertainty in time. In two experiments, we analyzed participants' action prediction ability by using eye tracking and behavioral measures. The results show that the information provided by the actor's gaze affected participants' explicit predictions. However, results also show that gaze information was disregarded as soon as information on the actor's hand preshape was available, and this latter information source had widespread effects on participants' prediction ability. Furthermore, as the action unfolded in time, participants relied increasingly more on the arm movement source, showing sensitivity to its increasing informativeness. Therefore, the results suggest that the brain forms a robust estimate of the actor's motor intention by integrating multiple sources of information. However, when informative motor cues such as a preshaped hand with a given grip are available and might help in selecting action targets, people tend to capitalize on such motor cues, thus turning out to be more accurate and fast in inferring the object to be manipulated by the other's hand. PMID:25568158

  14. A weight-of-evidence approach to integrate suspended sediment source information.

    PubMed

    Fu, B; Newham, L T H; Field, J B; Vigiak, O

    2013-10-15

    Sediment monitoring, tracing and modelling are widely used to identify suspended sediment sources. Although each method has inherent limitations and uncertainties, their integration provides opportunities to form collective knowledge and encourages robust management strategies. This paper presents a Weight-of-Evidence approach to integrate multiple Lines-of-Evidence for identifying suspended sediment sources. Three sources of evidence were used: i) stream flow and suspended sediment monitoring at river gauges; ii) geochemical sediment tracing at river junctions; and iii) catchment-scale suspended sediment modelling of hillslope, gully, streambank and unsealed road erosion. We applied this approach on two data-poor catchments in Australia. Some reaches were consistently identified as major sources of sediment from all Lines-of-Evidence. However, inconsistencies between the types of evidence in other areas highlighted the high uncertainty in identifying suspended sediment sources in these areas and the need for further investigation. The integration framework maximised the use of scarce information, enabled explicit consideration of uncertainties for catchment management and identified where future monitoring and research should be targeted.

  15. Integrating open-source software applications to build molecular dynamics systems.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bruce M; Predecki, Paul K; Kumosa, Maciej

    2014-04-01

    Three open-source applications, NanoEngineer-1, packmol, and mis2lmp are integrated using an open-source file format to quickly create molecular dynamics (MD) cells for simulation. The three software applications collectively make up the open-source software (OSS) suite known as MD Studio (MDS). The software is validated through software engineering practices and is verified through simulation of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-a and isophorone diamine (DGEBA/IPD) system. Multiple simulations are run using the MDS software to create MD cells, and the data generated are used to calculate density, bulk modulus, and glass transition temperature of the DGEBA/IPD system. Simulation results compare well with published experimental and numerical results. The MDS software prototype confirms that OSS applications can be analyzed against real-world research requirements and integrated to create a new capability.

  16. A monolithically integrated polarization entangled photon pair source on a silicon chip

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Le Jeannic, Hanna; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Munro, William John; Shimizu, Kaoru; Yamada, Koji; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Takesue, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Integrated photonic circuits are one of the most promising platforms for large-scale photonic quantum information systems due to their small physical size and stable interferometers with near-perfect lateral-mode overlaps. Since many quantum information protocols are based on qubits defined by the polarization of photons, we must develop integrated building blocks to generate, manipulate, and measure the polarization-encoded quantum state on a chip. The generation unit is particularly important. Here we show the first integrated polarization-entangled photon pair source on a chip. We have implemented the source as a simple and stable silicon-on-insulator photonic circuit that generates an entangled state with 91 ± 2% fidelity. The source is equipped with versatile interfaces for silica-on-silicon or other types of waveguide platforms that accommodate the polarization manipulation and projection devices as well as pump light sources. Therefore, we are ready for the full-scale implementation of photonic quantum information systems on a chip. PMID:23150781

  17. Golden Ratio Versus Pi as Random Sequence Sources for Monte Carlo Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S. K.; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences is not judged directly based on the outcome of all known tests for the randomness of a sequence. Instead, it is determined implicitly by the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration in a statistical sense. Since our main motive of using a random sequence is to solve real world problems, it is more desirable if we compare the quality of the sequences based on their performances for these problems in terms of quality/accuracy of the output. We also compare these sources against those generated by a popular pseudo-random generator, viz., the Matlab rand and the quasi-random generator ha/ton both in terms of error and time complexity. Our study demonstrates that consecutive blocks of digits of each of these numbers produce a good random sequence source. It is observed that randomly chosen blocks of digits do not have any remarkable advantage over consecutive blocks for the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration. Also, it reveals that pi is a better source of a random sequence than theta when the accuracy of the integration is concerned.

  18. Evaluation and selection of open-source EMR software packages based on integrated AHP and TOPSIS.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Kiah, M L M; Hussain, Muzammil; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the requirements of an organization are difficult aspects of software engineering process. Selecting the wrong open-source EMR software package can be costly and may adversely affect business processes and functioning of the organization. This study aims to evaluate and select open-source EMR software packages based on multi-criteria decision-making. A hands-on study was performed and a set of open-source EMR software packages were implemented locally on separate virtual machines to examine the systems more closely. Several measures as evaluation basis were specified, and the systems were selected based a set of metric outcomes using Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS. The experimental results showed that GNUmed and OpenEMR software can provide better basis on ranking score records than other open-source EMR software packages.

  19. Evaluation and selection of open-source EMR software packages based on integrated AHP and TOPSIS.

    PubMed

    Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed; Kiah, M L M; Hussain, Muzammil; Abdulnabi, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Evaluating and selecting software packages that meet the requirements of an organization are difficult aspects of software engineering process. Selecting the wrong open-source EMR software package can be costly and may adversely affect business processes and functioning of the organization. This study aims to evaluate and select open-source EMR software packages based on multi-criteria decision-making. A hands-on study was performed and a set of open-source EMR software packages were implemented locally on separate virtual machines to examine the systems more closely. Several measures as evaluation basis were specified, and the systems were selected based a set of metric outcomes using Integrated Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and TOPSIS. The experimental results showed that GNUmed and OpenEMR software can provide better basis on ranking score records than other open-source EMR software packages. PMID:25483886

  20. 3D simulation of integrated multi-coil ICP source with azimuthal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcka, Jozef

    2015-09-01

    Integrated multi-coil (IMC) planar ICP source with azimuthal motion is presented. Scaling ICP sources to larger substrate size is always complicated due to many technical issues and is challenged by the plasma chemistry. The source described in this work has capability of azimuthally moving plasma and has potential for large area and high density plasma applications. Hence, this system does not have an ideal axial symmetry, the 3D model approach has to be used to assess its transient performance. Moreover, reactor walls are imposing stronger boundary conditions on distribution of the radicals in ``off-axis reactive plasma.'' Intrinsic asymmetry of source and plasma were investigated by 3D fluid model developed under Plasma Module framework and supported by COMSOL Multiphysics solvers. Operation modes have potential to control plasma distribution, reaction chemistry and increase/modulate radicals' production. Simulation confirmed assumption that plasma distribution may essentially change in different gas. Under specific conditions integrated multi-coil ICP source is producing pulsed plasma. Temporal, spatial and population plasma characteristics were investigated in an inert carrier gas (Ar) and reactive plasma consisting of several gases (Ar, H2, CO and CH4).

  1. An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years) - 9th INTEGRAL Workshop and celebration of the 10th anniversary of the launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 9th INTEGRAL workshop "An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years)" took place from 15 to 19 October 2012 in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Bibliothèque François Mitterrand). The workshop was sponsored by ESA, CNES and other French and European Institutions. During this week, and in particular on 17 October 2012, we celebrated the 10th anniversary of the launch of the INTEGRAL mission. The main goal of this workshop was to present and to discuss (via invited and contributed talks and posters) latest results obtained in the field of high-energy astrophysics using the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory INTEGRAL, as well as results from observations from other ground- and space-based high-energy observatories and from associated multi-wavelength campaigns. Contributions to the workshop covered the following scientific topics: - X-ray binaries (IGR sources, black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs) - Isolated neutron stars (gamma-ray pulsars, magnetars) - Nucleo-synthesis (SNe, Novae, SNRs, ISM) and gamma-ray lines (511 keV) - Galactic diffuse continuum emission (including Galactic Ridge) - Massive black holes in AGNs, elliptical galaxies, nucleus of the Galaxy - Sky surveys, source populations and unidentified gamma-ray sources - Cosmic background radiation - Gamma-ray bursts - Coordinated observations with other ground- and space-based observatories - Science data processing and analysis (posters only) - Future instruments and missions (posters only)

  2. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian; He, Zhenli; Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-12-15

    Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74-100% and 0-24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0-80% and 19-100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions. PMID:26257294

  3. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian; He, Zhenli; Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua; Yang, Xiaoe

    2015-12-15

    Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74-100% and 0-24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0-80% and 19-100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  4. Influence of nitrogen sources on ethanol fermentation in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Mao, Zhonggui; Zhang, Chengming; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Hongjian; Tang, Lei

    2012-09-01

    An integrated ethanol-methane fermentation system was proposed to resolve wastewater pollution in cassava ethanol production. In the integrated system, wastewater originating from ethanol distillation was treated by two-stage anaerobic digestion and then used in medium for the next batch of ethanol fermentation. Ammonium and other components in the effluent promoted yeast growth and fermentation rate but did not increase the yield of ethanol. Fermentations with the effluent as the nitrogen source showed higher growth and ethanol production rates (0.215 h(-1) and 1.276 g/L/h, respectively) than urea that resulted in corresponding rates of 0.176 h(-1) and 0.985 g/L/h, respectively. Results indicated that anaerobic digestion effluent can be used as nitrogen source for the ethanol fermentation instead of urea in the ethanol-methane fermentation system.

  5. A Stochastic Power Network Calculus for Integrating Renewable Energy Sources into the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K; Ciucu, F; Lin, C; Low, SH

    2012-07-01

    Renewable energy such as solar and wind generation will constitute an important part of the future grid. As the availability of renewable sources may not match the load, energy storage is essential for grid stability. In this paper we investigate the feasibility of integrating solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and wind turbines into the grid by also accounting for energy storage. To deal with the fluctuation in both the power supply and demand, we extend and apply stochastic network calculus to analyze the power supply reliability with various renewable energy configurations. To illustrate the validity of the model, we conduct a case study for the integration of renewable energy sources into the power system of an island off the coast of Southern California. In particular, we asses the power supply reliability in terms of the average Fraction of Time that energy is Not-Served (FTNS).

  6. A graph-based integrative method of detecting consistent protein functional modules from multiple data sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Cheng, Yue; Ge, Liang; Du, Nan; Jia, Kebin; Zhang, Aidong

    2015-01-01

    Many clustering methods have been developed to identify functional modules in Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) networks but the results are far from satisfaction. To overcome the noise and incomplete problems of PPI networks and find more accurate and stable functional modules, we propose an integrative method, bipartite graph-based Non-negative Matrix Factorisation method (BiNMF), in which we adopt multiple biological data sources as different views that describe PPIs. Specifically, traditional clustering models are adopted as preliminary analysis of different views of protein functional similarity. Then the intermediate clustering results are represented by a bipartite graph which can comprehensively represent the relationships between proteins and intermediate clusters and finally overlapping clustering results are achieved. Through extensive experiments, we see that our method is superior to baseline methods and detailed analysis has demonstrated the benefits of integrating diverse clustering methods and multiple biological information sources. PMID:26547971

  7. An integrated probabilistic approach for gene function prediction using multiple sources of high-throughput data.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Joshi, Trupti; Lin, Guan Ning; Xu, Dong

    2008-01-01

    Characterising gene function is one of the major challenging tasks in the post-genomic era. Various approaches have been developed to integrate multiple sources of high-throughput data to predict gene function. Most of those approaches are just used for research purpose and have not been implemented as publicly available tools. Even for those implemented applications, almost all of them are still web-based 'prediction servers' that have to be managed by specialists. This paper introduces a systematic method for integrating various sources of high-throughput data to predict gene function and analyse our prediction results and evaluates its performances based on the competition for mouse gene function prediction (MouseFunc). A stand-alone Java-based software package 'GeneFAS' is freely available at http://digbio. missouri.eduigenefas.

  8. The semantic metadatabase (SEMEDA): ontology based integration of federated molecular biological data sources.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Jacob; Schulze-Kremer, Steffen

    2002-01-01

    A system for "intelligent" semantic integration and querying of federated databases is being implemented by using three main components: A component which enables SQL access to integrated databases by database federation (MARGBench), an ontology based semantic metadatabase (SEMEDA) and an ontology based query interface (SEMEDA-query). In this publication we explain and demonstrate the principles, architecture and the use of SEMEDA. Since SEMEDA is implemented as 3 tiered web application database providers can enter all relevant semantic and technical information about their databases by themselves via a web browser. SEMEDA' s collaborative ontology editing feature is not restricted to database integration, and might also be useful for ongoing ontology developments, such as the "Gene Ontology" [2]. SEMEDA can be found at http://www-bm.cs.uni-magdeburg.de/semeda/. We explain how this ontologically structured information can be used for semantic database integration. In addition, requirements to ontologies for molecular biological database integration are discussed and relevant existing ontologies are evaluated. We further discuss how ontologies and structured knowledge sources can be used in SEMEDA and whether they can be merged supplemented or updated to meet the requirements for semantic database integration.

  9. Design and evaluation of a miniature probe integrating diffuse optical tomography and electroencephalographic source localization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Jiang, Huabei

    2013-07-10

    We present a dual-modality three-dimensional imaging approach that integrates diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and electroencephalographic source localization (ESL). This dual-modal DOT/ESL approach is evaluated using solid tissue-like phantoms where targets having both optical and electrical contrasts relative to the background phantom are included. The results obtained from extensive phantom experiments show that this dual-modal approach is suitable for imaging seizure focus in the study of epilepsy.

  10. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  11. Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maysonnave, J; Jukam, N; Ibrahim, M S M; Maussang, K; Madéo, J; Cavalié, P; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Steenson, D P; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Tignon, J; Dhillon, S S

    2012-02-15

    We used a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) as an integrated injection seeded source and amplifier for THz time-domain spectroscopy. A THz input pulse is generated inside a QCL by illuminating the laser facet with a near-IR pulse from a femtosecond laser and amplified using gain switching. The THz output from the QCL is found to saturate upon increasing the amplitude of the THz input power, which indicates that the QCL is operating in an injection seeded regime.

  12. Integrated population modelling reveals a perceived source to be a cryptic sink.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Fox, Anthony D; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn J; McDonald, Jennifer L; Hodgson, David J

    2016-03-01

    Demographic links among fragmented populations are commonly studied as source-sink dynamics, whereby source populations exhibit net recruitment and net emigration, while sinks suffer net mortality but enjoy net immigration. It is commonly assumed that large, persistent aggregations of individuals must be sources, but this ignores the possibility that they are sinks instead, buoyed demographically by immigration. We tested this assumption using Bayesian integrated population modelling of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) at their largest wintering site (Wexford, Ireland), combining capture-mark-recapture, census and recruitment data collected from 1982 to 2010. Management for this subspecies occurs largely on wintering areas; thus, study of source-sink dynamics of discrete regular wintering units provides unprecedented insights into population regulation and enables identification of likely processes influencing population dynamics at Wexford and among 70 other Greenland white-fronted goose wintering subpopulations. Using results from integrated population modelling, we parameterized an age-structured population projection matrix to determine the contribution of movement rates (emigration and immigration), recruitment and mortality to the dynamics of the Wexford subpopulation. Survival estimates for juvenile and adult birds at Wexford and adult birds elsewhere fluctuated over the 29-year study period, but were not identifiably different. However, per capita recruitment rates at Wexford in later years (post-1995) were identifiably lower than in earlier years (pre-1995). The observed persistence of the Wexford subpopulation was only possible with high rates of immigration, which exceeded emigration in each year. Thus, despite its apparent stability, Wexford has functioned as a sink over the entire study period. These results demonstrate that even large subpopulations can potentially be sinks, and that movement dynamics (e.g. immigration

  13. Integrated population modelling reveals a perceived source to be a cryptic sink.

    PubMed

    Weegman, Mitch D; Bearhop, Stuart; Fox, Anthony D; Hilton, Geoff M; Walsh, Alyn J; McDonald, Jennifer L; Hodgson, David J

    2016-03-01

    Demographic links among fragmented populations are commonly studied as source-sink dynamics, whereby source populations exhibit net recruitment and net emigration, while sinks suffer net mortality but enjoy net immigration. It is commonly assumed that large, persistent aggregations of individuals must be sources, but this ignores the possibility that they are sinks instead, buoyed demographically by immigration. We tested this assumption using Bayesian integrated population modelling of Greenland white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons flavirostris) at their largest wintering site (Wexford, Ireland), combining capture-mark-recapture, census and recruitment data collected from 1982 to 2010. Management for this subspecies occurs largely on wintering areas; thus, study of source-sink dynamics of discrete regular wintering units provides unprecedented insights into population regulation and enables identification of likely processes influencing population dynamics at Wexford and among 70 other Greenland white-fronted goose wintering subpopulations. Using results from integrated population modelling, we parameterized an age-structured population projection matrix to determine the contribution of movement rates (emigration and immigration), recruitment and mortality to the dynamics of the Wexford subpopulation. Survival estimates for juvenile and adult birds at Wexford and adult birds elsewhere fluctuated over the 29-year study period, but were not identifiably different. However, per capita recruitment rates at Wexford in later years (post-1995) were identifiably lower than in earlier years (pre-1995). The observed persistence of the Wexford subpopulation was only possible with high rates of immigration, which exceeded emigration in each year. Thus, despite its apparent stability, Wexford has functioned as a sink over the entire study period. These results demonstrate that even large subpopulations can potentially be sinks, and that movement dynamics (e.g. immigration

  14. Integrated OLED as excitation light source in fluorescent lateral flow immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishak; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-12-15

    The integration of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation light sources for quantum dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay systems (LFIA) was investigated. This approach has the potential to deliver a sensitive visible detection scheme for low-cost, disposable lab-on-chip point-of-care (POC) diagnosis system. Thin film phosphorescent green OLEDs fabricated on plastic substrates were integrated on-chip to excite the test line of a quantum dot-based LFIA (QD-LFIA). OLEDs were fabricated by sequential deposition of organic thin films (total of ~100 nm) onto ITO-coated PET substrates. CdSe/ZnS QDs emitting at 655 nm and Au nanoparticles (NP - 10 nm size) conjugated antibodies were used for the fluorescence QD-LFIA and conventional reflection-mode Au NP-LFIA, respectively. Thin plastic color light filters were integrated for filtering the excitation light source and, thereby, increasing the contrast of the emitted light for optimized visual detection. Integration of the OLED and color filters with the analytical membrane was achieved using adhesive techniques facilitated by the planar nature of the layers, which suggests possible large scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing. Gray scale analysis from digital images captured with a digital camera was used to quantify the visual sensitivity. The signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit of detection (LOD) of OLED integrated QD-LFIAs were compared to Au NP LFIAs. OLED QD-LFIA exhibited superior performance in all signal aspects: 7-8× higher signal intensity and SNR, and a 7× lower LOD of 3 nM (measured at S/N=3). These results demonstrate the potential of OLED-integrated in LFIA devices for obtaining sensitive, fast and low-cost POC diagnostics.

  15. Integrated OLED as excitation light source in fluorescent lateral flow immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Venkatraman, Vishak; Steckl, Andrew J

    2015-12-15

    The integration of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation light sources for quantum dot-based fluorescent lateral flow immunoassay systems (LFIA) was investigated. This approach has the potential to deliver a sensitive visible detection scheme for low-cost, disposable lab-on-chip point-of-care (POC) diagnosis system. Thin film phosphorescent green OLEDs fabricated on plastic substrates were integrated on-chip to excite the test line of a quantum dot-based LFIA (QD-LFIA). OLEDs were fabricated by sequential deposition of organic thin films (total of ~100 nm) onto ITO-coated PET substrates. CdSe/ZnS QDs emitting at 655 nm and Au nanoparticles (NP - 10 nm size) conjugated antibodies were used for the fluorescence QD-LFIA and conventional reflection-mode Au NP-LFIA, respectively. Thin plastic color light filters were integrated for filtering the excitation light source and, thereby, increasing the contrast of the emitted light for optimized visual detection. Integration of the OLED and color filters with the analytical membrane was achieved using adhesive techniques facilitated by the planar nature of the layers, which suggests possible large scale manufacturing using roll-to-roll processing. Gray scale analysis from digital images captured with a digital camera was used to quantify the visual sensitivity. The signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit of detection (LOD) of OLED integrated QD-LFIAs were compared to Au NP LFIAs. OLED QD-LFIA exhibited superior performance in all signal aspects: 7-8× higher signal intensity and SNR, and a 7× lower LOD of 3 nM (measured at S/N=3). These results demonstrate the potential of OLED-integrated in LFIA devices for obtaining sensitive, fast and low-cost POC diagnostics. PMID:26134292

  16. Open source software integrated into data services of Japanese planetary explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ishihara, Y.; Otake, H.; Imai, K.; Masuda, K.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific data obtained by Japanese scientific satellites and lunar and planetary explorations are archived in DARTS (Data ARchives and Transmission System). DARTS provides the data with a simple method such as HTTP directory listing for long-term preservation while DARTS tries to provide rich web applications for ease of access with modern web technologies based on open source software. This presentation showcases availability of open source software through our services. KADIAS is a web-based application to search, analyze, and obtain scientific data measured by SELENE(Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiter. KADIAS uses OpenLayers to display maps distributed from Web Map Service (WMS). As a WMS server, open source software MapServer is adopted. KAGUYA 3D GIS (KAGUYA 3D Moon NAVI) provides a virtual globe for the SELENE's data. The main purpose of this application is public outreach. NASA World Wind Java SDK is used to develop. C3 (Cross-Cutting Comparisons) is a tool to compare data from various observations and simulations. It uses Highcharts to draw graphs on web browsers. Flow is a tool to simulate a Field-Of-View of an instrument onboard a spacecraft. This tool itself is open source software developed by JAXA/ISAS, and the license is BSD 3-Caluse License. SPICE Toolkit is essential to compile FLOW. SPICE Toolkit is also open source software developed by NASA/JPL, and the website distributes many spacecrafts' data. Nowadays, open source software is an indispensable tool to integrate DARTS services.

  17. Self-Consistent Sources for Integrable Equations Via Deformations of Binary Darboux Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvartatskyi, Oleksandr; Dimakis, Aristophanes; Müller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2016-08-01

    We reveal the origin and structure of self-consistent source extensions of integrable equations from the perspective of binary Darboux transformations. They arise via a deformation of the potential that is central in this method. As examples, we obtain in particular matrix versions of self-consistent source extensions of the KdV, Boussinesq, sine-Gordon, nonlinear Schrödinger, KP, Davey-Stewartson, two-dimensional Toda lattice and discrete KP equation. We also recover a (2+1)-dimensional version of the Yajima-Oikawa system from a deformation of the pKP hierarchy. By construction, these systems are accompanied by a hetero binary Darboux transformation, which generates solutions of such a system from a solution of the source-free system and additionally solutions of an associated linear system and its adjoint. The essence of all this is encoded in universal equations in the framework of bidifferential calculus.

  18. DStat: A Versatile, Open-Source Potentiostat for Electroanalysis and Integration.

    PubMed

    Dryden, Michael D M; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2015-01-01

    Most electroanalytical techniques require the precise control of the potentials in an electrochemical cell using a potentiostat. Commercial potentiostats function as "black boxes," giving limited information about their circuitry and behaviour which can make development of new measurement techniques and integration with other instruments challenging. Recently, a number of lab-built potentiostats have emerged with various design goals including low manufacturing cost and field-portability, but notably lacking is an accessible potentiostat designed for general lab use, focusing on measurement quality combined with ease of use and versatility. To fill this gap, we introduce DStat (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dstat), an open-source, general-purpose potentiostat for use alone or integrated with other instruments. DStat offers picoampere current measurement capabilities, a compact USB-powered design, and user-friendly cross-platform software. DStat is easy and inexpensive to build, may be modified freely, and achieves good performance at low current levels not accessible to other lab-built instruments. In head-to-head tests, DStat's voltammetric measurements are much more sensitive than those of "CheapStat" (a popular open-source potentiostat described previously), and are comparable to those of a compact commercial "black box" potentiostat. Likewise, in head-to-head tests, DStat's potentiometric precision is similar to that of a commercial pH meter. Most importantly, the versatility of DStat was demonstrated through integration with the open-source DropBot digital microfluidics platform. In sum, we propose that DStat is a valuable contribution to the "open source" movement in analytical science, which is allowing users to adapt their tools to their experiments rather than alter their experiments to be compatible with their tools.

  19. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; Tesche, F.M.; Zaininger, H.W.

    1994-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  20. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P. R.; Vandyke, J. W.; Tesche, F. M.; Zaininger, H. W.

    1994-06-01

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. 2, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  1. Deterministic Integration of Single Photon Sources in Silicon Based Photonic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Iman Esmaeil; Elshaari, Ali W; Jöns, Klaus D; Fognini, Andreas; Dalacu, Dan; Poole, Philip J; Reimer, Michael E; Zwiller, Val

    2016-04-13

    A major step toward fully integrated quantum optics is the deterministic incorporation of high quality single photon sources in on-chip optical circuits. We show a novel hybrid approach in which preselected III-V single quantum dots in nanowires are transferred and integrated in silicon based photonic circuits. The quantum emitters maintain their high optical quality after integration as verified by measuring a low multiphoton probability of 0.07 ± 0.07 and emission line width as narrow as 3.45 ± 0.48 GHz. Our approach allows for optimum alignment of the quantum dot light emission to the fundamental waveguide mode resulting in very high coupling efficiencies. We estimate a coupling efficiency of 24.3 ± 1.7% from the studied single-photon source to the photonic channel and further show by finite-difference time-domain simulations that for an optimized choice of material and design the efficiency can exceed 90%. PMID:26954298

  2. Low-level radioactive waste source terms for the 1992 integrated data base

    SciTech Connect

    Loghry, S L; Kibbey, A H; Godbee, H W; Icenhour, A S; DePaoli, S M

    1995-01-01

    This technical manual presents updated generic source terms (i.e., unitized amounts and radionuclide compositions) which have been developed for use in the Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These source terms were used in the IDB annual report, Integrated Data Base for 1992: Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste Inventories, Projections, and Characteristics, DOE/RW-0006, Rev. 8, October 1992. They are useful as a basis for projecting future amounts (volume and radioactivity) of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) shipped for disposal at commercial burial grounds or sent for storage at DOE solid-waste sites. Commercial fuel cycle LLW categories include boiling-water reactor, pressurized-water reactor, fuel fabrication, and uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) conversion. Commercial nonfuel cycle LLW includes institutional/industrial (I/I) waste. The LLW from DOE operations is category as uranium/thorium fission product, induced activity, tritium, alpha, and {open_quotes}other{close_quotes}. Fuel cycle commercial LLW source terms are normalized on the basis of net electrical output [MW(e)-year], except for UF{sub 6} conversion, which is normalized on the basis of heavy metal requirement [metric tons of initial heavy metal ]. The nonfuel cycle commercial LLW source term is normalized on the basis of volume (cubic meters) and radioactivity (curies) for each subclass within the I/I category. The DOE LLW is normalized in a manner similar to that for commercial I/I waste. The revised source terms are based on the best available historical data through 1992.

  3. Integrated guided wave generation and sensing using a single laser source and optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Park, Hyun-Jun; Sohn, Hoon; Kwon, Il-Bum

    2010-10-01

    This study proposes an integrated lead zirconate titanate/fiber Bragg grating (PZT/FBG) system that can generate and measure guided waves for structural health monitoring (SHM) using a common laser source and optical cables. Among various SHM devices used for guided wave generation and sensing, PZT transducers and FBG sensors have been widely used because of their light weight, non-intrusive nature and compactness. To take the best advantage of the merits of these SHM devices, a combination of PZT-based guided wave generation and FBG-based sensing has been attempted by some researchers. However, the existing hybrid approaches have two independent systems: a wave generation system using electrical devices and a sensing system with optical devices. We have developed a fully integrated PZT/FBG system that uses a single laser source and optical cables. This system can alleviate problems associated with conventional electrical cables, such as electromagnetic interference, signal attenuation and vulnerability to noise. A tunable laser, the common power source for guided wave generation and sensing, is modulated and amplified to excite PZT. This laser is also used with FBG sensors for measuring high-speed strain changes induced by guided waves. The feasibility of this system has been experimentally demonstrated using an aluminum plate.

  4. Curating and Integrating Data from Multiple Sources to Support Healthcare Analytics.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenney; Kakkanatt, Chris; Benigno, Michael; Thompson, Clay; Jackson, Margaret; Cahan, Amos; Zhu, Xinxin; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Paul

    2015-01-01

    As the volume and variety of healthcare related data continues to grow, the analysis and use of this data will increasingly depend on the ability to appropriately collect, curate and integrate disparate data from many different sources. We describe our approach to and highlight our experiences with the development of a robust data collection, curation and integration infrastructure that supports healthcare analytics. This system has been successfully applied to the processing of a variety of data types including clinical data from electronic health records and observational studies, genomic data, microbiomic data, self-reported data from surveys and self-tracked data from wearable devices from over 600 subjects. The curated data is currently being used to support healthcare analytic applications such as data visualization, patient stratification and predictive modeling. PMID:26262355

  5. In vivo pan/tilt endoscope with integrated light source, zoom and auto-focusing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tie; Allen, Peter K; Goldman, Roger; Hogle, Nancy J; Fowler, Dennis L

    2008-01-01

    We describe a surgical imaging device with pan, tilt, zoom and integrated LED light source. It can be fully inserted into the abdomen, leaving the insertion port free for tooling. Using a porcine model we have tested the device and performed surgical procedures including cholecystectomy, appendectomy, running (measuring) the bowel, suturing, and nephrectomy. The tests show that the new device is: * Easier and more intuitive to use than a standard laparoscope. * Joystick operation requires no specialized operator training. * Field of view and access to relevant regions of the body were superior to a standard laparoscope using a single port. * Time to perform procedures was better or equivalent to a standard laparoscope. We believe these insertable platforms will be an integral part of future surgical systems.

  6. Curating and Integrating Data from Multiple Sources to Support Healthcare Analytics.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kenney; Kakkanatt, Chris; Benigno, Michael; Thompson, Clay; Jackson, Margaret; Cahan, Amos; Zhu, Xinxin; Zhang, Ping; Huang, Paul

    2015-01-01

    As the volume and variety of healthcare related data continues to grow, the analysis and use of this data will increasingly depend on the ability to appropriately collect, curate and integrate disparate data from many different sources. We describe our approach to and highlight our experiences with the development of a robust data collection, curation and integration infrastructure that supports healthcare analytics. This system has been successfully applied to the processing of a variety of data types including clinical data from electronic health records and observational studies, genomic data, microbiomic data, self-reported data from surveys and self-tracked data from wearable devices from over 600 subjects. The curated data is currently being used to support healthcare analytic applications such as data visualization, patient stratification and predictive modeling.

  7. A Practice Approach of Multi-source Geospatial Data Integration for Web-based Geoinformation Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Jiang, J.; Zha, Z.; Zhang, H.; Wang, C.; Zhang, J.

    2014-04-01

    Geospatial data resources are the foundation of the construction of geo portal which is designed to provide online geoinformation services for the government, enterprise and public. It is vital to keep geospatial data fresh, accurate and comprehensive in order to satisfy the requirements of application and development of geographic location, route navigation, geo search and so on. One of the major problems we are facing is data acquisition. For us, integrating multi-sources geospatial data is the mainly means of data acquisition. This paper introduced a practice integration approach of multi-source geospatial data with different data model, structure and format, which provided the construction of National Geospatial Information Service Platform of China (NGISP) with effective technical supports. NGISP is the China's official geo portal which provides online geoinformation services based on internet, e-government network and classified network. Within the NGISP architecture, there are three kinds of nodes: national, provincial and municipal. Therefore, the geospatial data is from these nodes and the different datasets are heterogeneous. According to the results of analysis of the heterogeneous datasets, the first thing we do is to define the basic principles of data fusion, including following aspects: 1. location precision; 2.geometric representation; 3. up-to-date state; 4. attribute values; and 5. spatial relationship. Then the technical procedure is researched and the method that used to process different categories of features such as road, railway, boundary, river, settlement and building is proposed based on the principles. A case study in Jiangsu province demonstrated the applicability of the principle, procedure and method of multi-source geospatial data integration.

  8. DStat: A Versatile, Open-Source Potentiostat for Electroanalysis and Integration

    PubMed Central

    Dryden, Michael D. M.; Wheeler, Aaron R.

    2015-01-01

    Most electroanalytical techniques require the precise control of the potentials in an electrochemical cell using a potentiostat. Commercial potentiostats function as “black boxes,” giving limited information about their circuitry and behaviour which can make development of new measurement techniques and integration with other instruments challenging. Recently, a number of lab-built potentiostats have emerged with various design goals including low manufacturing cost and field-portability, but notably lacking is an accessible potentiostat designed for general lab use, focusing on measurement quality combined with ease of use and versatility. To fill this gap, we introduce DStat (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dstat), an open-source, general-purpose potentiostat for use alone or integrated with other instruments. DStat offers picoampere current measurement capabilities, a compact USB-powered design, and user-friendly cross-platform software. DStat is easy and inexpensive to build, may be modified freely, and achieves good performance at low current levels not accessible to other lab-built instruments. In head-to-head tests, DStat’s voltammetric measurements are much more sensitive than those of “CheapStat” (a popular open-source potentiostat described previously), and are comparable to those of a compact commercial “black box” potentiostat. Likewise, in head-to-head tests, DStat’s potentiometric precision is similar to that of a commercial pH meter. Most importantly, the versatility of DStat was demonstrated through integration with the open-source DropBot digital microfluidics platform. In sum, we propose that DStat is a valuable contribution to the “open source” movement in analytical science, which is allowing users to adapt their tools to their experiments rather than alter their experiments to be compatible with their tools. PMID:26510100

  9. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  10. CDApps: integrated software for experimental planning and data processing at beamline B23, Diamond Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Rohanah; Benning, Kristian; Javorfi, Tamas; Longo, Edoardo; Rudd, Timothy R.; Pulford, Bill; Siligardi, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    The B23 Circular Dichroism beamline at Diamond Light Source has been operational since 2009 and has seen visits from more than 200 user groups, who have generated large amounts of data. Based on the experience of overseeing the users’ progress at B23, four key areas requiring the most assistance are identified: planning of experiments and note-keeping; designing titration experiments; processing and analysis of the collected data; and production of experimental reports. To streamline these processes an integrated software package has been developed and made available for the users. The subsequent article summarizes the main features of the software. PMID:25723950

  11. System and method for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture

    DOEpatents

    Musick, Charles R.; Critchlow, Terence; Ganesh, Madhaven; Slezak, Tom; Fidelis, Krzysztof

    2006-12-19

    A system and method is disclosed for integrating and accessing multiple data sources within a data warehouse architecture. The metadata formed by the present method provide a way to declaratively present domain specific knowledge, obtained by analyzing data sources, in a consistent and useable way. Four types of information are represented by the metadata: abstract concepts, databases, transformations and mappings. A mediator generator automatically generates data management computer code based on the metadata. The resulting code defines a translation library and a mediator class. The translation library provides a data representation for domain specific knowledge represented in a data warehouse, including "get" and "set" methods for attributes that call transformation methods and derive a value of an attribute if it is missing. The mediator class defines methods that take "distinguished" high-level objects as input and traverse their data structures and enter information into the data warehouse.

  12. Searching for Gamma-Ray Blazar Candidates Among the Unidentified INTEGRAL Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.; /Perugia U.

    2012-04-02

    The identification of low-energy counterparts for {gamma}-ray sources is one of the biggest challenge in modern {gamma}-ray astronomy. Recently, we developed and successfully applied a new association method to recognize {gamma}-ray blazar candidates that could be possible counterparts for the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources above 100 MeV in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog (2FGL). This method is based on the Infrared (IR) colors of the recent Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. In this letter we applied our new association method to the case of unidentified INTEGRAL sources (UISs) listed in the fourth soft gamma-ray source catalog (4IC). Only 86 UISs out of the 113 can be analyzed, due to the sky coverage of the WISE Preliminary data release. Among these 86 UISs, we found that 18 appear to have a {gamma}-ray blazar candidate within their positional error region. Finally, we analyzed the Swift archival data available for 10 out these 18 {gamma}-ray blazar candidates, and we found that 7 out of 10 are clearly detected in soft X-rays and/or in the optical-ultraviolet band. We cannot confirm the associations between the UISs and the selected {gamma}-ray blazar candidates due to the discrepancies between the INTEGRAL and the soft X-ray spectra. However, the discovery of the soft X-ray counterparts for the selected {gamma}-ray blazar candidates adds an important clue to help understand their origin and to confirm their blazar nature.

  13. SEARCHING FOR {gamma}-RAY BLAZAR CANDIDATES AMONG THE UNIDENTIFIED INTEGRAL SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.; Tosti, G.

    2012-05-10

    The identification of low-energy counterparts for {gamma}-ray sources is one of the biggest challenges in modern {gamma}-ray astronomy. Recently, we developed and successfully applied a new association method to recognize {gamma}-ray blazar candidates that could be possible counterparts for the unidentified {gamma}-ray sources above 100 MeV in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog. This method is based on the infrared colors of the recent Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) all-sky survey. In this Letter, we applied our new association method to the case of unidentified INTEGRAL sources (UISs) listed in the fourth soft gamma-ray source catalog. Only 86 UISs out of the 113 can be analyzed due to the sky coverage of the WISE Preliminary Data Release. Among these 86 UISs, we found that 18 appear to have a {gamma}-ray blazar candidate within their positional error region. Finally, we analyzed Swift archival data available for 10 out of these 18 {gamma}-ray blazar candidates, and we found that 7 out of 10 are clearly detected in soft X-rays and/or in the optical-ultraviolet band. We cannot confirm the associations between the UISs and the selected {gamma}-ray blazar candidates due to the discrepancies between the INTEGRAL and the soft X-ray spectra. However, the discovery of the soft X-ray counterparts for the selected {gamma}-ray blazar candidates adds an important clue to help us understand their origin and to confirm their blazar nature.

  14. A Mathematical and Computational Approach for Integrating the Major Sources of Cell Population Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Michail; Zygourakis, Kyriacos

    2010-01-01

    Several approaches have been used in the past to model heterogeneity in bacterial cell populations, with each approach focusing on different source(s) of heterogeneity. However, a holistic approach that integrates all the major sources into a comprehensive framework applicable to cell populations is still lacking. In this work we present the mathematical formulation of a cell population master equation (CPME) that describes cell population dynamics and takes into account the major sources of heterogeneity, namely stochasticity in reaction, DNA-duplication, and division, as well as the random partitioning of species contents into the two daughter cells. The formulation also takes into account cell growth and respects the discrete nature of the molecular contents and cell numbers. We further develop a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the stochastic processes considered here. To benchmark our new framework, we first use it to quantify the effect of each source of heterogeneity on the intrinsic and the extrinsic phenotypic variability for the well-known two-promoter system used experimentally by Elowitz et al. (2002). We finally apply our framework to a more complicated system and demonstrate how the interplay between noisy gene expression and growth inhibition due to protein accumulation at the single cell level can result in complex behavior at the cell population level. The generality of our framework makes it suitable for studying a vast array of artificial and natural genetic networks. Using our Monte Carlo algorithm, cell population distributions can be predicted for the genetic architecture of interest, thereby quantifying the effect of stochasticity in intracellular reactions or the variability in the rate of physiological processes such as growth and division. Such in silico experiments can give insight into the behavior of cell populations and reveal the major sources contributing to cell population heterogeneity. PMID:20685607

  15. Monitoring groundwater contamination and delineating source zones at industrial sites: uncertainty analyses using integral pumping tests.

    PubMed

    Jarsjö, Jerker; Bayer-Raich, Martí; Ptak, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    Field-scale characterisations of contaminant plumes in groundwater, as well as source zone delineations, are associated with uncertainties that can be considerable. A major source of uncertainty in environmental datasets is due to variability of sampling results, as a direct consequence of the heterogeneity of environmental matrices. We develop a methodology for quantifying uncertainties in field-scale mass flow and average concentration estimations, using integral pumping tests (IPTs), where the contaminant concentration is measured as a function of time in a pumping well. This procedure increases the sampling volume and reduces the effect of small-scale variability that may bias point-scale measurements. In particular, using IPTs, the interpolation uncertainty of conventional point-scale measurements is transformed to a quantifiable uncertainty related to the (unknown) plume position relative to the pumping well. We show that this plume position uncertainty generally influenced the predicted mass flows and average concentrations (of acenapthene, benzene and CHCs) to a greater extent than a boundary condition uncertainty related to the local water balance, considering 19 control planes at a highly heterogeneous industrial site in southwest Germany. Furthermore, large (order of magnitude) uncertainties only occurred if the conditions were strongly heterogeneous in the nearest vicinity of the well. We also develop a consistent methodology for an assessment of the combined effect of uncertainty in hydraulic conditions and uncertainty in reactive transport parameters for delimiting of both contaminant source zones and zones absent of source, based on (downgradient) IPTs.

  16. The symbiotic star RT Cru entered a new hard X-ray state as detected by INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sguera, V.; Bird, A. J.; Sidoli, L.

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic star RT Cru (also known as IGR J12349-6434) was in the field of view of INTEGRAL during recent observations of the Musca region performed between 11 Dec 17:54 (UTC) and 17 Dec 20:43 (UTC).

  17. ToxPi GUI: An interactive visualization tool for transparent integration of data from diverse sources of evidence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Motivation: Scientists and regulators are often faced with complex decisions, where use of scarce resources must be prioritized using collections of diverse information. The Toxicological Prioritization Index (ToxPi™) was developed to enable integration of multiple sources of evi...

  18. On the spin modulated circular polarization from the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGR J15094-6649

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Stephen B.; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Kotze, Marissa; Zietsman, Ewald; Butters, O. W.; Pekeur, Nikki; Buckley, David A. H.

    2012-03-01

    We report on high-time-resolution, high-signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), photopolarimetry of the intermediate polars NY Lup and IGR J15094-6649. Our observations confirm the detection and colour dependence of circular polarization from NY Lup and additionally show a clear white dwarf, spin modulated signal. From our new high-S/N photometry, we have unambiguously detected wavelength-dependent spin and beat periods and harmonics thereof. IGR J15094-6649 is also discovered to have a particularly strong spin modulated circularly polarized signal. It appears double peaked through the I filter and single peaked through the B filter, consistent with cyclotron emission from a white dwarf with a relatively strong magnetic field. We discuss the implied accretion geometries in these two systems and any bearing this may have on the possible relationship with the connection between polars and soft X-ray-emitting intermediate polars. The relatively strong magnetic fields are also suggestive of them being polar progenitors.

  19. Predictive networks: a flexible, open source, web application for integration and analysis of human gene networks

    PubMed Central

    Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Olsen, Catharina; Djebbari, Amira; Bontempi, Gianluca; Correll, Mick; Bouton, Christopher; Quackenbush, John

    2012-01-01

    Genomics provided us with an unprecedented quantity of data on the genes that are activated or repressed in a wide range of phenotypes. We have increasingly come to recognize that defining the networks and pathways underlying these phenotypes requires both the integration of multiple data types and the development of advanced computational methods to infer relationships between the genes and to estimate the predictive power of the networks through which they interact. To address these issues we have developed Predictive Networks (PN), a flexible, open-source, web-based application and data services framework that enables the integration, navigation, visualization and analysis of gene interaction networks. The primary goal of PN is to allow biomedical researchers to evaluate experimentally derived gene lists in the context of large-scale gene interaction networks. The PN analytical pipeline involves two key steps. The first is the collection of a comprehensive set of known gene interactions derived from a variety of publicly available sources. The second is to use these ‘known’ interactions together with gene expression data to infer robust gene networks. The PN web application is accessible from http://predictivenetworks.org. The PN code base is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/predictivenets/. PMID:22096235

  20. Study of a Satellite Attitude Control System Using Integrating Gyros as Torque Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, John S.; Hansen, Q. Marion

    1961-01-01

    This report considers the use of single-degree-of-freedom integrating gyros as torque sources for precise control of satellite attitude. Some general design criteria are derived and applied to the specific example of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. The results of the analytical design are compared with the results of an analog computer study and also with experimental results from a low-friction platform. The steady-state and transient behavior of the system, as determined by the analysis, by the analog study, and by the experimental platform agreed quite well. The results of this study show that systems using integrating gyros for precise satellite attitude control can be designed to have a reasonably rapid and well-damped transient response, as well as very small steady-state errors. Furthermore, it is shown that the gyros act as rate sensors, as well as torque sources, so that no rate stabilization networks are required, and when no error sensor is available, the vehicle is still rate stabilized. Hence, it is shown that a major advantage of a gyro control system is that when the target is occulted, an alternate reference is not required.

  1. Development of a Field-Aligned Integrated Conductivity Model Using the SAMI2 Open Source Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Kyle; Gearheart, Michael; West, Keith

    2003-03-01

    The SAMI2 open source code is a middle and low latitude ionspheric model developed by the Naval Research Lab for the dual purposes of research and education. At the time of this writing the source code has no component for the integrated magnetic field-aligned conductivity. The dependence of human activities on conditions in the space environment, such as communications, has grown and will continue to do so. With this growth comes higher financial stakes, as changes in the space environment have greater economic impact. In order to minimize the adverse effects of these changes, predictive models are being developed. Among the geophysical parameters that affect communications is the conductivity in the ionosphere. As part of the commitment of Texas A & M Univeristy-Commerce to build a strong undergraduate research program, a team consisting of two students and a faculty mentor are developing a model of the integrated field-aligned conductivity using the SAMI2 code. The current status of the research and preliminary results are presented as well as a summary of future work.

  2. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Uselton, Robert B.; Shen, Bo; Baxter, Van D; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  3. SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY IGR J16283-4838 UNVEIL A 288 DAY ORBITAL PERIOD

    SciTech Connect

    Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; D'Aì, A.; Masetti, N.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-09-20

    We report on the temporal and spectral properties of the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16283-4838 in the hard X-ray band. We searched the first 88 months of Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data for long-term periodic modulations. We also investigated the broad band (0.2-150 keV) spectral properties of IGR J16283-4838 complementing the BAT dataset with soft X-ray data from the available Swift-XRT pointed observations. The BAT light curve of IGR J16283-4838 revealed a periodic modulation at P{sub o} = 287.6 ± 1.7 days (with a significance higher than 4 standard deviations). The profile of the light curve folded at P{sub o} shows a sharp peak lasting ∼12 days over a flat plateau. The long-term light curve also shows a ∼300 day interval of prolonged enhanced emission. The observed phenomenology suggests that IGR J16283-4838 has a Be nature, where the narrow periodic peaks and the ∼300 day outburst can be interpreted as Type I and Type II outbursts, respectively. The broad band 0.2-150 keV spectrum can be described with an absorbed power-law and a steepening in the BAT energy range.

  4. ON THE FORMATION OF THE PECULIAR LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARY IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Long; Li Xiangdong

    2013-07-20

    IGR J17480-2446 is an accreting X-ray pulsar in a low-mass X-ray binary harbored in the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5. Compared with other accreting millisecond pulsars, IGR J17480-2446 is peculiar for its low spin frequency (11 Hz), which suggests that it might be a mildly recycled neutron star at the very early phase of mass transfer. However, this model seems to be in contrast with the low field strength deduced from the kilo-Hertz quasi-periodic oscillations observed in IGR J17480-2446. Here, we suggest an alternative interpretation, assuming that the current binary system was formed during an exchange encounter either between a binary (which contains a recycled neutron star) and the current donor, or between a binary and an isolated, recycled neutron star. In the resulting binary, the spin axis of the neutron star could be parallel or anti-parallel with the orbital axis. In the latter case, the abnormally low frequency of IGR J17480-2446 may result from the spin-down to spin-up evolution of the neutron star. We also briefly discuss the possible observational implications of the pulsar in this scenario.

  5. Swift Observations of the High-mass X-Ray Binary IGR J16283-4838 Unveil a 288 Day Orbital Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; D'Aì, A.; Masetti, N.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the temporal and spectral properties of the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16283-4838 in the hard X-ray band. We searched the first 88 months of Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data for long-term periodic modulations. We also investigated the broad band (0.2-150 keV) spectral properties of IGR J16283-4838 complementing the BAT dataset with soft X-ray data from the available Swift-XRT pointed observations. The BAT light curve of IGR J16283-4838 revealed a periodic modulation at Po = 287.6 ± 1.7 days (with a significance higher than 4 standard deviations). The profile of the light curve folded at Po shows a sharp peak lasting ~12 days over a flat plateau. The long-term light curve also shows a ~300 day interval of prolonged enhanced emission. The observed phenomenology suggests that IGR J16283-4838 has a Be nature, where the narrow periodic peaks and the ~300 day outburst can be interpreted as Type I and Type II outbursts, respectively. The broad band 0.2-150 keV spectrum can be described with an absorbed power-law and a steepening in the BAT energy range.

  6. Acoustic source characteristics, across-formant integration, and speech intelligibility under competitive conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brian; Summers, Robert J; Bailey, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    An important aspect of speech perception is the ability to group or select formants using cues in the acoustic source characteristics--for example, fundamental frequency (F0) differences between formants promote their segregation. This study explored the role of more radical differences in source characteristics. Three-formant (F1+F2+F3) synthetic speech analogues were derived from natural sentences. In Experiment 1, F1+F3 were generated by passing a harmonic glottal source (F0 = 140 Hz) through second-order resonators (H1+H3); in Experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal (sine-wave) analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). In some conditions, the target formants were presented alone, either monaurally or dichotically (left ear = F1+F3; right ear = F2). In others, they were accompanied by a competitor for F2 (F1+F2C+F3; F2), which listeners must reject to optimize recognition. Competitors (H2C or T2C) were created using the time-reversed frequency and amplitude contours of F2. Dichotic presentation of F2 and F2C ensured that the impact of the competitor arose primarily through informational masking. In the absence of F2C, the effect of a source mismatch between F1+F3 and F2 was relatively modest. When F2C was present, intelligibility was lowest when F2 was tonal and F2C was harmonic, irrespective of which type matched F1+F3. This finding suggests that source type and context, rather than similarity, govern the phonetic contribution of a formant. It is proposed that wideband harmonic analogues are more effective informational maskers than narrowband tonal analogues, and so become dominant in across-frequency integration of phonetic information when placed in competition. PMID:25751040

  7. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  8. Integration of Radioisotope Heat Source with Stirling Engine and Cooler for Venus Internal-Structure Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The primary mission goal is to perform long-term seismic measurements on Venus, to study its largely unknown internal structure. The principal problem is that most payload components cannot long survive Venus's harsh environment, 90 bars at 500 degrees C. To meet the mission life goal, such components must be protected by a refrigerated payload bay. JPL Investigators have proposed a mission concept employing a lander with a spherical payload bay cooled to 25 degrees C by a Stirling cooler powered by a radioisotope-heated Sitrling engine. To support JPL's mission study, NASA/Lewis and MTI have proposed a conceptual design for a hydraulically coupled Stirling engine and cooler, and Fairchild Space - with support of the Department of Energy - has proposed a design and integration scheme for a suitable radioisotope heat source. The key integration problem is to devise a simple, light-weight, and reliable scheme for forcing the radioisotope decay heat to flow through the Stirling engine during operation on Venus, but to reject that heat to the external environment when the Stirling engine and cooler are not operating (e.g., during the cruise phase, when the landers are surrounded by heat shields needed for protection during subsequent entry into the Venusian atmosphere.) A design and integration scheme for achieving these goals, together with results of detailed thermal analyses, are described in this paper. There are 7 copies in the file.

  9. Improved seismic risk assessment based on probabilistic multi-source information integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittore, M.; Wieland, M.; Duisheev, A.; Yasunov, P.

    2012-04-01

    Earthquakes threat millions of people all over the world. Assessing seismic risk, defined as the probability of occurrence of economical and social losses as consequence of an earthquake, both at regional and at local scale is a challenging, multi-disciplinary task. In order to provide reliable estimates, diverse information must be gathered by seismologists, geologists, engineers and civil authorities and carefully integrated, keeping into account the different uncertainties and the inherent spatio-temporal variability. An efficient and reliable assessment of the assets exposed to seismic hazard and the structural and social components of vulnerability are of particular importance, in order to undertake proper mitigation actions and to promptly and efficiently react to a possibly catastrophic natural event. An original approach is presented to assess seismic vulnerability and risk based on integration of information coming from several heterogeneous sources: remotely-sensed and ground-based panoramic images, manual digitization, already available information and expert knowledge. A Bayesian approach has been introduced to keep into account collected information while preserving priors and subjective judgment. In the broad perspective of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) and more specifically within EMCA (Earthquake Model Central Asia) project, an integrated, sound approach to seismic risk in countries with limited resources is an important but rewarding challenge. Improved vulnerability and risk models for the capital cities of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and their application in earthquake scenarios will be discussed.

  10. Integration of Acoustical Information in the Perception of Impacted Sound Sources: The Role of Information Accuracy and Exploitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Rocchesso, Davide; McAdams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Sound sources are perceived by integrating information from multiple acoustical features. The factors influencing the integration of information are largely unknown. We measured how the perceptual weighting of different features varies with the accuracy of information and with a listener's ability to exploit it. Participants judged the hardness of…

  11. JBioWH: an open-source Java framework for bioinformatics data integration.

    PubMed

    Vera, Roberto; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Perez, Sonia; Ligeti, Balázs; Kertész-Farkas, Attila; Pongor, Sándor

    2013-01-01

    The Java BioWareHouse (JBioWH) project is an open-source platform-independent programming framework that allows a user to build his/her own integrated database from the most popular data sources. JBioWH can be used for intensive querying of multiple data sources and the creation of streamlined task-specific data sets on local PCs. JBioWH is based on a MySQL relational database scheme and includes JAVA API parser functions for retrieving data from 20 public databases (e.g. NCBI, KEGG, etc.). It also includes a client desktop application for (non-programmer) users to query data. In addition, JBioWH can be tailored for use in specific circumstances, including the handling of massive queries for high-throughput analyses or CPU intensive calculations. The framework is provided with complete documentation and application examples and it can be downloaded from the Project Web site at http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh. A MySQL server is available for demonstration purposes at hydrax.icgeb.trieste.it:3307. Database URL: http://code.google.com/p/jbiowh.

  12. Optimal characterization of pollutant sources in contaminated aquifers by integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and source identification: methodology and an application in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Om; Datta, Bithin

    2015-09-01

    Often, when pollution is first detected in groundwater, very few spatiotemporal pollutant concentration measurements are available. The contaminant concentration measurement data initially available are generally sparse and insufficient for accurate source characterization. This requires development of a contaminant monitoring plan and its field implementation to collect more data. The location of scientifically chosen monitoring points and the number of measurements are important considerations in improving the source-characterization process, especially in a complex contamination scenario. In order to improve the efficiency of source characterization, a feedback-based methodology is implemented, integrating sequential-monitoring-network design and a source identification method. The simulated annealing (SA) optimization algorithm is used to solve the models for optimal source identification and the monitoring-network-design optimization. This sequence is repeated a few times to improve the accuracy of source characterization. The methodology is based on the premise that concentration measurements from a sequence of implemented monitoring networks provide feedback information on the actual concentration in the site. This additional information, obtained as feedback from monitoring networks designed and implemented based on intermediate source characterization, can result in sequential improvement in the resulting source characterization. The performance of this methodology is evaluated by application to a contaminated aquifer site in New South Wales, Australia, where source location, source-activity initiation time and source-flux (mass per unit time) release history are considered as unknown variables. The performance evaluation results demonstrate potential applicability of the proposed sequential methodology.

  13. Short-term biochemical ill effects of insect growth regulator (IGR) pesticides in Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola: Insecta) as potential biomarkers of soil pollution.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ipsita; Joy, V C

    2016-02-01

    The insect growth regulator (IGR) chemicals are considered as safe alternatives to synthetic organic pesticides, but only scant information are available on their possible impact on non-target and ecologically important soil insect fauna of croplands. Previous studies by the authors showed that recommended agricultural doses of IGRs buprofezin (Applaud 25SC at 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), flubendiamide (Takumi 20WG at 50 g a.i. ha(-1)) and novaluron (Rimon 10EC at 100 g a.i. ha(-1)) produced less mortality of adults of a non-target soil insect Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola) but decreased major life history parameters namely moulting, fecundity and egg hatching success. This detritivorous microarthropod is very sensitive to soil characteristics and is ecologically relevant to the tropical soils. Present microcosm study showed strong biochemical impact of the above doses of IGRs on tissue nutrient levels and digestive enzyme activities in C. javanus within 7 days of exposure to treated sandy loam soil. The levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and free amino acids declined significantly and persistently in the specimens reared in IGR-treated soils than in the specimens of untreated soil. Similarly, α-amylase, cellulase and protease activities declined significantly in the specimens of IGR-treated soil. These nutritional scarcities would reduce metabolism, growth and reproduction in the affected insects. Therefore, the observed biochemical responses, especially the levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates and α-amylase activity in C. javanus are early warning indices and potential biomarkers of soil pollution in croplands.

  14. Short-term biochemical ill effects of insect growth regulator (IGR) pesticides in Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola: Insecta) as potential biomarkers of soil pollution.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ipsita; Joy, V C

    2016-02-01

    The insect growth regulator (IGR) chemicals are considered as safe alternatives to synthetic organic pesticides, but only scant information are available on their possible impact on non-target and ecologically important soil insect fauna of croplands. Previous studies by the authors showed that recommended agricultural doses of IGRs buprofezin (Applaud 25SC at 250 g a.i. ha(-1)), flubendiamide (Takumi 20WG at 50 g a.i. ha(-1)) and novaluron (Rimon 10EC at 100 g a.i. ha(-1)) produced less mortality of adults of a non-target soil insect Cyphoderus javanus Borner (Collembola) but decreased major life history parameters namely moulting, fecundity and egg hatching success. This detritivorous microarthropod is very sensitive to soil characteristics and is ecologically relevant to the tropical soils. Present microcosm study showed strong biochemical impact of the above doses of IGRs on tissue nutrient levels and digestive enzyme activities in C. javanus within 7 days of exposure to treated sandy loam soil. The levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and free amino acids declined significantly and persistently in the specimens reared in IGR-treated soils than in the specimens of untreated soil. Similarly, α-amylase, cellulase and protease activities declined significantly in the specimens of IGR-treated soil. These nutritional scarcities would reduce metabolism, growth and reproduction in the affected insects. Therefore, the observed biochemical responses, especially the levels of tissue proteins, carbohydrates and α-amylase activity in C. javanus are early warning indices and potential biomarkers of soil pollution in croplands. PMID:26780417

  15. A compact picosecond pulsed laser source using a fully integrated CMOS driver circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yuting; Li, Yuhua; Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2016-03-01

    Picosecond pulsed laser source have applications in areas such as optical communications, biomedical imaging and supercontinuum generation. Direct modulation of a laser diode with ultrashort current pulses offers a compact and efficient approach to generate picosecond laser pulses. A fully integrated complementary metaloxide- semiconductor (CMOS) driver circuit is designed and applied to operate a 4 GHz distributed feedback laser (DFB). The CMOS driver circuit combines sub-circuits including a voltage-controlled ring oscillator, a voltagecontrolled delay line, an exclusive-or (XOR) circuit and a current source circuit. Ultrashort current pulses are generated by the XOR circuit when the delayed square wave is XOR'ed with the original square wave from the on-chip oscillator. Circuit post-layout simulation shows that output current pulses injected into an equivalent circuit load of the laser have a pulse full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 200 ps, a peak current of 80 mA and a repetition rate of 5.8 MHz. This driver circuit is designed in a 0.13 μm CMOS process and taped out on a 0.3 mm2 chip area. This CMOS chip is packaged and interconnected with the laser diode on a printed circuit board (PCB). The optical output waveform from the laser source is captured by a 5 GHz bandwidth photodiode and an 8 GHz bandwidth oscilloscope. Measured results show that the proposed laser source can output light pulses with a pulse FWHM of 151 ps, a peak power of 6.4 mW (55 mA laser peak forward current) and a repetition rate of 5.3 MHz.

  16. Properties of the integrated spectrum of serendipitous 2XMM catalog sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhary, P.; Brusa, M.; Hasinger, G.; Merloni, A.; Comastri, A.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: Our analysis is aimed at characterizing the properties of the integrated spectrum of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), such as the ubiquity of the Fe Kα emission in AGNs and the dependence of the spectral parameters on the X-ray luminosity and redshift. Methods: We selected 2646 point sources from the 2XMM catalog at high galactic latitude (|BII| > 25 degrees) and with the sum of EPIC-PN and EPIC-MOS 0.2-12 keV counts greater than 1000. Redshifts were obtained for 916 sources from the Nasa's Extragalactic Database. We excluded sources classified as HII regions, groups/clusters, star-forming/starburst galaxies. The final sample consists of 507 AGN. Individual source spectra were summed in the observed frame to compute the integrated spectra in different redshift and luminosity bins over the range 0 < z < 5. Detailed analysis of these spectra used appropriately normalized background spectra and exposure time-weighted response and ancillary files. Results: We find that the narrow Fe Kα line at 6.4 keV is significantly detected up to z = 1. The line equivalent width decreases with increasing X-ray luminosity in the 2-10 keV band (“Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect”). The anticorrelation is characterized by the relation log(EWFe) = (1.66±0.09) + (-0.43±0.07) log(LX,44), where EWFe is the rest frame equivalent width of the neutral iron Kα line in eV and LX,44 is the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity in units of 1044 erg s-1. The equivalent width is nearly independent of redshift up to z ~ 0.8 with an average value of 101±40 (rms dispersion) eV in the luminosity range 43.5 ≤ log LX ≤ 44.5. Our analysis also confirms the hardening of the spectral indices at low luminosities, implying a dependence of obscuration on luminosity. Conclusions: We confirm that the neutral narrow Fe Kα line is an almost ubiquitous feature of AGNs. We find compelling evidence supporting the “Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect” over a redshift interval larger than probed in any previous study. We detect

  17. Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2014-08-01

    This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-μm spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  18. Grid Integration of Single Stage Solar PV System using Three-level Voltage Source Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Ikhlaq; Kandpal, Maulik; Singh, Bhim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a single stage solar PV (photovoltaic) grid integrated power generating system using a three level voltage source converter (VSC) operating at low switching frequency of 900 Hz with robust synchronizing phase locked loop (RS-PLL) based control algorithm. To track the maximum power from solar PV array, an incremental conductance algorithm is used and this maximum power is fed to the grid via three-level VSC. The use of single stage system with three level VSC offers the advantage of low switching losses and the operation at high voltages and high power which results in enhancement of power quality in the proposed system. Simulated results validate the design and control algorithm under steady state and dynamic conditions.

  19. Delaunay Tetrahedralization of the Heart Based on Integration of Open Source Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavarino, E.; Neves, L. A.; Machado, J. M.; de Godoy, M. F.; Shiyou, Y.; Momente, J. C.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Pinto, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.; do Nascimento, M. Z.

    2014-03-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a way of numerical solution applied in different areas, as simulations used in studies to improve cardiac ablation procedures. For this purpose, the meshes should have the same size and histological features of the focused structures. Some methods and tools used to generate tetrahedral meshes are limited mainly by the use conditions. In this paper, the integration of Open Source Softwares is presented as an alternative to solid modeling and automatic mesh generation. To demonstrate its efficiency, the cardiac structures were considered as a first application context: atriums, ventricles, valves, arteries and pericardium. The proposed method is feasible to obtain refined meshes in an acceptable time and with the required quality for simulations using FEM.

  20. Study of heat sources interacting in integrated circuits by laser mirage effect

    SciTech Connect

    Perpiñà, X.; Jordà, X.; Vellvehi, M.; Altet, J.

    2014-08-25

    This work exploits the mirage effect to analyze multiple heat sources thermally interacting in an integrated circuit (IC) by means of a probe IR laser beam, which strikes on the die lateral walls and passes through the die substrate. Under such conditions, the criteria for locating such hot spots, as well as their relative power dissipation, are discussed on the basis of a theoretical model inferred in this work. Finally, the technique feasibility is shown in a real application scenario, obtaining 5-μm spatial lateral resolution and an error in power dissipation measurements below 5%. This method may become a practical alternative to usual off-chip techniques for inspecting hot spots in ICs and to experimentally characterize heat flow in the semiconductor substrate.

  1. Integrating advanced materials simulation techniques into an automated data analysis workflow at the Spallation Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Borreguero Calvo, Jose M; Campbell, Stuart I; Delaire, Olivier A; Doucet, Mathieu; Goswami, Monojoy; Hagen, Mark E; Lynch, Vickie E; Proffen, Thomas E; Ren, Shelly; Savici, Andrei T; Sumpter, Bobby G

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will review developments on the integration of advanced modeling and simulation techniques into the analysis step of experimental data obtained at the Spallation Neutron Source. A workflow framework for the purpose of refining molecular mechanics force-fields against quasi-elastic neutron scattering data is presented. The workflow combines software components to submit model simulations to remote high performance computers, a message broker interface for communications between the optimizer engine and the simulation production step, and tools to convolve the simulated data with the experimental resolution. A test application shows the correction to a popular fixed-charge water model in order to account polarization effects due to the presence of solvated ions. Future enhancements to the refinement workflow are discussed. This work is funded through the DOE Center for Accelerating Materials Modeling.

  2. Developing an open source-based spatial data infrastructure for integrated monitoring of mining areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahn, Florian; Knoth, Christian; Prinz, Torsten; Pebesma, Edzer

    2014-05-01

    In all phases of mining campaigns, comprehensive spatial information is an essential requirement in order to ensure economically efficient but also safe mining activities as well as to reduce environmental impacts. Earth observation data acquired from various sources like remote sensing or ground measurements is important e.g. for the exploration of mineral deposits, the monitoring of mining induced impacts on vegetation or the detection of ground subsidence. The GMES4Mining project aims at exploring new remote sensing techniques and developing analysis methods on various types of sensor data to provide comprehensive spatial information during mining campaigns (BENECKE et al. 2013). One important task in this project is the integration of the data gathered (e.g. hyperspectral images, spaceborne radar data and ground measurements) as well as results of the developed analysis methods within a web-accessible data source based on open source software. The main challenges here are to provide various types and formats of data from different sensors and to enable access to analysis and processing techniques without particular software or licensing requirements for users. Furthermore the high volume of the involved data (especially hyperspectral remote sensing images) makes data transfer a major issue in this use case. To engage these problems a spatial data infrastructure (SDI) including a web portal as user frontend is being developed which allows users to access not only the data but also several analysis methods. The Geoserver software is used for publishing the data, which is then accessed and visualized in a JavaScript-based web portal. In order to perform descriptive statistics and some straightforward image processing techniques on the raster data (e.g. band arithmetic or principal component analysis) the statistics software R is implemented on a server and connected via Rserve. The analysis is controlled and executed directly by the user through the web portal and

  3. Scenario driven data modelling: a method for integrating diverse sources of data and data streams

    SciTech Connect

    Brettin, Thomas S.; Cottingham, Robert W.; Griffith, Shelton D.; Quest, Daniel J.

    2015-09-08

    A system and method of integrating diverse sources of data and data streams is presented. The method can include selecting a scenario based on a topic, creating a multi-relational directed graph based on the scenario, identifying and converting resources in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph based on the resources, identifying data feeds in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph based on the data feeds, identifying analytical routines in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph using the analytical routines and identifying data outputs in accordance with the scenario and defining queries to produce the data outputs from the multi-directed graph.

  4. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Monteiro, J. P.; Nunes, L. M.; Vieira, J.; Cunha, M. C.; Ribeiro, L.; Nascimento, J.; Lucas, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells. For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s-1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand), requiring only disinfection (900 l s-1) or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make the water supply system extremely vulnerable, with a high

  5. Screening of sustainable groundwater sources for integration into a regional drought-prone water supply system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigter, T. Y.; Monteiro, J. P.; Nunes, L. M.; Vieira, J.; Cunha, M. C.; Ribeiro, L.; Nascimento, J.; Lucas, H.

    2009-07-01

    This paper reports on the qualitative and quantitative screening of groundwater sources for integration into the public water supply system of the Algarve, Portugal. The results are employed in a decision support system currently under development for an integrated water resources management scheme in the region. Such a scheme is crucial for several reasons, including the extreme seasonal and annual variations in rainfall, the effect of climate change on more frequent and long-lasting droughts, the continuously increasing water demand and the high risk of a single-source water supply policy. The latter was revealed during the severe drought of 2004 and 2005, when surface reservoirs were depleted and the regional water demand could not be met, despite the drilling of emergency wells. For screening and selection, quantitative criteria are based on aquifer properties and well yields, whereas qualitative criteria are defined by water quality indices. These reflect the well's degree of violation of drinking water standards for different sets of variables, including toxicity parameters, nitrate and chloride, iron and manganese and microbiological parameters. Results indicate the current availability of at least 1100 l s-1 of high quality groundwater (55% of the regional demand), requiring only disinfection (900 l s-1) or basic treatment, prior to human consumption. These groundwater withdrawals are sustainable when compared to mean annual recharge, considering that at least 40% is preserved for ecological demands. A more accurate and comprehensive analysis of sustainability is performed with the help of steady-state and transient groundwater flow simulations, which account for aquifer geometry, boundary conditions, recharge and discharge rates, pumping activity and seasonality. They permit an advanced analysis of present and future scenarios and show that increasing water demands and decreasing rainfall will make the water supply system extremely vulnerable, with a high

  6. An effective methodology for integrating displacement and velocity data from different sources for rock glaciers monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitta, Marcello; Thiebes, Benni; Cuozzo, Giovanni; Callegari, Mattia; Schlögel, Romy; Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert

    2016-04-01

    different data sources are available and an integrative method is needed. In our presentation, we will highlight the results of rock glacier monitoring and the subsequent data integration, and also share our experiences on applying the aforementioned methodologies in a high-alpine environment.

  7. Integrating quantitative PCR and Bayesian statistics in quantifying human adenoviruses in small volumes of source water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Gronewold, Andrew D; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Rapid quantification of viral pathogens in drinking and recreational water can help reduce waterborne disease risks. For this purpose, samples in small volume (e.g. 1L) are favored because of the convenience of collection, transportation and processing. However, the results of viral analysis are often subject to uncertainty. To overcome this limitation, we propose an approach that integrates Bayesian statistics, efficient concentration methods, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify viral pathogens in water. Using this approach, we quantified human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in eighteen samples of source water collected from six drinking water treatment plants. HAdVs were found in seven samples. In the other eleven samples, HAdVs were not detected by qPCR, but might have existed based on Bayesian inference. Our integrated approach that quantifies uncertainty provides a better understanding than conventional assessments of potential risks to public health, particularly in cases when pathogens may present a threat but cannot be detected by traditional methods. PMID:24140696

  8. Integrating quantitative PCR and Bayesian statistics in quantifying human adenoviruses in small volumes of source water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianyong; Gronewold, Andrew D; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Stewart, Jill R; Sobsey, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Rapid quantification of viral pathogens in drinking and recreational water can help reduce waterborne disease risks. For this purpose, samples in small volume (e.g. 1L) are favored because of the convenience of collection, transportation and processing. However, the results of viral analysis are often subject to uncertainty. To overcome this limitation, we propose an approach that integrates Bayesian statistics, efficient concentration methods, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify viral pathogens in water. Using this approach, we quantified human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in eighteen samples of source water collected from six drinking water treatment plants. HAdVs were found in seven samples. In the other eleven samples, HAdVs were not detected by qPCR, but might have existed based on Bayesian inference. Our integrated approach that quantifies uncertainty provides a better understanding than conventional assessments of potential risks to public health, particularly in cases when pathogens may present a threat but cannot be detected by traditional methods.

  9. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  10. RF-excited plasma lamps for use as sources in OGSE integrating spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arecchi, Angelo V.; McKee, Greg A.; Durell, Christopher N.

    2011-10-01

    Integrating spheres for optical calibration of remote sensing cameras have traditionally been made with Quartz Tungsten Halogen (QTH) lamps because of their stability. However, QTH lamps have the spectrum of a blackbody at approximately 3000K, while remote sensing cameras are designed to view a sun-illuminated scene. This presents a severe significant mismatch in the blue end of the spectrum. Attempts to compensate for this spectral mismatch have primarily used Xenon lamps to augment the QTH lamps. However, Xenon lamps suffer from temporal instability that is not desirable in many applications. This paper investigates the possibility of using RF-excited plasma lamps to augment QTH lamps. These plasma lamps have a somewhat smoother spectrum than Xenon. Like Xenon, they have more fluctuation than QTH lamps, but the fluctuations are slower and may be able to be tracked in an actual OGSE light source. The paper presents measurements of spectra and stability. The spectrum is measured from 320 nm to 2500 nm and the temporal stability from DC to 10 MHz. The RF-excited plasma lamps are quite small, less than 10mm in diameter and about 15 mm in length. This makes them suitable for designing reasonably sized reflective optics for directing their light into a small port on an integrating sphere. The concludes with a roadmap for further testing.

  11. OPENCORE NMR: Open-source core modules for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki

    2008-06-01

    A tool kit for implementing an integrated FPGA-based NMR spectrometer [K. Takeda, A highly integrated FPGA-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78 (2007) 033103], referred to as the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer, is open to public. The system is composed of an FPGA chip and several peripheral boards for USB communication, direct-digital synthesis (DDS), RF transmission, signal acquisition, etc. Inside the FPGA chip have been implemented a number of digital modules including three pulse programmers, the digital part of DDS, a digital quadrature demodulator, dual digital low-pass filters, and a PC interface. These FPGA core modules are written in VHDL, and their source codes are available on our website. This work aims at providing sufficient information with which one can, given some facility in circuit board manufacturing, reproduce the OPENCORE NMR spectrometer presented here. Also, the users are encouraged to modify the design of spectrometer according to their own specific needs. A home-built NMR spectrometer can serve complementary roles to a sophisticated commercial spectrometer, should one comes across such new ideas that require heavy modification to hardware inside the spectrometer. This work can lower the barrier of building a handmade NMR spectrometer in the laboratory, and promote novel and exciting NMR experiments.

  12. An integrated system for the energy production and accumulation from renewable sources: a rural tower prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, Silvia; Petrozzi, Alessandro; Montesarchio, Valeria

    2014-05-01

    This research work presents the implementation of an architectural prototype aiming at the complete energy self-sufficiency through an integrated system based on renewable energy. It is suitable for historical buildings in rural areas, isolated but important from natural and architectonical point of view. In addition to the energy aspects, it is important to protect the impact in terms of land-use and environment. This idea is also especially powerful because in the rural countries there are many little building centers abandoned because they are devoid of a connection to the electric energy grid and methane piping. Thus, taking inspiration from dove towers, architectural typology widespread in central Italy, a virtual model has been developed as an integrated system for renewable energy production, storage and supply. While recovering the ancient tower, it is possible to design and assembly an integrated intelligent system, able to combine energy supply and demand: a new tower that should be flexible, efficient and replicable in other contexts as manufacturing, commercial and residential ones. The prototype has been applied to a real case of study, an ancient complex located in Umbria Region. The sources for electric production installed on the tower are photovoltaics, on the head and shaft of the tower, hydropower and a biomass gasifier providing thermal too. A tank at the head of the tower allows an available hydraulic potential energy, for the turbine at any time, to cover photovoltaic lacks, caused by sudden loss of production, for environmental causes. Conversely, photovoltaic peaks, otherwise unusable, can be used to reload the water from the receiving tank at the foot of the tower, up to the tank in the head. The same underground tank acts as a thermal flywheel to optimize the geothermal heat pumps for the heat and cold production. Keywords: hydropower, photovoltaics, dove tower.

  13. Volcano Deformation Sources at Tungurahua Volcano from Finite Element Methods and Multidisciplinary Data Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rivera, A. M.; Albino, F.; Amelug, F.; Gregg, P. M.; Mothes, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tungurahua volcano has been intermittently erupting since 1999, with observed deformation between 2007-2011 using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) from the ALOS satellite of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Our recent analysis during that time period has provided insights into the characteristics of the subsurface, suggesting multiple connected magma chambers underneath the edifice with distinct temporal and spatial behaviors. However, the previous source models are too simplistic and fail to incorporate realistic physical properties and forces acting within the volcano that would generate the observed deformation. We use deformation data from InSAR and solve for the optimal deformation source parameters with Finite Element Methods (FEM) by incorporating into the models the material heterogeneities (e.g. temperature, density, elastic, viscoelastic), and stresses (e.g. background stresses, edifice loading, magma chamber overpressure) acting on the volcano. We attempt to integrate previous multidisciplinary volcanological studies with our results to constrain the subsurface characteristics and understand the volcanic processes generating the observed deformation.

  14. An integrated multi-source JDL high-level fusion architecture using recombinant cognition synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Marco A.; Ekwaro-Osire, Stephen; Tanik, Murat M.

    2009-04-01

    High-Level fusion systems based on the JDL model are relatively immature. Current solutions lack a comprehensive ability to manage multi-source data in a multi-dimensional vector space, and generally do not integrate collection to action models in a cohesive thread. Recombinant Cognition Synthesis (RCS) leverages best-of-breed techniques with a geospatial, temporal and semantic data model to provide a unified methodology that recombines multi-source data with analytic and predictive algorithms to synthesize actionable intelligence. This architecture framework enables the traversal of entity relationships at different level of granularities and the discovery of latent knowledge, thereby facilitating the domain problem analysis and the development of a Course-of-Action to mitigate adversarial threats. RCS also includes process refinement techniques to achieve superior information dominance, by incorporating specialized metadata. This comprehensive and unified methodology delivers enhanced utility to the intelligence analyst, and addresses key issues of relevancy, timeliness, accuracy, and uncertainty by providing metrics via feedback loops within the RCS infrastructure that augment the efficiency and effectiveness of the end-to-end fusion processing chain.

  15. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    PubMed

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  16. Harvesting, Integrating and Distributing Large Open Geospatial Datasets Using Free and Open-Source Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Moreno, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Federal, State and Local government agencies in the USA are investing heavily on the dissemination of Open Data sets produced by each of them. The main driver behind this thrust is to increase agencies' transparency and accountability, as well as to improve citizens' awareness. However, not all Open Data sets are easy to access and integrate with other Open Data sets available even from the same agency. The City and County of Denver Open Data Portal distributes several types of geospatial datasets, one of them is the city parcels information containing 224,256 records. Although this data layer contains many pieces of information it is incomplete for some custom purposes. Open-Source Software were used to first collect data from diverse City of Denver Open Data sets, then upload them to a repository in the Cloud where they were processed using a PostgreSQL installation on the Cloud and Python scripts. Our method was able to extract non-spatial information from a `not-ready-to-download' source that could then be combined with the initial data set to enhance its potential use.

  17. Galactic survey of 44Ti sources with the IBIS telescope onboard INTEGRAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Churazov, Eugene M.; Sunyaev, Rashid A.; Grebenev, Sergey A.

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of the deepest Galactic plane (|b| < 17.5°) survey in the 67.9 and 78.4 keV nuclear de-excitation lines of titanium-44 (44Ti) performed using the data acquired with the IBIS/ISGRI instrument onboard the INTEGRAL satellite during 12 yr of operation. The peak sensitivity of our survey reached an unprecedented level of 4.8 × 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 (3σ) that improves the sensitivity of the survey done by Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory/COMPTEL by a factor of ˜5. As a result, constraining upper limits for all sources from the catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs; Green 2014) are derived. These upper limits can be used to estimate the exposure needed to detect 44Ti emission from any known SNR using existing and prospective X- and gamma-ray telescopes. Among the youngest Galactic SNRs, only Cas A shows significant 44Ti emission flux in good agreement with the NuSTAR measurements. We did not detect any other sources of titanium emission in the Galactic plane at significance level higher than 5σ confirming previous claims of the rarity of such 44Ti-producing SNRs.

  18. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

  19. Heterogeneous integration of a III-V VCSEL light source for optical fiber sensing.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiang; Ma, Xiangdong; Yuan, Danyang; Zhang, Zanyun; Li, Enbang; Tang, Chunxiao

    2016-09-15

    We propose a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation system utilizing a III-V vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) as the on-chip light source. Binary blazed grating (BBG) for coupling between III-V VCSEL and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is demonstrated for interrogation of the FBG sensor. The footprint size of the BBG is only 5.62  μm×5.3  μm, and each BBG coupler period has two subperiods. The diameter of the VCSEL's emitting window is 5 μm, which is slightly smaller than that of the BBG coupler, to be well-matched with the proposed structure. Results show that the coupling efficiency from vertical cavities of the III-V VCSEL to the in-plane waveguides reached as high as 32.6% when coupling the 1550.65 nm light. The heterogeneous integration of the III-V VCSEL and SOI waveguides by BBG plays a fundamental role in inducing a great breakthrough to the miniaturization of an on-chip light source for optical fiber sensing. PMID:27628346

  20. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    PubMed

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

  1. Design of an inexpensive integrating sphere student laboratory setup for the optical characterization of light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloup, Frédéric B.; Leyre, Sven; Bauwens, Eva; Van den Abeele, Toon; Hanselaer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of an inexpensive integrating sphere setup is presented, enabling students to perform optical characterization of light sources with reasonable accuracy, in a student laboratory context. Instead of using an expensive sphere with magnesium oxide or barium sulfate coating, a cheap polystyrene sphere is employed. In combination with a low-cost USB spectroradiometer, the system enables the direct measurement of the spectral radiant power of a light source. In addition to the radiant power, the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, and distinctive colorimetric quantities (colour coordinates, colour temperature, and colour rendering index) can be determined. Besides a description of the equipment used, the experimental measurement procedure and some typical measurement results are presented. A comparison between the data and the results obtained with scientific metrology instrumentation indicates reasonable accuracy. As a result, it can be concluded that the purpose of the presented experiments, being that students become acquainted with applications of radiometry and photometry, and with data collection and data analysis as in a professional context, is fully achieved with the described test setup.

  2. Laryngoscope blades and handles as sources of cross-infection: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Negri de Sousa, A C; Levy, C E; Freitas, M I P

    2013-04-01

    The lack of standardization of efficient procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles, which may be important sources of infection during their clinical use, has been reported previously, revealing contamination with blood, body fluids and micro-organisms. This paper aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature regarding the risk of laryngoscope blades and handles as a source of patient contamination. An integrative review of the literature was performed using databases such as Medline, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane Library, BDENF and PubMed, and keywords in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The sample comprised 20 articles published between 1994 and 2012. The studies demonstrated risk of cross-infection and no consensus in current guidelines regarding cleaning and disinfection of this equipment. It was concluded that there are important gaps to be filled and urgent investigations required in order to facilitate standardization of efficient procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles, and in turn to reduce the potential risk to which the patient and/or health team is exposed.

  3. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  4. LabKey Server: An open source platform for scientific data integration, analysis and collaboration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Broad-based collaborations are becoming increasingly common among disease researchers. For example, the Global HIV Enterprise has united cross-disciplinary consortia to speed progress towards HIV vaccines through coordinated research across the boundaries of institutions, continents and specialties. New, end-to-end software tools for data and specimen management are necessary to achieve the ambitious goals of such alliances. These tools must enable researchers to organize and integrate heterogeneous data early in the discovery process, standardize processes, gain new insights into pooled data and collaborate securely. Results To meet these needs, we enhanced the LabKey Server platform, formerly known as CPAS. This freely available, open source software is maintained by professional engineers who use commercially proven practices for software development and maintenance. Recent enhancements support: (i) Submitting specimens requests across collaborating organizations (ii) Graphically defining new experimental data types, metadata and wizards for data collection (iii) Transitioning experimental results from a multiplicity of spreadsheets to custom tables in a shared database (iv) Securely organizing, integrating, analyzing, visualizing and sharing diverse data types, from clinical records to specimens to complex assays (v) Interacting dynamically with external data sources (vi) Tracking study participants and cohorts over time (vii) Developing custom interfaces using client libraries (viii) Authoring custom visualizations in a built-in R scripting environment. Diverse research organizations have adopted and adapted LabKey Server, including consortia within the Global HIV Enterprise. Atlas is an installation of LabKey Server that has been tailored to serve these consortia. It is in production use and demonstrates the core capabilities of LabKey Server. Atlas now has over 2,800 active user accounts originating from approximately 36 countries and 350

  5. Model-Based Least Squares Reconstruction of Coded Source Neutron Radiographs: Integrating the ORNL HFIR CG1D Source Model

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Gregor, Jens; Bingham, Philip R

    2014-01-01

    At the present, neutron sources cannot be fabricated small and powerful enough in order to achieve high resolution radiography while maintaining an adequate flux. One solution is to employ computational imaging techniques such as a Magnified Coded Source Imaging (CSI) system. A coded-mask is placed between the neutron source and the object. The system resolution is increased by reducing the size of the mask holes and the flux is increased by increasing the size of the coded-mask and/or the number of holes. One limitation of such system is that the resolution of current state-of-the-art scintillator-based detectors caps around 50um. To overcome this challenge, the coded-mask and object are magnified by making the distance from the coded-mask to the object much smaller than the distance from object to detector. In previous work, we have shown via synthetic experiments that our least squares method outperforms other methods in image quality and reconstruction precision because of the modeling of the CSI system components. However, the validation experiments were limited to simplistic neutron sources. In this work, we aim to model the flux distribution of a real neutron source and incorporate such a model in our least squares computational system. We provide a full description of the methodology used to characterize the neutron source and validate the method with synthetic experiments.

  6. An integrated, open-source set of tools for urban vulnerability monitoring from Earth observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vecchi, Daniele; Harb, Mostapha; Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Aurelio Galeazzo, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Aim: The paper introduces an integrated set of open-source tools designed to process medium and high-resolution imagery with the aim to extract vulnerability indicators [1]. Problem: In the context of risk monitoring [2], a series of vulnerability proxies can be defined, such as the extension of a built-up area or buildings regularity [3]. Different open-source C and Python libraries are already available for image processing and geospatial information (e.g. OrfeoToolbox, OpenCV and GDAL). They include basic processing tools but not vulnerability-oriented workflows. Therefore, it is of significant importance to provide end-users with a set of tools capable to return information at a higher level. Solution: The proposed set of python algorithms is a combination of low-level image processing and geospatial information handling tools along with high-level workflows. In particular, two main products are released under the GPL license: source code, developers-oriented, and a QGIS plugin. These tools were produced within the SENSUM project framework (ended December 2014) where the main focus was on earthquake and landslide risk. Further development and maintenance is guaranteed by the decision to include them in the platform designed within the FP 7 RASOR project . Conclusion: With the lack of a unified software suite for vulnerability indicators extraction, the proposed solution can provide inputs for already available models like the Global Earthquake Model. The inclusion of the proposed set of algorithms within the RASOR platforms can guarantee support and enlarge the community of end-users. Keywords: Vulnerability monitoring, remote sensing, optical imagery, open-source software tools References [1] M. Harb, D. De Vecchi, F. Dell'Acqua, "Remote sensing-based vulnerability proxies in the EU FP7 project SENSUM", Symposium on earthquake and landslide risk in Central Asia and Caucasus: exploiting remote sensing and geo-spatial information management, 29-30th January 2014

  7. Integral field spectroscopy of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, I.; Becker, T.; Fabrika, S.; Roth, M.; Miyaji, T.; Afanasiev, V.; Sholukhova, O.; Sánchez, S. F.; Greiner, J.; Hasinger, G.; Costantini, E.; Surkov, A.; Burenkov, A.

    2005-03-01

    We present optical integral field observations of the H II region containing the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg II X-1. We confirm the existence of an X-ray ionized nebula as the counterpart of the source owing to the detection of an extended He II λ4686 region (21× 47 pc) at the Chandra ACIS-S position. An extended blue object with a size of 11× 14 pc is coincident with the X-ray/He II λ4686 region, which could indicate that it is either a young stellar complex or a cluster. We have derived an X-ray to optical luminosity ratio of L_X/LB≥170, and presumable it is L_X/LB˜300{-}400 using the recent HST ACS data. We find a complex velocity dispersion at the position of the ULX. In addition, there is a radial velocity variation in the X-ray ionized region found in the He II emission of ±50 km s-1 on spatial scales of 2 3primeprime. We believe that the putative black hole not only ionizes the surrounding HII gas, but also perturbs it dynamically (via jets or the accretion disk wind). The spatial analysis of the public Chandra ACIS-S data reveals a point-like X-ray source and gives marginal indication of an extended component (ll15% of the total flux). The XMM-Newton EPIC-PN spectrum of HoII X-1 is best fitted with an absorbed power law in addition to either a thermal thick plasma or a thermal thin plasma or a multi-colour disk black body (MCD). In all cases, the thermal component shows a relatively low temperature (kT˜0.14{-}0.22 keV). Finally we discuss the optical/X-ray properties of HoII X-1 with regards to the possible nature of the source. The existence of an X-ray ionized nebula coincident with the ULX and the soft X-ray component with a cool accretion disk favours the interpretation as an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH). However, the complex velocity behaviour at the position of the ULX indicates a dynamical influence of the black hole on the local HII gas.

  8. An Extreme X-ray Disk Wind in the Black Hole Candidate IGR J17091-3624

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Maitra, D.; Cackett, E. M.; Rupen, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized. dense. and to have typical velocities of approx 1000 km/s or less projected along our line of sight. Here. we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous EVLA radio observations. obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91+/-0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blue-shift of 9300(+500/-400) km/ s (0.03c. or the escape velocity at 1000 R(sub schw)). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of approx 14600 km/s (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole, and may be expelling more gas than accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems

  9. AN EXTREME X-RAY DISK WIND IN THE BLACK HOLE CANDIDATE IGR J17091-3624

    SciTech Connect

    King, A. L.; Miller, J. M.; Maitra, D.; Raymond, J.; Fabian, A. C.; Cackett, E. M.; Reynolds, C. S.; Kallman, T. R.; Rupen, M. P.

    2012-02-20

    Chandra spectroscopy of transient stellar-mass black holes in outburst has clearly revealed accretion disk winds in soft, disk-dominated states, in apparent anti-correlation with relativistic jets in low/hard states. These disk winds are observed to be highly ionized, dense, and to have typical velocities of {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} or less projected along our line of sight. Here, we present an analysis of two Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the Galactic black hole candidate IGR J17091-3624 and contemporaneous Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) radio observations, obtained in 2011. The second Chandra observation reveals an absorption line at 6.91 {+-} 0.01 keV; associating this line with He-like Fe XXV requires a blueshift of 9300{sup +500}{sub -400} km s{sup -1} (0.03c, or the escape velocity at 1000 R{sub Schw}). This projected outflow velocity is an order of magnitude higher than has previously been observed in stellar-mass black holes, and is broadly consistent with some of the fastest winds detected in active galactic nuclei. A potential feature at 7.32 keV, if due to Fe XXVI, would imply a velocity of {approx}14, 600 km s{sup -1} (0.05c), but this putative feature is marginal. Photoionization modeling suggests that the accretion disk wind in IGR J17091-3624 may originate within 43,300 Schwarzschild radii of the black hole and may be expelling more gas than it accretes. The contemporaneous EVLA observations strongly indicate that jet activity was indeed quenched at the time of our Chandra observations. We discuss the results in the context of disk winds, jets, and basic accretion disk physics in accreting black hole systems.

  10. Optical injection locking of monolithically integrated photonic source for generation of high purity signals above 100 GHz.

    PubMed

    Balakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; van Dijk, Frederic; Kervella, Gael; Carpintero, Guillermo; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2014-12-01

    A monolithically integrated photonic source for tuneable mm-wave signal generation has been fabricated. The source consists of 14 active components, i.e. semiconductor lasers, amplifiers and photodetectors, all integrated on a 3 mm(2) InP chip. Heterodyne signals in the range between 85 GHz and 120 GHz with up to -10 dBm output power have been successfully generated. By optically injection locking the integrated lasers to an external optical comb source, high-spectral-purity signals at frequencies >100 GHz have been generated, with phase noise spectral density below -90 dBc/Hz being achieved at offsets from the carrier greater than 10 kHz.

  11. Optical injection locking of monolithically integrated photonic source for generation of high purity signals above 100 GHz.

    PubMed

    Balakier, Katarzyna; Fice, Martyn J; van Dijk, Frederic; Kervella, Gael; Carpintero, Guillermo; Seeds, Alwyn J; Renaud, Cyril C

    2014-12-01

    A monolithically integrated photonic source for tuneable mm-wave signal generation has been fabricated. The source consists of 14 active components, i.e. semiconductor lasers, amplifiers and photodetectors, all integrated on a 3 mm(2) InP chip. Heterodyne signals in the range between 85 GHz and 120 GHz with up to -10 dBm output power have been successfully generated. By optically injection locking the integrated lasers to an external optical comb source, high-spectral-purity signals at frequencies >100 GHz have been generated, with phase noise spectral density below -90 dBc/Hz being achieved at offsets from the carrier greater than 10 kHz. PMID:25606875

  12. Multiple-source spatial data fusion and integration research in the region unified planning management information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Liangpei; Liu, Zhenmin; Jiao, Hongbo; Chen, Liqun

    2008-12-01

    In order to manage the internal resources of Gulf of Tonkin and integrate multiple-source spatial data, the establishment of region unified plan management system is needed. The data fusion and the integrated research should be carried on because there are some difficulties in the course of the system's establishment. For example, kinds of planning and the project data format are different, and data criterion is not unified. Besides, the time state property is strong, and spatial reference is inconsistent, etc. In this article the ARCGIS ENGINE is introduced as the developing platform, key technologies are researched, such as multiple-source data transformation and fusion, remote sensing data and DEM fusion and integrated, plan and project data integration, and so on. Practice shows that the system improves the working efficiency of Guangxi Gulf of Tonkin Economic Zone Management Committee significantly and promotes planning construction work of the economic zone remarkably.

  13. Integrated multi-color illumination source for lab-on-a-chip fluorescence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariya, Abdullah J.; Mulla, Eshaq

    2015-08-01

    We propose an integrated microfluidic optical system device design for a monolithic integration of blood plasma analysis in a single step using microfluidic channels on a tri wavelength LED source emitting wavelengths in ultraviolet, infrared and visible. The device is a miniature disposable Lab-on-a-Chip as small as 6x 1.5mm with a blood plasma reservoir volume of 2μl providing instantaneous results. The device is fabricated using minimal lithographic fabrication steps and consists of a microfluidic Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer on top of a quantum well (QW) structure. The PDMS layer has three 100μm thick microfluidic channels connected to the 2μl reservoir where the blood plasma is injected. The three microfluidic channels pass over the QW substrate which is micro fabricated to produce three LEDs that emit light in three different wavelengths on a single structure. The LEDs emit light in UV, infrared and visible and can be controlled individually for specific plasma testing or can emit light simultaneously depending on the application. To operate the device, first current is injected into the LEDs to turn on light emission. Light travels within the LED structure and at the same time light is emitted through the surface. Light can be either collected from the top of the device or the output facets by focusing the channels output on a spectrometer to collect the spectra of the device and analyze the output. The device is compact in size and provides fast, low power consumption and cost effective point of care devices with minimal heat output.

  14. Zephyr: Open-source Parallel Seismic Waveform Inversion in an Integrated Python-based Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithyman, B. R.; Pratt, R. G.; Hadden, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic Full-Waveform Inversion (FWI) is an advanced method to reconstruct wave properties of materials in the Earth from a series of seismic measurements. These methods have been developed by researchers since the late 1980s, and now see significant interest from the seismic exploration industry. As researchers move towards implementing advanced numerical modelling (e.g., 3D, multi-component, anisotropic and visco-elastic physics), it is desirable to make use of a modular approach, minimizing the effort developing a new set of tools for each new numerical problem. SimPEG (http://simpeg.xyz) is an open source project aimed at constructing a general framework to enable geophysical inversion in various domains. In this abstract we describe Zephyr (https://github.com/bsmithyman/zephyr), which is a coupled research project focused on parallel FWI in the seismic context. The software is built on top of Python, Numpy and IPython, which enables very flexible testing and implementation of new features. Zephyr is an open source project, and is released freely to enable reproducible research. We currently implement a parallel, distributed seismic forward modelling approach that solves the 2.5D (two-and-one-half dimensional) viscoacoustic Helmholtz equation at a range modelling frequencies, generating forward solutions for a given source behaviour, and gradient solutions for a given set of observed data. Solutions are computed in a distributed manner on a set of heterogeneous workers. The researcher's frontend computer may be separated from the worker cluster by a network link to enable full support for computation on remote clusters from individual workstations or laptops. The present codebase introduces a numerical discretization equivalent to that used by FULLWV, a well-known seismic FWI research codebase. This makes it straightforward to compare results from Zephyr directly with FULLWV. The flexibility introduced by the use of a Python programming environment makes

  15. A Suzaku X-ray Observation of One Orbit of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16479-4514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Sguera, V.; Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Ramano, P.; Wilms, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 250 ks long X-ray observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16479-4514 performed with Suzaku in 2012 February. During this observation, about 80% of the short orbital period (P(sub orb) approximates 3.32 days) was covered as continuously as possible for the first time. The source light curve displays variability of more than two orders of magnitude, starting with a very low emission state (10(exp -13) erg / sq cm/s; 1-10 keV) lasting the first 46 ks, consistent with being due to the X-ray eclipse by the supergiant companion. The transition to the uneclipsed X-ray emission is energy dependent. Outside the eclipse, the source spends most of the time at a level of 6-7X10)(exp-12) erg/sq. cm/s) punctuated by two structured faint flares with a duration of about 10 and 15 ks, respectively, reaching a peak flux of 3-4X10(exp -11) erg/sq. cm./S, separated by about 0.2 in orbital phase. Remarkably, the first faint flare occurs at a similar orbital phase of the bright flares previously observed in the system. This indicates the presence of a phase-locked large scale structure in the supergiant wind, driving a higher accretion rate onto the compact object. The average X-ray spectrum is hard and highly absorbed, with a column density, NH, of 10*exp 23)/sq cm, clearly in excess of the interstellar absorption. There is no evidence for variability of the absorbing column density, except that during the eclipse, where a less absorbed X-ray spectrum is observed. A narrow Fe K-alpha emission line at 6.4 keV is viewed along the whole orbit, with an intensity which correlates with the continuum emission above 7 keV. The scattered component visible during the X-ray eclipse allowed us to directly probe the wind density at the orbital separation, resulting in rho(sub w)=7X10(exp -14) g/cubic cm. Assuming a spherical geometry for the supergiant wind, the derived wind density translates into a ratio M(sub w)/v(sub infinity) = 7X10(exp -17) Solar M

  16. Development of a Variable-Speed Residential Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, C Keith; Shen, Bo; Munk, Jeffrey D; Ally, Moonis Raza; Baxter, Van D

    2014-01-01

    A residential air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) is under development in partnership with a U.S. manufacturer. A nominal 10.6 kW (3-ton) cooling capacity variable-speed unit, the system provides both space conditioning and water heating. This multi-functional unit can provide domestic water heating (DWH) in either full condensing (FC) (dedicated water heating or simultaneous space cooling and water heating) or desuperheating (DS) operation modes. Laboratory test data were used to calibrate a vapor-compression simulation model for each mode of operation. The model was used to optimize the internal control options for efficiency while maintaining acceptable comfort conditions and refrigerant-side pressures and temperatures within allowable operating envelopes. Annual simulations were performed with the AS-IHP installed in a well-insulated house in five U.S. climate zones. The AS-IHP is predicted to use 45 to 60% less energy than a DOE minimum efficiency baseline system while meeting total annual space conditioning and water heating loads. Water heating energy use is lowered by 60 to 75% in cold to warmer climates, respectively. Plans are to field test the unit in Knoxville, TN.

  17. Towards damage detection using blind source separation integrated with time-varying auto-regressive modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musafere, F.; Sadhu, A.; Liu, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) has been an indispensable subject in the field of vibration engineering. With the aid of modern sensing technology, SHM has garnered significant attention towards diagnosis and risk management of large-scale civil structures and mechanical systems. In SHM, system identification is one of major building blocks through which unknown system parameters are extracted from vibration data of the structures. Such system information is then utilized to detect the damage instant, and its severity to rehabilitate and prolong the existing health of the structures. In recent years, blind source separation (BSS) algorithm has become one of the newly emerging advanced signal processing techniques for output-only system identification of civil structures. In this paper, a novel damage detection technique is proposed by integrating BSS with the time-varying auto-regressive modeling to identify the instant and severity of damage. The proposed method is validated using a suite of numerical studies and experimental models followed by a full-scale structure.

  18. Strategies for the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources in the electrical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Francesco

    2016-03-01

    Europe is pursuing an aggressive programme to increase its share of renewable energy source (RES). However, the integration of intermittent RES (wind and photovoltaic) in the electrical system requires either maintaining in operation thermal backup systems or providing a substantial amount of electricity storage. We analyze the Italian electricity data for the year 2013 provided by the transmission system operator TERNA. The present level of intermittent RES power is scaled-up to a level at which it generates an amount of electricity equal to the annual demand. While a substantial reduction of the energy annually produced by fossil backup systems (and the associated CO2 emission) with respect to the no-RES case is possible in many scenarios considered here, the backup power is generally only marginally reduced below the value in the absence of RES. The strategy proposed is based on the combination of a modest amount of storage (0.5-5TWh) and base-load power (6-15GW, to be used during the seasons of low RES production). In this way the non-RES installed power can be reduced from ˜ 50 GW to less than 15GW and could be covered by a combination of biomass and nuclear energy without any CO2 emission.

  19. Radiometric calibration of a 100 cm sphere integrating source for VIIRS solar diffuser stability monitor bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eugene D.; Murgai, Vijay; Menzel, Reinhard W.

    2012-09-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on the Joint Polar-orbiting Satellite System (JPSS) mission has a solar diffuser as a reflective band calibrator. Due to UV solarization of the solar diffuser, the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor (SDSM) is on-board to track the reflectance change of the solar diffuser in visible to near IR wavelengths. A 100 cm Sphere Integrating Source (SIS) has been used to configure and test the SDSM on the ground since MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) programs. Recent upgrades of the radiance transfer and BRDF measurement instruments in Raytheon have enabled more spectral data and faster measurement time with comparable uncertainty to the previous methods. The SIS has a Radiance Monitor, which has been mainly used as a SIS real-time health checker. It has been observed that the Radiance Monitor response is sufficiently linear and stable thus the Radiance Monitor can be used as a calibrator for ground tests. This paper describes the upgraded SIS calibration instruments, and the changes in the calibration philosophy of the SIS for the SDSM bands.

  20. Bioinformatic evidence for a stem-loop structure 5'-adjacent to the IGR-IRES and for an overlapping gene in the bee paralysis dicistroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Andrew E; Wang, Qing S; Jan, Eric; Atkins, John F

    2009-01-01

    The family Dicistroviridae (order Picornavirales) includes species that infect insects and other arthropods. These viruses have a linear positive-sense ssRNA genome of ~8-10 kb, which contains two long ORFs. The 5' ORF encodes the nonstructural polyprotein while the 3' ORF encodes the structural polyprotein. The dicistroviruses are noteworthy for the intergenic Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IGR-IRES) that mediates efficient translation initation on the 3' ORF without the requirement for initiator Met-tRNA. Acute bee paralysis virus, Israel acute paralysis virus of bees and Kashmir bee virus form a distinct subgroup within the Dicistroviridae family. In this brief report, we describe the bioinformatic discovery of a new, apparently coding, ORF in these viruses. The ORF overlaps the 5' end of the structural polyprotein coding sequence in the +1 reading frame. We also identify a potential 14-18 bp RNA stem-loop structure 5'-adjacent to the IGR-IRES. We discuss potential translation initiation mechanisms for the novel ORF in the context of the IGR-IRES and 5'-adjacent stem-loop. PMID:19895695

  1. RXTE determination of the intermediate polar status of XSS J00564+4548, IGR J17195-4100, and XSS J12270-4859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, O. W.; Norton, A. J.; Hakala, P.; Mukai, K.; Barlow, E. J.

    2008-08-01

    Aims: We determine the nature of the intermediate polar candidates XSS J00564+4548, IGR J17195-4100, and XSS J12270-4859. Methods: Pointed RXTE observations searched for intermediate polar characteristics in these candidate systems. Results: XSS J00564+4548 exhibits a period of 465.68 ± 0.07 s, which we interpret as the spin period, an energy dependent modulation depth, and a spectrum that is fit by a 22 keV photoelectrically absorbed bremsstrahlung with an iron line profile. IGR J17195-4100 shows several candidate periodicities and a spectrum that is fit by a power law with an iron line. XSS J12270-4859 exhibits a candidate spin period of 859.57 ± 0.64 s and a spectrum that is fit by a power law with no evidence of an iron line. Conclusions: XSS J00564+4548 is confirmed to be an intermediate polar. IGR J17195-4100 and XSS J12270-4859 both show some properties of intermediate polars, but cannot be confirmed as definite members of the class here.

  2. An open source toolkit for the implementation of hypotheses driven, integrated water and solute fate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, P.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2012-04-01

    Hydrological models are composed of hypotheses concerning the flow regime in the landscape. Classical model applications do not test these implicit hypotheses, but solely calibrate the parameter set of this single model structure. This more or less blind use of modeling systems has been critically disputed in the last decade, due to the lack of a hypotheses guided methodology. Modular frameworks can help to formulate, implement and test hypotheses. The Catchment Modelling Framework, CMF, is such a modular framework, designed to be openly accessible and operating system independent. CMF is implemented in C++ as a library of objects for the design of problem oriented, catchment specific model structures. The objects of the library are assembled with the programming language Python, utilizing the vast amount of available scientific libraries. The model domain is discretized following a finite volume approach. Models are created as a web of water fluxes, where the finite volumes (water storages) and boundary conditions form the nodes, and equations for water fluxes (flux connections) form the edges. Using these objects as a model toolkit, a large range of different models can be realized: from physics based one dimensional percolation models, over two dimensional hillslope models to large scale lumped or semi-distributed approaches. Distinct hydrological features, like irrigation or drainage measures can be included into the model as additional flux connections. Due to the open interface of CMF, high frequency exchange of data with additional models can be implemented. By coupling models in depth with this mechanism, driven by a shared steering script, new integrated approaches are rapidly developed. This model coupling has been shown for biogeochemical models, for integrated nutrient transport and turnover modeling, where CMF acts as a lateral distributor, and the biogeochemical model calculates the reactive flux. In another study, a regional, steady state groundwater

  3. Advanced variable speed air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) development - CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D.; Rice, C. Keith; Munk, Jeffrey D.; Ally, Moonis Raza; Shen, Bo

    2015-09-30

    Between August 2011 and September 2015, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Nordyne, LLC (now Nortek Global HVAC LLC, NGHVAC) engaged in a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to develop an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) system for the US residential market. Two generations of laboratory prototype systems were designed, fabricated, and lab-tested during 2011-2013. Performance maps for the system were developed using the latest research version of the DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, or HPDM, (Rice 1991; Rice and Jackson 2005; Shen et al 2012) as calibrated against the lab test data. These maps were the input to the TRNSYS (SOLAR Energy Laboratory, et al, 2010) system to predict annual performance relative to a baseline suite of equipment meeting minimum efficiency standards in effect in 2006 (combination of 13 SEER air-source heat pump (ASHP) and resistance water heater with Energy Factor (EF) of 0.9). Predicted total annual energy savings, while providing space conditioning and water heating for a tight, well insulated 2600 ft2 (242 m2) house at 5 U.S. locations, ranged from 46 to 61%, averaging 52%, relative to the baseline system (lowest savings at the cold-climate Chicago location). Predicted energy use for water heating was reduced 62 to 76% relative to resistance WH. Based on these lab prototype test and analyses results a field test prototype was designed and fabricated by NGHVAC. The unit was installed in a 2400 ft2 (223 m2) research house in Knoxville, TN and field tested from May 2014 to April 2015. Based on the demonstrated field performance of the AS-IHP prototype and estimated performance of a baseline system operating under the same loads and weather conditions, it was estimated that the prototype would achieve ~40% energy savings relative to the minimum efficiency suite. The estimated WH savings were >60% and SC mode savings were >50%. But estimated SH savings were only about 20%. It is believed that had the test

  4. Integration technology for light-source arrays with polymeric optical waveguide arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Dobbelaere, Peter M.; Vermaerke, Frank; Vermeire, Gerrit; Demeester, Piet M. A.; Van Daele, Peter; Moehlmann, Gustaaf R.; Heideman, Jean-Luc P.; Horsthuis, Winfried H. G.

    1994-09-01

    The integration of efficient semiconductor lightsources with low-loss functional optical waveguide devices is one of the major problems in integrated optics. In this paper we present a novel integration scheme based on the epitaxial lift-off technique for the integration of a laser diode array with an array of polymeric waveguides. This method shows a number of advantages with respect to previously reported solutions. The presented quasi-monolithic integration of laser diodes with polymeric waveguides might lead to important applications in areas such as optical interconnections and optical communications.

  5. General Purpose Kernel Integration Shielding Code System-Point and Extended Gamma-Ray Sources.

    1981-06-11

    PELSHIE3 calculates dose rates from gamma-emitting sources with different source geometries and shielding configurations. Eight source geometries are provided and are called by means of geometry index numbers. Gamma-emission characteristics for 134 isotopes, attenuation coefficients for 57 elements or shielding materials and Berger build-up parameters for 17 shielding materials can be obtained from a direct access data library by specifying only the appropriate library numbers. A different option allows these data to be read frommore » cards. For extended sources, constant source strengths as well as exponential and Bessel function source strength distributions are allowed in most cases.« less

  6. Contaminant dispersion prediction and source estimation with integrated Gaussian-machine learning network model for point source emission in atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Ma, Denglong; Zhang, Zaoxiao

    2016-07-01

    Gas dispersion model is important for predicting the gas concentrations when contaminant gas leakage occurs. Intelligent network models such as radial basis function (RBF), back propagation (BP) neural network and support vector machine (SVM) model can be used for gas dispersion prediction. However, the prediction results from these network models with too many inputs based on original monitoring parameters are not in good agreement with the experimental data. Then, a new series of machine learning algorithms (MLA) models combined classic Gaussian model with MLA algorithm has been presented. The prediction results from new models are improved greatly. Among these models, Gaussian-SVM model performs best and its computation time is close to that of classic Gaussian dispersion model. Finally, Gaussian-MLA models were applied to identifying the emission source parameters with the particle swarm optimization (PSO) method. The estimation performance of PSO with Gaussian-MLA is better than that with Gaussian, Lagrangian stochastic (LS) dispersion model and network models based on original monitoring parameters. Hence, the new prediction model based on Gaussian-MLA is potentially a good method to predict contaminant gas dispersion as well as a good forward model in emission source parameters identification problem. PMID:27035273

  7. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution using integrated geographic information systems and hydrologic/water quality model

    SciTech Connect

    Tim, U.S.; Jolly, R.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in developing physically based, distributed parameter, hydrologic/water quality (HIWQ) models for planning and control of nonpoint-source pollution. The widespread use of these models is often constrained by the excessive and time-consuming input data demands and the lack of computing efficiencies necessary for iterative simulation of alternative management strategies. Recent developments in geographic information systems (GIS) provide techniques for handling large amounts of spatial data for modeling nonpoint-source pollution problems. Because a GIS can be used to combine information from several sources to form an array of model input data and to examine any combinations of spatial input/output data, it represents a highly effective tool for HiWQ modeling. This paper describes the integration of a distributed-parameter model (AGNPS) with a GIS (ARC/INFO) to examine nonpoint sources of pollution in an agricultural watershed. The ARC/INFO GIS provided the tools to generate and spatially organize the disparate data to support modeling, while the AGNPS model was used to predict several water quality variables including soil erosion and sedimentation within a watershed. The integrated system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of several alternative management strategies in reducing sediment pollution in a 417-ha watershed located in southern Iowa. The implementation of vegetative filter strips and contour buffer (grass) strips resulted in a 41 and 47% reduction in sediment yield at the watershed outlet, respectively. In addition, when the integrated system was used, the combination of the above management strategies resulted in a 71% reduction in sediment yield. In general, the study demonstrated the utility of integrating a simulation model with GIS for nonpoini-source pollution control and planning. Such techniques can help characterize the diffuse sources of pollution at the landscape level. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Microbial Source Module (MSM): Documenting the Science and Software for Discovery, Evaluation, and Integration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microbial Source Module (MSM) estimates microbial loading rates to land surfaces from non-point sources, and to streams from point sources for each subwatershed within a watershed. A subwatershed, the smallest modeling unit, represents the common basis for information consume...

  9. Integrating Source Apportionment Tracers into a Bottom-up Inventory of Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale Hydraulic Fracturing Region.

    PubMed

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Marrero, Josette E; Lyon, David R; Simpson, Isobel J; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    A growing dependence on natural gas for energy may exacerbate emissions of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). Identifying fingerprints of these emissions is critical to our understanding of potential impacts. Here, we compare stable isotopic and alkane ratio tracers of natural gas, agricultural, and urban CH4 sources in the Barnett Shale hydraulic fracturing region near Fort Worth, Texas. Thermogenic and biogenic sources were compositionally distinct, and emissions from oil wells were enriched in alkanes and isotopically depleted relative to natural gas wells. Emissions from natural gas production varied in δ(13)C and alkane ratio composition, with δD-CH4 representing the most consistent tracer of natural gas sources. We integrated our data into a bottom-up inventory of CH4 for the region, resulting in an inventory of ethane (C2H6) sources for comparison to top-down estimates of CH4 and C2H6 emissions. Methane emissions in the Barnett are a complex mixture of urban, agricultural, and fossil fuel sources, which makes source apportionment challenging. For example, spatial heterogeneity in gas composition and high C2H6/CH4 ratios in emissions from conventional oil production add uncertainty to top-down models of source apportionment. Future top-down studies may benefit from the addition of δD-CH4 to distinguish thermogenic and biogenic sources.

  10. Integrating Source Apportionment Tracers into a Bottom-up Inventory of Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale Hydraulic Fracturing Region.

    PubMed

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Marrero, Josette E; Lyon, David R; Simpson, Isobel J; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R

    2015-07-01

    A growing dependence on natural gas for energy may exacerbate emissions of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). Identifying fingerprints of these emissions is critical to our understanding of potential impacts. Here, we compare stable isotopic and alkane ratio tracers of natural gas, agricultural, and urban CH4 sources in the Barnett Shale hydraulic fracturing region near Fort Worth, Texas. Thermogenic and biogenic sources were compositionally distinct, and emissions from oil wells were enriched in alkanes and isotopically depleted relative to natural gas wells. Emissions from natural gas production varied in δ(13)C and alkane ratio composition, with δD-CH4 representing the most consistent tracer of natural gas sources. We integrated our data into a bottom-up inventory of CH4 for the region, resulting in an inventory of ethane (C2H6) sources for comparison to top-down estimates of CH4 and C2H6 emissions. Methane emissions in the Barnett are a complex mixture of urban, agricultural, and fossil fuel sources, which makes source apportionment challenging. For example, spatial heterogeneity in gas composition and high C2H6/CH4 ratios in emissions from conventional oil production add uncertainty to top-down models of source apportionment. Future top-down studies may benefit from the addition of δD-CH4 to distinguish thermogenic and biogenic sources. PMID:26148556

  11. Integration of EEG source imaging and fMRI during continuous viewing of natural movies.

    PubMed

    Whittingstall, Kevin; Bartels, Andreas; Singh, Vanessa; Kwon, Soyoung; Logothetis, Nikos K

    2010-10-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are noninvasive neuroimaging tools which can be used to measure brain activity with excellent temporal and spatial resolution, respectively. By combining the neural and hemodynamic recordings from these modalities, we can gain better insight into how and where the brain processes complex stimuli, which may be especially useful in patients with different neural diseases. However, due to their vastly different spatial and temporal resolutions, the integration of EEG and fMRI recordings is not always straightforward. One fundamental obstacle has been that paradigms used for EEG experiments usually rely on event-related paradigms, while fMRI is not limited in this regard. Therefore, here we ask whether one can reliably localize stimulus-driven EEG activity using the continuously varying feature intensities occurring in natural movie stimuli presented over relatively long periods of time. Specifically, we asked whether stimulus-driven aspects in the EEG signal would be co-localized with the corresponding stimulus-driven BOLD signal during free viewing of a movie. Secondly, we wanted to integrate the EEG signal directly with the BOLD signal, by estimating the underlying impulse response function (IRF) that relates the BOLD signal to the underlying current density in the primary visual area (V1). We made sequential fMRI and 64-channel EEG recordings in seven subjects who passively watched 2-min-long segments of a James Bond movie. To analyze EEG data in this natural setting, we developed a method based on independent component analysis (ICA) to reject EEG artifacts due to blinks, subject movement, etc., in a way unbiased by human judgment. We then calculated the EEG source strength of this artifact-free data at each time point of the movie within the entire brain volume using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). This provided for every voxel in the brain (i.e., in 3D space) an

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 8yr INTEGRAL/IBIS soft gamma-ray source obs. (Bird+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, A. J.; Bazzano, A.; Malizia, A.; Fiocchi, M.; Sguera, V.; Bassani, L.; Hill, A. B.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.

    2016-04-01

    Here we report an all-sky soft gamma-ray source catalog based on IBIS observations performed during the first 1000 orbits of INTEGRAL. The database for the construction of the source list consists of all good-quality data available, from the launch in 2002, up to the end of 2010. This corresponds to ~110Ms of scientific public observations, with a concentrated coverage on the Galactic Plane and extragalactic deep exposures. This new catalog includes 939 sources above a 4.5σ significance threshold detected in the 17-100keV energy band, of which 120 sources represent previously undiscovered soft gamma-ray emitters. The source positions are determined, mean fluxes are provided in two main energy bands, and these are both reported together with the overall source exposure. Indicative levels of variability are provided, and outburst times and durations are given for transient sources. A comparison is made with previous IBIS catalogs and catalogs from other similar missions. (2 data files).

  13. INTEGRAL study of temporal properties of bright flares in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidoli, L.; Paizis, A.; Postnov, K.

    2016-04-01

    We have characterized the typical temporal behaviour of the bright X-ray flares detected from the three Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) showing the most extreme transient behaviour (XTE J1739-302, IGR J17544-2619, SAX J1818.6-1703). We focus here on the cumulative distributions of the waiting-time (time interval between two consecutive X-ray flares), and the duration of the hard X-ray activity (duration of the brightest phase of an SFXT outburst), as observed by INTEGRAL/IBIS in the energy band 17-50 keV. Adopting the cumulative distribution of waiting-times, it is possible to identify the typical time-scale that clearly separates different outbursts, each composed by several single flares at ˜ks time-scale. This allowed us to measure the duration of the brightest phase of the outbursts from these three targets, finding that they show heavy-tailed cumulative distributions. We observe a correlation between the total energy emitted during SFXT outbursts and the time interval covered by the outbursts (defined as the elapsed time between the first and the last flare belonging to the same outburst as observed by INTEGRAL). We show that temporal properties of flares and outbursts of the sources, which share common properties regardless different orbital parameters, can be interpreted in the model of magnetized stellar winds with fractal structure from the OB-supergiant stars.

  14. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-09-01

    The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating

  15. A FAST X-RAY DISK WIND IN THE TRANSIENT PULSAR IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Cackett, Edward M.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2011-04-10

    Accretion disk winds are revealed in Chandra gratings spectra of black holes. The winds are hot and highly ionized (typically composed of He-like and H-like charge states) and show modest blueshifts. Similar line spectra are sometimes seen in 'dipping' low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), which are likely viewed edge-on; however, that absorption is tied to structures in the outer disk, and blueshifts are not typically observed. Here, we report the detection of blueshifted He-like Fe XXV (3100 {+-} 400 km s{sup -1}) and H-like Fe XXVI (1000 {+-} 200 km s{sup -1}) absorption lines in a Chandra/HETG spectrum of the transient pulsar and LMXB IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5. These features indicate a disk wind with at least superficial similarities to those observed in stellar-mass black holes. The wind does not vary strongly with numerous weak X-ray bursts or flares. A broad Fe K emission line is detected in the spectrum, and fits with different line models suggest that the inner accretion disk in this system may be truncated. If the stellar magnetic field truncates the disk, a field strength of B= (0.7-4.0)x10{sup 9} G is implied, which is in line with estimates based on X-ray timing techniques. We discuss our findings in the context of accretion flows onto neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes.

  16. NuSTAR Discovery of a Cyclotron Line in the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16393-4643

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Mori, Kaya; Rahoui, Farid; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Zhang, William W.

    2016-06-01

    The high-mass X-ray binary and accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643 was observed by the Nuclear Spectroscope Telescope Array in the 3-79 keV energy band for a net exposure time of 50 ks. We present the results of this observation which enabled the discovery of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with a centroid energy of {29.3}-1.3+1.1 keV. This allowed us to measure the magnetic field strength of the neutron star for the first time: B = (2.5 ± 0.1) × 1012 G. The known pulsation period is now observed at 904.0 ± 0.1 s. Since 2006, the neutron star has undergone a long-term spin-up trend at a rate of \\dot{P}=-2× {10}-8 s s-1 (-0.6 s per year, or a frequency derivative of \\dot{ν }=3× {10}-14 Hz s-1). In the power density spectrum, a break appears at the pulse frequency which separates the zero slope at low frequency from the steeper slope at high frequency. This addition of angular momentum to the neutron star could be due to the accretion of a quasi-spherical wind, or it could be caused by the transient appearance of a prograde accretion disk that is nearly in corotation with the neutron star whose magnetospheric radius is around 2 × 108 cm.

  17. An Integrated Forensics Approach To Fingerprint PCB Sources In Sediments Using RSC And ACF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determing the original source of contamination to a heterogeneous matrix matrix such as sediment is a requirement for both clean-up and compliance programs. Identifying the source of sediment contaminants in industrial settings is a pre-requisite to implementing any proposed se...

  18. Micro/nanofabricated solid-state thermoelectric generator devices for integrated high voltage power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleurial, J. P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Huang, C. K.; Ryan, M. A.; Averback, R.; Chen, G.; Hill, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been actively pursuing the development of thermoelectric micro/nanodevices that can be fabricated using a combination of electrochemical deposition and integrated circuit processing techniques.

  19. An integrated and open source GIS environmental management system for a protected area in the south of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, A.; Duarte, L.; Sillero, N.; Gonçalves, J. A.; Fonte, J.; Gonçalves-Seco, L.; Pinheiro da Luz, L. M.; dos Santos Beja, N. M. R.

    2015-10-01

    Herdade da Contenda (HC), located in Moura municipality, Beja district (Alentejo province) in the south of Portugal (southwestern Iberia Peninsula), is a national hunting area with 5270ha. The development of an integrated system that aims to make the management of the natural and cultural heritage resources will be very useful for an effective management of this area. This integrated system should include the physical characterization of the territory, natural conservation, land use and land management themes, as well the cultural heritage resources. This paper presents a new tool for an integrated environmental management system of the HC, which aims to produce maps under a GIS open source environment (QGIS). The application is composed by a single button which opens a window. The window is composed by twelve menus (File, DRASTIC, Forest Fire Risk, Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE), Bioclimatic Index, Cultural Heritage, Fauna and Flora, Ortofoto, Normalizes Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Land Use Land Cover Cover (LULC) and Help. Several inputs are requires to generate these maps, e.g. DEM, geologic information, soil map, hydraulic conductivity information, LULC map, vulnerability and economic information, NDVI. Six buttons were added to the toolbar which allows to manipulate the information in the map canvas: Zoom in, Zoom out, Pan, Print/Layout and Clear. This integrated and open source GIS environment management system was developed for the HC area, but could be easily adapted to other natural or protected area. Despite the lack of data, the methodology presented fulfills the objectives.

  20. The Skogaryd Research Site - Integration of terrestrial and freshwater greenhouse gas sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemedtsson, L.

    2012-04-01

    atmosphere. The budgets have ignored dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) transport in water to streams and lakes and the subsequent exchange between the atmosphere and surface waters. Aquatic habitats can be significant net sources of CO2 and methane (CH4) and potential hot spots for N2O release, all important for natural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Inland waters need to be included in the C and GHG balances for terrestrial landscapes. This project aims to quantify GHG balances at the landscape scale in forested regions that include land-atmosphere, land-water, and water-atmosphere exchange of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems will be linked holistically, using site specific techniques at different scales, from aircraft (km2) to chambers (m2) to develop integrated models that can be used to quantify net GHG flux for management strategies. The LAGGE project involves six Swedish universities and site is open for more cooperations.

  1. Heavy metals in road dust from Xiandao District, Changsha City, China: characteristics, health risk assessment, and integrated source identification.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Jingdong; Huang, Jinhui; Huang, Dawei; Yang, Jun; Song, Yongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    The physicochemical properties and the contents of metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Fe) in 51 road dust samples from Xiandao District (XDD) were investigated. Enrichment factor (EF), multivariate statistics, geostatistics, and health risk assessment model were adopted to study the spatial pollution pattern and to identify the priority pollutants and regions of concern and sources of studied metals. The mean EFs revealed the following order: Cd > Zn ≈ Pb ≈ Cu > Cr. For non-carcinogenic effects, the exposure pathway which resulted in the highest levels of exposure risk for children and adults was ingestion, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard index (HI) values for the studied metals at each site were within the safe level of 1 except maximum HI Cr (1.08) for children. The carcinogenic risk (CR) for Cd and Cr at each site was within the acceptable risk level (1E-06) except CR Cr (1.08E-06) for children in the road intersection between the Changchang highway and the Yuelin highway. Cr was identified as the priority pollutant followed by Pb and Cd with consideration of the local population distribution. Spatially, northwest and northeast of XDD were regarded as the priority regions of concern. Results based on the proposed integrated source identification method indicated that Pb was probably sourced from traffic-related sources, Cd was associated with the dust organic material mainly originated from industrial sources, and Cr was mainly derived from both sources.

  2. Heavy metals in road dust from Xiandao District, Changsha City, China: characteristics, health risk assessment, and integrated source identification.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Jingdong; Huang, Jinhui; Huang, Dawei; Yang, Jun; Song, Yongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    The physicochemical properties and the contents of metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Fe) in 51 road dust samples from Xiandao District (XDD) were investigated. Enrichment factor (EF), multivariate statistics, geostatistics, and health risk assessment model were adopted to study the spatial pollution pattern and to identify the priority pollutants and regions of concern and sources of studied metals. The mean EFs revealed the following order: Cd > Zn ≈ Pb ≈ Cu > Cr. For non-carcinogenic effects, the exposure pathway which resulted in the highest levels of exposure risk for children and adults was ingestion, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard index (HI) values for the studied metals at each site were within the safe level of 1 except maximum HI Cr (1.08) for children. The carcinogenic risk (CR) for Cd and Cr at each site was within the acceptable risk level (1E-06) except CR Cr (1.08E-06) for children in the road intersection between the Changchang highway and the Yuelin highway. Cr was identified as the priority pollutant followed by Pb and Cd with consideration of the local population distribution. Spatially, northwest and northeast of XDD were regarded as the priority regions of concern. Results based on the proposed integrated source identification method indicated that Pb was probably sourced from traffic-related sources, Cd was associated with the dust organic material mainly originated from industrial sources, and Cr was mainly derived from both sources. PMID:27000116

  3. The Integrated X-Ray Spectrum of Galactic Populations of Luminous Supersoft X-Ray Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiStefano, R.; Becker, C. M.; Fabbiano, G.

    1996-01-01

    We compute the composite X-ray spectrum of a population of unresolved SSS's in a spiral galaxy such as our own or M31. The sources are meant to represent the total underlying population corresponding to all sources which have bolometric luminosities in the range of 10(exp 37) - 10(exp 38) ergs/s and kT on the order of tens of eV. These include close-binary supersoft sources, symbiotic novae, and planetary nebulae, for example. In order to determine whether the associated X-ray signal would be detectable, we also 'seed' the galaxy with other types of X-ray sources, specifically low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's) and high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXB's). We find that the total spectrum due to SSS's, LMXB's, and HMXB's exhibits a soft peak which owes its presence to the SSS population. Preliminary indications are that this soft peak may be observable.

  4. Integral equation for electrostatic waves generated by a point source in a spatially homogeneous magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Podesta, John J.

    2012-08-15

    The electric field generated by a time varying point charge in a three-dimensional, unbounded, spatially homogeneous plasma with a uniform background magnetic field and a uniform (static) flow velocity is studied in the electrostatic approximation which is often valid in the near field. For plasmas characterized by Maxwell distribution functions with isotropic temperatures, the linearized Vlasov-Poisson equations may be formulated in terms of an equivalent integral equation in the time domain. The kernel of the integral equation has a relatively simple mathematical form consisting of elementary functions such as exponential and trigonometric functions (sines and cosines), and contains no infinite sums of Bessel functions. Consequently, the integral equation is amenable to numerical solutions and may be useful for the study of the impulse response of magnetized plasmas and, more generally, the response to arbitrary waveforms.

  5. Monolithically integrated distributed feedback laser array wavelength-selectable light sources for WDM-PON application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Zhao, Jianyi; Zhou, Ning; Huang, Xiaodong; Cao, Mingde; Wang, Lei; Liu, Wen

    2015-01-01

    The monolithic integration of 1.5-μm four channels phase shift distributed feedback lasers array (DFB-LD array) with 4×1 multi-mode interference (MMI) optical combiner is demonstrated. A home developed process mainly consists of butt-joint regrowth (BJR) and simultaneous thermal and ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (STU-NIL) is implemented to fabricate gratings and integrated devices. The threshold currents of the lasers are less than 10 mA and the side mode suppression ratios (SMSR) are better than 40 dB for all channels. Quasi-continuous tuning is realized over 7.5 nm wavelength region with the 30 °C temperature variation. The results indicate that the integration device we proposed can be used in wavelength division multiplexing passive optical networks (WDM-PON).

  6. Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratios for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Hart, Garret L.; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason B.; Gill, Gary A.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2012-08-15

    Recent years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 6 0 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % versus 5 5 . 9 {+-} 2 . 1 % and 4 0 . 2 {+-} 1 . 8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.

  7. AMOLED image source for use in integrated panoramic night vision goggle (IPNVG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jeff A.; Parisi, Vince

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an overview of the active matrix organic light emitting diode (OLED) microdisplay used in the integrated panoramic night vision goggle (IPNVG). These devices will be used to insert independent and overlaid video imagery into the IPNVG. Interface and operational details of the microdisplay relative to the IPNVG implementation in military aircraft will be discussed.

  8. Development, Integration and Utilization of Surface Nuclear Energy Sources for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Schmidt, George R.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Hickman, Robert; Hissam, Andy; Houston, Vance; Martin, Jim; Mireles, Omar; Reid, Bob; Schneider, Todd

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the past five decades numerous studies have identified nuclear energy as an enhancing or enabling technology for human surface exploration missions. Nuclear energy sources were used to provide electricity on Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17, and on the Mars Viking landers. Nuclear energy sources were used to provide heat on the Pathfinder; Spirit, and Discovery rovers. Scenarios have been proposed that utilize -1 kWe radioisotope systems for early missions, followed by fission systems in the 10 - 30 kWe range when energy requirements increase. A fission energy source unit size of approximately 150 kWt has been proposed based on previous lunar and Mars base architecture studies. Such a unit could support both early and advanced bases through a building block approach.

  9. Scenario driven data modelling: a method for integrating diverse sources of data and data streams

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biology is rapidly becoming a data intensive, data-driven science. It is essential that data is represented and connected in ways that best represent its full conceptual content and allows both automated integration and data driven decision-making. Recent advancements in distributed multi-relational directed graphs, implemented in the form of the Semantic Web make it possible to deal with complicated heterogeneous data in new and interesting ways. Results This paper presents a new approach, scenario driven data modelling (SDDM), that integrates multi-relational directed graphs with data streams. SDDM can be applied to virtually any data integration challenge with widely divergent types of data and data streams. In this work, we explored integrating genetics data with reports from traditional media. SDDM was applied to the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase gene (NDM-1), an emerging global health threat. The SDDM process constructed a scenario, created a RDF multi-relational directed graph that linked diverse types of data to the Semantic Web, implemented RDF conversion tools (RDFizers) to bring content into the Sematic Web, identified data streams and analytical routines to analyse those streams, and identified user requirements and graph traversals to meet end-user requirements. Conclusions We provided an example where SDDM was applied to a complex data integration challenge. The process created a model of the emerging NDM-1 health threat, identified and filled gaps in that model, and constructed reliable software that monitored data streams based on the scenario derived multi-relational directed graph. The SDDM process significantly reduced the software requirements phase by letting the scenario and resulting multi-relational directed graph define what is possible and then set the scope of the user requirements. Approaches like SDDM will be critical to the future of data intensive, data-driven science because they automate the process of converting

  10. Scenario Driven Data Modelling: A Method for Integrating Diverse Sources of Data and Data Streams

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, Shelton D; Quest, Daniel J; Brettin, Thomas S; Cottingham, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Background Biology is rapidly becoming a data intensive, data-driven science. It is essential that data is represented and connected in ways that best represent its full conceptual content and allows both automated integration and data driven decision-making. Recent advancements in distributed multi-relational directed graphs, implemented in the form of the Semantic Web make it possible to deal with complicated heterogeneous data in new and interesting ways. Results This paper presents a new approach, scenario driven data modelling (SDDM), that integrates multi-relational directed graphs with data streams. SDDM can be applied to virtually any data integration challenge with widely divergent types of data and data streams. In this work, we explored integrating genetics data with reports from traditional media. SDDM was applied to the New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase gene (NDM-1), an emerging global health threat. The SDDM process constructed a scenario, created a RDF multi-relational directed graph that linked diverse types of data to the Semantic Web, implemented RDF conversion tools (RDFizers) to bring content into the Sematic Web, identified data streams and analytical routines to analyse those streams, and identified user requirements and graph traversals to meet end-user requirements. Conclusions We provided an example where SDDM was applied to a complex data integration challenge. The process created a model of the emerging NDM-1 health threat, identified and filled gaps in that model, and constructed reliable software that monitored data streams based on the scenario derived multi-relational directed graph. The SDDM process significantly reduced the software requirements phase by letting the scenario and resulting multi-relational directed graph define what is possible and then set the scope of the user requirements. Approaches like SDDM will be critical to the future of data intensive, data-driven science because they automate the process of converting

  11. IGR J17544-2619 IN DEPTH WITH SUZAKU: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR CLUMPY WINDS IN A SUPERGIANT FAST X-RAY TRANSIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rampy, Rachel A.; Smith, David M.; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2009-12-10

    We present direct evidence for dense clumps of matter in the companion wind in a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) binary. This is seen as a brief period of enhanced absorption during one of the bright, fast flares that distinguish these systems. The object under study was IGR J17544-2619, and a total of 236 ks of data were accumulated with the Japanese satellite Suzaku. The activity in this period spans a dynamic range of almost 10{sup 4} in luminosity and gives a detailed look at SFXT behavior.

  12. IGR J17544-2619 in Depth With Suzaku: Direct Evidence for Clumpy Winds in a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampy, Rachel A.; Smith, David M.; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2009-12-01

    We present direct evidence for dense clumps of matter in the companion wind in a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) binary. This is seen as a brief period of enhanced absorption during one of the bright, fast flares that distinguish these systems. The object under study was IGR J17544-2619, and a total of 236 ks of data were accumulated with the Japanese satellite Suzaku. The activity in this period spans a dynamic range of almost 104 in luminosity and gives a detailed look at SFXT behavior.

  13. Towards an open-source semantic data infrastructure for integrating clinical and scientific data in cognition-guided surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetzer, Andreas; Metzger, Jasmin; Katic, Darko; März, Keno; Wagner, Martin; Philipp, Patrick; Engelhardt, Sandy; Weller, Tobias; Zelzer, Sascha; Franz, Alfred M.; Schoch, Nicolai; Heuveline, Vincent; Maleshkova, Maria; Rettinger, Achim; Speidel, Stefanie; Wolf, Ivo; Kenngott, Hannes; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Müller-Stich, Beat P.; Maier-Hein, Lena; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Nolden, Marco

    2016-03-01

    In the surgical domain, individual clinical experience, which is derived in large part from past clinical cases, plays an important role in the treatment decision process. Simultaneously the surgeon has to keep track of a large amount of clinical data, emerging from a number of heterogeneous systems during all phases of surgical treatment. This is complemented with the constantly growing knowledge derived from clinical studies and literature. To recall this vast amount of information at the right moment poses a growing challenge that should be supported by adequate technology. While many tools and projects aim at sharing or integrating data from various sources or even provide knowledge-based decision support - to our knowledge - no concept has been proposed that addresses the entire surgical pathway by accessing the entire information in order to provide context-aware cognitive assistance. Therefore a semantic representation and central storage of data and knowledge is a fundamental requirement. We present a semantic data infrastructure for integrating heterogeneous surgical data sources based on a common knowledge representation. A combination of the Extensible Neuroimaging Archive Toolkit (XNAT) with semantic web technologies, standardized interfaces and a common application platform enables applications to access and semantically annotate data, perform semantic reasoning and eventually create individual context-aware surgical assistance. The infrastructure meets the requirements of a cognitive surgical assistant system and has been successfully applied in various use cases. The system is based completely on free technologies and is available to the community as an open-source package.

  14. Ontology-Based Data Integration of Open Source Electronic Medical Record and Data Capture Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guidry, Alicia F.

    2013-01-01

    In low-resource settings, the prioritization of clinical care funding is often determined by immediate health priorities. As a result, investment directed towards the development of standards for clinical data representation and exchange are rare and accordingly, data management systems are often redundant. Open-source systems such as OpenMRS and…

  15. Students, Teachers, and Schools as Sources of Variability, Integrity, and Sustainability in Implementing Progress Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.; Ysseldyke, Jim; Patterson, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    A three-level variance decomposition analysis was used to examine the sources of variability in implementation of a technology-enhanced progress monitoring system within each year of a 2-year study using a randomized-controlled design. We show that results of technology-enhanced progress monitoring are not necessarily a measure of student…

  16. INTEGRATED POLARIZATION OF SOURCES AT {lambda} {approx} 1 m AND NEW ROTATION MEASURE AMBIGUITIES

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, Damon; Rudnick, Lawrence; Brown, Shea

    2011-06-15

    We present an analysis of the polarization of compact radio sources from six pointings of the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope at 350 MHz with 35% coverage in {lambda}{sup 2}. After correcting for the off-axis instrumental polarization with a simple analytical model, only a small number of 585 strong sources have significant polarizations at these wavelengths. The median depolarization ratio from 1.4 GHz for the strongest sources is <0.2, reinforcing the likelihood that radio galaxies are found in magnetized environments, even outside of rich clusters. Seven sources with significant 350 MHz polarization were selected for a more in-depth Faraday structure analysis. We fit the observed values Q/I and U/I as a function of {lambda}{sup 2} using both a depolarizing screen and two-component models. We also performed rotation measure (RM) Synthesis/Clean and standard fitting of polarization angle versus {lambda}{sup 2}. We find that a single RM, as found using polarization angle fitting or simple screen models, commonly provides a poor fit when the solutions are translated back into Q, U space. Thus, although a single 'characteristic' RM may be found using these techniques, the Faraday structure of the source may not be adequately represented. We also demonstrate that RM Synthesis may yield an erroneous Faraday structure in the presence of multiple, interfering RM components, even when cleaning of the Faraday spectrum is performed. We briefly explore the conditions under which RMs and Faraday structure results can be reliable. Many measurements in the literature do not meet these criteria; we discuss how these influence the resulting scientific conclusions and offer a prescription for obtaining reliable RMs.

  17. Portable, Battery Operated Capillary Electrophoresis with Optical Isomer Resolution Integrated with Ionization Source for Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moini, Mehdi; Rollman, Christopher M.

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a battery operated capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization (CE/ESI) source for mass spectrometry with optical isomer separation capability. The source fits in front of low or high resolution mass spectrometers similar to a nanospray source with about the same weight and size. The source has two high voltage power supplies (±25 kV HVPS) capable of operating in forward or reverse polarity modes and powered by a 12 V rechargeable lithium ion battery with operation time of ~10 h. In ultrafast CE mode, in which short narrow capillaries (≤15 μm i.d., 15-25 cm long) and field gradients ≥1000 V/cm are used, peak widths at the base are <1 s wide. Under these conditions, the source provides high resolution separation, including optical isomer resolution in ~1 min. Using a low resolution mass spectrometer (LTQ Velos) with a scan time of 0.07 s/scan, baseline separation of amino acids and their optical isomers were achieved in ~1 min. Moreover, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was analyzed in ~1 min with 56% coverage using the data-dependent MS/MS. Using a high resolution mass spectrometer (Thermo Orbitrap Elite) with 15,000 resolution, the fastest scan time achieved was 0.15 s, which was adequate for CE-MS analysis when optical isomer separation is not required or when the optical isomers were well separated. Figures of merit including a detection limit of 2 fmol and linear dynamic range of two orders of magnitude were achieved for amino acids.

  18. Portable, Battery Operated Capillary Electrophoresis with Optical Isomer Resolution Integrated with Ionization Source for Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moini, Mehdi; Rollman, Christopher M

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a battery operated capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization (CE/ESI) source for mass spectrometry with optical isomer separation capability. The source fits in front of low or high resolution mass spectrometers similar to a nanospray source with about the same weight and size. The source has two high voltage power supplies (±25 kV HVPS) capable of operating in forward or reverse polarity modes and powered by a 12 V rechargeable lithium ion battery with operation time of ~10 h. In ultrafast CE mode, in which short narrow capillaries (≤15 μm i.d., 15-25 cm long) and field gradients ≥1000 V/cm are used, peak widths at the base are <1 s wide. Under these conditions, the source provides high resolution separation, including optical isomer resolution in ~1 min. Using a low resolution mass spectrometer (LTQ Velos) with a scan time of 0.07 s/scan, baseline separation of amino acids and their optical isomers were achieved in ~1 min. Moreover, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was analyzed in ~1 min with 56% coverage using the data-dependent MS/MS. Using a high resolution mass spectrometer (Thermo Orbitrap Elite) with 15,000 resolution, the fastest scan time achieved was 0.15 s, which was adequate for CE-MS analysis when optical isomer separation is not required or when the optical isomers were well separated. Figures of merit including a detection limit of 2 fmol and linear dynamic range of two orders of magnitude were achieved for amino acids. PMID:26644308

  19. Integrating Multiple Evidence Sources to Predict Adverse Drug Reactions Based on a Systems Pharmacology Model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, D-S; Xiao, N; Li, Y-J; Zeng, W-B; Liang, Y-Z; Lu, A-P; Xu, Q-S; Chen, AF

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is critically important for drug discovery and public health. Here we developed a multiple evidence fusion (MEF) method for the large-scale prediction of drug ADRs that can handle both approved drugs and novel molecules. MEF is based on the similarity reference by collaborative filtering, and integrates multiple similarity measures from various data types, taking advantage of the complementarity in the data. We used MEF to integrate drug-related and ADR-related data from multiple levels, including the network structural data formed by known drug–ADR relationships for predicting likely unknown ADRs. On cross-validation, it obtains high sensitivity and specificity, substantially outperforming existing methods that utilize single or a few data types. We validated our prediction by their overlap with drug–ADR associations that are known in databases. The proposed computational method could be used for complementary hypothesis generation and rapid analysis of potential drug–ADR interactions. PMID:26451329

  20. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Carlos, R.C.; Argo, P.E.

    1993-01-21

    As part of the integrated verification experiment (IVE), we deployed a network of hf ionospheric sounders to detect the effects of acoustic waves generated by surface ground motion following underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The network sampled up to four geographic locations in the ionosphere from almost directly overhead of the surface ground zero out to a horizontal range of 60 km. We present sample results for four of the IVEs: Misty Echo, Texarkana, Mineral Quarry, and Bexar.

  1. Bayesian Integration of Isotope Ratio for Geographic Sourcing of Castor Beans

    DOE PAGES

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Kreuzer, Helen; Hart, Garret; Ehleringer, James; West, Jason; Gill, Gary; Duckworth, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    Recenmore » t years have seen an increase in the forensic interest associated with the poison ricin, which is extracted from the seeds of the Ricinus communis plant. Both light element (C, N, O, and H) and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios have previously been used to associate organic material with geographic regions of origin. We present a Bayesian integration methodology that can more accurately predict the region of origin for a castor bean than individual models developed independently for light element stable isotopes or Sr isotope ratios. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in the ability to correctly classify regions based on the integrated model with a class accuracy of 60.9 ± 2.1 % versus 55.9 ± 2.1 % and 40.2 ± 1.8 % for the light element and strontium (Sr) isotope ratios, respectively. In addition, we show graphically the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset in respect to class prediction and how the integration of these datasets strengthens the overall model.« less

  2. Effects of relative positioning of energy sources on weld integrity for hybrid laser arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuangyu; Li, Yanqing; Liu, Fengde; Zhang, Hong; Ding, Hongtao

    2016-06-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of laser and arc arrangement on weld integrity for the hybrid laser arc welding processes. Experiments were conducted for a high-strength steel using a 4 kW Nd: YAG laser and a metal active gas (MAG) welding facility under two configurations of arc-laser hybrid welding (ALHW) and laser-arc hybrid welding (LAHW). Metallographic analysis and mechanical testing were performed to evaluate the weld integrity in terms of weld bead geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties. The morphology of the weld bead cross-section was studied and the typical macrostructure of the weld beads appeared to be cone-shaped and cocktail cup-shaped under ALHW and LAHW configurations, respectively. The weld integrity attributes of microstructure, phase constituents and microhardness were analyzed for different weld regions. The tensile and impact tests were performed and fracture surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. The study showed that ALHW produced joints with a better weld shape and a more uniform microstructure of lath martensite, while LAHW weld had a heterogeneous structure of lath martensite and austenite.

  3. Recent view to the results of pulse tests in the IGR reactor with high burn-up fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Asmolov, V.; Yegorova, L.

    1996-03-01

    Testing of 43 fuel elements (13 fuel elements with high burn-up fuel, 10 fuel elements with preirradiated cladding and fresh fuel, and 20 non-irradiated fuel elements) was carried out in the IGR pulse reactor with a half width of the reactor power pulse of about 0.7 sec. Tests were conducted in capsules with no coolant flow and with standard initial conditions in the capsule of 20{degrees}C and 0.2 MPa. Two types of coolant were used: water and air. One purpose of the test program was to determine the thresholds and mechanisms of fuel rod failure under RIA conditions for VVER fuel rods over their entire exposure range, from zero to high burn-up. These failure thresholds are often used in safety analyses. The tests and analyses were designed to reveal the influence on fuel rod failure of (1) the mechanical properties of the cladding, (2) the pellet-to-cladding gap, (3) fuel burn-up, (4) fuel-to-coolant heat transfer, and other parameters. The resulting data base can also be used for validation of computer codes used for analyzing fuel rod behavior. Three types of test specimens were used in the tests, and diagrams of these specimens are shown in Fig. 1. {open_quotes}Type-C{close_quotes} specimens were re-fabricated from commercial fuel rods of the VVER-1000 type that had been subjected to many power cycles of operation in the Novovoronezh Nuclear Power Plant (NV NPP). {open_quotes}Type-D{close_quotes} specimens were fabricated from the same commercial fuel rods used above, but the high burn-up oxide fuel was removed from the cladding and was replaced with fresh oxide fuel pellets. {open_quotes}Type-D{close_quotes} specimens thus provided a means of separating the effects of the cladding and the oxide fuel pellets and were used to examine cladding effects only.

  4. Integrated modeling of electron cyclotron resonance ion sources and charge breeders with GEM, MCBC, and IonEx

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. S.; Zhao, L.; Cluggish, B. P.; Galkin, S. A.; Grubert, J. E.; Pardo, R. C.; Vondrasek, R. C.

    2010-02-15

    A numerical toolset to help in understanding physical processes in the electron cyclotron resonance charge breeder (ECRCB) and further to help optimization and design of current and future machines is presented. The toolset consists of three modules (Monte Carlo charge breeding code, generalized electron cyclotron resonance ion source modeling, and ion extraction), each modeling different processes occurring in the ECRCB from beam injection to extraction. The toolset provides qualitative study, such as parameter studies, and scaling of the operation, and physical understanding in the ECRCB. The methodology and a sample integrated modeling are presented.

  5. Internally Generated Revenue (IGR) and Effectiveness of University Administration in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ofoegbu, Felicia I.; Alonge, Hezekiah O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was mainly to identify the major sources and utilization of internally generated financial revenue by Nigerian University administrators. The population of the study consisted of all the 102 university administrators from the seventeen Federal Universities in Southern Nigeria. Descriptive statistics and Pearson Product…

  6. Laser produced plasma sources for nanolithography—Recent integrated simulation and benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-05-15

    Photon sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) are still facing challenging problems to achieve high volume manufacturing in the semiconductor industry. The requirements for high EUV power, longer optical system and components lifetime, and efficient mechanisms for target delivery have narrowed investigators towards the development and optimization of dual-pulse laser sources with high repetition rate of small liquid tin droplets and the use of multi-layer mirror optical system for collecting EUV photons. We comprehensively simulated laser-produced plasma sources in full 3D configuration using 10–50 μm tin droplet targets as single droplets as well as, for the first time, distributed fragmented microdroplets with equivalent mass. The latter is to examine the effects of droplet fragmentation resulting from the first pulse and prior to the incident second main laser pulse. We studied the dependence of target mass and size, laser parameters, and dual pulse system configuration on EUV radiation output and on atomic and ionic debris generation. Our modeling and simulation included all phases of laser target evolution: from laser/droplet interaction, energy deposition, target vaporization, ionization, plasma hydrodynamic expansion, thermal and radiation energy redistribution, and EUV photons collection as well as detail mapping of photons source size and location. We also simulated and predicted the potential damage to the optical mirror collection system from plasma thermal and energetic debris and the requirements for mitigating systems to reduce debris fluence. The debris effect on mirror collection system is analyzed using our three-dimensional ITMC-DYN Monte Carlo package. Modeling results were benchmarked against our CMUXE laboratory experimental studies for the EUV photons production and for debris and ions generation.

  7. Crawling The Web for Libre: Selecting, Integrating, Extending and Releasing Open Source Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truslove, I.; Duerr, R. E.; Wilcox, H.; Savoie, M.; Lopez, L.; Brandt, M.

    2012-12-01

    Libre is a project developed by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Libre is devoted to liberating science data from its traditional constraints of publication, location, and findability. Libre embraces and builds on the notion of making knowledge freely available, and both Creative Commons licensed content and Open Source Software are crucial building blocks for, as well as required deliverable outcomes of the project. One important aspect of the Libre project is to discover cryospheric data published on the internet without prior knowledge of the location or even existence of that data. Inspired by well-known search engines and their underlying web crawling technologies, Libre has explored tools and technologies required to build a search engine tailored to allow users to easily discover geospatial data related to the polar regions. After careful consideration, the Libre team decided to base its web crawling work on the Apache Nutch project (http://nutch.apache.org). Nutch is "an open source web-search software project" written in Java, with good documentation, a significant user base, and an active development community. Nutch was installed and configured to search for the types of data of interest, and the team created plugins to customize the default Nutch behavior to better find and categorize these data feeds. This presentation recounts the Libre team's experiences selecting, using, and extending Nutch, and working with the Nutch user and developer community. We will outline the technical and organizational challenges faced in order to release the project's software as Open Source, and detail the steps actually taken. We distill these experiences into a set of heuristics and recommendations for using, contributing to, and releasing Open Source Software.

  8. 2 nm continuously tunable 488nm micro-integrated diode-laser-based SHG light source for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braune, M.; Maiwald, M.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy in the visible spectral range is of great interest due to resonant Raman effects. Nevertheless, fluorescence and ambient light can mask the weak Raman lines. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy is a demonstrated tool to overcome this drawback. To apply this method, a light source with two alternating wavelengths is necessary. The spectral distance between these two wavelengths has to be adapted to the width of the Raman signal. According to the sample under investigation the width of the Raman signal could be in the range of 3 cm-1 - 12 cm-1. In this work, a micro-integrated light source emitting at 488 nm with a continuous wavelength tuning range up to 2 nm (83 cm-1) is presented. The pump source, a DFB laser emitting at 976 nm, and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide crystal is used for the second harmonic generation (SHG). Both components are mounted on a μ-Peltier-element for temperature control. Here, a common wavelength tuning of the pump wavelength and the acceptance bandwidth of the SHG crystal via temperature is achieved. With the results the light source is suitable for portable Raman and SERDS experiments with a flexible spectral distance between both excitation wavelengths for SERDS with respect to the sample under investigation.

  9. A catchment-integrated approach to determine the importance of secondary sources of contaminated sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres Lopez-Tarazon, Jose; Byrne, Patrick; Mullan, Donal; Smith, Hugh

    2015-04-01

    Water pollution has been identified as one of the most important environmental challenges of the early 21st Century. The Water Framework Directive (WFD) (2008/105/EC) explicitly recognises the risk to water resources posed by sediment-associated contaminants in European river basins. The potential impacts on water supply and the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems from sediment and associated contaminants may be further exacerbated by climate change pressures on water resources, as highlighted in the 2009 EU White Paper "Adapting to climate change: Towards a European framework for action" (SEC(2009) 386, 387, 388). Despite these concerns, the role of floodplains and other storage areas as secondary sources of contaminated sediment (i.e. metals) in river basins affected by historic industrial or mining pollution has been largely overlooked. Thereby, besides the sediment which is transported by the river, secondary sources of contaminants represent a credible threat to achieving EU water quality targets set by the WFD. This project addresses this issue by developing a catchment-based approach looking at metal geochemistry from source to sink (i.e., from sediment generation at slopes, passing through sediment transported by the river system, to sediment deposition at the storage areas to the outlet) and develop a geochemical model to predict the chemical aspects of metals transport and transformation. This approach will allow us to quantify (i) the sediment fluxes and associated contaminants flowing through the river, (ii) the storage areas contributions to downstream contaminated sediment fluxes, (ii) the timescales for the storage and removal of contaminated sediment in the sinks, and (iv) the transformation and bioavailability of the pollutants (i.e. metals) along the basin. Both physical and chemical aspects of metal transport will be considered by looking at metal geochemistry, mobility and bioavailability, hence producing information on chemical metal transport

  10. Tailoring the hydraulic impedance of out-of-plane micromachined electrospray sources with integrated electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krpoun, R.; Smith, K. L.; Stark, J. P. W.; Shea, H. R.

    2009-04-01

    Hydraulic impedance is a critical parameter for the operation of electrospray emitters, and for preventing flooding when spraying from arrays of emitters. Controlling flow rate by tuning the flow impedance allows accessing different operating modes, such as droplet, ionic, or pulsating. We report on a method to tailor the hydraulic impedance of micromachined capillary out-of-plane emitters with integrated extractor electrodes by filling them with silica microspheres. Spraying the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMI-BF4), we demonstrate the ability to tune from droplet emission to pure ion emission depending on microbead diameter, obtaining stable emission from single emitters and from arrays of 19 emitters.

  11. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  12. Uncertainties and biases of source masses derived from fits of integrated fluxes or image intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men'shchikov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Fitting spectral distributions of total fluxes or image intensities are two standard methods for estimating the masses of starless cores and protostellar envelopes. These mass estimates, which are the main source and basis of our knowledge of the origin and evolution of self-gravitating cores and protostars, are uncertain. It is important to clearly understand sources of statistical and systematic errors stemming from the methods and minimize the errors. In this model-based study, a grid of radiative transfer models of starless cores and protostellar envelopes was computed and their total fluxes and image intensities were fitted to derive the model masses. To investigate intrinsic effects related to the physical objects, all observational complications were explicitly ignored. Known true values of the numerical models allow assessment of the qualities of the methods and fitting models, as well as the effects of nonuniform temperatures, far-infrared opacity slope, selected subsets of wavelengths, background subtraction, and angular resolutions. The method of fitting intensities gives more accurate masses for more resolved objects than the method of fitting fluxes. With the latter, a fitting model that assumes optically thin emission gives much better results than the one allowing substantial optical depths. Temperature excesses within the objects above the mass-averaged values skew their spectral shapes towards shorter wavelengths, leading to masses underestimated typically by factors 2-5. With a fixed opacity slope deviating from the true value by a factor of 1.2, masses are inaccurate within a factor of 2. The most accurate masses are estimated by fitting just two or three of the longest wavelength measurements. Conventional algorithm of background subtraction is a likely source of large systematic errors. The absolute values of masses of the unresolved or poorly resolved objects in star-forming regions are uncertain to within at least a factor of 2-3.

  13. An open source GIS-based tool to integrate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matas, Gerard; Lantada, Nieves; Gili, Josep A.; Corominas, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    Rockfalls are frequent instability processes in road cuts, open pit mines and quarries, steep slopes and cliffs. Even though the stability of rock slopes can be determined using analytical approaches, the assessment of large rock cliffs require simplifying assumptions due to the difficulty of working with a large amount of joints, the scattering of both the orientations and strength parameters. The attitude and persistency of joints within the rock mass define the size of kinematically unstable rock volumes. Furthermore the rock block will eventually split in several fragments during its propagation downhill due its impact with the ground surface. Knowledge of the size, energy, trajectory… of each block resulting from fragmentation is critical in determining the vulnerability of buildings and protection structures. The objective of this contribution is to present a simple and open source tool to simulate the fragmentation mechanism in rockfall propagation models and in the calculation of impact energies. This tool includes common modes of motion for falling boulders based on the previous literature. The final tool is being implemented in a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) using open source Python programming. The tool under development will be simple, modular, compatible with any GIS environment, open source, able to model rockfalls phenomena correctly. It could be used in any area susceptible to rockfalls with a previous adjustment of the parameters. After the adjustment of the model parameters to a given area, a simulation could be performed to obtain maps of kinetic energy, frequency, stopping density and passing heights. This GIS-based tool and the analysis of the fragmentation laws using data collected from recent rockfall have being developed within the RockRisk Project (2014-2016). This project is funded by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and entitled "Rockfalls in cliffs: risk quantification and its prevention"(BIA2013-42582-P).

  14. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  15. Integrability of particle system around a ring source as the Newtonian limit of a black ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Yoshino, Hirotaka

    2015-04-01

    The geodesic equation in the five-dimensional singly rotating black ring is nonintegrable, unlike the case of the Myers-Perry black hole. In the Newtonian limit of the black ring, its geodesic equation agrees with the equation of motion of a particle in the Newtonian potential due to a homogeneous ring gravitational source. In this paper, we show that the Newtonian equation of motion allows the separation of variables in the spheroidal coordinates, providing a nontrivial constant of motion quadratic in momenta. This shows that the Newtonian limit of a black ring recovers the symmetry of its geodesic system, and the geodesic chaos is caused by relativistic effects.

  16. Physical and numerical sources of computational inefficiency in integration of chemical kinetic rate equations: Etiology, treatment and prognosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, D. T.; Radhakrishnan, K.

    1986-01-01

    The design of a very fast, automatic black-box code for homogeneous, gas-phase chemical kinetics problems requires an understanding of the physical and numerical sources of computational inefficiency. Some major sources reviewed in this report are stiffness of the governing ordinary differential equations (ODE's) and its detection, choice of appropriate method (i.e., integration algorithm plus step-size control strategy), nonphysical initial conditions, and too frequent evaluation of thermochemical and kinetic properties. Specific techniques are recommended (and some advised against) for improving or overcoming the identified problem areas. It is argued that, because reactive species increase exponentially with time during induction, and all species exhibit asymptotic, exponential decay with time during equilibration, exponential-fitted integration algorithms are inherently more accurate for kinetics modeling than classical, polynomial-interpolant methods for the same computational work. But current codes using the exponential-fitted method lack the sophisticated stepsize-control logic of existing black-box ODE solver codes, such as EPISODE and LSODE. The ultimate chemical kinetics code does not exist yet, but the general characteristics of such a code are becoming apparent.

  17. Thermal-neutron cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba and 141Pr using Am-Be neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panikkath, Priyada; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    2016-09-01

    The thermal-neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of 138Ba(n, γ)139Ba and 141Pr(n, γ)142Pr were measured by activation method using an isotopic Am-Be neutron source. The estimations were with respect to that of 55Mn(n, γ)56Mn and 197Au(n, γ)198Au reference monitors. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 138 Ba with respect to 55 Mn is 0.410±0.023 b and with respect to 197 Au is 0.386±0.019 b. The measured thermal-capture cross section of 141 Pr with respect to 55 Mn is 11.36±1.29 b and with respect to 197 Au is 10.43±1.14 b. The resonance integrals for 138 Ba are 0.380±0.033 b (55 Mn) and 0.364±0.027 b (197 Au) and for 141 Pr are 21.05±2.88 b (55 Mn) and 15.27±1.87 b (197 Au). The comparison between the present measurements and various reported values are discussed. The cross sections corresponding to the selected isotopes are measured using an Am-Be source facility for the first time.

  18. Monolithic integration of a quantum cascade laser array and an echelle grating multiplexer for widely tunable mid-infrared sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilles, Clément; Orbe, Luis J.; Carpintero, Guillermo; Abautret, Johan; Maisons, Grégory; Carras, Mathieu

    2016-03-01

    In the mid-infrared (Mid-IR), arrays of distributed feedback Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCL) have been developed as a serious alternative to obtain extended wavelength operation range of laser-based gas sensing systems. Narrow-linewidth, single mode operation and wide tunability are then gathered together on a single chip with high compactness and intrinsic stability. In order to benefit from this extended wavelength range in a single output beam we have developed a platform for InP-based photonics. After the validation of all required building blocks such as straight waveguides, adiabatic couplers between active and passive waveguides, and echelle grating multiplexers, we are tackling the integration into a single monolithic device. We present the design, fabrication and performances of a tunable source, fully monolithic based on the echelle grating approach. Advantages are design flexibility, relatively simple processing and the need for one single epitaxial growth for the entire structure. The evanescent coupler has been designed to transfer all light adiabatically from the active region to a low loss passive waveguide, while taking advantage of the high gain available in the quantum wells. The multiplexer is based on an etched diffraction grating, covering the whole range of the 30 lasers of the array while keeping a very compact size. These results show the first realization of a monolithic widely tunable source in the Mid-IR and would therefore benefit to the development of fully integrated spectroscopic sensor systems.

  19. Virtual welding equipment for simulation of GMAW processes with integration of power source regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Zabirov, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    A two dimensional transient numerical analysis and computational module for simulation of electrical and thermal characteristics during electrode melting and metal transfer involved in Gas-Metal-Arc-Welding (GMAW) processes is presented. Solution of non-linear transient heat transfer equation is carried out using a control volume finite difference technique. The computational module also includes controlling and regulation algorithms of industrial welding power sources. The simulation results are the current and voltage waveforms, mean voltage drops at different parts of circuit, total electric power, cathode, anode and arc powers and arc length. We describe application of the model for normal process (constant voltage) and for pulsed processes with U/I and I/I-modulation modes. The comparisons with experimental waveforms of current and voltage show that the model predicts current, voltage and electric power with a high accuracy. The model is used in simulation package SimWeld for calculation of heat flux into the work-piece and the weld seam formation. From the calculated heat flux and weld pool sizes, an equivalent volumetric heat source according to Goldak model, can be generated. The method was implemented and investigated with the simulation software SimWeld developed by the ISF at RWTH Aachen University.

  20. Human Protein Subcellular Localization with Integrated Source and Multi-label Ensemble Classifier.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Fulin; Ju, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Predicting protein subcellular location is necessary for understanding cell function. Several machine learning methods have been developed for computational prediction of primary protein sequences because wet experiments are costly and time consuming. However, two problems still exist in state-of-the-art methods. First, several proteins appear in different subcellular structures simultaneously, whereas current methods only predict one protein sequence in one subcellular structure. Second, most software tools are trained with obsolete data and the latest new databases are missed. We proposed a novel multi-label classification algorithm to solve the first problem and integrated several latest databases to improve prediction performance. Experiments proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. The present study would facilitate research on cellular proteomics. PMID:27323846

  1. The GDB Human Genome Data Base: a source of integrated genetic mapping and disease data.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, K A

    1993-01-01

    The GDB Human Genome Data Base refers collectively to GDB and OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. GDB and OMIM are linked databases that provide an international repository for information generated by the Human Genome Initiative. GDB contains human gene mapping data, while OMIM offers the text of Dr. Victor A. McKusick's catalog of genetic disease and phenotype descriptions. These databases, updated and edited continuously, integrate bibliographic and full-text information with several types of mapping data. They are accessible through a flexible interface and are available through SprintNet and the Internet to the scientific community without cost. This paper provides an overview of the context, development, structure, content, and use of these databases. PMID:8374584

  2. Human Protein Subcellular Localization with Integrated Source and Multi-label Ensemble Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Fulin; Ju, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-06-01

    Predicting protein subcellular location is necessary for understanding cell function. Several machine learning methods have been developed for computational prediction of primary protein sequences because wet experiments are costly and time consuming. However, two problems still exist in state-of-the-art methods. First, several proteins appear in different subcellular structures simultaneously, whereas current methods only predict one protein sequence in one subcellular structure. Second, most software tools are trained with obsolete data and the latest new databases are missed. We proposed a novel multi-label classification algorithm to solve the first problem and integrated several latest databases to improve prediction performance. Experiments proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. The present study would facilitate research on cellular proteomics.

  3. CMOS On-Chip Optoelectronic Neural Interface Device with Integrated Light Source for Optogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawadsaringkarn, Y.; Kimura, H.; Maezawa, Y.; Nakajima, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Sasagawa, K.; Noda, T.; Tokuda, T.; Ohta, J.

    2012-03-01

    A novel optoelectronic neural interface device is proposed for target applications in optogenetics for neural science. The device consists of a light emitting diode (LED) array implemented on a CMOS image sensor for on-chip local light stimulation. In this study, we designed a suitable CMOS image sensor equipped with on-chip electrodes to drive the LEDs, and developed a device structure and packaging process for LED integration. The prototype device produced an illumination intensity of approximately 1 mW with a driving current of 2.0 mA, which is expected to be sufficient to activate channelrhodopsin (ChR2). We also demonstrated the functions of light stimulation and on-chip imaging using a brain slice from a mouse as a target sample.

  4. Integrated watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability.

    PubMed

    Ghebremichael, Lula T; Veith, Tamie L; Hamlett, James M

    2013-01-15

    Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals, such as the total maximum daily load (TMDL) requirements. Targeting critical source areas (CSAs) that generate disproportionately high pollutant loads within a watershed is a crucial step in successfully controlling nonpoint source pollution. The importance of watershed simulation models in assisting with the quantitative assessments of CSAs of pollution (relative to their magnitudes and extents) and of the effectiveness of associated BMPs has been well recognized. However, due to the distinct disconnect between the hydrological scale in which these models conduct their evaluation and the farm scale at which feasible BMPs are actually selected and implemented, and due to the difficulty and uncertainty involved in transferring watershed model data to farm fields, there are limited practical applications of these tools in the current nonpoint source pollution control efforts by conservation specialists for delineating CSAs and planning targeting measures. There are also limited approaches developed that can assess impacts of CSA-targeted BMPs on farm productivity and profitability together with the assessment of water quality improvements expected from applying these measures. This study developed a modeling framework that integrates farm economics and environmental aspects (such as identification and mitigation of CSAs) through joint use of watershed- and farm-scale models in a closed feedback loop. The integration of models in a closed feedback loop provides a way for environmental changes to be evaluated with regard to the impact on the practical aspects of farm management and economics, adjusted or reformulated as necessary, and revaluated with respect to effectiveness of

  5. Digital Reconstruction of AN Archaeological Site Based on the Integration of 3d Data and Historical Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidi, G.; Russo, M.; Angheleddu, D.

    2013-02-01

    The methodology proposed in this paper in based on an integrated approach for creating a 3D digital reconstruction of an archaeological site, using extensively the 3D documentation of the site in its current state, followed by an iterative interaction between archaeologists and digital modelers, leading to a progressive refinement of the reconstructive hypotheses. The starting point of the method is the reality-based model, which, together with ancient drawings and documents, is used for generating the first reconstructive step. Such rough approximation of a possible architectural structure can be annotated through archaeological considerations that has to be confronted with geometrical constraints, producing a reduction of the reconstructive hypotheses to a limited set, each one to be archaeologically evaluated. This refinement loop on the reconstructive choices is iterated until the result become convincing by both points of view, integrating in the best way all the available sources. The proposed method has been verified on the ruins of five temples in the My Son site, a wide archaeological area located in central Vietnam. The integration of 3D surveyed data and historical documentation has allowed to support a digital reconstruction of not existing architectures, developing their three-dimensional digital models step by step, from rough shapes to highly sophisticate virtual prototypes.

  6. Modeling increased riverine nitrogen export: Source tracking and integrated watershed-coast management.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dan; Yan, Weijin; Chen, Nengwang; Peng, Benrong; Hong, Huasheng; Zhuo, Guihua

    2015-12-30

    The global NEWS model was calibrated and then used to quantify the long term trend of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export from two tributaries of Jiulong River (SE China). Anthropogenic N inputs contributed 61-92% of river DIN yield which increased from 337 in 1980s to 1662 kg N km(-2) yr(-1) in 2000s for the North River, and from 653 to 3097 kg N km(-2) yr(-1) for the West River. North River and West River contributed 55% and 45% respectively of DIN loading to the estuary. Rapid development and poor management driven by national policies were responsible for increasing riverine N export. Scenario analysis and source tracking suggest that reductions of anthropogenic N inputs of at least 30% in the North River (emphasis on fertilizer and manure) and 50% in the West River (emphasis on fertilizer) could significantly improve water quality and mitigate eutrophication in both river and coastal waters. PMID:26517942

  7. Update on single-screw expander geometry model integrated into an open-source simulation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziviani, D.; Bell, I. H.; De Paepe, M.; van den Broek, M.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a mechanistic steady-state model of a single-screw expander is described with emphasis on the geometric description. Insights into the calculation of the main parameters and the definition of the groove profile are provided. Additionally, the adopted chamber model is discussed. The model has been implemented by means of the open-source software PDSim (Positive Displacement SIMulation), written in the Python language, and the solution algorithm is described. The single-screw expander model is validated with a set of steady-state measurement points collected from a 11 kWe organic Rankine cycle test-rig with SES36 and R245fa as working fluid. The overall performance and behavior of the expander are also further analyzed.

  8. Methodology for Evaluating the Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) Methoprene on Packaging Films

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Frank H.

    2016-01-01

    The insect growth regulator methoprene can be mixed into the matrix used to comprise bags and other packaging materials. Different methodologies were utilized to evaluate the efficacy of different types of methoprene-treated packaging towards Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), the red flour beetle, and T. confusum Jacquelin duVal, the confused flour beetle, two common insect species that infest stored products. Tests were conducted by creating arenas in which larvae were exposed on the packaging surface along with a flour food source, and assessments were made on adults emerging from the exposed progeny. Tests were also done by exposing adults, again with a flour food source, removing the adults after one week, and assessing adult emergence of progeny from those parental adults. In tests with larvae exposed on methoprene-treated birdseed bags, the outside surface had more activity compared to the inside surface, especially on T. confusum. In other studies with different types of packaging materials, there was generally 100% inhibition of adult emergence of exposed larvae or of progeny adults when parental adults were exposed on the methoprene-treated packaging. The best technique for evaluation was to expose late-stage larvae as the test life stage. Results show the potential of using methoprene-treated packaging for bagged storage of processed grains and grain products. PMID:27399784

  9. Comparing and combining data across multiple sources via integration of paired-sample data to correct for measurement error.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunda; Huang, Ying; Moodie, Zoe; Li, Sue; Self, Steve

    2012-12-10

    In biomedical research such as the development of vaccines for infectious diseases or cancer, study outcomes measured by an assay or device are often collected from multiple sources or laboratories. Measurement error that may vary between laboratories needs to be adjusted for when combining samples across data sources. We incorporate such adjustment in the main study by comparing and combining independent samples from different laboratories via integration of external data, collected on paired samples from the same two laboratories. We propose the following: (i) normalization of individual-level data from two laboratories to the same scale via the expectation of true measurements conditioning on the observed; (ii) comparison of mean assay values between two independent samples in the main study accounting for inter-source measurement error; and (iii) sample size calculations of the paired-sample study so that hypothesis testing error rates are appropriately controlled in the main study comparison. Because the goal is not to estimate the true underlying measurements but to combine data on the same scale, our proposed methods do not require that the true values for the error-prone measurements are known in the external data. Simulation results under a variety of scenarios demonstrate satisfactory finite sample performance of our proposed methods when measurement errors vary. We illustrate our methods using real enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay data generated by two HIV vaccine laboratories.

  10. Energy sources for the future dismounted soldier, the total integration of the energy consumption within the soldier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raadschelders, Jillis W.; Jansen, Tiny

    At present, the energy supply for the electronic equipment of the soldier is problematic. Each component has its own battery pack. These battery packs are not interchangeable and each requires its own charger. Furthermore, because they are all dimensioned to deliver the peak power for each item of equipment, this leads to a higher battery weight than necessary. It is expected that the system of the future soldier will use a central power source to supply the energy for all the different components. An energy bus will be integrated within the soldier's system for this. The different components will generate their required voltages from the bus voltage by using high efficiency dc/dc converters. The use of an energy bus with local voltage conversion will facilitate inter-operability between different forces. The energy sources can easily be exchanged. For the near future, batteries are still considered to be the best option for the energy source. Rechargeable batteries are preferred above non-rechargeable ones due to logistic and environmental problems. For the long-term replacement of batteries, the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is considered a viable option. Several different battery packs were tested for their capability to supply both the required energy and power during a 24 h mission. The tests were carried out with a controlled power method, as maximum power should be deliverable during 10% of the operation time.

  11. Charge integrating type position-sensitive proportional chamber for time-resolved measurements using intense X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochiki, Koh-ichi; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1985-02-01

    A position-sensitive detecting system for time-resolved diffraction measurements with very intensive X-ray sources has been developed. It consists of a charge integrating type gas-filled detector, multichannel analog multiplexers, a signal processor and a memory (120 ch.×128 phases×24 bits). The detector is 120 mm long in effective length by 10 mm×10 mm in cross section with a single anode of 20 μm diameter. One of the cathode planes consists of 120 cathode strips with a pitch of 1 mm. The spatial resolution is equal to the pitch under a certain detector current limit. The gas gain is adjustable to an appropriate value according to the X-ray intensity range of interest. For experiments with 8 keV X-ray sources, maximum absorption rates of 9×10 7 photons/s·mm with low applied voltage and minimum absorption rates of about 3 photons/s·mm with high applied voltage can be achieved. This system was applied to a time-resolved X-ray diffraction study on frog muscle using a synchrotron radiation source at the Photon Factory and we could collect diffraction patterns with a time resolution of 10 ms and only 10 stimulations.

  12. Identifying sources of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons in a residential area in Italy using the integral pumping test method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Luca; Lombi, Silvia; Zanini, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    The results of integral pumping tests (IPTs) performed in the city of Fabriano, Italy, are presented. The IPT methodology was developed by the European Union project INCORE, as a tool for groundwater investigation and source localization in contaminated areas. This methodology consists of a multiple-well pumping test in which the wells are positioned along a control plane downstream of suspected contaminant source zones and perpendicular to the mean groundwater flow direction. During the pumping, concentration time series of target contaminants are measured. In Fabriano, two control planes were realized to identify a chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbon plume, to estimate the mass fluxes and draw up a ranked list of the main contamination sources. A numerical flow model was implemented to support the IPT design and to interpret the results. This study revealed low-level trichloroethylene contamination (concentration below 8 μg/l), tetrachloroethylene contamination (mean concentration up to 500 μg/l) and a mass flow rate of about 300 g/day. Through the application of the IPT method, the mean contaminant concentrations, the spatial distribution of concentration values along the control planes, and the total contaminant mass flow rates were evaluated, and the investigation area was reduced for further and deeper investigation activities.

  13. Development of a Compact Optical-MEMS Scanner with Integrated VCSEL Light Source and Diffractive Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Krygowski, Thomas W.; Reyes, David; Rodgers, M. Steven; Smith, James H.; Warren, Mial; Sweatt, William; Blum-Spahn, Olga; Wendt, Joel R.; Asbill, Randy

    1999-06-30

    In this work the design and initial fabrication results are reported for the components of a compact optical-MEMS laser scanning system. This system integrates a silicon MEMS laser scanner, a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) and passive optical components. The MEMS scanner and VCSEL are mounted onto a fused silica substrate which serves as an optical interconnect between the devices. Two Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) are etched into the fused silica substrate to focus the VCSEL beam and increase the scan range. The silicon MEMS scanner consists of an actuator that continuously scans the position of a large polysilicon gold-coated shuttle containing a third DOE. Interferometric measurements show that the residual stress in the 500 {micro}m x 1000 {micro}m shuttle is extremely low, with a maximum deflection of only 0.18{micro}m over an 800 {micro}m span for an unmetallized case and a deflection of 0.56{micro}m for the metallized case. A conservative estimate for the scan range is {approximately}{+-}4{degree}, with a spot size of about 0.5 mm, producing 50 resolvable spots. The basic system architecture, optical and MEMS design is reported in this paper, with an emphasis on the design and fabrication of the silicon MEMS scanner portion of the system.

  14. Integrating data sources to improve hydraulic head predictions : a hierarchical machine learning approach.

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, W. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Tcheng, D.; Valocchi, A. J.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Assessment; Univ. of Illinois

    2005-03-26

    This study investigates how machine learning methods can be used to improve hydraulic head predictions by integrating different types of data, including data from numerical models, in a hierarchical approach. A suite of four machine learning methods (decision trees, instance-based weighting, inverse distance weighting, and neural networks) are tested in several hierarchical configurations with different types of data from the 317/319 area at Argonne National Laboratory-East. The best machine learning model had a mean predicted head error 50% smaller than an existing MODFLOW numerical flow model, and a standard deviation of predicted head error 67% lower than the MODFLOW model, computed across all sampled locations used for calibrating the MODFLOW model. These predictions were obtained using decision trees trained with all historical quarterly data; the hourly head measurements were not as useful for prediction, most likely because of their poor spatial coverage. The results show promise for using hierarchical machine learning approaches to improve predictions and to identify the most essential types of data to guide future sampling efforts. Decision trees were also combined with an existing MODFLOW model to test their capabilities for updating numerical models to improve predictions as new data are collected. The combined model had a mean error 50% lower than the MODFLOW model alone. These results demonstrate that hierarchical machine learning approaches can be used to improve predictive performance of existing numerical models in areas with good data coverage. Further research is needed to compare this approach with methods such as Kalman filtering.

  15. Integrated backlight module to provide a collimated and uniform planar light source.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Le; Guo, Tai-Liang

    2016-09-10

    We report a novel integrated backlight module (IBLM), which is composed of a compound optical film (COF) and a light guide plate (LGP) without any microstructure. The COF proposed in the paper comprises functions of a conventional microstructure that adjusts the emergent light and two cross brightness enhancement films (BEF). The four surfaces of the LGP are coated with highly reflective film. The COF can not only adjust the distribution of the output light by varying the density of the microstructure on the COF, but also can collimate the two cross-direction lights into the normal direction. The horizontal and vertical full width at half maxima of angular intensity of the IBLM with the proposed COF for the optimum are of 14 and 24 deg, respectively. The spatial uniformity and total optical efficiency of the IBLM have reached 85% and 77.2%, respectively. The optical efficiency has been increased by 1.3 times and the on-axis luminance has improved by 5.1 times by using a backlight module (BLM) with the COF, in comparison with the conventional edge-lit BLM that we researched [Appl. Opt.55, 1494 (2016)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.55.001494]. Most importantly, the COF only needs to be configured with a relatively low-cost and easily-manufactured LGP; therefore, the BLM with the adopted COF can be further developed for large-sized application. PMID:27661367

  16. An integrated approach for determining sources and residence times of fine sediment transported through a river network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. G.; Blake, W. H.

    2012-04-01

    Fine sediment and associated contaminants transported through river networks can have important impacts on water quality, aquatic habitat and ecosystem function long after catchment remediation measures have been implemented. In this context, the potential role of fine sediment as a secondary source of pollution requires attention. Knowledge of fine sediment transfer and storage in river basins is essential for predicting recovery times of rivers affected by historic or contemporary industrial pollution e.g. mining. It is also vital for determining the effectiveness of management actions in reducing the supply of contaminated sediment to coastal ecosystems. Against this background, we aim to determine the residence/travel times of fine sediment through a river network in south-west England. The approach utilises fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210, Be-7) to (i) infer diffuse sources of sediment and associated contaminants transported in suspension over event and seasonal timescales and (ii) estimate fine sediment residence times based on differences in radioactive decay rates. Information on downstream changes in sediment sources within basins is critical for interpreting residence times using fallout radionuclide data since changes in source type (e.g. surface versus subsurface) may influence residence time signals. Consequently, analysis of sediment sources for a set of nested monitoring sites is coupled with methods for estimating residence time e.g. comparison of Be-7/excess Pb-210 ratios and a two-compartment radionuclide mass balance model comprising slow and rapid transport components. The present study focuses on the River Tamar (917 km2), an agricultural basin with an extensive history of metal mining and legacy of fine sediment contamination. Sampling of land use and channel bank source material across the basin has been undertaken for the sediment source analysis in conjunction with integrated suspended sediment sampling over monthly intervals

  17. Integrated Study of Time-Frequency Representations and Their Applications in Source Identification of Mechanical Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Min-Chun

    Three computation schemes of time-frequency representations have been developed and implemented to identify different components of mechanical noise emitted from the transmission system of electrical vehicles. This study explores the close relationships between three time-frequency representations, i. e. the spectrogram based on windowed Fourier transform, the Wigner-Ville distribution, and the smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution. One main purpose is to pursue the efficiency of computing the smoothed Wigner-Ville distribution of a dynamic signature. The revised scheme can tremendously reduce the computation time to a scale of around 1/90, compared with the original scheme. To assess the validation of these time-frequency representation schemes, firstly, four synthetic signals are designed and processed. Secondly, the developed time-frequency representations are applied to distinguish different spectral components of transmission noise, and identify their sources. This study takes an electrical scooter with a continuous variable transmission system as a test bench. The continuous-variable-transmission-belt noise, helical-gear whine noise, and fan noise can be clearly identified via the processing of the time-frequency representations. These obtained conclusions can be used as references for machine element modification to reduce annoying noise.

  18. Integrated modeling of methane source, sinks, and emissions control costs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul K.

    2002-06-01

    The overall objective of this three-year collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) and Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to develop a framework which would incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science, scenarios, and technical change, to allow for the effective and efficient analysis of possible future strategies to control methane. As part of this research project, we developed a model that takes into account more explicit treatment of the mechanisms controlling each important methane regional source and sink to study non-linear effects involved in methane chemistry in the atmosphere. On the policy front, we developed the relationship between economics and climatic impacts of methane emission reductions. On the application front, we applied the newly developed advanced methane modeling capabilities to study the effects of a wide range of possible scenarios of future methane emissions on climate and to examined the costs associated with achieving specific greenhouse gas reduction targets for a range of emission pathways. The significant findings from the DOE supported study are outlined.

  19. Luminopsins integrate opto- and chemogenetics by using physical and biological light sources for opsin activation.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Ken; Clissold, Kara; Li, Haofang E; Wen, Lei; Park, Sung Young; Gleixner, Jan; Klein, Marguerita E; Lu, Dongye; Barter, Joseph W; Rossi, Mark A; Augustine, George J; Yin, Henry H; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2016-01-19

    Luminopsins are fusion proteins of luciferase and opsin that allow interrogation of neuronal circuits at different temporal and spatial resolutions by choosing either extrinsic physical or intrinsic biological light for its activation. Building on previous development of fusions of wild-type Gaussia luciferase with channelrhodopsin, here we expanded the utility of luminopsins by fusing bright Gaussia luciferase variants with either channelrhodopsin to excite neurons (luminescent opsin, LMO) or a proton pump to inhibit neurons (inhibitory LMO, iLMO). These improved LMOs could reliably activate or silence neurons in vitro and in vivo. Expression of the improved LMO in hippocampal circuits not only enabled mapping of synaptic activation of CA1 neurons with fine spatiotemporal resolution but also could drive rhythmic circuit excitation over a large spatiotemporal scale. Furthermore, virus-mediated expression of either LMO or iLMO in the substantia nigra in vivo produced not only the expected bidirectional control of single unit activity but also opposing effects on circling behavior in response to systemic injection of a luciferase substrate. Thus, although preserving the ability to be activated by external light sources, LMOs expand the use of optogenetics by making the same opsins accessible to noninvasive, chemogenetic control, thereby allowing the same probe to manipulate neuronal activity over a range of spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26733686

  20. Luminopsins integrate opto- and chemogenetics by using physical and biological light sources for opsin activation

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Ken; Clissold, Kara; Li, Haofang E.; Wen, Lei; Park, Sung Young; Gleixner, Jan; Klein, Marguerita E.; Lu, Dongye; Barter, Joseph W.; Rossi, Mark A.; Augustine, George J.; Yin, Henry H.; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Luminopsins are fusion proteins of luciferase and opsin that allow interrogation of neuronal circuits at different temporal and spatial resolutions by choosing either extrinsic physical or intrinsic biological light for its activation. Building on previous development of fusions of wild-type Gaussia luciferase with channelrhodopsin, here we expanded the utility of luminopsins by fusing bright Gaussia luciferase variants with either channelrhodopsin to excite neurons (luminescent opsin, LMO) or a proton pump to inhibit neurons (inhibitory LMO, iLMO). These improved LMOs could reliably activate or silence neurons in vitro and in vivo. Expression of the improved LMO in hippocampal circuits not only enabled mapping of synaptic activation of CA1 neurons with fine spatiotemporal resolution but also could drive rhythmic circuit excitation over a large spatiotemporal scale. Furthermore, virus-mediated expression of either LMO or iLMO in the substantia nigra in vivo produced not only the expected bidirectional control of single unit activity but also opposing effects on circling behavior in response to systemic injection of a luciferase substrate. Thus, although preserving the ability to be activated by external light sources, LMOs expand the use of optogenetics by making the same opsins accessible to noninvasive, chemogenetic control, thereby allowing the same probe to manipulate neuronal activity over a range of spatial and temporal scales. PMID:26733686

  1. Probabilistic integrated risk assessment of human exposure risk to environmental bisphenol A pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Fu, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min

    2016-10-01

    Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change. We addressed these health concerns by using a stochastic integrated risk assessment approach. The BPA dose-dependent likelihood of effects was reconstructed by a series of Hill models based on animal models or epidemiological data. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model that allows estimation of urinary BPA concentration from external exposures. Here we showed that the daily average exposure concentrations of BPA and urinary BPA estimates were consistent with the published data. We found that BPA exposures were less likely to pose significant risks for infants (0-1 year) and adults (male and female >20 years) with <10(-6)-fold increase in uterus weight and immune response outcomes, respectively. Moreover, our results indicated that there was 50 % risk probability that the response outcomes of CVD, diabetes, and behavior change with or without skin absorption would increase 10(-4)-10(-2)-fold. We conclude that our approach provides a powerful tool for tracking and managing human long-term BPA susceptibility in relation to multiple exposure pathways, and for informing the public of the negligible magnitude of environmental BPA pollution impacts on human health.

  2. Cytotoxic effect of essential oil of thyme (Thymus broussonettii) on the IGR-OV1 tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ait M'barek, L; Ait Mouse, H; Jaâfari, A; Aboufatima, R; Benharref, A; Kamal, M; Bénard, J; El Abbadi, N; Bensalah, M; Gamouh, A; Chait, A; Dalal, A; Zyad, A

    2007-11-01

    The anti-tumor effect of the Moroccan endemic thyme (Thymus broussonettii) essential oil (EOT) was investigated in vitro using the human ovarian adenocarcinoma IGR-OV1 parental cell line OV1/P and its chemoresistant counterparts OV1/adriamycin (OV1/ADR), OV1/vincristine (OV1/VCR), and OV1/cisplatin (OV1/CDDP). All of these cell lines elicited various degrees of sensitivity to the cytotoxic effect of EOT. The IC50 values (mean +/- SEM, v/v) were 0.40 +/- 0.02, 0.39 +/- 0.02, 0.94 +/- 0.05, and 0.65 +/- 0.03% for OV1/P, OV1/ADR, OV1/VCR, and OV1/CDDP, respectively. Using the DBA-2/P815 (H2d) mouse model, tumors were developed by subcutaneous grafting of tumor fragments of similar size obtained from P815 (murin mastocytoma cell line) injected in donor mouse. Interestingly, intra-tumoral injection of EOT significantly reduced solid tumor development. Indeed, by the 30th day of repeated EOT treatment, the tumor volumes of the animals were 2.00 +/- 0.27, 1.35 +/- 0.20, and 0.85 +/- 0.18 cm(3) after injection with 10, 30, or 50 microL per 72 h (six times), respectively, as opposed to 3.88 +/- 0.50 cm(3) for the control animals. This tumoricidal effect was associated with a marked decrease of mouse mortality. In fact, in these groups of mice, the recorded mortality by the 30th day of treatment was 30 +/- 4, 18 +/- 4, and 8 +/- 3%, respectively, while the control animals showed 75 +/- 10% of mortality. These data indicate that the EOT which contains carvacrol as the major component has an important in vitro cytotoxic activity against tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy as well as a significant antitumor effect in mice. However, our data do not distinguish between carvacrol and the other components of EOT as the active factor.

  3. An integrated approach to identify the biomass burning sources contributing to black carbon episodes in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. C.; Lam, Y. F.; Kuhlmann, G.; Wenig, M. O.; Chan, K. L.; Hartl, A.; Ning, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning is the largest source of primary fine carbonaceous particles and globally the second largest source of trace gases, contributing to climate change and regional air pollution. This study investigates the most serious black carbon (BC) episodes in Hong Kong in 2010, which occurred on 22 February, 18 March, 6, 20 and 21 December. The contributing sources were identified using an integrated approach of ground-based measurement, satellite data analyses and model simulations. Hourly maximum BC concentrations from continuous monitoring ranged from 15.6 to 18.9 μg m-3. The correlation coefficients between hourly BC and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations (CO as an indicator of biomass burning) varied from 0.88 to 0.97 during episodic/high BC days whereas daily ΔBC/ΔCO ratios for the episodes were between 9.05 and 13.1 ng m-3 ppbv-1, significantly higher than the seasonal averages. Non-sea-salt (nss)-K+ (daily), another indicator of biomass burning, correlated moderately with BC (r = 0.52) for concentrations above the 80th percentile. The area-averaged statistics for fire pixel counts from satellite measurement showed the intensity of biomass burning in 2010 was strongest in Africa, Southwest China and Indochina, followed by North/Central, South China and India. Except for North/Central China, all sources are upwind of Hong Kong when the northeast monsoon and the mid/upper-tropospheric westerlies (subtropical jet) prevail. GEOS-Chem simulations indicate that biomass burning contributed most significantly from Indochina (southwest China included) in the spring of 2010. This model sensitivity analysis complements the MODIS-based fire map(s), the high-level vector wind plots, the AIRS CO and backward trajectory analyses. Results suggest that other contributors of BC include not only South China, but also the Indian subcontinent (in spring) and Africa in winter. The latter's influence is evident in the February and December episodes.

  4. Integrating GRACE and multi-source data sets to quantify the seasonal groundwater depletion in mega agricultural regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y.; Wang, D.; Zhu, T.; Ringler, C.; Sun, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    It is challenging to quantify the groundwater depletion in the mega basins owing to the huge spatial scale and the intensive anthrophonic activities (e.g. dams and reservoirs). Recently, the satellite Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data provides an opportunity to monitor large-scale groundwater depletion. However, the data is only available after 2002, limiting the understanding of inter-annual variability of seasonal groundwater depletion. In this study, a simple model with two parameters is developed, based on the seasonal Budyko framework for quantifying the seasonal groundwater depletion. The model is applied to the Indus and Ganges River basin in South Asia and the High Plain/Ogallala aquifer in United States. The parameters of the model are estimated by integrating GRACE and other multi-source data sets. Total water storage changes before 2003 are reconstructed based on the developed model with available data of evaporation, precipitation, and potential evaporation.

  5. Miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Chen, Long; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2016-03-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of OCT systems are important for enabling many new clinical applications as well as accelerating the development of existing applications. Silicon photonics is an important low-cost, high-volume, multi-functional platform for integrated optics because it can benefit from existing semiconductor fabrication techniques to integrate many advanced optical functions onto a single microchip. We present a miniaturized silicon photonic integrated swept source OCT receiver, measuring 3×4mm2, with advanced functionalities including dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection, essentially enabling the detection of the full vector field (amplitude, phase, and polarization) of the optical signal. With this integrated receiver, we demonstrate full-range OCT for complex conjugate artifact suppression, polarization diversity detection for removing polarization fading artifact, and polarization sensitive OCT for tissue birefringence imaging. The silicon photonic integrated receiver is a key advance towards developing a miniaturized, multi-functional swept source OCT system.

  6. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS), version 2.0. User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lahlou, M.; Shoemaker, L.; Choudhury, S.; Elmer, R.; Hu, A.

    1998-11-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilites to facilitate organizing and evaluating data, including Watershed Delineation, Import, Land Use Reclassfication, and DEM Reclassification; (4) Watershed Characterization Reports that facilitate compilation and output of information on selected watersheds; (5) water quality models including TOXIROUTE and QUAL2E; and (6) the Nonpoint Source Model (NPSM) and postprocessor, which provide integrated assessment of watershed loading and transport, The assessment component, working under the GIS umbrella, allows users to quickly evaluate selected areas, organize information, and display results. The modeling component module allows users to examine the impacts of pollutant loadings from point and nonpoint sources.

  7. SimVascular 2.0: an Integrated Open Source Pipeline for Image-Based Cardiovascular Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Hongzhi; Merkow, Jameson; Updegrove, Adam; Schiavazzi, Daniele; Wilson, Nathan; Shadden, Shawn; Marsden, Alison

    2015-11-01

    SimVascular (www.simvascular.org) is currently the only fully open source software package that provides a complete pipeline from medical image based modeling to patient specific blood flow simulation and analysis. It was initially released in 2007 and has contributed to numerous advances in fundamental hemodynamics research, surgical planning, and medical device design. However, early versions had several major barriers preventing wider adoption by new users, large-scale application in clinical and research studies, and educational access. In the past years, SimVascular 2.0 has made significant progress by integrating open source alternatives for the expensive commercial libraries previously required for anatomic modeling, mesh generation and the linear solver. In addition, it simplified the across-platform compilation process, improved the graphical user interface and launched a comprehensive documentation website. Many enhancements and new features have been incorporated for the whole pipeline, such as 3-D segmentation, Boolean operation for discrete triangulated surfaces, and multi-scale coupling for closed loop boundary conditions. In this presentation we will briefly overview the modeling/simulation pipeline and advances of the new SimVascular 2.0.

  8. Comparing and Combining Data across Multiple Sources via Integration of Paired-sample Data to Correct for Measurement Error

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yunda; Huang, Ying; Moodie, Zoe; Li, Sue; Self, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Summary In biomedical research such as the development of vaccines for infectious diseases or cancer, measures from the same assay are often collected from multiple sources or laboratories. Measurement error that may vary between laboratories needs to be adjusted for when combining samples across laboratories. We incorporate such adjustment in comparing and combining independent samples from different labs via integration of external data, collected on paired samples from the same two laboratories. We propose: 1) normalization of individual level data from two laboratories to the same scale via the expectation of true measurements conditioning on the observed; 2) comparison of mean assay values between two independent samples in the Main study accounting for inter-source measurement error; and 3) sample size calculations of the paired-sample study so that hypothesis testing error rates are appropriately controlled in the Main study comparison. Because the goal is not to estimate the true underlying measurements but to combine data on the same scale, our proposed methods do not require that the true values for the errorprone measurements are known in the external data. Simulation results under a variety of scenarios demonstrate satisfactory finite sample performance of our proposed methods when measurement errors vary. We illustrate our methods using real ELISpot assay data generated by two HIV vaccine laboratories. PMID:22764070

  9. Integration of a broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction vacuum chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manova, D.; Bergmann, A.; Mändl, S.; Neumann, H.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2012-11-01

    Here, the integration of a low energy, linearly variable ion beam current density, mechanically in situ adjustable broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) vacuum chamber is reported. This allows in situ XRD investigation of phase formation and evolution processes induced by low energy ion implantation. Special care has been taken to an independent adjustment of the ion beam for geometrical directing towards the substrate, a 15 mm small ion source exit aperture to avoid a secondary sputter process of the chamber walls, linearly variable ion current density by using a pulse length modulation (PLM) for the accelerating voltages without changing the ion beam density profile, nearly homogeneous ion beam distribution over the x-ray footprint, together with easily replaceable Kapton® windows for x-rays entry and exit. By combining a position sensitive x-ray detector with this PLM-modulated ion beam, a fast and efficient time resolved investigation of low energy implantation processes is obtained in a compact experimental setup.

  10. Integration of a broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction vacuum chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Manova, D.; Bergmann, A.; Maendl, S.; Neumann, H.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2012-11-15

    Here, the integration of a low energy, linearly variable ion beam current density, mechanically in situ adjustable broad beam ion source with a high-temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) vacuum chamber is reported. This allows in situ XRD investigation of phase formation and evolution processes induced by low energy ion implantation. Special care has been taken to an independent adjustment of the ion beam for geometrical directing towards the substrate, a 15 mm small ion source exit aperture to avoid a secondary sputter process of the chamber walls, linearly variable ion current density by using a pulse length modulation (PLM) for the accelerating voltages without changing the ion beam density profile, nearly homogeneous ion beam distribution over the x-ray footprint, together with easily replaceable Kapton{sup Registered-Sign} windows for x-rays entry and exit. By combining a position sensitive x-ray detector with this PLM-modulated ion beam, a fast and efficient time resolved investigation of low energy implantation processes is obtained in a compact experimental setup.

  11. Integration of multi-source measurements to monitor sand-dust storms over North China: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Niu, Tao; Wang, Fu; Deng, Minjun; Wang, Yaqiang

    2013-08-01

    The aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard Satellite Aqua, along with the altitude-resolved aerosol subtypes product from the Cloud-Aerosol LIdar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), as well as surface PM10 measurements, were utilized to investigate the dust activities common in springtime of northern China. Specifically, a dust storm episode that occurred over the North China Plain (NCP) during 17-21 March 2010 was identified. The PM10 concentration at Beijing (39.8°N, 116.47°E) reached the peak value of 283 µg m-3 on 20 March 2010 from the background value of 15 µg m-3 measured on 17 March 2010, then dropped to 176 µg m-3 on 21 March 2010. Analysis of the CALIOP aerosol subtypes product showed that numerous large dust plumes floated over northern China, downwind of main desert source regions, and were lifted to altitudes as high as 3.5 km during this time period. The MODIS AOD data provided spatial distributions of dust load, broadly consistent with ground-level PM10, especially in cloud free areas. However, inconsistency between the MODIS AOD and surface PM10 measurements under cloudy conditions did exist, further highlighting the unique capability of the CALIOP lidar. CALIOP can penetrate the cloud layer to give unambiguous and altitude-resolved dust measurements, albeit a relatively long revisit period (16 days) and narrower swath (90 m). A back trajectory simulation using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was performed, and it was found that the sand-dust storm originated from the Gobi Desert on 18 March 2010 travelled approximately 1200-1500 km day-1 eastward and passed over the NCP on 19 March 2010, in good agreement with previous findings. In addition, the multi-sensor measurements integrated with the HYSPLIT model output formed a three-dimensional view of the transport pathway for this dust episode, indicating that this episode was largely

  12. Network motif-based identification of transcription factor-target gene relationships by integrating multi-source biological data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuji; Xuan, Jianhua; de los Reyes, Benildo G; Clarke, Robert; Ressom, Habtom W

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrating data from multiple global assays and curated databases is essential to understand the spatio-temporal interactions within cells. Different experiments measure cellular processes at various widths and depths, while databases contain biological information based on established facts or published data. Integrating these complementary datasets helps infer a mutually consistent transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) with strong similarity to the structure of the underlying genetic regulatory modules. Decomposing the TRN into a small set of recurring regulatory patterns, called network motifs (NM), facilitates the inference. Identifying NMs defined by specific transcription factors (TF) establishes the framework structure of a TRN and allows the inference of TF-target gene relationship. This paper introduces a computational framework for utilizing data from multiple sources to infer TF-target gene relationships on the basis of NMs. The data include time course gene expression profiles, genome-wide location analysis data, binding sequence data, and gene ontology (GO) information. Results The proposed computational framework was tested using gene expression data associated with cell cycle progression in yeast. Among 800 cell cycle related genes, 85 were identified as candidate TFs and classified into four previously defined NMs. The NMs for a subset of TFs are obtained from literature. Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were used to estimate NMs for the remaining TFs. The potential downstream target genes for the TFs were clustered into 34 biologically significant groups. The relationships between TFs and potential target gene clusters were examined by training recurrent neural networks whose topologies mimic the NMs to which the TFs are classified. The identified relationships between TFs and gene clusters were evaluated using the following biological validation and statistical analyses: (1) Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to evaluate

  13. INTEGRAL Long-Term Monitoring of the Supergiant Fast X-Ray Transient XTE J1739-302

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blay, P.; Martinez-Nunez, S.; Negueruela, I.; Pottschmidt, K.; Smith, D. M.; Torrejon, J. M.; Reig, P.; Kretschmar, P.; Kreykenbohm, I.

    2008-01-01

    Context. In the past few years, a new class of High Mass X-Ray Binaries (HMXRB) has been claimed to exist, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXT). These are X-ray binary systems with a compact companion orbiting a supergiant star which show very short and bright outbursts in a series of activity periods overimposed on longer quiescent periods. Only very recently the first attempts to model the behaviour of these sources have been published, some of them within the framework of accretion from clumpy stellar winds. Aims. Our goal is to analyze the properties of XTE J1739-302/IGR J17391-3021 within the context of the clumpy structure of the supergiant wind. Methods. We have used INTEGRAL and RXTE/PCA observations in order to obtain broad band (1 - 200 keV) spectra and light curves of XTE J1739-302 and investigate its X-ray spectrum and temporal variability. Results. We have found that XTE J1739-302 follows a much more complex behaviour than expected. Far from presenting a regular variability pattern, XTE J1739-302 shows periods of high, intermediate, and low flaring activity.

  14. Integrated Cryptosporidium Assay To Determine Oocyst Density, Infectivity, and Genotype for Risk Assessment of Source and Reuse Water

    PubMed Central

    King, Brendon; Fanok, Stella; Phillips, Renae; Swaffer, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium continues to be problematic for the water industry, with risk assessments often indicating that treatment barriers may fail under extreme conditions. However, risk analyses have historically used oocyst densities and not considered either oocyst infectivity or species/genotype, which can result in an overestimation of risk if the oocysts are not human infective. We describe an integrated assay for determining oocyst density, infectivity, and genotype from a single-sample concentrate, an important advance that overcomes the need for processing multiple-grab samples or splitting sample concentrates for separate analyses. The assay incorporates an oocyst recovery control and is compatible with standard primary concentration techniques. Oocysts were purified from primary concentrates using immunomagnetic separation prior to processing by an infectivity assay. Plate-based cell culture was used to detect infectious foci, with a monolayer washing protocol developed to allow recovery and enumeration of oocysts. A simple DNA extraction protocol was developed to allow typing of any wells containing infectious Cryptosporidium. Water samples from a variety of source water and wastewater matrices, including a semirural catchment, wastewater, an aquifer recharge site, and storm water, were analyzed using the assay. Results demonstrate that the assay can reliably determine oocyst densities, infectivity, and genotype from single-grab samples for a variety of water matrices and emphasize the varying nature of Cryptosporidium risk extant throughout source waters and wastewaters. This assay should therefore enable a more comprehensive understanding of Cryptosporidium risk for different water sources, assisting in the selection of appropriate risk mitigation measures. PMID:25769833

  15. Properties of unique hard X-ray dips observed from GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624 and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    Pahari, Mayukh; Yadav, J. S.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Pandey, S. K.

    2013-11-20

    We report a comprehensive study on spectral and timing properties of hard X-ray dips uniquely observed in some so-called variability classes of the micro-quasars GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091–3624. These dips are characterized by a sudden decline in the 2.0-60.0 keV X-ray intensity by a factor of 4-12 simultaneous with the increase in hardness ratio by a factor of 2-4. Using 31 observations of GRS 1915+105 with RXTE/PCA, we show that different behaviors are observed in different types of variability classes, and we find that a dichotomy is observed between classes with abrupt transitions versus those with smoother evolution. For example, both energy-lag spectra and frequency-lag spectra of hard X-ray dips in classes with abrupt transitions and shorter dip intervals show hard-lag (hard photons lag soft photons), while both lag spectra during hard dips in classes with smoother evolution and longer dip intervals show soft-lag. Both lag time-scales are of the order of 100-600 mS. We also show that timing and spectral properties of hard X-ray dips observed in light curves of IGR J17091–3624 during its 2011 outburst are consistent with the properties of the abrupt transitions in GRS 1915+105 rather than smooth evolutions. A global correlation between the X-ray intensity cycle time and hard dip time is observed for both abrupt and smooth transition which may be due to two distinct physical processes whose time-scales are eventually correlated. We discuss implications of our results in the light of some generic models.

  16. Source Apportionment of the Anthropogenic Increment to Ozone, Formaldehyde, and Nitrogen Dioxide by the Path-Integral Method in a 3D Model.

    PubMed

    Dunker, Alan M; Koo, Bonyoung; Yarwood, Greg

    2015-06-01

    The anthropogenic increment of a species is the difference in concentration between a base-case simulation with all emissions included and a background simulation without the anthropogenic emissions. The Path-Integral Method (PIM) is a new technique that can determine the contributions of individual anthropogenic sources to this increment. The PIM was applied to a simulation of O3 formation in July 2030 in the U.S., using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions and assuming advanced controls on light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and other sources. The PIM determines the source contributions by integrating first-order sensitivity coefficients over a range of emissions, a path, from the background case to the base case. There are many potential paths, with each representing a specific emission-control strategy leading to zero anthropogenic emissions, i.e., controlling all sources together versus controlling some source(s) preferentially are different paths. Three paths were considered, and the O3, formaldehyde, and NO2 anthropogenic increments were apportioned to five source categories. At rural and urban sites in the eastern U.S. and for all three paths, point sources typically have the largest contribution to the O3 and NO2 anthropogenic increments, and either LDVs or area sources, the smallest. Results for formaldehyde are more complex. PMID:25938820

  17. Integration of various data sources for transient groundwater modeling with spatio-temporally variable fluxes—Sardon study case, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubczynski, Maciek W.; Gurwin, Jacek

    2005-05-01

    Spatio-temporal variability of recharge ( R) and groundwater evapotranspiration ( ETg) fluxes in a granite Sardon catchment in Spain (˜80 km 2) have been assessed based on integration of various data sources and methods within the numerical groundwater MODFLOW model. The data sources and methods included: remote sensing solution of surface energy balance using satellite data, sap flow measurements, chloride mass balance, automated monitoring of climate, depth to groundwater table and river discharges, 1D reservoir modeling, GIS modeling, field cartography and aerial photo interpretation, slug and pumping tests, resistivity, electromagnetic and magnetic resonance soundings. The presented study case provides not only detailed evaluation of the complexity of spatio-temporal variable fluxes, but also a complete and generic methodology of modern data acquisition and data integration in transient groundwater modeling for spatio-temporal groundwater balancing. The calibrated numerical model showed spatially variable patterns of R and ETg fluxes despite a uniform rainfall pattern. The seasonal variability of fluxes indicated: (1) R in the range of 0.3-0.5 mm/d within ˜8 months of the wet season with exceptional peaks as high as 0.9 mm/d in January and February and no recharge in July and August; (2) a year round stable lateral groundwater outflow ( Qg) in the range of 0.08-0.24 mm/d; (3) ETg=0.64, 0.80, 0.55 mm/d in the dry seasons of 1997, 1998, 1999, respectively, and <0.05 mm/d in wet seasons; (4) temporally variable aquifer storage, which gains water in wet seasons shortly after rain showers and looses water in dry seasons mainly due to groundwater evapotranspiration. The dry season sap flow measurements of tree transpiration performed in the homogenous stands of Quercus ilex and Quercus pyrenaica indicated flux rates of 0.40 and 0.15 mm/d, respectively. The dry season tree transpiration for the entire catchment was ˜0.16 mm/d. The availability of dry season

  18. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source) Booster Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs.

  19. Compact Radio Sources and Jet-driven AGN Feedback in the Early Universe: Constraints from Integral-Field Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvadba, N H; Lehnert, M D; De Breuck, C; Gilbert, A; van Breugel, W

    2007-07-05

    To investigate the impact of radio jets during the formation epoch of their massive host galaxies, we present an analysis of two massive, log M{sub stellar}/M{sub {circle_dot}} {approx} 10.6 and 11.3, compact radio galaxies at z = 3.5, TNJ0205+2242 and TNJ0121+1320. Their small radio sizes (R {le} 10 kpc) are most likely a sign of youth. In particular, we compare their radio properties and gas dynamics with those in well extended radio galaxies at high redshift, which show strong evidence for powerful, jet-driven outflows of significant gas masses (M {approx} 10{sup 9-10} M{sub {circle_dot}}). Our analysis combines rest-frame optical integral-field spectroscopy obtained with SINFONI on the VLT with existing radio imaging, CO(4-3) emission line spectra, and rest-frame UV longslit spectroscopy. [OIII]{lambda}5007 line emission is compact in both galaxies and lies within the region defined by the radio lobes. For TNJ0205+2242, the Ly{alpha} profile narrows significantly outside the jet radius, indicating the presence of a quiescent halo. TNJ0121+1320 has two components at a projected relative distance of {approx}10 kpc and a velocity offset of {approx}300 km s{sup -1}, measured from the [OIII]{lambda}5007 velocity map. This suggests that the fainter component is orbiting around the more massive, radio-loud galaxy. If motions are gravitational, this implies a dynamical mass of 2 x 10{sup 11} M{sub {circle_dot}} for the radio-loud component. The dynamical mass, molecular gas mass measured from the CO line emission, and radio luminosity of these two compact radio galaxies imply that compact radio sources may well develop large-scale, energetic outflows as observed in extended radio galaxies, with the potential of removing significant fractions of the ISM from the host galaxy. The absence of luminous emission line gas extending beyond the radio emission in these sources agrees with the observed timescales and outflow rates in extended radio galaxies, and adds further

  20. Recent Advances and Field Trial Results Integrating Cosmic Ray Muon Tomography with Other Data Sources for Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schouten, D.

    2015-12-01

    CRM GeoTomography Technologies, Inc. is leading the way in applying muon tomography to discovery and definition of dense ore bodies for mineral exploration and resource estimation. We have successfully imaged volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits at mines in North America using our suite of field-proven muon tracking detectors, and are at various stages of development for other applications. Recently we developed in-house inversion software that integrates data from assays, surface and borehole gravity, and underground muon flux measurements. We have found that the differing geophysical data sources provide complementary information and that dramatic improvements in inversion results are attained using various inversion performance metrics related to the excess tonnage of the mineral deposits, as well as their spatial extents and locations. This presentation will outline field tests of muon tomography performed by CRM Geotomography in some real world examples, and will demonstrate the effectiveness of joint muon tomography, assay and gravity inversion techniques in field tests (where data are available) and in simulations.

  1. AWIPS II+: An Open-Source SOA Solution Enabling Environmental Remote Sensing Integration, Analysis, and Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardanuy, P. E.; Hood, C. A.; Moran, S. G.; Ritchie, A. A.; Tarro, A. M.; Nappi, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Our shared future demands a renewed focus on sound environment stewardship-on the GEOSS socioeconomic imperatives, as well as the interdisciplinary relationships interconnecting our environment, climate, ecosystems, energy, carbon, water-and national security. Data volumes are now measured in the many petabytes. An increasingly urgent and accelerated tempo of changing requirements and responsive solutions demands data exploitation, and transparent, seamless, effortless, bidirectional, and interdisciplinary interoperability across models and observations. There is today a robust working paradigm established with the Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS)-NOAA/NWS's information integration and fusion capability. This process model extends vertically, and seamlessly, from environmental sensing through the direct delivery of societal benefit. NWS, via AWIPS, is the primary source of weather forecast and warning information in the nation. AWIPS is the tested and proven "the nerve center of operations" at all 122 NWS Weather Forecast Offices and 13 River Forecast Centers. Raytheon, in partnership with NOAA, has now evolved AWIPS into an open-source 2nd generation capability to satisfy climate, ecosystems, weather, and water mission goals. Just as AWIPS II supports NOAA decision- making, it is at the same time a platform funded by Raytheon IRAD and Government investment that can be cost-effectively leveraged across all of the GEOSS and IEOS societal benefit areas. The core principles in the AWIPS II evolution to a service-oriented architecture (SOA) were to minimize coupling, increase cohesion, minimize size of code base, maximize simplicity, and incorporate a pull-style data flow. We focused on "ilities" to drive the new AWIPS architecture-our shared architecture framework vision included six elements: - Create a new, low-cost framework for hosting a full range of environmental services, including thick-client visualization via virtual Earth's and GIS

  2. Source mechanism characterization and integrated interpretation of microseismic data monitoring two hydraulic stimulations in pouce coupe field, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Garrison J.

    The study of the Pouce Coupe Field is a joint effort between the Reservoir Characterization Project (RCP) and Talisman Energy Inc. My study focuses on the hydraulic stimulation of two horizontal wells within the Montney Formation located in north-western Alberta. The Montney is an example of a modern-day tight, engineering-driven play in which recent advances in drilling of horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing have made shale gas exploitation economical. The wells were completed in December 2008 and were part of a science driven project in which a multitude of data were collected including multicomponent seismic, microseismic, and production logs. Since this time, a number of studies have been performed by students at Colorado School of Mines to better understand the effects the completions have had on the reservoir. This thesis utilizes the microseismic data that were recorded during the stimulation of the two horizontal wells in order to understand the origin of the microseismic events themselves. The data are then used to understand and correlate to the well production. To gain insight into the source of the microseismic events, amplitude ratios of recorded seismic modes (P, Sh and Sv) for the microseismic events are studied. By fitting trends of simple end member source mechanisms (strike-slip, dip-slip, and tensile) to groups of amplitude ratio data, the events are found to be of strike-slip nature. By comparing the focal mechanisms to other independent natural fracture determination techniques (shear-wave splitting analysis, FMI log), it is shown that the source of recorded microseismic events is likely to be a portion of the shear slip along existing weak planes (fractures) within a reservoir. The technique described in this work is one that is occasionally but increasingly used but offers the opportunity to draw further information from microseismic data using results that are already part of a typical processing workflow. The microseismic events are

  3. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...

  4. The sources and time-integrated evolution of diamond-forming fluids - Trace elements and isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein-BenDavid, Ofra; Pearson, D. Graham; Nowell, Geoff M.; Ottley, Chris; McNeill, John C. R.; Logvinova, Alla; Sobolev, Nikolay V.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-micrometer inclusions in fibrous diamond growth zones carry high-density fluids (HDF) from which the host diamonds have precipitated. The chemistry of these fluids is our best opportunity of characterizing the diamond-forming environment. The major and trace element patterns of diamond-forming fluids vary widely. Such elemental signatures can be easily modified by a variety of mantle processes whereas radiogenic isotopes give a clear fingerprint of the time-integrated evolution of the fluid source region. Thus, the combination of elemental and isotope data is a powerful tool in constraining the origin of fluids from which diamonds precipitate. Here we present combined trace element composition (34 diamonds) and Sr isotopic data (23 diamonds) for fluid-rich diamonds from six worldwide locations. The Nd and Pb isotopic composition of two of the diamonds were also obtained. Several of the samples were analyzed in at least 2 locations to investigate variations in the fluid during diamond growth. The data was acquired using an off-line laser sampling technique followed by solution ICPMS and TIMS analysis. The Sr isotopic compositions of diamond fluids from the different suites range between convecting mantle values for Udachnaya (87Sr/86Sr363 = 0.70300 ± 16 to 0.70361 ± 4), to highly enriched values, up to 87Sr/86Sr = 0.72330 ± 3, for a diamond from Congo. No isochronous relationships were observed in any of the suites. The lowest Nd isotopic composition recorded so far in a diamond is from Congo (εNd71 = -40.4), which also contains the most radiogenic Sr isotopic composition. In contrast, a less enriched but still rather unradiogenic Nd isotope composition (εNd540 = -11) was obtained for a diamond from Snap Lake, which has moderately radiogenic Sr isotopic enrichment (87Sr/86Sr540 = 0.70821 ± 1). The Pb isotopic system measured in one diamond indicates a complex evolution for the fluid source, with extreme 207Pb/204Pb ratio (15.810 ± 3) and moderate

  5. Comparison of photonic integrated circuits for millimeter-wave signal generation between dual-wavelength sources for optical heterodyning and pulsed mode-locked lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, Guillermo; Gordon, Carlos; Guzman, Robinson; Leijtens, Xaveer; Van Dijk, Frédéric; Kervella, Gaël.; Fice, Martyn J.; Balakier, Katarzyna; Renaud, Cyril C.

    2015-03-01

    A comparative study of two different Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) structures for continuous-wave generation of millimeter-wave (MMW) signals is presented, each using a different approach. One approach is optical heterodyning, using an integrated dual-wavelength laser source based on Arrayed Waveguide Grating. The other is based on ModeLocked Laser Diodes (MLLDs). A novel building block -Multimode Interference Reflectors (MIRs) - is used to integrate on-chip both structures, without need of cleaved facets to define the laser cavity. This fact enables us to locate any of these structures at any location within the photonic chip. As will be shown, the MLLD structure provides a simple source for low frequencies. Higher frequencies are easier to achieve by optical heterodyne. Both types of structures have been fabricated on a generic foundry in a commercial MPW PIC technology.

  6. Apportioning sources of organic matter in streambed sediments: an integrated molecular and compound-specific stable isotope approach.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard J; Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Hiscock, Kevin M; Disdle, Paul; Krueger, Tobias; Rawlins, Barry G

    2015-07-01

    We present a novel application for quantitatively apportioning sources of organic matter in streambed sediments via a coupled molecular and compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of long-chain leaf wax n-alkane biomarkers using a Bayesian mixing model. Leaf wax extracts of 13 plant species were collected from across two environments (aquatic and terrestrial) and four plant functional types (trees, herbaceous perennials, and C3 and C4 graminoids) from the agricultural River Wensum catchment, UK. Seven isotopic (δ13C27, δ13C29, δ13C31, δ13C27-31, δ2H27, δ2H29, and δ2H27-29) and two n-alkane ratio (average chain length (ACL), carbon preference index (CPI)) fingerprints were derived, which successfully differentiated 93% of individual plant specimens by plant functional type. The δ2H values were the strongest discriminators of plants originating from different functional groups, with trees (δ2H27-29=-208‰ to -164‰) and C3 graminoids (δ2H27-29=-259‰ to -221‰) providing the largest contrasts. The δ13C values provided strong discrimination between C3 (δ13C27-31=-37.5‰ to -33.8‰) and C4 (δ13C27-31=-23.5‰ to -23.1‰) plants, but neither δ13C nor δ2H values could uniquely differentiate aquatic and terrestrial species, emphasizing a stronger plant physiological/biochemical rather than environmental control over isotopic differences. ACL and CPI complemented isotopic discrimination, with significantly longer chain lengths recorded for trees and terrestrial plants compared with herbaceous perennials and aquatic species, respectively. Application of a comprehensive Bayesian mixing model for 18 streambed sediments collected between September 2013 and March 2014 revealed considerable temporal variability in the apportionment of organic matter sources. Median organic matter contributions ranged from 22% to 52% for trees, 29% to 50% for herbaceous perennials, 17% to 34% for C3 graminoids and 3% to 7% for C4 graminoids. The results presented here

  7. Integrated Analysis Platform: An Open-Source Information System for High-Throughput Plant Phenotyping1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Klukas, Christian; Chen, Dijun; Pape, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput phenotyping is emerging as an important technology to dissect phenotypic components in plants. Efficient image processing and feature extraction are prerequisites to quantify plant growth and performance based on phenotypic traits. Issues include data management, image analysis, and result visualization of large-scale phenotypic data sets. Here, we present Integrated Analysis Platform (IAP), an open-source framework for high-throughput plant phenotyping. IAP provides user-friendly interfaces, and its core functions are highly adaptable. Our system supports image data transfer from different acquisition environments and large-scale image analysis for different plant species based on real-time imaging data obtained from different spectra. Due to the huge amount of data to manage, we utilized a common data structure for efficient storage and organization of data for both input data and result data. We implemented a block-based method for automated image processing to extract a representative list of plant phenotypic traits. We also provide tools for build-in data plotting and result export. For validation of IAP, we performed an example experiment that contains 33 maize (Zea mays ‘Fernandez’) plants, which were grown for 9 weeks in an automated greenhouse with nondestructive imaging. Subsequently, the image data were subjected to automated analysis with the maize pipeline implemented in our system. We found that the computed digital volume and number of leaves correlate with our manually measured data in high accuracy up to 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. In summary, IAP provides a multiple set of functionalities for import/export, management, and automated analysis of high-throughput plant phenotyping data, and its analysis results are highly reliable. PMID:24760818

  8. Active fault segments as potential earthquake sources: Inferences from integrated geophysical mapping of the Magadi fault system, southern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Z. N.; Woldai, T.; van der Meer, F. D.; Barongo, J. O.

    2010-06-01

    uplifted, heavily fractured and deformed basin to the north (highly disturbed magnetic signatures) characteristic of on going active rifting; and a refined architecture of the asymmetry graben to the south with an intrarift horst, whose western graben is 4 km deep and eastern graben is much deeper (9 km), with a zone of significant break in magnetic signatures at that depth, interpreted as source of the hot springs south of Lake Magadi (a location confirmed near surface by ground magnetic and resistivity data sets). The magnetic sources to the north are shallow at 15 km depth compared to 22 km to the south. The loss of magnetism to the north is probably due to increased heat as a result of magmatic intrusion supporting active rifting model. Conclusively, the integrated approach employed in this research confirms that fault system delineated to the north is actively deforming under E-W normal extension and is a potential earthquake source probably related to magmatic intrusion, while the presence of fluids within the south fault zone reduce intensity of faulting activity and explains lack of earthquakes in a continental rift setting.

  9. Race, Medical Mistrust, and Segregation in Primary Care as Usual Source of Care: Findings from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Arnett, M J; Thorpe, R J; Gaskin, D J; Bowie, J V; LaVeist, T A

    2016-06-01

    Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care disparity. Using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) study, we examined the role of medical mistrust in choosing usual source of care in 1408 black and white adults who were exposed to the same healthcare facilities and low-income racially integrated community. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between race, medical mistrust, and usual source of care. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, African-Americans were more likely than whites to use the emergency department (ED) (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.43 (95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.06-1.94])) and hospital outpatient department (RRR1.50 (95 %CI [1.10-2.05])) versus primary care as a usual source of care. When medical mistrust was added to the model, the gap between African-Americans' and whites' risk of using the ED versus primary care as a usual source of care closed (RRR = 1.29; 95 % CI [0.91-1.83]). However, race differences in the use of the hospital outpatient department remained even after accounting for medical mistrust (RRR = 1.67; 95 % CI [1.16-2.40]). Accounting for medical mistrust eliminated the ED-as-usual-source of care disparity. This study highlights the importance of medical mistrust as an intervention point for decreasing ED use as a usual source of care by low-income, urban African-Americans. PMID:27193595

  10. Race, Medical Mistrust, and Segregation in Primary Care as Usual Source of Care: Findings from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Arnett, M J; Thorpe, R J; Gaskin, D J; Bowie, J V; LaVeist, T A

    2016-06-01

    Compared to White Americans, African-Americans are less likely to use primary care (PC) as their usual source of care. This is generally attributed to race differences in socioeconomic status and in access to primary care services. Little is known about the relationship between race differences in medical mistrust and the usual source of care disparity. Using data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities (EHDIC) study, we examined the role of medical mistrust in choosing usual source of care in 1408 black and white adults who were exposed to the same healthcare facilities and low-income racially integrated community. Multinomial logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between race, medical mistrust, and usual source of care. After adjusting for demographic and health-related factors, African-Americans were more likely than whites to use the emergency department (ED) (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.43 (95 % confidence interval (CI) [1.06-1.94])) and hospital outpatient department (RRR1.50 (95 %CI [1.10-2.05])) versus primary care as a usual source of care. When medical mistrust was added to the model, the gap between African-Americans' and whites' risk of using the ED versus primary care as a usual source of care closed (RRR = 1.29; 95 % CI [0.91-1.83]). However, race differences in the use of the hospital outpatient department remained even after accounting for medical mistrust (RRR = 1.67; 95 % CI [1.16-2.40]). Accounting for medical mistrust eliminated the ED-as-usual-source of care disparity. This study highlights the importance of medical mistrust as an intervention point for decreasing ED use as a usual source of care by low-income, urban African-Americans.

  11. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  12. Triple seismic source, double research ship, single ambitious goal: integrated imaging of young oceanic crust in the Panama Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Dean; Peirce, Christine; Hobbs, Richard; Gregory, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Understanding geothermal heat and mass fluxes through the seafloor is fundamental to the study of the Earth's energy budget. Using geophysical, geological and physical oceanography data we are exploring the interaction between the young oceanic crust and the ocean in the Panama Basin. We acquired a unique geophysical dataset that will allow us to build a comprehensive model of young oceanic crust from the Costa Rica Ridge axis to ODP borehole 504B. Data were collected over two 35 x 35 km2 3D grid areas, one each at the ridge axis and the borehole, and along three 330 km long 2D profiles orientated in the spreading direction, connecting the two grids. In addition to the 4.5 km long multichannel streamer and 75 ocean-bottom seismographs (OBS), we also deployed 12 magnetotelluric (MT) stations and collected underway swath bathymetry, gravity and magnetic data. For the long 2D profiles we used two research vessels operating synchronously. The RRS James Cook towed a high frequency GI-gun array (120 Hz) to image the sediments, and a medium frequency Bolt-gun array (50 Hz) for shallow-to-mid-crustal imaging. The R/V Sonne followed the Cook, 9 km astern and towed a third seismic source; a low frequency, large volume G-gun array (30 Hz) for whole crustal and upper mantle imaging at large offsets. Two bespoke vertical hydrophone arrays recorded real far field signatures that have enabled us to develop inverse source filters and match filters. Here we present the seismic reflection image, forward and inverse velocity-depth models and a density model along the primary 330 km north-south profile, from ridge axis to 6 Ma crust. By incorporating wide-angle streamer data from our two-ship, synthetic aperture acquisition together with traditional wide-angle OBS data we are able to constrain the structure of the upper oceanic crust. The results show a long-wavelength trend of increasing seismic velocity and density with age, and a correlation between velocity structure and basement

  13. Infrared observations of eight X-ray sources from Galactic plane surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revnivtsev, M. G.; Kniazev, A.; Karasev, D. I.; Berdnikov, L.; Barway, S.

    2013-08-01

    Increasing the identification completeness of sources from new X-ray sky surveys is a necessary condition for further works on analyzing the formation and long-term evolution of star systems in our Galaxy. Infrared observations of several sources selected from Galactic plane surveys as candidates for low-mass X-ray binaries with the IRSF telescope at the South African Astronomical Observatory are presented. The infrared fluxes have been reliably measured from five of the eight sources (4U 1556-60, 4U 1708-40, AX J165901-4208, IGR J16287-5021, IGR J17350-2045, AX J171922-3703, SAX J1712.6-3739, 4U 1705-32). One of the objects (AX J165901-4208) may be a candidate for symbiotic X-ray binaries, i.e., binaries in which the companion of a relativistic object is a giant star. The distances have been estimated for three sources and the orbital periods have been estimated for two.

  14. Unveiling the nature of INTEGRAL objects through optical spectroscopy. IX. Twenty two more identifications, and a glance into the far hard X-ray Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, N.; Parisi, P.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Palazzi, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Dean, A. J.; Galaz, G.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Minniti, D.; Morelli, L.; Schiavone, F.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2012-02-01

    Since its launch in October 2002, the INTEGRAL satellite has revolutionized our knowledge of the hard X-ray sky thanks to its unprecedented imaging capabilities and source detection positional accuracy above 20 keV. Nevertheless, many of the newly-detected sources in the INTEGRAL sky surveys are of unknown nature. The combined use of available information at longer wavelengths (mainly soft X-rays and radio) and of optical spectroscopy on the putative counterparts of these new hard X-ray objects allows us to pinpoint their exact nature. Continuing our long-standing program that has been running since 2004, and using 6 different telescopes of various sizes together with data from an online spectroscopic survey, here we report the classification through optical spectroscopy of 22 more unidentified or poorly studied high-energy sources detected with the IBIS instrument onboard INTEGRAL. We found that 16 of them are active galactic nuclei (AGNs), while the remaining 6 objects are within our Galaxy. Among the identified extragalactic sources, the large majority (14) is made up of type 1 AGNs (i.e. with broad emission lines); of these, 6 lie at redshift larger than 0.5 and one (IGR J12319-0749) has z = 3.12, which makes it the second farthest object detected in the INTEGRAL surveys up to now. The remaining AGNs are of type 2 (that is, with narrow emission lines only), and one of the two cases is confirmed as a pair of interacting Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Galactic objects are identified as two cataclysmic variables, one high-mass X-ray binary, one symbiotic binary and two chromospherically active stars, possibly of RS CVn type. The main physical parameters of these hard X-ray sources were also determined using the multiwavelength information available in the literature. We thus still find that AGNs are the most abundant population among hard X-ray objects identified through optical spectroscopy. Moreover, we note that the higher sensitivity of the more recent INTEGRAL

  15. The use of open source and Web2.0 in developing an integrated EHR and e-learning system for the Greek Smoking Cessation Network.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Konstantinidis, Evdokimos; Nikolaidou, Maria M; Boutou, Afroditi K; Havouzis, Nikos; Argyropoulou, Paraskevi; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2009-01-01

    Technologies of information and communication are incrementally integrated with all facets of healthcare practice and education. Although Electronic Health Records (EHRs) have long been used in healthcare the introduction of open source tools has empowered their further expansion of use. Simultaneously the use of Web 2.0 tools has opened up new ways of enhancing both healthcare practice and education. In this paper, we describe our approach towards the development of an integrated system supporting the smoking cessation network initiatives in the Greek public hospitals. The system combines the availability of an open source, web based EHR subsystem, with a Web 2.0 facilitated e-learning component for supporting continuing medical education and promoting public awareness.

  16. Multi-wavelength properties of IGR J05007-7047 (LXP 38.55) and identification as a Be X-ray binary pulsar in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilopoulos, G.; Haberl, F.; Delvaux, C.; Sturm, R.; Udalski, A.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the results of a ˜40-d multi-wavelength monitoring of the Be X-ray binary system IGR J05007-7047 (LXP 38.55). During that period the system was monitored in the X-rays using the Swift telescope and in the optical with multiple instruments. When the X-ray luminosity exceeded 1036 erg s-1 we triggered an XMM-Newton ToO observation. Timing analysis of the photon events collected during the XMM-Newton observation reveals coherent X-ray pulsations with a period of 38.551(3) s (1σ), making it the 17th known high-mass X-ray binary pulsar in the LMC. During the outburst, the X-ray spectrum is fitted best with a model composed of an absorbed power law (Γ = 0.63) plus a high-temperature blackbody (kT ˜2 keV) component. By analysing ˜12 yr of available OGLE optical data we derived a 30.776(5) d optical period, confirming the previously reported X-ray period of the system as its orbital period. During our X-ray monitoring the system showed limited optical variability while its IR flux varied in phase with the X-ray luminosity, which implies the presence of a disc-like component adding cooler light to the spectral energy distribution of the system.

  17. Identifying Rhodamine Dye Plume Sources in Near-Shore Oceanic Environments by Integration of Chemical and Visual Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yu; Kang, Xiaodong; Li, Yunyi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Aiqun; Yu, Jiangchen; Li, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a strategy for identifying the source location of a chemical plume in near-shore oceanic environments where the plume is developed under the influence of turbulence, tides and waves. This strategy includes two modules: source declaration (or identification) and source verification embedded in a subsumption architecture. Algorithms for source identification are derived from the moth-inspired plume tracing strategies based on a chemical sensor. The in-water test missions, conducted in November 2002 at San Clemente Island (California, USA) in June 2003 in Duck (North Carolina, USA) and in October 2010 at Dalian Bay (China), successfully identified the source locations after autonomous underwater vehicles tracked the rhodamine dye plumes with a significant meander over 100 meters. The objective of the verification module is to verify the declared plume source using a visual sensor. Because images taken in near shore oceanic environments are very vague and colors in the images are not well-defined, we adopt a fuzzy color extractor to segment the color components and recognize the chemical plume and its source by measuring color similarity. The source verification module is tested by images taken during the CPT missions. PMID:23507823

  18. Integrated watershed economic model for non-point source pollution management in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, OH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, non-point source pollution (NPS) is one of the major sources of water quality impairments globally (UNEP, 2007). In the US, nutrient pollution is the leading cause of water quality issues in lakes and estuaries (USEPA, 2002). The maximum concentration of nutrients in streams is found to be in...

  19. Integrated Forensics Approach To Fingerprint PCB Sources In Sediments Using Immunoassays And GC/MS Congener Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining the original source of contamination to a heterogeneous matrix such as sediments is a requirement for both clean-up and compliance programs within the military. Understanding the source of contaminants to sediment in industrial settings is a prerequisite to implement...

  20. Synergies: Effects of Source Representation and Goal Instructions on Evidence Quality, Reasoning, and Conceptual Integration during Argumentation-Driven Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So Mi; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how differing instructional scaffolding influenced the actual use of evaluation skills to improve argumentation quality during college science inquiry. Source representation scaffolds supported multi-faceted reflection of complex source properties while managing cognitive load. Students were given an online annotation tool…

  1. Integration of Remote Sensing and other public GIS data source to identify suitable zones for groundwater exploitation by manual drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Fava, Francesco; Di Mauro, Biagio; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia; DI Leo, Margherita; Hamidou Kane, Cheik; Faye, Gayane; Niang, Magatte; Wade, Souleye; Hamidou, Barry; Colombo, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    In several countries of the world the situation of water supply is still critical, far from the international target defined by United Nations for 2015 (Millenium Development Goals) and producing a huge impact on health and living condition of the population. Manual drilling (it means techniques to drill boreholes for water using human or animal power) is well known and practiced for centuries in many countries. In recent years, it has been considered a potential strategy to increase water access in poor countries and has raised the attention of national governments and international organizations. Manual drilling is applicable only where hydrogeological context is suitable, according to the following conditions: thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and shallow water table. Mapping of zones with suitable hydrogeological context has been carried out in several countries in Africa, but the results have evident limitations; previous methods are based on existing direct data and qualitative experience, leading to unreliable interpretation when direct data are limited. This research aims to develop a methodology to estimate shallow hydrogeological features and asses the distribution of suitable zones for manual drilling through the integration of indirect information obtained from remote sensing and other existing source of data. The research is carried out in two different study areas, in Senegal and Guinea (Western Africa), with semi-arid climate, moderate vegetation cover, unconsolidated sandy and clay deposits overlaying sedimentary and igneous rocks A set of variables have been obtained through processing of three categories of data, listed below: - geology, geomorphology, soil and land cover, obtained from existing thematic maps; - vegetation phenology, apparent thermal inertia, and soil moisture, obtained from analysis of multitemporal optical (MOD13Q1), thermal (MOD11A1), and radar (ASAR) remotely sensed data: -morphometric parameters, obtained from public

  2. Structural, Thermal, and Safety Analysis of Isotope Heat Source and Integrated Heat Exchangers for 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    The design of the 30-kWt isotope heat source integrated with a Rankine boiler and a Brayton gas heater, which was described in the preceding paper in these proceedings, was subjected to structural, thermal, and safety analyses. The present paper describes and discusses the results of these analyses. Detailed structural analyses of the heat source integrated with the boiler and gas heater showed positive safety margins at all locations during the launch. Detailed thermal analyses showed acceptable temperatures at all locations, during assembly, transfer and orbital operations. Reentry thermal analyses showed that the clads have acceptable peak and impact temperatures. Loss-of-cooling analyses indicated the feasibility of a passive safety concept for preventing over temperatures. Static structural analysis showed positive safety margins at all locations, and dynamic analysis showed that there were no low-frequency resources. Continuum-mechanics code analyses of the effects of the impact of Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) fragments on the heat source and of the very unlikely impact of the full heat source on concrete indicated relatively modest fuel clad deformations and little or no fuel release.

  3. Design of Isotope Heat Source for Automatic Modular Dispersal During Reentry, and Its Integration with Heat Exchangers of 6-kWe Dynamic Isotope Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1989-01-01

    In late 1986 the Air Force Space Division (AF / SD) had expressed an interest in using a Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) of approximately 6-kWe to power the Boost Surveillance and Tacking System (BSTS) satellites. In support of that objective, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requested Fairchild Space Company to perform a conceptual design study of the DIPS heat source and of its integration with the dynamic power conversion system, with particular emphasis on system safety. This paper describes the results of that study. The study resulted in a design for a single heat source of ~30-kWt, employing the standard 250-W General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules which DOE had previously developed and safety-tested for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTS's)

  4. An integrated WRF/HYSPLIT modeling approach for the assessment of PM(2.5) source regions over the Mississippi Gulf Coast region.

    PubMed

    Yerramilli, Anjaneyulu; Dodla, Venkata Bhaskar Rao; Challa, Venkata Srinivas; Myles, Latoya; Pendergrass, William R; Vogel, Christoph A; Dasari, Hari Prasad; Tuluri, Francis; Baham, Julius M; Hughes, Robert L; Patrick, Chuck; Young, John H; Swanier, Shelton J; Hardy, Mark G

    2012-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is majorly formed by precursor gases, such as sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), which are emitted largely from intense industrial operations and transportation activities. PM(2.5) has been shown to affect respiratory health in humans. Evaluation of source regions and assessment of emission source contributions in the Gulf Coast region of the USA will be useful for the development of PM(2.5) regulatory and mitigation strategies. In the present study, the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model driven by the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model is used to identify the emission source locations and transportation trends. Meteorological observations as well as PM(2.5) sulfate and nitric acid concentrations were collected at two sites during the Mississippi Coastal Atmospheric Dispersion Study, a summer 2009 field experiment along the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Meteorological fields during the campaign were simulated using WRF with three nested domains of 36, 12, and 4 km horizontal resolutions and 43 vertical levels and validated with North American Mesoscale Analysis. The HYSPLIT model was integrated with meteorological fields derived from the WRF model to identify the source locations using backward trajectory analysis. The backward trajectories for a 24-h period were plotted at 1-h intervals starting from two observation locations to identify probable sources. The back trajectories distinctly indicated the sources to be in the direction between south and west, thus to have origin from local Mississippi, neighboring Louisiana state, and Gulf of Mexico. Out of the eight power plants located within the radius of 300 km of the two monitoring sites examined as sources, only Watson, Cajun, and Morrow power plants fall in the path of the derived back trajectories. Forward dispersions patterns computed using HYSPLIT were plotted from each of these source locations using the hourly mean

  5. Integrating watershed- and farm-scale modeling framework for targeting critical source areas while maintaining farm economic viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative risk assessments of pollution and data related to the effectiveness of mitigating best management practices (BMPs) are important aspects of nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control efforts, particularly those driven by specific water quality objectives and by measurable improvement goals...

  6. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study.

    PubMed

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex.

  7. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study.

    PubMed

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27047694

  8. Manipulation of Dysfunctional Spinal Joints Affects Sensorimotor Integration in the Prefrontal Cortex: A Brain Source Localization Study

    PubMed Central

    Lelic, Dina; Niazi, Imran Khan; Holt, Kelly; Jochumsen, Mads; Dremstrup, Kim; Yielder, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Haavik, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown decreases in N30 somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) peak amplitudes following spinal manipulation (SM) of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain (SCP) populations. This study sought to verify these findings and to investigate underlying brain sources that may be responsible for such changes. Methods. Nineteen SCP volunteers attended two experimental sessions, SM and control in random order. SEPs from 62-channel EEG cap were recorded following median nerve stimulation (1000 stimuli at 2.3 Hz) before and after either intervention. Peak-to-peak amplitude and latency analysis was completed for different SEPs peak. Dipolar models of underlying brain sources were built by using the brain electrical source analysis. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to assessed differences in N30 amplitudes, dipole locations, and dipole strengths. Results. SM decreased the N30 amplitude by 16.9 ± 31.3% (P = 0.02), while no differences were seen following the control intervention (P = 0.4). Brain source modeling revealed a 4-source model but only the prefrontal source showed reduced activity by 20.2 ± 12.2% (P = 0.03) following SM. Conclusion. A single session of spinal manipulation of dysfunctional segments in subclinical pain patients alters somatosensory processing at the cortical level, particularly within the prefrontal cortex. PMID:27047694

  9. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications. PMID:26203382

  10. Application of an index of biotic integrity for dunal, palustrine wetlands: Emphasis on assessment of nonpoint source landfill effects on the Grand Calumet Lagoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, T.P.; Stewart, P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Using a newly modified index of biotic integrity for assessing biological integrity of fish communities in dunal, palustrine wetlands, we assessed the non-point source influence of an industrial landfill on the Grand Calument Lagoons. The landfill is primarily an iron and steel manufacturers' slag waste. No sensitive species, hybrids, headwater species, and either few or no simple lithophilic spawning species were collected from any of the sites in the Grand Calumet Lagoons. Species catch-per-unit of effort varied significantly between reaches in the Middle Lagoon and the West Lagoon. The most disturbed areas were adjacent to the industrial landfill and along the southern shore near the outflow from the West Lagoon. Near- and far-field stations processed similar numbers of species and relative abundance. The near-field stations showed an increase in tolerant species, a higher proportion of omnivores and carnivores, and a lower environmental quality rating of 'poor-very poor'. The far-field sites were classified as having 'fair' biological integrity and showed an increase in relative abundance, proportion of sensitive species, and an increase in simple lithophils. The loss of biological integrity in the West Pond was not accurately predicted using the modified index of biological integrity, even though it was rated as extremely degraded by the biological diversity indices. Fish communities were negatively impacted by proximity to the landfill.

  11. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James

    2015-07-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.

  12. Evaluation of stormwater micropollutant source control and end-of-pipe control strategies using an uncertainty-calibrated integrated dynamic simulation model.

    PubMed

    Vezzaro, L; Sharma, A K; Ledin, A; Mikkelsen, P S

    2015-03-15

    The estimation of micropollutant (MP) fluxes in stormwater systems is a fundamental prerequisite when preparing strategies to reduce stormwater MP discharges to natural waters. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools in this step, as they can be used to integrate the limited data provided by monitoring campaigns and to evaluate the performance of different strategies based on model simulation results. This study presents an example where six different control strategies, including both source-control and end-of-pipe treatment, were compared. The comparison focused on fluxes of heavy metals (copper, zinc) and organic compounds (fluoranthene). MP fluxes were estimated by using an integrated dynamic model, in combination with stormwater quality measurements. MP sources were identified by using GIS land usage data, runoff quality was simulated by using a conceptual accumulation/washoff model, and a stormwater retention pond was simulated by using a dynamic treatment model based on MP inherent properties. Uncertainty in the results was estimated with a pseudo-Bayesian method. Despite the great uncertainty in the MP fluxes estimated by the runoff quality model, it was possible to compare the six scenarios in terms of discharged MP fluxes, compliance with water quality criteria, and sediment accumulation. Source-control strategies obtained better results in terms of reduction of MP emissions, but all the simulated strategies failed in fulfilling the criteria based on emission limit values. The results presented in this study shows how the efficiency of MP pollution control strategies can be quantified by combining advanced modeling tools (integrated stormwater quality model, uncertainty calibration).

  13. Evaluation of stormwater micropollutant source control and end-of-pipe control strategies using an uncertainty-calibrated integrated dynamic simulation model.

    PubMed

    Vezzaro, L; Sharma, A K; Ledin, A; Mikkelsen, P S

    2015-03-15

    The estimation of micropollutant (MP) fluxes in stormwater systems is a fundamental prerequisite when preparing strategies to reduce stormwater MP discharges to natural waters. Dynamic integrated models can be important tools in this step, as they can be used to integrate the limited data provided by monitoring campaigns and to evaluate the performance of different strategies based on model simulation results. This study presents an example where six different control strategies, including both source-control and end-of-pipe treatment, were compared. The comparison focused on fluxes of heavy metals (copper, zinc) and organic compounds (fluoranthene). MP fluxes were estimated by using an integrated dynamic model, in combination with stormwater quality measurements. MP sources were identified by using GIS land usage data, runoff quality was simulated by using a conceptual accumulation/washoff model, and a stormwater retention pond was simulated by using a dynamic treatment model based on MP inherent properties. Uncertainty in the results was estimated with a pseudo-Bayesian method. Despite the great uncertainty in the MP fluxes estimated by the runoff quality model, it was possible to compare the six scenarios in terms of discharged MP fluxes, compliance with water quality criteria, and sediment accumulation. Source-control strategies obtained better results in terms of reduction of MP emissions, but all the simulated strategies failed in fulfilling the criteria based on emission limit values. The results presented in this study shows how the efficiency of MP pollution control strategies can be quantified by combining advanced modeling tools (integrated stormwater quality model, uncertainty calibration). PMID:25532057

  14. An integrated PM2.5 source apportionment study: Positive Matrix Factorisation vs. the chemical transport model CAMx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bove, M. C.; Brotto, P.; Cassola, F.; Cuccia, E.; Massabò, D.; Mazzino, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Prati, P.

    2014-09-01

    Receptor and Chemical Transport Models are commonly used tools in source apportionment studies, even if different expertise is required. We describe an experiment using both approaches to apportion the PM2.5 (i.e., particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 μm) sources in the city of Genoa (Italy). A sampling campaign was carried out to collect PM2.5 samples daily for approximately six month during 2011 in three sites. The subsequent compositional analyses included the speciation of elements, major ions and both organic and elemental carbon; these data produced a large database for receptor modelling through Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF). In the same period, a meteorological and air quality modelling system was implemented based on the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model WRF and the chemical transport model CAMx to obtain meteorological and pollutant concentrations up to a resolution of 1.1 km. The source apportionment was evaluated by CAMx over the same period that was used for the monitoring campaign using the Particulate Source Apportionment Technology tool. Even if the source categorisations were changed (i.e., groups of time-correlated compounds in PMF vs. activity categories in CAMx), the PM2.5 source apportionment by PMF and CAMx produced comparable results. The different information provided by the two approaches (e.g., real-world factor profile by PMF and apportionment of a secondary aerosol by CAMx) was used jointly to elucidate the composition and origin of PM2.5 and to develop a more general methodology. When studying the primary and secondary components of PM, the main anthropogenic sources in the area were road transportation, energy production/industry and maritime emissions, accounting for 40%-50%, 20%-30% and 10%-15%, of PM2.5, respectively.

  15. Sensory Integration Therapy in Malaysia and Singapore: Sources of Information and Reasons for Use in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, H. M.; Carter, Mark; Stephenson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Sensory integration (SI) therapy is a popular form of intervention for children with disabilities, particularly those with autism spectrum disorders, even though research evidence demonstrating beneficial outcomes from the use of SI therapy is limited. A questionnaire was distributed to early intervention education service providers in Malaysia…

  16. A Well-Balanced Path-Integral f-Wave Method for Hyperbolic Problems with Source Terms.

    PubMed

    Leveque, Randall J

    2011-07-01

    Systems of hyperbolic partial differential equations with source terms (balance laws) arise in many applications where it is important to compute accurate time-dependent solutions modeling small perturbations of equilibrium solutions in which the source terms balance the hyperbolic part. The f-wave version of the wave-propagation algorithm is one approach, but requires the use of a particular averaged value of the source terms at each cell interface in order to be "well balanced" and exactly maintain steady states. A general approach to choosing this average is developed using the theory of path conservative methods. A scalar advection equation with a decay or growth term is introduced as a model problem for numerical experiments.

  17. Integration of complex data sources to provide biologic insight into pulmonary vascular disease (2015 Grover Conference Series).

    PubMed

    Brittain, Evan L; Chan, Stephen Y

    2016-09-01

    The application of complex data sources to pulmonary vascular diseases is an emerging and promising area of investigation. The use of -omics platforms, in silico modeling of gene networks, and linkage of large human cohorts with DNA biobanks are beginning to bear biologic insight into pulmonary hypertension. These approaches to high-throughput molecular phenotyping offer the possibility of discovering new therapeutic targets and identifying variability in response to therapy that can be leveraged to improve clinical care. Optimizing the methods for analyzing complex data sources and accruing large, well-phenotyped human cohorts linked to biologic data remain significant challenges. Here, we discuss two specific types of complex data sources-gene regulatory networks and DNA-linked electronic medical record cohorts-that illustrate the promise, challenges, and current limitations of these approaches to understanding and managing pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:27683602

  18. Development of the integrated control system for the microwave ion source of the PEFP 100-MeV proton accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Gi; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub

    2012-07-01

    The Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) 20-MeV proton linear accelerator is currently operating at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The ion source of the 100-MeV proton linac needs at least a 100-hour operation time. To meet the goal, we have developed a microwave ion source that uses no filament. For the ion source, a remote control system has been developed by using experimental physics and the industrial control system (EPICS) software framework. The control system consists of a versa module europa (VME) and EPICS-based embedded applications running on a VxWorks real-time operating system. The main purpose of the control system is to control and monitor the operational variables of the components remotely and to protect operators from radiation exposure and the components from critical problems during beam extraction. We successfully performed the operation test of the control system to confirm the degree of safety during the hardware performance.

  19. Vernier-cascade label-free biosensor with integrated arrayed waveguide grating for wavelength interrogation with low-cost broadband source.

    PubMed

    Claes, Tom; Bogaerts, Wim; Bienstman, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Recently, cheap silicon-on-insulator label-free biosensors have been demonstrated that allow fast and accurate quantitative detection of biologically relevant molecules for applications in medical diagnostics and drug development. However, whereas the sensor chip can be made cheaply, an expensive tunable laser is typically required to accurately monitor spectral shifts in the sensor's transmission spectrum (wavelength interrogation). To address this issue, we integrated a very sensitive Vernier-cascade sensor with an arrayed waveguide grating spectral filter that divides the sensor's transmission spectrum in multiple wavelength channels and transmits them to spatially separated output ports, allowing wavelength interrogation with a much cheaper broadband light source. Experiments show that this sensor can monitor refractive index changes of watery solutions in real time with a detection limit (1.6·10(-5) RIU) competitive with more expensive interrogation schemes, indicating its applicability in low-cost label-free biosensing. The relaxation on the complexity of the source, moreover, offers the prospect to integrate the source and detectors to further reduce the device cost and to increase its portability.

  20. Risk assessment of water pollution sources based on an integrated k-means clustering and set pair analysis method in the region of Shiyan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunhui; Sun, Lian; Jia, Junxiang; Cai, Yanpeng; Wang, Xuan

    2016-07-01

    Source water areas are facing many potential water pollution risks. Risk assessment is an effective method to evaluate such risks. In this paper an integrated model based on k-means clustering analysis and set pair analysis was established aiming at evaluating the risks associated with water pollution in source water areas, in which the weights of indicators were determined through the entropy weight method. Then the proposed model was applied to assess water pollution risks in the region of Shiyan in which China's key source water area Danjiangkou Reservoir for the water source of the middle route of South-to-North Water Diversion Project is located. The results showed that eleven sources with relative high risk value were identified. At the regional scale, Shiyan City and Danjiangkou City would have a high risk value in term of the industrial discharge. Comparatively, Danjiangkou City and Yunxian County would have a high risk value in terms of agricultural pollution. Overall, the risk values of north regions close to the main stream and reservoir of the region of Shiyan were higher than that in the south. The results of risk level indicated that five sources were in lower risk level (i.e., level II), two in moderate risk level (i.e., level III), one in higher risk level (i.e., level IV) and three in highest risk level (i.e., level V). Also risks of industrial discharge are higher than that of the agricultural sector. It is thus essential to manage the pillar industry of the region of Shiyan and certain agricultural companies in the vicinity of the reservoir to reduce water pollution risks of source water areas. PMID:27016678

  1. Load estimation and source apportionment of nonpoint source nitrogen and phosphorus based on integrated application of SLURP model, ECM, and RUSLE: a case study in the Jinjiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng

    2013-02-01

    The nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation. Load estimation and source apportionment are an important and necessary process for efficient NPS control. Here, an integrated application of semi-distributed land use-based runoff process (SLURP) model, export coefficients model (ECM), and revise universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) for the load estimation and source apportionment of nitrogen and phosphorus was proposed. The Jinjiang River (China) was chosen for the evaluation of the method proposed here. The chosen watershed was divided into 27 subbasins. After which, the SLURP model was used to calculate land use runoff and to estimate loads of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus, and ECM was applied to estimate dissolved loads from livestock and rural domestic sewage. Next, the RUSLE was employed for load estimation of adsorbed nitrogen and phosphorus. The results showed that the 12,029.06 t a(-1) pollution loads of total NPS nitrogen (TN) mainly originated from dissolved nitrogen (96.24 %). The major sources of TN were land use runoff, which accounted for 45.97 % of the total, followed by livestock (32.43 %) and rural domestic sewage (17.83 %). For total NPS phosphorous (TP), its pollution loads were 570.82 t a(-1) and made up of dissolved and adsorbed phosphorous with 66.29 and 33.71 % respectively. Soil erosion, land use runoff, rural domestic sewage, and livestock were the main sources of phosphorus with contribution ratios of 33.71, 45.73, 14.32, and 6.24 % respectively. Therefore, land use runoff, livestock, and soil erosion were identified as the main pollution sources to influence loads of NPS nitrogen and phosphorus in the Jinjiang River and should be controlled first. The method developed here provided a helpful guideline for conducting NPS pollution management in similar watershed.

  2. Integrated source of tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photons in a domain-engineered lithium niobate waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Yang; Wu, Zi-jian; Xu, Fei Lu, Yan-qing; Cui, Guo-xin; Tan, Ai-hong

    2014-04-28

    The nonmaximally entangled state is a special kind of entangled state, which has important applications in quantum information processing. It has been generated in quantum circuits based on bulk optical elements. However, corresponding schemes in integrated quantum circuits have been rarely considered. In this Letter, we propose an effective solution for this problem. An electro-optically tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photon state is generated in an on-chip domain-engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion and electro-optic interaction are effectively combined through suitable domain design to transform the entangled state into our desired formation. Moreover, this is a flexible approach to entanglement architectures. Other kinds of reconfigurable entanglements are also achievable through this method. LN provides a very promising platform for future quantum circuit integration.

  3. Integrated Path Detection of Co2 and CH4 Using a Waveform Driven Electro-Optic Single Sideband Laser Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Gerd; Maxwell, Stephen; Plusquellic, David

    2016-06-01

    Integrated path concentrations of ambient levels of carbon dioxide and methane have been measured during nighttime periods at NIST, Boulder (CO, USA), using a ground-based, eyesafe laser system. In this contribution, we describe the transmitter and receiver system, demonstrate measurements of CO2 and CH4 in comparison with an in situ point sensor measurement using a commercial cavity ring-down instrument, and demonstrate a speckle noise reduction method.

  4. Multifrequency sources of quantum correlated photon pairs on-chip: a path toward integrated Quantum Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspani, Lucia; Reimer, Christian; Kues, Michael; Roztocki, Piotr; Clerici, Matteo; Wetzel, Benjamin; Jestin, Yoann; Ferrera, Marcello; Peccianti, Marco; Pasquazi, Alessia; Razzari, Luca; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    Recent developments in quantum photonics have initiated the process of bringing photonic-quantumbased systems out-of-the-lab and into real-world applications. As an example, devices to enable the exchange of a cryptographic key secured by the laws of quantum mechanics are already commercially available. In order to further boost this process, the next step is to transfer the results achieved by means of bulky and expensive setups into miniaturized and affordable devices. Integrated quantum photonics is exactly addressing this issue. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent advancements in the generation of quantum states of light on-chip. In particular, we focus on optical microcavities, as they can offer a solution to the problem of low efficiency that is characteristic of the materials typically used in integrated platforms. In addition, we show that specifically designed microcavities can also offer further advantages, such as compatibility with telecom standards (for exploiting existing fibre networks) and quantum memories (necessary to extend the communication distance), as well as giving a longitudinal multimode character for larger information transfer and processing. This last property (i.e., the increased dimensionality of the photon quantum state) is achieved through the ability to generate multiple photon pairs on a frequency comb, corresponding to the microcavity resonances. Further achievements include the possibility of fully exploiting the polarization degree of freedom, even for integrated devices. These results pave the way for the generation of integrated quantum frequency combs that, in turn, may find important applications toward the realization of a compact quantum-computing platform.

  5. NuSTAR discovers a cyclotron line and reveals the spinning up of the accreting X-ray pulsar IGR J16393-4643

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John; Fornasini, Francesca; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Mori, Kaya; Rahoui, Farid; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Zhang, William

    2016-04-01

    After several misclassifications, IGR J16393-4643 is now known to be a high-mass X-ray binary consisting of a heavily-absorbed pulsar that is likely paired with a massive and distant B star. It was observed for 50-ks by NuSTAR in the 3--79 keV energy band, complemented by a contemporaneous 2-ks observation with Swift-XRT. These observations enabled the discovery of a cyclotron resonant scattering feature with a centroid energy of 29.3(+1.1/-1.3) keV. This allowed us to measure the magnetic field strength of the neutron star for the first time: B = (2.5±0.1)×1012 G. The known pulsation period is now observed at 904.0±0.1 s. Since 2006, the neutron star has undergone a long-term spin-up trend at a rate of dP/dt = -2×10-8 s s-1 (-0.6 s per year, or a frequency derivative of dν/dt = 3×10-14 Hz s-1). In the power density spectrum, a break appears at the pulse frequency which separates the zero slope at low frequency from the steeper slope at high frequency. This addition of angular momentum to the neutron star could be due to the accretion of a quasi-spherical wind, or it could be caused by the transient appearance of a prograde accretion disk that is nearly in corotation with the neutron star whose magnetospheric radius is around 2×108 cm.

  6. Radiometric Measurement Comparison on the Integrating Sphere Source Used to Calibrate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

    PubMed

    Butler, James J; Brown, Steven W; Saunders, Robert D; Johnson, B Carol; Biggar, Stuart F; Zalewski, Edward F; Markham, Brian L; Gracey, Paul N; Young, James B; Barnes, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to validate the radiometric scales assigned to integrating sphere sources used in the calibration of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, a radiometric measurement comparison was held in May 1998 at Raytheon/Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS). This comparison was conducted in support of the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instruments. The radiometric scale assigned to the Spherical Integrating Source (SIS100) by SBRS was validated through a comparison with radiometric measurements made by a number of stable, well-characterized transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA's GSFC), and the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center (UA). The measured radiances from the radiometers differed by ±3 % in the visible to near infrared when compared to the SBRS calibration of the sphere, and the overall agreement was within the combined uncertainties of the individual measurements. In general, the transfer radiometers gave higher values than the SBRS calibration in the near infrared and lower values in the blue. The measurements of the radiometers differed by ±4 % from 800 nm to 1800 nm compared to the SBRS calibration of the sphere, and the overall agreement was within the combined uncertainties of the individual measurements for wavelengths less than 2200 nm. The results of the radiometric measurement comparison presented here supplement the results of previous measurement comparisons on the integrating sphere sources used to calibrate the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) at NEC Corporation, Yokohama, Japan. PMID:27413606

  7. Radiometric Measurement Comparison on the Integrating Sphere Source Used to Calibrate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+).

    PubMed

    Butler, James J; Brown, Steven W; Saunders, Robert D; Johnson, B Carol; Biggar, Stuart F; Zalewski, Edward F; Markham, Brian L; Gracey, Paul N; Young, James B; Barnes, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to validate the radiometric scales assigned to integrating sphere sources used in the calibration of Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, a radiometric measurement comparison was held in May 1998 at Raytheon/Santa Barbara Remote Sensing (SBRS). This comparison was conducted in support of the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instruments. The radiometric scale assigned to the Spherical Integrating Source (SIS100) by SBRS was validated through a comparison with radiometric measurements made by a number of stable, well-characterized transfer radiometers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA's GSFC), and the University of Arizona Optical Sciences Center (UA). The measured radiances from the radiometers differed by ±3 % in the visible to near infrared when compared to the SBRS calibration of the sphere, and the overall agreement was within the combined uncertainties of the individual measurements. In general, the transfer radiometers gave higher values than the SBRS calibration in the near infrared and lower values in the blue. The measurements of the radiometers differed by ±4 % from 800 nm to 1800 nm compared to the SBRS calibration of the sphere, and the overall agreement was within the combined uncertainties of the individual measurements for wavelengths less than 2200 nm. The results of the radiometric measurement comparison presented here supplement the results of previous measurement comparisons on the integrating sphere sources used to calibrate the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) at NEC Corporation, Yokohama, Japan.

  8. Integration of complex data sources to provide biologic insight into pulmonary vascular disease (2015 Grover Conference Series)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Stephen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The application of complex data sources to pulmonary vascular diseases is an emerging and promising area of investigation. The use of -omics platforms, in silico modeling of gene networks, and linkage of large human cohorts with DNA biobanks are beginning to bear biologic insight into pulmonary hypertension. These approaches to high-throughput molecular phenotyping offer the possibility of discovering new therapeutic targets and identifying variability in response to therapy that can be leveraged to improve clinical care. Optimizing the methods for analyzing complex data sources and accruing large, well-phenotyped human cohorts linked to biologic data remain significant challenges. Here, we discuss two specific types of complex data sources—gene regulatory networks and DNA-linked electronic medical record cohorts—that illustrate the promise, challenges, and current limitations of these approaches to understanding and managing pulmonary vascular disease.

  9. Integration of complex data sources to provide biologic insight into pulmonary vascular disease (2015 Grover Conference Series)

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Stephen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The application of complex data sources to pulmonary vascular diseases is an emerging and promising area of investigation. The use of -omics platforms, in silico modeling of gene networks, and linkage of large human cohorts with DNA biobanks are beginning to bear biologic insight into pulmonary hypertension. These approaches to high-throughput molecular phenotyping offer the possibility of discovering new therapeutic targets and identifying variability in response to therapy that can be leveraged to improve clinical care. Optimizing the methods for analyzing complex data sources and accruing large, well-phenotyped human cohorts linked to biologic data remain significant challenges. Here, we discuss two specific types of complex data sources—gene regulatory networks and DNA-linked electronic medical record cohorts—that illustrate the promise, challenges, and current limitations of these approaches to understanding and managing pulmonary vascular disease. PMID:27683602

  10. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  11. Across-formant integration and speech intelligibility: Effects of acoustic source properties in the presence and absence of a contralateral interferer.

    PubMed

    Summers, Robert J; Bailey, Peter J; Roberts, Brian

    2016-08-01

    The role of source properties in across-formant integration was explored using three-formant (F1+F2+F3) analogues of natural sentences (targets). In experiment 1, F1+F3 were harmonic analogues (H1+H3) generated using a monotonous buzz source and second-order resonators; in experiment 2, F1+F3 were tonal analogues (T1+T3). F2 could take either form (H2 or T2). Target formants were always presented monaurally; the receiving ear was assigned randomly on each trial. In some conditions, only the target was present; in others, a competitor for F2 (F2C) was presented contralaterally. Buzz-excited or tonal competitors were created using the time-reversed frequency and amplitude contours of F2. Listeners must reject F2C to optimize keyword recognition. Whether or not a competitor was present, there was no effect of source mismatch between F1+F3 and F2. The impact of adding F2C was modest when it was tonal but large when it was harmonic, irrespective of whether F2C matched F1+F3. This pattern was maintained when harmonic and tonal counterparts were loudness-matched (experiment 3). Source type and competition, rather than acoustic similarity, governed the phonetic contribution of a formant. Contrary to earlier research using dichotic targets, requiring across-ear integration to optimize intelligibility, H2C was an equally effective informational masker for H2 as for T2. PMID:27586751

  12. Determination of numbers of lead-exposed American children as a function of lead source: Integrated summary of a report to the US Congress on childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Mushak, P.; Crocetti, A.F. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Congress (Section 118(f), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA)) directed the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry to provide to it a quantitative assessment of the contributions of various sources of lead to childhood exposure. We provided both a quantitative response to the mandate and a critique of low-level lead sources for U.S. population segments. We also present here an integrated assessment of major and low-level lead sources. Significant sources of lead in childhood exposure include lead in paint, dust, soil, and drinking water. Approximately 6 million U.S. children less than 7 years old reside in the oldest housing, with highest exposure risk due to leaded paint. About 2 million in deteriorated units are at particularly high risk for exposure with ca. 1.2 million children in oldest, deteriorated housing estimated to have blood lead (PbB) levels above 15 micrograms/dl. Soil and dust lead are potential sources of exposure for 6-12 million children. Residential tap water lead is a measurable source for ca. 3.8 million children, of whom the U.S. EPA estimates ca. 240,000 have water-specific exposures at toxic levels. Leaded gasoline combustion mainly in past years has produced, and will continue to produce into the 1990s, significant numbers of exposed children with toxicologically elevated PbBs. For 1990, 1.25 million children will have their PbBs fall below 15 micrograms/dl. Food lead can cause significant exposure in certain cases.36 references.

  13. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al⁺ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  14. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al+ ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al+ ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm2 is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 109 cm-3 to 6 × 1010 cm-3 and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  15. Swift X-ray follow-up observations of two INTEGRAL sources: IGRJ12470-5407 and IGRJ18532+0416

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiocchi, M.; Landi, R.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Gehrels; Kennea, J. A.

    2011-04-01

    We report the results of X-ray follow-up observations performed with Swift/XRT of two unidentified INTEGRAL sources, IGRJ12470-5407 and IGRJ18532+0416, listed in the 4th IBIS Survey Catalogue (Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). IGRJ12470-5407 This source is a very weak IBIS unidentified object with a flux < 0.3 mCrab in the 20-40 keV energy band ( Bird et al. 2010, ApJS, 186, 1). The field of this source was observed with Swift-XRT on 2011-02-17 03:33:01 and 2011-02-19 18:06:01, for a total exposure time of 4312 s. Within the 99% IBIS positional uncertainty we found only one XRT source above 3 sigma c.l., located at R.A.(J2000) = 12h 47m 50.80s and Dec.(J2000) = -54d 06m 30.80s with an uncertainty of 5 arcsec.

  16. A data standard for sourcing fit-for-purpose biological samples in an integrated virtual network of biobanks.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Philip R; Mistry, Gita; Bullbeck, Helen; Carter, Anne

    2014-06-01

    Human tissue biobanks are at the epicenter of clinical research, responsible for providing both clinical samples and annotated data. There is a need for large numbers of samples to provide statistical power to research studies, especially since treatment and diagnosis are becoming ever more personalized. A single biobank cannot provide sufficient numbers of samples to capture the full spectrum of any disease. Currently there is no infrastructure in the United Kingdom (UK) to integrate biobanks. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Confederation of Cancer Biobanks (CCB) Working Group 3 looked to establish a data standard to enable biobanks to communicate about the samples they hold and so facilitate the formation of an integrated national network of biobanks. The Working Group examined the existing data standards available to biobanks, such as the MIABIS standard, and compared these to the aims of the working group. The CCB-developed data standard has brought many improvements: (1) Where existing data standards have been developed, these have been incorporated, ensuring compatibility with other initiatives; (2) the standard was written with the expectation that it will be extended for specific disease areas, such as the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank (BCCTB) and the Strategic Tissue Repository Alliances Through Unified Methods (STRATUM) project; and (3) biobanks will be able to communicate about specific samples, as well as aggregated statistics. The development of this data standard will allow all biobanks to integrate and share information about the samples they hold, facilitating the possibility of a national portal for researchers to find suitable samples for research. In addition, the data standard will allow other clinical services, such as disease registries, to communicate with biobanks in a standardized format allowing for greater cross-discipline data sharing.

  17. Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPS), executable model and source model (version 5.a) (on diskette). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) Cost Model was developed to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an equipment list, and capital investment and revenue requirements based on user-specified input data. The model includes conventional and emerging technologies for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter emissions. A variety of technology modules built into the model can be incorporated and combined. Cost and performance estimates can be analyzed in terms of integrated technologies. Conventional and emerging technologies included are low NOX combustion (overfire air/low NOX burners), natural gas reburning, advanced gas reburning, selective catalytic reduction, selective noncatalytic reduction, limestone injection multistage burners, the advanced silicate process, wet limestone flue gas desulfurization, dry sorbent injection, physical coal cleaning, coal switching, lime spray drying, spray humidification, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, the integrated gasfication combined cycle process, and pulverized coal burning boilers. The following revisions have been made to version 5.a: - Addition of Gas Substitution (GS) to the Natural Gas Reburning (NGR) and Advanced Gas Reburning (AGR) Module. Gas Substitution (GS) was added to allow the user to estimate the cost of substituting natural gas for coal in a utility boiler. - Flue Gas Flow Rate Revision. The user can now choose to use coal analyses to compute the mass and volumetric flue gas flow rate. Previously, an F-Factor was used, which calculated flue gas flow rate as a function of heat input to the boiler (dscf/MMBtu). ADVACATE Revision. The maximum size of a tower mill is 60 MW. The previous ADVACATE cost equations were based on a tower mill size of 100 MW.

  18. An ultra compact laser diode source for integration in a handheld point-of-care photoacoustic scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, A.; Canal, C.; Laugustin, A.; Rabot, O.

    2016-03-01

    Photoacoustics is a novel medical imaging technique with high potential for early detection of different diseases such as skin cancer or rheumatology. It is a hybrid modality with pulsed laser light for excitation of the tissue, and ultrasound as response. One of the hurdles for its introduction into the clinic, or even in clinical pilot studies and larger trials, is the bulkiness and price of existing photoacoustic systems. This presentation describes how recent developments in diode laser technology lead to a compact ultrasound scanner with built-in photoacoustic functionality. This is a key for the introduction of photoacoustic technology in the clinic and future point of care systems. We have developed a diode laser system and driver that deliver pulse energies which up to now were only achievable with Nd:YAG lasers. The efficiency and compactness allows integration in a handheld probe. The paper will highlights the laser technology and its radical integration with a medical ultrasound scanner, leading to a first prototype for clinical pilot studies.

  19. OPUS: An integrated simulation model for transport of nonpoint-source pollutants at the field scale. Volume 2, user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, V.A.; Smith, R.E.

    1992-12-01

    The Opus (not an acronym) model simulates interaction of water movement with the application, transformation, and movement of nonpoint-source pollutants in an agricultural field. The modeled processes include hydrology, erosion, weather, crop growth, agricultural management, nutrient cycling and transport, and pesticide fate. The field size is limited to catchments with a single raingage record and a single soil profile. Time scales vary by process and conditions: from fractions of a second in some hydrologic components to years in annual management cycles. Many processes proceed on a daily time step. The document describes the use of the computer program. Input variables and parameters are described, and relationships among some are explained.

  20. Plug-and-play Integration of dual-model based Knowledge Artefacts into an Open Source Ehr System.

    PubMed

    Krexner, Rabea; Duftschmid, Georg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present our experiences with extending an existing approach for an archetype-compliant collection and export of data according to the openEHR specifications within the open source EHR system OpenMRS. It allows an automatic generation of forms from templates, which were introduced by openEHR as an extension of the dual-model approach. Data entered in these forms can be exported in form of standardized EHR extracts. The use of templates allowed us to solve problems reported for the original archetype-based version of the approach, which were caused by the high optionality within archetypes. PMID:25160154

  1. Fermentative production of poly (γ-glutamic acid) from renewable carbon source and downstream purification through a continuous membrane-integrated hybrid process.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-02-01

    Experimental investigations were carried out on continuous and direct production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) in a hybrid reactor system that integrated conventional fermentative production step with membrane-based downstream separation and purification. Novelty of the integrated system lies in high degree of purity, conversion, yield and productivity of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) through elimination of substrate-product inhibitions of traditional batch production system. This new system is compact, flexible, eco-friendly and largely fouling-free ensuring steady and continuous production of poly-(γ-glutamic acid) directly from a renewable carbon source at the rate of 0.91 g/L/h. Cross-flow microfiltration membrane modules ensured almost complete separation and recycle of cells without much fouling problem. Well-screened ultrafiltration membrane module helped to concentrate poly-(γ-glutamic acid) while ensuring recovery and recycle of 96% unconverted carbon source resulting in yield of 0.6g/g along with high product purity.

  2. Evaluation of severe accident risks: Methodology for the containment, source term, consequence, and risk integration analyses; Volume 1, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gorham, E.D.; Breeding, R.J.; Brown, T.D.; Harper, F.T.; Helton, J.C.; Murfin, W.B.; Hora, S.C.

    1993-12-01

    NUREG-1150 examines the risk to the public from five nuclear power plants. The NUREG-1150 plant studies are Level III probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and, as such, they consist of four analysis components: accident frequency analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. This volume summarizes the methods utilized in performing the last three components and the assembly of these analyses into an overall risk assessment. The NUREG-1150 analysis approach is based on the following ideas: (1) general and relatively fast-running models for the individual analysis components, (2) well-defined interfaces between the individual analysis components, (3) use of Monte Carlo techniques together with an efficient sampling procedure to propagate uncertainties, (4) use of expert panels to develop distributions for important phenomenological issues, and (5) automation of the overall analysis. Many features of the new analysis procedures were adopted to facilitate a comprehensive treatment of uncertainty in the complete risk analysis. Uncertainties in the accident frequency, accident progression and source term analyses were included in the overall uncertainty assessment. The uncertainties in the consequence analysis were not included in this assessment. A large effort was devoted to the development of procedures for obtaining expert opinion and the execution of these procedures to quantify parameters and phenomena for which there is large uncertainty and divergent opinions in the reactor safety community.

  3. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 8 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components `under one roof.` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  4. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof.`` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  5. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 10 (AK, ID, or WA)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof.`` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  6. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof.`` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  7. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof.`` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  8. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, MN, OH, WI)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof.`` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  9. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof.`` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  10. Better assessment science integrating point and nonpoint sources (BASINS) modeling system (version 2.0). EPA Region 3 (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof.`` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  11. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  12. Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) modeling system, version 2.0. EPA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components ``under one roof``. Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  13. Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS) modeling system, version 2.0. EPA Region 2 (NJ, NY, PR, VI)

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    BASINS is a multipurpose environmental analysis system for use by regional, state, and local agencies in performing watershed- and water-quality-based studies. It was developed to address three objectives: To facilitate examination of environmental information; To support analysis of environmental systems; and To provide a framework for examining management alternatives. Because many states and local agencies are moving toward a watershed-based approach, the system is configured to support environmental and ecological studies in a watershed context. It is designed to be flexible. It can support analysis at a variety of scales using tools that range from simple to sophisticated. BASINS was also conceived as a system for supporting the development of total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). Developing TMDLs requires a watershed-based point and nonpoint source analysis for a variety of pollutants. It also lets the user test different management options. BASINS makes watershed and water quality studies easier by bringing key data and analytical components `under one roof.` Analysts can efficiently access provided national environmental information, apply assessment and planning tools, and run a variety of proven, robust nonpoint loading and water quality models. A geographic information system (GIS) provides the integrating framework. GIS provides techniques for analyzing landscape information and displaying relationships. Through the use of GIS, BASINS has the flexibility to display and integrate a wide range of information (e.g. land use, point sources discharges, water supply withdrawals) at a scale chosen by the user. BASINS comprises a suite of interrelated components for performing the various aspects of environmental analysis. The six components include (1) nationally derived databases with Data Extraction tools and Project Builders; (2) assessment tools (TARGET, ASSESS, and Data Mining) that address large- and small-scale characterization needs; (3) utilities to

  14. Mitigation of volcanic hazards to aviation: The need for real-time integration of multiple data sources (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    The successful mitigation of volcanic hazards to aviation requires rapid interpretation and coordination of data from multiple sources, and communication of information products to a variety of end users. This community of information providers and information users include volcano observatories, volcanic ash advisory centers, meteorological watch offices, air traffic control centers, airline dispatch and military flight operations centers, and pilots. Each of these entities has capabilities and needs that are unique to their situations that evolve over a range of time spans. Prior to an eruption, information about probable eruption scenarios are needed in order to allow for contingency planning. Once a hazardous eruption begins, the immediate questions are where, when, how high, and how long will the eruption last? Following the initial detection of an eruption, the need for information changes to forecasting the movement of the volcanic cloud, determining whether ground operations will be affected by ash fall, and estimating how long the drifting volcanic cloud will remain hazardous. A variety of tools have been developed and/or improved over the past several years that provide additional data sources about volcanic hazards that is pertinent to the aviation sector. These include seismic and pressure sensors, ground-based radar and lidar, web cameras, ash dispersion models, and more sensitive satellite sensors that are capable of better detecting volcanic ash, gases and aerosols. Along with these improved capabilities come increased challenges in rapidly assimilating the available data sources, which come from a variety of data providers. In this presentation, examples from the recent large eruptions of Okmok, Kasatochi, and Sarychev Peak volcanoes will be used to demonstrate the challenges faced by hazard response agencies. These eruptions produced volcanic clouds that were dispersed over large regions of the Northern Hemisphere and were observed by pilots and

  15. In vivo imaging of epileptic foci in rats using a miniature probe integrating diffuse optical tomography and electroencephalographic source localization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hao; Zhang, Tao; Zhou, Junli; Carney, Paul R.; Jiang, Huabei

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The goal of this work is to establish a new dual-modal brain mapping technique based on diffuse optical tomography (DOT) and electroencephalographic source localization (ESL) that can chronically/intracranially record optical/EEG data to precisely map seizures and localize the seizure onset zone and associated epileptic brain network. Methods The dual-modal imaging system was employed to image seizures in an experimental acute bicuculline methiodide rat model of focal epilepsy. Depth information derived from DOT was used as constraint in ESL to enhance the image reconstruction. Groups of animals were compared based on localization of seizure foci, either at different positions or at different depths. Results This novel imaging technique successfully localized the seizure onset zone in rat induced by bicuculline methiodide injected at a depth of 1mm, 2mm and 3mm, respectively. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of the depth information from DOT into the ESL image reconstruction resulted in more accurate and reliable ESL images. Although the ESL images showed a horizontal shift of the source localization, the DOT identified the seizure focus accurately. In one case, when the BMI was injected at a site outside the field of view (FOV) of the DOT/ESL interface, ESL gives false positive detection of the focus while DOT shows negative detection. Significance This study represents the first to identify seizure onset zone using implantable DOT. In addition, the combination of DOT/ESL has never been documented in neuroscience and epilepsy imaging. This technology will enable us to precisely measure the neural activity and hemodynamic response at exactly the same tissue site and at both cortical and sub cortical levels. PMID:25524046

  16. Automated model integration at source code level: An approach for implementing models into the NASA Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Mocko, D. M.; Kumar, S.; Nearing, G. S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Geiger, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    Model integration bridges the data flow between modeling frameworks and models. However, models usually do not fit directly into a particular modeling environment, if not designed for it. An example includes implementing different types of models into the NASA Land Information System (LIS), a software framework for land-surface modeling and data assimilation. Model implementation requires scientific knowledge and software expertise and may take a developer months to learn LIS and model software structure. Debugging and testing of the model implementation is also time-consuming due to not fully understanding LIS or the model. This time spent is costly for research and operational projects. To address this issue, an approach has been developed to automate model integration into LIS. With this in mind, a general model interface was designed to retrieve forcing inputs, parameters, and state variables needed by the model and to provide as state variables and outputs to LIS. Every model can be wrapped to comply with the interface, usually with a FORTRAN 90 subroutine. Development efforts need only knowledge of the model and basic programming skills. With such wrappers, the logic is the same for implementing all models. Code templates defined for this general model interface could be re-used with any specific model. Therefore, the model implementation can be done automatically. An automated model implementation toolkit was developed with Microsoft Excel and its built-in VBA language. It allows model specifications in three worksheets and contains FORTRAN 90 code templates in VBA programs. According to the model specification, the toolkit generates data structures and procedures within FORTRAN modules and subroutines, which transfer data between LIS and the model wrapper. Model implementation is standardized, and about 80 - 90% of the development load is reduced. In this presentation, the automated model implementation approach is described along with LIS programming

  17. Integrated methodology for assessing the HCH groundwater pollution at the multi-source contaminated mega-site Bitterfeld/Wolfen.

    PubMed

    Wycisk, Peter; Stollberg, Reiner; Neumann, Christian; Gossel, Wolfgang; Weiss, Holger; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    A large-scale groundwater contamination characterises the Pleistocene groundwater system of the former industrial and abandoned mining region Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Eastern Germany. For more than a century, local chemical production and extensive lignite mining caused a complex contaminant release from local production areas and related dump sites. Today, organic pollutants (mainly organochlorines) are present in all compartments of the environment at high concentration levels. An integrated methodology for characterising the current situation of pollution as well as the future fate development of hazardous substances is highly required to decide on further management and remediation strategies. Data analyses have been performed on regional groundwater monitoring data from about 10 years, containing approximately 3,500 samples, and up to 180 individual organic parameters from almost 250 observation wells. Run-off measurements as well as water samples were taken biweekly from local creeks during a period of 18 months. A kriging interpolation procedure was applied on groundwater analytics to generate continuous distribution patterns of the nodal contaminant samples. High-resolution geological 3-D modelling serves as a database for a regional 3-D groundwater flow model. Simulation results support the future fate assessment of contaminants. A first conceptual model of the contamination has been developed to characterise the contamination in regional surface waters and groundwater. A reliable explanation of the variant hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) occurrence within the two local aquifer systems has been derived from the regionalised distribution patterns. Simulation results from groundwater flow modelling provide a better understanding of the future pollutant migration paths and support the overall site characterisation. The presented case study indicates that an integrated assessment of large-scale groundwater contaminations often needs more data than only from local

  18. Integrated 1.55 µm photomixer local oscillator sources for heterodyne receivers from 70 GHz to beyond 250 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggard, Peter G.; Azcona, Luis; Laisné, Alexandre; Ellison, Brian N.; Shen, Pengbo; Gomes, Nathan J.; Davies, Phil A.

    2004-10-01

    Photomixing is a flexible and efficient method of providing both local oscillator signals for heterodyne receivers and high frequency phase reference signals. Ultrafast, 70 GHz bandwidth, λ = 1.55 µm, photodiodes from u2t Photonics AG have been incorporated into three designs of mm-wave waveguide mounts. The photomixers utilise a thin freestanding gold foil, or a gold on dielectric, probe to couple power into the waveguide and to deliver the photodiode bias. The frequency coverage of the designs is from 70 GHz to 300 GHz. A method of rapidly characterizing the frequency response of these photomixers using spontaneous-spontaneous beating of light from an EDFA is described. Recent work has been directed at increasing the degree of integration of the photodiode with the waveguide probe and choke filter to reduce the frequency dependence of the output power. A simplified photomixer block manufacturing process has also been introduced. A combined probe and filter structure, impedance matched to both the coplanar output line on the photodiode chip and to 0.4 height milled waveguide, is presented. This matching is achieved over the W-band with a fixed waveguide backshort. We present modelled and experimental results showing the increased efficiency and smoother tuning. The design and frequency response of such a probe is reported. We also present the performance of a simpler mount, operating in the frequency range from 160 GHz to 300 GHz, which generates powers of around 10 µW up to 250 GHz.

  19. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Chengliang

    2006-01-01

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime τ decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. τ was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, τ increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of ~32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  20. Dose response explorer: an integrated open-source tool for exploring and modelling radiotherapy dose-volume outcome relationships.

    PubMed

    El Naqa, I; Suneja, G; Lindsay, P E; Hope, A J; Alaly, J R; Vicic, M; Bradley, J D; Apte, A; Deasy, J O

    2006-11-21

    Radiotherapy treatment outcome models are a complicated function of treatment, clinical and biological factors. Our objective is to provide clinicians and scientists with an accurate, flexible and user-friendly software tool to explore radiotherapy outcomes data and build statistical tumour control or normal tissue complications models. The software tool, called the dose response explorer system (DREES), is based on Matlab, and uses a named-field structure array data type. DREES/Matlab in combination with another open-source tool (CERR) provides an environment for analysing treatment outcomes. DREES provides many radiotherapy outcome modelling features, including (1) fitting of analytical normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) and tumour control probability (TCP) models, (2) combined modelling of multiple dose-volume variables (e.g., mean dose, max dose, etc) and clinical factors (age, gender, stage, etc) using multi-term regression modelling, (3) manual or automated selection of logistic or actuarial model variables using bootstrap statistical resampling, (4) estimation of uncertainty in model parameters, (5) performance assessment of univariate and multivariate analyses using Spearman's rank correlation and chi-square statistics, boxplots, nomograms, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, and receiver operating characteristics curves, and (6) graphical capabilities to visualize NTCP or TCP prediction versus selected variable models using various plots. DREES provides clinical researchers with a tool customized for radiotherapy outcome modelling. DREES is freely distributed. We expect to continue developing DREES based on user feedback.

  1. Integrated Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Source Apportionment of Watercourses in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiabo; Li, Fayun; Fan, Zhiping; Wang, Yanjie

    2016-01-01

    Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009–2011) on water quality in the Liao River system (China). Cluster analysis (CA) classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May–October, February–April and November–January) and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C) based on similarities in water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA) determined that temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP) and volatile phenols were significant variables affecting temporal variations, with 81.2% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) identified eight potential pollution factors for each part of the data structure, explaining more than 61% of the total variance. Oxygen-consuming organics from cropland and woodland runoff were the main latent pollution factor for group A. For group B, the main pollutants were oxygen-consuming organics, oil, nutrients and fecal matter. For group C, the evaluated pollutants primarily included oxygen-consuming organics, oil and toxic organics. PMID:27775679

  2. Integrated watershed approach in controlling point and non-point source pollution within Zelivka drinking water reservoir.

    PubMed

    Holas, J; Hrncir, M

    2002-01-01

    An agricultural watershed involves manipulation of soil, water and other natural resources and it has profound impacts on ecosystems. To manage these complex issues, we must understand causes and consequences and interactions-related transport of pollutants, quality of the environment, mitigation measures and policy measures. A ten year period of economic changes has been analysed with respect to sustainable development concerning Zelivka drinking water reservoir and its watershed, where agriculture and forestry are the main human activities. It is recommended that all land users within a catchment area should receive payments for their contribution to water cycle management. Setting up the prevention principles and best management practices financially subsidized by a local water company has been found very effective in both point and non-point source pollution abatement, and the newly prepared Clean Water Programme actively involves local municipal authorities as well. The first step based on systems analysis was to propose effective strategies and select alternative measures and ways for their financing. Long term monitoring of nutrient loads entering the reservoir and hazardous events statistics resulted in maps characterising the territory including vulnerable zones and risk factors. Financing involves providing annual payments to farmers, who undertake to manage specified areas of their land in a particular way and one-off payments to realise proposed issues ensuring soil conservation and watershed ecosystem benefits.

  3. Long-Time Numerical Integration of the Three-Dimensional Wave Equation in the Vicinity of a Moving Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryabenkii, V. S.; Turchaninov, V. I.; Tsynkov, S. V.

    1999-01-01

    We propose a family of algorithms for solving numerically a Cauchy problem for the three-dimensional wave equation. The sources that drive the equation (i.e., the right-hand side) are compactly supported in space for any given time; they, however, may actually move in space with a subsonic speed. The solution is calculated inside a finite domain (e.g., sphere) that also moves with a subsonic speed and always contains the support of the right-hand side. The algorithms employ a standard consistent and stable explicit finite-difference scheme for the wave equation. They allow one to calculate tile solution for arbitrarily long time intervals without error accumulation and with the fixed non-growing amount of tile CPU time and memory required for advancing one time step. The algorithms are inherently three-dimensional; they rely on the presence of lacunae in the solutions of the wave equation in oddly dimensional spaces. The methodology presented in the paper is, in fact, a building block for constructing the nonlocal highly accurate unsteady artificial boundary conditions to be used for the numerical simulation of waves propagating with finite speed over unbounded domains.

  4. Source quality variations tied to sequence development: Integration of physical and chemical aspects, Lower to Middle Triassic, western Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Bohacs, K.M.; Isaksen, G.H. )

    1991-03-01

    Triassic mudrocks from the Barents Sea area demonstrate to covariance of physical and chemical properties of mudrocks deposited in shelfal environments and the aspect of depositional sequences in distal settings. The tie of physical parameters to chemical character within a detailed sequence-stratigraphic framework enables the construction of depositional-facies models to predict organic-matter content and quality. This allows the explorer to more closely constrain and predict the nature of potential source rocks using seismic and well-log data. Changes in lithology, bedding geometry, sedimentary structures, body and trace-fossil assemblages, and inorganic, bulk-organic, and molecular geochemistry revealed the detailed depositional environments. The depositional environments stack predictably, according to their position in the depositional sequence: from aerobic lower-shoreface--offshore transition environments in lowstand systems tracts to dysaerobic-anaerobic distal open-marine-shelf environment in transgressive and early highstand systems tracts. Quantitative molecular geochemistry also revealed variations within this distal setting and strong covariance with sequence position. Input of organic matter from terrigenous higher plants dominates the lowstands whereas marine-algal organic matter is most prevalent within transgressive and highstand systems tracts. Specifically, the abundance of C{sub 30} steranes, total steranes, and moretane reflected development of the sequences.

  5. Definition of a geometric model for landslide numerical modeling from the integration of multi-source geophysical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gance, Julien; Bernardie, Séverine; Grandjean, Gilles; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Landslide hazard can be assessed through numerical hydro-mechanical models. These methods require different input data such as a geometric model, rheological constitutive laws and associated hydro-mechanical parameters, and boundary conditions. The objective of this study is to fill the gap existing between geophysical and engineering communities. This gap prevents the engineering community to use the full information available in geophysical imagery. A landslide geometrical model contains information on the geometry and extent of the different geotechnical units of the landslide, and describes the layering and the discontinuities. It is generally drawn from punctual geotechnical tests, using interpolation, or better, from the combined use of a geotechnical test and the iso-value of geophysical tomographies. In this context, we propose to use a multi-source geophysical data fusion strategy as an aid for the construction of landslide geometric models. Based on a fuzzy logic data fusion method, we propose to use different geophysical tomographies and their associated uncertainty and sensitivity tomograms to design a "probable" geometric model. This strategy is tested on a profile of the Super-Sauze landslide using P-wave velocity, P-wave attenuation and electrical resistivity tomography. We construct a probable model and a true model for numerical modeling. Using basic elastic constitutive laws, we show that the model geometry is sufficiently detailed to simulate the complex surface displacements pattern.

  6. ESA's Integral discovers hidden black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    discovered so far? Astronomers, who have been observing the object regularly, guess that it had remained invisible because there must be a very thick shell of obscuring material surrounding it. If that was the case, only the most energetic radiation from the object could get through the shell; less-energetic radiation would be blocked. That could explain why space telescopes that are sensitive only to low-energy radiation had overlooked the object, while Integral, specialised in detecting very energetic emissions, did see it. To test their theory, astronomers turned to ESA's XMM-Newton space observatory, which observes the sky in the X-ray wavelengths. As well as being sensitive to high-energy radiation, XMM-Newton is also able to check for the presence of obscuring material. Indeed, XMM-Newton detected this object last February, as well as the existence of a dense 'cocoon' of cold gas with a diameter of similar size to that of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This obscuring material forming the cocoon is probably 'stellar wind', namely gas ejected by the supermassive companion star. Astronomers think that this gas may be accreted by the compact black hole, forming a dense shell around it. This obscuring cloud traps most of the energy produced inside it. The main author of these results, Roland Walter of the Integral Science Data Centre, Switzerland, explained: "Only photons with the highest energies [above 10 keV] could escape from that cocoon. IGR J16318-4848 has therefore not been detected by surveys performed at lower energies, nor by previous gamma-ray missions that were much less sensitive than Integral." The question now is to find out how many of these objects lurk in the Galaxy. XMM-Newton and Integral together are the perfect tools to do the job. They have already discovered two more new sources embedded in obscuring material. Future observations are planned. Christoph Winkler, ESA Project Scientist for Integral, said: "These early examples of using two

  7. An Integrated Approach on Groundwater Flow and Heat/Solute Transport for Sustainable Groundwater Source Heat Pump (GWHP) System Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. K.; Bae, G. O.; Joun, W.; Park, B. H.; Park, J.; Park, I.; Lee, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    The GWHP system uses a stable temperature of groundwater for cooling and heating in buildings and thus has been known as one of the most energy-saving and cost-efficient renewable energy techniques. A GWHP facility was installed at an island located at the confluence of North Han and South Han rivers, Korea. Because of well-developed alluvium, the aquifer is suitable for application of this system, extracting and injecting a large amount of groundwater. However, the numerical experiments under various operational conditions showed that it could be vulnerable to thermal interference due to the highly permeable gravel layer, as a preferential path of thermal plume migration, and limited space for well installation. Thus, regional groundwater flow must be an important factor of consideration for the efficient operation under these conditions but was found to be not simple in this site. While the groundwater level in this site totally depends on the river stage control of Paldang dam, the direction and velocity of the regional groundwater flow, observed using the colloidal borescope, have been changed hour by hour with the combined flows of both the rivers. During the pumping and injection tests, the water discharges in Cheongpyeong dam affected their respective results. Moreover, the measured NO3-N concentrations might imply the effect of agricultural activities around the facility on the groundwater quality along the regional flow. It is obvious that the extraction and injection of groundwater during the facility operation will affect the fate of the agricultural contaminants. Particularly, the gravel layer must also be a main path for contaminant migration. The simulations for contaminant transport during the facility operation showed that the operation strategy for only thermal efficiency could be unsafe and unstable in respect of groundwater quality. All these results concluded that the integrated approach on groundwater flow and heat/solute transport is necessary

  8. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al{sup +} ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Weichsel, T. Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Philipp, A.

    2015-09-15

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology—a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al{sup +} ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm{sup 2} is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} to 6 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge.

  9. A hybrid electron cyclotron resonance metal ion source with integrated sputter magnetron for the production of an intense Al⁺ ion beam.

    PubMed

    Weichsel, T; Hartung, U; Kopte, T; Zschornack, G; Kreller, M; Philipp, A

    2015-09-01

    A metal ion source prototype has been developed: a combination of magnetron sputter technology with 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source technology-a so called magnetron ECR ion source (MECRIS). An integrated ring-shaped sputter magnetron with an Al target is acting as a powerful metal atom supply in order to produce an intense current of singly charged metal ions. Preliminary experiments show that an Al(+) ion current with a density of 167 μA/cm(2) is extracted from the source at an acceleration voltage of 27 kV. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe measurements and optical emission spectroscopy were used to study the plasma states of the ion source: sputter magnetron, ECR, and MECRIS plasma. Electron density and temperature as well as Al atom density were determined as a function of microwave and sputter magnetron power. The effect of ECR heating is strongly pronounced in the center of the source. There the electron density is increased by one order of magnitude from 6 × 10(9) cm(-3) to 6 × 10(10) cm(-3) and the electron temperature is enhanced from about 5 eV to 12 eV, when the ECR plasma is ignited to the magnetron plasma. Operating the magnetron at constant power, it was observed that its discharge current is raised from 1.8 A to 4.8 A, when the ECR discharge was superimposed with a microwave power of 2 kW. At the same time, the discharge voltage decreased from about 560 V to 210 V, clearly indicating a higher plasma density of the MECRIS mode. The optical emission spectrum of the MECRIS plasma is dominated by lines of excited Al atoms and shows a significant contribution of lines arising from singly ionized Al. Plasma emission photography with a CCD camera was used to prove probe measurements and to identify separated plasma emission zones originating from the ECR and magnetron discharge. PMID:26429434

  10. Research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated in a test-bed bus. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    This project, the research and development of a phosphoric acid fuel cell/battery power source integrated into test-bed buses, began as a multi-phase U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project in 1989. Phase I had a goal of developing two competing half-scale (25 kW) brassboard phosphoric acid fuel cell systems. An air-cooled and a liquid-cooled fuel cell system were developed and tested to verify the concept of using a fuel cell and a battery in a hybrid configuration wherein the fuel cell supplies the average power required for operating the vehicle and a battery supplies the `surge` or excess power required for acceleration and hill-climbing. Work done in Phase I determined that the liquid-cooled system offered higher efficiency.

  11. Two-dimensional analytical model for estimating crosswind integrated concentration in a capping inversion: eddy diffusivity as a function of downwind distance from the source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, Maithili; Gupta, Suman

    A mathematical model has been proposed for computing crosswind-integrated concentration in a capping inversion layer by considering the eddy diffusivity as a function of down wind distance from the source. An analytical solution of the resulting partial differential equation with the physically relevant boundary conditions has been obtained for the general functional form of eddy diffusivity using the method of eigen-function expansion. The model with eddy diffusivity as a linear function of downwind distance is validated with the available data in the literature from Copenhagen in Denmark and plume validation experiment conducted by Electric Power Research Institute at Kincaid in USA. The agreement is found to be good between the computed and the observed concentrations in both the experiments. In fact, majority of the concentrations predicted from the model are with in a factor of two to observations.

  12. Integrated magnetic, gravity, and GPR surveys to locate the probable source of hydrocarbon contamination in Sharm El-Sheikh area, south Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, Mona; Rashed, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Sharm El-Sheikh waters were suddenly hit by hydrocarbon spills which created a serious threat to the prosperous tourism industry in and around the city. Analysis of soil samples, water samples, and seabed samples collected in and around the contaminated bay area showed anomalous levels of hydrocarbons. An integrated geophysical investigation, using magnetic, gravity, and ground penetrating radar geophysical tools, was conducted in the headland overlooking the contaminated bay in order to delineate the possible subsurface source of contamination. The results of the geophysical investigations revealed three underground manmade reinforced concrete tanks and a complicated network of buried steel pipes in addition to other unidentified buried objects. The depths and dimensions of the discovered objects were determined. Geophysical investigations also revealed the presence of a north-south oblique slip fault running through the eastern part of the studied area. Excavations, conducted later on, confirmed the presence of one of the tanks delineated by the geophysical surveys.

  13. Micro-power generator supplying source for integrated circuit chip based on Pb(Sn,Zr,Ti)O3 ferroelectric ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenhai; Cui, Zhanzhong; Yan, Jinglong; Li, Kejie

    2011-04-01

    We have demonstrated both experimentally and theoretically that a tin-modified and niobium-modified lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Sn,Zr,Ti)O3) ferroelectric generator system can function as a micro-power supplying source for integrated circuit (IC) chip of separate nonelectric impulse input shock tube digital delay detonator. The ferroelectric ceramic phase transition under transverse shock wave compression can charge an external storage capacitor. The ferroelectric ceramic micro-pulsed-power system is capable of generating low output voltage pulses with an amplitude of 54.2 V and with transferred energy of 1.73 mJ, ultimately supplying an IC chip with micro-power. This work presents the methodology for theoretical analysis and experimental operation of the ferroelectric generator. Theoretical calculations are conducted based on circuit analysis law and principles of dynamic high pressure and shock wave physics. The experimental results were in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  14. IIS – Integrated Interactome System: A Web-Based Platform for the Annotation, Analysis and Visualization of Protein-Metabolite-Gene-Drug Interactions by Integrating a Variety of Data Sources and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Carazzolle, Marcelo Falsarella; de Carvalho, Lucas Miguel; Slepicka, Hugo Henrique; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Pereira, Gonçalo Amarante Guimarães; Kobarg, Jörg; Vaz Meirelles, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Background High-throughput screening of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions brings important perspectives in the Systems Biology field, as the analysis of these interactions provides new insights into protein/gene function, cellular metabolic variations and the validation of therapeutic targets and drug design. However, such analysis depends on a pipeline connecting different tools that can automatically integrate data from diverse sources and result in a more comprehensive dataset that can be properly interpreted. Results We describe here the Integrated Interactome System (IIS), an integrative platform with a web-based interface for the annotation, analysis and visualization of the interaction profiles of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest. IIS works in four connected modules: (i) Submission module, which receives raw data derived from Sanger sequencing (e.g. two-hybrid system); (ii) Search module, which enables the user to search for the processed reads to be assembled into contigs/singlets, or for lists of proteins/genes, metabolites and drugs of interest, and add them to the project; (iii) Annotation module, which assigns annotations from several databases for the contigs/singlets or lists of proteins/genes, generating tables with automatic annotation that can be manually curated; and (iv) Interactome module, which maps the contigs/singlets or the uploaded lists to entries in our integrated database, building networks that gather novel identified interactions, protein and metabolite expression/concentration levels, subcellular localization and computed topological metrics, GO biological processes and KEGG pathways enrichment. This module generates a XGMML file that can be imported into Cytoscape or be visualized directly on the web. Conclusions We have developed IIS by the integration of diverse databases following the need of appropriate tools for a systematic analysis of physical, genetic and chemical-genetic interactions. IIS

  15. An integrated analysis of controlled and passive source seismic data across an Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpfhuber, Eva-Maria; Keller, G. Randy

    2009-08-01

    We conducted a new integrated analysis of the controlled and passive source seismic data from the Continental Dynamics of the Rocky Mountains (CD-ROM) experiment in the western United States. A specific goal of our study was to establish a stronger tie between the CD-ROM and Deep Probe experiments that together form a transect that extends almost 3000 km from northern New Mexico to the southern Northwest Territories of Canada. We created a new P wave velocity and interface model from the controlled source seismic (CSS) data on the basis of an advanced picking strategy that produced substantially more arrivals whose traveltimes could be picked. In addition, we were able to identify a substantial set of S wave arrivals and to establish an independent S wave model, which allowed us to estimate the Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios in the crust. An integrated analysis of the CSS data with recently generated receiver function results and gravity data allowed us to construct a well-constrained multiparameter structural model. This model resolves the structural framework of the crust and uppermost mantle of the transition from the Wyoming craton to the north, across the Cheyenne belt suture zone, and into the Proterozoic terranes to the south. Our tectonic interpretation that crustal-scale crocodile structures are present provides an explanation for the south dip of the Cheyenne belt in the upper crust and the north dipping slab in the mantle revealed by earlier tomographic results. The very distinct crustal structures north and south of the suture zone are clearly shown in our model and document that the blocks that collided at ˜1.8 Ga to form the Cheyenne belt suture zone have retained their basic crustal and uppermost mantle structure since then.

  16. Quality of Water and Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli from Water Sources of Hilly Tribal Villages with and without Integrated Watershed Management—A One Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Nerkar, Sandeep S.; Tamhankar, Ashok J.; Khedkar, Smita U.; Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    In many hilly tribal areas of the world, water scarcity is a major problem and diarrhoea is common. Poor quality of water also affects the environment. An integrated watershed management programme (IWMP) aims to increase availability of water and to improve life conditions. Globally, there is a lack of information on water contamination, occurrence of diarrhoea and antibiotic resistance, a serious global concern, in relation to IWMP in hilly tribal areas. Therefore, a prospective observational study was conducted during 2011–2012 in six villages in a hilly tribal belt of India, three with and three without implementation of an IWMP, to explore quality of water, diarrhoeal cases in the community and antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from water sources. The results showed that physico-chemical quality of water was within limits of safe consumption in all samples. The odds of coliform contamination in water samples was 2.3 times higher in non-watershed management villages (NWMV) compared to integrated watershed management villages (IWMV) (95% CI 0.8–6.45, p = 0.081). The number of diarrhoeal cases (18/663 vs. 42/639, p < 0.05) was lower in IWMV as compared to NWMV. Overall E. coli isolates showed high susceptibility to antibiotics. Resistance to a wider range of antibiotics was observed in NWMV. PMID:24991664

  17. Integrating an open-source course management system (Moodle) into the teaching of a first-year medical physiology course: a case study.

    PubMed

    Seluakumaran, Kumar; Jusof, Felicita Fedelis; Ismail, Rosnah; Husain, Ruby

    2011-12-01

    Educators in medical schools around the world are presently experimenting with innovative ways of using web-based learning to supplement the existing teaching and learning process. We have recently used a popular open-source course management system (CMS) called the modular object-oriented dynamic learning environment (Moodle) to construct an online site (DPhysiol) to facilitate our face-to-face teaching of physiology to a group of first-year students in the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program. The integration of the Moodle site into our teaching was assessed using online log activity, student examination marks, and feedback from students. The freely available Moodle platform was simple to use, helped to effectively deliver course materials, and has features that allowed cooperative learning. Students who used the CMS throughout their academic year and commented favorably regarding its use as a complement to the face-to-face classroom sessions. The group of students used the CMS obtained significantly higher scores in the final examination compared with the previous class that did not use the CMS. In addition, there was a significant correlation between student participation and performance in online quizzes and their final examination marks. However, students' overall online usage of the CMS did not correlate with their examination marks. We recommend Moodle as a useful tool for physiology educators who are interested in integrating web-based learning into their existing teaching curriculum. PMID:22139773

  18. Assessing movement and sources of mortality of juvenile catostomids using passive integrated transponder tags, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon - Summary of 2012 effort

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2013-01-01

    Survival of juvenile endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers is thought to limit recruitment into the adult populations and ultimately limit the recovery of these species in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Although many hypotheses exist about the sources of mortality, the contribution of each speculated source of mortality has not been examined. To examine causes of mortality, validate estimated age to maturity, and examine movement patterns for juvenile suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and remote tag detection systems were used. Age-1 suckers were opportunistically tagged in 2009 and 2010 during another study on juvenile sucker distribution. After the distribution study concluded in 2010, USGS redirected sampling efforts to target age-1 suckers for tagging. Tags were redetected using an existing infrastructure of remote PIT tag readers and tag scanning surveys at American white pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), and Forster’s tern (Sterna forsteri) breeding and loafing areas. Individual fish histories are used to describe the distance, direction, and timing of juvenile sucker movement. Sucker PIT tag detections in the Sprague and Williamson Rivers in mid-summer and in autumn indicate tagged juvenile suckers use these tributaries outside of the known spring spawning season. PIT tags detected in bird habitats indicate predation by birds was a cause of mortality.

  19. Chromosomal integration of a cephalosporinase gene from Acinetobacter baumannii into Oligella urethralis as a source of acquired resistance to beta-lactams.

    PubMed

    Mammeri, Hedi; Poirel, Laurent; Mangeney, Nicole; Nordmann, Patrice

    2003-05-01

    Clinical Oligella urethralis isolate COH-1, which was uncommonly resistant to penicillins and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, was recovered from a 55-year-old patient with a urinary tract infection. Shotgun cloning into Escherichia coli and expression experiments gave recombinant clones expressing either an AmpC beta-lactamase-type phenotype of resistance or a carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase-type phenotype of resistance. The AmpC beta-lactamase identified (ABA-1), which had a pI value of 8.2, had 98% amino acid identity with a chromosomally encoded cephalosporinase of Acinetobacter baumannii. A 820-bp insertion sequence element, ISOur1, belonging to the IS6 family of insertion sequence elements, was identified immediately upstream of bla(ABA-1), providing a -35 promoter sequence and likely giving rise to a hybrid promoter region. The carbenicillin-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase identified (CARB-8), which had a pI value of 6.4, differed from CARB-5 by two amino acid substitutions. Hybridization of CeuI fragment I-restricted DNA fragments of O. urethralis COH-1 with bla(ABA-1)-, bla(CARB-8)-, and 16S rRNA-specific probes indicated the chromosomal integration of the beta-lactamase genes. PCR and hybridization experiments failed to detect bla(CARB-8)- and bla(ABA-1)-like genes in three O. urethralis reference strains, indicating that the beta-lactamase genes identified were the source of acquired resistance in O. urethralis COH-1. This is one of the few examples of the interspecies transfer and the chromosomal integration of a gene encoding a naturally occurring beta-lactamase.

  20. Integrated Tsunami Database: simulation and identification of seismic tsunami sources, 3D visualization and post-disaster assessment on the shore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivorot'ko, Olga; Kabanikhin, Sergey; Marinin, Igor; Karas, Adel; Khidasheli, David

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important problems of tsunami investigation is the problem of seismic tsunami source reconstruction. Non-profit organization WAPMERR (http://wapmerr.org) has provided a historical database of alleged tsunami sources around the world that obtained with the help of information about seaquakes. WAPMERR also has a database of observations of the tsunami waves in coastal areas. The main idea of presentation consists of determining of the tsunami source parameters using seismic data and observations of the tsunami waves on the shore, and the expansion and refinement of the database of presupposed tsunami sources for operative and accurate prediction of hazards and assessment of risks and consequences. Also we present 3D visualization of real-time tsunami wave propagation and loss assessment, characterizing the nature of the building stock in cities at risk, and monitoring by satellite images using modern GIS technology ITRIS (Integrated Tsunami Research and Information System) developed by WAPMERR and Informap Ltd. The special scientific plug-in components are embedded in a specially developed GIS-type graphic shell for easy data retrieval, visualization and processing. The most suitable physical models related to simulation of tsunamis are based on shallow water equations. We consider the initial-boundary value problem in Ω := {(x,y) ?R2 : x ?(0,Lx ), y ?(0,Ly ), Lx,Ly > 0} for the well-known linear shallow water equations in the Cartesian coordinate system in terms of the liquid flow components in dimensional form Here ?(x,y,t) defines the free water surface vertical displacement, i.e. amplitude of a tsunami wave, q(x,y) is the initial amplitude of a tsunami wave. The lateral boundary is assumed to be a non-reflecting boundary of the domain, that is, it allows the free passage of the propagating waves. Assume that the free surface oscillation data at points (xm, ym) are given as a measured output data from tsunami records: fm(t) := ? (xm, ym,t), (xm

  1. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Babu, S. Suresh; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March-May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inland sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model-observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average +/- standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 +/- 2353 ng m(-3)) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61 %) and industrial (23 %) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.

  2. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inland sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.

  3. Sources of black carbon aerosols in South Asia and surrounding regions during the Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget (ICARB)

    DOE PAGES

    Kumar, R.; Barth, M. C.; Nair, V. S.; Pfister, G. G.; Suresh Babu, S.; Satheesh, S. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Carmichael, G. R.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D. G.

    2015-05-19

    This study examines differences in the surface black carbon (BC) aerosol loading between the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) and identifies dominant sources of BC in South Asia and surrounding regions during March–May 2006 (Integrated Campaign for Aerosols, Gases and Radiation Budget, ICARB) period. A total of 13 BC tracers are introduced in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with Chemistry to address these objectives. The model reproduced the temporal and spatial variability of BC distribution observed over the AS and the BoB during the ICARB ship cruise and captured spatial variability at the inlandmore » sites. In general, the model underestimates the observed BC mass concentrations. However, the model–observation discrepancy in this study is smaller compared to previous studies. Model results show that ICARB measurements were fairly well representative of the AS and the BoB during the pre-monsoon season. Elevated BC mass concentrations in the BoB are due to 5 times stronger influence of anthropogenic emissions on the BoB compared to the AS. Biomass burning in Burma also affects the BoB much more strongly than the AS. Results show that anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions, respectively, accounted for 60 and 37% of the average ± standard deviation (representing spatial and temporal variability) BC mass concentration (1341 ± 2353 ng m-3) in South Asia. BC emissions from residential (61%) and industrial (23%) sectors are the major anthropogenic sources, except in the Himalayas where vehicular emissions dominate. We find that regional-scale transport of anthropogenic emissions contributes up to 25% of BC mass concentrations in western and eastern India, suggesting that surface BC mass concentrations cannot be linked directly to the local emissions in different regions of South Asia.« less

  4. A generic open-source toolbox to help long term irrigation monitoring for integrated water management in semi-arid Mediterranean areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Page, Michel; Gosset, Cindy; Oueslati, Ines; Calvez, Roger; Zribi, Mehrez; Lili Chabaane, Zohra

    2016-04-01

    approach of (Evapotranspiration minus Efficient Rainfall) to estimate Irrigation at the monthly time step is not pertinent because only a subset of the irrigated commands is actually irrigated. Hence, a higher spatial resolution of remote sensing imagery is needed. Second, in this particular area, farmers have a different rationale about rainfall and irrigation water needs. Those two aspects need to be further investigated. The toolbox has proven to be an interesting tool to integrate different sources of data, efficiently process them and easily produce input data for the WEAP1 model on a long term range. Yet some new challenges have been raised.

  5. Meaningful physical changes mediate lexical-semantic integration: top-down and form-based bottom-up information sources interact in the N400.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Netaya; Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2011-11-01

    Models of how the human brain reconstructs an intended meaning from a linguistic input often draw upon the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component as evidence. Current accounts of the N400 emphasise either the role of contextually induced lexical preactivation of a critical word (Lau, Phillips, & Poeppel, 2008) or the ease of integration into the overall discourse context including a wide variety of influencing factors (Hagoort & van Berkum, 2007). The present ERP study challenges both types of accounts by demonstrating a contextually independent and purely form-based bottom-up influence on the N400: the N400 effect for implausible sentence-endings was attenuated when the critical sentence-final word was capitalised (following a lowercase sentence context). By contrast, no N400 modulation occurred when the critical word involved a change from uppercase (sentence context) to lowercase. Thus, the N400 was only affected by a change to uppercase letters, as is often employed in computer-mediated communication as a sign of emphasis. This result indicates that N400 amplitude is reduced for unexpected words when a bottom-up (orthographic) cue signals that the word is likely to be highly informative. The lexical-semantic N400 thereby reflects the degree to which the semantic informativity of a critical word matches expectations, as determined by an interplay between top-down and bottom-up information sources, including purely form-based bottom-up information. PMID:21939678

  6. LFQProfiler and RNP(xl): Open-Source Tools for Label-Free Quantification and Protein-RNA Cross-Linking Integrated into Proteome Discoverer.

    PubMed

    Veit, Johannes; Sachsenberg, Timo; Chernev, Aleksandar; Aicheler, Fabian; Urlaub, Henning; Kohlbacher, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Modern mass spectrometry setups used in today's proteomics studies generate vast amounts of raw data, calling for highly efficient data processing and analysis tools. Software for analyzing these data is either monolithic (easy to use, but sometimes too rigid) or workflow-driven (easy to customize, but sometimes complex). Thermo Proteome Discoverer (PD) is a powerful software for workflow-driven data analysis in proteomics which, in our eyes, achieves a good trade-off between flexibility and usability. Here, we present two open-source plugins for PD providing additional functionality: LFQProfiler for label-free quantification of peptides and proteins, and RNP(xl) for UV-induced peptide-RNA cross-linking data analysis. LFQProfiler interacts with existing PD nodes for peptide identification and validation and takes care of the entire quantitative part of the workflow. We show that it performs at least on par with other state-of-the-art software solutions for label-free quantification in a recently published benchmark ( Ramus, C.; J. Proteomics 2016 , 132 , 51 - 62 ). The second workflow, RNP(xl), represents the first software solution to date for identification of peptide-RNA cross-links including automatic localization of the cross-links at amino acid resolution and localization scoring. It comes with a customized integrated cross-link fragment spectrum viewer for convenient manual inspection and validation of the results. PMID:27476824

  7. Simultaneous remote monitoring of atmospheric methane and water vapor using an integrated path DIAL instrument based on a widely tunable optical parametric source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrientos Barria, Jessica; Dobroc, Alexandre; Coudert-Alteirac, Hélène; Raybaut, Myriam; Cézard, Nicolas; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Schmid, Thomas; Faure, Basile; Souhaité, Grégoire; Pelon, Jacques; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Godard, Antoine; Lefebvre, Michel

    2014-10-01

    We report on the remote sensing capability of an integrated path differential absorption lidar (IPDIAL) instrument, for multi-species gas detection and monitoring in the 3.3-3.7 µm range. This instrument is based on an optical parametric source composed of a master oscillator-power amplifier scheme—whose core building block is a nested cavity optical parametric oscillator—emitting up to 10 µJ at 3.3 µm. Optical pumping is realized with an innovative single-frequency, 2-kHz repetition rate, nanosecond microchip laser, amplified up to 200 µJ per pulse in a single-crystal fiber amplifier. Simultaneous monitoring of mean atmospheric water vapor and methane concentrations was performed over several days by use of a topographic target, and water vapor concentration measurements show good agreement compared with an in situ hygrometer measurement. Performances of the IPDIAL instrument are assessed in terms of concentration measurement uncertainties and maximum remote achievable range.

  8. In-situ structural integrity evaluation for high-power pulsed spallation neutron source - Effects of cavitation damage on structural vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Tao; Naoe, Takashi; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    A double-wall structure mercury target will be installed at the high-power pulsed spallation neutron source in the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). Cavitation damage on the inner wall is an important factor governing the lifetime of the target-vessel. To monitor the structural integrity of the target vessel, displacement velocity at a point on the outer surface of the target vessel is measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV). The measured signals can be used for evaluating the damage inside the target vessel because of cyclic loading and cavitation bubble collapse caused by pulsed-beam induced pressure waves. The wavelet differential analysis (WDA) was applied to reveal the effects of the damage on vibrational cycling. To reduce the effects of noise superimposed on the vibration signals on the WDA results, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), statistical methods were applied. Results from laboratory experiments, numerical simulation results with random noise added, and target vessel field data were analyzed by the WDA and the statistical methods. The analyses demonstrated that the established in-situ diagnostic technique can be used to effectively evaluate the structural response of the target vessel.

  9. Integrated Analyses of Multiple Worldwide Aerosol Mass Spectrometer Datasets for Improved Understanding of Aerosol Sources and Processes and for Comparison with Global Models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qi; Jose, Jimenez Luis

    2014-04-28

    The AMS is the only current instrument that provides real-time, quantitative, and size-resolved data on submicron non-refractory aerosol species with a time resolution of a few minutes or better. The AMS field data are multidimensional and massive, containing extremely rich information on aerosol chemistry, microphysics and dynamics—basic information that is required to evaluate and quantify the radiative climate forcing of atmospheric aerosols. The high time resolution of the AMS data also reveals details of aerosol dynamic variations that are vital to understanding the physico-chemical processes of atmospheric aerosols that govern aerosol properties relevant to the climate. There are two primary objectives of this 3-year project. Our first objective is to perform highly integrated analysis of dozens of AMS datasets acquired from various urban, forested, coastal, marine, mountain peak, and rural/remote locations around the world and synthesize and inter-compare results with a focus on the sources and the physico-chemical processes that govern aerosol properties relevant to aerosol climate forcing. Our second objective is to support our collaboration with global aerosol modelers, in which we will supply the size-resolved aerosol composition and temporal variation data (via a public web interface) and our analysis results for use in model testing and validation and for translation of the rich AMS database into model constraints that can improve climate forcing simulations. Several prominent global aerosol modelers have expressed enthusiastic support for this collaboration. The specific tasks that we propose to accomplish include 1) to develop, validate, and apply multivariate analysis techniques for improved characterization and source apportionment of organic aerosols; 2) to evaluate aerosol source regions and relative contributions based on back-trajectory integration (PSCF method); 3) to summarize and synthesize submicron aerosol information, including

  10. Stable N isotope values of black spruce ecosystem components integrate source N isotope values, soil fertility, and microbial biomass: a natural and experimental study from Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, J. R.; Schuur, T.; Mack, M. C.; Nettelton Hollingsworth, T.; Bååth, E.

    2009-12-01

    The productivity and ecosystem dynamics of many northern ecosystems are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. Understanding N dynamics is especially important in boreal forests where slight changes in N availability can have profound effects on ecosystem productivity and diversity of plants and microbes. However, because N cycling processes vary profoundly in time and space, assessing ecosystem N supply and cycling pathways are difficult even with frequent measurements. Recent soil, plant, and fungal meta-analyses have indicated that stable isotopes of N may provide just such an integrative measure of N cycling by recording pathways of N flux through ecosystems. Here we present N stable isotope patterns across 30 plots varying in natural fertility and in 4 blocks of 16 experimentally fertilized plots of mature black spruce forest in central Alaska. We measured soil N isotope ratios of NO3, NH4, and salt extracted dissolved organic N (DON) using persulfate oxidation coupled to the bacterial denitrifier technique. The soil N isotope values varied from 15 to -26‰ across the landscape and were a poor predictor of the variability in plant N isotope values ranging from 5-11‰. Instead a combination of fungal biomass (PLFA 18:2ω6,9), fungal ingrowth, cation exchange capacity, and resin extractable phosphate (P) were better explanatory variables in a multiple regression context. This suggests that plant N isotope ratios are a product of numerous soil and microbial processes and not simply a direct reflection of source N pools. Denitrification in soils and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) assimilation and delivery of N were also likely causal as each influence pathways of N cycling that can alter the N isotope values of source and receiving pools. In contrast with the very low N environment present in our natural gradient, we found that N fertilization, both singly and in conjunction with P, caused the N isotope values of foliage, fine roots, soil N, and fungal fruiting bodies to

  11. Filling the gap between geophysics and geotechnics in landslide process understanding: a data fusion methodology to integrate multi-source information in hydro-mechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernadie, S.; Gance, J.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J.

    2013-12-01

    The population increase and the rising issue of climate change impact the long term stability of mountain slopes. So far, it is not yet possible to assess in all cases conditions for failure, reactivation or rapid surges of slopes. The main reason identified by Van Asch et al. (2007) is the excessive conceptualization of the slope in the models. Therefore to improve our forecasting capability, considering local information such as the local slope geometry, the soil material variability, hydrological processes and the presence of fissures are of first importance. Geophysical imaging, combined with geotechnical tests, is an adapted tool to obtain such detailed information. The development of near-surface geophysics in the last three decades encourages the use of multiple geophysical methods for slope investigations. However, fusion of real data is little used in this domain and a gap still exists between the data processed by the geophysicists and the slope hydro-mechanical models developed by the geotechnical engineers. Starting from this statement, we propose a methodological flowchart of multi-source geophysical and geotechnical data integration to construct a slope hydro-mechanical model of a selected profile at the Super-Sauze landslide. Based on data fusion concepts, the methodology aims at integrating various data in order to create a geological and a geotechnical model of the slope profile. The input data consist in seismic and geoelectrical tomographies (that give access to a spatially distributed information on the soil physical state) supplemented by punctual geotechnical tests (dynamic penetration tests). The tomograms and the geotechnical tests are combined into a unique interpreted model characterized by different geotechnical domains. We use the fuzzy logic clustering method in order to take into account the uncertainty coming from each input data. Then an unstructured finite element mesh, adapted to the resolution of the different input data and

  12. Real-Time Data Management, IP Telemetry, Data Integration, and Data Center Operations for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), Nevada National Security Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plank, G.; Slater, D.; Torrisi, J.; Presser, R.; Williams, M.; Smith, K. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL) manages time-series data and high-throughput IP telemetry for the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiment (SPE), underway on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). During active-source experiments, SPE's heterogeneous systems record over 350 channels of a variety of data types including seismic, infrasound, acoustic, and electro-magnetic. During the interim periods, broadband and short period instruments record approximately 200 channels of continuous, high-sample-rate seismic data. Frequent changes in sensor and station configurations create a challenging meta-data environment. Meta-data account for complete operational histories, including sensor types, serial numbers, gains, sample rates, orientations, instrument responses, data-logger types etc. To date, these catalogue 217 stations, over 40 different sensor types, and over 1000 unique recording configurations (epochs). Facilities for processing, backup, and distribution of time-series data currently span four Linux servers, 60Tb of disk capacity, and two data centers. Bandwidth, physical security, and redundant power and cooling systems for acquisition, processing, and backup servers are provided by NSL's Reno data center. The Nevada System of Higher Education (NSHE) System Computer Services (SCS) in Las Vegas provides similar facilities for the distribution server. NSL staff handle setup, maintenance, and security of all data management systems. SPE PIs have remote access to meta-data, raw data, and CSS3.0 compilations, via SSL-based transfers such as rsync or secure-copy, as well as shell access for data browsing and limited processing. Meta-data are continuously updated and posted on the Las Vegas distribution server as station histories are better understood and errors are corrected. Raw time series and refined CSS3.0 data compilations with standardized formats are transferred to the Las Vegas data server as available. For better

  13. Paleogene biomarker records from the central Arctic Ocean (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302): Organic carbon sources, anoxia, and sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, Petra; Stein, Ruediger

    2008-03-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 302 (Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX)) a more than 200 m thick sequence of Paleogene organic carbon (OC)-rich (black shale type) sediments was drilled. Here we present new biomarker data determined in ACEX sediment samples to decipher processes controlling OC accumulation and their paleoenvironmental significance during periods of Paleogene global warmth and proposed increased freshwater discharge in the early Cenozoic. Specific source-related biomarkers including n-alkanes, fatty acids, isoprenoids, carotenoids, hopanes/hopenes, hopanoic acids, aromatic terpenoids, and long-chain alkenones show a high variability of components, derived from marine and terrestrial origin. The distribution of hopanoic acid isomers is dominated by compounds with the biological 17β(H), 21β(H) configuration indicating a low level of maturity. On the basis of the biomarker data the terrestrial OC supply was significantly enriched during the late Paleocene and part of the earliest Eocene, whereas increased aquatic contributions and euxinic conditions of variable intensity were determined for the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and Eocene thermal maximum 2 events as well as the middle Eocene time interval. Furthermore, samples from the middle Eocene are characterized by the occurrence of long-chain alkenones, high proportions of lycopane, and high ratios (>0.6) of (n-C35 + lycopane)/n-C31. The occurrence of C37-alkenenones, which were first determined toward the end of the Azolla freshwater event, indicates that the OC becomes more marine in origin during the middle Eocene. Preliminary U37K'-based sea surface temperature (SST) values display a long-term temperature decrease of about 15°C during the time interval 49-44.5 Ma (25° to 10°C), coinciding with the global benthic δ18O cooling trend after the early Eocene climatic optimum. At about 46 Ma, parallel with onset of ice-rafted debris, SST (interpreted as summer temperatures

  14. A Planar, Chip-Based, Dual-Beam Refractometer Using an Integrated Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) Light Source and Organic Photovoltaic (OPV) Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Erin L.; Veneman, P. Alex; Simmonds, Adam; Zacher, Brian; Huebner, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple chip-based refractometer with a central organic light emitting diode (OLED) light source and two opposed organic photovoltaic (OPV) detectors on an internal reflection element (IRE) substrate, creating a true dual-beam sensor platform. For first-generation platforms, we demonstrate the use of a single heterojunction OLED based on electroluminescence emission from an Alq3/TPD heterojunction (tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum/N,N′-Bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N′-diphenylbenzidine) and light detection with planar heterojunction pentacene/C60 OPVs. The sensor utilizes the considerable fraction of emitted light from conventional thin film OLEDs that is coupled into guided modes in the IRE instead of into the forward (display) direction. A ray-optics description is used to describe light throughput and efficiency-limiting factors for light coupling from the OLED into the substrate modes, light traversing through the IRE substrate, and light coupling into the OPV detectors. The arrangement of the OLED at the center of the chip provides for two sensing regions, a “sample” and “reference” channel, with detection of light by independent OPV detectors. This configuration allows for normalization of the sensor response against fluctuations in OLED light output, stability, and local fluctuations (temperature) which might influence sensor response. The dual beam configuration permits significantly enhanced sensitivity to refractive index changes relative to single-beam protocols, and is easily integrated into a field-portable instrumentation package. Changes in refractive index (ΔR.I.) between 10−2 and 10−3 R.I. units could be detected for single channel operation, with sensitivity increased to ΔR.I. ≈ 10−4 units when the dual beam configuration is employed. PMID:20218580

  15. The design and implementation of an open-source, data-driven cohort recruitment system: the Duke Integrated Subject Cohort and Enrollment Research Network (DISCERN)

    PubMed Central

    Ferranti, Jeffrey M; Gilbert, William; McCall, Jonathan; Shang, Howard; Barros, Tanya

    2011-01-01

    Objective Failure to reach research subject recruitment goals is a significant impediment to the success of many clinical trials. Implementation of health-information technology has allowed retrospective analysis of data for cohort identification and recruitment, but few institutions have also leveraged real-time streams to support such activities. Design Duke Medicine has deployed a hybrid solution, The Duke Integrated Subject Cohort and Enrollment Research Network (DISCERN), that combines both retrospective warehouse data and clinical events contained in prospective Health Level 7 (HL7) messages to immediately alert study personnel of potential recruits as they become eligible. Results DISCERN analyzes more than 500 000 messages daily in service of 12 projects. Users may receive results via email, text pages, or on-demand reports. Preliminary results suggest DISCERN's unique ability to reason over both retrospective and real-time data increases study enrollment rates while reducing the time required to complete recruitment-related tasks. The authors have introduced a preconfigured DISCERN function as a self-service feature for users. Limitations The DISCERN framework is adoptable primarily by organizations using both HL7 message streams and a data warehouse. More efficient recruitment may exacerbate competition for research subjects, and investigators uncomfortable with new technology may find themselves at a competitive disadvantage in recruitment. Conclusion DISCERN's hybrid framework for identifying real-time clinical events housed in HL7 messages complements the traditional approach of using retrospective warehoused data. DISCERN is helpful in instances when the required clinical data may not be loaded into the warehouse and thus must be captured contemporaneously during patient care. Use of an open-source tool supports generalizability to other institutions at minimal cost. PMID:21946237

  16. Integrated use of stable isotopes and electrical conductivity for the analysis of the water sources to runoff in a glacierized alpine catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penna, Daniele; Engel, Michael; Mao, Luca; Dell'Agnese, Andea; Bertoldi, Giacomo; Comiti, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    influence of rain water. Snowmelt and glacier melt had similar EC but a different isotopic composition that allowed distinguishing their different contribution to runoff over the season. On average, stream water EC in June, July and August was similar and was lower than in September and October. However, the stream isotopic composition increased gradually over the season, from very negative values in June, less negative and more