Science.gov

Sample records for integral transform techniques

  1. Laplace Transforms without Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

  2. Low voltage integrated optics electro-optical modulator applied to optical voltage transformer based on WLI technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. C.; Rubini, J.; Silva, L. P. C.; Caetano, R. E.

    2015-09-01

    The use of two electro-optical modulators linked in series, one for sensing and one for recovering signals, was formerly presented by some of the authors as a solution for interrogation of optical fiber sensor systems based on WLI method. A key feature required from such systems is that half-wave voltage (Vπ) of recovering modulator must be as small as possible. Aiming at meeting this requirement, in this paper it is presented the use of an unbalanced Michelson Interferometer implemented using an integrated optics component as recover interferometer in an optical voltage transformer intended for high voltage measurements.

  3. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy—Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuzhong

    2014-01-01

    Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults. PMID:25126445

  4. Transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan techniques into integrative movement therapy-Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuzhong

    2014-03-01

    Tai Ji Quan, developed as a martial art, has traditionally served multiple purposes, including self-defense, competition/performance, and health promotion. With respect to health, the benefits historically and anecdotally associated with Tai Ji Quan are now being supported by scientific and clinical research, with mounting evidence indicating its potential value in preventing and managing various diseases and improving well-being and quality of life in middle-aged and older adults. The research findings produced to date have both public health significance and clinical relevance. However, because of its roots in the martial arts, transforming traditional Tai Ji Quan movements and training approaches into contemporary therapeutic programs and functional applications is needed to maximize its ultimate utility. This paper addresses this issue by introducing Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance, a functional therapy that involves the use of Tai Ji Quan principles and Yang-style-based movements to form an innovative, contemporary therapeutic approach that integrates motor, sensory, and cognitive components to improve postural control, gait, and mobility for older adults and those who have neurodegenerative movement impairments. It provides a synergy of traditional and contemporary Tai Ji Quan practice with the ultimate goal of improving balance and gait, enhancing performance of daily functional tasks, and reducing incidence of falls among older adults.

  5. Multisensor Data Integration Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D. L.; Blake, P. L.; Conel, J. E.; Lang, H. R.; Logan, T. L.; Mcguffie, B. A.; Paylor, E. D.; Singer, R. B.; Schenck, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The availability of data from sensors operating in several different wavelength regions had led to the development of new techniques and strategies for both data management and image analysis. Work is ongoing to develop computer techniques for analysis of integrated data sets. These techniques include coregistration of multisensor images, rectification of radar images in areas of topographic relief to ensure pixel to pixel registration with planimetric data sets, calibration of data so that signatures can be applied to remote areas, normalization of data acquired with disparate sensors and determination of extended spectral signatures of surface units. In addition, software is being developed to analyze coregistrated digital terrain and image data so that automated stratigraphic and structural analyses can be performed. These software procedures include: strike and dip determination, terrain profile generation, stratigraphic column generation, stratigraphic thickness measurements, structural cross-section generation, and creation of 3-D block diagrams. These techniques were applied to coregistered LANDSAT 4 Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and multipolarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data of the Wind River Basin in Wyoming.

  6. New inversion methods for the Lorentz Integral Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreasi, D.; Leidemann, W.; Reiß, C.; Schwamb, M.

    2005-06-01

    The Lorentz Integral Transform approach allows microscopic calculations of electromagnetic reaction cross-sections without explicit knowledge of final-state wave functions. The necessary inversion of the transform has to be treated with great care, since it constitutes a so-called ill-posed problem. In this work new inversion techniques for the Lorentz Integral Transform are introduced. It is shown that they all contain a regularization scheme, which is necessary to overcome the ill-posed problem. In addition, it is illustrated that the new techniques have a much broader range of application than the present standard inversion method of the Lorentz Integral Transform.

  7. Integral transformations applied to image encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardy, Juan M.; Perez, Ronal; Torres, Cesar O.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we consider the application of the integral transformations for image encryption through optical systems, a mathematical algorithm under Matlab platform using fractional Fourier transform (FrFT) and Random Phase Mask (RPM) for digital images encryption is implemented. The FrFT can be related to others integral transforms, such as: Fourier transform, Sine and Cosine transforms, Radial Hilbert transform, fractional Sine transform, fractional Cosine transform, fractional Hartley transform, fractional Wavelet transform and Gyrator transform, among other transforms. The encryption scheme is based on the use of the FrFT, the joint transform correlator and two RPMs, which provide security and robustness to the implemented security system. One of the RPMs used during encryption-decryption and the fractional order of the FrFT are the keys to improve security and make the system more resistant against security attacks.

  8. Nonlinear, lumped parameter transformer model reduction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Degeneff, R.C.; Gutierrez, M.R.; Vakilian, M.

    1995-04-01

    Utility engineers often need nonlinear transformer models in order to investigate power system transient events. Methods exist to create accurate wideband reduced order linear transformer models, however, to date a method of creating a reduced order wideband nonlinear transformer model has not been presented. This paper describes a technique that starts with a detailed nonlinear transformer model used for insulation design studies and reduces its order so that it can be used conveniently in EMTP. The method is based on linearization of the core`s saturable characteristic during each solution time intervals. The technique uses Kron`s reduction approach in each solution time interval. It can be applied to any nonlinear lumped parameter network which uses electric parameter analogies (i.e., FEM networks). This paper outlines the nonlinear reduction technique. An illustrative example is given using the transient voltage response during saturation for a 785/345/34.5kV, YYD 500 MVA single phase auto transformer.

  9. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  10. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…

  11. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…

  12. Reconstruction from cone integral transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamodov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    The paper contains new reconstruction formulas for a function on 3D space from data of its cone integrals with fixed opening and integrable weight. In the case of cone integrals with the (non integrable) weight modelling photometric law, a reconstruction is obtained for the non redundant data of cones with the apex running on a curve.

  13. Data integration using color space transforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feuquay, Jay W.

    1987-01-01

    The demand for increased spatial resolution without sacrificing spectral discrimination can be fulfilled by integration of data from different sensor systems and satellite programs. Data of high spatial resolution are frequently available in panchromatic (black-and-white) form rather than multispectral. Techniques gave been developed to combine the higher resolution panchromatic data with a multispectral data set of lower spatial resolution. The standard method of integration modulates the intensity of the mutispectral with the panchromatic data. A less subjective approach uses an algorithm that describes color in terms of intensity (I), hue (H), and saturation (S). Combinations of high resolution panchromatic data (SPOT panchromatic) and lower resolution multispectral data [Landsat thematic mapper (TM), SPOT XS] have been developed. The SPOT data were acquired on April 3, 1986, and the Landsat TM data were acquired on April 5, 1986. The data sets were registered to each other and the multi-spectral data sets were contrast enhanced. The enhanced multispectral data sets were then transformed from red/green/blue (RGB) color space into IHS space. In each case (TM/SPOT panchromatic and SPOT XS/SPOT panchromatic), the SPOT panchromatic data were remapped on a cumulative histogram percentage basis to match the multispectral "I" data. These remapped SPOT panchromatic data were substituted for the original multispectral "I" and the hybrid IHS data transformed back into RGB space for display. While this technique is experimental and still being refined, the results, to date, indicate that the IHS method will be valuable for generating improved images that effectively present both high resolution spatial digital data and multispectral data.

  14. Techniques for integrating -omics data.

    PubMed

    Akula, Siva Prasad; Miriyala, Raghava Naidu; Thota, Hanuman; Rao, Allam Appa; Gedela, Srinubabu

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for -omics research is to tackle the problem of fragmentation of knowledge by integrating several sources of heterogeneous information into a coherent entity. It is widely recognized that successful data integration is one of the keys to improve productivity for stored data. Through proper data integration tools and algorithms, researchers may correlate relationships that enable them to make better and faster decisions. The need for data integration is essential for present -omics community, because -omics data is currently spread world wide in wide variety of formats. These formats can be integrated and migrated across platforms through different techniques and one of the important techniques often used is XML. XML is used to provide a document markup language that is easier to learn, retrieve, store and transmit. It is semantically richer than HTML. Here, we describe bio warehousing, database federation, controlled vocabularies and highlighting the XML application to store, migrate and validate -omics data.

  15. Transformer insulation monitoring by optical sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uttamchandani, Deepak G.; Blue, Robert; Farish, O.

    1998-08-01

    High voltage transformers use paper to insulate the electrical windings present in the core which is then subsequently immersed in oil. In service, the temperature of the windings will increase to typically 80 degrees C. If the transformer is loaded to beyond its design ratings, the temperature can exceed 100 degrees C causing the cellulose chains in the paper to cleave at an accelerated rate, resulting in the degradation of mechanical strength and performance of the insulation. If unchecked, this can lead to catastrophic failure of the transformed and accompanying disruption to electricity supply and large economic losses to the operating utility. Furfuraldehyde (FFA) is a chemical by-product which is released into the oil by the thermal degradation of the paper winding. The concentration of FFA within the oil has been directly related to the condition of the paper insulation. We have developed absorbance and fluorescence optical techniques incorporating a novel FFA- sensitive material which we have invested at our laboratories. This material has been incorporated into a prototype portable optoelectronic instrument for the measurement of FFA at the site of the transformer. Results of experiments will be presented, and the implication of these results for condition monitoring of HV transformer will be discussed.

  16. New four-dimensional integrals by Mellin-Barnes transform

    SciTech Connect

    Allendes, Pedro; Guerrero, Natanael; Kondrashuk, Igor; Notte Cuello, Eduardo A.

    2010-05-15

    This paper is devoted to the calculation of a special class of integrals by Mellin-Barnes transform. It contains double integrals in the position space in d=4-2{epsilon} dimensions, where {epsilon} is parameter of dimensional regularization. These integrals contribute to the effective action of the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The integrand is a fraction in which the numerator is the logarithm of the ratio of space-time intervals, and the denominator is the product of powers of space-time intervals. According to the method developed in the previous papers, in order to make use of the uniqueness technique for one of two integrations, we shift exponents in powers in the denominator of integrands by some multiples of {epsilon}. As the next step, the second integration in the position space is done by Mellin-Barnes transform. For normalizing procedure, we reproduce first the known result obtained earlier by Gegenbauer polynomial technique. Then, we make another shift of exponents in powers in the denominator to create the logarithm in the numerator as the derivative with respect to the shift parameter {delta}. We show that the technique of work with the contour of the integral modified in this way by using Mellin-Barnes transform repeats the technique of work with the contour of the integral without such a modification. In particular, all the operations with a shift of contour of integration over complex variables of twofold Mellin-Barnes transform are the same as before the {delta} modification of indices, and even the poles of residues coincide. This confirms the observation made in the previous papers that in the position space all the Green's function of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory can be expressed in terms of Usyukina-Davydychev functions.

  17. Science education, integral inquiry, transformation and possibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, Sue

    2013-09-01

    This paper is written in response to Nancy Davis's article Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives. I use Integral Theory as a framing for this response to explore how it might offer different perspectives and ways of inquiring into Nancy's paper. This process highlights the notion of integral inquiry as a potential for personal transformation. I give an autobiographical account of my own experience in utilising Integral Theory as part of my PhD and its impact on my own becoming. For another perspective I interview Nancy to draw out deeper shared meanings.

  18. Layout techniques for integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tsay, C.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Several techniques are presented for solving circuit-layout problems. In particular, a channel-placement algorithm is first introduced to reduce the channel density (d) so that a channel router can complete the routing requirements in fewer tracks. A 4-layer channel-routing model is then formulated so that a general channel routing problem (CRP) with cyclic conflicts and long critical paths can be completed with d/2. Finally, the 4-layer, 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem needed to enhance the channel routing in general circuit layout is investigated from the graph-theoretical viewpoint. The channel-placement technique consists of two phases. Using the principle of decomposition, the initial placement phase effectively reduces the complexity of the problem and, therefore, improves the efficiency of the second phase, which is called the iterative improvement placement. The main feature of this phase is its hill-climbing ability to avoid being trapped at local minima. The combination of these two phases leads to an efficient technique for standard cell placement. To utilize multi-layer technology, a new 4-layer channel routing model is introduced to minimize the channel width of more-generalized CRP's. The 2-dimensional switchbox routing problem is transformed to an equivalent graph-theoretical problem.

  19. Multiwavelet-transform-based image compression techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sathyanarayana S.; Yoon, Sung H.; Shenoy, Deepak

    1996-10-01

    Multiwavelet transforms are a new class of wavelet transforms that use more than one prototype scaling function and wavelet in the multiresolution analysis/synthesis. The popular Geronimo-Hardin-Massopust multiwavelet basis functions have properties of compact support, orthogonality, and symmetry which cannot be obtained simultaneously in scalar wavelets. The performance of multiwavelets in still image compression is studied using vector quantization of multiwavelet subbands with a multiresolution codebook. The coding gain of multiwavelets is compared with that of other well-known wavelet families using performance measures such as unified coding gain. Implementation aspects of multiwavelet transforms such as pre-filtering/post-filtering and symmetric extension are also considered in the context of image compression.

  20. Radon transforms and Gegenbauer-Chebyshev integrals, II; examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Boris

    2016-08-01

    We transfer the results of Part I related to the modified support theorem and the kernel description of the hyperplane Radon transform to totally geodesic transforms on the sphere and the hyperbolic space, the spherical slice transform, and the spherical mean transform for spheres through the origin. The assumptions for functions are formulated in integral terms and close to minimal.

  1. Advanced Techniques for Fourier Transform Wavefront Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Poyneer, L A

    2002-08-05

    The performance of Fourier transform (FT) reconstructors in large adaptive optics systems with Shack-Hartmann sensors and a deformable mirror is analyzed. FT methods, which are derived for point-based geometries, are adapted for use on the continuous systems. Analysis and simulation show how to compensate for effects such as misalignment of the deformable mirror and wavefront sensor gain. Further filtering methods to reduce noise and improve performance are presented. All these modifications can be implemented at the filtering stage, preserving the speed of FT reconstruction. Simulation of a large system shows how compensated FT methods can have equivalent or better performance to slower vector-matrix-multiply reconstructions.

  2. Special Effects Techniques for Integral Holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormack, Sharon

    1986-08-01

    Integral holography is the integration of multiple exposures of motion picture film that have been translated into holographic form. Because integral holograms are formed from motion picture film, there are no limits on the subject matter. All of the cinema and video techniques known today can be utilized to record and mix imagery.

  3. Allied health: integral to transforming health.

    PubMed

    Lizarondo, Lucylynn; Turnbull, Catherine; Kroon, Tracey; Grimmer, Karen; Bell, Alison; Kumar, Saravana; McEvoy, Maureen; Milanese, Steve; Russell, Mary; Sheppard, Lorraine; Walters, Julie; Wiles, Louise

    2016-04-01

    Objective South Australia is taking an innovative step in transforming the way its healthcare is organised and delivered to better manage current and future demands on the health system. In an environment of transforming health services, there are clear opportunities for allied health to assist in determining solutions to various healthcare challenges. A recent opinion piece proposed 10 clinician-driven strategies to assist in maximising value and sustainability of healthcare in Australia. The present study aimed to seek the perspectives of allied health clinicians, educators, researchers, policy makers and managers on these strategies and their relevance to allied health. Methods A survey of allied health practitioners was undertaken to capture their perspectives on the 10 clinician-driven strategies for maximising value and sustainability of healthcare in Australia. Survey findings were then layered with evidence from the literature. Results Highly relevant across allied health are the strategies of discontinuation of low value practices, targeting clinical interventions to those getting greatest benefit, active involvement of patients in shared decision making and self-management and advocating for integrated systems of care. Conclusions Allied health professionals have been involved in the South Australian healthcare system for a prolonged period, but their services are poorly recognised, often overlooked and not greatly supported in existing traditional practices. The results of the present study highlight ways in which healthcare services can implement strategies not only to improve the quality of patient outcomes, but also to offer innovative solutions for future, sustainable healthcare. The findings call for concerted efforts to increase the utilisation of allied health services to ensure the 'maximum value for spend' of the increasingly scarce health dollar. What is known about the topic? In medicine, clinician-driven strategies have been proposed to

  4. Fourier transform techniques for the inference of cloud motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lo, R. C.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation are reported of phase shift techniques based on the Fourier transform for the estimation of cloud motion from geosynchronous meteorological satellite photographs. An alternative approach to cloud motion estimation, involving thresholding, was proposed and studied.

  5. Convolution theorems: partitioning the space of integral transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, Alan R.; Suter, Bruce W.

    1999-03-01

    Investigating a number of different integral transforms uncovers distinct patterns in the type of translation convolution theorems afforded by each. It is shown that transforms based on separable kernels (aka Fourier, Laplace and their relatives) have a form of the convolution theorem providing for a transform domain product of the convolved functions. However, transforms based on kernels not separable in the function and transform variables mandate a convolution theorem of a different type; namely in the transform domain the convolution becomes another convolution--one function with the transform of the other.

  6. An eigenvalue transformation technique for predicting drug-target interaction.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Qifan; Xu, Xin; Li, Rong; Dong, Yongcheng; Li, Yan; Huang, Ziyan; Li, Yizhou; Li, Menglong

    2015-09-09

    The prediction of drug-target interactions is a key step in the drug discovery process, which serves to identify new drugs or novel targets for existing drugs. However, experimental methods for predicting drug-target interactions are expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, the in silico prediction of drug-target interactions has recently attracted increasing attention. In this study, we propose an eigenvalue transformation technique and apply this technique to two representative algorithms, the Regularized Least Squares classifier (RLS) and the semi-supervised link prediction classifier (SLP), that have been used to predict drug-target interaction. The results of computational experiments with these techniques show that algorithms including eigenvalue transformation achieved better performance on drug-target interaction prediction than did the original algorithms. These findings show that eigenvalue transformation is an efficient technique for improving the performance of methods for predicting drug-target interactions. We further show that, in theory, eigenvalue transformation can be viewed as a feature transformation on the kernel matrix. Accordingly, although we only apply this technique to two algorithms in the current study, eigenvalue transformation also has the potential to be applied to other algorithms based on kernels.

  7. Techniques for integrating ‐omics data

    PubMed Central

    Akula, Siva Prasad; Miriyala, Raghava Naidu; Thota, Hanuman; Rao, Allam Appa; Gedela, Srinubabu

    2009-01-01

    The challenge for -omics research is to tackle the problem of fragmentation of knowledge by integrating several sources of heterogeneous information into a coherent entity. It is widely recognized that successful data integration is one of the keys to improve productivity for stored data. Through proper data integration tools and algorithms, researchers may correlate relationships that enable them to make better and faster decisions. The need for data integration is essential for present ‐omics community, because ‐omics data is currently spread world wide in wide variety of formats. These formats can be integrated and migrated across platforms through different techniques and one of the important techniques often used is XML. XML is used to provide a document markup language that is easier to learn, retrieve, store and transmit. It is semantically richer than HTML. Here, we describe bio warehousing, database federation, controlled vocabularies and highlighting the XML application to store, migrate and validate -omics data. PMID:19255651

  8. CCD filter and transform techniques for interference excision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borsuk, G. M.; Dewitt, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical and some experimental results of a study aimed at applying CCD filter and transform techniques to the problem of interference excision within communications channels were presented. Adaptive noise (interference) suppression was achieved by the modification of received signals such that they were orthogonal to the recently measured noise field. CCD techniques were examined to develop real-time noise excision processing. They were recursive filters, circulating filter banks, transversal filter banks, an optical implementation of the chirp Z transform, and a CCD analog FFT.

  9. Radon transforms and Gegenbauer-Chebyshev integrals, I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Boris

    2017-06-01

    We suggest new modifications of the Helgason's support theorem and description of the kernel for the hyperplane Radon transform and its dual. The assumptions for functions are formulated in integral terms and close to minimal. The proofs rely on the properties of the Gegenbauer-Chebyshev integrals which generalize Abel type fractional integrals on the positive half-line.

  10. Fast Fourier transform based direct integration algorithm for the linear canonical transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong; Liu, Changgeng; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2011-03-01

    The linear canonical transform(LCT) is a parameterized linear integral transform, which is the general case of many well-known transforms such as the Fourier transform(FT), the fractional Fourier transform(FRT) and the Fresnel transform(FST). These integral transforms are of great importance in wave propagation problems because they are the solutions of the wave equation under a variety of circumstances. In optics, the LCT can be used to model paraxial free space propagation and other quadratic phase systems such as lens and graded-index media. A number of algorithms have been presented to fast compute the LCT. When they are used to compute the LCT, the sampling period in the transform domain is dependent on that in the signal domain. This drawback limits their applicability in some cases such as color digital holography. In this paper, a Fast-Fourier-Transform-based Direct Integration algorithm(FFT-DI) for the LCT is presented. The FFT-DI is a fast computational method of the Direct Integration(DI) for the LCT. It removes the dependency of the sampling period in the transform domain on that in the signal domain. Simulations and experimental results are presented to validate this idea.

  11. Fast Fourier transform based direct integration algorithm for the linear canonical transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dayong; Liu, Changgeng; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2010-07-01

    The linear canonical transform(LCT) is a parameterized linear integral transform, which is the general case of many well-known transforms such as the Fourier transform(FT), the fractional Fourier transform(FRT) and the Fresnel transform(FST). These integral transforms are of great importance in wave propagation problems because they are the solutions of the wave equation under a variety of circumstances. In optics, the LCT can be used to model paraxial free space propagation and other quadratic phase systems such as lens and graded-index media. A number of algorithms have been presented to fast compute the LCT. When they are used to compute the LCT, the sampling period in the transform domain is dependent on that in the signal domain. This drawback limits their applicability in some cases such as color digital holography. In this paper, a Fast-Fourier-Transform-based Direct Integration algorithm(FFT-DI) for the LCT is presented. The FFT-DI is a fast computational method of the Direct Integration(DI) for the LCT. It removes the dependency of the sampling period in the transform domain on that in the signal domain. Simulations and experimental results are presented to validate this idea.

  12. Techniques for integrated water resources management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The course, Decision Support Techniques for Integrated Water Resources Management, is designed mainly for technical managers and staff of water resources management agencies at the international, national, regional, and local water board level, as well as consultants in other professions working in or interested in the field of water resources development, planning, and operation. It will be held in Wageningen, The Netherlands, June 10-15, 1991.The course objective is to promote better understanding and dissemination of techniques to be applied in “real-world” integrated water resources management. The course offers an introduction to the concepts of decision modeling, plus ample case studies to demonstrate their applicability. It covers decision theory, operations research and simulation methods, as well as certain aspects of law and psychology. Selected multiple objective techniques will be presented, followed by an overview of recent trends in the field. Computer-based techniques will be demonstrated.

  13. Science Education, Integral Inquiry, Transformation and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper is written in response to Nancy Davis's article "Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives." I use Integral Theory as a framing for this response to explore how it might offer different perspectives and ways of inquiring into Nancy's paper. This process highlights…

  14. Science Education, Integral Inquiry, Transformation and Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper is written in response to Nancy Davis's article "Integral Methodological Pluralism in Science Education Research: Valuing Multiple Perspectives." I use Integral Theory as a framing for this response to explore how it might offer different perspectives and ways of inquiring into Nancy's paper. This process highlights…

  15. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability

    Treesearch

    Carl Folke; Stephen R. Carpenter; Brian Walker; Marten Scheffer; Terry Chapin; Johan. Rockstrom

    2010-01-01

    Resilience thinking addresses the dynamics and development of complex social-ecological systems (SES). Three aspects are central: resilience, adaptability and transformability. These aspects interrelate across multiple scales. Resilience in this context is the capacity of a SES to continually change and adapt yet remain within critical thresholds. Adaptability is part...

  16. Improved digital filters for evaluating Fourier and Hankel transform integrals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1975-01-01

    New algorithms are described for evaluating Fourier (cosine, sine) and Hankel (J0,J1) transform integrals by means of digital filters. The filters have been designed with extended lengths so that a variable convolution operation can be applied to a large class of integral transforms having the same system transfer function. A f' lagged-convolution method is also presented to significantly decrease the computation time when computing a series of like-transforms over a parameter set spaced the same as the filters. Accuracy of the new filters is comparable to Gaussian integration, provided moderate parameter ranges and well-behaved kernel functions are used. A collection of Fortran IV subprograms is included for both real and complex functions for each filter type. The algorithms have been successfully used in geophysical applications containing a wide variety of integral transforms

  17. A Transformative Approach to Work Integrated Learning in Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption transformative pedagogies in WIL which is offered in legal education can foster personal and social transformation in addition to enhancing lawyering skills. The paper…

  18. A Transformative Approach to Work Integrated Learning in Legal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan; Babacan, Hurriyet

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current context, scope and problems in the provision of work-integrated learning (WIL) in legal education and how the adoption transformative pedagogies in WIL which is offered in legal education can foster personal and social transformation in addition to enhancing lawyering skills. The paper…

  19. Integral Transform Methods: A Critical Review of Various Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Giuseppina; Turro, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Some general remarks about integral transform approaches to response functions are made. Their advantage for calculating cross sections at energies in the continuum is stressed. In particular we discuss the class of kernels that allow calculations of the transform by matrix diagonalization. A particular set of such kernels, namely the wavelets, is tested in a model study.

  20. Improving Maladaptive Behaviors Using Sensory Integration Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuman, Theresa

    A study examined the use of sensory integration techniques to reduce the maladaptive behaviors that interfered with the learning of nine high school students with mental impairments attending a special school. Maladaptive behaviors identified included rocking, toe walking, echolalia, resistance to change, compulsive behaviors, aggression,…

  1. Remote sensing image denoising by using discrete multiwavelet transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haihui; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jian

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method by using GHM discrete multiwavelet transform in image denoising on this paper. The developments in wavelet theory have given rise to the wavelet thresholding method, for extracting a signal from noisy data. The method of signal denoising via wavelet thresholding was popularized. Multiwavelets have recently been introduced and they offer simultaneous orthogonality, symmetry and short support. This property makes multiwavelets more suitable for various image processing applications, especially denoising. It is based on thresholding of multiwavelet coefficients arising from the standard scalar orthogonal wavelet transform. It takes into account the covariance structure of the transform. Denoising of images via thresholding of the multiwavelet coefficients result from preprocessing and the discrete multiwavelet transform can be carried out by treating the output in this paper. The form of the threshold is carefully formulated and is the key to the excellent results obtained in the extensive numerical simulations of image denoising. We apply the multiwavelet-based to remote sensing image denoising. Multiwavelet transform technique is rather a new method, and it has a big advantage over the other techniques that it less distorts spectral characteristics of the image denoising. The experimental results show that multiwavelet based image denoising schemes outperform wavelet based method both subjectively and objectively.

  2. Alternative representation of the linear canonical integral transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alieva, Tatiana; Bastiaans, Martin J.

    2005-12-01

    Starting with the Iwasawa-type decomposition of a first-order optical system (or ABCD system) as a cascade of a lens, a magnifier, and an orthosymplectic system (a system that is both symplectic and orthogonal), a further decomposition of the orthosymplectic system in the form of a separable fractional Fourier transformer embedded between two spatial-coordinate rotators is proposed. The resulting decomposition of the entire first-order optical system then shows a physically attractive representation of the linear canonical integral transformation, which, in contrast to Collins integral, is valid for any ray transformation matrix.

  3. Image encryption techniques based on the fractional Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennelly, B. M.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2003-11-01

    The fractional Fourier transform, (FRT), is a generalisation of the Fourier transform which allows domains of mixed spatial frequency and spatial information to be examined. A number of method have recently been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two dimensional information using optical systems based on the FRT. Typically, these methods require random phase screen keys to decrypt the data, which must be stored at the receiver and must be carefully aligned with the received encrypted data. We have proposed a new technique based on a random shifting or Jigsaw transformation. This method does not require the use of phase keys. The image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in various FRT domains. The new method has been compared numerically with existing methods and shows comparable or superior robustness to blind decryption. An optical implementation is also proposed and the sensitivity of the various encryption keys to blind decryption is quantified. We also present a second image encryption technique, which is based on a recently proposed method of optical phase retrieval using the optical FRT and one of its discrete counterparts. Numerical simulations of the new algorithm indicates that the sensitivity of the keys is much greater than any of the techniques currently available. In fact the sensitivity appears to be so high that optical implementation, based on existing optical signal processing technology, may be impossible. However, the technique has been shown to be a powerful method of 2-D image data encryption.

  4. Minimax Techniques For Optimizing Non-Linear Image Algebra Transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Jennifer L.

    1989-08-01

    It has been well established that the Air Force Armament Technical Laboratory (AFATL) image algebra is capable of expressing all linear transformations [7]. The embedding of the linear algebra in the image algebra makes this possible. In this paper we show a relation of the image algebra to another algebraic system called the minimax algebra. This system is used extensively in economics and operations research, but until now has not been investigated for applications to image processing. The relationship is exploited to develop new optimization methods for a class of non-linear image processing transforms. In particular, a general decomposition technique for templates in this non-linear domain is presented. Template decomposition techniques are an important tool in mapping algorithms efficiently to both sequential and massively parallel architectures.

  5. Integrated nuclear techniques to detect illicit materials

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1997-10-01

    This paper discusses the problem of detecting explosives in the context of an object being transported for illicit purposes. The author emphasizes that technologies developed for this particular application have payoffs in many related problem areas. The author discusses nuclear techniques which can be applied to this detection problem. These include: x-ray imaging; neutronic interrogation; inelastic neutron scattering; fieldable neutron generators. He discusses work which has been done on the applications of these technologies, including results for detection of narcotics. He also discusses efforts to integrate these techniques into complementary systems which offer improved performance.

  6. Differential Galois theory and Darboux transformations for Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Sonia; Morales-Ruiz, Juan J.; Sánchez-Cauce, Raquel; Zurro, María-Angeles

    2017-05-01

    We apply the Differential Galois Theory of linear partial differential systems to the Bäcklund-Darboux transformations of the AKNS solitonic partial differential equations. We prove that the Galois group of the transformed system is isomorphic to a subgroup of the Galois group of the initial system. As an example, we study the integrability in closed form of the linear systems corresponding to the solitonic solutions of KdV equation.

  7. Fourier transform approach in modulation technique of experimental measurements.

    PubMed

    Khazimullin, M V; Lebedev, Yu A

    2010-04-01

    An application of Fourier transform approach in modulation technique of experimental studies is considered. This method has obvious advantages compared with traditional lock-in amplifiers technique--simple experimental setup, a quickly available information on all the required harmonics, high speed of data processing using fast Fourier transform algorithm. A computationally simple, fast and accurate Fourier coefficients interpolation (FCI) method has been implemented to obtain a useful information from harmonics of a multimode signal. Our analysis shows that in this case FCI method has a systematical error (bias) of a signal parameters estimation, which became essential for the short data sets. Hence, a new differential Fourier coefficients interpolation (DFCI) method has been suggested, which is less sensitive to a presence of several modes in a signal. The analysis has been confirmed by simulations and measurements of a quartz wedge birefringence by means of the photoelastic modulator. The obtained bias, noise level, and measuring speed are comparable and even better than in lock-in amplifier technique. Moreover, presented DFCI method is expected to be promised candidate for using in actively developing imaging systems based on the modulation technique requiring fast digital signal processing of large data sets.

  8. DNA transformations of Candida tropicalis with replicating and integrative vectors.

    PubMed

    Sanglard, D; Fiechter, A

    1992-12-01

    The alkane-assimilating yeast Candida tropicalis was used as a host for DNA transformations. A stable ade2 mutant (Ha900) obtained by UV-mutagenesis was used as a recipient for different vectors carrying selectable markers. A first vector, pMK16, that was developed for the transformation of C. albicans and carries an ADE2 gene marker and a Candida autonomously replicating sequence (CARS) element promoting autonomous replication, was compatible for transforming Ha900. Two transformant types were observed: (i) pink transformants which easily lose pMK16 under non-selective growth conditions; (ii) white transformants, in which the same plasmid exhibited a higher mitotic stability. In both cases pMK16 could be rescued from these cells in Escherichia coli. A second vector, pADE2, containing the isolated C. tropicalis ADE2, gene, was used to transform Ha900. This vector integrated in the yeast genome at homologous sites of the ade2 locus. Different integration types were observed at one or both ade2 alleles in single or in tandem repeats.

  9. Optimization techniques for integrating spatial data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herzfeld, U.C.; Merriam, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    Two optimization techniques ta predict a spatial variable from any number of related spatial variables are presented. The applicability of the two different methods for petroleum-resource assessment is tested in a mature oil province of the Midcontinent (USA). The information on petroleum productivity, usually not directly accessible, is related indirectly to geological, geophysical, petrographical, and other observable data. This paper presents two approaches based on construction of a multivariate spatial model from the available data to determine a relationship for prediction. In the first approach, the variables are combined into a spatial model by an algebraic map-comparison/integration technique. Optimal weights for the map comparison function are determined by the Nelder-Mead downhill simplex algorithm in multidimensions. Geologic knowledge is necessary to provide a first guess of weights to start the automatization, because the solution is not unique. In the second approach, active set optimization for linear prediction of the target under positivity constraints is applied. Here, the procedure seems to select one variable from each data type (structure, isopachous, and petrophysical) eliminating data redundancy. Automating the determination of optimum combinations of different variables by applying optimization techniques is a valuable extension of the algebraic map-comparison/integration approach to analyzing spatial data. Because of the capability of handling multivariate data sets and partial retention of geographical information, the approaches can be useful in mineral-resource exploration. ?? 1995 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  10. Stratified flow over a backward-facing step: hybrid solution by integral transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, R.; Perez Guerrero, J. S.; Cotta, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is employed in the hybrid numerical-analytical solution of the stratified backward-facing step flow problem, with automatic global accuracy control towards a user-prescribed accuracy target. The present paper is aimed at extending the available database on benchmark results in heat and fluid flow, which were progressively obtained through integral transforms, for the co-validation of more flexible fully discrete approaches. Numerical results are presented for the situations more frequently encountered in the literature Copyright

  11. Programmable holographic technique for implementing unitary and nonunitary transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Potoček, Václav; Barnett, Stephen M.; Feng, Xue

    2017-03-01

    Beyond the possibilities of linear transformations in polarization space, whose dimensionality is constrained by limited orthogonal states, we propose a technique for implementing both unitary and nonunitary transformations with higher dimensionality. Any high-dimensional matrix can be decomposed into a product of two processes realizable by utilizing spatial phase modulation and free-space propagation, in a simple, fixed, and scalable setup. Given that perfect power transmission for an arbitrary matrix may not be possible, the method is optimized to reach the theoretical best. Projected applications of the method described here include a means of restricting the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space to a finite-dimensional basis for information processing purposes, simultaneous multichannel optical routing, and a method of optical orbital angular momentum sorting and generation.

  12. A Dynamic Integrated Fault Diagnosis Method for Power Transformers

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wensheng; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified. PMID:25685841

  13. A dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method for power transformers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wensheng; Bai, Cuifen; Liu, Tong

    2015-01-01

    In order to diagnose transformer fault efficiently and accurately, a dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method based on Bayesian network is proposed in this paper. First, an integrated fault diagnosis model is established based on the causal relationship among abnormal working conditions, failure modes, and failure symptoms of transformers, aimed at obtaining the most possible failure mode. And then considering the evidence input into the diagnosis model is gradually acquired and the fault diagnosis process in reality is multistep, a dynamic fault diagnosis mechanism is proposed based on the integrated fault diagnosis model. Different from the existing one-step diagnosis mechanism, it includes a multistep evidence-selection process, which gives the most effective diagnostic test to be performed in next step. Therefore, it can reduce unnecessary diagnostic tests and improve the accuracy and efficiency of diagnosis. Finally, the dynamic integrated fault diagnosis method is applied to actual cases, and the validity of this method is verified.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging using the single-pixel Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Senlin; Hui, Wangwei; Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Kaicheng; Shi, Qiushuai; Ying, Cuifeng; Liu, Dongqi; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400-1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6.25%). The performance of this system was verified by its application to the non-destructive testing of potatoes.

  15. Transforming Spatial Entanglement Using a Domain-Engineering Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, X. Q.; Xu, P.; Xie, Z. D.; Wang, J. F.; Leng, H. Y.; Zhao, J. S.; Zhu, S. N.; Ming, N. B.

    2008-12-01

    We study the spatial correlation of a two-photon entangled state produced in a multistripe periodically poled LiTaO3 crystal by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The far-field diffraction-interference experiments reveal that the transverse modulation of domain patterns transforms the spatial mode function of the two-photon state. This result offers an approach to prepare a novel type of two-photon state with a unique spatial entanglement by using a domain-engineering technique.

  16. Hyperspectral imaging using the single-pixel Fourier transform technique

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Senlin; Hui, Wangwei; Wang, Yunlong; Huang, Kaicheng; Shi, Qiushuai; Ying, Cuifeng; Liu, Dongqi; Ye, Qing; Zhou, Wenyuan; Tian, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology is playing an increasingly important role in the fields of food analysis, medicine and biotechnology. To improve the speed of operation and increase the light throughput in a compact equipment structure, a Fourier transform hyperspectral imaging system based on a single-pixel technique is proposed in this study. Compared with current imaging spectrometry approaches, the proposed system has a wider spectral range (400–1100 nm), a better spectral resolution (1 nm) and requires fewer measurement data (a sample rate of 6.25%). The performance of this system was verified by its application to the non-destructive testing of potatoes. PMID:28338100

  17. Alternative Shapes and Shaping Techniques for Enhanced Transformer Ratios in Beam Driven Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, F.; Piot, P.

    2014-01-01

    The transformer ration of collinear beam-driven techniques can be significantly improved by shaping the current profile of the drive bunch. To date, several current shapes have been proposed to increase the transformer ratio and produce quasi-uniform energy loss within the drive bunch. Some of these tailoring techniques are possible as a results of recent beam-dynamics advances, e.g., transverse-to-longitudinal emittance exchanger. In ths paper, we propose an alternative class of longitudinal shapes that enable high transformer ratio and uniform energy loss across the drive bunch. We also suggest a simple method based on photocathode-laser shaping and passive shaping in wakefield structure to realize shape close to the theoretically optimized current profiles.

  18. Exploring Conditions for Transformative Learning in Work-Integrated Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Norah

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative study was undertaken that explored the conditions for transformative learning in cooperative education as a form of work-integrated learning (WIL), towards the development of a theoretical model. Four case studies were analyzed based on interviews with WIL students, supervisors and their co-op coordinator. The findings revealed that…

  19. Complexity estimates based on integral transforms induced by computational units.

    PubMed

    Kůrková, Věra

    2012-09-01

    Integral transforms with kernels corresponding to computational units are exploited to derive estimates of network complexity. The estimates are obtained by combining tools from nonlinear approximation theory and functional analysis together with representations of functions in the form of infinite neural networks. The results are applied to perceptron networks.

  20. Efficient Integration of Quantum Mechanical Wave Equations by Unitary Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2009-08-13

    The integration of time dependent quantum mechanical wave equations is a fundamental problem in computational physics and computational chemistry. The energy and momentum spectrum of a wave function imposes fundamental limits on the performance of numerical algorithms for this problem. We demonstrate how unitary transforms can help to surmount these limitations.

  1. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  2. The Effects of Integrated Transformational Leadership on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, John Eric; Bourgeois, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Greater understanding about how variables mediate the relationship between leadership and achievement is essential to the success of reform efforts that hold leaders accountable for student learning. The purpose of this paper is to test a model of integrated transformational leadership including three important school mediators.…

  3. Transforming the Economics Curriculum by Integrating Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunaratne, Prashan Shayanka Mendis; Breyer, Yvonne A.; Wood, Leigh N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Economics is catering to a diverse student cohort. This cohort needs to be equipped with transformative concepts that students can integrate beyond university. When a curriculum is content-driven, threshold concepts are a useful tool in guiding curriculum re-design. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  4. Transforming the Economics Curriculum by Integrating Threshold Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karunaratne, Prashan Shayanka Mendis; Breyer, Yvonne A.; Wood, Leigh N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Economics is catering to a diverse student cohort. This cohort needs to be equipped with transformative concepts that students can integrate beyond university. When a curriculum is content-driven, threshold concepts are a useful tool in guiding curriculum re-design. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/Methodology/Approach: The…

  5. Analysis of integral method for fault detection in transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Hijazi, M.E.A.; Basak, A. . Wolfson Centre for Magnetics Technology)

    1993-11-01

    Test results obtained from using the integral method in transformer differential protection against internal fault current, are presented. The effect of various factors on the transient waveforms are considered and conditions to predict the magnetizing inrush current and a faulty system have been digitally simulated.

  6. Integration of a piezoelectric transformer and an ultrasonic motor.

    PubMed

    Manuspiya, Suwan; Laoratanakul, Pitak; Uchino, Kenji

    2003-03-01

    Ultrasonic motors are usually operated at an AC voltage higher than a regular battery. This implies the need of a voltage step-up transformer. In this paper, we report the integration of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) with an ultrasonic motor and a simple drive circuit. The stator of the ultrasonic motor and the PT were operated in the same radial vibration mode. Their dimensions were very close to each other yielding nearly matching resonance frequencies. Consequently, they could be combined together without inductor. The drive circuit was designed by using a 555 timer as an astable multivibrator, and high-speed dual MOSFET drivers as a class D half-bridge switching amplifier. This integrated PT-ultrasonic motor performed reasonably without the use of electromagnetic transformer or inductor. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Transformational leadership and team innovation: integrating team climate principles.

    PubMed

    Eisenbeiss, Silke A; van Knippenberg, Daan; Boerner, Sabine

    2008-11-01

    Fostering team innovation is increasingly an important leadership function. However, the empirical evidence for the role of transformational leadership in engendering team innovation is scarce and mixed. To address this issue, the authors link transformational leadership theory to principles of M. A. West's (1990) team climate theory and propose an integrated model for the relationship between transformational leadership and team innovation. This model involves support for innovation as a mediating process and climate for excellence as a moderator. Results from a study of 33 research and development teams confirmed that transformational leadership works through support for innovation, which in turn interacts with climate for excellence such that support for innovation enhances team innovation only when climate for excellence is high.

  8. Health monitoring techniques using integrated sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleiderer, Klaus; Stoessel, Rainer; Busse, Gerhard

    2003-08-01

    Advanced high performance materials and components such as CFRP, GFRP and Smart Structures require improved testing techniques. The first part of our contribution deals with nonlinear vibrometry as a defect selective non-destructive testing method. This method uses higher harmonics (which are generated only at defects) to locate the defect by scanning across the surface of the sample with a laser interferometer. For input coupling of the elastic wave both an external (like ultrasound welding converters) or internal (integrated piezo actuators) excitation source can be used. The external detection tools are a microphone or a scanning laser vibrometer. With this technique, we characterized Smart Structures made of aerospace materials and composites with embedded piezoelectric actuators. The next part is about health monitoring techniques and diagnostics where integrated elements are used for excitation and detection. Thus, we monitored the transfer function over a large frequency spectrum and especially its changes caused e.g. by defects. Changes in the properties of structures by fatigue, impacts, and thermoplasticity have been successfully observed. Also the changes in reinforced plastics under tensile stress have been monitored. The results were correlated with destructive measurements. For health monitoring we also present the impedance analysis of embedded piezo ceramic sensors. A defect causes changes in the modal response of the hole structure and that effect can be detected using the phase angle of the electric impedance of the piezo element. Additionally some types of defects cause a non-linear behavior of the structure which was verified by extracting higher harmonics as a reaction to sinusoidal single frequency excitation.

  9. Structure Integral Transform Versus Radon Transform: A 2D Mathematical Tool for Invariant Shape Recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Gao, Yongsheng

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present a novel mathematical tool, Structure Integral Transform (SIT), for invariant shape description and recognition. Different from the Radon Transform (RT), which integrates the shape image function over a 1D line in the image plane, the proposed SIT builds upon two orthogonal integrals over a 2D K -cross dissecting structure spanning across all rotation angles by which the shape regions are bisected in each integral. The proposed SIT brings the following advantages over the RT: 1) it has the extra function of describing the interior structural relationship within the shape which provides a more powerful discriminative ability for shape recognition; 2) the shape regions are dissected by the K -cross in a coarse to fine hierarchical order that can characterize the shape in a better spatial organization scanning from the center to the periphery; and 3) it is easier to build a completely invariant shape descriptor. The experimental results of applying SIT to shape recognition demonstrate its superior performance over the well-known Radon transform, and the well-known shape contexts and the polar harmonic transforms.

  10. Understanding Granites: Integrating New and Classical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Philip A.

    Many aspects of granite geology are covered in Understanding Granites: Integrating New and Classical Techniques, a 288-page volume edited by Antonio Castro, Carlos Ferñandez, and Jean-Louis Vigneresse. However, the topics chosen for this collection lean toward the physical, rather than the chemical end of the spectrum. In the introduction to this 16-chapter collection, the authors set the stage by reviewing the groundwork laid by Hutton, Reed, and Bowen; they then discuss the landmark work of Chappell and White, first published in the 1970s, which ushered in the new era of granite research—one that has continued unabated to the present day. Finally, the editors outline some of the perennial questions of granite science, such as the “room problem,” granite ascent and emplacement, and the thermal and petrochemical requirements for granite genesis.

  11. Robust watermark technique using masking and Hermite transform.

    PubMed

    Coronel, Sandra L Gomez; Ramírez, Boris Escalante; Mosqueda, Marco A Acevedo

    2016-01-01

    The following paper evaluates a watermark algorithm designed for digital images by using a perceptive mask and a normalization process, thus preventing human eye detection, as well as ensuring its robustness against common processing and geometric attacks. The Hermite transform is employed because it allows a perfect reconstruction of the image, while incorporating human visual system properties; moreover, it is based on the Gaussian functions derivates. The applied watermark represents information of the digital image proprietor. The extraction process is blind, because it does not require the original image. The following techniques were utilized in the evaluation of the algorithm: peak signal-to-noise ratio, the structural similarity index average, the normalized crossed correlation, and bit error rate. Several watermark extraction tests were performed, with against geometric and common processing attacks. It allowed us to identify how many bits in the watermark can be modified for its adequate extraction.

  12. Stable unitary integrators for the numerical implementation of continuous unitary transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savitz, Samuel; Refael, Gil

    2017-09-01

    The technique of continuous unitary transformations has recently been used to provide physical insight into a diverse array of quantum mechanical systems. However, the question of how to best numerically implement the flow equations has received little attention. The most immediately apparent approach, using standard Runge-Kutta numerical integration algorithms, suffers from both severe inefficiency due to stiffness and the loss of unitarity. After reviewing the formalism of continuous unitary transformations and Wegner's original choice for the infinitesimal generator of the flow, we present a number of approaches to resolving these issues including a choice of generator which induces what we call the "uniform tangent decay flow" and three numerical integrators specifically designed to perform continuous unitary transformations efficiently while preserving the unitarity of flow. We conclude by applying one of the flow algorithms to a simple calculation that visually demonstrates the many-body localization transition.

  13. Implementing quantum Fourier transform with integrated photonic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabia, Gelo Noel

    2014-03-01

    Many quantum algorithms that exhibit exponential speedup over their classical counterparts employ the quantum Fourier transform, which is used to solve interesting problems such as prime factorization. Meanwhile, nonclassical interference of single photons achieved on integrated platforms holds the promise of achieving large-scale quantum computation with multiport devices. An optical multiport device can be built to realize any quantum circuit as a sequence of unitary operations performed by beam splitters and phase shifters on path-encoded qudits. In this talk, I will present a recursive scheme for implementing quantum Fourier transform with a multimode interference photonic integrated circuit. Research at Perimeter Institute is supported by the Government of Canada through Industry Canada and by the Province of Ontario through the Ministry of Research and Innovation.

  14. Linearization properties, first integrals, nonlocal transformation for heat transfer equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, Özlem; Özer, Teoman

    2016-08-01

    We examine first integrals and linearization methods of the second-order ordinary differential equation which is called fin equation in this study. Fin is heat exchange surfaces which are used widely in industry. We analyze symmetry classification with respect to different choices of thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient functions of fin equation. Finally, we apply nonlocal transformation to fin equation and examine the results for different functions.

  15. Greater benefits of multisensory integration during complex sensorimotor transformations.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Verena N; Goonetilleke, Samanthi C; Medendorp, W Pieter; Corneil, Brian D

    2012-06-01

    Multisensory integration enables rapid and accurate behavior. To orient in space, sensory information registered initially in different reference frames has to be integrated with the current postural information to produce an appropriate motor response. In some postures, multisensory integration requires convergence of sensory evidence across hemispheres, which would presumably lessen or hinder integration. Here, we examined orienting gaze shifts in humans to visual, tactile, or visuotactile stimuli when the hands were either in a default uncrossed posture or a crossed posture requiring convergence across hemispheres. Surprisingly, we observed the greatest benefits of multisensory integration in the crossed posture, as indexed by reaction time (RT) decreases. Moreover, such shortening of RTs to multisensory stimuli did not come at the cost of increased error propensity. To explain these results, we propose that two accepted principles of multisensory integration, the spatial principle and inverse effectiveness, dynamically interact to aid the rapid and accurate resolution of complex sensorimotor transformations. First, early mutual inhibition of initial visual and tactile responses registered in different hemispheres reduces error propensity. Second, inverse effectiveness in the integration of the weakened visual response with the remapped tactile representation expedites the generation of the correct motor response. Our results imply that the concept of inverse effectiveness, which is usually associated with external stimulus properties, might extend to internal spatial representations that are more complex given certain body postures.

  16. Data completion with Hilbert transform over plane rectangle: Technique renovation for the Grad-Shafranov reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. J.; Li, C. Y.; Feng, X. S.; Xiang, J.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhou, S. D.

    2017-04-01

    Hilbert transforms (HT) have first been used to build the essential technique of Grad-Shafranov (GS) reconstruction by Li et al. (2013), where the problem of ill posedness in GS reconstruction has been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we present an extended Hilbert transform (EHT) over the plane rectangle. In contrast to previous one (HT over the unit circular region), corner singularities are introduced into these new formulae. It is confronted by problems like the integral with both endpoint singularities, and the semiinfinite integral with one endpoint singularity, as these EHT formulae are used to rebuild the essential technique of GS reconstruction. Two additional mathematic tools are adopted in this study. First, high-accuracy quadrature schemes are constructed for those improper integrals based on the double exponential (DE) transformations. Benchmark testing with the analytic solutions on a rectangular boundary has shown the efficiency and robustness of the EHT formulae. Second, the data completion or the inverse boundary value problem is solved with the help of a truncated Chebyshev series, which approximates the unknown boundary gradients in very high efficiency under the only assumption that they are Lipschitz continuous on each side of the rectangle. Combining the introduced EHT formulae and the two needed mathematic tools, the essential technique of GS reconstruction is formulated into a linear system of Fredholm equations of the first kind. Then a three-parameter Tikhonov regularization scheme is developed to deal with the ill-posed linear operators appearing in the discretized linear system. This new approach for data completion over the plane rectangle is benchmarked with the analytic solutions. Numerical experiments highlight the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.

  17. Display techniques for integrated data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Susan B.; Bolivar, Stephen L.; Weaver, Thomas A.

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory, geoscientists have assembled and integrated 30 geological, geophysical, and geochemical data sets with four Landsat bands for the Montrose 1° × 2° quadrangle, Colorado. Three graphical displays were developed to determine if visual analysis of the data facilitated interpretation. Two displays project the data spatially: gray-level maps project values of a single data set, and three-color overlays project the values of three data sets simultaneously. The third display, a three-dimensional plot, graphs three data sets and allows examination of relationships in parameter space. Two examples illustrate the potential applications of the display techniques. Uranium in sediments, uranium in waters, and equivalent uranium each provide unique information about uranium distribution in the quadrangle. However, the combined data convey more information than each data set separately. Copper, lead, and zinc displays allow identification of all the basemetal districts and convey information about the geochemical character of the deposits. Visual displays greatly increase efficiency of analysis and interpretability of diverse geologic data sets.

  18. Singular integrals related to the Radon transform and boundary value problems.

    PubMed

    Phong, D H; Stein, E M

    1983-12-01

    Two classes of integral operators are introduced that combine features of Calderón-Zygmund singular integrals, the Hilbert integral, and the Radon transform. Examples and applications arising from integral geometry and several complex variables are discussed.

  19. Singular integrals related to the Radon transform and boundary value problems

    PubMed Central

    Phong, D. H.; Stein, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Two classes of integral operators are introduced that combine features of Calderón—Zygmund singular integrals, the Hilbert integral, and the Radon transform. Examples and applications arising from integral geometry and several complex variables are discussed. PMID:16593402

  20. 76 FR 63941 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New Information Collection; Comment Request... information collection request for the Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE). The comment period...

  1. Nahm transform for integrable connections on the Riemann sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabo, Szilard

    2005-11-01

    In this work we are concerned with reduction of the ASD-equations to the Riemann sphere, that is integrable connections with a harmonic metric, or equivalently Higgs bundles with a Hermitian-Einstein metric. In the first chapter, we introduce the type of singularities we allow for the solutions to have, and announce the main results of the paper. In the second chapter, we study the analytical properties of the Dirac and Green's operators of our problem. In the third one, we carry out the main construction of the paper, namely that of the Nahm transform of an integrable connection with parabolic structure and with a compatible harmonic metric. In the fourth chapter, we interpret the construction from the point of view of Higgs bundles, and compute the effect of the transform on the level of topological and singularity parameters - this latter being achieved via an understanding of the behaviour of the spectral curve. Finally, in the fifth chapter we show that Nahm transform is (up to a sign) an involution.

  2. Local-instantaneous filtering in the integral transform solution of nonlinear diffusion problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macêdo, E. N.; Cotta, R. M.; Orlande, H. R. B.

    A novel filtering strategy is proposed to be utilized in conjunction with the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT), in the solution of nonlinear diffusion problems. The aim is to optimize convergence enhancement, yielding computationally efficient eigenfunction expansions. The proposed filters include space and time dependence, extracted from linearized versions of the original partial differential system. The scheme automatically updates the filter along the time integration march, as the required truncation orders for the user requested accuracy begin to exceed a prescribed maximum system size. A fully nonlinear heat conduction example is selected to illustrate the computational performance of the filtering strategy, against the classical single-filter solution behavior.

  3. Improved technique for one-way transformation of information

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1987-05-11

    Method and apparatus are provided for one-way transformation of data according to multiplication and/or exponentiation modulo a prime number. An implementation of the invention permits the one way residue transformation, useful in encryption and similar applications, to be implemented by n-bit computers substantially with no increase in difficulty or complexity over a natural transformation thereby, using a modulus which is a power of two. 9 figs.

  4. Computer-Aided Diagnosis System for Alzheimer's Disease Using Different Discrete Transform Techniques.

    PubMed

    Dessouky, Mohamed M; Elrashidy, Mohamed A; Taha, Taha E; Abdelkader, Hatem M

    2016-05-01

    The different discrete transform techniques such as discrete cosine transform (DCT), discrete sine transform (DST), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and mel-scale frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are powerful feature extraction techniques. This article presents a proposed computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for extracting the most effective and significant features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using these different discrete transform techniques and MFCC techniques. Linear support vector machine has been used as a classifier in this article. Experimental results conclude that the proposed CAD system using MFCC technique for AD recognition has a great improvement for the system performance with small number of significant extracted features, as compared with the CAD system based on DCT, DST, DWT, and the hybrid combination methods of the different transform techniques.

  5. Non-parametric transformation for data correlation and integration: From theory to practice

    SciTech Connect

    Datta-Gupta, A.; Xue, Guoping; Lee, Sang Heon

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we introduce the use of non-parametric transformations for correlating petrophysical data during reservoir characterization. Such transformations are completely data driven and do not require a priori functional relationship between response and predictor variables which is the case with traditional multiple regression. The transformations are very general, computationally efficient and can easily handle mixed data types for example, continuous variables such as porosity, permeability and categorical variables such as rock type, lithofacies. The power of the non-parametric transformation techniques for data correlation has been illustrated through synthetic and field examples. Second, we utilize these transformations to propose a two-stage approach for data integration during heterogeneity characterization. The principal advantages of our approach over traditional cokriging or cosimulation methods are: (1) it does not require a linear relationship between primary and secondary data, (2) it exploits the secondary information to its fullest potential by maximizing the correlation between the primary and secondary data, (3) it can be easily applied to cases where several types of secondary or soft data are involved, and (4) it significantly reduces variance function calculations and thus, greatly facilitates non-Gaussian cosimulation. We demonstrate the data integration procedure using synthetic and field examples. The field example involves estimation of pore-footage distribution using well data and multiple seismic attributes.

  6. Numerical implementation of the integral-transform solution to Lamb's point-load problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiadis, H. G.; Vamvatsikos, D.; Vardoulakis, I.

    The present work describes a procedure for the numerical evaluation of the classical integral-transform solution of the transient elastodynamic point-load (axisymmetric) Lamb's problem. This solution involves integrals of rapidly oscillatory functions over semi-infinite intervals and inversion of one-sided (time) Laplace transforms. These features introduce difficulties for a numerical treatment and constitute a challenging problem in trying to obtain results for quantities (e.g. displacements) in the interior of the half-space. To deal with the oscillatory integrands, which in addition may take very large values (pseudo-pole behavior) at certain points, we follow the concept of Longman's method but using as accelerator in the summation procedure a modified Epsilon algorithm instead of the standard Euler's transformation. Also, an adaptive procedure using the Gauss 32-point rule is introduced to integrate in the vicinity of the pseudo-pole. The numerical Laplace-transform inversion is based on the robust Fourier-series technique of Dubner/Abate-Crump-Durbin. Extensive results are given for sub-surface displacements, whereas the limit-case results for the surface displacements compare very favorably with previous exact results.

  7. Section summary: Integration of monitoring techniques

    Treesearch

    Yoshiyuki Kiyono; Rick Turner

    2013-01-01

    Techniques for monitoring deforestation and associated changes to forest carbon stocks are widespread and well published. In contrast, techniques for monitoring forest degradation are relatively untested in developing countries despite their inclusion in UNFCCC REDD+ negotiations. In the Mekong countries, forest degradation may contribute a substantial portion of the...

  8. Theoretical Investigation of Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Carbon Nanotube-Based Composites Using the Integral Transform Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawloski, Janice S.

    2001-01-01

    This project uses the integral transform technique to model the problem of nanotube behavior as an axially symmetric system of shells. Assuming that the nanotube behavior can be described by the equations of elasticity, we seek a stress function x which satisfies the biharmonic equation: del(exp 4) chi = [partial deriv(r(exp 2)) + partial deriv(r) + partial deriv(z(exp 2))] chi = 0. The method of integral transformations is used to transform the differential equation. The symmetry with respect to the z-axis indicates that we only need to consider the sine transform of the stress function: X(bar)(r,zeta) = integral(from 0 to infinity) chi(r,z)sin(zeta,z) dz.

  9. Theoretical Investigation of Thermo-Mechanical Behavior of Carbon Nanotube-Based Composites Using the Integral Transform Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pawloski, Janice S.

    2001-01-01

    This project uses the integral transform technique to model the problem of nanotube behavior as an axially symmetric system of shells. Assuming that the nanotube behavior can be described by the equations of elasticity, we seek a stress function x which satisfies the biharmonic equation: del(exp 4) chi = [partial deriv(r(exp 2)) + partial deriv(r) + partial deriv(z(exp 2))] chi = 0. The method of integral transformations is used to transform the differential equation. The symmetry with respect to the z-axis indicates that we only need to consider the sine transform of the stress function: X(bar)(r,zeta) = integral(from 0 to infinity) chi(r,z)sin(zeta,z) dz.

  10. Feasibility investigation of integrated optics Fourier transform devices. [holographic subtraction for multichannel data preprocessing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Vahey, D. W.; Wood, V. E.; Kenan, R. P.; Hartman, N. F.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of producing an integrated optics data processing device based upon Fourier transformations or other parallel processing techniques, and the ways in which such techniques may be used to upgrade the performance of present and projected NASA systems were investigated. Activities toward this goal include; (1) production of near-diffraction-limited geodesic lenses in glass waveguides; (2) development of grinding and polishing techniques for the production of geodesic lenses in LiNbO3 waveguides; (3) development of a characterization technique for waveguide lenses; and (4) development of a theory for corrected aspheric geodesic lenses. A holographic subtraction system was devised which should be capable of rapid on-board preprocessing of a large number of parallel data channels. The principle involved is validated in three demonstrations.

  11. Project management techniques for highly integrated programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, J. F.; Bauer, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    The management and control of a representative, highly integrated high-technology project, in the X-29A aircraft flight test project is addressed. The X-29A research aircraft required the development and integration of eight distinct technologies in one aircraft. The project management system developed for the X-29A flight test program focuses on the dynamic interactions and the the intercommunication among components of the system. The insights gained from the new conceptual framework permitted subordination of departments to more functional units of decisionmaking, information processing, and communication networks. These processes were used to develop a project management system for the X-29A around the information flows that minimized the effects inherent in sampled-data systems and exploited the closed-loop multivariable nature of highly integrated projects.

  12. Embedded wavelet packet transform technique for texture compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jin; Cheng, Po-Yuen; Kuo, C.-C. Jay

    1995-09-01

    A highly efficient texture compression scheme is proposed in this research. With this scheme, energy compaction of texture images is first achieved by the wavelet packet transform, and an embedding approach is then adopted for the coding of the wavelet packet transform coefficients. By comparing the proposed algorithm with the JPEG standard, FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard and the EZW scheme with extensive experimental results, we observe a significant improvement in the rate-distortion performance and visual quality.

  13. Fast Digital Correlations and Transforms Using Finite Field Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Signal Processing, Vol. ASSP-26, No. 6, December 1978. 14. I. S. Reed and T. K. Truong, "Fast Mersenne - Prime Transforms for Digital Filtering," Proceeding...Theorem for Computing Primitive Elements in the Field of Complex Integers Mersenne Prime ," (to be published) IEEE Trans. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal...Letters, Vol. 14, No. 15, 20th July, 1978. 20. I. S. Reed, T. K. Truong and R. L. Miller, "Correction to Fast Mersenne Prime Transforms for Digital

  14. Imaging the transformation of hot strip steel using magnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, E.; Bell, Cathy; Morris, Peter F.; Peyton, A. J.

    2001-07-01

    In the production of steel strip, the temperature distribution and cooling rates along the mill run-out table have a significant effect on the steel microstructure and hence on final material properties, e.g., yield strength, tensile strength, and ductility. Noncontacting optical temperature sensors are typically used to implement feedback control of cooling, but water spray and surface emissivity irregularities can adversely affect these sensors. Ideally, the control of cooling path should account for the progress of dynamic transformation at required points rather than the strip temperature alone. There are several reports describing the use of magnetic sensors to monitor transformation. These sensors exploit the change in the electromagnetic properties as the steel progresses through transformation, for example the austenitic phase is paramagnetic and the ferritic phase is ferromagnetic below the Curie point. Previous work has concentrated on the operation and design of individual transformation sensors. This paper now describes the use of an array of electromagnetic sensors to image the progression of transformation along a sample steel block on a pilot scale industrial mill. The paper will describe the underlying physical principles, the design of the system, and present images showing the progress of transformation along one surface of the sample.

  15. Engine/Transmission/Airframe Advanced Integration Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    performance penalty. In this case, stringent IR plume and hot -part suppression requirements greatly increased external airflows, adding to the...oil cooling, exhaust plume and hot metal infrared (IR) signature suppression, and engine inlet foreign particle protection. J DD,^ FORI» AN 73...established for the hot - metal IR suppressor. Suppressed signatures for the integrated propulsion system conceots were consistent with the following

  16. Experimental Evaluation of Integral Transformations for Engineering Drawings Vectorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaský, Jozef; Gramblička, Matúš

    2014-12-01

    The concept of digital manufacturing supposes application of digital technologies in the whole product life cycle. Direct digital manufacturing includes such information technology processes, where products are directly manufactured from 3D CAD model. In digital manufacturing, engineering drawing is replaced by CAD product model. In the contemporary practice, lots of engineering paper-based drawings are still archived. They could be digitalized by scanner and stored to one of the raster graphics format and after that vectorized for interactive editing in the specific software system for technical drawing or for archiving in some of the standard vector graphics file format. The vector format is suitable for 3D model generating, too.The article deals with using of selected integral transformations (Fourier, Hough) in the phase of digitalized raster engineering drawings vectorization.

  17. [Construction of an integration vector carrying hygromycin B resistance gene and its genetic transformation in Rhizopus oryzae].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Jiang, Shaotong; Zheng, Juan; Zheng, Zhi; Li, Xingjiang; Pan, Lijun; Luo, Shuizhong

    2015-08-01

    To construct a system of genetic transformation suitable for Rhizopus oryzae, we constructed a single-exchange vector pBS-hygro carrying hygromycin B resistance gene (hph) as its selective marker using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE PCR) technique. We introduced this recombinant vector into Rhizopus oryzae AS 3.819 by PEG/CaCl2-mediated transformation of protoplast, electroporation of protoplast and germinated spores; and we studied the effects of hydrolysis time, field strength and spore germination time on transformation frequency. We conducted quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay to determine the gene copy number of ldhA integrated in the genome of R. oryzae transformants and its effect on the stability of transformants. We successfully achieved R. oryzae transformants integrated with pBS-hygro-ldhA vector. The optimal hydrolysis time for protoplast production was 140 min, and the optimal field strength of electroporation pulse for protoplast was 13 kV/cm. The optimal germination time of spores for electroporation was 2.5 h, and the optimal field strength of electroporation pulse was 14 kV/cm. The transformation frequency of method based on germinated spores was generally higher than the methods based on protoplast. The qPCR test results suggested that transformants with high copy number of integration in a certain range were relatively stable. Our results provided basis and support for metabolic regulation and genetic engineering breeding of R. oryzae.

  18. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. [The applications for Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis technique in preventive medicine field].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiao-lan; Luo, Tian

    2002-08-01

    This paper expatriated the applications for Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis technique in preventive medicine field from four aspects of environmental pollution, life science, and the latest infrared analysis methods and near infrared analysis technique. In the environmental pollution field, it mainly described the advantages, the limitations and the solutions of the combined applications for gas chromatograph and Fourier transform infrared spectrum. In the life science field, it described the application for Fourier transform infrared spectrum analysis technique on protein secondary structure, membrane protein, phospholipid, nucleic acid, cell, tissue. In addition, it also introduced a few latest infrared analysis methods and the applications for near infrared spectrum analysis technique in food, cosmetic, drug.

  20. Improved integral imaging based image copyright protection algorithm using 3-D computational integral imaging pickup and super-resolution reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Lee, In-Kwon; Kim, Seok Tae

    2014-11-01

    Cellular automata transform (CAT) based watermarking method can provide multi-transform planes for embedding watermark. In this paper, to overcome conventional transform-based watermarking methods have only one transform plane for watermark embedding, we propose a CAT-based watermarking system, in which the three-dimensional (3-D) watermark data is decomposed by the computational integral imaging (CII) technique and be embedded into the CAT domain. However, in the 3-D watermark reconstruction process, the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique in CII system that can degrade the quality of the extracted watermark due to the pixel overlapping. We introduce the super-resolution reconstruction technique that can effectively improve this problem. Some experiments are carried out to verify the performance of the CAT-based watermarking scheme. From the experimental results, the proposed watermarking system can provide good imperceptibility and high robustness.

  1. Learning Multisensory Integration and Coordinate Transformation via Density Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Sabes, Philip N.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory processing in the brain includes three key operations: multisensory integration—the task of combining cues into a single estimate of a common underlying stimulus; coordinate transformations—the change of reference frame for a stimulus (e.g., retinotopic to body-centered) effected through knowledge about an intervening variable (e.g., gaze position); and the incorporation of prior information. Statistically optimal sensory processing requires that each of these operations maintains the correct posterior distribution over the stimulus. Elements of this optimality have been demonstrated in many behavioral contexts in humans and other animals, suggesting that the neural computations are indeed optimal. That the relationships between sensory modalities are complex and plastic further suggests that these computations are learned—but how? We provide a principled answer, by treating the acquisition of these mappings as a case of density estimation, a well-studied problem in machine learning and statistics, in which the distribution of observed data is modeled in terms of a set of fixed parameters and a set of latent variables. In our case, the observed data are unisensory-population activities, the fixed parameters are synaptic connections, and the latent variables are multisensory-population activities. In particular, we train a restricted Boltzmann machine with the biologically plausible contrastive-divergence rule to learn a range of neural computations not previously demonstrated under a single approach: optimal integration; encoding of priors; hierarchical integration of cues; learning when not to integrate; and coordinate transformation. The model makes testable predictions about the nature of multisensory representations. PMID:23637588

  2. Applications of Conformal Computing techniques to problems in computational physics: the Fast Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, James E.; Mullin, Lenore R.

    2005-07-01

    The techniques of Conformal Computing are introduced with an application to the Fast Fourier Transform. Conformal Computing is a design methodology, based on a rigorous mathematical foundation, which provides a systematic approach to the most efficient organization of all levels of the software and hardware design hierarchy from high-level software constructs all the way down to the design of the integrated circuits. We show that using these general design principles, without any specialized optimization, leads to portable, scalable, code that is competitive with other well-tuned machine specific routines. Further improvements are straightforward within our formalism by taking into account specific hardware details (e.g., cache loops) in a portable parametric way. We also argue that the present theory constitutes a uniform way of reasoning about physics and the data structures that define physics on computers.

  3. Comparing Parameter Estimation Techniques for an Electrical Power Transformer Oil Temperature Prediction Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines various sources of error in MIT's improved top oil temperature rise over ambient temperature model and estimation process. The sources of error are the current parameter estimation technique, quantization noise, and post-processing of the transformer data. Results from this paper will show that an output error parameter estimation technique should be selected to replace the current least squares estimation technique. The output error technique obtained accurate predictions of transformer behavior, revealed the best error covariance, obtained consistent parameter estimates, and provided for valid and sensible parameters. This paper will also show that the output error technique should be used to minimize errors attributed to post-processing (decimation) of the transformer data. Models used in this paper are validated using data from a large transformer in service.

  4. Transforming Student Health Services through Purpose-Driven Assessment Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Dorothy; Meiers, Chris; Honeck, Sara

    2006-01-01

    The University of Kansas Medical Center did a comprehensive review of the services provided in the Student Health Center (SHC). Using purpose-driven assessment techniques, areas needing improvement were identified. The results of the survey were presented to students and, with student support, student health fees were increased to fund desired…

  5. A Low Power Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) Implementation of Wavelet Transform/Inverse Transform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    A unique ASIC was designed implementing the Haar Wavelet transform for image compression/decompression. ASIC operations include performing the Haar... wavelet transform on a 512 by 512 square pixel image, preparing the image for transmission by quantizing and thresholding the transformed data, and...performing the inverse Haar wavelet transform , returning the original image with only minor degradation. The ASIC is based on an existing four-chip FPGA

  6. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as a surface science technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celio, Hugo; Trenary, Michael

    1998-06-01

    A central goal of modern surface science is to obtain atomic and molecular level information about the structural and chemical properties of solid surfaces. For many, if not most, problems in surface science it is necessary to work under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions to obtain meaningful and reproducible results. A wide array of highly specialized and hence expensive UHV surface sensitive techniques have been developed to probe the gas-solid interface. Most of these techniques rely on the finite penetration depth of charge particles to achieve surface sensitivity. In contrast, surface sensitivity can also be achieved with reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy using unmodified low-cost commercial FTIR spectrometers. In this paper we show how a variety of problems in surface chemistry can be effectively addressed with FTIR spectroscopy.

  7. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  8. Incipient fault diagnosis of power transformers using optical spectro-photometric technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, K.; Karmakar, Subrata

    2015-06-01

    Power transformers are the vital equipment in the network of power generation, transmission and distribution. Mineral oil in oil-filled transformers plays very important role as far as electrical insulation for the winding and cooling of the transformer is concerned. As transformers are always under the influence of electrical and thermal stresses, incipient faults like partial discharge, sparking and arcing take place. As a result, mineral oil deteriorates there by premature failure of the transformer occurs causing huge losses in terms of revenue and assets. Therefore, the transformer health condition has to be monitored continuously. The Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) is being extensively used for this purpose, but it has some drawbacks like it needs carrier gas, regular instrument calibration, etc. To overcome these drawbacks, Ultraviolet (UV) -Visible and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectro-photometric techniques are used as diagnostic tools for investigating the degraded transformer oil affected by electrical, mechanical and thermal stresses. The technique has several advantages over the conventional DGA technique.

  9. On integral and finite Fourier transforms of continuous q-Hermite polynomials

    SciTech Connect

    Atakishiyeva, M. K.; Atakishiyev, N. M.

    2009-05-15

    We give an overview of the remarkably simple transformation properties of the continuous q-Hermite polynomials H{sub n}(x vertical bar q) of Rogers with respect to the classical Fourier integral transform. The behavior of the q-Hermite polynomials under the finite Fourier transform and an explicit form of the q-extended eigenfunctions of the finite Fourier transform, defined in terms of these polynomials, are also discussed.

  10. Silicon hybrid Wafer Scale Integration (WSI) used to fabricate a Hilbert transform integrated circuit module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaughan, Daniel J.

    1990-12-01

    This research was performed in order to develop a superior processing schedule for fabricating wafer-scale integration (WSI) circuit modules. This technology allows the design of circuitry that spans the entire surface of a silicon substrate wafer. The circuit element employed in this research was the Hilbert transform, a digital phase-shifting circuit. The transform was incorporated into a three integrated circuit (IC) die package that consisted of a mechanically supportive silicon wafer, three IC die, and a planarizing silicon wafer. The die were epoxied into this wafer using a Teflon block as a flat, and the combination was epoxied onto the substrate wafer, forming the IC module. The original design goals of this research were to keep the IC die and wafer planar and to electrically characterize of the module's interconnections. The first goal was met; the resultant process uses a low temperature (50 C) cure to achieve die-to-wafer planarity of within 5 microns. The second was not met due to the inability to pattern the chosen photosensitive dielectric material. Recommendations for further research included the need to use a stable non-stick surface as a epoxy cure fixture and the need to investigate the photopatternable dielectric material.

  11. Examining integrative thinking through the transformation of students' written reflections into concept webs.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    A shift is currently taking place in which explicit connections between content are being emphasized. Biology is not an isolated discipline, yet undergraduate courses frequently focus on discrete knowledge. Students often engage in rote learning, struggle with transforming and applying content. Integrative thinking occurs when students recognize connections to content. Written reflections provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate this thinking. We transformed student-written reflections into concept webs to gain insights into how students connect biological concepts. We were interested in determining if characteristics of integrative thinking develop through reflections. The results indicate a significant relationship between concepts and integrated relationships. Integrative thinking varied but declined overall. Concept webs allow for an examination of student integrative thinking through the transformation of reflection and provide insights into the connections and relationships that students draw between biological concepts. Reflections can transform learning by facilitating and allowing for the evaluation of integrative thinking.

  12. Derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A nonlinear stationary homogeneous digital filter DIRSIT (derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique) is investigated. The spectrum of a quasi-linear discrete describing function (DDF) to DIRSIT is obtained by a digital measuring scheme. A finite impulse response (FIR) approximation to the quasi-linearization is then obtained. Finally, DIRSIT is compared with its quasi-linear approximation and with a standard digital differentiating technique. Results indicate the effects of DIRSIT on a wide variety of practical signals.

  13. Premethylation of Foreign DNA Improves Integrative Transformation Efficiency in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Yu, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Restriction digestion of foreign DNA is one of the key biological barriers against genetic transformation in microorganisms. To establish a high-efficiency transformation protocol in the model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (Synechocystis 6803), we investigated the effects of premethylation of foreign DNA on the integrative transformation of this strain. In this study, two type II methyltransferase-encoding genes, i.e., sll0729 (gene M) and slr0214 (gene C), were cloned from the chromosome of Synechocystis 6803 and expressed in Escherichia coli harboring an integration plasmid. After premethylation treatment in E. coli, the integration plasmid was extracted and used for transformation of Synechocystis 6803. The results showed that although expression of methyltransferase M had little impact on the transformation of Synechocystis 6803, expression of methyltransferase C resulted in 11- to 161-fold-higher efficiency in the subsequent integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. Effective expression of methyltransferase C, which could be achieved by optimizing the 5′ untranslated region, was critical to efficient premethylation of the donor DNA and thus high transformation efficiency in Synechocystis 6803. Since premethylating foreign DNA prior to transforming Synechocystis avoids changing the host genetic background, the study thus provides an improved method for high-efficiency integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. PMID:26452551

  14. Premethylation of foreign DNA improves integrative transformation efficiency in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Yu, Jianping; Zhang, Weiwen; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2015-12-01

    Restriction digestion of foreign DNA is one of the key biological barriers against genetic transformation in microorganisms. To establish a high-efficiency transformation protocol in the model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 (Synechocystis 6803), we investigated the effects of premethylation of foreign DNA on the integrative transformation of this strain. In this study, two type II methyltransferase-encoding genes, i.e., sll0729 (gene M) and slr0214 (gene C), were cloned from the chromosome of Synechocystis 6803 and expressed in Escherichia coli harboring an integration plasmid. After premethylation treatment in E. coli, the integration plasmid was extracted and used for transformation of Synechocystis 6803. The results showed that although expression of methyltransferase M had little impact on the transformation of Synechocystis 6803, expression of methyltransferase C resulted in 11- to 161-fold-higher efficiency in the subsequent integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. Effective expression of methyltransferase C, which could be achieved by optimizing the 5' untranslated region, was critical to efficient premethylation of the donor DNA and thus high transformation efficiency in Synechocystis 6803. Since premethylating foreign DNA prior to transforming Synechocystis avoids changing the host genetic background, the study thus provides an improved method for high-efficiency integrative transformation of Synechocystis 6803. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Use of the generalized integral transform method for solving equations of solute transport in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Szecsody, Jim E.; Zachara, John M.; Ball, William P.

    The generalized integral transform technique (GITT) is applied to solve the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation (ADE) in heterogeneous porous media coupled with either linear or nonlinear sorption and decay. When both sorption and decay are linear, analytical solutions are obtained using the GITT for one-dimensional ADEs with spatially and temporally variable flow and dispersion coefficient and arbitrary initial and boundary conditions. When either sorption or decay is nonlinear the solutions to ADEs with the GITT are hybrid analytical-numerical. In both linear and nonlinear cases, the forward and inverse integral transforms for the problems described in the paper are apparent and straightforward. Some illustrative examples with linear sorption and decay are presented to demonstrate the application and check the accuracy of the derived analytical solutions. The derived hybrid analytical-numerical solutions are checked against a numerical approach and demonstratively applied to a nonlinear transport example, which simulates a simplified system of iron oxide bioreduction with nonlinear sorption and nonlinear reaction kinetics.

  16. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Illias, Hazlee Azil; Chai, Xin Rui; Abu Bakar, Ab Halim; Mokhlis, Hazlie

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works.

  17. Transformer Incipient Fault Prediction Using Combined Artificial Neural Network and Various Particle Swarm Optimisation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    It is important to predict the incipient fault in transformer oil accurately so that the maintenance of transformer oil can be performed correctly, reducing the cost of maintenance and minimise the error. Dissolved gas analysis (DGA) has been widely used to predict the incipient fault in power transformers. However, sometimes the existing DGA methods yield inaccurate prediction of the incipient fault in transformer oil because each method is only suitable for certain conditions. Many previous works have reported on the use of intelligence methods to predict the transformer faults. However, it is believed that the accuracy of the previously proposed methods can still be improved. Since artificial neural network (ANN) and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) techniques have never been used in the previously reported work, this work proposes a combination of ANN and various PSO techniques to predict the transformer incipient fault. The advantages of PSO are simplicity and easy implementation. The effectiveness of various PSO techniques in combination with ANN is validated by comparison with the results from the actual fault diagnosis, an existing diagnosis method and ANN alone. Comparison of the results from the proposed methods with the previously reported work was also performed to show the improvement of the proposed methods. It was found that the proposed ANN-Evolutionary PSO method yields the highest percentage of correct identification for transformer fault type than the existing diagnosis method and previously reported works. PMID:26103634

  18. The Impact of Technology Integration through a Transformative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillos, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    The integration of technology into classroom instruction in K-12 schools remains problematic. The problems associated with this integration are troubling, as technology integration may change a teacher's pedagogy toward more innovative approaches that increase student achievement. The purpose of this study was to document teachers' experiences as…

  19. The Impact of Technology Integration through a Transformative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cubillos, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    The integration of technology into classroom instruction in K-12 schools remains problematic. The problems associated with this integration are troubling, as technology integration may change a teacher's pedagogy toward more innovative approaches that increase student achievement. The purpose of this study was to document teachers' experiences as…

  20. Eigenfunctions and eigenoperators of cyclic integral transforms with application to Gaussian beam propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCallum, Matthew S.

    An integral transform which reproduces a transformable input function after a finite number N of successive applications is known as a cyclic transform. Of course, such a transform will reproduce an arbitrary transformable input after N applications, but it also admits eigenfunction inputs which will be reproduced after a single application of the transform. These transforms and their eigenfunctions appear in various applications, and the systematic determination of eigenfunctions of cyclic integral transforms has been a problem of interest to mathematicians since at least the early twentieth century. In this work we review the various approaches to this problem, providing generalizations of published expressions from previous approaches. We then develop a new formalism, differential eigenoperators, that reduces the eigenfunction problem for a cyclic transform to an eigenfunction problem for a corresponding ordinary differential equation. In this way we are able to relate eigenfunctions of integral equations to boundary-value problems, which are typically easier to analyze. We give extensive examples and discussion via the specific case of the Fourier transform. We also relate this approach to two formalisms that have been of interest to the mathematical physics community---hyperdifferential operators and linear canonical transforms. We show how this new approach reproduces known results of Fourier optics regarding free-space diffractive propagation of Gaussian beams in both one and two dimensions. Finally we discuss the group-theoretical aspects of the formalism and describe an isomorphism between roots of the identity transform and complex roots of unity. In the appendix we derive several technical results related to integrability and transformability of solutions in the Fourier transform case, and we prove two theorems---one of them new---on polynomial roots. We conclude that the formalism offers a new and equally valuable perspective on an interesting

  1. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  2. Integrative Teaching Techniques and Improvement of German Speaking Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litualy, Samuel Jusuf

    2016-01-01

    This research ist a Quasi-Experimental research which only applied to one group without comparison group. It aims to prove whether the implementation of integrative teaching technique has influenced the speaking skill of the students in German Education Study Program of FKIP, Pattimura University. The research was held in the German Education…

  3. Modular packaging technique for combining integrated circuits and discrete components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacchia, J. F.

    1969-01-01

    Technique for packaging electronic modules interconnects integrated circuits and discrete components by means of beryllium-copper strips in a molded diallyphthalate tray. Simple girder-like construction provides ease of assembly, high rigidity, excellent vibration resistance, and good heat dissipation characteristics.

  4. Simulator verification techniques study. Integrated simulator self test system concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, G.; Wenglinski, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    Software and hardware requirements for implementing hardware self tests are presented in support of the development of training and procedures development simulators for the space shuttle program. Self test techniques for simulation hardware and the validation of simulation performance are stipulated. The requirements of an integrated simulator self system are analyzed. Readiness tests, fault isolation tests, and incipient fault detection tests are covered.

  5. Transformation techniques for cross-sectional and longitudinal endocrine data: application to salivary cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert; Plessow, Franziska

    2013-06-01

    Endocrine time series often lack normality and homoscedasticity most likely due to the non-linear dynamics of their natural determinants and the immanent characteristics of the biochemical analysis tools, respectively. As a consequence, data transformation (e.g., log-transformation) is frequently applied to enable general linear model-based analyses. However, to date, data transformation techniques substantially vary across studies and the question of which is the optimum power transformation remains to be addressed. The present report aims to provide a common solution for the analysis of endocrine time series by systematically comparing different power transformations with regard to their impact on data normality and homoscedasticity. For this, a variety of power transformations of the Box-Cox family were applied to salivary cortisol data of 309 healthy participants sampled in temporal proximity to a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test). Whereas our analyses show that un- as well as log-transformed data are inferior in terms of meeting normality and homoscedasticity, they also provide optimum transformations for both, cross-sectional cortisol samples reflecting the distributional concentration equilibrium and longitudinal cortisol time series comprising systematically altered hormone distributions that result from simultaneously elicited pulsatile change and continuous elimination processes. Considering these dynamics of endocrine oscillations, data transformation prior to testing GLMs seems mandatory to minimize biased results.

  6. Multiscale Transient Signal Detection: Localizing Transients in Geodetic Data Through Wavelet Transforms and Sparse Estimation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, B.; Simons, M.; Agram, P.

    2012-12-01

    Transients are a class of deformation signals on the Earth's surface that can be described as non-periodic accumulation of strain in the crust. Over seismically and volcanically active regions, these signals are often challenging to detect due to noise and other modes of deformation. Geodetic datasets that provide precise measurements of surface displacement over wide areas are ideal for exploiting both the spatial and temporal coherence of transient signals. We present an extension to the Multiscale InSAR Time Series (MInTS) approach for analyzing geodetic data by combining the localization benefits of wavelet transforms (localizing signals in space) with sparse optimization techniques (localizing signals in time). Our time parameterization approach allows us to reduce geodetic time series to sparse, compressible signals with very few non-zero coefficients corresponding to transient events. We first demonstrate the temporal transient detection by analyzing GPS data over the Long Valley caldera in California and along the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, CA. For Long Valley, we are able to resolve the documented 2002-2003 uplift event with greater temporal precision. Similarly for Parkfield, we model the postseismic deformation by specific integrated basis splines characterized by timescales that are largely consistent with postseismic relaxation times. We then apply our method to ERS and Envisat InSAR datasets consisting of over 200 interferograms for Long Valley and over 100 interferograms for Parkfield. The wavelet transforms reduce the impact of spatially correlated atmospheric noise common in InSAR data since the wavelet coefficients themselves are essentially uncorrelated. The spatial density and extended temporal coverage of the InSAR data allows us to effectively localize ground deformation events in both space and time with greater precision than has been previously accomplished.

  7. A novel technique for an integrated optical wavelength demultiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy Rabeh, M.; Mohanna, M.; Hosny, Tarek; Gabr, Mohamed I.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a new technique for optical wavelength demultiplexing (DEMUX) relaying on two phenomena: Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift and continuous refraction at a graded-index medium interface. In the first case, two light beams are totally reflected at a plane interface separating two dielectric lossless media. The reflected beams suffer different lateral shifts (GH shifts) depending on the wavelength; thus accomplishing the required spatial beam separation. In the second case, the two light beams have different "turning points" inside the graded index medium; hence, the "back-refracted" beams are spatially separated. In this paper, we optimized the conditions of operation of such demultiplexing technique. This makes possible the integration of such technique in "planar integrated-optics" structures which can be used reliably in optical fiber communication networks.

  8. Design techniques for low-voltage analog integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakús, Matej; Stopjaková, Viera; Arbet, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a review and analysis of different design techniques for (ultra) low-voltage integrated circuits (IC) are performed. This analysis shows that the most suitable design methods for low-voltage analog IC design in a standard CMOS process include techniques using bulk-driven MOS transistors, dynamic threshold MOS transistors and MOS transistors operating in weak or moderate inversion regions. The main advantage of such techniques is that there is no need for any modification of standard CMOS structure or process. Basic circuit building blocks like differential amplifiers or current mirrors designed using these approaches are able to operate with the power supply voltage of 600 mV (or even lower), which is the key feature towards integrated systems for modern portable applications.

  9. Optoelectronic Components and Integrated Circuits Including Up and Down Conversion Technique and Hybrid Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    solutions are also possible with (commercially available) DFB laser integrated with an electroabsorption modulator. 1-14 Another monolithic possible solution...discuss the monolithic integration of optoelectronic or photonic devices, recalling that the industrial way is based on hybrid technology on silicon...the integration (hybrid versus monolithic ) of components and circuits. 2. Emitters There is a lot of techniques to generate a microwave or millimetre

  10. Solution of fractional kinetic equation by a class of integral transform of pathway type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Dilip

    2013-04-01

    Solutions of fractional kinetic equations are obtained through an integral transform named Pα-transform introduced in this paper. The Pα-transform is a binomial type transform containing many class of transforms including the well known Laplace transform. The paper is motivated by the idea of pathway model introduced by Mathai [Linear Algebra Appl. 396, 317-328 (2005), 10.1016/j.laa.2004.09.022]. The composition of the transform with differential and integral operators are proved along with convolution theorem. As an illustration of applications to the general theory of differential equations, a simple differential equation is solved by the new transform. Being a new transform, the Pα-transform of some elementary functions as well as some generalized special functions such as H-function, G-function, Wright generalized hypergeometric function, generalized hypergeometric function, and Mittag-Leffler function are also obtained. The results for the classical Laplace transform is retrieved by letting α → 1.

  11. High Performance and Increased Precision Techniques for Feynman Loop Integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; de Doncker, E.; Ishikawa, T.; Kapenga, J.; Olagbemi, O.; Yuasa, F.

    2016-10-01

    For the investigation of physics within and beyond the Standard Model, a precise evaluation of higher order corrections in perturbative quantum field theory is required. We have worked on the development of a computational method for Feynman loop integrals with a fully numerical approach. It is based on numerical integration and extrapolation techniques. In this paper, we describe the status and new developments in our techniques for the numerical computation of Feynman loop integrals. Separation of ultra-violet divergences is important for the renormalization procedure. In our analyses, the separation can be done numerically. For 2-loop integrals we have performed the calculations for up to 4-point functions, and for 2-point functions we can handle up to 4- loop integrals. We report the status and accuracy of the computations with detailed numerical comparisons to results in the literature, in order to demonstrate that our method will evolve into an important component of automated systems for the study of higher-order radiative corrections.

  12. Enhanced integral imaging system using image floating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Sung-Wook; Kim, Joohwan; Lee, Byoungho

    2005-09-01

    Enhanced integral imaging system based on the image floating method is proposed. The integral imaging is one of the most promising methods among the autostereoscopic displays and the integrated image has the volumetric characteristics unlike the other stereoscopic images. The image floating is a common 3D display technique, which uses a big convex lens or a concave mirror to exhibit the image of a real object to the observer. The image floating method can be used to emphasize the viewing characteristics of the volumetric image and the noise image which is located on the fixed plane can be eliminated by the floating lens through the control of the focal length. In this paper, the solution of the seam noise and the image flipping of the integral imaging system is proposed using the image floating method. Moreover, the advanced techniques of the integral imaging system can be directly applied to the proposed system. The proposed system can be successfully applied to many 3D applications such as 3D television.

  13. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  14. Implementation of an Integrated, Portable Transformer Condition Monitoring Instrument in the Classroom and On-Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, B.; Dey, D.; Chakravorti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The development of integrated, portable, transformer condition monitoring (TCM) equipment for classroom demonstrations as well as for student exercises conducted in the field is discussed. Demonstrations include experimentation with real-world transformers to illustrate concepts such as polarization and depolarization current through oil-paper…

  15. Lessons from the Desert: Integrating Managerial Expertise and Learning for Organizational Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, George

    2004-01-01

    Reflection upon a field study of a corporate transformation provides insights into the application and integration of organizational learning theory and frameworks with local, corporate knowledge. In the corporate transformation studied this local knowledge came from consumer psychology, marketing campaigns and the use of media. When these ideas…

  16. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  17. Lessons from the Desert: Integrating Managerial Expertise and Learning for Organizational Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, George

    2004-01-01

    Reflection upon a field study of a corporate transformation provides insights into the application and integration of organizational learning theory and frameworks with local, corporate knowledge. In the corporate transformation studied this local knowledge came from consumer psychology, marketing campaigns and the use of media. When these ideas…

  18. The transformational model for professional practice: a system integration focus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Gail A; Hayden, Margaret; Bradle, Judith A

    2004-04-01

    Healthcare organizations face the increasingly difficult challenge of providing services that are of high quality, reasonable cost, and easy accessibility for their constituents. Mergers and acquisitions are one strategy for accomplishing this, but in doing so it is critical to have a "road map" to create an integrated system, rather than merely a consortium of hospitals. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has successfully created an integrated healthcare system of 19 hospitals. The authors describe the professional practice model used as a framework for success in integrating patient care.

  19. Integral dose: Comparison between four techniques for prostate radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ślosarek, Krzysztof; Osewski, Wojciech; Grządziel, Aleksandra; Radwan, Michał; Dolla, Łukasz; Szlag, Marta; Stąpór-Fudzińska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Comparisons of integral dose delivered to the treatment planning volume and to the whole patient body during stereotactic, helical and intensity modulated radiotherapy of prostate. Multifield techniques produce large volumes of low dose inside the patient body. Delivered dose could be the result of the cytotoxic injuries of the cells even away from the treatment field. We calculated the total dose absorbed in the patient body for four radiotherapy techniques to investigate whether some methods have a potential to reduce the exposure to the patient. We analyzed CyberKnife plans for 10 patients with localized prostate cancer. Five alternative plans for each patient were calculated with the VMAT, IMRT and TomoTherapy techniques. Alternative dose distributions were calculated to achieve the same coverage for PTV. Integral Dose formula was used to calculate the total dose delivered to the PTV and whole patient body. Analysis showed that the same amount of dose was deposited to the treated volume despite different methods of treatment delivery. The mean values of total dose delivered to the whole patient body differed significantly for each treatment technique. The highest integral dose in the patient's body was at the TomoTherapy and CyberKnife treatment session. VMAT was characterized by the lowest integral dose deposited in the patient body. The highest total dose absorbed in normal tissue was observed with the use of a robotic radiosurgery system and TomoTherapy. These results demonstrate that the exposure of healthy tissue is a dosimetric factor which differentiates the dose delivery methods.

  20. A new integrated technique for the supportive treatment of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Jens; Harm, Stephan

    2017-03-06

    Although there has been continuous, intensive research for many years in the field of sepsis treatment, currently available treatment options are limited, and there is still a lack of systems that efficiently remove endotoxins as well as mediators. Here, we discuss a newly developed, integrated technique that combines different aspects for their use in extracorporeal blood purification for the supportive treatment of liver failure and sepsis.

  1. Digital I and C system upgrade integration technique

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H. W.; Shih, C.; Wang, J. R.; Huang, K. C.

    2012-07-01

    This work developed an integration technique for digital I and C system upgrade, the utility can replace the I and C systems step by step systematically by this method. Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin-Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo-Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) Procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (I) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR- 1011710 (2005) 'Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems' which was published by the Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SVandV), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. A

  2. Integrating Organic Matter Structure with Ecosystem Function using Advanced Analytical Chemistry Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boot, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms are the primary transformers of organic matter in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The structure of organic matter controls its bioavailability and researchers have long sought to link the chemical characteristics of the organic matter pool to its lability. To date this effort has been primarily attempted using low resolution descriptive characteristics (e.g. organic matter content, carbon to nitrogen ratio, aromaticity, etc .). However, recent progress in linking these two important ecosystem components has been advanced using advanced high resolution tools (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectroscopy (MS)-based techniques). A series of experiments will be presented that highlight the application of high resolution techniques in a variety of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with the focus on how these data explicitly provide the foundation for integrating organic matter structure into our concept of ecosystem function. The talk will highlight results from a series of experiments including: an MS-based metabolomics and fluorescence excitation emission matrix approach evaluating seasonal and vegetation based changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from arctic soils; Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS and MS metabolomics analysis of DOM from three lakes in an alpine watershed; and the transformation of 13C labeled glucose track with NMR during a rewetting experiment from Colorado grassland soils. These data will be synthesized to illustrate how the application of advanced analytical techniques provides novel insight into our understanding of organic matter processing in a wide range of ecosystems.

  3. Multi-point fibre optic hot-spot network integrated into a high power transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo Ribeiro, A. B.; Eira, N.; Sousa, J. M.; Guerreiro, P. T.; Salcedo, J. A. R.

    2007-07-01

    A multi-point fibre optic temperature sensor network integrated inside a power transformer for continuous monitoring of hot-spots on windings, cellulose insulations and oil, is demonstrated and tested. The temperature sensors are based on proprietary encapsulated fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and the optical interrogation unit uses a special designed narrowband high power broadband fibre source. The fibre optic sensing network is integrated into a 440 MVA power transformer having 12 temperature sensing points, distributed over several physical locations inside de transformer (windings, cellulose insulators, magnetic circuit and cooling oil entrance and exit).

  4. Computer-Assisted Techniques to Enhance Transformative Learning in First-Year Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Marguerite; Kajs, Rebecca; Agee, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates techniques to foster transformative learning in computer-assisted literature classes: (1) a lesson plan on John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning"; (2) a plan to analyze "Oedipus Rex" using the "Daedalus" Interactive Writing Environment; and (3) a demonstration of how students engage in "meta-reflection" as they explore…

  5. Computer-Assisted Techniques to Enhance Transformative Learning in First-Year Literature Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Marguerite; Kajs, Rebecca; Agee, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Illustrates techniques to foster transformative learning in computer-assisted literature classes: (1) a lesson plan on John Donne's "A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning"; (2) a plan to analyze "Oedipus Rex" using the "Daedalus" Interactive Writing Environment; and (3) a demonstration of how students engage in "meta-reflection" as they explore…

  6. Interferometry based multispectral photon-limited 2D and 3D integral image encryption employing the Hartley transform.

    PubMed

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Lee, Byung-Geun; Sheridan, John T

    2015-06-15

    We present a method of securing multispectral 3D photon-counted integral imaging (PCII) using classical Hartley Transform (HT) based encryption by employing optical interferometry. This method has the simultaneous advantages of minimizing complexity by eliminating the need for holography recording and addresses the phase sensitivity problem encountered when using digital cameras. These together with single-channel multispectral 3D data compactness, the inherent properties of the classical photon counting detection model, i.e. sparse sensing and the capability for nonlinear transformation, permits better authentication of the retrieved 3D scene at various depth cues. Furthermore, the proposed technique works for both spatially and temporally incoherent illumination. To validate the proposed technique simulations were carried out for both the 2D and 3D cases. Experimental data is processed and the results support the feasibility of the encryption method.

  7. 76 FR 17145 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New Information Collection; Comment Request... Operating Environment (IOE); OMB Control No. 1615-NEW. SUMMARY: USCIS is developing an automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE) to process benefit applications. The IOE will collect information by asking...

  8. Laplace transform approach for solving integral equations using computer algebra system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paneva-Konovska, Jordanka; Nikolova, Yanka

    2016-12-01

    The Laplace transform method, along with Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) "Maple" v. 13, are extremely successfully applied for solving a class of integral equations with an arbitrary order, including fractional order integral equations. The combining of both powerful approaches allows students more quickly, enjoyable and thoroughly to master the material.

  9. Transforming Academic Nursing: From Balance through Integration to Coherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langston, Nancy F.; Cowling, W. Richard, III; McCain, Nancy L.

    1999-01-01

    The academic mission should move from teaching-research-service to a holistic model with a single, integrative focus on knowledge work. The unity of knowledge development, dissemination, and application by a community of scholars promotes coherence at the university, unit, and scholar level. (SK)

  10. Transforming Water Management: an Emerging Promise of Integrated Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Throughout its history, civilization has relied on technology to facilitate many of its advances. New innovations and technologies have often provided strategic advantages that have led to transformations in institutions, economies and ultimately societies. Observational and information technologies are leading to significant developments in the water sector. After a brief introduction tracing the role of observational technologies in the areas of hydrology and water cycle science, this talk explores the existing and potential contributions of remote sensing data in water resource management around the world. In particular, it outlines the steps being undertaken by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and its Water Task to facilitate capacity building efforts in water management using Earth Observations in Asia, Africa and Latin and Caribbean America. Success stories on the benefits of using Earth Observations and applying GEO principles are provided. While GEO and its capacity building efforts are contributing to the transformation of water management through interoperability, data sharing, and capacity building, the full potential of these contributions has not been fully realized because impediments and challenges still remain.

  11. Analytically reduced form of multicenter integrals from Gaussian transforms. [in atomic and molecular physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straton, Jack C.

    1989-01-01

    The four-dimensional Fourier-Feynman transformations previously used in analytically reducing the general class of integrals containing multicenter products of 1s hydrogenic orbitals, Coulomb or Yukawa potentials, and plane waves, are replaced by the one-dimensional Gaussian transformation. This reduces the previously required double-diagonalization of the quadratic form of the multicenter integrals to only one diagonalization, yielding a simpler reduced form of the integral. The present work also extends the result to include all s states and pairs of states with l not equal to zero summed over the m quantum number.

  12. A relation between algebraic and transform-based reconstruction technique in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefhaber, S.; Rosenbaum, M.; Sauer-Greff, W.; Urbansky, R.

    2013-07-01

    In this contribution a coherent relation between the algebraic and the transform-based reconstruction technique for computed tomography is introduced using the mathematical means of two-dimensional signal processing. There are two advantages arising from that approach. First, the algebraic reconstruction technique can now be used efficiently regarding memory usage without considerations concerning the handling of large sparse matrices. Second, the relation grants a more intuitive understanding as to the convergence characteristics of the iterative method. Besides the gain in theoretical insight these advantages offer new possibilities for application-specific fine tuning of reconstruction techniques.

  13. Rainfall-runoff modeling at Jinsha River basin by integrated neural network with discrete wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tayyab, Muhammad; Zhou, Jianzhong; Dong, Xiaohua; Ahmad, Ijaz; Sun, Na

    2017-09-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) models combined with time series decomposition are widely employed to calculate the river flows; however, the influence of the application of diverse decomposing approaches on assessing correctness is inadequately compared and examined. This study investigates the certainty of monthly streamflow by applying ANNs including feed forward back propagation neural network and radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) models integrated with discrete wavelet transform (DWT), at Jinsha River basin in the upper reaches of Yangtze River of China. The effect of the noise factor of the decomposed time series on the prediction correctness has also been argued in this paper. Data have been analyzed by comparing the simulation outputs of the models with the correlation coefficient (R) root mean square errors, mean absolute errors, mean absolute percentage error and Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency. Results show that time series decomposition technique DWT contributes in improving the accuracy of streamflow prediction, as compared to single ANN's. The detailed comparative analysis showed that the RBFNN integrated with DWT has better forecasting capabilities as compared to other developed models. Moreover, for high-precision streamflow prediction, the high-frequency section of the original time series is very crucial, which is understandable in flood season.

  14. Multispectral image sharpening using wavelet transform techniques and spatial correlation of edges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, George P.; Schowengerdt, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Several reported image fusion or sharpening techniques are based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The technique described here uses a pixel-based maximum selection rule to combine respective transform coefficients of lower spatial resolution near-infrared (NIR) and higher spatial resolution panchromatic (pan) imagery to produce a sharpened NIR image. Sharpening assumes a radiometric correlation between the spectral band images. However, there can be poor correlation, including edge contrast reversals (e.g., at soil-vegetation boundaries), between the fused images and, consequently, degraded performance. To improve sharpening, a local area-based correlation technique originally reported for edge comparison with image pyramid fusion is modified for application with the DWT process. Further improvements are obtained by using redundant, shift-invariant implementation of the DWT. Example images demonstrate the improvements in NIR image sharpening with higher resolution pan imagery.

  15. Path Integral Computation of Quantum Free Energy Differences Due to Alchemical Transformations Involving Mass and Potential.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Alejandro; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2011-08-09

    Thermodynamic integration, perturbation theory, and λ-dynamics methods were applied to path integral molecular dynamics calculations to investigate free energy differences due to "alchemical" transformations. Several estimators were formulated to compute free energy differences in solvable model systems undergoing changes in mass and/or potential. Linear and nonlinear alchemical interpolations were used for the thermodynamic integration. We find improved convergence for the virial estimators, as well as for the thermodynamic integration over nonlinear interpolation paths. Numerical results for the perturbative treatment of changes in mass and electric field strength in model systems are presented. We used thermodynamic integration in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics to compute the quantum free energy difference of the isotope transformation in the Zundel cation. The performance of different free energy methods is discussed.

  16. Design of time-pulse coded optoelectronic neuronal elements for nonlinear transformation and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasilenko, Vladimir G.; Nikolsky, Alexander I.; Lazarev, Alexander A.; Lazareva, Maria V.

    2008-03-01

    In the paper the actuality of neurophysiologically motivated neuron arrays with flexibly programmable functions and operations with possibility to select required accuracy and type of nonlinear transformation and learning are shown. We consider neurons design and simulation results of multichannel spatio-time algebraic accumulation - integration of optical signals. Advantages for nonlinear transformation and summation - integration are shown. The offered circuits are simple and can have intellectual properties such as learning and adaptation. The integrator-neuron is based on CMOS current mirrors and comparators. The performance: consumable power - 100...500 μW, signal period- 0.1...1ms, input optical signals power - 0.2...20 μW time delays - less 1μs, the number of optical signals - 2...10, integration time - 10...100 of signal periods, accuracy or integration error - about 1%. Various modifications of the neuron-integrators with improved performance and for different applications are considered in the paper.

  17. Shape matching under affine transformation using normalization and multi-scale area integral features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Huiying; Zhu, Feng; Hao, Yingming; Lu, Rongrong

    2016-10-01

    Shape Matching under Affine Transformation (SMAT) is an important issue in shape analysis. Most of the existing SMAT methods are sensitive to noise or complicated because they usually need to extract the edge points or compute the high order function of the shape. To solve these problems, a new SMAT method which combines the low order shape normalization and the multi-scale area integral features is proposed. First, the shapes with affine transformation are normalized into their orthogonal representations according to the moments and an equivalent resample. This procedure transforms the shape by several linear operations: translations, scaling, and rotation, following by a resample operation. Second, the Multi-Scale Area Integral Features (MSAIF) of the shapes which are invariant to the orthogonal transformation (rotation and reflection transformation) are extracted. The MSAIF is a signature achieved through concatenating the area integral feature at a range of scales from fine to coarse. The area integral feature is an integration of the feature values, which are computed by convoluting the shape with an isotropic kernel and taking the complement, over the shape domain following by the normalization using the area of the shape. Finally, the matching of different shapes is performed according to the dissimilarity which is measured with the optimal transport distance. The performance of the proposed method is tested on the car dataset and the multi-view curve dataset. Experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and robust, and can be used in many shape analysis works.

  18. Stability of numerical integration techniques for transient rotor dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    A finite element model of a rotor bearing system was analyzed to determine the stability limits of the forward, backward, and centered Euler; Runge-Kutta; Milne; and Adams numerical integration techniques. The analysis concludes that the highest frequency mode determines the maximum time step for a stable solution. Thus, the number of mass elements should be minimized. Increasing the damping can sometimes cause numerical instability. For a uniform shaft, with 10 mass elements, operating at approximately the first critical speed, the maximum time step for the Runge-Kutta, Milne, and Adams methods is that which corresponds to approximately 1 degree of shaft movement. This is independent of rotor dimensions.

  19. Coherent multilchannel techniques for integrated broadband communications subscriber lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The RACE program definition phase is summarized. The background and problems relating to coherent multichannel techniques for integrated communications subscriber lines, assumptions, and recent relevant state-of-the-art developments are discussed, including a commentary on Level III of the RACE definition phase scenario (ROPS-3). The main hardware advantage will occur in the central office in the implementation of broadband distribution services through a high degree of laser sharing. The selection of TV Channels is carried out within the TV set and not by switching in the central office. This reduces problems in connection with signaling bursts and is an important privacy advantage. Key components for CMC techniques are electronically tunable distributed feedback lasers, which should not be affected by reflections or compact laser isolator modules.

  20. Integration of different data gap filling techniques to facilitate ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Data gap filling techniques are commonly used to predict hazard in the absence of empirical data. The most established techniques are read-across, trend analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) are less frequently used data gap filling techniques which are applied to estimate relative potencies for mixtures of chemicals that contribute to an adverse outcome through a common biological target. For example, The TEF approach has been used for dioxin-like effects comparing individual chemical activity to that of the most toxic dioxin: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. The aim of this case study was to determine whether integration of two data gap filling techniques: QSARs and TEFs improved the predictive outcome for the assessment of a set of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and their mixtures. PCBs are associated with many different adverse effects, including their potential for neurotoxicity, which is the endpoint of interest in this study. The dataset comprised 209 PCB congeners, out of which 87 altered in vitro Ca(2+) homeostasis from which neurotoxic equivalency values (NEQs) were derived. The preliminary objective of this case study was to develop a QSAR model to predict NEQ values for the 122 untested PCB congeners. A decision tree model was developed using the number of position specific chlorine substitutions on the biphenyl scaffold as a fingerprint descriptor. Three different positiona

  1. Integrative Approach for a Transformative Freshman-Level STEM Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Kathleen L.; Olsen, Paul E.; Nwogbaga, Agashi P.; Stotts, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 Wesley College adopted a unified undergraduate program of evidence-based high-impact teaching practices. Through foundation and federal and state grant support, the college completely revised its academic core curriculum and strengthened its academic support structures by including a comprehensive early alert system for at-risk students. In this core, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty developed fresh manifestations of integrated concept-based introductory courses and revised upper-division STEM courses around student-centered learning. STEM majors can participate in specifically designed paid undergraduate research experiences in directed research elective courses. Such a college-wide multi-tiered approach results in institutional cultural change. PMID:27064213

  2. Robust modulation formats recognition technique using wavelet transform for high speed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guesmi, Latifa; Hraghi, Abir; Menif, Mourad

    2015-09-01

    There is a need, for high speed optical communication networks, in the monitoring process, to determine the modulation format type of a received signal. In this paper, we present a new achievement of modulation format recognition technique, where we proposed the use of wavelet transform of the detected signal in conjunction with the artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm. Besides, wavelet transform is one of the most popular candidates of the time-frequency transformations, where the wavelets are generated from a basic wavelet function by dilations and translations. We proved that this technique is capable of recognizing the multi-carriers modulation scheme with high accuracy under different transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion (CD), differential group delay (DGD) and accumulated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise with different ranges. Both the theoretical analysis and the simulation results showed that the wavelet transform not only can be used for modulation identification of optical communication signals, but also has a better classification accuracies under appropriate OSNR (optical signal-to-noise ratio) values.

  3. Novel combinatorial probabilistic Hough transform technique for detection of underwater bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulermas, John Y.; Liatsis, Panos

    1997-04-01

    Combinatorial Probabilistic Hough Transforms (CPHTs) are a class of HTs that transform minimal subsets of points required to define an instance of the sought shape to single parameter cells, thus reducing redundant evidence. Existing CPHTs discard valuable information contained in the gradient of the object outlines. This research proposes a novel HT technique for detection of circular instances, called the C2PHT. The concept of the C2PHT is the incorporation of gradient information which results to a further reduction in the generation of redundant evidence, by transforming point- tuples to very small sets of parameter cells. Thus, the complexity of sampling is decreased to O(N2) enabling much more fertile sampling and faster detection. An additional characteristic of C2PHT is the strict conditional transformation scheme which means that only a very small fraction of feature space becomes eligible of voting and hence, an even higher suppression of correlated noise is achieved. The C2PHT allows very economic accumulator architectures to be used. In correspondence with the high reduction of redundant votes, it greatly mitigates the burden of the peak detection process. The performance of the technique is evaluated with synthetic and real-world underwater bubble images.

  4. Cost-Optimal Design of a 3-Phase Core Type Transformer by Gradient Search Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, R.; Das, A.; Sensarma, A. K.; Sanyal, A. N.

    2014-04-01

    3-phase core type transformers are extensively used as power and distribution transformers in power system and their cost is a sizable proportion of the total system cost. Therefore they should be designed cost-optimally. The design methodology for reaching cost-optimality has been discussed in details by authors like Ramamoorty. It has also been discussed in brief in some of the text-books of electrical design. The paper gives a method for optimizing design, in presence of constraints specified by the customer and the regulatory authorities, through gradient search technique. The starting point has been chosen within the allowable parameter space the steepest decent path has been followed for convergence. The step length has been judiciously chosen and the program has been maneuvered to avoid local minimal points. The method appears to be best as its convergence is quickest amongst different optimizing techniques.

  5. Terahertz imaging of metastatic lymph nodes using spectroscopic integration technique

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Yeon; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Cheon, Hwayeong; Cho, Seong Whi; Lee, Seungkoo; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging was used to differentiate the metastatic states of frozen lymph nodes (LNs) by using spectroscopic integration technique (SIT). The metastatic states were classified into three groups: healthy LNs, completely metastatic LNs, and partially metastatic LNs, which were obtained from three mice without infection and six mice infected with murine melanoma cells for 30 days and 15 days, respectively. Under histological examination, the healthy LNs and completely metastatic LNs were found to have a homogeneous cellular structure but the partially metastatic LNs had interfaces of the melanoma and healthy tissue. THz signals between the experimental groups were not distinguished at room temperature due to high attenuation by water in the tissues. However, a signal gap between the healthy and completely metastatic LNs was detected at freezing temperature. The signal gap could be enhanced by using SIT that is a signal processing method dichotomizing the signal difference between the healthy cells and melanoma cells with their normalized spectral integration. This technique clearly imaged the interfaces in the partially metastatic LNs, which could not be achieved by existing methods using a peak point or spectral value. The image resolution was high enough to recognize a metastatic area of about 0.7 mm size in the partially metastatic LNs. Therefore, this pilot study demonstrated that THz imaging of the frozen specimen using SIT can be used to diagnose the metastatic state of LNs for clinical application. PMID:28271007

  6. Transformation of full 4 × 4 Mueller matrices: a quantitative technique for biomedical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Polarization images contain abundant microstructural information of samples. Recently, as a comprehensive description of the structural and optical properties of complex media, the Mueller matrix imaging has been widely applied to biomedical studies, especially cancer detections. In previous works, we proposed a technique to transform the backscattering 3 × 3 Mueller matrices into a group of quantitative parameters with clear relationships to specific microstructures. In this paper, we extend this transformation method to full 4 × 4 Mueller matrices of both the back and forward scattering directions. Using the experimental results of phantoms and Monte Carlo simulation based on the sphere-cylinder birefringence model, we fit the Mueller matrix elements to trigonometric curves in polar coordinates and obtain a new set of transformation parameters, which can be expressed as analytical functions of 16 Mueller matrix elements. Both the experimental and simulated results demonstrate that the transformation parameters have simple relationships to the characteristic microstructural properties, including the densities and orientations of fibrous structures, the sizes of the scatterers, and the depolarization power of the samples. We also apply the transformation parameters of full 4 × 4 Mueller matrices to human liver cancerous tissues. Preliminary imaging results show that the parameters can quantitatively reflect the formation of fibrous birefringent tissues accompanying the cancerous processes. The findings presented in this study can be useful for in vivo or in vitro polarization imaging of tissues for diagnostic applications.

  7. Comparison Of Various Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Techniques For Polymer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groves, G. K.; Brasch, J. W.; Jakobsen, R. J.

    1981-10-01

    A brief comparison of different FT-IR techniques for analysis of a polymer film on a me-tal surface is made. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) is used to obtain spectra of thin films of polystyrene on metal and glass substrates. Band intensities measured for different thicknesses of free polystyrene films are found to follow correctly the Kubelka-Munk theory relating concentration and band intensity.

  8. Techniques for Handling and Removal of Spectral Channels in Fourier Transform Synchrotron-Based Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Amr; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Teillet, Philippe M.

    2010-02-03

    Channel spectra are a big problem for those attempting to use synchrotron-based Fourier transform spectra for spectral lineshape studies. Due to the layout of the optical system at the CLS far-infrared beamline, the synchrotron beam undergoes unavoidable multiple reflections on the steering mirrors, beam splitter, several sets of windows, and filters. We present a method for eliminating channel spectra and compare the results of our technique with other methods available in the literature.

  9. Integrated Surveying Techniques for Sensitive Areas: San Felice Sul Panaro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarin, M.; Buttolo, V.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2013-07-01

    The last few years have marked an exponential growth in the use of electronic and computing technologies that opened new possibilities and new scenarios in the Geomatic field. This evolution of tools and methods has led to new ways of approaching survey. For what concerns architecture, the new tools for survey acquisition and 3D modelling allow the representation of an object through a digital model, combining the visual potentials of images, normally used for documentation, with the precision of a metric survey. This research focuses on the application of these new technologies and methodologies on sensitive areas, such as portions of the cities affected by earthquakes. In this field the survey is intended to provide a useful support for other structural analysis, in conservation as well as for restoration studies. However, survey in architecture is still a very complex operation both from a methodological and a practical point of view: it requires a critical interpretation of the artefacts and a deep knowledge of the existing techniques and technologies, which often are very different but need to be integrated within a single general framework. This paper describes the first results of the survey conducted on the church of San Geminiano in San Felice sul Panaro (Modena). Here, different tools and methods were used, in order to create a new system that integrates the most recent and cutting-edge technologies in the Geomatic field. The methodologies used were laser scanning, UAV photogrammetry and topography for the definition of the reference system. The present work will focus on the data acquisition and processing whit these techniques and their integration.

  10. Color enhancement of highly correlated images. II - Channel ratio and 'chromaticity' transformation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.; Kahle, Anne B.; Walker, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Two techniques for enhancing the color of multispectral images are described; both involve ratioing of data from different image channels. In the first technique, the ratioed data are assigned the primary color for display as color ratio pictures, and in the second method, image data are transformed to RGB chromaticity coordinates by ratioing the data acquired in three channels to the sum of their intensities. The two techniques are applied to a NASA Thermal-IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) image of Death Valley and to a Landsat MSS image of the Mojave Desert. The basic principles of ratioing are discussed, and the effects of atmospheric path radiances on the interpretation of ratioed images are investigated. It is observed that the color pictures produced using these two enhancement techniques are similar to the pictures enhanced by decorrelation and hue-saturation-intensity methods.

  11. Fast X-ray microdiffraction techniques for studying irreversible transformations in materials

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Stephen T.; Trenkle, Jonathan C.; Koerner, Lucas J.; Barron, Sara C.; Walker, Nöel; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Tate, Mark W.; Gruner, Sol M.; Dufresne, Eric M.; Weihs, Timothy P.; Hufnagel, Todd C.

    2011-01-01

    A pair of techniques have been developed for performing time-resolved X-ray microdiffraction on irreversible phase transformations. In one technique capillary optics are used to focus a high-flux broad-spectrum X-ray beam to a 60 µm spot size and a fast pixel array detector is used to achieve temporal resolution of 55 µs. In the second technique the X-rays are focused with Kirkpatrick–Baez mirrors to achieve a spatial resolution better than 10 µm and a fast shutter is used to provide temporal resolution better than 20 µs while recording the diffraction pattern on a (relatively slow) X-ray CCD camera. Example data from experiments are presented where these techniques are used to study self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reactions in metal laminate foils. PMID:21525656

  12. On a nonlocal modified Korteweg-de Vries equation: Integrability, Darboux transformation and soliton solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Jia-Liang; Zhu, Zuo-Nong

    2017-01-01

    Very recently, Ablowitz and Musslimani introduced a new integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation. In this paper, we investigate an integrable nonlocal modified Korteweg-de Vries equation (mKdV) which can be derived from the well-known AKNS system. We construct the Darboux transformation for the nonlocal mKdV equation. Using the Darboux transformation, we obtain its different kinds of exact solutions including soliton, kink, antikink, complexiton, rogue-wave solution, and nonlocalized solution with singularities. It is shown that these solutions possess new properties which are different from the ones for mKdV equation.

  13. Transformation of Mycoplasma gallisepticum with Tn916, Tn4001, and integrative plasmid vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J.; Kapke, P. A.; Minion, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes respiratory disease in avian species, but little is known about its mechanism(s) of pathogenesis. These studies were undertaken in order to develop genetic systems for analysis of potential virulence factors. M. gallisepticum was transformed with plasmids containing one of the gram-positive transposons Tn916 or Tn4001, which inserted randomly into the mycoplasmal chromosome. Plasmids containing cloned chromosomal DNA were also constructed and tested for integration into regions of DNA homology derived either from chromosomal fragments or from the gentamicin resistance marker from Tn4001. These studies demonstrate that M. gallisepticum is amenable to transformation with both transposons and integrative vectors. Images PMID:8021232

  14. Integrated testlets and the immediate feedback assessment technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slepkov, Aaron D.

    2013-10-01

    We describe how an answer-until-correct multiple-choice (MC) response format allows for the construction of fully multiple-choice examinations designed to operate much as a hybrid between standard MC and constructed-response (CR) testing. With this tool—the immediate feedback assessment technique (IF-AT)—students gain complete knowledge of the correct answer for each question during the examination and can use such information for solving subsequent test items. This feature allows for the creation of a new type of context-dependent item set: the "integrated testlet." In an integrated testlet, certain items are purposefully inter-dependent and are thus presented in a particular order. Such integrated testlets represent a proxy of typical CR questions, but with a straightforward and uniform marking scheme that also allows for granting partial credit for proximal knowledge. As proof-of-principle, we present a case study of an IF-AT-scored midterm and final examination for an introductory physics course and discuss specific testlets possessing varying degrees of integration. In total, the polychotomously scored items are found to allow for excellent discrimination, with a mean item-total correlation measure for the combined 45 items of the two examinations of r¯'=0.41±0.13 (mean ± standard deviation) and a final examination test reliability of α = 0.82 (n = 25 items). Furthermore, partial credit is shown to be allocated in a discriminating and valid manner in these examinations. As has been found in other disciplines, the reaction of undergraduate physics students to the IF-AT is highly positive, further motivating its expanded use in formal classroom assessments.

  15. Techniques to Access Databases and Integrate Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, Gene; Tenney, Nathan D.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Droppo, James G.; Meyer, Philip D.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2009-06-17

    This document addresses techniques to access and integrate data for defining site-specific conditions and behaviors associated with ground-water and surface-water radionuclide transport applicable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews. Environmental models typically require input data from multiple internal and external sources that may include, but are not limited to, stream and rainfall gage data, meteorological data, hydrogeological data, habitat data, and biological data. These data may be retrieved from a variety of organizations (e.g., federal, state, and regional) and source types (e.g., HTTP, FTP, and databases). Available data sources relevant to hydrologic analyses for reactor licensing are identified and reviewed. The data sources described can be useful to define model inputs and parameters, including site features (e.g., watershed boundaries, stream locations, reservoirs, site topography), site properties (e.g., surface conditions, subsurface hydraulic properties, water quality), and site boundary conditions, input forcings, and extreme events (e.g., stream discharge, lake levels, precipitation, recharge, flood and drought characteristics). Available software tools for accessing established databases, retrieving the data, and integrating it with models were identified and reviewed. The emphasis in this review was on existing software products with minimal required modifications to enable their use with the FRAMES modeling framework. The ability of four of these tools to access and retrieve the identified data sources was reviewed. These four software tools were the Hydrologic Data Acquisition and Processing System (HDAPS), Integrated Water Resources Modeling System (IWRMS) External Data Harvester, Data for Environmental Modeling Environmental Data Download Tool (D4EM EDDT), and the FRAMES Internet Database Tools. The IWRMS External Data Harvester and the D4EM EDDT were identified as the most promising tools based on their ability to access and

  16. Slit Function Measurement of An Imaging Spectrograph Using Fourier Transform Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Hongwoo; Swimyard, Bruce; Jakobsen, Peter; Moseley, Harvey; Greenhouse, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge of a spectrograph slit function is necessary to interpret the unresolved lines in an observed spectrum. A theoretical slit function can be calculated from the sizes of the entrance slit, the detector aperture when it functions as an exit slit, the dispersion characteristic of the disperser, and the point spread function of the spectrograph. A measured slit function is preferred to the theoretical one for the correct interpretation of the spectral data. In a scanning spectrometer with a single exit slit, the slit function is easily measured. In a fixed grating/or disperser spectrograph, illuminating the entrance slit with a near monochromatic light from a pre-monochrmator or a tunable laser and varying the wavelength of the incident light can measure the slit function. Even though the latter technique had been used successfully for the slit function measurements, it had been very laborious and it would be prohibitive to an imaging spectrograph or a multi-object spectrograph that has a large field of view. We explore an alternative technique that is manageable for the measurements. In the proposed technique, the imaging spectrograph is used as a detector of a Fourier transform spectrometer. This method can be applied not only to an IR spectrograph but also has a potential to a visible/UV spectrograph including a wedge filter spectrograph. This technique will require a blackbody source of known temperature and a bolometer to characterize the interferometer part of the Fourier Transform spectrometer. This pa?er will describe the alternative slit function measurement technique using a Fourier transform spectrometer.

  17. Integration or transformation? Looking in the future of Information and Communication Technology in education in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peeraer, Jef; Van Petegem, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Over the last two decades, crucial factors for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education have improved significantly in Vietnam. Nevertheless, it is clear that, as in other countries, no educational revolution is taking place. We argue that there is a need for a broad dialogue on the future of ICT in education in Vietnam as discussion of ideas about future possibilities can be instrumental in rationalizing and generating educational change. We explore how a group of key players representing the public and private sector as well as development partners in the field look at the future of ICT in education in the country. Following the Delphi method, these key players assessed in different survey rounds the current situation of ICT in education, identified a series of targets and were asked to assess these targets in respect of their importance. The key players reached a consensus that the purpose of technology integration is to achieve learning goals and enhance learning. However, there is more controversy on targets that could potentially transform education practice in Vietnam. We discuss the value of the Delphi technique and argue for increased participation of all involved stakeholders in policy development on ICT in education.

  18. Helicity is the only integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations

    PubMed Central

    Enciso, Alberto; Peralta-Salas, Daniel; de Lizaur, Francisco Torres

    2016-01-01

    We prove that any regular integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations is equivalent to the helicity. Specifically, given a functional ℐ defined on exact divergence-free vector fields of class C1 on a compact 3-manifold that is associated with a well-behaved integral kernel, we prove that ℐ is invariant under arbitrary volume-preserving diffeomorphisms if and only if it is a function of the helicity. PMID:26864201

  19. Helicity is the only integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations.

    PubMed

    Enciso, Alberto; Peralta-Salas, Daniel; de Lizaur, Francisco Torres

    2016-02-23

    We prove that any regular integral invariant of volume-preserving transformations is equivalent to the helicity. Specifically, given a functional I defined on exact divergence-free vector fields of class C(1) on a compact 3-manifold that is associated with a well-behaved integral kernel, we prove that I is invariant under arbitrary volume-preserving diffeomorphisms if and only if it is a function of the helicity.

  20. An integrated sensing technique for smart monitoring of water pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernini, Romeo; Catapano, Ilaria; Soldovieri, Francesco; Crocco, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    Lowering the rate of water leakage from the network of underground pipes is one of the requirements that "smart" cities have to comply with. In fact, losses in the water supply infrastructure have a remarkable social, environmental and economic impact, which obviously conflicts with the expected efficiency and sustainability of a smart city. As a consequence, there is a huge interest in developing prevention policies based on state-of-art sensing techniques and possibly their integration, as well as in envisaging ad hoc technical solutions designed for the application at hand. As a contribution to this framework, in this communication we present an approach aimed to pursue a thorough non-invasive monitoring of water pipelines, with both high spatial and temporal resolution. This goal is necessary to guarantee that maintenance operations are performed timely, so to reduce the extent of the leakage and its possible side effects, and precisely, so to minimize the cost and the discomfort resulting from operating on the water supply network. The proposed approach integrates two sensing techniques that work at different spatial and temporal scales. The first one is meant to provide a continuous (in both space and time) monitoring of the pipeline and exploits a distributed optic fiber sensor based on the Brillouin scattering phenomenon. This technique provides the "low" spatial resolution information (at meter scale) needed to reveal the presence of a leak and call for interventions [1]. The second technique is based on the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and is meant to provide detailed images of area where the damage has been detected. GPR systems equipped with suitable data processing strategies [2,3] are indeed capable of providing images of the shallow underground, where the pipes would be buried, characterized by a spatial resolution in the order of a few centimeters. This capability is crucial to address in the most proper way maintenance operations, by for

  1. Simple technique for integrating compact silicon devices within optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Micco, A; Ricciardi, A; Quero, G; Crescitelli, A; Bock, W J; Cusano, A

    2014-02-15

    In this work, we present a simple fabrication process enabling the integration of a subwavelength amorphous silicon layer inside optical fibers by means of the arc discharge technique. To assess our method, we have fabricated a compact in-line Fabry-Perot interferometer consisting of a thin (<1  μm) a-Si:H layer completely embedded within a standard single-mode optical fiber. The device exhibits low loss (1.3 dB) and high interference fringe visibility (~80%) both in reflection and transmission, due to the high refractive index contrast between silica and a-Si:H. A high linear temperature sensitivity up to 106  pm/°C is demonstrated in the range 120°C-400°C. The proposed interferometer is attractive for point monitoring applications as well as for ultrahigh-temperature sensing in harsh environments.

  2. Seismic coherent and random noise attenuation using the undecimated discrete wavelet transform method with WDGA technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goudarzi, Alireza; Riahi, Mohammad Ali

    2012-12-01

    One of the most crucial challenges in seismic data processing is the reduction of the noise in the data or improving the signal-to-noise ratio. In this study, the 1D undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) has been acquired to attenuate random noise and ground roll. Wavelet domain ground roll analysis (WDGA) is applied to find the ground roll energy in the wavelet domain. The WDGA will be a substitute method for thresholding in seismic data processing. To compare the effectiveness of the WDGA method, we apply the 1D double density discrete wavelet transform (DDDWT) using soft thresholding in the random noise reduction and ground roll attenuation processes. Seismic signals intersect with ground roll in the time and frequency domains. Random noise and ground roll have many undesirable effects on pre-stack seismic data, and result in an inaccurate velocity analysis for NMO correction. In this paper, the UDWT by using the WDGA technique and DDDWT (using the soft thresholding technique) and the regular Fourier based method as f-k transform will be used and compared for seismic denoising.

  3. End effect analysis of linear induction motor based on the wavelet transform technique

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yoshihiko; Torii, Susumu; Ebihara, Daiki

    1999-09-01

    HSST (High Speed Surface Transport) is currently being developed for the railway systems of urban transportation in Japan. It is used in the electromagnetic suspension and short-stator Linear Induction Motor (LIM) for the HSST. The performance of LIM is degraded due to the influence of the end effects. LIM is analyzed using the Fourier series expansion to throw light on this problem. However, to obtain the high-accuracy in this technique, the number of times for calculating is increased. In case of the Wavelet transform technique, as the Wavelet coefficients converge rapidly to zero, this technique has been applied to analyze the end effects of LIM. In this paper, the authors investigated the method for determining of mother wavelet.

  4. Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Brian; Loi, Ruggero; Zhou, Weidong; Liu, Dong; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2017-03-01

    The essential functionality of photonic and electronic devices is contained in thin surface layers leaving the substrate often to play primarily a mechanical role. Layer transfer of optimised devices or materials and their heterogeneous integration is thus a very attractive strategy to realise high performance, low-cost circuits for a wide variety of new applications. Additionally, new device configurations can be achieved that could not otherwise be realised. A range of layer transfer methods have been developed over the years including epitaxial lift-off and wafer bonding with substrate removal. Recently, a new technique called transfer printing has been introduced which allows manipulation of small and thin materials along with devices on a massively parallel scale with micron scale placement accuracies to a wide choice of substrates such as silicon, glass, ceramic, metal and polymer. Thus, the co-integration of electronics with photonic devices made from compound semiconductors, silicon, polymer and new 2D materials is now achievable in a practical and scalable method. This is leading to exciting possibilities in microassembly. We review some of the recent developments in layer transfer and particularly the use of the transfer print technology for enabling active photonic devices on rigid and flexible foreign substrates.

  5. Modern integral equation techniques for quantum reactive scattering theory

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, Scott Michael

    1993-11-01

    Rigorous calculations of cross sections and rate constants for elementary gas phase chemical reactions are performed for comparison with experiment, to ensure that our picture of the chemical reaction is complete. We focus on the H/D+H2 → H2/DH + H reaction, and use the time independent integral equation technique in quantum reactive scattering theory. We examine the sensitivity of H+H2 state resolved integral cross sections σ{sub v'j',vj}(E) for the transitions (v = 0,j = 0) to (v'} = 1,j' = 1,3), to the difference between the Liu-Siegbahn-Truhlar-Horowitz (LSTH) and double many body expansion (DMBE) ab initio potential energy surfaces (PES). This sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the origin of a large discrepancy between experimental cross sections with sharply peaked energy dependence and theoretical ones with smooth energy dependence. We find that the LSTH and DMBE PESs give virtually identical cross sections, which lends credence to the theoretical energy dependence.

  6. Integration of geological remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.; Trautwein, Charles M.

    1976-01-01

    Geological remote sensing is defined as the study of the Earth utilizing electromagnetic radiation which is either reflected or emitted from its surface in wavelengths ranging from 0.3 micrometre to 3 metres. The natural surface of the Earth is composed of a diversified combination of surface cover types, and geologists must understand the characteristics of surface cover types to successfully evaluate remotely-sensed data. In some areas landscape surface cover changes throughout the year, and analysis of imagery acquired at different times of year can yield additional geological information. Integration of different scales of analysis allows landscape features to be effectively interpreted. Interpretation of the static elements displayed on imagery is referred to as an image interpretation. Image interpretation is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's understanding of the fundamental aspects of image formation, and (2.) his ability to detect, delineate, and classify image radiometric data; recognize radiometric patterns; and identify landscape surface characteristics as expressed on imagery. A geologic interpretation integrates surface characteristics of the landscape with subsurface geologic relationships. Development of a geologic interpretation from imagery is dependent upon: (1) the geologist's ability to interpret geomorphic processes from their static surface expression as landscape characteristics on imagery, (2) his ability to conceptualize the dynamic processes responsible for the evolution 6f interpreted geologic relationships (his ability to develop geologic models). The integration of geologic remote-sensing techniques in subsurface analysis is illustrated by development of an exploration model for ground water in the Tucson area of Arizona, and by the development of an exploration model for mineralization in southwest Idaho.

  7. A system for multi-locus chromosomal integration and transformation-free selection marker rescue

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Michael S.; Choksi, Atri; Smolke, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Yeast integrating plasmids (YIPs) are a versatile tool for stable integration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, current YIP systems necessitate time- and labor-intensive methods for cloning and selection marker rescue. Here we describe the design, construction, and validation of a new YIP system capable of accelerating the stable integration of multiple expression constructs into different loci in the yeast S. cerevisiae. These “directed pop-out” plasmids enable a simple, two-step integration protocol that results in a scarless integration alongside a complete rescue of the selection marker. These plasmids combine three key features: a dedicated “YIPout” fragment directs a recombination event that rescues the selection marker while avoiding undesired excision of the target DNA sequence, a multi-fragment modular DNA assembly system simplifies cloning, and a new set of counterselectable markers enables serial integration followed by a transformation-free marker rescue event. We constructed and tested directed pop-out YIPs for integration of fluorescent reporter genes into four yeast loci. We validated our new YIP design by integrating three reporter genes into three different loci with transformation-free rescue of selection markers. These new YIP designs will facilitate the construction of yeast strains that express complex heterologous metabolic pathways. PMID:25226817

  8. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  9. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceedings)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  10. A Model for Pedagogical and Curricula Transformation for the Integration of Technology in Middle School Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, David R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an implementation plan that would support middle school science teachers as they integrated a specific technological tool, Calculator-Based Laboratory (CBL) probeware. The final goal of the implementation process was pedagogical and curricula transformation by the participants. The…

  11. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling (proceedings)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  12. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  13. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  14. Holographic CFTs on maximally symmetric spaces: Correlators, integral transforms, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Stokes, James; Trodden, Mark

    2015-09-01

    We study one- and two-point functions of conformal field theories (CFTs) on spaces of maximal symmetry with and without boundaries and investigate their spectral representations. Integral transforms are found, relating the spectral decomposition to renormalized position-space correlators. Several applications are presented, including the holographic boundary CFTs as well as spacelike boundary CFTs, which provide realizations of the pseudoconformal universe.

  15. Darboux transformation of a semi-discrete coupled dispersionless integrable system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, H. Wajahat A.; ul Hassan, Mahmood

    2017-07-01

    We present Darboux transformation (DT) of a semi-discrete coupled dispersionless (SDCD) integrable system. A Lax pair for the SDCD system is proposed and a Darboux transformation is employed on the solutions to the Lax pair and solutions to the SDCD system. Multisoliton solutions resulting from Darboux transformation are expressed in terms of determinants. We also compute explicit expressions of one- and two-soliton solutions with the help of a given seed solution. We apply an appropriate continuum limit to obtain multisoliton solutions of the continuous CD integrable system. By taking an appropriate choice of discrete variables, we show that the SDCD system is equivalent to semi-discrete sine-Gordon equation. From the soliton solution of SDCD system, semi-discrete kink solution of the semi-discrete sine-Gordon equation is obtained.

  16. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K.; James, Ajit R.; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-01

    A ‘powder-poling’ technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d33 ˜ 650 pC N-1). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization.

  17. Unraveling the nature of electric field- and stress- induced structural transformations in soft PZT by a new powder poling technique.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Ajay Kumar; V, Lalitha K; James, Ajit R; Fitch, Andy; Ranjan, Rajeev

    2015-02-25

    A 'powder-poling' technique was developed to study electric field induced structural transformations in ferroelectrics exhibiting a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB). The technique was employed on soft PZT exhibiting a large longitudinal piezoelectric response (d(33) ∼ 650 pC N(-1)). It was found that electric poling brings about a considerable degree of irreversible tetragonal to monoclinic transformation. The same transformation was achieved after subjecting the specimen to mechanical stress, which suggests an equivalence of stress and electric field with regard to the structural mechanism in MPB compositions. The electric field induced structural transformation was also found to be accompanied by a decrease in the spatial coherence of polarization.

  18. Novel technique for reliability testing of silicon integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMinh, Phuong; Wallinga, H.; Woerlee, P. H.; van den Berg, Albert; Holleman, J.

    2001-04-01

    We propose a simple, inexpensive technique with high resolution to identify the weak spots in integrated circuits by means of a non-destructive photochemical process in which photoresist is used as the photon detection tool. The experiment was done to localize the breakdown link of thin silicon dioxide capacitors of 5 X 5 and 10 X 10 micrometer2 in sizes. Both positive and quasi-negative photoresists were employed. The resultant products are holes in the developed positive photoresist layer and mushroom- shaped spots in the quasi-negative one. Based on the photoresist decomposition energy dose, we could approximately calculate the light emitting power in the near UV range. Due to the proximity between the layer and the light source, the power is interpreted on a more accurate basis, which was a difficult task in previous research. The product sizes, dependent on the light emitting currents and exposure time, establish the core for a rough model that can be used for further application of this technique as a reliability analysis tool. One potential application is to detect and characterize regions of hot carriers on a VLSI circuit under operation for design improvement purpose.

  19. Innovative use of the integrative review to evaluate evidence of technology transformation in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew B; Merrill, Jacqueline A

    2015-12-01

    Healthcare is in a period significant transformational activity through the accelerated adoption of healthcare technologies, new reimbursement systems that emphasize shared savings and care coordination, and the common place use of mobile technologies by patients, providers, and others. The complexity of healthcare creates barriers to transformational activity and has the potential to inhibit the desired paths toward change envisioned by policymakers. Methods for understanding how change is occurring within this complex environment are important to the evaluation of delivery system reform and the role of technology in healthcare transformation. This study examines the use on an integrative review methodology to evaluate the healthcare literature for evidence of technology transformation in healthcare. The methodology integrates the evaluation of a broad set of literature with an established evaluative framework to develop a more complete understanding of a particular topic. We applied this methodology and the framework of punctuated equilibrium (PEq) to the analysis of the healthcare literature from 2004 to 2012 for evidence of technology transformation, a time during which technology was at the forefront of healthcare policy. The analysis demonstrated that the established PEq framework applied to the literature showed considerable potential for evaluating the progress of policies that encourage healthcare transformation. Significant inhibitors to change were identified through the integrative review and categorized into ten themes that describe the resistant structure of healthcare delivery: variations in the environment; market complexity; regulations; flawed risks and rewards; change theories; barriers; ethical considerations; competition and sustainability; environmental elements, and internal elements. We hypothesize that the resistant nature of the healthcare system described by this study creates barriers to the direct consumer involvement and engagement

  20. Pattern Transformation of Heat-Shrinkable Polymer by Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Quan; Yan, Dong; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Gengkai

    2015-01-01

    A significant challenge in conventional heat-shrinkable polymers is to produce controllable microstructures. Here we report that the polymer material fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) printing technique has a heat-shrinkable property, whose initial microstructure can undergo a spontaneous pattern transformation under heating. The underlying mechanism is revealed by evaluating internal strain of the printed polymer from its fabricating process. It is shown that a uniform internal strain is stored in the polymer during the printing process and can be released when heated above its glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the internal strain can be used to trigger the pattern transformation of the heat-shrinkable polymer in a controllable way. Our work provides insightful ideas to understand a novel mechanism on the heat-shrinkable effect of printed material, but also to present a simple approach to fabricate heat-shrinkable polymer with a controllable thermo-structural response. PMID:25757881

  1. Structural transformations in amorphous selenium as studied by the differential thermal analysis and exoelectron emission technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Górecki, Cz; Górecki, T.

    2007-08-01

    The parameters (temperature, activation energy) of the surface and volume glass transition (retrification process) in amorphous selenium produced by rapid quenching of the liquid phase have been determined using the EEE and DTA techniques. EEE is a surface effect connected with structural transformations in the surface layer whereas the DTA measurements give the information about the transformations occurring in the volume of the sample. It has been found that the surface retrification of selenium occurs with activation energy smaller than the volume retrification, both observed in the first heating run. The value of activation energy for the volume retrification measured in the second DTA heating run is higher compared with that measured in the first heating run. Irradiation with X-rays accelerates both the surface and volume retrification of amorphous selenium.

  2. A DNase encoded by integrated element CJIE1 inhibits natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Gaasbeek, Esther J; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Guilhabert, Magalie R; Wösten, Marc M S M; van Putten, Jos P M; van der Graaf-van Bloois, Linda; Parker, Craig T; van der Wal, Fimme J

    2009-04-01

    The species Campylobacter jejuni is considered naturally competent for DNA uptake and displays strong genetic diversity. Nevertheless, nonnaturally transformable strains and several relatively stable clonal lineages exist. In the present study, the molecular mechanism responsible for the nonnatural transformability of a subset of C. jejuni strains was investigated. Comparative genome hybridization indicated that C. jejuni Mu-like prophage integrated element 1 (CJIE1) was more abundant in nonnaturally transformable C. jejuni strains than in naturally transformable strains. Analysis of CJIE1 indicated the presence of dns (CJE0256), which is annotated as a gene encoding an extracellular DNase. DNase assays using a defined dns mutant and a dns-negative strain expressing Dns from a plasmid indicated that Dns is an endogenous DNase. The DNA-hydrolyzing activity directly correlated with the natural transformability of the knockout mutant and the dns-negative strain expressing Dns from a plasmid. Analysis of a broader set of strains indicated that the majority of nonnaturally transformable strains expressed DNase activity, while all naturally competent strains lacked this activity. The inhibition of natural transformation in C. jejuni via endogenous DNase activity may contribute to the formation of stable lineages in the C. jejuni population.

  3. Generation of open biomedical datasets through ontology-driven transformation and integration processes.

    PubMed

    Carmen Legaz-García, María Del; Miñarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2016-06-03

    Biomedical research usually requires combining large volumes of data from multiple heterogeneous sources, which makes difficult the integrated exploitation of such data. The Semantic Web paradigm offers a natural technological space for data integration and exploitation by generating content readable by machines. Linked Open Data is a Semantic Web initiative that promotes the publication and sharing of data in machine readable semantic formats. We present an approach for the transformation and integration of heterogeneous biomedical data with the objective of generating open biomedical datasets in Semantic Web formats. The transformation of the data is based on the mappings between the entities of the data schema and the ontological infrastructure that provides the meaning to the content. Our approach permits different types of mappings and includes the possibility of defining complex transformation patterns. Once the mappings are defined, they can be automatically applied to datasets to generate logically consistent content and the mappings can be reused in further transformation processes. The results of our research are (1) a common transformation and integration process for heterogeneous biomedical data; (2) the application of Linked Open Data principles to generate interoperable, open, biomedical datasets; (3) a software tool, called SWIT, that implements the approach. In this paper we also describe how we have applied SWIT in different biomedical scenarios and some lessons learned. We have presented an approach that is able to generate open biomedical repositories in Semantic Web formats. SWIT is able to apply the Linked Open Data principles in the generation of the datasets, so allowing for linking their content to external repositories and creating linked open datasets. SWIT datasets may contain data from multiple sources and schemas, thus becoming integrated datasets.

  4. Adaptive narrow-band interference rejection in a DS spread-spectrum intercept receiver using transform domain signal processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevargiz, John; Das, Pankaj K.; Milstein, Laurence B.

    1989-01-01

    An intercept receiver which uses a transform-domain-processing filter is described. This receiver detects direct-sequence BPSK spread-spectrum signals in the presence of narrowband interference by employing adaptive narrowband interference rejection techniques. The improvement in the system performance over that of conventional detection techniques is shown by presenting the results of experimental measurements of probability of detection versus false alarm for an enhanced total power detector. Also presented are certain results corresponding to detection of the spectral lines generated at twice the carrier frequency, wherein the goal is often not just signal detection, but also carrier frequency estimation. The receiver uses one of two transform-domain-processing techniques for adaptive narrowband interference rejection. In the first technique, the narrowband interference is detected and excised in the transform domain by using an adaptive notch filter. In the second technique, the interference is suppressed using soft-limiting in the transform domain.

  5. Sparse regularization techniques provide novel insights into outcome integration processes.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Holger; Wolfensteller, Uta; Frimmel, Steffi; Ruge, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    By exploiting information that is contained in the spatial arrangement of neural activations, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) can detect distributed brain activations which are not accessible by standard univariate analysis. Recent methodological advances in MVPA regularization techniques have made it feasible to produce sparse discriminative whole-brain maps with highly specific patterns. Furthermore, the most recent refinement, the Graph Net, explicitly takes the 3D-structure of fMRI data into account. Here, these advanced classification methods were applied to a large fMRI sample (N=70) in order to gain novel insights into the functional localization of outcome integration processes. While the beneficial effect of differential outcomes is well-studied in trial-and-error learning, outcome integration in the context of instruction-based learning has remained largely unexplored. In order to examine neural processes associated with outcome integration in the context of instruction-based learning, two groups of subjects underwent functional imaging while being presented with either differential or ambiguous outcomes following the execution of varying stimulus-response instructions. While no significant univariate group differences were found in the resulting fMRI dataset, L1-regularized (sparse) classifiers performed significantly above chance and also clearly outperformed the standard L2-regularized (dense) Support Vector Machine on this whole-brain between-subject classification task. Moreover, additional L2-regularization via the Elastic Net and spatial regularization by the Graph Net improved interpretability of discriminative weight maps but were accompanied by reduced classification accuracies. Most importantly, classification based on sparse regularization facilitated the identification of highly specific regions differentially engaged under ambiguous and differential outcome conditions, comprising several prefrontal regions previously associated with

  6. Classification of the quantum two-dimensional superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals and the Staeckel transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Daskaloyannis, C. Tanoudis, Y.

    2008-05-15

    The two-dimensional quantum superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals of motion on a manifold are classified by using the quadratic associative algebra of the integrals of motion. There are six general fundamental classes of quantum superintegrable systems corresponding to the classical ones. Analytic formulas for the involved integrals are calculated in all the cases. All the known quantum superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals are classified as special cases of these six general classes. The coefficients of the quadratic associative algebra of integrals are calculated and they are compared to the coefficients of the corresponding coefficients of the Poisson quadratic algebra of the classical systems. The quantum coefficients are similar to the classical ones multiplied by a quantum coefficient -{h_bar}{sup 2} plus a quantum deformation of order {h_bar}{sup 4} and {h_bar}{sup 6}. The systems inside the classes are transformed using Staeckel transforms in the quantum case as in the classical case. The general form of the Staeckel transform between superintegrable systems is discussed.

  7. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  8. Silicon Hybrid Wafer Scale Integration (WSI) Used to Fabricate a Hilbert Transform Integrated Circuit Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    validate the Hilbert transform design prior to the incorporation into the WSI project. To facilitate the performance test, a Pin Grid Array (PGA) package ...thank the members of my committee for their comments and suggestions throughout the process. Since I knew very little about the design of circuitry...8 Summary ....... .................... ... 10 II. Equipment and Experimental Procedure .... ......... 11 IC Circuit Design

  9. Fast Fourier transform scanning spreading resistance microscopy: a novel technique to overcome the limitations of classical conductive AFM techniques.

    PubMed

    Eyben, P; Bisiaux, P; Schulze, A; Nazir, A; Vandervorst, W

    2015-09-04

    A new atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based technique named fast Fourier transform scanning spreading-resistance microscopy (FFT-SSRM) has been developed. FFT-SSRM offers the ability to isolate the local spreading resistance (Sr) from the parasitic series resistance (probe, bulk, and back contact). The parasitic series resistance limits the use of classical SSRM in confined volumes and on very highly doped materials, two increasingly important situations in nanoelectronic components. This is realized via a force modulation at controlled frequency (affecting the SR component) and the extraction of the resistance amplitude at the modulation frequency, performing an FFT-based lock-in deconvolution. A systematic evaluation of the FFT-SSRM performances (i.e., resolution, dynamic range, sensitivity, and repeatability) is presented. The impact of various parameters (i.e., modulation frequency and amplitude or cutoff frequency of the current amplifier) on the performances of FFT-SSRM has been evaluated. We demonstrate the possibility to overcome sensitivity losses due to tip saturation in highly doped material and the utility of the technique in two different structures, presenting isolated and confined volumes.

  10. A Rough Transform Technique for Extracting Lead Features from Sea Ice Imagery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-11

    Funding Numbers. A ough Trclnsform lehiteFrExtracting Lead Features Program Efenrent~ 62No 5 From Sea Ice Imagery Prolec t No 13 219RK Author(s...compilIing l ead sta t ist ics from i _ge r .-. A Hlough transform technique for the semi-automated extraction of I1 at ’,rient.-ition and spacing is...Page. of Abstract. UI c_]ass i i (d [I/n g- sci f i fd Unc Iass iiHod______________ M,.NIS CRA&I 0TiC TAb C U;,jnflOj ’ t I d C]’ r A flROIIH

  11. Integrative gene transfer in the truffle Tuber borchii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Brenna, Andrea; Montanini, Barbara; Muggiano, Eleonora; Proietto, Marco; Filetici, Patrizia; Ottonello, Simone; Ballario, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation is a powerful tool for reverse genetics and functional genomic analysis in a wide variety of plants and fungi. Tuber spp. are ecologically important and gastronomically prized fungi ("truffles") with a cryptic life cycle, a subterranean habitat and a symbiotic, but also facultative saprophytic lifestyle. The genome of a representative member of this group of fungi has recently been sequenced. However, because of their poor genetic tractability, including transformation, truffles have so far eluded in-depth functional genomic investigations. Here we report that A. tumefaciens can infect Tuber borchii mycelia, thereby conveying its transfer DNA with the production of stably integrated transformants. We constructed two new binary plasmids (pABr1 and pABr3) and tested them as improved transformation vectors using the green fluorescent protein as reporter gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase as selection marker. Transformants were stable for at least 12 months of in vitro culture propagation and, as revealed by TAIL- PCR analysis, integration sites appear to be heterogeneous, with a preference for repeat element-containing genome sites.

  12. Technique for infrared and visible image fusion based on non-subsampled shearlet transform and spiking cortical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei; Wang, Binghe; Lei, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Fusion of infrared and visible images is an active research area in image processing, and a variety of relevant algorithms have been developed. However, the existing techniques commonly cannot gain good fusion performance and acceptable computational complexity simultaneously. This paper proposes a novel image fusion approach that integrates the non-subsampled shearlet transform (NSST) with spiking cortical model (SCM) to overcome the above drawbacks. On the one hand, using NSST to conduct the decompositions and reconstruction not only consists with human vision characteristics, but also effectively decreases the computational complexity compared with the current popular multi-resolution analysis tools such as non-subsampled contourlet transform (NSCT). On the other hand, SCM, which has been considered to be an optimal neuron network model recently, is responsible for the fusion of sub-images from different scales and directions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method is promising, and it does significantly improve the fusion quality in both aspects of subjective visual performance and objective comparisons compared with other current popular ones.

  13. Integration of Geomatic Techniques for the Urban Cavity Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deidda, M.; Sanna, G.

    2013-07-01

    Cagliari, county seat of Sardinia Region (Italy), situated in the southern part of the island, is characterized by a subsoil full of cavities. The excavations in fact, which lasted more than 4000 years, had a great development due also to the special geological characteristics of the city subsoil. The underground voids, which the city is rich in, belong to different classes such as hydraulic structures (aqueducts, cisterns, wells, etc.), settlement works (tunnels, bomb shelters, tombs etc.) and various works (quarries, natural caves, etc.). This paper describes the phases of the survey of a large cavity below a high-traffic square near the Faculty of Engineering in the city of Cagliari, where the research team works. The cave, which is part of a larger complex, is important because it was used in the thirteenth century (known as the Pisan age) as a stone quarry. There are traces of this activity that have to be protected. Moreover, during the last forty years the continuous crossover of vehicles cracked the roof of the cave compromising the stability of the entire area. Consequently a plan was developed to make the whole cavity safe and usable for visits. The study of the safety of the cave has involved different professionals among which geologists, engineers, constructors. The goal of the University of Cagliari geomatic team was to solve two problems: to obtain geometrical information about the void and correctly place the cave in the context of existing maps. The survey and the products, useful for the investigation of the technicians involved, had to comply with tolerances of 3 cm in the horizontal and 5 cm in the vertical component. The approach chosen for this purpose was to integrate different geomatic techniques. The cave was surveyed using a laser scanner (Faro Photon 80) in order to obtain a 3D model of the cave from which all the geometrical information was derived, while both classic topography and GPS techniques were used to include the cave in the

  14. A transformed path integral approach for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Gnana M.; Vedula, Prakash

    2017-10-01

    A novel path integral (PI) based method for solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is presented. The proposed method, termed the transformed path integral (TPI) method, utilizes a new formulation for the underlying short-time propagator to perform the evolution of the probability density function (PDF) in a transformed computational domain where a more accurate representation of the PDF can be ensured. The new formulation, based on a dynamic transformation of the original state space with the statistics of the PDF as parameters, preserves the non-negativity of the PDF and incorporates short-time properties of the underlying stochastic process. New update equations for the state PDF in a transformed space and the parameters of the transformation (including mean and covariance) that better accommodate nonlinearities in drift and non-Gaussian behavior in distributions are proposed (based on properties of the SDE). Owing to the choice of transformation considered, the proposed method maps a fixed grid in transformed space to a dynamically adaptive grid in the original state space. The TPI method, in contrast to conventional methods such as Monte Carlo simulations and fixed grid approaches, is able to better represent the distributions (especially the tail information) and better address challenges in processes with large diffusion, large drift and large concentration of PDF. Additionally, in the proposed TPI method, error bounds on the probability in the computational domain can be obtained using the Chebyshev's inequality. The benefits of the TPI method over conventional methods are illustrated through simulations of linear and nonlinear drift processes in one-dimensional and multidimensional state spaces. The effects of spatial and temporal grid resolutions as well as that of the diffusion coefficient on the error in the PDF are also characterized.

  15. Dilatometric technique for evaluation of the kinetics of solid-state transformation of maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, U.K.; Kutty, T.R.G.; Ganguly, C.

    1993-12-01

    Solid-state transformation kinetics of a 350 grad commercial maraging steel were investigated using a nonisothermal dilatometric technique. Two solid-state reactions -- namely, precipitation of intermetallic phases from supersaturated martensite and reversion of martensite to austenite -- were identified. Determination was made of the temperatures at which the rates of these reactions reached a maximum at different heating rates. The kinetics of the individual reactions in terms of activation energy were analyzed by simplified procedures based on the Kissinger equation. An estimated activation energy of 145 {+-} 4 kJ/mol for the precipitation of intermetallic phase was in good agreement with reported results based on the isothermal hardness measurement technique. Martensite to austenite reversion was associated with an activation energy of 224 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, which is very close to the activation energy for diffusion of substitutional elements in ferrite. Results were supplemented with microstructural analysis.

  16. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques for the analysis of drugs of abuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalasinsky, Kathryn S.; Levine, Barry K.; Smith, Michael L.; Magluilo, Joseph J.; Schaefer, Teresa

    1994-01-01

    Cryogenic deposition techniques for Gas Chromatography/Fourier Transform Infrared (GC/FT-IR) can be successfully employed in urinalysis for drugs of abuse with detection limits comparable to those of the established Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique. The additional confidence of the data that infrared analysis can offer has been helpful in identifying ambiguous results, particularly, in the case of amphetamines where drugs of abuse can be confused with over-the-counter medications or naturally occurring amines. Hair analysis has been important in drug testing when adulteration of urine samples has been a question. Functional group mapping can further assist the analysis and track drug use versus time.

  17. Ontology for Transforming Geo-Spatial Data for Discovery and Integration of Scientific Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, L.; Chee, T.; Minnis, P.

    2013-12-01

    Discovery and access to geo-spatial scientific data across heterogeneous repositories and multi-discipline datasets can present challenges for scientist. We propose to build a workflow for transforming geo-spatial datasets into semantic environment by using relationships to describe the resource using OWL Web Ontology, RDF, and a proposed geo-spatial vocabulary. We will present methods for transforming traditional scientific dataset, use of a semantic repository, and querying using SPARQL to integrate and access datasets. This unique repository will enable discovery of scientific data by geospatial bound or other criteria.

  18. High-contrast active cavitation imaging technique based on multiple bubble wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shukuan; Xu, Shanshan; Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a unique method that combines the ultrafast active cavitation imaging technique with multiple bubble wavelet transform (MBWT) for improving cavitation detection contrast was presented. The bubble wavelet was constructed by the modified Keller-Miksis equation that considered the mutual effect among bubbles. A three-dimensional spatial model was applied to simulate the spatial distribution of multiple bubbles. The effects of four parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of cavitation images were evaluated, including the following: initial radii of bubbles, scale factor in the wavelet transform, number of bubbles, and the minimum inter-bubble distance. And the other two spatial models and cavitation bubble size distributions were introduced in the MBWT method. The results suggested that in the free-field experiments, the averaged SNR of images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 7.16 ± 0.09 dB and 3.14 ± 0.14 dB compared with the values of images acquired by the B-mode and single bubble wavelet transform (SBWT) methods. In addition, in the tissue experiments, the averaged cavitation-to-tissue ratio of cavitation images acquired by the MBWT method was improved by 4.69 ± 0.25 dB and 1.74± 0.29 dB compared with that of images acquired by B-mode and SBWT methods.

  19. Automatic measure of the split in the second cardiac sound by using the wavelet transform technique.

    PubMed

    Debbal, S M; Bereksi-Reguig, F

    2007-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the identification and automatic measure of the split in the second heart sound (S2) of the phonocardiogram signal (PCGs) for normal or pathological case. The second heart sound S2 consists of two acoustic components A2 and P2, the former is due to the closure of the aortic valve and the latter is due to the closure of the pulmonary valve. The aortic valve usually closes before the pulmonary valve, introducing a time delay known as "split". A automatic technique based on the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) is developed in this paper to measure the split of the second cardiac sound (S2) for the normal and pathological cases of the PCG signals. To quantify the splitting, the two components in S2 (i.e. A2 and P2) are identified and, the delay between the two components can be estimated. It is shown that the wavelet transform can provide best information and features of the split of S2 and the major components (A2 and P2) and consequently aid in medical diagnosis.

  20. [A new automatic quasars recognition technique based on PCA and Hough transform].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling-yun; Hu, Zhan-yi

    2003-02-01

    The main purpose of quasar recognition is to determine the observed quasar spectrum's redshift value. Previously the template of quasar rest frame in the literature was basically constructed based on astronomers' hypotheses. Due to the inaccuracy of such a template, it is hard to determine the redshift value by matching the observed quasar spectrum with the template directly. This paper's main contributions are two-fold: Firstly, the template in our paper is constructed by the principal component analysis (PCA) method from some selected spectra with known redshift values, hence the obtained template is more realistic. Secondly, a 2D standard Hough transform, rather than a 1D Hough transform, is used. This is because although only redshift needs to be determined in our system, based on our observations, the magnitude of emission peak is also changed, hence a new parameter, namely scale parameter, is also introduced to the Hough transform to enhance the reliability of the recognition. The experiments show that the proposed technique is workable and the correct recognition rate can reach about as high as 90%.

  1. Transformation as a Design Process and Runtime Architecture for High Integrity Software

    SciTech Connect

    Bespalko, S.J.; Winter, V.L.

    1999-04-05

    We have discussed two aspects of creating high integrity software that greatly benefit from the availability of transformation technology, which in this case is manifest by the requirement for a sophisticated backtracking parser. First, because of the potential for correctly manipulating programs via small changes, an automated non-procedural transformation system can be a valuable tool for constructing high assurance software. Second, modeling the processing of translating data into information as a, perhaps, context-dependent grammar leads to an efficient, compact implementation. From a practical perspective, the transformation process should begin in the domain language in which a problem is initially expressed. Thus in order for a transformation system to be practical it must be flexible with respect to domain-specific languages. We have argued that transformation applied to specification results in a highly reliable system. We also attempted to briefly demonstrate that transformation technology applied to the runtime environment will result in a safe and secure system. We thus believe that the sophisticated multi-lookahead backtracking parsing technology is central to the task of being in a position to demonstrate the existence of HIS.

  2. Integration efficiencies of spontaneous mutant alleles of amiA locus in pneumococcal transformation.

    PubMed

    Tiraby, G; Sicard, M A

    1973-12-01

    The distribution of integration efficiencies of independent mutations spontaneously occurring in the amiA locus was determined in two strains of pneumococcus. Strain Cl(3) integrates genetic markers with different efficiencies during transformation, whereas strain 401, isogenic with strain Cl(3), does not discriminate between markers and integrates all markers with the same high efficiency. The discriminating strain Cl(3) gives rise to spontaneous mutations in the locus amiA, which fall into four classes with respect to their individual integration efficiencies. Mutations with a low efficiency of integration are equal in number to mutations with a high efficiency. Mutations from the two other classes corresponding to intermediate and very high efficiencies are about five times less frequent. The same four classes were also found among amiA mutants spontaneously occurring in strain 401. However, the two distributions of integration efficiencies of amiA mutants arisen either in strain Cl(3) or strain 401 are significantly different. The number of spontaneous amiA mutants, estimated by two methods, was found to be higher in strain 401 than in strain Cl(3). The increase of the mutation rate in strain 401 could be accounted for by the excess of mutations falling in the two less-efficient classes observed in this strain. The discriminating process which acts during transformation presumably also intervenes in the appearance of spontaneous mutations.

  3. Error analysis for a sinh transformation used in evaluating nearly singular boundary element integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, David; Johnston, Peter R.

    2007-06-01

    In the two-dimensional boundary element method, one often needs to evaluate numerically integrals of the form where j2 is a quadratic, g is a polynomial and f is a rational, logarithmic or algebraic function with a singularity at zero. The constants a and b are such that -1[less-than-or-equals, slant]a[less-than-or-equals, slant]1 and 0integration. In this case the direct application of Gauss-Legendre quadrature can give large truncation errors. By making the transformation x=a+bsinh([mu]u-[eta]), where the constants [mu] and [eta] are chosen so that the interval of integration is again [-1,1], it is found that the truncation errors arising, when the same Gauss-Legendre quadrature is applied to the transformed integral, are much reduced. The asymptotic error analysis for Gauss-Legendre quadrature, as given by Donaldson and Elliott [A unified approach to quadrature rules with asymptotic estimates of their remainders, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 9 (1972) 573-602], is then used to explain this phenomenon and justify the transformation.

  4. Supporting the transformative process: experiences of cancer patients receiving integrative care.

    PubMed

    Mulkins, Andrea L; Verhoef, Marja J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the essential features of the transformative experience among people living with cancer who are seeking integrative care and to identify factors supporting this process. It is hoped that after establishing the nature and meaning of this change or shift, one will better understand what is most meaningful in terms of providing appropriate care and support to patients seeking integrative care. An interpretational, qualitative approach guided sampling, data collection, and analysis with 11 individuals. A purposeful sample was drawn from selected integrative care facilities according to sociodemographics and type of cancer. Due to the complexity of this subject, second interviews were conducted with 5 participants to enhance the richness and validity of the data. The experience of transformation is a dynamic 4-stage process in which participants learned about themselves and became more aware of who they are and how they relate to the world. Participants found that 4 dimensions of integrative medicine played a fundamental role in supporting this process. These dimensions include (1) having access to a range of appropriate therapies to support individual journeys, (2) care that focuses on one's overall well-being, (3) control over cancer management, and (4) developing healing relationships with care providers. Although practitioners may not be able to create transformative experiences for patients, they may be able to establish and maintain conditions that support this process.

  5. Integrated Personal Health Records: Transformative Tools for Consumer-Centric Care

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Don; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Raymond, Brian; Tang, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrated personal health records (PHRs) offer significant potential to stimulate transformational changes in health care delivery and self-care by patients. In 2006, an invitational roundtable sponsored by Kaiser Permanente Institute, the American Medical Informatics Association, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality was held to identify the transformative potential of PHRs, as well as barriers to realizing this potential and a framework for action to move them closer to the health care mainstream. This paper highlights and builds on the insights shared during the roundtable. Discussion While there is a spectrum of dominant PHR models, (standalone, tethered, integrated), the authors state that only the integrated model has true transformative potential to strengthen consumers' ability to manage their own health care. Integrated PHRs improve the quality, completeness, depth, and accessibility of health information provided by patients; enable facile communication between patients and providers; provide access to health knowledge for patients; ensure portability of medical records and other personal health information; and incorporate auto-population of content. Numerous factors impede widespread adoption of integrated PHRs: obstacles in the health care system/culture; issues of consumer confidence and trust; lack of technical standards for interoperability; lack of HIT infrastructure; the digital divide; uncertain value realization/ROI; and uncertain market demand. Recent efforts have led to progress on standards for integrated PHRs, and government agencies and private companies are offering different models to consumers, but substantial obstacles remain to be addressed. Immediate steps to advance integrated PHRs should include sharing existing knowledge and expanding knowledge about them, building on existing efforts, and continuing dialogue among public and private sector stakeholders. Summary Integrated PHRs promote active, ongoing

  6. Integration techniques for distributed visualization within a virtual prototyping environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasnoch, Uwe; Anderson, Brian

    1996-03-01

    The goal of the Virtual Prototyping Environment (VPE) is to decrease product development time and costs and to increase quality and flexibility by providing continuous computer support for the development cycle. Virtual prototype are directly derived from integrated CAD- Systems and enriched with simulation data. In addition, the VPE supports cooperative teams by providing different Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) techniques of shared viewing environments in combination with further communication tools for long distance collaboration. One aspect of CSCW in VPE's is multi-user and multi-application Shared 3D Environments. In the shared environment model, 3D objects from different applications can be joined into one scene that can be viewed by different users with independent or shared camera positions, enabling the distribution of visualization tasks between smaller, flexible and more specialized applications. The underlying product model of the VPE is based on the STEP standard applied to a distributed object-oriented data management approach. Taking the requirements from CE and shared 3D environments into account, we enriched the application interface to the data management with high level concepts such as object versioning, migration and consistency management, and extended the product data model to include presentation and annotation aspects.

  7. Spatially adaptive wavelet transform speckle noise-smoothing technique for SAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawwar, Yousef; Reza, Ali

    2001-11-01

    In this work we propose a new wavelet transform based speckle denoising algorithm for SAR images. The algorithm will explicitly account for the signal dependent nature of the noise by studying the variances of detail wavelet coefficients. The algorithm will use the analysis of variance ANOVA technique to check if variances are due to means belonging to the same population or not. If neighboring variances indicate belonging to the same population, then it's a smooth region and coefficient should be smoothed. If neighboring variances indicate the presence of two different populations, then coefficient is due to image feature and should be preserved. This approach will provide the flexibility of adjusting to region intensity level and thus no need for the fixed threshold concept. The algorithm will take advantage of the fact that wavelet transform creates three detail sub-images and a coarse sub-image. Each detail sub-image is associated with frequency contents due to certain edge location and orientation. The algorithm will also consider using cross-information from all three-detail sub-images to decide whether coefficients are due to a feature and thus should be preserved, or they are due to noise and should be smoothed. Simulations will show that our algorithm will provide better performance in terms of PSNR, ENL , and visually than currently existing techniques.

  8. Pulse-driven LED circuit with transformer-based current balance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, S.-S.

    2014-12-01

    Light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been gradually used for backlight modules for liquid crystal display as a substitute for cold cathode fluorescent lamps. In most of LED applications, it is required to connect several LED strings in parallel to limit the dc voltage level to be applied to the single LED string. Due to considerable current variations through each LED string with inevitable parameter deviations as well as temperature and ageing effects, techniques to balance currents flowing through LED strings are required for LED drivers. This article proposes a pulse-driven LED circuit with transformer-based current balancing scheme, which can simply regulate currents through the LED strings. The transformers are placed in series with the LED strings in such a way that the LED currents are automatically balanced. Since the developed current sharing technique employs no dissipative resistors and no linear-mode transistors, the proposed driver has high efficiency, low power dissipation and reduced thermal problems. In addition, the presented driver with no additional semiconductor devices and no additional controllers can provide a simple and a cost-effective current balancing solution, compared to conventional approaches. Thus, the proposed LED driver can feature a simple, highly efficient, reliable and cost-effective method. The presented LED driver is verified with experimental results.

  9. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  10. Renal Graft Fibrosis and Inflammation Quantification by an Automated Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging Technique.

    PubMed

    Vuiblet, Vincent; Fere, Michael; Gobinet, Cyril; Birembaut, Philippe; Piot, Olivier; Rieu, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis and interstitial active inflammation are the main histologic features of renal allograft biopsy specimens. Fibrosis is currently assessed by semiquantitative subjective analysis, and color image analysis has been developed to improve the reliability and repeatability of this evaluation. However, these techniques fail to distinguish fibrosis from constitutive collagen or active inflammation. We developed an automatic, reproducible Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) imaging-based technique for simultaneous quantification of fibrosis and inflammation in renal allograft biopsy specimens. We generated and validated a classification model using 49 renal biopsy specimens and subsequently tested the robustness of this classification algorithm on 166 renal grafts. Finally, we explored the clinical relevance of fibrosis quantification using FTIR imaging by comparing results with renal function at 3 months after transplantation (M3) and the variation of renal function between M3 and M12. We showed excellent robustness for fibrosis and inflammation classification, with >90% of renal biopsy specimens adequately classified by FTIR imaging. Finally, fibrosis quantification by FTIR imaging correlated with renal function at M3, and the variation in fibrosis between M3 and M12 correlated well with the variation in renal function over the same period. This study shows that FTIR-based analysis of renal graft biopsy specimens is a reproducible and reliable label-free technique for quantifying fibrosis and active inflammation. This technique seems to be more relevant than digital image analysis and promising for both research studies and routine clinical practice.

  11. Partial discharge localization in power transformers based on the sequential quadratic programming-genetic algorithm adopting acoustic emission techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Long; Liu, Hua-Dong

    2014-10-01

    Partial discharge (PD) in power transformers is one of the prime reasons resulting in insulation degradation and power faults. Hence, it is of great importance to study the techniques of the detection and localization of PD in theory and practice. The detection and localization of PD employing acoustic emission (AE) techniques, as a kind of non-destructive testing, plus due to the advantages of powerful capability of locating and high precision, have been paid more and more attention. The localization algorithm is the key factor to decide the localization accuracy in AE localization of PD. Many kinds of localization algorithms exist for the PD source localization adopting AE techniques including intelligent and non-intelligent algorithms. However, the existed algorithms possess some defects such as the premature convergence phenomenon, poor local optimization ability and unsuitability for the field applications. To overcome the poor local optimization ability and easily caused premature convergence phenomenon of the fundamental genetic algorithm (GA), a new kind of improved GA is proposed, namely the sequence quadratic programming-genetic algorithm (SQP-GA). For the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, the sequence quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm which is used as a basic operator is integrated into the fundamental GA, so the local searching ability of the fundamental GA is improved effectively and the premature convergence phenomenon is overcome. Experimental results of the numerical simulations of benchmark functions show that the hybrid optimization algorithm, SQP-GA, is better than the fundamental GA in the convergence speed and optimization precision, and the proposed algorithm in this paper has outstanding optimization effect. At the same time, the presented SQP-GA in the paper is applied to solve the ultrasonic localization problem of PD in transformers, then the ultrasonic localization method of PD in transformers based on the SQP-GA is proposed. And

  12. Determination of geopotential coefficients by efficient numerical integration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, R. A.

    An efficient, high accuracy, double integration method which evaluates the iterated form of the surface integral representations of the geopotential coefficients is presented. The efficiency and high accuracy of this method is obtained by the utilization of the Romberg numerical integration scheme. Additional efficiency is obtained by computing the inner integral which is common to many different coefficients only once. This method was tested using a test case earth which represented the basic features of the earth's potential field.

  13. Fourier transform near-infrared spectrometer using a corner-cube integrated prism scanning interferometer.

    PubMed

    Kiyokura, Takanori; Ito, Takahiro; Sawada, Renshi

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a Fourier transform (FT) near-infrared spectrometer that uses an integrated prism scanning interferometer whose optical paths are stabilized by corner cubes. A combination of corner cubes and a retroreflection mirror, which is sometimes used in the conventional interferometer for FT spectrometers, is adopted and adapted to the integrated prism scanning interferometer through a special design. Without any degradation of spectroscopic properties, the optical path in the interferometer is highly stabilized and the moving distance of the stage is halved. These advantages provide a robust and portable FT spectrometer for field use.

  14. Tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode controller: equivalent control method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoliang; Sun, Kaibiao; Li, Hongxing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model.

  15. Tensor Product Model Transformation Based Adaptive Integral-Sliding Mode Controller: Equivalent Control Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guoliang; Li, Hongxing

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes new methodologies for the design of adaptive integral-sliding mode control. A tensor product model transformation based adaptive integral-sliding mode control law with respect to uncertainties and perturbations is studied, while upper bounds on the perturbations and uncertainties are assumed to be unknown. The advantage of proposed controllers consists in having a dynamical adaptive control gain to establish a sliding mode right at the beginning of the process. Gain dynamics ensure a reasonable adaptive gain with respect to the uncertainties. Finally, efficacy of the proposed controller is verified by simulations on an uncertain nonlinear system model. PMID:24453897

  16. Fast-Fourier-transform based numerical integration method for the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Fabin; Wang, Anbo

    2006-02-01

    The numerical calculation of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral is investigated. The implementation of a fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) based direct integration (FFT-DI) method is presented, and Simpson's rule is used to improve the calculation accuracy. The sampling interval, the size of the computation window, and their influence on numerical accuracy and on computational complexity are discussed for the FFT-DI and the FFT-based angular spectrum (FFT-AS) methods. The performance of the FFT-DI method is verified by numerical simulation and compared with that of the FFT-AS method.

  17. Soft-core potentials in thermodynamic integration: comparing one- and two-step transformations.

    PubMed

    Steinbrecher, Thomas; Joung, InSuk; Case, David A

    2011-11-30

    Molecular dynamics-based free energy calculations allow the determination of a variety of thermodynamic quantities from computer simulations of small molecules. Thermodynamic integration (TI) calculations can suffer from instabilities during the creation or annihilation of particles. This "singularity" problem can be addressed with "soft-core" potential functions which keep pairwise interaction energies finite for all configurations and provide smooth free energy curves. "One-step" transformations, in which electrostatic and van der Waals forces are simultaneously modified, can be simpler and less expensive than "two-step" transformations in which these properties are changed in separate calculations. Here, we study solvation free energies for molecules of different hydrophobicity using both models. We provide recommended values for the two parameters α(LJ) and β(C) controlling the behavior of the soft-core Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potentials and compare one- and two-step transformations with regard to their suitability for numerical integration. For many types of transformations, the one-step procedure offers a convenient and accurate approach to free energy estimates.

  18. A Unified Method of Finding Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. [and] An Inversion Method for Laplace Transforms, Fourier Transforms, and Fourier Series. Integral Transforms and Series Expansions. Modules and Monographs in Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications Project. UMAP Units 324 and 325.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, C. A.

    This document contains two units that examine integral transforms and series expansions. In the first module, the user is expected to learn how to use the unified method presented to obtain Laplace transforms, Fourier transforms, complex Fourier series, real Fourier series, and half-range sine series for given piecewise continuous functions. In…

  19. Amplitude-free correlation function based on an algebra for coordinate transformation in semiclassical integrals.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, K

    2001-07-01

    We present an algebra that facilitates a systematic coordinate transformation in semiclassical integrals such as those between the initial and final value representations. Applying this algebra to Maslov-type semiclassical wave packet theory [A. Inoue-Ushiyama and K. Takatsuka, Phys. Rev. A 59, 3256 (1999)], a semiclassical correlation function is extracted, which is free of the amplitude factor that suffers an exponential divergence in a chaotic system.

  20. Esophageal Cancer Dose Escalation Using a Simultaneous Integrated Boost Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Welsh, James; Palmer, Matthew B.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Liao Zhongxing; Swisher, Steven G.; Hofstetter, Wayne L.; Allen, Pamela K.; Settle, Steven H.; Gomez, Daniel; Likhacheva, Anna; Cox, James D.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We previously showed that 75% of radiation therapy (RT) failures in patients with unresectable esophageal cancer are in the gross tumor volume (GTV). We performed a planning study to evaluate if a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) technique could selectively deliver a boost dose of radiation to the GTV in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using four different approaches (two-dimensional conformal radiotherapy [2D-CRT] to 50.4 Gy, 2D-CRT to 64.8 Gy, intensity-modulated RT [IMRT] to 50.4 Gy, and SIB-IMRT to 64.8 Gy) and optimized for 10 patients with distal esophageal cancer. All plans were constructed to deliver the target dose in 28 fractions using heterogeneity corrections. Isodose distributions were evaluated for target coverage and normal tissue exposure. Results: The 50.4 Gy IMRT plan was associated with significant reductions in mean cardiac, pulmonary, and hepatic doses relative to the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan. The 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT plan produced a 28% increase in GTV dose and comparable normal tissue doses as the 50.4 Gy IMRT plan; compared with the 50.4 Gy 2D-CRT plan, the 64.8 Gy SIB-IMRT produced significant dose reductions to all critical structures (heart, lung, liver, and spinal cord). Conclusions: The use of SIB-IMRT allowed us to selectively increase the dose to the GTV, the area at highest risk of failure, while simultaneously reducing the dose to the normal heart, lung, and liver. Clinical implications warrant systematic evaluation.

  1. Scale Invariant Feature Transform Technique for Weed Classification in Oil Palm Plantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawari Ghazali, Kamarul; Marzuki Mustafa, Mohd.; Hussain, Aini; Razali, Saifudin

    This study presents a new and robust technique using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) for weed classification in oil palm plantation. The proposed SIFT classification technique was developed to overcome problem in real application of image processing such as varies of lighting densities, resolution and target range which contributed to classification accuracy. In this study, SIFT classification algorithm is used to extract a set of feature vectors to represent the input image. The set of feature vectors then can be used to classify weed. In general, the weeds can be classified as either broad or narrow. Based on this classification, a decision will be made to control the strategy of weed infestation in oil palm plantations. The effectiveness of the robust SIFT technique has been tested offline where the input images were captured under varies conditions such as different lighting effects, ambiguity resolution values, variable range of object and many sizes of weed which simulate the actual field conditions. The proposed SIFT resulted in over 95.7% accuracy of classification of weed in palm oil plantation.

  2. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun

    2015-01-01

    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application.

  3. Remote and terrestrial ground monitoring techniques integration for hazard assessment in mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinellato, Giulia; Kenner, Robert; Iasio, Christian; Mair, Volkmar; Mosna, David; Mulas, Marco; Phillips, Marcia; Strada, Claudia; Zischg, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In high mountain regions the choice of appropriate sites for infrastructure such as roads, railways, cable cars or hydropower dams is often very limited. In parallel, the increasing demand for supply infrastructure in the Alps induces a continuous transformation of the territory. The new role played by the precautionary monitoring in the risk governance becomes fundamental and may overcome the modeling of future events, which represented so far the predominant approach to these sort of issues. Furthermore the consequence of considering methodologies alternative to those more exclusive allow to reduce costs and increasing the frequency of measurements, updating continuously the cognitive framework of existing hazard condition in most susceptible territories. The scale factor of the observed area and the multiple purpose of such regional ordinary surveys make it convenient to adopt Radar Satellite-based systems, but they need to be integrated with terrestrial systems for validation and eventual early warning purposes. Significant progress over the past decade in Remote Sensing (RS), Proximal Sensing and integration-based sensor networks systems now provide technologies, that allow to implement monitoring systems for ordinary surveys of extensive areas or regions, which are affected by active natural processes and slope instability. The Interreg project SloMove aims to provide solutions for such challenges and focuses on using remote sensing monitoring techniques for the monitoring of mass movements in two test sites, in South Tyrol (Italy) and in Grisons Canton (Switzerland). The topics faced in this project concern mass movements and slope deformation monitoring techniques, focusing mainly on the integration of multi-temporal interferometry, new generation of terrestrial technologies for differential digital terrain model elaboration provided by laser scanner (TLS), and GNSS-based topographic surveys, which are used not only for validation purpose, but also for

  4. Multisensory Integration Uses a Real-Time Unisensory-Multisensory Transform.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ryan L; Stein, Barry E; Rowland, Benjamin A

    2017-05-17

    The manner in which the brain integrates different sensory inputs to facilitate perception and behavior has been the subject of numerous speculations. By examining multisensory neurons in cat superior colliculus, the present study demonstrated that two operational principles are sufficient to understand how this remarkable result is achieved: (1) unisensory signals are integrated continuously and in real time as soon as they arrive at their common target neuron and (2) the resultant multisensory computation is modified in shape and timing by a delayed, calibrating inhibition. These principles were tested for descriptive sufficiency by embedding them in a neurocomputational model and using it to predict a neuron's moment-by-moment multisensory response given only knowledge of its responses to the individual modality-specific component cues. The predictions proved to be highly accurate, reliable, and unbiased and were, in most cases, not statistically distinguishable from the neuron's actual instantaneous multisensory response at any phase throughout its entire duration. The model was also able to explain why different multisensory products are often observed in different neurons at different time points, as well as the higher-order properties of multisensory integration, such as the dependency of multisensory products on the temporal alignment of crossmodal cues. These observations not only reveal this fundamental integrative operation, but also identify quantitatively the multisensory transform used by each neuron. As a result, they provide a means of comparing the integrative profiles among neurons and evaluating how they are affected by changes in intrinsic or extrinsic factors.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Multisensory integration is the process by which the brain combines information from multiple sensory sources (e.g., vision and audition) to maximize an organism's ability to identify and respond to environmental stimuli. The actual transformative process by which

  5. Study of polymorphic transformation of ornidazole drug by differential scanning calorimetry and other complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Desai, Satish R; Dharwadkar, Sanjiv R

    2008-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) curves recorded for ornidazole drug during heating and cooling showed that the drug which melted around 86.1 degrees C undercooled to well below ambient room temperature of 27 degrees C during the cooling cycle. The undercooled melt kept in the freezer at 0 degree C for 10 days duration also remained in the viscous liquid form. This liquid on taking out from the freezer after ten days and ageing at ambient room temperature of 27 degrees C for 12 h transformed into white powder. The DSC pattern recorded for this white powder consisted of two prominent endothermic peaks beginning at 73.2 and 85.9 degrees C, respectively, suggesting that the powder consisted of a mixture of more than one phase. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern recorded for this powder showed it to be a mixture of semi-crystalline phase and the original compound. The semi-crystalline phase melted at 73.2 degrees C prior to the melting of original compound at 85.9 degrees C. This phase on further ageing for 7 days transforms almost completely to its original form. DSC observations were corroborated by XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques.

  6. New Rotation-Invariant Texture Analysis Technique Using Radon Transform and Hidden Markov Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, Abdul; Manzar, Anwar; Cheema, Tanweer A.; Qureshi, Ijaz M.

    A rotation invariant texture analysis technique is proposed with a novel combination of Radon Transform (RT) and Hidden Markov Models (HMM). Features of any texture are extracted during RT which due to its inherent property captures all the directional properties of a certain texture. HMMs are used for classification purpose. One HMM is trained for each texture on its feature vector which preserves the rotational invariance of feature vector in a more compact and useful form. Once all the HMMs have been trained, testing is done by picking any of these textures at any arbitrary orientation. The best percentage of correct classification (PCC) is above 98 % carried out on sixty texture of Brodatz album.

  7. Measurements of solar magnetic fields by Fourier transform techniques. II - Saturated and blended lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fourier techniques have been exhaustively calibrated using Unno's (1956) results for the absorption profile of a simple Zeeman triplet. If a simple transformation is applied to the normalized line depths, then magnetic-field strengths and inclination angles can be measured very accurately from noisy saturated line profiles. Systematic errors caused by saturation effects can be estimated and reduced by varying one parameter. When a significant fraction of the line profile is unsplit and unpolarized, large errors may be made in measurements of low fields, unless the line is sufficiently weak. For a weak line, a vertical field of 1600 gauss can be measured to 10% accuracy even when 70% of the line profile is stray light. These stray-light errors are troublesome in measuring fields of gaps and pores but not sunspots. Numerical results of the error analysis are presented graphically.

  8. Measurements of solar magnetic fields by Fourier transform techniques. II - Saturated and blended lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    Fourier techniques have been exhaustively calibrated using Unno's (1956) results for the absorption profile of a simple Zeeman triplet. If a simple transformation is applied to the normalized line depths, then magnetic-field strengths and inclination angles can be measured very accurately from noisy saturated line profiles. Systematic errors caused by saturation effects can be estimated and reduced by varying one parameter. When a significant fraction of the line profile is unsplit and unpolarized, large errors may be made in measurements of low fields, unless the line is sufficiently weak. For a weak line, a vertical field of 1600 gauss can be measured to 10% accuracy even when 70% of the line profile is stray light. These stray-light errors are troublesome in measuring fields of gaps and pores but not sunspots. Numerical results of the error analysis are presented graphically.

  9. Prepreg cure monitoring using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier Transform Infrared Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    An in situ diffuse reflectance-Fourier transform infrared technique was developed to determine infrared spectra of graphite fiber prepregs as they were being cured. A bismaleimide, an epoxy, and addition polyimide matrix resin prepregs were studied. An experimental polyimide adhesive was also examined. Samples were positioned on a small heater at the focal point of diffuse reflectance optics and programmed at 15 F/min while FTIR spectra were being scanned, averaged, and stored. An analysis of the resulting spectra provided basic insights into changes in matrix resin molecular structure which accompanied reactions such as imidization and crosslinking. An endo-exothermal isomerization involving reactive end-caps was confirmed for the addition polyimide prepregs. The results of this study contribute to a fundamental understanding of the processing of composites and adhesives. Such understanding will promote the development of more efficient cure cycles.

  10. A noise filtration technique for fabric defects image using curvelet transform domain filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jing; Ni, Jian-Yun; Lin, Shu-Zhong; Song, Li-Mei

    2010-08-01

    A noise filtration technique for fabric defects image using curvelet transform domain Filters is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we used FDCT_WARPING to decompose image into five scales curvelet coefficients. Secondly, the proposed algorithm distinguished major edges from noise background at the third scale. Thirdly, the possible lost edges in the procedure above were detected according to the decaying lever of the coefficients. Fourthly, the edges of the defect at the second scale were detected by four correlation coefficients in the two directions at the third scale. Fifthly, the curvelet coefficients at the fourth scale are filtered by the decaying lever. Sixthly, the curvelet coefficients at the fifth scale are filtered by hard threshing. Finally, the processed coefficients are reconstructed. The tests on the developed algorithms were performed with images from TILDA's Textile Texture Database, and suggest that the new approach outperforms wavelet methods in image denoising.

  11. Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging: integrating microscopy and molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Levin, Ira W; Bhargava, Rohit

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging has enhanced our capability to examine, on a microscopic scale, the spatial distribution of vibrational spectroscopic signatures of materials spanning the physical and biomedical disciplines. Recent activity in this emerging area has concentrated on instrumentation development, theoretical analyses to provide guidelines for imaging practice, novel data processing algorithms, and the introduction of the technique to new fields. To illustrate the impact and promise of this spectroscopic imaging methodology, we present fundamental principles of the technique in the context of FTIR spectroscopy and review new applications in various venues ranging from the physical chemistry of macromolecular systems to the detection of human disease.

  12. Integrating Literature in Mathematics: A Teaching Technique for Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elsa C.; Thornton, Jenifer Salter; Cuero, Kimberley K.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of content areas is not a new concept (Moyer, 2000). Integration is promoted by many teacher educators because of its benefits for learners of all ages and backgrounds (Burns, 2005; Douville, Pugalee, & Wallace, 2003; Pica, 2002). Literacy in general, but reading in particular, is important across the content areas. Mathematics…

  13. Integrating Literature in Mathematics: A Teaching Technique for Mathematics Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elsa C.; Thornton, Jenifer Salter; Cuero, Kimberley K.

    2010-01-01

    The integration of content areas is not a new concept (Moyer, 2000). Integration is promoted by many teacher educators because of its benefits for learners of all ages and backgrounds (Burns, 2005; Douville, Pugalee, & Wallace, 2003; Pica, 2002). Literacy in general, but reading in particular, is important across the content areas. Mathematics…

  14. Simulation as an Inservice Technique in the Integration Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alley, Robert

    Public schools have both a legal and a moral obligation to be involved in the process of integration. It is assumed that changes in teacher attitudes affect changes in student attitudes; an inservice program which assists teachers in changing their attitudes toward integration is, therefore, important. Certain hypotheses may be stated concerning…

  15. SEM Technique Development for Exploring Martensitic Phase Transformations in Multi-Variant Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Michael G.

    The purpose of this work is to validate that the martensitic transformations predicted by the model from Xian Chen and Dick James from the University of Minnesota. This model uses multiple criteria for compatibility between the austenite and martensite lattices including limitations of the middle eigenvalue of the transformation stretch matrix and what are called the "cofactor conditions." An alloy satisfying these criteria was found, (Au30Cu25Zn 45) but the traditional methods for verifying the shape and crystallographic orientation relationships of the transformation could not be used (serial sectioning and 3D Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD)). The first method developed in this work uses the intensity peak of the background of EBSD patterns to extract surface topography measurements. Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the deviation from specular reflection for electrons on different materials at varying voltages. The geometric setup of the EBSD camera and the sample were then used with the experimentally measured intensity peak location on the camera to calculate the surface normal vectors for each point on a sample. A proof of concept experiment was first performed on the Tin sphere calibration standard, in which the surface normal vectors were found within around 0:5ffi error near the standard EBSD sample orientation. This technique was then used to measure the surface relief caused by the martensitic transformation of the AuCuZn alloy which can be matched to predicted surface shearing values to confirm the Chen/James model. The second method developed in this thesis measures the out-of-plane grain boundary inclination angle using 2D EBSD. This utilizes the penetration depth of the electron interaction volume, and is measured by calculating the proportion of the pattern that is created from each grain. This is completed by performing dot products between an EBSD line scan across the grain boundary and reference patterns taken from the bulk

  16. [Effects of integrated pest control techniques to growth of host larvae Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Wu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, De-li; Chen, Shi-jiang; Yin, Ding-hua

    2008-12-01

    To study the effects of the integrated pest control techniques on growth of host larvae of Cordyceps sinensis. The integrated pest control techniques were compared with conventional techniques to evaluate the effects on growth of host larvae. The results showed that the techniques had broken the balance of the microbial living in the material, produced effective inhibition on the pests, raised the survival rate and promoted the growth of the host larvae at the same time.

  17. Transformation of the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea occurs by DNA integration into single or multiple chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Judelson, H S; Coffey, M D; Arredondo, F R; Tyler, B M

    1993-03-01

    A procedure for stable transformation was developed for Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea, an oomycete pathogen of soybean. Transformants were obtained using a bacterial hygromycin resistance gene fused to a promoter and terminator from the ham34 gene of another oomycete, Bremia lactucae. Vector DNA, alone or complexed to cationic liposomes, was introduced into protoplasts using polyethylene glycol and CaCl2. DNA and RNA hybridization, and phosphotransferase assays, confirmed the presence and expression of vector DNA in the transformants. Hybridization to electrophoretically separated chromosomes of P. m. glycinea showed that vector DNA had integrated into only one chromosome in four transformants, and into multiple chromosomes in one transformant.

  18. Efficient local statistical analysis via integral histograms with discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teng-Yok; Shen, Han-Wei

    2013-12-01

    Histograms computed from local regions are commonly used in many visualization applications, and allowing the user to query histograms interactively in regions of arbitrary locations and sizes plays an important role in feature identification and tracking. Computing histograms in regions with arbitrary location and size, nevertheless, can be time consuming for large data sets since it involves expensive I/O and scan of data elements. To achieve both performance- and storage-efficient query of local histograms, we present a new algorithm called WaveletSAT, which utilizes integral histograms, an extension of the summed area tables (SAT), and discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Similar to SAT, an integral histogram is the histogram computed from the area between each grid point and the grid origin, which can be be pre-computed to support fast query. Nevertheless, because one histogram contains multiple bins, it will be very expensive to store one integral histogram at each grid point. To reduce the storage cost for large integral histograms, WaveletSAT treats the integral histograms of all grid points as multiple SATs, each of which can be converted into a sparse representation via DWT, allowing the reconstruction of axis-aligned region histograms of arbitrary sizes from a limited number of wavelet coefficients. Besides, we present an efficient wavelet transform algorithm for SATs that can operate on each grid point separately in logarithmic time complexity, which can be extended to parallel GPU-based implementation. With theoretical and empirical demonstration, we show that WaveletSAT can achieve fast preprocessing and smaller storage overhead than the conventional integral histogram approach with close query performance.

  19. Application of the windowed-Fourier-transform-based fringe analysis technique for investigating temperature and concentration fields in fluids.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Sharika; Srivastava, Atul

    2014-04-10

    The present work is concerned with the development and application of a novel fringe analysis technique based on the principles of the windowed-Fourier-transform (WFT) for the determination of temperature and concentration fields from interferometric images for a range of heat and mass transfer applications. Based on the extent of the noise level associated with the experimental data, the technique has been coupled with two different phase unwrapping methods: the Itoh algorithm and the quality guided phase unwrapping technique for phase extraction. In order to generate the experimental data, a range of experiments have been carried out which include cooling of a vertical flat plate in free convection conditions, combustion of mono-propellant flames, and growth of organic as well as inorganic crystals from their aqueous solutions. The flat plate and combustion experiments are modeled as heat transfer applications wherein the interest is to determine the whole-field temperature distribution. Aqueous-solution-based crystal growth experiments are performed to simulate the mass transfer phenomena and the interest is to determine the two-dimensional solute concentration field around the growing crystal. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer has been employed to record the path-integrated quantity of interest (temperature and/or concentration) in the form of interferometric images in the experiments. The potential of the WFT method has also been demonstrated on numerically simulated phase data for varying noise levels, and the accuracy in phase extraction have been quantified in terms of the root mean square errors. Three levels of noise, i.e., 0%, 10%, and 20% have been considered. Results of the present study show that the WFT technique allows an accurate extraction of phase values that can subsequently be converted into two-dimensional temperature and/or concentration distribution fields. Moreover, since WFT is a local processing technique, speckle patterns and the inherent

  20. Implementation of integrated services networks in Quebec and nursing practice transformation: convergence or divergence?

    PubMed

    Longpré, Caroline; Dubois, Carl-Ardy

    2015-03-03

    Even though nurses are expected to play a key role in implementing integrated services networks, up to now their practice in this regard has received very little research attention. The aim of this study is to describe the extent to which the evolution of nursing practice in Quebec in recent years has converged with the requirements and efforts involved in services integration. This descriptive study was carried out with 107 nurses working an integrated network of healthcare services in Quebec in four different care pathways: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, autonomy support for the elderly, palliative oncology care, and mental health. Development model for integrated care (DMIC) was used, first, to examine the prevalence in each pathway of integrative activities, grouped into nine practice dimensions, and then to position each pathway in relation to the four phases of development for any integration process, as defined by the DMIC. Only one pathway had reached Phase 3, which involves expansion and monitoring of integration, whereas the others were still in the preliminary Phases 1 and 2 characterized by initiative and experimentation. Only two dimensions out of nine ('quality of care' and 'interprofessional teamwork') were prevalent in all the pathways; two others ('transparent entrepreneurship' and 'performance management') were in none of the pathways, and the remaining five ('patient-family centered care', 'result-focused learning', 'delivery system', 'commitment', 'roles and tasks') were present to varying degrees. These results suggest that particular efforts should be made to bridge the significant gap between the pace of nursing practice transformation and the objectives of service integration. These efforts should focus, among other things, on the deployment of organizational, clinical, human, and material resources to support practice renewal and continuing education for nurses to prepare them for the requirements of integration.

  1. Phleomycin Increases Transformation Efficiency and Promotes Single Integrations in Schizophyllum commune▿

    PubMed Central

    van Peer, Arend F.; de Bekker, Charissa; Vinck, Arman; Wösten, Han A. B.; Lugones, Luis G.

    2009-01-01

    Phleomycin is mutagenic by introducing double-strand breaks in DNA. The ble gene of Streptoalloteychus hindustanus, which confers resistance to this substance, is widely used as a selection marker for transformation. Schizophyllum commune grows on 25 μg of phleomycin ml−1 after introduction of a resistance cassette based on the ble gene. However, we here report that growth of resistant colonies on this concentration of phleomycin resulted in aberrant colony morphologies. Apparently, phleomycin was mutagenic despite acquired resistance. Therefore, a new selection system was developed based on resistance to the antibiotic nourseothricin. However, the transformation efficiency was tenfold lower than that obtained with phleomycin as a selection agent. This low transformation efficiency could be rescued by addition of a nonselective concentration of phleomycin during protoplast regeneration. This was accompanied by a higher incidence of single-copy integrations and with an increase of expression of key genes involved in double-strand break repair. Taken together, we conclude that the effect of a nonselective concentration of phleomycin strongly resembles the effect of restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) but, unlike REMI, it does not depend on the presence of a target restriction site. PMID:19114524

  2. Transformation of Chloroplast Ribosomal RNA Genes in Chlamydomonas: Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Integration Events

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S. M.; Boynton, J. E.; Gillham, N. W.; Randolph-Anderson, B. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Harris, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in Chlamydomonas has been achieved by the biolistic process using cloned chloroplast DNA fragments carrying mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. The sites of exchange employed during the integration of the donor DNA into the recipient genome have been localized using a combination of antibiotic resistance mutations in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms that flank these genes. Complete or nearly complete replacement of a region of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cell by the corresponding sequence from the donor plasmid was the most common integration event. Exchange events between the homologous donor and recipient sequences occurred preferentially near the vector:insert junctions. Insertion of the donor rRNA genes and flanking sequences into one inverted repeat of the recipient genome was followed by intramolecular copy correction so that both copies of the inverted repeat acquired identical sequences. Increased frequencies of rRNA gene transformants were achieved by reducing the copy number of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cells and by decreasing the heterology between donor and recipient DNA sequences flanking the selectable markers. In addition to producing bona fide chloroplast rRNA transformants, the biolistic process induced mutants resistant to low levels of streptomycin, typical of nuclear mutations in Chlamydomonas. PMID:1981764

  3. Methane emissions from free-ranging cattle: comparison of tracer and integrated horizontal flux techniques.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David W T; Bryant, Glenn R; Hsu, David; Reisinger, Andy R

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurements of methane (CH4) emission rates from livestock in their undisturbed natural environments are required to assess their impacts on radiative forcing (i.e., enhanced greenhouse effect) and the environment. Here we compare results from two nonintrusive techniques for the measurement of CH4 emissions from cattle. The cows were kept in an outdoor feeding strip that allowed them to follow natural behavioral patterns but contained them within a well defined space. In the first technique, nitrous oxide (N2O) was released as a tracer at the upwind edge of the feeding strip, and the downwind concentrations of N2O and CH4 were measured simultaneously using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Average CH4 emission per cow was calculated each half-hour on three separate days from the correlation between the two gases. The second technique was the integrated horizontal flux (IHF) or 1-D mass-balance method, in which we used the measured vertical profiles of CH4 concentration and windspeed downwind of the cows to determine the total CH4 emission. Comparing the IHF results to the known release rate of N2O allowed us to test the IHF technique independently. We found agreement within 10% for all comparisons on all days. The daily CH4 emission rate averaged over all tracer and IHF measurements was 342 g CH4 head(-1) d(-1). This is within the range of previous measurements for mature lactating dairy cattle (200-430 g CH4 head(-1) d(-1)) but higher than expected for yearling cattle. The high CH4 emissions are accompanied by high CO2 emissions determined from the FTIR measurements. The bias is most likely due to the measurements being made during and after supplementary feeding of the cattle.

  4. Studies on Nephrite and Jadeite Jades by Fourier Transform Infrared (ftir) and Raman Spectroscopic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, T. L.; Ng, L. L.; Lim, L. C.

    2013-10-01

    The mineralogical properties of black nephrite jade from Western Australia are studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy using both transmission and specular reflectance techniques in the 4000-400 cm-1 wavenumber region. The infrared absorption peaks in the 3700-3600 cm-1 region which are due to the O-H stretching mode provides a quantitative analysis of the Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio in the mineral composition of jade samples. The Fe/(Fe+Mg) percentage in black nephrite is found to be higher than that in green nephrite, but comparable to that of actinolite (iron-rich nephrite). This implies that the mineralogy of black nephrite is closer to actinolite than tremolite. The jade is also characterized using Raman spectroscopy in the 1200-200 cm-1 region. Results from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic data of black nephrite jade are compared with those of green nephrite jade from New Zealand and jadeite jade from Myanmar. Black nephrite appears to have a slightly different chemical composition from green nephrite. Spectra from FTIR and Raman spectroscopic techniques were found to be useful in differentiating black nephrite, green nephrite, and green jadeite jades. Furthermore, data on refractive index, specific gravity, and hardness of black nephrite jade are measured and compared with those of green nephrite and of jadeite jade.

  5. Technique for image fusion based on nonsubsampled shearlet transform and improved pulse-coupled neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei; Liu, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    A new technique for image fusion based on nonsubsampled shearlet transform (NSST) and improved pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN) is proposed. NSST, as a novel multiscale geometric analysis tool, can be optimally efficient in representing images and capturing the geometric features of multidimensional data. As a result, NSST is introduced into the area of image fusion to complete the decompositions of source images in any scale and any direction. Then the basic PCNN model is improved to be improved PCNN (IPCNN), which is more concise and more effective. IPCNN adopts the contrast of each pixel in images as the linking strength β, and the time matrix T of subimages can be obtained via the synchronous pulse-burst property. By using IPCNN, the fused subimages can be achieved. Finally, the final fused image can be obtained by using inverse NSST. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new technique presented in this paper is competitive in the field of image fusion in terms of both fusion performance and computational efficiency.

  6. Multivariation calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, C. L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers.

  7. Infrared sequence transformation technique for in situ measurement of thermal diffusivity and monitoring of thermal diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Huilong; Zheng, Boyu; Chen, Feifan

    2015-11-01

    An infrared (IR) sequence transformation technique for visualization of thermal diffusion process and in situ measurement of radial thermal diffusivity is reported. It consists of heating the sample surface instantaneously by an angle-adjustable Gaussian beam and recording the temperature evolution by an IR camera. Compared to common techniques requiring the excitation beam to be fixed approximately perpendicular to the measurement surface, the proposed method allows a dynamic adjustment of the excitation incidence angle according to the actual operating space, which contributes to a fast and efficient in situ measurement approach. To achieve this, a new heat transfer model considering the elliptical distortion of the Gaussian beam caused by tilted incidence is established. Through decoupling analysis it is discovered that the area s surrounded by the maximum temperature curve rTmax (θ) grows linearly over time. The thermal diffusivity can be obtained from the growth rate at any incidence angle. Based on this s-time relation, an automatic thermal diffusivity characterization framework which involves extracting the rTmax (θ) sequence through a distance regularized level set evolution (DRLSE) formulation is proposed. For verification, samples of 304 stainless steel, titanium and zirconium are measured with the excitation incidence angles ranging from 30 ° to 60 ° , and the relative deviations from the literature values are - 6.28 % to 3.27 %, - 3.22 % to 5.79%, and - 1.61 % to 4.03% respectively. Besides, the thermal diffusion process of two typical printed circuit boards (PCBs) are monitored and analyzed visually with this technique.

  8. Business Case Analysis: Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS-TAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-30

    called data mining . This analysis seeks, by grouping information, to find the interrelationships across various parameters or variables to understand...pmlkploba=obmloq=pbofbp= Business Case Analysis : Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS–TAT) 30 May 2013...AND SUBTITLE Business Case Analysis : Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS-TAT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  9. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique

    PubMed Central

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (Tg) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and −31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully. PMID:27366064

  10. Transformation of eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension fabricating with solvent evaporation and ultrasonication technique.

    PubMed

    Phaechamud, Thawatchai; Tuntarawongsa, Sarun

    2016-01-01

    Eutectic solvent can solubilize high amount of some therapeutic compounds. Volatile eutectic solvent is interesting to be used as solvent in the preparation of nanosuspension with emulsion solvent evaporation technique. The mechanism of transformation from the eutectic emulsion to nanosuspension was investigated in this study. The 30% w/w ibuprofen eutectic solution was used as the internal phase, and the external phase is composed of Tween 80 as emulsifier. Ibuprofen nanosuspension was prepared by eutectic emulsion solvent evaporating method followed with ultrasonication. During evaporation process, the ibuprofen concentration in emulsion droplets was increased leading to a drug supersaturation but did not immediately recrystallize because of low glass transition temperature (T g) of ibuprofen. The contact angle of the internal phase on ibuprofen was apparently lower than that of the external phase at all times of evaporation, indicating that the ibuprofen crystals were preferentially wetted by the internal phase than the external phase. From calculated dewetting value ibuprofen crystallization occurred in the droplet. Crystallization of the drug was initiated with external mechanical force, and the particle size of the drug was larger due to Ostwald ripening. Cavitation force from ultrasonication minimized the ibuprofen crystals to the nanoscale. Particle size and zeta potential of formulated ibuprofen nanosuspension were 330.87±51.49 nm and -31.1±1.6 mV, respectively, and exhibited a fast dissolution. Therefore, the combination of eutectic emulsion solvent evaporation method with ultrasonication was favorable for fabricating an ibuprofen nanosuspension, and the transformation mechanism was attained successfully.

  11. Improved synthetic aperture focusing technique by Hilbert-Huang transform for imaging defects inside a concrete structure.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jian-Hua; Chiu, Chin-Lung; Wang, Chung-Yue

    2010-11-01

    A useful nondestructive testing tool for civil engineering should immediately reveal defects inside concrete structures at the construction sites. To date, there are few effective methods to image defects inside concrete structures. In this paper, a new nondestructive testing method using elastic waves for imaging possible defects inside concrete is developed. This method integrates the point-source/point receiver scheme with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) to increase functioning depth and enhance received signals. To improve image quality, received signals are processed by Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) to get time-frequency curves for the SAFT process. Compared with conventional SAFT method processing with time-amplitude signals, this new method is capable of providing a better image of defects not only in the numerical simulation but also in the experimental result. The image can reveal the number of defects and their locations and front-end profiles. The results shown in this paper indicate that this new elastic-wave-based method exhibits high capability in imaging the defects of in situ concrete structures.

  12. Integrated system for image storage, retrieval, and transmission using wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dan; Liu, Yawen; Mu, Ray Y.; Yang, Shi-Qiang

    1998-12-01

    Currently, much work has been done in the area of image storage and retrieval. However, the overall performance has been far from practical. A highly integrated wavelet-based image management system is proposed in this paper. By integrating wavelet-based solutions for image compression and decompression, content-based retrieval and progressive transmission, much higher performance can be achieved. The multiresolution nature of the wavelet transform has been proven to be a powerful tool to represent images. The wavelet transform decomposes the image into a set of subimages with different resolutions. From here three solutions for key aspects of image management are reached. The content-based image retrieval (CBIR) features of our system include the color, contour, texture, sample, keyword and topic information of images. The first four features can be naturally extracted from the wavelet transform coefficients. By scoring the similarity of users' requests with images in the database, those who have higher scores are noted and the user receives feedback. Image compression and decompression. Assuming that details at high resolution and diagonal directions are less visible to the human eye, a good compression ratio can be achieved. In each subimage, the wavelet coefficients are vector quantized (VQ), using the LGB algorithm, which is improved in our approach to accelerate the process. Higher compression ratio can be achieved with DPCM and entropy coding method applied together. With YIQ representation, color images can also be effectively compressed. There is a very low load on the network bandwidth by transmitting compressed image data across the network. Progressive transmission is possible by employment of the multiresolution nature of the wavelet, which makes the system respond faster and the user-interface more friendly. The system shows a high overall performance by exploring the excellent features of wavelet, and integrating key aspects of image management. An

  13. Application of Wavelet Transform Techniques to Spread Spectrum Demodulation and Jamming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-26

    This project has investigated the application of wavelet methods in spread spectrum communications. Use of the wavelet transform as an alternative to...signals has been explored. Direct application of the wavelet transform was found to not offer performance advantages over the Fourier transform in...this application. However, use of the wavelet transform in conjunction with Fourier methods provided an efficient hybrid framework for precise

  14. Time transformations and Cowell's method. [for numerical integration of satellite motion equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez, C. E.; Hilinski, S.

    1978-01-01

    The precise numerical integration of Cowell's equations of satellite motion is frequently performed with an independent variable s defined by an equation of the form dt = cr to the n-th power ds, where t represents time, r the radial distance from the center of attraction, c is a constant, and n is a parameter. This has been primarily motivated by the 'uniformizing' effects of such a transformation resulting in desirable 'analytic' stepsize control for elliptical orbits. This report discusses the 'proper' choice of the parameter n defining the independent variable s for various types of orbits and perturbation models, and develops a criterion for its selection.

  15. Standing wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometer for imaging spectrometry in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osowiecki, Gaël. D.; Madi, Mohammad; Shorubalko, Ivan; Philipoussis, Irène; Alberti, Edoardo; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans P.

    2015-09-01

    We show the miniaturization and parallelization of a scanning standing wave spectrometer with a long term goal of creating a compact imaging spectrometer. In our standing wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometer, light is injected with micro-lenses into several optical polymer waveguides. A piezo actuated mirror located at the waveguide end-facet can shift the interferogram to increase its sampling frequency. The spatial distribution of the standing wave intensity inside the waveguide is partially scattered out of the plane by a periodic metallic grating and recorded by a CCD camera. We present spectra acquisition for six adjacent waveguides simultaneously at a wavelength of 632.8 nm.

  16. Integrated transformations of plant biomass to valuable chemicals, biodegradable polymers and nanoporous carbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, B. N.; Chesnokov, N. V.; Taraban'ko, V. E.; Kuznetsova, S. A.; Petrov, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    Integrated transformations of wood biomass to valuable chemicals and materials are described. They include the main biomass components separation, the conversion of cellulose to glucose, levulinic acid, biodegradable polymers and lignin - to nanoporous carbons. For wood fractionation on pure cellulose and low molecular mass lignin the methods of catalytic oxidation and exploded autohydrolysis are used. The processes of acid-catalysed hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose and levulinic acid were optimized. New methods of biodegradable polymers synthesis from lactone of levulinic acid and nanoporous carbons from lignin were suggested.

  17. Integrated frequency comb source based Hilbert transformer for wideband microwave photonic phase analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thach G; Shoeiby, Mehrdad; Chu, Sai T; Little, Brent E; Morandotti, Roberto; Mitchell, Arnan; Moss, David J

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrate a photonic RF Hilbert transformer for broadband microwave in-phase and quadrature-phase generation based on an integrated frequency optical comb, generated using a nonlinear microring resonator based on a CMOS compatible, high-index contrast, doped-silica glass platform. The high quality and large frequency spacing of the comb enables filters with up to 20 taps, allowing us to demonstrate a quadrature filter with more than a 5-octave (3 dB) bandwidth and an almost uniform phase response.

  18. Parametric frequency transformation in a superconducting waveguide line with an integrated Josephson oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denisenko, M. V.; Munyaev, V. O.; Satanin, A. M.

    2016-11-01

    The parametric frequency division in a coplanar waveguide line with an integrated single-contact rf SQUID (Josephson oscillator) is discussed. It is assumed that the oscillator is excited by pump pulses whose carrier frequency can be a multiple of the plasma frequency of the oscillator. It is shown that the Josephson oscillator excited at the pump frequency can induce frequency division by emitting subharmonics that are multiples of the fundamental frequency (fractional resonances). Parameters for which parametric frequency transformation occurs are determined. The possible generalization of this effect to the quantum case in which correlated microwave photons (entangled photon states) can be generated is discussed.

  19. Development of Improved Caprock Integrity and Risk Assessment Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Michael

    2014-09-30

    GeoMechanics Technologies has completed a geomechanical caprock integrity analysis and risk assessment study funded through the US Department of Energy. The project included: a detailed review of historical caprock integrity problems experienced in the natural gas storage industry; a theoretical description and documentation of caprock integrity issues; advanced coupled transport flow modelling and geomechanical simulation of three large-scale potential geologic sequestration sites to estimate geomechanical effects from CO₂ injection; development of a quantitative risk and decision analysis tool to assess caprock integrity risks; and, ultimately the development of recommendations and guidelines for caprock characterization and CO₂ injection operating practices. Historical data from gas storage operations and CO₂ sequestration projects suggest that leakage and containment incident risks are on the order of 10-1 to 10-2, which is higher risk than some previous studies have suggested for CO₂. Geomechanical analysis, as described herein, can be applied to quantify risks and to provide operating guidelines to reduce risks. The risk assessment tool developed for this project has been applied to five areas: The Wilmington Graben offshore Southern California, Kevin Dome in Montana, the Louden Field in Illinois, the Sleipner CO₂ sequestration operation in the North Sea, and the In Salah CO₂ sequestration operation in North Africa. Of these five, the Wilmington Graben area represents the highest relative risk while the Kevin Dome area represents the lowest relative risk.

  20. Fast classification and compositional analysis of cornstover fractions using Fourier transform near-infrared techniques.

    PubMed

    Philip Ye, X; Liu, Lu; Hayes, Douglas; Womac, Alvin; Hong, Kunlun; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the variation of chemical composition across botanical fractions of cornstover, and to probe the potential of Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) techniques in qualitatively classifying separated cornstover fractions and in quantitatively analyzing chemical compositions of cornstover by developing calibration models to predict chemical compositions of cornstover based on FT-NIR spectra. Large variations of cornstover chemical composition for wide calibration ranges, which is required by a reliable calibration model, were achieved by manually separating the cornstover samples into six botanical fractions, and their chemical compositions were determined by conventional wet chemical analyses, which proved that chemical composition varies significantly among different botanical fractions of cornstover. Different botanic fractions, having total saccharide content in descending order, are husk, sheath, pith, rind, leaf, and node. Based on FT-NIR spectra acquired on the biomass, classification by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was employed to conduct qualitative classification of cornstover fractions, and partial least square (PLS) regression was used for quantitative chemical composition analysis. SIMCA was successfully demonstrated in classifying botanical fractions of cornstover. The developed PLS model yielded root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP %w/w) of 0.92, 1.03, 0.17, 0.27, 0.21, 1.12, and 0.57 for glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash, respectively. The results showed the potential of FT-NIR techniques in combination with multivariate analysis to be utilized by biomass feedstock suppliers, bioethanol manufacturers, and bio-power producers in order to better manage bioenergy feedstocks and enhance bioconversion.

  1. Von mises- and crocco-type hydrodynamical transformations: Order reduction of nonlinear equations, construction of Bäcklund transformations and of new integrable equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, I. A.; Polyanin, A. D.

    2011-09-01

    Broad classes of nonlinear equations of mathematical physics are described that admit order reduction by applying the von Mises transformation (with the unknown function used as a new independent variable and with a suitable partial derivative used as a new dependent variable) and by applying the Crocco transformation (with the first and second partial derivatives used as new independent and dependent variables, respectively). Associated Bäcklund transformations are constructed that connect evolution equations of general form (their special cases include Burgers, Korteweg-de Vries, and Harry Dym type equations and many other nonlinear equations of mathematical physics). Transformations are indicated that reduce the order of hydrodynamic-type equations of higher orders. The generalized Calogero equation and a number of other new integrable nonlinear equations, reducible to linear equations, are considered.

  2. Gravitational Waves from Rotating Neutron Stars and Evaluation of fast Chirp Transform Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies from 300 - 600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during X-ray bursts.

  3. Discrimination of olives according to fruit quality using Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy and pattern recognition techniques.

    PubMed

    Muik, Barbara; Lendl, Bernhard; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Ortega-Calderón, Domingo; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2004-10-06

    Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy combined with pattern recognition has been used to discriminate olives of different qualities. They included samples of sound olives, olives with frostbite, olives that have been collected from the ground, fermented olives, and olive samples with diseases. Milled olives were measured in a dedicated sample cup, which was rotated during spectrum acquisition. A preliminary study of the data set structure was performed using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Two supervised pattern recognition techniques, K-nearest neighbors and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), were tested using a "leave-a-fourth-out" cross-validation procedure. SIMCA provided the best results, with prediction abilities of 95% for sound, 93% for frostbite, 96% for ground, and 92% for fermented olives. The olive samples with diseases (too few to define a class) were included in the validation and recognized as not belonging to any class. None of the damaged olive samples was wrongly predicted to the class of sound olives. With this approach a selection of sound olives for the production of high-quality virgin olive oil can be achieved.

  4. Model-based 3-D object recognition using Hermite transform and homotopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaz, Richard F.; Cyganski, David; Wright, Charles R.

    1992-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for model-based object recognition and orientation determination which uses a single, comprehensive analytic object model representing the entirety of a suite of images of the object. In this way, object orientation and identity can be directly established from arbitrary views, even though these views are not related by any geometric image transformation. The approach is also applicable to other real and complex- sensed data, such as radar and thermal signatures. The object model is formed from 2-D Hermite function decompositions of an object image expanded about the angles of object rotation by Fourier series. A measure of error between the model and the acquired view is derived as an exact analytic expression, and is minimized over all values of the viewing angle by evaluation of a polynomial system of equations. The roots of this system are obtained via homotopy techniques, and directly provide object identity and orientation information. Results are given which illustrate the performance of this method for noisy real-world images acquired over a single viewing angle variation.

  5. Gravitational waves from rotating neutron stars and evaluation of fast chirp transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2002-04-01

    X-ray observations suggest that neutron stars in low mass x-ray binaries (LMXB) are rotating with frequencies in the range 300-600 Hz. These spin rates are significantly less than the break-up rates for essentially all realistic neutron star equations of state, suggesting that some process may limit the spin frequencies of accreting neutron stars to this range. If the accretion-induced spin up torque is in equilibrium with gravitational radiation losses, these objects could be interesting sources of gravitational waves. I present a brief summary of current measurements of neutron star spins in LMXBs based on the observations of high-Q oscillations during thermonuclear bursts (so-called 'burst oscillations'). Further measurements of neutron star spins will be important in exploring the gravitational radiation hypothesis in more detail. To this end, I also present a study of fast chirp transform (FCT) techniques as described by Jenet and Prince (Prince T A and Jenet F A 2000 Phys. Rev. D 62 122001) in the context of searching for the chirping signals observed during x-ray bursts.

  6. Color image encryption based on fractional Fourier transforms and pixel scrambling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianlin; Lu, Hongqiang; Fan, Qi

    2007-01-01

    Color image encryption based on fractional Fourier transform (FRT) and pixel scrambling technique is presented in this paper. In general, color (RGB) image cannot be directly encrypted using a traditional setup for optical information processing, because which is only adapted to process two-dimensional gray image. In the proposed method, a three-dimensional RGB image is decomposed to three two-dimensional gray images (R, G and B values of the color image), and the encryption operation will be done on each two-dimensional gray image, then the encoded color image is available by composing the three two-dimensional encrypted images. The decryption process is an inverse of the encryption. The optical encrypting systems based on the presented method is proposed and simulated. Some results of computer simulation are presented to verify the flexibility and the reliability of this method. The quality of decrypted images would be debased with the difference of the fractional order. The frustrated decryption of monochromic image will affect the color of decrypted image. At the end of this paper, an all-optical and photoelectric encryption/decryption systems solution are presented, and the principle of selecting optical devices are also given.

  7. Integrating Positive Psychology Techniques into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Martha H.; Boykin, Rebecca B.

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology offers rehabilitation counselor educators a framework to help students evaluate their own competencies and understand the value of a strengths-based approach to rehabilitation counseling. This article reviews several positive psychology techniques and discusses recommended uses as well as their effectiveness. Positive…

  8. Integrating Positive Psychology Techniques into Rehabilitation Counselor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Martha H.; Boykin, Rebecca B.

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology offers rehabilitation counselor educators a framework to help students evaluate their own competencies and understand the value of a strengths-based approach to rehabilitation counseling. This article reviews several positive psychology techniques and discusses recommended uses as well as their effectiveness. Positive…

  9. Detecting transforming growth factor-β release from liver cells using an aptasensor integrated with microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Matharu, Zimple; Patel, Dipali; Gao, Yandong; Haque, Amranul; Zhou, Qing; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-09-02

    We developed a cell-culture/biosensor platform consisting of aptamer-modified Au electrodes integrated with reconfigurable microfluidics for monitoring of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), an important inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokine. Aptamers were thiolated, labeled with redox reporters, and self-assembled on gold surfaces. The biosensor was determined to be specific for TGF-β1 with an experimental detection limit of 1 ng/mL and linear range extending to 250 ng/mL. Upon determining figures of merit, aptasensor was miniaturized and integrated with human hepatic stellate cells inside microfluidic devices. Reconfigurable microfluidics were developed to ensure that seeding of "sticky" stromal cells did not foul the electrode and compromise sensor performance. This microsystem with integrated aptasensors was used to monitor TGF-β1 release from activated stellate cells over the course of 20 h. The electrochemical response went down upon infusing anti-TGF-β1 antibodies into the microfluidic devices containing activated stellate cells. To further validate aptasensor responses, stellate cells were stained for markers of activation (e.g., alpha smooth muscle actin) and were also tested for presence of TGF-β1 using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the importance of TGF-β1 as a fibrogenic signal, a microsystem with integrated biosensors for local and continuous detection of TGF-β1 may prove to be an important tool to study fibrosis of the liver and other organs.

  10. Third-order symplectic integration method with inverse time dispersion transform for long-term simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing

    2016-06-01

    The symplectic integration method is popular in high-accuracy numerical simulations when discretizing temporal derivatives; however, it still suffers from time-dispersion error when the temporal interval is coarse, especially for long-term simulations and large-scale models. We employ the inverse time dispersion transform (ITDT) to the third-order symplectic integration method to reduce the time-dispersion error. First, we adopt the pseudospectral algorithm for the spatial discretization and the third-order symplectic integration method for the temporal discretization. Then, we apply the ITDT to eliminate time-dispersion error from the synthetic data. As a post-processing method, the ITDT can be easily cascaded in traditional numerical simulations. We implement the ITDT in one typical exiting third-order symplectic scheme and compare its performances with the performances of the conventional second-order scheme and the rapid expansion method. Theoretical analyses and numerical experiments show that the ITDT can significantly reduce the time-dispersion error, especially for long travel times. The implementation of the ITDT requires some additional computations on correcting the time-dispersion error, but it allows us to use the maximum temporal interval under stability conditions; thus, its final computational efficiency would be higher than that of the traditional symplectic integration method for long-term simulations. With the aid of the ITDT, we can obtain much more accurate simulation results but with a lower computational cost.

  11. Flow integration transform: detecting shapes in matrix-array 3D ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetten, George D.; Caines, Michael; von Ramm, Olaf T.

    1995-03-01

    Matrix-array ultrasound produces real-time 3D images of the heart, by employing a square array of transducers to steer the ultrasound beam in three dimensions electronically with no moving parts. Other 3D modalities such as MR, MUGA, and CT require the use of gated studies, which combine many cardiac cycles to produce a single average cycle. Three- dimensional ultrasound eliminates this restriction, in theory permitting the continuous measurement of cardiac ventricular volume, which we call the volumetricardiogram. Towards implementing the volumetricardiogram, we have developed the flow integration transform (FIT), which operates on a 2D slice within the volumetric ultrasound data. The 3D ultrasound machine's scan converter produces a set of such slices in real time, at any desired location and orientation, to which the FIT may then be applied. Although lacking rotational or scale invariance, the FIT is designed to operate in dedicated hardware where an entire transform could be completed within a few microseconds with present integrated circuit technology. This speed would permit the application of a large battery of test shapes, or the evolution of the test shape to converge on that of the actual target.

  12. TRANSVERSE MERCATOR MAP PROJECTION OF THE SPHEROID USING TRANSFORMATION OF THE ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    the (irreducible) Incomplete Elliptic Integral of the 2nd Kind, the value for the tangent of one half the amplitude of the Elliptic Integral of the 2nd Kind is now known. The elliptic integral may now be computed by any desired method, and the result will be the Gauss-Kruger Transverse Mercator Projection. This result is a consequence of the fact that these steps produce a computation of real distance along the image (in the plane) of the principal meridian, and an analytic continuation of the distance at points that don't lie on the principal meridian. The elliptic-integral method used by this program is one of the "transformations of the elliptic integral" (similar to Landen's Transformation), appearing in standard handbooks of mathematical functions. Only elementary transcendental functions are utilized. The program output is the conventional (as used by the mapping agencies) cartesian coordinates, in meters, of the Transverse Mercator projection. The origin is at the intersection of the principal meridian and the equator. This FORTRAN77 program was developed on an IBM PC series computer equipped with an Intel Math Coprocessor. Double precision complex arithmetic and transcendental functions are needed to support a projection accuracy of 1 mm. Because such functions are not usually part of the FORTRAN library, the needed functions have been explicitly programmed and included in the source code. The program was developed in 1989. TRANSVERSE MERCATOR MAP PROJECTION OF THE SPHEROID USING TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE ELLIPTIC INTEGRAL is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  13. Mobile robot GPS/DR integrated navigation positioning technique research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingkun; Zhang, Yuanliang; Li, Bifu; Chong, Kil To

    2010-01-01

    GPS is widely used for global positioning system. But GPS signal is easily interrupted when it is used alone. DR (dead reckoning) can calculate the position of mobile robots by using direction and speed sensors. However, DR system error can accumulate over time due to the error of electronic compass and odometer sensors. So DR system can't be used separately for a long time. The integrated navigation system combined GPS with DR will effectively integrated advantages of these two systems, higher positioning precision and reliability. In this paper Kalman filter model for GPS/DR integrated navigation system is set up to filter the GPS and DR data. And then the outputs of Kalman filter are inputted to a BP neural network for training. BP neural network is employed to predict next sampling time GPS output and a new Kalman filter based data fusion method is proposed to do the navigation information fusion with encoders and compass system. Simulation is done to validate the proposed fusion method. The simulation result shows the potential of this fusion method for outside used mobile robot navigation. Finally experiments are done to validate the proposed fusion method.

  14. Mobile robot GPS/DR integrated navigation positioning technique research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingkun; Zhang, Yuanliang; Li, Bifu; Chong, Kil To

    2009-12-01

    GPS is widely used for global positioning system. But GPS signal is easily interrupted when it is used alone. DR (dead reckoning) can calculate the position of mobile robots by using direction and speed sensors. However, DR system error can accumulate over time due to the error of electronic compass and odometer sensors. So DR system can't be used separately for a long time. The integrated navigation system combined GPS with DR will effectively integrated advantages of these two systems, higher positioning precision and reliability. In this paper Kalman filter model for GPS/DR integrated navigation system is set up to filter the GPS and DR data. And then the outputs of Kalman filter are inputted to a BP neural network for training. BP neural network is employed to predict next sampling time GPS output and a new Kalman filter based data fusion method is proposed to do the navigation information fusion with encoders and compass system. Simulation is done to validate the proposed fusion method. The simulation result shows the potential of this fusion method for outside used mobile robot navigation. Finally experiments are done to validate the proposed fusion method.

  15. Radar high-speed maneuvering target detection based on joint second-order keystone transform and modified integrated cubic phase function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiancheng; Su, Tao; Li, Yanyan; Zheng, Jibin

    2016-07-01

    Long-time coherent integration is an effective means to improve the radar detection ability of high-speed maneuvering targets with jerk motion. However, the range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) have a great impact on the integration performance. To overcome these problems, a unique method, called the second-order keystone transform modified integrated cubic phase function (SKT-MICPF), is proposed. In this method, the velocity compensation and SKT are jointly employed to correct the RM. After the RM correction, the azimuth echoes of a range cell where a target is located can be modeled as a cubic phase signal (CPS), whose chirp rate (CR) and quadratic CR are related to the target's radial acceleration and jerk, respectively. Thereafter, an effective parameters' estimation algorithm for CPS, called MICPF, is proposed and applied to compensate the DFM. After that, coherent integration and target detection are accomplished via the fast Fourier transform and constant false alarm rate technique, successively. Compared with the improved axis rotation discrete chirp Fourier transform, the SKT-MICPF achieves close detection performance, but greatly reduces the computational complexity. The results of simulation and real radar data demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Process sequence optimization for digital microfluidic integration using EWOD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Supriya; Joyce, Robin; Sharma, Akash Kumar; Sharma, Himani; Sharma, Niti Nipun; Varghese, Soney; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    Micro/nano-fluidic MEMS biosensors are the devices that detects the biomolecules. The emerging micro/nano-fluidic devices provide high throughput and high repeatability with very low response time and reduced device cost as compared to traditional devices. This article presents the experimental details for process sequence optimization of digital microfluidics (DMF) using "electrowetting-on-dielectric" (EWOD). Stress free thick film deposition of silicon dioxide using PECVD and subsequent process for EWOD techniques have been optimized in this work.

  17. Boundary integral techniques for multi-connected domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, G. R.; Shelley, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to iterative methods applicable to such changing domain cases of elliptic problems in multiconnected domains as those of incompressible inviscid flow with free surfaces. One such formulation is developed and tested on circular and elliptic annuli, using interpolated quadrature points to maintain accuracy when annuli regions are thin. The technique is noted to be applicable to the study of accelerating thin fluid shells.

  18. Optical transformation based image encryption and data embedding techniques using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debalina; Ghosh, Ajay

    2015-06-01

    The proposed work describes optical transformations such as Fourier transformation and Fresnel transformation based encryption and decryption of images using random phase masks (RPMs). The encrypted images have been embedded in some secret cover files of other formats like text files, word files, audio files etc to increase the robustness in the security applications. So, if any one wants to send confidential documents, it will be difficult for the interloper to unhide the secret information. The whole work has been done in MATLAB®

  19. A comparative analysis of Painleve, Lax pair, and similarity transformation methods in obtaining the integrability conditions of nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    SciTech Connect

    Al Khawaja, U.

    2010-05-15

    We derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations using the Lax pair and similarity transformation methods. We present a comparative analysis of these integrability conditions with those of the Painleve method. We show that while the Painleve integrability conditions restrict the dispersion, nonlinearity, and dissipation/gain coefficients to be space independent and the external potential to be only a quadratic function of position, the Lax Pair and the similarity transformation methods allow for space-dependent coefficients and an external potential that is not restricted to the quadratic form. The integrability conditions of the Painleve method are retrieved as a special case of our general integrability conditions. We also derive the integrability conditions of nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equations for two- and three-spacial dimensions.

  20. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  1. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  2. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  3. Review of high-throughput techniques for detecting solid phase Transformation from material libraries produced by combinatorial methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2005-01-01

    High-throughput measurement techniques are reviewed for solid phase transformation from materials produced by combinatorial methods, which are highly efficient concepts to fabricate large variety of material libraries with different compositional gradients on a single wafer. Combinatorial methods hold high potential for reducing the time and costs associated with the development of new materials, as compared to time-consuming and labor-intensive conventional methods that test large batches of material, one- composition at a time. These high-throughput techniques can be automated to rapidly capture and analyze data, using the entire material library on a single wafer, thereby accelerating the pace of materials discovery and knowledge generation for solid phase transformations. The review covers experimental techniques that are applicable to inorganic materials such as shape memory alloys, graded materials, metal hydrides, ferric materials, semiconductors and industrial alloys.

  4. Identification of auxotrophic mutants of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus by non-homologous end joining-mediated integrative transformation with genes from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yarimizu, Tohru; Nonklang, Sanom; Nakamura, Junpei; Tokuda, Shuya; Nakagawa, Takaaki; Lorreungsil, Sasithorn; Sutthikhumpha, Surasit; Pukahuta, Charida; Kitagawa, Takao; Nakamura, Mikiko; Cha-Aim, Kamonchai; Limtong, Savitree; Hoshida, Hisashi; Akada, Rinji

    2013-12-01

    The isolation and application of auxotrophic mutants for gene manipulations, such as genetic transformation, mating selection and tetrad analysis, form the basis of yeast genetics. For the development of these genetic methods in the thermotolerant fermentative yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus, we isolated a series of auxotrophic mutants with defects in amino acid or nucleic acid metabolism. To identify the mutated genes, linear DNA fragments of nutrient biosynthetic pathway genes were amplified from Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomal DNA and used to directly transform the K. marxianus auxotrophic mutants by random integration into chromosomes through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). The appearance of transformant colonies indicated that the specific S. cerevisiae gene complemented the K. marxianus mutant. Using this interspecific complementation approach with linear PCR-amplified DNA, we identified auxotrophic mutations of ADE2, ADE5,7, ADE6, HIS2, HIS3, HIS4, HIS5, HIS6, HIS7, LYS1, LYS2, LYS4, LYS9, LEU1, LEU2, MET2, MET6, MET17, TRP3, TRP4 and TRP5 without the labour-intensive requirement of plasmid construction. Mating, sporulation and tetrad analysis techniques for K. marxianus were also established. With the identified auxotrophic mutant strains and S. cerevisiae genes as selective markers, NHEJ-mediated integrative transformation with PCR-amplified DNA is an attractive system for facilitating genetic analyses in the yeast K. marxianus.

  5. Robust hermetic packaging techniques for MEMS integrated microsystems.

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, Junseok; Stark, Brian H.; Kuo, Andrew; Oliver, Andrew David; Najafi, Khalil

    2005-03-01

    This work is the result of a Sandia National Laboratories LDRD funded fellowship at the University of Michigan. Although, guidance and suggestions were offered by Sandia, the work contained here is primarily the work of Brian H. Stark, and his advisor, Professor Khalil Najafi. Junseok Chae, Andrew Kuo, and their coworkers at the University of Michigan helped to record some of the data. The following is an abstract of their work. We have developed a vacuum packaging technology using a thick nickel film to seal MEMS structures at the wafer level. The package is fabricated in a three-mask process by electroplating a 40 micro-meter thick nickel film over an 8 micro-meter sacrificial photoresist that is removed prior to package sealing. Implementation of electrical feedthroughs in this process requires no planarization. The large release channel enables an 800x800 micro-meter package to be released in less than three hours. Several mechanisms, based upon localized melting and lead/tin solder bumping, for sealing the release channel have been investigated. We have also developed Pirani gauges, integrated with this package, which can be used to establish the hermeticity of the different sealing technologies. They have measured a sealing pressure of approximately 1.5 Torr. Our work differs from previous Pirani gauges in that we utilize a novel doubly anchored structure that stiffens the structural membrane while not substantially degrading performance in order to measure fine leak rates.

  6. An improved impact technique for monitoring percutaneous implant integrity.

    PubMed

    Swain, Ryan; Faulkner, Gary; Raboud, Don; Wolfaardt, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the current Periotest system when measuring implant systems and to present a new system to monitor implant interface integrity. The new system records an impact accelerometer signal and utilizes software for data analysis to determine the resonance frequency of an implant-abutment system. The new system uses the handpiece from the Periotest to acquire an impact signal but makes no use of the rest of the device. Tests were completed to determine the repeatability of the new system along with the effects clinical variables such as abutment torque, angulation of the handpiece, striking height, and distance handpiece is held from the abutment have on the measurement results. Accuracy of the current Periotest method as well as the new system was independently evaluated through the use of an abutment with a strain gauge attached. The new system for impact testing is shown to have greater accuracy than that of the Periotest device. Additionally, the effects of handpiece distance from abutment and torque (when above 15 Ncm) were found to be negligible while angulation of the handpiece and striking height affected the resonance frequency of the new system. The results of the in vitro testing indicate that greater resolution and accuracy can be achieved from an impact test that utilizes a clinical measurement protocol and independent analysis of the impact accelerometer signal.

  7. Failure assessment techniques to ensure shipping container integrity

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, P.

    1986-02-01

    This report discusses several methodologies which may be used to ensure the structural integrity of containment systems to be used for the transport and storage of high-level radioactive substances. For economic reasons, shipping containers constructed of ferritic materials are being considered for manufacture by vendors in the US and Europe. Ferritic show an inherent transition from a ductile, high energy failure mode to a brittle, low energy fracture mode with decreasing temperature. Therefore, formal consideration of means by which to avoid unstable brittle fracture is necessary prior to the licensing of ferritic casks. It is suggested that failure of a shipping container wall be defined as occurring when a flaw extends through the outer wall of the containment system. Crack initiation which may lead to unstable brittle crack growth should therefore be prevented. It is suggested that a fundamental linear elastic fracture mechanics (lefm) approach be adopted on a case-by-case basis, applied perhaps by means of appropriate modifications to ASMA Section III or Section XI. A lefm analysis requires information concerning service temperatures, loading rates, flaw sizes, and applied stresses. Tentative judgments regarding these parameters for typical shipping containers have been made.

  8. Integrated DFB-DBR laser modulator grown by selective area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanbun-Ek, T.; Chen, Y. K.; Grenko, J. A.; Byrne, E. K.; Johnson, J. E.; Logan, R. A.; Tate, A.; Sergent, A. M.; Wecht, K. W.; Sciortine, P. F.; Chu, S. N. G.

    1994-12-01

    A device quality of selective epitaxy growth of InGaAsP/InP multiple quantum well (MQW) structure using low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) technique is described. The technique is applied to a monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulator with distributed feedback (DFB) and distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers. Superior device characteristics such as efficient modulation, low threshold current and high efficiency operation of the integrated devices are obtained.

  9. A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Yuchi; Han Dan; Zhu Bin; Dong Kegong; Tan Fang; Gu Yuqiu

    2012-09-15

    The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy.

  10. Simulation of the superconducting multiturn flux transformer integrated with a coplanar resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, H. R.; Zhang, Y.; Klein, N.

    2000-06-01

    The analysis of the structure of a superconducting multiturn flux transformer integrated with a coplanar resonator for radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference devices is described. Electromagnetic simulations indicate that the loss is dominated by the high loss tangent of the dielectric film used for the separation of the upper and lower superconducting films. The simulated current distribution at its resonant frequency shows that the highest current density is distributed on the multiturn input coil. This current distribution leads to a very high loss when the loss tangent of the dielectric film is high. However, for the same loss tangent of the dielectric film, it is possible to get a reasonably high unloaded quality factor by providing a normal shunt for the multiturn input coil.

  11. Reconstructing Folding Energy Landscape Profiles from Nonequilibrium Pulling Curves with an Inverse Weierstrass Integral Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Megan C.; Ritchie, Dustin B.; Foster, Daniel A. N.; Beach, Kevin S. D.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2014-12-01

    The energy landscapes that drive structure formation in biopolymers are difficult to measure. Here we validate experimentally a novel method to reconstruct landscape profiles from single-molecule pulling curves using an inverse Weierstrass transform (IWT) of the Jarzysnki free-energy integral. The method was applied to unfolding measurements of a DNA hairpin, replicating the results found by the more-established weighted histogram (WHAM) and inverse Boltzmann methods. Applying both WHAM and IWT methods to reconstruct the folding landscape for a RNA pseudoknot having a stiff energy barrier, we found that landscape features with sharper curvature than the force probe stiffness could not be recovered with the IWT method. The IWT method is thus best for analyzing data from stiff force probes such as atomic force microscopes.

  12. Geometric BVPs, Hardy spaces, and the Cauchy integral and transform on regions with corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loya, Paul

    In this paper we give a new perspective on the Cauchy integral and transform and Hardy spaces for Dirac-type operators on manifolds with corners of codimension two. Instead of considering Banach or Hilbert spaces, we use polyhomogeneous functions on a geometrically "blown-up" version of the manifold called the total boundary blow-up introduced by Mazzeo and Melrose [R.R. Mazzeo, R.B. Melrose, Analytic surgery and the eta invariant, Geom. Funct. Anal. 5 (1) (1995) 14-75]. These polyhomogeneous functions are smooth everywhere on the original manifold except at the corners where they have a "Taylor series" (with possible log terms) in polar coordinates. The main application of our analysis is a complete Fredholm theory for boundary value problems of Dirac operators on manifolds with corners of codimension two.

  13. Transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals during integrated composting-vermicomposting of sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Hait, Subrata; Tare, Vinod

    2012-05-01

    Transformation and availability of nutrients and some heavy metals were assessed during the integrated composting-vermicomposting of both primary sewage sludge (PSS) and waste activated sewage sludge (WAS) using matured vermicompost as indigenous bulking material and employing Eisenia fetida as earthworm species. Vermicomposting resulted in significant increase in total N (TN) (PSS: 41.7-64.6%, F=11.6, P<0.05; WAS: 36.4-58.6%, F=6.4, P<0.05), water soluble N (WSN) (PSS: 37.1-50.5%, F=30.1, P<0.05; WAS: 40.1-53.0%, F=27.6, P<0.05), total P (TP) (PSS: 39.9-69.8%, F=27.1, P<0.05; WAS: 32.2-56.6%, F=21.4, P<0.05) and water soluble P (WSP) (PSS: 25.2-34.3%, F=163.9, P<0.05; WAS: 24.1-34.2%, F=144.3, P<0.05) as compared to the initial compost material depending on different experimental conditions. The study demonstrated that the vermicomposting significantly improved the availability of nutrients in sewage sludges. In addition, vermicomposting considerably reduced the availability of heavy metals except Fe and Mn, presumably by forming organic-bound complexes in spite of several fold increase in their total content. The environmental conditions (i.e., temperature and relative humidity), in general, showed significant effect on the transformation and availability of nutrients and heavy metals. There was no effect of earthworm density on the transformation and availability of heavy metals and nutrients except N and P, possibly due to prior exposure during acclimation period in sewage sludge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recombinant bacteriophages containing the integrated transforming provirus of Gardner--Arnstein feline sarcoma virus.

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, L A; Even, J; Garon, C F; Donner, L; Sherr, C J

    1981-01-01

    The integrated DNA provirus of the Gardner-Arnstein (GA) strain of feline sarcoma virus (FeSV) was molecularly cloned in a bacteriophage lambda vector. The cloned DNA fragment is 14.4 kilobase pairs long and contains a 6.7-kilobase provirus flanked by cellular sequences derived from nonproductively transformed mink cells. Transfection of mouse NIH/3T3 cells with the cloned DNA fragment induced foci of transformation at efficiencies of 10(4) focus-forming units/pmol of sarcoma virus DNA. Restriction endonuclease mapping and heteroduplex analyses were used to compare the GA-FeSV provirus with that of Snyder-Theilen (ST)-FeSV, a second strain that contains homologous transformation-specific sequences (v-fes). Both viruses have the general structure 5'-gag-fes-env-c region-3', each having retained portions of the feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag and env genes. In addition to segments shared by the two sarcoma viruses, GA-FeSV contains 1.7 kilobases of extra sequences not found in ST-FeSV. Of these, at least 400-500 base pairs located near the 5' end of v-fes encode a portion of the GA-FeSV polyprotein; the remaining 1.2 kilobases are derived from the FeLV env gene but do not appear to encode any detectable product related to the FeLV envelope glycoprotein. The close homology of the v-fes sequences shows that GA- and ST-FeSV were formed by recombination of FeLV with similar portions of a cat cellular gene (c-fes). Images PMID:6270655

  15. Application of Reflectance Transformation Imaging Technique to Improve Automated Edge Detection in a Fossilized Oyster Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djuricic, Ana; Puttonen, Eetu; Harzhauser, Mathias; Dorninger, Peter; Székely, Balázs; Mandic, Oleg; Nothegger, Clemens; Molnár, Gábor; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The world's largest fossilized oyster reef is located in Stetten, Lower Austria excavated during field campaigns of the Natural History Museum Vienna between 2005 and 2008. It is studied in paleontology to learn about change in climate from past events. In order to support this study, a laser scanning and photogrammetric campaign was organized in 2014 for 3D documentation of the large and complex site. The 3D point clouds and high resolution images from this field campaign are visualized by photogrammetric methods in form of digital surface models (DSM, 1 mm resolution) and orthophoto (0.5 mm resolution) to help paleontological interpretation of data. Due to size of the reef, automated analysis techniques are needed to interpret all digital data obtained from the field. One of the key components in successful automation is detection of oyster shell edges. We have tested Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) to visualize the reef data sets for end-users through a cultural heritage viewing interface (RTIViewer). The implementation includes a Lambert shading method to visualize DSMs derived from terrestrial laser scanning using scientific software OPALS. In contrast to shaded RTI no devices consisting of a hardware system with LED lights, or a body to rotate the light source around the object are needed. The gray value for a given shaded pixel is related to the angle between light source and the normal at that position. Brighter values correspond to the slope surfaces facing the light source. Increasing of zenith angle results in internal shading all over the reef surface. In total, oyster reef surface contains 81 DSMs with 3 m x 2 m each. Their surface was illuminated by moving the virtual sun every 30 degrees (12 azimuth angles from 20-350) and every 20 degrees (4 zenith angles from 20-80). This technique provides paleontologists an interactive approach to virtually inspect the oyster reef, and to interpret the shell surface by changing the light source direction

  16. A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission

  17. Control circuitry for high speed VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) winograd fourier transform processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossbach, P. C.

    1985-12-01

    The calculation of the Discrete Fourier Transform has long been a significant bottleneck in many Digital Signal Processing applications. With the arrival of Very Large Scale Integration and new DFT algorithms, system architectures that significantly reduce the DFT bottleneck are possible. This thesis addresses the design, simulation, implementation, and testing of the control circuitry for a high speed, VLSI Winograd Fourier Transform (WFT) processor. Three WFT processors are combined into a pipelined architecture that is capable of computing a 4080-point DFT on complex input data approximately every 120 microseconds when operating with 70 MHz clock signals. The chip control architecture features a special Programmable Logic Array (PLA) to control the on-chip arithmetic circuitry, and a dense, 54K ROM to generate data addresses for the external RAM. The PLA controller was fabricated in 3 micron CMOS and functioned properly for clock rates of over 60 MHz. The address generator ROM was designed and submitted for fabrication in 3 micron CMOS, and SPICE simulations predict an access time of 60 nanoseconds. Software that automatically generates a ROM layout description from a data file was developed to ensure the correctness of the final design. The transistor minimization procedure i s based on a graph partitioning heuristic, and the drain removal procedure is based on an algorithm that near-optimally solves the Traveling Salesman Problem.

  18. Three New (2+1)-dimensional Integrable Systems and Some Related Darboux Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-06-01

    We introduce two operator commutators by using different-degree loop algebras of the Lie algebra A1, then under the framework of zero curvature equations we generate two (2+1)-dimensional integrable hierarchies, including the (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave (SWW) hierarchy and the (2+1)-dimensional Kaup-Newell (KN) hierarchy. Through reduction of the (2+1)-dimensional hierarchies, we get a (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation and a (2+1)-dimensional KN equation. Furthermore, we obtain two Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional SWW equation. Similarly, the Darboux transformations of the (2+1)-dimensional KN equation could be deduced. Finally, with the help of the spatial spectral matrix of SWW hierarchy, we generate a (2+1) heat equation and a (2+1) nonlinear generalized SWW system containing inverse operators with respect to the variables x and y by using a reduction spectral problem from the self-dual Yang-Mills equations. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11371361, the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. ZR2012AQ011, ZR2013AL016, ZR2015EM042, National Social Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 13BJY026, the Development of Science and Technology Project under Grant No. 2015NS1048 and A Project of Shandong Province Higher Educational Science and Technology Program under Grant No. J14LI58

  19. The Effect of Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed at finding out the effectiveness of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC) Technique on Students' Reading Descriptive Text Achievement. In other words, the objective of this study was to find out if there was a significant effect of applying Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC)…

  20. Business Case Analysis: Continuous Integrated Logistics Support-Targeted Allowance Technique (CILS-TAT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Overview Cluster analysis is a subset of data analysis tools called data mining . This analysis seeks, by grouping information, to find the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT BUSINESS CASE ANALYSIS : CONTINUOUS INTEGRATED LOGISTICS...BUSINESS CASE ANALYSIS : CONTINUOUS INTEGRATED LOGISTICS SUPPORT–TARGETED ALLOWANCE TECHNIQUE (CILS–TAT) 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Thomas E

  1. The use of artificial intelligence techniques to improve the multiple payload integration process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, Dannie E.; Widgren, Brian K.

    1992-01-01

    A maximum return of science and products with a minimum expenditure of time and resources is a major goal of mission payload integration. A critical component then, in successful mission payload integration is the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements from the principal investigator and payload element developer teams. One effort to use artificial intelligence techniques to improve the acquisition and analysis of experiment requirements within the payload integration process is described.

  2. Anti-aliasing techniques for signal verification and sensor integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodrucki, F.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the development of algorithms for autonomously adjusting sensors with anti-aliasing techniques is discussed. In the current world environment of rapidly changing and progressing technologies, adaptability is the lynchpin for success. Tunable sources, such as Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs), are becoming more common to address the adaptability need on the proactive side. It follows that sensors themselves must then be able to expand and adapt to aid in this endeavor. The research outlined in this paper further explores the relationship between the frame rate of a sensor and the modulation frequency of an incoming signal. Signals modulated at frequencies matching or near the frame rate of a sensor cause aliasing effects more consistently and frequently than those further from the sensor's frame rate. These situations affect the sensor's accuracy in these regions, creating a "blind spot" for the sensor where fluctuations in the signal are indistinguishable from frame to frame. The relationship between the frame rate of a sensor and the modulation frequency of a signal, quantified by a change in irradiance from frame to frame, was previously explored. From these primary findings, an algorithm was developed utilizing a method analogous to that of on-off keying, to improve frame rate adaptability. This algorithm was tested and expanded to include more complex scenarios. The potential for this method, including further testing, project scope and direction, as well as future complexities involving the inclusion of a feedback loop to the laser modulation controller are presented. The paper concludes with discussions on applications of these results to improve current and future sensor technology development, testing, and characterization.

  3. ORGANIC ACID DERIVATIZATION TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON TRANSFORMATIONS IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence for the natural microbial remediation of subsurface fuel contamination situations should include identification and analysis of transformation or degradation products. In this way. u mass balance between fuel constituents and end products may be approached to monitor cle...

  4. Applying image transformation and classification techniques to airborne hyperspectral imagery for mapping Ashe juniper infestations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei Buchholz), in excessive coverage, reduces forage production, interferes with livestock management, and degrades watersheds and wildlife habitat in infested rangelands. The objective of this study was to apply minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and different cla...

  5. ORGANIC ACID DERIVATIZATION TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO PETROLEUM HYDROCARBON TRANSFORMATIONS IN SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evidence for the natural microbial remediation of subsurface fuel contamination situations should include identification and analysis of transformation or degradation products. In this way. u mass balance between fuel constituents and end products may be approached to monitor cle...

  6. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted.

  7. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects

    PubMed Central

    Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted. PMID:28207882

  8. Intelligent and integrated techniques for coalbed methane (CBM) recovery and reduction of greenhouse gas emission.

    PubMed

    Qianting, Hu; Yunpei, Liang; Han, Wang; Quanle, Zou; Haitao, Sun

    2017-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is a crucial approach to realize the exploitation of a clean energy and the reduction of the greenhouse gas emission. In the past 10 years, remarkable achievements on CBM recovery have been obtained in China. However, some key difficulties still exist such as long borehole drilling in complicated geological condition, and poor gas drainage effect due to low permeability. In this study, intelligent and integrated techniques for CBM recovery are introduced. These integrated techniques mainly include underground CBM recovery techniques and ground well CBM recovery techniques. The underground CBM recovery techniques consist of the borehole formation technique, gas concentration improvement technique, and permeability enhancement technique. According to the division of mining-induced disturbance area, the ground well arrangement area and well structure type in mining-induced disturbance developing area and mining-induced disturbance stable area are optimized to significantly improve the ground well CBM recovery. Besides, automatic devices such as drilling pipe installation device are also developed to achieve remote control of data recording, which makes the integrated techniques intelligent. These techniques can provide key solutions to some long-term difficulties in CBM recovery.

  9. Techniques and applications for integrating a semiconductor laser on a micromachined die

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Joseph G., Jr.; Bright, Victor M.; Burns, David M.

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes methods for attaching a vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) on to a surface micromachined die. Techniques investigated include silver paste, soldering, wire bonding, and gold pads with integrated resistive heaters. Each technique is evaluated based on reliability, positioning tolerances, and secondary effects. Applications include single chip laser beam scanning.

  10. The Kinetic Drawing System: A Review and Integration of the Kinetic Family and School Drawing Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.; Prout, H. Thompson

    1985-01-01

    Presents the Kinetic Drawing System as a logical integration of the Kinetic Family Drawing and Kinetic School Drawing techniques. Reviews the literature of these two projective techniques and provides a rationale and process toward their combination into a single approach. (LLL)

  11. A new method to solve non-homogeneous wave equations of electromagnetic fields by fourier’s triple integral transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenjing

    2017-08-01

    This paper uses Fourier’s triple integral transform method to simplify the calculation of the non-homogeneous wave equations of the time-varying electromagnetic field. By adding several special definite conditions to the wave equation, it becomes a mathematical problem of definite condition. Then by using Fourier’s triple integral transform method, this three-dimension non-homogeneous partial differential wave equation is changed into an ordinary differential equation. Through the solution to this ordinary differential equation, the expression of the relationship between the time-varying scalar potential and electromagnetic wave excitation source is developed precisely. This method simplifies the solving process effectively.

  12. Use Of Homomorphic Signal Processing Techniques For The Estimation Of Absorbance Spectra As Encountered In Fourier Transform Spectroscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingras, D. J.

    1988-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a method, using homomorphic signal processing (HSP) techniques for the computation of absorbance spectra as encountered in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS). These techniques have found already applications in a number of fields including image enhancement, speech and geophysics signal processing. They are based on a generalization of the class of linear operators. Linear systems are easy to analyse and are particularly useful in separating signals combined by addition which is a direct consequence of the property of superposition. In this paper, we will see that the nonlinearity of the transmittance model, introduced to describe the attenuation of the radiation through the sample medium, belongs to the class of nonlinear systems which obey a generalized principle of superposition. They are known as homomorphic systems. The two main practical types of homomorphic systems are the one for multiplication (logarithm operator) and the one for convolution (Z transform).

  13. Time-Frequency Transform Techniques Applied to Ultra-wideband Ground-Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yedlin, M.; Cresp, A.; Dauviganc, J. Y.; Gaffet, S.; Sénéchal, G.; Fortino, N.; Pichot, C.; Aliferis, I.

    2009-04-01

    Background Recently, Dauvignac et al [1] utilized a ground penetrating radar unit consisting of an exponentially tapered slot antenna (ETSA) of the Vivaldi type, connected to an Agilent vector network analyzer to obtain a densely-sampled profile in the anti-blast tunnel of LSBB (Low-Noise inter-Disciplinary Underground Science & Technology Laboratory) located in Rustrel, France. The frequency data, from 150 MHz to 2 GHz, was inverse Fourier-transformed to obtain the time dependent data. Simultaneously, the same profile was obtained using a RAMAC 500 MHz ground-penetrating radar unit. Initial comparison of both data sets was done in the time-domain. Data obtained from the ETSA will be inverted using a constrained least squares algorithm, in order that the depth-dependent permittivity can be inferred. As a quality control, the RAMAC data will also be inverted. The resulting permittivity profiles obtained in both inversions will be used to image water content over a depth of several meters. Proposed Research It is well-known, qualitatively in the ground penetrating radar literature that high frequencies appear at early times, but generally are attenuated at later times, essentially due to the skin effect. However, a signal-processing verification of this well-known result is needed. We propose to use the Stockwell or S transform [2] to determine the temporal location of frequencies in both of the foregoing datasets. The S transform, a short-time Fourier transform with a frequency-dependent window, will be described and applied to synthetic data. Then the application of the S transform to the RAMAC and ETSA data will be presented, after each data set has undergone the same pre-processing. The S transform is completely linear and preserves the phase of the data, which allows for easy interpretation of the operations of filtering, due to the linear inverse of the forward S transform. Thus the S transform is ideal for comparing the temporal distribution of frequency in

  14. Evaluation of EBV transformation of human memory B-cells isolated by FACS and MACS techniques.

    PubMed

    Sadreddini, Sanam; Jadidi-Niaragh, Farhad; Younesi, Vahid; Pourlak, Tala; Afkham, Amir; Shokri, Fazel; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have been performed to develop effective neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) can efficiently immortalize B-cells to establish lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and so it has been used extensively for transformation of B-cells to produce and secrete immunoglobulin. The present study addressed the effect of TLR7/8 agonist (R848), feeder cells layer and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) cell separation methods on the transformation efficiency of antibody-producing memory B-cells. For these studies, the antigen used for analyses of antibody formation was the tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) derived from Clostridium tetani. The results here showed that employing an HFFF.PI6 feeder cell layer, R848 agonist and FACS-mediated purification of memory B-cells led to increased transformation efficiency. Altogether, the effects of the R848 and the feeder cells provided an efficient method for EBV transformation of human B-cells. Moreover, there was an advantage in using FACS sorting of B-cells over the MACS method in the context of EBV transformation and immortalization of precursors of antigen-specific B-cells.

  15. On-line preferential solvation studies of polymers by coupled chromatographic-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic flow-cell technique.

    PubMed

    Malanin, M; Eichhorn, K-J; Lederer, A; Treppe, P; Adam, G; Fischer, D; Voigt, D

    2009-12-18

    Qualitative and quantitative comparison between liquid chromatography (LC) and LC coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (LC-FTIR) to evaluate preferential solvation phenomenon of polymers in a mixed solvent has been performed. These studies show that LC-FTIR technique leads to detailed structural information without the requirement for determination of additional parameters for quantitative analysis except calibration. Appropriate experimental conditions for preferential solvation study have been established by variation of polymer concentration, molar mass and eluent content.

  16. Automated multidetector row CT dataset segmentation with an interactive watershed transform (IWT) algorithm: Part 1. Understanding the IWT technique.

    PubMed

    Heath, David G; Hahn, Horst K; Johnson, Pamela T; Fishman, Elliot K

    2008-12-01

    Segmentation of volumetric computed tomography (CT) datasets facilitates evaluation of 3D CT angiography renderings, particularly with maximum intensity projection displays. This manuscript describes a novel automated bone editing program that uses an interactive watershed transform (IWT) technique to rapidly extract the skeletal structures from the volume. Advantages of this tool include efficient segmentation of large datasets with minimal need for correction. In the first of this two-part series, the principles of the IWT technique are reviewed, followed by a discussion of clinical utility based on our experience.

  17. Transient GUS Gene Expression in Date Palm Fruit Using Agroinjection Transformation Technique.

    PubMed

    Solliman, Mohei El-Din M; Mohasseb, Hebaallah A; Al-Khateeb, Abdullatif A; Al-Khayri, Jameel M; Al-Khateeb, Suliman A

    2017-01-01

    Transient expression of foreign genes in plant tissue is a valuable tool for testing the efficacy of transformation methods. In this work, we present, for the first time, the utilization of agroinjection as an efficient transformation system for gene delivery in date palm fruit. The research utilized Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring the binary vector pRI201-AN-GUS carrying the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene, under the control of a CaMV 35S and kanamycin (NPTII) as an antibiotic gene under the control of a NOS promoter. Based on histochemical assay of agroinjected fruit for the GUS gene expressions, this protocol has proved to be an efficient and reliable tool for transgene expression in date palm. PCR for plasmid DNA, extracted from the transformed Agrobacterium, demonstrated the generation of the expected amplicon, corresponding to the GUS gene using GUS primers.

  18. Integration of Scale Invariant Generator Technique and S-A Technique for Characterizing 2-D Patterns for Information Retrieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Cheng, Q.

    2004-12-01

    The scale invariant generator technique (SIG) and spectrum-area analysis technique (S-A) were developed independently relevant to the concept of the generalized scale invariance (GSI). The former was developed for characterizing the parameters involved in the GSI for characterizing and simulating multifractal measures whereas the latter was for identifying scaling breaks for decomposition of superimposed multifractal measures caused by multiple geophysical processes. A natural integration of these two techniques may yield a new technique to serve two purposes, on the one hand, that can enrich the power of S-A by increasing the interpretability of decomposed patterns in some applications of S-A and, on the other hand, that can provide a mean to test the uniqueness of multifractality of measures which is essential for application of SIG technique in more complicated environment. The implementation of the proposed technique has been done as a Dynamic Link Library (DLL) in Visual C++. The program can be friendly used for method validation and application in different fields.

  19. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, J. Neal; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, Gurmeet S.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, David M.

    1991-03-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG) phosphosilicate (PSG) silicon oxynitride (SiON:H and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. Also the drive for greater accuracy and tighter precision is leading to the development of increasingly sophisticated data processing software that tax the computing abilities of most instrument local data stations. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three classes of enhancement. First the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it instructing it to perform sophisticated processing and returning the results to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third processing of calibration spectra is performed

  20. Ultra-fast dynamic compression technique to study kinetics of phase transformations in Bismuth

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R F; Kane, J O; Eggert, J H; Saculla, M D; Jankowski, A F; Bastea, M; Hicks, D G; Collins, G W

    2007-12-28

    Pre-heated Bi was ramp compressed within 30 ns to a peak stress of {approx}11 GPa to explore structural phase transformation kinetics under dynamic loading conditions. Under these ultra-fast compression time-scales the equilibrium Bi I-II phase boundary is overpressurized by {Delta}P {approx} 0.8 GPa. {Delta}P is observed to increase logarithmically with strain rate, {var_epsilon}, above 10{sup 6} s{sup -1}. Estimates from a kinetics model predict that the Bi I phase is fully transformed within 3 ns.

  1. Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy-Oil Recovery Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford University; Department of Energy Resources Engineering Green Earth Sciences

    2007-09-30

    This final report and technical progress report describes work performed from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2007 for the project 'Transformation of Resources to Reserves: Next Generation Heavy Oil Recovery Techniques', DE-FC26-04NT15526. Critical year 3 activities of this project were not undertaken because of reduced funding to the DOE Oil Program despite timely submission of a continuation package and progress on year 1 and 2 subtasks. A small amount of carried-over funds were used during June-August 2007 to complete some work in the area of foamed-gas mobility control. Completion of Year 3 activities and tasks would have led to a more thorough completion of the project and attainment of project goals. This progress report serves as a summary of activities and accomplishments for years 1 and 2. Experiments, theory development, and numerical modeling were employed to elucidate heavy-oil production mechanisms that provide the technical foundations for producing efficiently the abundant, discovered heavy-oil resources of the U.S. that are not accessible with current technology and recovery techniques. Work fell into two task areas: cold production of heavy oils and thermal recovery. Despite the emerging critical importance of the waterflooding of viscous oil in cold environments, work in this area was never sanctioned under this project. It is envisioned that heavy oil production is impacted by development of an understanding of the reservoir and reservoir fluid conditions leading to so-called foamy oil behavior, i.e, heavy-oil solution gas drive. This understanding should allow primary, cold production of heavy and viscous oils to be optimized. Accordingly, we evaluated the oil-phase chemistry of crude oil samples from Venezuela that give effective production by the heavy-oil solution gas drive mechanism. Laboratory-scale experiments show that recovery correlates with asphaltene contents as well as the so-called acid number (AN) and base number (BN) of the

  2. The conceptual basis of mathematics in cardiology III: linear systems theory and integral transforms.

    PubMed

    Bates, Jason H T; Sobel, Burton E

    2003-05-01

    This is the third in a series of four articles developed for the readers of Coronary Artery Disease. Without language ideas cannot be articulated. What may not be so immediately obvious is that they cannot be formulated either. One of the essential languages of cardiology is mathematics. Unfortunately, medical education does not emphasize, and in fact, often neglects empowering physicians to think mathematically. Reference to statistics, conditional probability, multicompartmental modeling, algebra, calculus and transforms is common but often without provision of genuine conceptual understanding. At the University of Vermont College of Medicine, Professor Bates developed a course designed to address these deficiencies. The course covered mathematical principles pertinent to clinical cardiovascular and pulmonary medicine and research. It focused on fundamental concepts to facilitate formulation and grasp of ideas.This series of four articles was developed to make the material available for a wider audience. The articles will be published sequentially in Coronary Artery Disease. Beginning with fundamental axioms and basic algebraic manipulations they address algebra, function and graph theory, real and complex numbers, calculus and differential equations, mathematical modeling, linear system theory and integral transforms and statistical theory. The principles and concepts they address provide the foundation needed for in-depth study of any of these topics. Perhaps of even more importance, they should empower cardiologists and cardiovascular researchers to utilize the language of mathematics in assessing the phenomena of immediate pertinence to diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapeutics. The presentations are interposed with queries (by Coronary Artery Disease abbreviated as CAD) simulating the nature of interactions that occurred during the course itself. Each article concludes with one or more examples illustrating application of the concepts covered to

  3. Exogenous Gene Integration for Microalgal Cell Transformation Using a Nanowire-Incorporated Microdevice.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sunwoong; Park, Seunghye; Kim, Jung; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kwon, Donguk; Jin, EonSeon; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-12-16

    Superior green algal cells showing high lipid production and rapid growth rate are considered as an alternative for the next generation green energy resources. To achieve the biomass based energy generation, transformed microalgae with superlative properties should be developed through genetic engineering. Contrary to the normal cells, microalgae have rigid cell walls, so that target gene delivery into cells is challengeable. In this study, we report a ZnO nanowire-incorporated microdevice for a high throughput microalgal transformation. The proposed microdevice was equipped with not only a ZnO nanowire in the microchannel for gene delivery into cells but also a pneumatic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microvalve to modulate the cellular attachment and detachment from the nanowire. As a model, hygromycin B resistance gene cassette (Hyg3) was functionalized on the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires through a disulfide bond and released into green algal cells, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, by reductive cleavage. During Hyg3 gene delivery, a monolithic PDMS membrane was bent down, so that algal cells were pushed down toward ZnO nanowires. The supply of vacuum in the pneumatic line made the PDMS membrane bend up, enabling the gene delivered algal cells to be recovered from the outlet of the microchannel. We successfully confirmed Hyg3 gene integrated in microalgae by amplifying the inserted gene through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The efficiency of the gene delivery to algal cells using the ZnO nanowire-incorporated microdevice was 6.52 × 10(4)- and 9.66 × 10(4)-fold higher than that of a traditional glass bead beating and electroporation.

  4. Simultaneous Orthogonal Drug Detection Using Fully Integrated Gas Chromatography with Fourier Transform Infrared Detection and Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    PubMed

    Lanzarotta, Adam; Falconer, Travis; McCauley, Heather; Lorenz, Lisa; Albright, Douglas; Crowe, John; Batson, JaCinta

    2017-05-01

    Analytes that co-elute and yield nearly identical electron ionization (EI) mass spectra, as well as analytes that yield non-specific EI fragmentation patterns, have been identified using fully integrated gas chromatography with direct deposit Fourier transform infrared detection and mass spectrometric detection (GC/FT-IR/MS). While the IR detector proved to be more selective for identifying analytes such as synthetic cannabinoids and weight loss drugs, it was limited by a relatively high detection limit of 8.4 parts per million (ppm) for non-targeted identification of sibutramine based on a single injection but was reduced to 840  parts per billion (ppb) for targeted identification of sibutramine by redepositing ten injections along the same track. The MS detector was less selective for identifying these analytes but yielded non-targeted and targeted detection limits of approximately 84 ppb and 8.4 ppb, respectively, which corresponded to a 100-fold advantage compared to the IR detector. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that the advantages of each detector compensate for the limitations of the other, which allows a wider range of analytes and concentrations to be examined using a fully integrated GC/FT-IR/MS instrument compared to what can be examined using GC/IR or GC/MS independently. Not only does this approach reduce consumption of laboratory resources and time, it provides IR and MS information on the same sample, which is important for forensic analyses that require data from two or more orthogonal techniques to make an identification.

  5. PLANE-INTEGRATED OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY METHODOLOGY FOR ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOON EMISSION MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of ammonia and methane from an anaerobic lagoon at a swine animal feeding operation were evaluated five times over a period of two years. The plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) methodology was used to transect the plume at ...

  6. Leading Education Reform Initiatives: How SWIFT (Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation) Coordinates and Enhances Impact. Issue Brief #2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Mary; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barbara; East, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In this Issue Brief we discuss the impact that the Schoolwide Integrated Framework for Transformation (SWIFT) has on improving the outcomes of several current federal, state, district, and school education reform initiatives. Federal initiatives include Race to the Top, School Improvement Grants, and Campaign for Grade-Level Reading; Common Core…

  7. PLANE-INTEGRATED OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROMETRY METHODOLOGY FOR ANAEROBIC SWINE LAGOON EMISSION MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of ammonia and methane from an anaerobic lagoon at a swine animal feeding operation were evaluated five times over a period of two years. The plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) methodology was used to transect the plume at ...

  8. Linear and nonlinear generalized Fourier transforms.

    PubMed

    Pelloni, Beatrice

    2006-12-15

    This article presents an overview of a transform method for solving linear and integrable nonlinear partial differential equations. This new transform method, proposed by Fokas, yields a generalization and unification of various fundamental mathematical techniques and, in particular, it yields an extension of the Fourier transform method.

  9. Some results on the integral transforms and applications to differential equations

    SciTech Connect

    Eltayeb, Hassan; Kilicman, Adem

    2010-11-11

    In this paper we give some remark about the relationship between Sumudu and Laplace transforms, further; for the comparison purpose, we apply both transforms to solve partial differential equations to see the differences and similarities.

  10. Multi-system report integration using blackboards. [for data integration by AI techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Blackboards are an Al problem solving methodology. A blackboard system consists of a structured data base (the blackboard) holding input and derived inferences and a collection of procedures for deriving inferences (knowledge sources). Each knowledge source is specialized to operate on some portion of the blackboard. The knowledge sources are invoked opportunistically as the information on the blackboard increases. The methodology is well suited to integrating multiple streams of fully reduced and qualitatively different data such as active radar track reports, passive electronic intelligence reports, and human intelligence reports about enemy intentions. This paper sketches the nature of the blackboard problem solving methodology with an emphasis on those features suiting it to such applications. The sketch is illustrated with examples from a relatively simple multi-system report integration problem. Relevant applications currently under development at Stanford's Knowledge Systems Laboratory are also described.

  11. Applications of integrated human error identification techniques on the chemical cylinder change task.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Min; Hwang, Sheue-Ling

    2015-03-01

    This paper outlines the human error identification (HEI) techniques that currently exist to assess latent human errors. Many formal error identification techniques have existed for years, but few have been validated to cover latent human error analysis in different domains. This study considers many possible error modes and influential factors, including external error modes, internal error modes, psychological error mechanisms, and performance shaping factors, and integrates several execution procedures and frameworks of HEI techniques. The case study in this research was the operational process of changing chemical cylinders in a factory. In addition, the integrated HEI method was used to assess the operational processes and the system's reliability. It was concluded that the integrated method is a valuable aid to develop much safer operational processes and can be used to predict human error rates on critical tasks in the plant.

  12. Morphological and lithological transformation records of the Lake Czechowskie basin on the basis of paleogeography and GIS techniques analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Tyszkowski, S.; Kordowski, J.

    2014-12-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is a calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Below a certain depth there is no wave induced mixing and temperature is constant, which causes water stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is located within the limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation in the Central European Lowland (northern Poland - 53°52"N 18°14"E) in a deep kettle-hole type. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. At that time water level was 2 m higher than in the modern times. Following climate changes initiated the natural processes of the lake basin transformation. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin is the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and wind velocity, fluctuations of the water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of the erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of calm sedimentation revealing

  13. Robust volume assessment of brain tissues for 3-dimensional fourier transformation MRI via a novel multispectral technique.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jyh-Wen; Chen, Clayton C; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Hung-Chieh; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hsian-Min; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Ouyang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, San-Kan

    2015-01-01

    A new TRIO algorithm method integrating three different algorithms is proposed to perform brain MRI segmentation in the native coordinate space, with no need of transformation to a standard coordinate space or the probability maps for segmentation. The method is a simple voxel-based algorithm, derived from multispectral remote sensing techniques, and only requires minimal operator input to depict GM, WM, and CSF tissue clusters to complete classification of a 3D high-resolution multislice-multispectral MRI data. Results showed very high accuracy and reproducibility in classification of GM, WM, and CSF in multislice-multispectral synthetic MRI data. The similarity indexes, expressing overlap between classification results and the ground truth, were 0.951, 0.962, and 0.956 for GM, WM, and CSF classifications in the image data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity. The method particularly allows for classification of CSF with 0.994, 0.961 and 0.996 of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in images data with 3% noise level and 0% non-uniformity intensity, which had seldom performed well in previous studies. As for clinical MRI data, the quantitative data of brain tissue volumes aligned closely with the brain morphometrics in three different study groups of young adults, elderly volunteers, and dementia patients. The results also showed very low rates of the intra- and extra-operator variability in measurements of the absolute volumes and volume fractions of cerebral GM, WM, and CSF in three different study groups. The mean coefficients of variation of GM, WM, and CSF volume measurements were in the range of 0.03% to 0.30% of intra-operator measurements and 0.06% to 0.45% of inter-operator measurements. In conclusion, the TRIO algorithm exhibits a remarkable ability in robust classification of multislice-multispectral brain MR images, which would be potentially applicable for clinical brain volumetric analysis and explicitly promising in cross

  14. a Highly-Integrated Supersonic-Jet Fourier Transform Microwave Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Qian; Feng, Gang; Grabow, Jens-Uwe

    2017-06-01

    A highly integrated supersonic-jet Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer of coaxially oriented beam-resonator arrangement (COBRA) type, covering 2-20GHz, has been recently built at Chongqing University, China. Built up almost entirely in an NI PXIe chassis, we take the advantage of the NI PXIe-5451 Dual-channel arbitrary waveform generator and the PXIe-5654 RF signal generator to create a spectrometer with wobbling capacity for fast resonator tuning. Based on the I/Q modulation, associate with PXI control and sequence boards built at the Leibniz Universitat Hannover, the design of the spectrometer is much simpler and very compact. The Fabry-Pérot resonator is semi-confocal with a spherical reflector of 630 mm diameter and a radius of 900 mm curvature and one circulator plate reflector of 630 mm diameter. The vacuum is effectuated by a three-stage mechanical (two-stage rotary vane and roots booster) pump at the fore line of a DN630 ISO-F 20000 L/s oil-diffusion pump. The supersonic-jet expansion is pulsed by a general valve Series 9 solenoid valve which is controlled by a general valve IOTA one driver governed by the experiment-sequence generation. First molecular examples to illustrate the performance of the new setup will include OCS and CF_3CHFCl.

  15. Transforming Healthcare Delivery: Integrating Dynamic Simulation Modelling and Big Data in Health Economics and Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Deborah A; Burgos-Liz, Lina; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Padula, William V; IJzerman, Maarten J; Wong, Peter K; Higashi, Mitchell K; Engbers, Jordan; Wiebe, Samuel; Crown, William; Osgood, Nathaniel D

    2016-02-01

    In the era of the Information Age and personalized medicine, healthcare delivery systems need to be efficient and patient-centred. The health system must be responsive to individual patient choices and preferences about their care, while considering the system consequences. While dynamic simulation modelling (DSM) and big data share characteristics, they present distinct and complementary value in healthcare. Big data and DSM are synergistic-big data offer support to enhance the application of dynamic models, but DSM also can greatly enhance the value conferred by big data. Big data can inform patient-centred care with its high velocity, volume, and variety (the three Vs) over traditional data analytics; however, big data are not sufficient to extract meaningful insights to inform approaches to improve healthcare delivery. DSM can serve as a natural bridge between the wealth of evidence offered by big data and informed decision making as a means of faster, deeper, more consistent learning from that evidence. We discuss the synergies between big data and DSM, practical considerations and challenges, and how integrating big data and DSM can be useful to decision makers to address complex, systemic health economics and outcomes questions and to transform healthcare delivery.

  16. Benchmarking techniques for evaluation of compression transform performance in ATR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalz, Mark S.

    2004-10-01

    Image compression is increasingly employed in applications such as medical imaging, for reducing data storage requirement, and Internet video transmission, to effectively increase channel bandwidth. Similarly, military applications such as automated target recognition (ATR) often employ compression to achieve storage and communication efficiencies, particularly to enhance the effective bandwidth of communication channels whose throughput suffers, for example, from overhead due to error correction/detection or encryption. In the majority of cases, lossy compression is employed due the resultant low bit rates (high compression ratio). However, lossy compression produces artifacts in decompressed imagery that can confound ATR processes applied to such imagery, thereby reducing the probability of detection (Pd) and possibly increasing the rate or number of false alarms (Rfa or Nfa). In this paper, the authors' previous research in performance measurement of compression transforms is extended to include (a) benchmarking algorithms and software tools, (b) a suite of error exemplars that are designed to elicit compression transform behavior in an operationally relevant context, and (c) a posteriori analysis of performance data. The following transforms are applied to a suite of 64 error exemplars: Visual Pattern Image Coding (VPIC [1]), Vector Quantization with a fast codebook search algorithm (VQ [2,3]), JPEG and a preliminary implementation of JPEG 2000 [4,5], and EBLAST [6-8]. Compression ratios range from 2:1 to 200:1, and various noise levels and types are added to the error exemplars to produce a database of 7,680 synthetic test images. Several global and local (e.g., featural) distortion measures are applied to the decompressed test imagery to provide a basis for rate-distortion and rate-performance analysis as a function of noise and compression transform type.

  17. Simultaneous and integrated neutron-based techniques for material analysis of a metallic ancient flute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festa, G.; Pietropaolo, A.; Grazzi, F.; Sutton, L. F.; Scherillo, A.; Bognetti, L.; Bini, A.; Barzagli, E.; Schooneveld, E.; Andreani, C.

    2013-09-01

    A metallic 19th century flute was studied by means of integrated and simultaneous neutron-based techniques: neutron diffraction, neutron radiative capture analysis and neutron radiography. This experiment follows benchmark measurements devoted to assessing the effectiveness of a multitask beamline concept for neutron-based investigation on materials. The aim of this study is to show the potential application of the approach using multiple and integrated neutron-based techniques for musical instruments. Such samples, in the broad scenario of cultural heritage, represent an exciting research field. They may represent an interesting link between different disciplines such as nuclear physics, metallurgy and acoustics.

  18. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, J. N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R.; Haaland, D. M.

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed.

  19. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. ); Haaland, D.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  20. A two-stage time-integration technique with Runge-Kutta methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Chuong T.; Chau, Khanh N.; Kuhl, Detlef

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an implementation of the two-stage time-integration technique for solving semi-discrete systems of elastodynamics problems. This numerical approach effectively suppress the spurious high-frequency oscillations without affecting the accuracy of low modes, especially for long-term integration. At the stage of basic computations zero-dissipative Runge-Kutta methods are applied which yield no error accumulation due to numerical dissipation in the obtained solutions. Then for the suppression of spurious high-frequency oscillations, the filtering stage including pre- or/and post-processing are proceeded by using time integration methods with large numerical dissipation. Therein, the minimum necessary amount of numerical dissipation for filtering the spurious oscillations are determined by using a calibration procedure in which the amplitudes of spurious oscillations occurring the solution profile are minimized by varying stepsizes. The two-stage time integration technique is implemented to one- and two-dimensional wave propagation problems by employing both IsoGeometric Analysis (IGA) and standard Finite Element Method (FEM) for spatial discretization. We observe that the presented time technique achieve high accuracy for long-term integration solutions compared to the other existing time integration methods.

  1. Is the Filinov integral conditioning technique useful in semiclassical initial value representation methods?

    SciTech Connect

    Spanner, Michael; Batista, Victor S.; Brumer, Paul

    2005-02-22

    The utility of the Filinov integral conditioning technique, as implemented in semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) methods, is analyzed for a number of regular and chaotic systems. For nonchaotic systems of low dimensionality, the Filinov technique is found to be quite ineffective at accelerating convergence of semiclassical calculations since, contrary to the conventional wisdom, the semiclassical integrands usually do not exhibit significant phase oscillations in regions of large integrand amplitude. In the case of chaotic dynamics, it is found that the regular component is accurately represented by the SC-IVR, even when using the Filinov integral conditioning technique, but that quantum manifestations of chaotic behavior was easily overdamped by the filtering technique. Finally, it is shown that the level of approximation introduced by the Filinov filter is, in general, comparable to the simpler ad hoc truncation procedure introduced by Kay [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 2250 (1994)].

  2. Is the Filinov integral conditioning technique useful in semiclassical initial value representation methods?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, Michael; Batista, Victor S.; Brumer, Paul

    2005-02-01

    The utility of the Filinov integral conditioning technique, as implemented in semiclassical initial value representation (SC-IVR) methods, is analyzed for a number of regular and chaotic systems. For nonchaotic systems of low dimensionality, the Filinov technique is found to be quite ineffective at accelerating convergence of semiclassical calculations since, contrary to the conventional wisdom, the semiclassical integrands usually do not exhibit significant phase oscillations in regions of large integrand amplitude. In the case of chaotic dynamics, it is found that the regular component is accurately represented by the SC-IVR, even when using the Filinov integral conditioning technique, but that quantum manifestations of chaotic behavior was easily overdamped by the filtering technique. Finally, it is shown that the level of approximation introduced by the Filinov filter is, in general, comparable to the simpler ad hoc truncation procedure introduced by Kay [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 2250 (1994)].

  3. Technique for gray-scale visual light and infrared image fusion based on non-subsampled shearlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    A novel image fusion technique based on NSST (non-subsampled shearlet transform) is presented, aiming at resolving the fusion problem of spatially gray-scale visual light and infrared images. NSST, as a new member of MGA (multi-scale geometric analysis) tools, possesses not only flexible direction features and optimal shift-invariance, but much better fusion performance and lower computational costs compared with several current popular MGA tools such as NSCT (non-subsampled contourlet transform). We specifically propose new rules for the fusion of low and high frequency sub-band coefficients of source images in the second step of the NSST-based image fusion algorithm. First, the source images are decomposed into different scales and directions using NSST. Then, the model of region average energy (RAE) is proposed and adopted to fuse the low frequency sub-band coefficients of the gray-scale visual light and infrared images. Third, the model of local directional contrast (LDC) is given and utilized to fuse the corresponding high frequency sub-band coefficients. Finally, the final fused image is obtained by using inverse NSST to all fused sub-images. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique, several current popular ones are compared over three different publicly available image sets using four evaluation metrics, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique performs better in both subjective and objective qualities.

  4. High security and robust optical image encryption approach based on computer-generated integral imaging pickup and iterative back-projection techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Cho, Sung Jin; Kim, Seok Tae

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a novel optical image encryption algorithm by combining the use of computer-generated integral imaging (CGII) pickup technique and iterative back-projection (IBP) technique is proposed. In this scheme, a color image to be encrypted which is firstly segregated into three channels: red, green, and blue. Each of these three channels is independently captured by using a virtual pinhole array and be computationally transformed as a sub-image array. Then, each of these three sub-image arrays are scrambled by the Fibonacci transformation (FT) algorithm, respectively. These three scrambled sub-image arrays are encrypted by the hybrid cellular automata (HCA), respectively. Ultimately, these three encrypted images are combined to produce the colored encrypted image. In the reconstruction process, because the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) is a pixel-overlapping reconstruction technique, the interference of the adjacent pixels will decrease the quality of the reconstructed image. To address this problem, we introduce an image super-resolution reconstruction technique, the image can be computationally reconstructed by the IBP technique. Some numerical simulations are made to test the validity and the capability of the proposed image encryption algorithm.

  5. Repair-dependent cell radiation survival and transformation: an integrated theory.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, John C

    2014-09-07

    The repair-dependent model of cell radiation survival is extended to include radiation-induced transformations. The probability of transformation is presumed to scale with the number of potentially lethal damages that are repaired in a surviving cell or the interactions of such damages. The theory predicts that at doses corresponding to high survival, the transformation frequency is the sum of simple polynomial functions of dose; linear, quadratic, etc, essentially as described in widely used linear-quadratic expressions. At high doses, corresponding to low survival, the ratio of transformed to surviving cells asymptotically approaches an upper limit. The low dose fundamental- and high dose plateau domains are separated by a downwardly concave transition region. Published transformation data for mammalian cells show the high-dose plateaus predicted by the repair-dependent model for both ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. For the neoplastic transformation experiments that were analyzed, the data can be fit with only the repair-dependent quadratic function. At low doses, the transformation frequency is strictly quadratic, but becomes sigmodial over a wider range of doses. Inclusion of data from the transition region in a traditional linear-quadratic analysis of neoplastic transformation frequency data can exaggerate the magnitude of, or create the appearance of, a linear component. Quantitative analysis of survival and transformation data shows good agreement for ultraviolet radiation; the shapes of the transformation components can be predicted from survival data. For ionizing radiations, both neutrons and x-rays, survival data overestimate the transforming ability for low to moderate doses. The presumed cause of this difference is that, unlike UV photons, a single x-ray or neutron may generate more than one lethal damage in a cell, so the distribution of such damages in the population is not accurately described by Poisson statistics. However, the complete

  6. Phase controlled integrated interferometric single-sideband filter based on planar Bragg gratings implementing photonic Hilbert transform.

    PubMed

    Sima, Chaotan; Gates, J C; Rogers, H L; Mennea, P L; Holmes, C; Zervas, M N; Smith, P G R

    2013-03-01

    The monolithically integrated all-optical single-sideband (SSB) filter based on photonic Hilbert transform and planar Bragg gratings is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. An SSB suppression of 12 dB at 6 GHz and sideband switching are achieved via thermal tuning. An X-coupler, photonic Hilbert transformer, flat top reflector, and a micro heater are incorporated in a single silicon-on-silica substrate. The device can be thermally tuned by the micro heater on top of the channel waveguide. The device is fabricated using a combination of direct UV grating writing technology and photolithography.

  7. Feature extraction and classification for EEG signals using wavelet transform and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Badruddin, Nasreen; Kamel, Nidal; Hussain, Muhammad; Chooi, Weng-Tink

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a discrete wavelet transform-based feature extraction scheme for the classification of EEG signals. In this scheme, the discrete wavelet transform is applied on EEG signals and the relative wavelet energy is calculated in terms of detailed coefficients and the approximation coefficients of the last decomposition level. The extracted relative wavelet energy features are passed to classifiers for the classification purpose. The EEG dataset employed for the validation of the proposed method consisted of two classes: (1) the EEG signals recorded during the complex cognitive task--Raven's advance progressive metric test and (2) the EEG signals recorded in rest condition--eyes open. The performance of four different classifiers was evaluated with four performance measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision values. The accuracy was achieved above 98 % by the support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and the K-nearest neighbor classifiers with approximation (A4) and detailed coefficients (D4), which represent the frequency range of 0.53-3.06 and 3.06-6.12 Hz, respectively. The findings of this study demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction approach has the potential to classify the EEG signals recorded during a complex cognitive task by achieving a high accuracy rate.

  8. Study of phase transformations during hydration of rho alumina by combined loss on ignition and X-ray diffraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidya, S. D.; Thakkar, N. V.

    2001-04-01

    Composition of hydrated amorphous phase and crystalline phases developed during hydration of rho alumina were estimated by combined loss on ignition and X-ray diffraction technique. The pure boehmite phase required for calibration was generated in situ by a new method of accelerated hydrothermal ageing of rho alumina in caustic soda solution under microwave heating. Transformation of gibbsite phase to bayerite phase observed during rho alumina hydration, was evaluated. Hydration of rho alumina in compact state carried out under water vapour yielded less crystallised but more hydrated product compared to the hydration carried out by soaking in water. This phenomenon demonstrated the mode of crystal growth under space constraint.

  9. A passive technique for detecting copy-move forgery with rotation based on polar complex exponential transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Mahmoud; Han, Qi; Yu, Liyang; Zhang, Ye; Niu, Xiamu

    2015-07-01

    Copy-move is one of the most common methods for image manipulation. Several methods have been proposed to detect and locate the tampered regions, while many methods failed when the copied regions are rotated before being pasted. A rotational invariant detecting method using Polar Complex Exponential Transform (PCET) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the original image is divided into overlapping circular blocks, and PCET is employed to each block to extract the rotation-invariant robust features. Secondly, the Approximate Nearest Neighbors (ANN) of each feature vector are collected by Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH). Experimental results show that the proposed technique is robust to rotation.

  10. Spherical integral transforms of second-order gravitational tensor components onto third-order gravitational tensor components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šprlák, Michal; Novák, Pavel

    2017-02-01

    New spherical integral formulas between components of the second- and third-order gravitational tensors are formulated in this article. First, we review the nomenclature and basic properties of the second- and third-order gravitational tensors. Initial points of mathematical derivations, i.e., the second- and third-order differential operators defined in the spherical local North-oriented reference frame and the analytical solutions of the gradiometric boundary-value problem, are also summarized. Secondly, we apply the third-order differential operators to the analytical solutions of the gradiometric boundary-value problem which gives 30 new integral formulas transforming (1) vertical-vertical, (2) vertical-horizontal and (3) horizontal-horizontal second-order gravitational tensor components onto their third-order counterparts. Using spherical polar coordinates related sub-integral kernels can efficiently be decomposed into azimuthal and isotropic parts. Both spectral and closed forms of the isotropic kernels are provided and their limits are investigated. Thirdly, numerical experiments are performed to test the consistency of the new integral transforms and to investigate properties of the sub-integral kernels. The new mathematical apparatus is valid for any harmonic potential field and may be exploited, e.g., when gravitational/magnetic second- and third-order tensor components become available in the future. The new integral formulas also extend the well-known Meissl diagram and enrich the theoretical apparatus of geodesy.

  11. Integrating Fundamental Principles Underlying Somatic Practices into the Dance Technique Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Julie; Lobel, Elin

    2004-01-01

    Integrating somatic practices into the dance technique class by bringing awareness to the bodily processes of breathing, sensing, connecting, and initiating can help students reconnect the mind with the body within the context of the classroom environment. Dance educators do not always have the resources to implement separate somatics courses…

  12. Imitation of Gestures Technique: A Preliminary Report on a Preschool Test of Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manni, John L.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    To determine the validity of the Imitation of Gestures Technique as a measure of visual motor functioning, the performance of 295 preschoolers on the test was correlated with age and scores from the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. (Author/CL)

  13. On preconditioning techniques for dense linear systems arising from singular boundary integral equations

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ke

    1996-12-31

    We study various preconditioning techniques for the iterative solution of boundary integral equations, and aim to provide a theory for a class of sparse preconditioners. Two related ideas are explored here: singularity separation and inverse approximation. Our preliminary conclusion is that singularity separation based preconditioners perform better than approximate inverse based while it is desirable to have both features.

  14. Study on adaptive thresholding technique of image denoising based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi'an; Xie, Xiao

    2010-12-01

    It is studied in the paper that an adaptive soft and hard thresholding image denoising method, in which image pyramid decomposing is realized by wavelet transform, and the mean value, mid-value and root mean square value of different sub bands are calculated as thresholding. The image is added into different kinds and different intensities noise, and processed by different wavelet decomposing levels and thresholding selected algorithms, the total 27 kinds of thresholding combination schemes are completed in the research process. The SNR (signal noise ratio) and PSNR (peak signal noise ratio) of denoised image are compared and analyzed and benefited results are achieved. Furthermore, the algorithm in reference is realized by MATLAB program, the results of reference are compared with that of the paper to demonstrate the significance and correctness of the results in the paper.

  15. Study on adaptive thresholding technique of image denoising based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xi'an; Xie, Xiao

    2011-05-01

    It is studied in the paper that an adaptive soft and hard thresholding image denoising method, in which image pyramid decomposing is realized by wavelet transform, and the mean value, mid-value and root mean square value of different sub bands are calculated as thresholding. The image is added into different kinds and different intensities noise, and processed by different wavelet decomposing levels and thresholding selected algorithms, the total 27 kinds of thresholding combination schemes are completed in the research process. The SNR (signal noise ratio) and PSNR (peak signal noise ratio) of denoised image are compared and analyzed and benefited results are achieved. Furthermore, the algorithm in reference is realized by MATLAB program, the results of reference are compared with that of the paper to demonstrate the significance and correctness of the results in the paper.

  16. Transformation of nitrogen dioxide into ozone and prediction of ozone concentrations using multiple linear regression techniques.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Nurul Adyani; Ramli, Nor Azam; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri; Yusof, Noor Faizah Fitri M D; Sansuddin, Nurulilyana; Al Madhoun, Wesam Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Analysis and forecasting of air quality parameters are important topics of atmospheric and environmental research today due to the health impact caused by air pollution. This study examines transformation of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) into ozone (O(3)) at urban environment using time series plot. Data on the concentration of environmental pollutants and meteorological variables were employed to predict the concentration of O(3) in the atmosphere. Possibility of employing multiple linear regression models as a tool for prediction of O(3) concentration was tested. Results indicated that the presence of NO(2) and sunshine influence the concentration of O(3) in Malaysia. The influence of the previous hour ozone on the next hour concentrations was also demonstrated.

  17. Tracking within Hadronic Showers in the CALICE SDHCAL prototype using a Hough Transform Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z.; Li, Y.; Wang, Y.; Yue, Q.; Yang, Z.; Boumediene, D.; Carloganu, C.; Français, V.; Cho, G.; Kim, D.-W.; Lee, S. C.; Liu, Z.; Park, W.; Vallecorsa, S.; Cauwenbergh, S.; Tytgat, M.; Pingault, A.; Zaganidis, N.; Bach, O.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Hartbrich, O.; Irles, A.; Kotera, K.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lu, S.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Sudo, Y.; Tran, H. L.; Hirai, H.; Kawagoe, K.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Buridon, V.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Eté, R.; Garillot, G.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Kurca, T.; Laktineh, I.; Li, B.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Navarrete, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Corriveau, F.; Chadeeva, M.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Graf, C.; Israeli, Y.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Windel, H.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Pöschl, R.; Thiebault, A.; Richard, F.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cornat, R.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Ruan, M.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Cvach, J.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Polak, I.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Zuklin, J.

    2017-05-01

    The high granularity of the CALICE Semi-Digital Hadronic CALorimeter (SDHCAL) provides the capability to reveal the track segments present in hadronic showers. These segments are then used as a tool to probe the behaviour of the active layers in situ, to better reconstruct the energy of these hadronic showers and also to distinguish them from electromagnetic ones. In addition, the comparison of these track segments in data and the simulation helps to discriminate among the different shower models used in the simulation. To extract the track segments in the showers recorded in the SDHCAL, a Hough Transform is used after being adapted to the presence of the dense core of the hadronic showers and the SDHCAL active medium structure.

  18. Nanowire humidity optical sensor system based on fast Fourier transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota-Rodrigo, S.; Pérez-Herrera, R.; Lopez-Aldaba, A.; López Bautista, M. C.; Esteban, O.; López-Amo, M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a new sensor system for relative humidity measurements based on its interaction with the evanescent field of a nanowire is presented. The interrogation of the sensing head is carried out by monitoring the fast Fourier transform phase variations of one of the nanowire interference frequencies. This method is independent of the signal amplitude and also avoids the necessity of tracking the wavelength evolution in the spectrum, which can be a handicap when there are multiple interference frequency components with different sensitivities. The sensor is operated within a wide humidity range (20%-70% relative humidity) with a maximum sensitivity achieved of 0.14rad/% relative humidity. Finally, due to the system uses an optical interrogator as unique active element, the system presents a cost-effective feature.

  19. A new multi-step technique with differential transform method for analytical solution of some nonlinear variable delay differential equations.

    PubMed

    Benhammouda, Brahim; Vazquez-Leal, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an analytical solution of some nonlinear delay differential equations (DDEs) with variable delays. Such DDEs are difficult to treat numerically and cannot be solved by existing general purpose codes. A new method of steps combined with the differential transform method (DTM) is proposed as a powerful tool to solve these DDEs. This method reduces the DDEs to ordinary differential equations that are then solved by the DTM. Furthermore, we show that the solutions can be improved by Laplace-Padé resummation method. Two examples are presented to show the efficiency of the proposed technique. The main advantage of this technique is that it possesses a simple procedure based on a few straight forward steps and can be combined with any analytical method, other than the DTM, like the homotopy perturbation method.

  20. Initial perturbations based on the ensemble transform (ET) technique in the NCEP global operational forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Mozheng; Toth, Zoltan; Wobus, Richard; Zhu, Yuejian

    2008-01-01

    Since modern data assimilation (DA) involves the repetitive use of dynamical forecasts, errors in analyses share characteristics of those in short-range forecasts. Initial conditions for an ensemble prediction/forecast system (EPS or EFS) are expected to sample uncertainty in the analysis field. Ensemble forecasts with such initial conditions can therefore (a) be fed back to DA to reduce analysis uncertainty, as well as (b) sample forecast uncertainty related to initial conditions. Optimum performance of both DA and EFS requires a careful choice of initial ensemble perturbations. DA can be improved with an EFS that represents the dynamically conditioned part of forecast error covariance as accurately as possible, while an EFS can be improved by initial perturbations reflecting analysis error variance. Initial perturbation generation schemes that dynamically cycle ensemble perturbations reminiscent to how forecast errors are cycled in DA schemes may offer consistency between DA and EFS, and good performance for both. In this paper, we introduce an EFS based on the initial perturbations that are generated by the Ensemble Transform (ET) and ET with rescaling (ETR) methods to achieve this goal. Both ET and ETR are generalizations of the breeding method (BM). The results from ensemble systems based on BM, ET, ETR and the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF) method are experimentally compared in the context of ensemble forecast performance. Initial perturbations are centred around a 3D-VAR analysis, with a variance equal to that of estimated analysis errors. Of the four methods, the ETR method performed best in most probabilistic scores and in terms of the forecast error explained by the perturbations. All methods display very high time consistency between the analysis and forecast perturbations. It is expected that DA performance can be improved by the use of forecast error covariance from a dynamically cycled ensemble either with a variational DA approach (coupled

  1. Prefabricated vascularized bone flap: a tissue transformation technique for bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Alam, M I; Asahina, I; Seto, I; Oda, M; Enomoto, S

    2001-09-15

    In this study, an attempt was made to transform a muscle vascularized pedicle raised on host vessels into a vascularized bone flap, using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). The purpose of this study was to produce new bone vascularized in nature to increase the survival rate of the subsequently grafted bone and to fabricate the newly formed bone into the desired shape. Silicone molds in the shape of a rat mandible were used to deliver rat bone matrix impregnated with or without rhBMP-2. A muscle pedicle the same size as the mold was raised on the saphenous vessels in the rat thigh and then sandwiched in the center of the silicone molds. The molds were sliced in half and each section was filled with rat bone matrix that was impregnated either with 25 microg of rhBMP-2 for the experimental group or with diluting material alone for the control group. The sandwiched flaps were then secured by tying them to the adjacent muscles and were harvested at 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Three and six rats were used in the control and experimental groups at each time point, respectively. Bone formation was assessed in the ex vivo specimens by macroscopic, radiologic, and histologic evaluation. Macroscopically, the continuation of the vascular pedicle was clearly visible for both the control and experimental muscle flaps. However, no evidence of muscle-tissue transformation was observed in the control flaps, whereas all the flaps treated with rhBMP-2 produced new bone that replicated the shape of the mold exactly and had saphenous vessels supplying the newly formed bone. This study demonstrates that this experimental model has the potential to be therapeutically applied for effective bone reconstruction.

  2. Detection and evaluation of droplet and bubble fringe patterns in images of planar interferometric measurement techniques using the wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Zarogoulidis, K.

    2014-08-01

    The acquired images of interferometric particle sizing techniques are characterized by intense fringe pattern overlapping in dense droplet and bubble areas, which hinders the image processing process and subsequent information extraction. Methods employed, such as thresholding and the Hough transform and template cross-correlation, exhibit weaknesses when processing such dense areas of interest. We investigate the viability of applying the wavelet transform (WT) for the detection of the fringe pattern centers and the evaluation of the particle size. We present the basics of the WT using the Mexican hat, which exhibits excellent localization properties and present two different alternatives routes in detecting the fringe patterns in the compressed and uncompressed fringe pattern cases. We found that in comparison to the most reported methods for image evaluation, such as intensity thresholding and plain cross-correlation, the WT is a very efficient tool for detecting the patterns, even in images with high-number fringe pattern areas. The usage of the WT for the sizing of the imaged droplets and bubbles is also examined, in comparison to the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).

  3. Nucleases Encoded by Integrated Elements CJIE2 and CJIE4 Inhibit Natural Transformation of Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The species Campylobacter jejuni displays huge genetic diversity, and is naturally competent for DNA uptake. Nevertheless, not every strain is able to acquire foreign DNA since nonnaturally transformable strains do exist. Previously we showed that many nonnaturally transformable C. jejuni strains ex...

  4. Elucidation of structure and nature of the PdO-Pd transformation using in situ PDF and XAS techniques.

    PubMed

    Keating, Jonathan; Sankar, Gopinathan; Hyde, Timothy I; Kohara, Shinji; Ohara, Koji

    2013-06-14

    The PdO-Pd phase transformation in a 4 wt% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst has been investigated using in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and in situ X-ray total scattering (also known as high-energy X-ray diffraction) techniques. Both the partial and total pair distribution functions (PDF) from these respective techniques have been analysed in depth. New information from PDF analysis of total scattering data has been garnered using the differential PDF (d-PDF) approach where only correlations orginating from PdO and metallic Pd are extracted. This method circumvents problems encountered in characerising the catalytically active components due to the diffuse scattering from the disordered γ-Al2O3 support phase. Quantitative analysis of the palladium components within the catalyst allowed for the phase composition to be established at various temperatures. Above 850 °C it was found that PdO had converted to metallic Pd, however, the extent of reduction was of the order ca. 70% Pd metal and 30% PdO. Complementary in situ XANES and EXAFS were performed, with heating to high temperature and subsequent cooling in air, and the results of the analyses support the observations, that residual PdO is detected at elevated temperatures. Hysteresis in the transformation upon cooling is confirmed from XAS studies where reoxidation occurs below 680 °C.

  5. Advanced Techniques for In-Situ Monitoring of Phase Transformations During Welding Using Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J W; Palmer, T A; Zhang, W; DebRoy, T

    2005-06-05

    Understanding the evolution of microstructure in welds is an important goal of welding research because of the strong correlation between weld microstructure and weld properties. To achieve this goal it is important to develop a quantitative measure of phase transformations encountered during welding in order to ultimately develop methods for predicting weld microstructures from the characteristics of the welding process. To aid in this effort, synchrotron radiation methods have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for direct observation of microstructure evolution during welding. Using intense, highly collimated synchrotron radiation, the atomic structure of the weld heat affected and fusion zones can be probed in real time. Two synchrotron-based techniques, known as spatially resolved (SRXRD) and time resolved (TRXRD) x-ray diffraction, have been developed for these investigations. These techniques have now been used to investigate welding induced phase transformations in titanium alloys, low alloy steels, and stainless steel alloys. This paper will provide a brief overview of these methods and will discuss microstructural evolution during the welding of low carbon (AISI 1005) and medium carbon (AISI 1045) steels where the different levels of carbon influence the evolution of microstructures during welding.

  6. Diffuse-reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy: new technique of sample preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrebičík, M.; Budínová, G.; Godarská, T.; Vláčil, D.; Vogenseh, Stine B.; Volka, K.

    1997-06-01

    A new technique of measurement of the diffuse-reflectance infrared FT spectra, based on the preparation of a cylinder from the mixture of the sample and powdered KBr under pressure of about 5.85 MPa, has been tested. During the measurement, the axis of the formed cylinder is perpendicular to the direction of the incident light. A repeatability of the measurement of selected bands and also of the background was investigated for hydroquinone, nicotinamide, silica gel, rice, tea and also lyophilized human aqueous humour. The relative standard deviations of log( {1}/{R}) showed a dependence on the character of the measured compound, but in general were comparable or slightly better than those obtained by the standard method of loosely packed cups. The values were better than 1.5% in the most cases. The main advantage of the proposed technique lies in its simplicity and rapidity of obtaining statistically significant data.

  7. Transformation from student to occupational therapist: Using the Delphi technique to identify the threshold concepts of occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Nicola-Richmond, Kelli M; Pépin, Geneviève; Larkin, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding and facilitating the transformation from occupational therapy student to practitioner is central to the development of competent and work-ready graduates. However, the pivotal concepts and capabilities that need to be taught and learnt in occupational therapy are not necessarily explicit. The threshold concepts theory of teaching and learning proposes that every discipline has a set of transformational concepts that students must acquire in order to progress. As students acquire the threshold concepts, they develop a transformed way of understanding content related to their course of study which contributes to their developing expertise. The aim of this study was to identify the threshold concepts of occupational therapy. The Delphi technique, a data collection method that aims to demonstrate consensus in relation to important questions, was used with three groups comprising final year occupational therapy students (n = 11), occupational therapy clinicians (n = 21) and academics teaching occupational therapy (n = 10) in Victoria, Australia. Participants reached consensus regarding 10 threshold concepts for the occupational therapy discipline. These are: understanding and applying the models and theories of occupational therapy; occupation; evidence-based practice; clinical reasoning; discipline specific skills and knowledge; practising in context; a client-centred approach; the occupational therapist role; reflective practice and; a holistic approach. The threshold concepts identified provide valuable information for the discipline. They can potentially inform the development of competencies for occupational therapy and provide guidance for teaching and learning activities to facilitate the transformation to competent practitioner. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  8. Atmospheric Transmission Measurements Using IR Lasers, Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, and Gas-Filter Correlation Techniques,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    J. A. DOWLING , K. M. HAUGHT, R. F. HORTON, S. T. HANLEY, J. A. CURCIO, D. H. GARCIA, AND C. O. GOTT Optical Sciences Division and W. L. AGAMBAR...Spectroscopy, and Gas-Filter Correlation Techniques Personal Author: Dowling , JA.; Haught, K.M.; Horton, R.F; et al. Corporate Author Or Publisher: Naval... Dowling , K. M. Haught, R. F. Horton, S. T. Hanley, J. A. Curcio, D. H. Garcia, and C. 0. Gott Optical Sciences Division and W. L. Agambar

  9. Technology and geomorphology: Are improvements in data collection techniques transforming geomorphic science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viles, Heather

    2016-10-01

    In recent years technological developments have revolutionized our ability to collect data in geomorphology. Enhanced data collection not only enables us to provide deeper answers to a wider range of fundamental questions about the Earth's surface, but also encourages us to pose new questions. This paper considers in more detail the relationships between science, technology and the development of geomorphological tools and techniques, reviews the spectrum of tools and techniques now available to geomorphologists, and critically assesses what impact 'new technologies' are having on geomorphology. It focuses on the role of technology in biogeomorphology and weathering research, and how it is advancing theoretical, empirical and applied dimensions of these growing sub-fields of geomorphology. Five areas of important technological development are reviewed: remote sensing, dating, geophysical techniques, field and laboratory based analysis and sensing of physical and chemical characteristics, and field and laboratory based analysis of biological properties. There is good evidence that, taken together, technological developments are revolutionizing geomorphology through opening the doors to better cross-scalar investigations, blurring the boundaries between laboratory, field and computer model, and facilitating cross-disciplinary and democratized research.

  10. Large-scale symmetry-adapted perturbation theory computations via density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques: Investigating the fundamental forces of DNA-intercalator interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenstein, Edward G.; Parrish, Robert M.; Sherrill, C. David; Turney, Justin M.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2011-11-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) provides a means of probing the fundamental nature of intermolecular interactions. Low-orders of SAPT (here, SAPT0) are especially attractive since they provide qualitative (sometimes quantitative) results while remaining tractable for large systems. The application of density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques to SAPT0 can significantly reduce the expense associated with these computations and make even larger systems accessible. We present new factorizations of the SAPT0 equations with density-fitted two-electron integrals and the first application of Laplace transformations of energy denominators to SAPT. The improved scalability of the DF-SAPT0 implementation allows it to be applied to systems with more than 200 atoms and 2800 basis functions. The Laplace-transformed energy denominators are compared to analogous partial Cholesky decompositions of the energy denominator tensor. Application of our new DF-SAPT0 program to the intercalation of DNA by proflavine has allowed us to determine the nature of the proflavine-DNA interaction. Overall, the proflavine-DNA interaction contains important contributions from both electrostatics and dispersion. The energetics of the intercalator interaction are are dominated by the stacking interactions (two-thirds of the total), but contain important contributions from the intercalator-backbone interactions. It is hypothesized that the geometry of the complex will be determined by the interactions of the intercalator with the backbone, because by shifting toward one side of the backbone, the intercalator can form two long hydrogen-bonding type interactions. The long-range interactions between the intercalator and the next-nearest base pairs appear to be negligible, justifying the use of truncated DNA models in computational studies of intercalation interaction energies.

  11. Large-scale symmetry-adapted perturbation theory computations via density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques: investigating the fundamental forces of DNA-intercalator interactions.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, Edward G; Parrish, Robert M; Sherrill, C David; Turney, Justin M; Schaefer, Henry F

    2011-11-07

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) provides a means of probing the fundamental nature of intermolecular interactions. Low-orders of SAPT (here, SAPT0) are especially attractive since they provide qualitative (sometimes quantitative) results while remaining tractable for large systems. The application of density fitting and Laplace transformation techniques to SAPT0 can significantly reduce the expense associated with these computations and make even larger systems accessible. We present new factorizations of the SAPT0 equations with density-fitted two-electron integrals and the first application of Laplace transformations of energy denominators to SAPT. The improved scalability of the DF-SAPT0 implementation allows it to be applied to systems with more than 200 atoms and 2800 basis functions. The Laplace-transformed energy denominators are compared to analogous partial Cholesky decompositions of the energy denominator tensor. Application of our new DF-SAPT0 program to the intercalation of DNA by proflavine has allowed us to determine the nature of the proflavine-DNA interaction. Overall, the proflavine-DNA interaction contains important contributions from both electrostatics and dispersion. The energetics of the intercalator interaction are are dominated by the stacking interactions (two-thirds of the total), but contain important contributions from the intercalator-backbone interactions. It is hypothesized that the geometry of the complex will be determined by the interactions of the intercalator with the backbone, because by shifting toward one side of the backbone, the intercalator can form two long hydrogen-bonding type interactions. The long-range interactions between the intercalator and the next-nearest base pairs appear to be negligible, justifying the use of truncated DNA models in computational studies of intercalation interaction energies.

  12. Three-dimensional lattice of Bäcklund transformations of integrable cases of the Davey-Stewartson system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marikhin, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    We construct a three-dimensional octahedral lattice of Bäcklund transformations of integrable cases of the Davey-Stewartson system. At the lattice sites, we arrange functions, which, on one hand, are used to define the dynamical variables of the Davey-Stewartson system and, on the other hand, are connected by bilinear relations of the Hirota type. One of the lattice equations is a purely discrete six-point equation that coincides with the famous Hirota equation.

  13. Bäcklund transformation classification, integrability and exact solutions to the generalized Burgers'-KdV equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hanze; Xin, Xiangpeng; Wang, Zenggui; Liu, Xiqiang

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the Bäcklund transformations (BTs) of the nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs). Based on the homogeneous balance principle (HBP), the existence of the BT of the generalized Burgers'-KdV (B-KdV) equation is classified, then the BTs of the nonlinear equations are given. In general, the method can be used to construct BTs of the nonlinear evolution equations in polynomial form. Furthermore, the integrability and exact explicit solutions to the nonlinear equations are investigated.

  14. Application of the Coupled Finite Element-Combined Field Integral Equation Technique (FEICFIE) to the Radiation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamnejad, V.; Cwik, T.; Zuffada, C.

    1994-01-01

    A coupled finite element-combined field integral equation technique was originally developed for solving scattering problems involving inhomogeneous objects of arbitrary shape and large dimensions in wavelength.

  15. Damage Modes Recognition and Hilbert-Huang Transform Analyses of CFRP Laminates Utilizing Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WenQin, Han; Ying, Luo; AiJun, Gu; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2016-04-01

    Discrimination of acoustic emission (AE) signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials. To gain a deeper understanding of the initiation, growth and evolution of the different types of damage, four types of specimens for different lay-ups and orientations and three types of specimens for interlaminar toughness tests are subjected to tensile test along with acoustic emission monitoring. AE signals have been collected and post-processed, the statistical results show that the peak frequency of AE signal can distinguish various damage modes effectively. After a AE signal were decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method, it may separate and extract all damage modes included in this AE signal apart from damage mode corresponding to the peak frequency. Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) of AE signals can clearly illustrate the frequency distribution of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) components in time-scale in different damage stages, and can calculate accurate instantaneous frequency for damage modes recognition to help understanding the damage process.

  16. An efficient watermarking technique for satellite images using discrete cosine transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AL-Mansoori, Saeed

    2012-10-01

    Due to the significant progress in science and technology, the digital world became an interesting topic for many studies. "Data Security" is one of the main concepts related to the digital world especially in the field of remote sensing. Therefore, to deal with this matter the "Watermarking" concept was introduced. The idea of digital image watermarking is to embed the information within a signal (i.e. image, video, etc.), which cannot be easily extracted by a third party. This will generate a copyright protection and authentication for the owner(s). Emirates Institution for Advanced Science and Technology (EIAST) as an owner provides satellite images captured by DubaiSat-1 satellite to customers. The aim of this study is to implement a robust algorithm to hide EIAST logo within any delivered image in order to increase the data security and protect the ownership of DubaiSat-1 images. In addition, it is necessary to provide a high quality images to the end-user; nevertheless, adding any information (logo) to these images will affect its quality. Therefore, the model will be designed to keep the observable difference between the watermarked and original image at minimum. Moreover, the watermark should be difficult to remove or alter without the degradation of the host image. This study will be based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) to provide an excellent and highly robust protection in cases such as noise addition, cropping, rotation and JPEG compression attacks.

  17. Tomography of homogenized laser-induced plasma by Radon transform technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschlböck-Fuchs, S.; Demidov, A.; Gornushkin, I. B.; Schmid, T.; Rössler, R.; Huber, N.; Panne, U.; Pedarnig, J. D.

    2016-09-01

    Tomography of a laser-induced plasma in air is performed by inverse Radon transform of angle-resolved plasma images. Plasmas were induced by single laser pulses (SP), double pulses (DP) in collinear geometry, and by a combination of single laser pulses with pulsed arc discharges (SP-AD). Images of plasmas on metallurgical steel slags were taken at delay times suitable for calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS). Delays ranged from few microseconds for SP and DP up to tens of microseconds for SP-AD excitation. The white-light and the spectrally resolved emissivity ε(x,y,z) was reconstructed for the three plasma excitation schemes. The electron number density Ne(x,y,z) and plasma temperature Te(x,y,z) were determined from Mg and Mn emission lines in reconstructed spectra employing the Saha-Boltzmann plot method. The SP plasma revealed strongly inhomogeneous emissivity and plasma temperature. Re-excitation of plasma by a second laser pulse (DP) and by an arc discharge (SP-AD) homogenized the plasma and reduced the spatial variation of ε and Te. The homogenization of a plasma is a promising approach to increase the accuracy of calibration-free LIBS analysis of complex materials.

  18. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: A Potential Technique for Noninvasive Detection of Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gilany, Kambiz; Pouracil, Roudabeh Sadat Moazeni; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background The seminal plasma is an excellent source for noninvasive detection of spermatogenesis. The seminal plasma of normospermic and azoospermic men has been analyzed for detection of spermatogenesis. Methods Optical spectroscopy (Attenuated Total Reflectance-Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has been used to analyze the seminal plasma and the metabolome of seminal plasma for detection of spermatogenesis. Results The seminal plasma of normospermic and azoospermic men has been analyzed by ATR-IR. The results show that there is a pattern variation in the azoospermic men compared to normospermic men. However, the seminal plasma is too complex to show significant pattern variation. Therefore, the metabolome which is a subcomponent of the seminal plasma was analyzed. The seminal plasma metabolome of normospermic and azoospermic men has been analyzed by FT-IR. A significant pattern change was observed. The data combined with chemometrics analysis showed that significant changes are observed at metabolome level. Conclusion We suggest that FT-IR has the potential as a diagnostic tool instead of testicular biopsy. PMID:24523955

  19. Improved wear resistance by phase transformation of surface nanocrystalline 1090 steel prepared by sandblasting technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Rong; Fu, Licai; Zhou, Lingping

    2016-12-01

    A surface nanocrystalline 1090 steel has been fabricated by using sandblasting technique. The surface average grain size was about 78 nm. The high strain rate and strain in sandblasting were main reasons for surface nanocrystallization. The wear resistance of 1090 steel was considerably enhanced as grain size decreased. The microstructure and hardness of contact zones before and after wear tests have been examined by XRD, SEM and TEM. Except the higher hardness, the results demonstrated that parts of ferrite transferred to cementite and martensite. It was additional beneficial for improving the wear resistance of 1090 steel as the grain size decreased.

  20. Writing trace identification using ultraviolet Fourier-transform imaging spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Hang; Liao, Ningfang; Wu, Wenmin; Li, Yasheng; Cao, Bin

    2015-08-01

    Conventional identification methods of writing traces commonly utilize imaging or spectroscopic techniques which work in visible to near infrared range or short-wave infrared range. Yet they cannot be applied in identifying the erased writing traces. In this study, we perform a research in identification of erased writing traces applying an ultraviolet Fouriertransform imaging spectrometer. Experiments of classifying the reflected ultraviolet spectra of erasable pens are made. The resulting hyperspectral images demonstrate that the erased writing traces on printing paper can be clearly identified by this ultraviolet imaging spectrometer.

  1. Design techniques for modular integrated utility systems. [energy production and conversion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfer, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Features basic to the integrated utility system, such as solid waste incineration, heat recovery and usage, and water recycling/treatment, are compared in terms of cost, fuel conservation, and efficiency to conventional utility systems in the same mean-climatic area of Washington, D. C. The larger of the two apartment complexes selected for the test showed the more favorable results in the three areas of comparison. Restrictions concerning the sole use of currently available technology are hypothetically removed to consider the introduction and possible advantages of certain advanced techniques in an integrated utility system; recommendations are made and costs are estimated for each type of system.

  2. Classification of normal and arrhythmic ECG using wavelet transform based template-matching technique.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Wajahat; Saleem, Saqib; Habib, Aamir

    2017-06-01

    To propose a wavelet-based template matching technique to extract features for automatic classification of electrocardiogram signals of normal and arrhythmic individuals. The study was conducted from December 2014 to December 2015 at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Space Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electrocardiogram signals analysed in this study were taken from the freely available database www.physionet.org. The data for normal subjects was taken from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Beth Israel Hospital's normal sinus rhythm database and data for diseased subjects was taken from the arrhythmia database. Of the 30 subjects, there were 15(50%) normal and 15(50%) diseased subjects. The group-averaged phase difference indices of arrhythmic subjects were significantly larger than that of normal individuals (p<0.05) within the frequency range of 0.9-1.1 Hz. Moreover, the scatter plot between the phase difference index and magnitude of wavelet cross-spectrum for frequency range of 0.9-1.1 Hz demonstrated a satisfactory delineation between normal and arrhythmic individuals. Wavelet decomposition-based template matching technique achieved satisfactory delineation of normal and arrhythmic electrocardiogram dynamics.

  3. Discerning some Tylenol brands using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared data and multivariate analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Msimanga, Huggins Z; Ollis, Robert J

    2010-06-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to classify acetaminophen-containing medicines using their attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectra. Four formulations of Tylenol (Arthritis Pain Relief, Extra Strength Pain Relief, 8 Hour Pain Relief, and Extra Strength Pain Relief Rapid Release) along with 98% pure acetaminophen were selected for this study because of the similarity of their spectral features, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9857 to 0.9988. Before acquiring spectra for the predictor matrix, the effects on spectral precision with respect to sample particle size (determined by sieve size opening), force gauge of the ATR accessory, sample reloading, and between-tablet variation were examined. Spectra were baseline corrected and normalized to unity before multivariate analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to study spectral precision. The large particles (35 mesh) showed large variance between spectra, while fine particles (120 mesh) indicated good spectral precision based on the F-test. Force gauge setting did not significantly affect precision. Sample reloading using the fine particle size and a constant force gauge setting of 50 units also did not compromise precision. Based on these observations, data acquisition for the predictor matrix was carried out with the fine particles (sieve size opening of 120 mesh) at a constant force gauge setting of 50 units. After removing outliers, PCA successfully classified the five samples in the first and second components, accounting for 45.0% and 24.5% of the variances, respectively. The four-component PLS-DA model (R(2)=0.925 and Q(2)=0.906) gave good test spectra predictions with an overall average of 0.961 +/- 7.1% RSD versus the expected 1.0 prediction for the 20 test spectra used.

  4. DNA Integrity and Shock Wave Transformation Efficiency of Bacteria and Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loske, Achim M.; Campos-Guillén, Juan; Fernández, Francisco; Pastrana, Xóchitl; Magaña-Ortíz, Denis; Coconi-Linares, Nancy; Ortíz-Vázquez, Elizabeth; Gómez-Lim, Miguel

    Delivery of DNA into bacteria and fungi is essential in medicine and biotechnology to produce metabolites, enzymes, antibiotics and proteins. So far, protocols to genetically transform bacteria and fungi are inefficient and have low reproducibility.

  5. Foundation integrity assessment using integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques: case study in crystalline basement complex, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olayanju, G. M.; Mogaji, K. A.; Lim, H. S.; Ojo, T. S.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of parameters comprising exact depth to bedrock and its lithological type, lateral changes in lithology, and detection of fractures, cracks, or faults are essential to designing formidable foundations and assessing the integrity of civil engineering structures. In this study, soil and site characterization in a typical hard rock geologic terrain in southwestern Nigeria were carried out employing integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques to address tragedies in civil engineering infrastructural development. The deployed geophysical measurements involved running both very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods (dipole-dipole imaging and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques) along the established traverses, while the latter technique entailed conducting geological laboratory sieve analysis and Atterberg limit-index tests upon the collected soil samples in the area. The results of the geophysical measurement, based on the interpreted VLF-EM and dipole-dipole data, revealed conductive zones and linear features interpreted as fractures/faults which endanger the foundations of public infrastructures. The delineation of four distinct geoelectric layers in the area—comprised of topsoil, lateritic/clayey substratum, weathered layer, and bedrock—were based on the VES results. Strong evidence, including high degree of decomposition and fracturing of underlying bedrock revealed by the VES results, confirmed the VLF-EM and dipole-dipole results. Furthermore, values in the range of 74.2%-77.8%, 55%-62.5%, 23.4%-24.5%, 7.7%-8.2%, 19.5%-22.4%, and 31.65%-38.25% were obtained for these geotechnical parameters viz soil percentage passing 0.075 mm sieve size, liquid limit, plasticity index, linear shrinkage, natural moisture content, and plastic limit, respectively, resulting from the geotechnical analysis of the soil samples. The comparatively analyzed geophysical and geotechnical results revealed a high

  6. Estimation of convective rain volumes utilizing the are-time-integral technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L. Ronald; Smith, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Interest in the possibility of developing useful estimates of convective rainfall with Area-Time Integral (ATI) methods is increasing. The basis of the ATI technique is the observed strong correlation between rainfall volumes and ATI values. This means that rainfall can be estimated by just determining the ATI values, if previous knowledge of the relationship to rain volume is available to calibrate the technique. Examples are provided of the application of the ATI approach to gage, radar, and satellite measurements. For radar data, the degree of transferability in time and among geographical areas is examined. Recent results on transferability of the satellite ATI calculations are presented.

  7. Optimal water and waste-load allocations in rivers using a fuzzy transformation technique: a case study.

    PubMed

    Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Kerachian, Reza; Karimi, Akbar; Azadnia, Ali Asghar

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, a new methodology is developed for integrated allocation of water and waste-loads in river basins utilizing a fuzzy transformation method (FTM). The fuzzy transformation method is used to incorporate the existing uncertainties in model inputs. In the proposed methodology, the FTM, as a simulation model, is utilized in an optimization framework for constructing a fuzzy water and waste-loads allocation model. In addition, economic as well as environmental impacts of water allocation to different water users are considered. For equitable water and waste load allocation, all possible coalition of water users are considered and total benefit of each coalition, which is a fuzzy number, is reallocated to water users who are participating in the coalition. The fuzzy cost savings are reallocated using a fuzzy nucleolus cooperative game and the FTM. As a case study, the Dez River system in south-west of Iran is modeled and analyzed using the methodology developed here. The results show the effectiveness of the methodology in optimal water and waste-loads allocations under uncertainty.

  8. Transformation of Mycoplasma pulmonis: demonstration of homologous recombination, introduction of cloned genes, and preliminary description of an integrating shuttle system.

    PubMed Central

    Mahairas, G G; Minion, F C

    1989-01-01

    The transposons Tn916 and Tn4001 and a series of integrating plasmids derived from their antibiotic resistance genes were used to examine polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation of Mycoplasma pulmonis. Under optimal conditions, Tn916 and Tn4001 could be introduced into M. pulmonis at frequencies of 1 x 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-5) per CFU, respectively. Integrating plasmids were constructed with the cloned antibiotic resistance determinants of Tn916 and Tn4001, a pMB1-derived plasmid replicon, and mycoplasmal chromosomal DNA and were used to examine recombinational events after transformation into M. pulmonis. Under optimal conditions, chromosomal integrations could be recovered at a frequency of 1 x 10(-4) to 1 x 10(-6) per CFU, depending on the size and nature of the chromosomal insert and the parental plasmid. Integrated plasmids were stable in the absence of selection and could be rescued in Escherichia coli along with adjacent mycoplasma DNA. These studies provide the first direct evidence of a recombination system in the Mollicutes and describe the first E. coli-M. pulmonis shuttle vectors. Images PMID:2539351

  9. An interative solution of an integral equation for radiative transfer by using variational technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshikawa, K. K.

    1973-01-01

    An effective iterative technique is introduced to solve a nonlinear integral equation frequently associated with radiative transfer problems. The problem is formulated in such a way that each step of an iterative sequence requires the solution of a linear integral equation. The advantage of a previously introduced variational technique which utilizes a stepwise constant trial function is exploited to cope with the nonlinear problem. The method is simple and straightforward. Rapid convergence is obtained by employing a linear interpolation of the iterative solutions. Using absorption coefficients of the Milne-Eddington type, which are applicable to some planetary atmospheric radiation problems. Solutions are found in terms of temperature and radiative flux. These solutions are presented numerically and show excellent agreement with other numerical solutions.

  10. Expanded Dempster-Shafer reasoning technique for image feature integration and object recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Quiming; Huang, Yinghua; Payne, Matt G.

    1992-12-01

    Integration of information from multiple sources has been one of the key steps to the success of general vision systems. It is also an essential problem to the development of color image understanding algorithms that make full use of the multichannel color data for object recognition. This paper presents a feature integration system characterized by a hybrid combination of a statistic-based reasoning technique and a symbolic logic-based inference method. A competitive evidence enhancement scheme is used in the process to fuse information from multiple sources. The scheme expands the Dempster-Shafer's function of combination and improves the reliability of the object recognition. When applied to integrate the object features extracted from the multiple spectra of the color images, the system alleviates the drawback of traditional Baysian classification system.

  11. Fast iterative, coupled-integral-equation technique for inhomogeneous profiled and periodic slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magath, Thore; Serebryannikov, Andriyâ E.

    2005-11-01

    A fast coupled-integral-equation (CIE) technique is developed to compute the plane-TE-wave scattering by a wide class of periodic 2D inhomogeneous structures with curvilinear boundaries, which includes finite-thickness relief and rod gratings made of homogeneous material as special cases. The CIEs in the spectral domain are derived from the standard volume electric field integral equation. The kernel of the CIEs is of Picard type and offers therefore the possibility of deriving recursions, which allow the computation of the convolution integrals occurring in the CIEs with linear amounts of arithmetic complexity and memory. To utilize this advantage, the CIEs are solved iteratively. We apply the biconjugate gradient stabilized method. To make the iterative solution process faster, an efficient preconditioning operator (PO) is proposed that is based on a formal analytical inversion of the CIEs. The application of the PO also takes only linear complexity and memory. Numerical studies are carried out to demonstrate the potential and flexibility of the CIE technique proposed. Though the best efficiency and accuracy are observed at either low permittivity contrast or high conductivity, the technique can be used in a wide range of variation of material parameters of the structures including when they contain components made of both dielectrics with high permittivity and typical metals.

  12. Two Novel Space-Time Coding Techniques Designed for UWB MISO Systems Based on Wavelet Transform.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Amira Ibrahim; Badran, Ehab F; El-Khamy, Said E

    2016-01-01

    In this paper two novel space-time coding multi-input single-output (STC MISO) schemes, designed especially for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) systems, are introduced. The proposed schemes are referred to as wavelet space-time coding (WSTC) schemes. The WSTC schemes are based on two types of multiplexing, spatial and wavelet domain multiplexing. In WSTC schemes, four symbols are transmitted on the same UWB transmission pulse with the same bandwidth, symbol duration, and number of transmitting antennas of the conventional STC MISO scheme. The used mother wavelet (MW) is selected to be highly correlated with transmitted pulse shape and such that the multiplexed signal has almost the same spectral characteristics as those of the original UWB pulse. The two WSTC techniques increase the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC. The first WSTC scheme increases the data rate with a simple combination process. The second scheme achieves the increase in the data rate with a less complex receiver and better performance than the first scheme due to the spatial diversity introduced by the structure of its transmitter and receiver. The two schemes use Rake receivers to collect the energy in the dense multipath channel components. The simulation results show that the proposed WSTC schemes have better performance than the conventional scheme in addition to increasing the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC scheme.

  13. Two Novel Space-Time Coding Techniques Designed for UWB MISO Systems Based on Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Amira Ibrahim; El-Khamy, Said E.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper two novel space-time coding multi-input single-output (STC MISO) schemes, designed especially for Ultra-Wideband (UWB) systems, are introduced. The proposed schemes are referred to as wavelet space-time coding (WSTC) schemes. The WSTC schemes are based on two types of multiplexing, spatial and wavelet domain multiplexing. In WSTC schemes, four symbols are transmitted on the same UWB transmission pulse with the same bandwidth, symbol duration, and number of transmitting antennas of the conventional STC MISO scheme. The used mother wavelet (MW) is selected to be highly correlated with transmitted pulse shape and such that the multiplexed signal has almost the same spectral characteristics as those of the original UWB pulse. The two WSTC techniques increase the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC. The first WSTC scheme increases the data rate with a simple combination process. The second scheme achieves the increase in the data rate with a less complex receiver and better performance than the first scheme due to the spatial diversity introduced by the structure of its transmitter and receiver. The two schemes use Rake receivers to collect the energy in the dense multipath channel components. The simulation results show that the proposed WSTC schemes have better performance than the conventional scheme in addition to increasing the data rate to four times that of the conventional STC scheme. PMID:27959939

  14. Super-resolution technique for CW lidar using Fourier transform reordering and Richardson-Lucy deconvolution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joel F; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R; Harrison, F Wallace; Obland, Michael D

    2014-12-15

    An interpolation method is described for range measurements of high precision altimetry with repeating intensity modulated continuous wave (IM-CW) lidar waveforms using binary phase shift keying (BPSK), where the range profile is determined by means of a cross-correlation between the digital form of the transmitted signal and the digitized return signal collected by the lidar receiver. This method uses reordering of the array elements in the frequency domain to convert a repeating synthetic pulse signal to single highly interpolated pulse. This is then enhanced further using Richardson-Lucy deconvolution to greatly enhance the resolution of the pulse. We show the sampling resolution and pulse width can be enhanced by about two orders of magnitude using the signal processing algorithms presented, thus breaking the fundamental resolution limit for BPSK modulation of a particular bandwidth and bit rate. We demonstrate the usefulness of this technique for determining cloud and tree canopy thicknesses far beyond this fundamental limit in a lidar not designed for this purpose.

  15. A point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kadioglu, Samet Y.; Berry, Ray A.; Martineau, Richard C.

    2015-05-01

    We introduce a point implicit time integration technique for slow transient flow problems. The method treats the solution variables of interest (that can be located at cell centers, cell edges, or cell nodes) implicitly and the rest of the information related to same or other variables are handled explicitly. The method does not require implicit iteration; instead it time advances the solutions in a similar spirit to explicit methods, except it involves a few additional function(s) evaluation steps. Moreover, the method is unconditionally stable, as a fully implicit method would be. This new approach exhibits the simplicity of implementation of explicit methods and the stability of implicit methods. It is specifically designed for slow transient flow problems of long duration wherein one would like to perform time integrations with very large time steps. Because the method can be time inaccurate for fast transient problems, particularly with larger time steps, an appropriate solution strategy for a problem that evolves from a fast to a slow transient would be to integrate the fast transient with an explicit or semi-implicit technique and then switch to this point implicit method as soon as the time variation slows sufficiently. We have solved several test problems that result from scalar or systems of flow equations. Our findings indicate the new method can integrate slow transient problems very efficiently; and its implementation is very robust.

  16. EML Array fabricated by SAG technique monolithically integrated with a buried ridge AWG multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjie; Liang, Song; Zhang, Zhike; An, Junming; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2017-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a ten channel electroabsorption modulated DFB laser (EML) array. Different emission wavelengths of the laser array are obtained by selective area growth (SAG) technique, which is also used for the integration of electroabsorption modulators (EAM) with the lasers. An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) combiner is integrated monolithically with the laser array by butt-joint regrowth (BJR) technique. A buried ridge waveguide structure is adopted for the AWG combiner. A self aligned fabrication procedure is adopted for the fabrication of the waveguide structure of the device to eliminate the misalignment between the laser active waveguide and the passive waveguide. A Ti thin film heater is integrated for each laser in the array. With the help of the heaters, ten laser emissions with 1.8 nm channel spacing are obtained. The integrated EAM has a larger than 11 dB static extinction ratios and larger than 8 GHz small signal modulation bandwidths. The light power collected in the output waveguide of the AWG is larger than -13 dBm for each wavelength.

  17. Measuring the hypnotic depth of anaesthesia based on the EEG signal using combined wavelet transform, eigenvector and normalisation techniques.

    PubMed

    Nguyen-Ky, Tai; Wen, Peng; Li, Yan; Malan, Mel

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a new index to measure the hypnotic depth of anaesthesia (DoA) using EEG signals. This index is derived from applying combined Wavelet transform, eigenvector and normalisation techniques. The eigenvector method is first applied to build a feature function for six levels of coefficients in a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). The best Daubechies wavelet and their ranking value p are optimally determined to identify different states of anaesthesia. A statistic normalisation process is then carried out to re-scale data and compute the hypnotic depth of anaesthesia. Finally, a new function ZDoA is proposed to compute a DoA index which corresponds one of the five depths of anaesthesia states to very deep anaesthesia, deep anaesthesia, moderate anaesthesia, light anaesthesia and awake. Simulation results based on real anaesthetised EEGs demonstrate that the new index generally parallels the BIS index. In particular, the ZDoA index is often faster than the BIS index to react to the transition period between consciousness and unconsciousness for this data set. A Bland-Altman plot indicates a 95.23% agreement between the ZDoA and BIS indices. The ZDoA trend is responsive, and its movement is consistent with the clinically observed and recorded changes of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Validating Assessment Techniques in an Outcome-Centered Liberal Arts Curriculum: Integrated Competence Seminar. Final Report, Research Report Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentkowski, Marcia; Doherty, Austin

    The Integrated Competence Seminar (ICS), An Alverno College assessment technique used in the outcome-centered liberal arts curriculum, is discussed. The ICS technique allows students to demonstrate integration and transfer of learning in three situations: oral presentation, group discussion, and the In-Basket exercise (decision-making problems).…

  19. Marek's disease herpesvirus vaccines integrate into chicken host chromosomes yet lack a virus-host phenotype associated with oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marla C; Cheng, Hans H; Delany, Mary E

    2016-11-04

    Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotropic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unvaccinated host birds. The causative pathogen, MD virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres. MD occurrence is controlled across the globe by biosecurity, selective breeding for enhanced MD genetic resistance, and widespread vaccination of flocks using attenuated serotype 1 MDV or other serotypes. Despite over 40 years of usage, the specific mechanism(s) of MD vaccine-related immunity and anti-tumor effects are not known. Here we investigated the cytogenetic interactions of commonly used MD vaccine strains of all three serotypes (HVT, SB-1, and Rispens) with the host to determine if all were equally capable of host genome integration. We also studied the dynamic profiles of chromosomal association and integration of the three vaccine strains, a first for MD vaccine research. Our cytogenetic data provide evidence that all three MD vaccine strains tested integrate in the chicken host genome as early as 1 day after vaccination similar to oncogenic strains. However, a specific, transformation-associated virus-host phenotype observed for oncogenic viruses is not established. Our results collectively provide an updated model of MD vaccine-host genome interaction and an improved understanding of the possible mechanisms of vaccinal immunity. Physical integration of the oncogenic MDV genome into host chromosomes along with cessation of viral replication appears to have joint signification in MDV's ability to induce oncogenic transformation. Whereas for MD vaccine serotypes, a sustained viral replication stage and lack of the chromosome-integrated only stage were shared traits during early infection.

  20. A comprehensive probabilistic solution of random SIS-type epidemiological models using the random variable transformation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casabán, M.-C.; Cortés, J.-C.; Navarro-Quiles, A.; Romero, J.-V.; Roselló, M.-D.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides a complete probabilistic description of SIS-type epidemiological models where all the input parameters (contagion rate, recovery rate and initial conditions) are assumed to be random variables. By applying the Random Variable Transformation technique, the first probability density function, the mean and the variance functions, as well as confidence intervals associated with the solution of SIS-type epidemiological models, are determined. It is done under the general hypothesis that model random inputs have any joint probability density function. The distributions to describe the time until a given proportion of the population remains susceptible and infected are also determined. Finally, a probabilistic description of the so-called basic reproductive number is included. The theoretical results are applied to an illustrative example showing good fitting.

  1. Interpretation of aeromagnetic data over Abeokuta and its environs, Southwest Nigeria, using spectral analysis (Fourier transform technique)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olurin, Oluwaseun T.; Ganiyu, Saheed A.; Hammed, Olaide S.; Aluko, Taiwo J.

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the results of spectral analysis of magnetic data over Abeokuta area, Southwestern Nigeria, using fast Fourier transform (FFT) in Microsoft Excel. The study deals with the quantitative interpretation of airborne magnetic data (Sheet No. 260), which was conducted by the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency in 2009. In order to minimise aliasing error, the aeromagnetic data was gridded at spacing of 1 km. Spectral analysis technique was used to estimate the magnetic basement depth distributed at two levels. The result of the interpretation shows that the magnetic sources are mainly distributed at two levels. The shallow sources (minimum depth) range in depth from 0.103 to 0.278 km below ground level and are inferred to be due to intrusions within the region. The deeper sources (maximum depth) range in depth from 2.739 to 3.325 km below ground and are attributed to the underlying basement.

  2. Outlier and target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery: a comparison of traditional and percentage occupancy hit or miss transform techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew; Marshall, Stephen; Gray, Alison

    2016-05-01

    The use of aerial hyperspectral imagery for the purpose of remote sensing is a rapidly growing research area. Currently, targets are generally detected by looking for distinct spectral features of the objects under surveillance. For example, a camouflaged vehicle, deliberately designed to blend into background trees and grass in the visible spectrum, can be revealed using spectral features in the near-infrared spectrum. This work aims to develop improved target detection methods, using a two-stage approach, firstly by development of a physics-based atmospheric correction algorithm to convert radiance into re ectance hyperspectral image data and secondly by use of improved outlier detection techniques. In this paper the use of the Percentage Occupancy Hit or Miss Transform is explored to provide an automated method for target detection in aerial hyperspectral imagery.

  3. On Quantum Integrable Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, Viatcheslav; Nagaitsev, Sergei; /Fermilab

    2011-11-01

    Many quantum integrable systems are obtained using an accelerator physics technique known as Ermakov (or normalized variables) transformation. This technique was used to create classical nonlinear integrable lattices for accelerators and nonlinear integrable plasma traps. Now, all classical results are carried over to a nonrelativistic quantum case. In this paper we have described an extension of the Ermakov-like transformation to the Schroedinger and Pauli equations. It is shown that these newly found transformations create a vast variety of time dependent quantum equations that can be solved in analytic functions, or, at least, can be reduced to time-independent ones.

  4. Integrated refolding techniques for Schistosoma japonicum MTH1 overexpressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yanye; Liu, Lu; Wang, Jipeng; Liu, Jian; Hu, Wei; Wang, Xiaoning; Yang, Zhong

    2012-08-01

    The full-length cDNA of MTH1in Schistosoma japonicum was previously isolated. However, insoluble protein expression in Escherichia coli is the biggest bottleneck limiting biological and biophysical studies. Protein aggregation could not be significantly prevented using solubilization or refolding techniques, and denatured MTH1 protein could not be refolded to the native monomer form. Hence, integrating several refolding techniques within the protein refolding process of MTH1, a large amount of active MTH1 was obtained for protein crystallization. We primarily utilized the two-step-denaturing and refolding method and the protein refolding screening technique, as well as the continuous dialysis method. First, we identified the refolding buffer composition that allowed for successful refolding to overcome protein precipitation. Next, we used the two-step-denaturing and refolding method and the continuous dialysis method to suppress protein aggregation. In the end, we obtained 15 mg of active MTH1 monomer with 95% purity from 0.5l medium. Integrated refolding techniques proved to be excellent for obtaining the native monomer of S. japonicum MTH1 from inclusion bodies, paving the way for future biological and biophysical studies. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An Integrated Backscatter Ultrasound Technique for the Detection of Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerotic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    The instability of carotid and coronary plaques has been reported to be associated with acute coronary syndrome, strokes and other cerebrovascular events. Therefore, recognition of the tissue characteristics of carotid and coronary plaques is important to understand and prevent coronary and cerebral artery disease. Recently, an ultrasound integrated backscatter (IB) technique has been developed. The ultrasound IB power ratio is a function of the difference in acoustic characteristic impedance between the medium and target tissue, and the acoustic characteristic impedance is determined by the density of tissue multiplied by the speed of sound. This concept allows for tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques for risk stratification of patients with coronary and cerebral artery disease. Two- and three-dimensional IB color-coded maps for the evaluation of tissue components consist of four major components: fibrous, dense fibrosis, lipid pool and calcification. Although several ultrasound techniques using special mathematical algorithms have been reported, a growing body of literature has shown the reliability and usefulness of the IB technique for the tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques. This review summarizes concepts, experimental procedures, image reliability and the application of the IB technique. Furthermore, the IB technique is compared with other techniques. PMID:25574937

  6. An integrated backscatter ultrasound technique for the detection of coronary and carotid atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masanori

    2015-01-07

    The instability of carotid and coronary plaques has been reported to be associated with acute coronary syndrome, strokes and other cerebrovascular events. Therefore, recognition of the tissue characteristics of carotid and coronary plaques is important to understand and prevent coronary and cerebral artery disease. Recently, an ultrasound integrated backscatter (IB) technique has been developed. The ultrasound IB power ratio is a function of the difference in acoustic characteristic impedance between the medium and target tissue, and the acoustic characteristic impedance is determined by the density of tissue multiplied by the speed of sound. This concept allows for tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques for risk stratification of patients with coronary and cerebral artery disease. Two- and three-dimensional IB color-coded maps for the evaluation of tissue components consist of four major components: fibrous, dense fibrosis, lipid pool and calcification. Although several ultrasound techniques using special mathematical algorithms have been reported, a growing body of literature has shown the reliability and usefulness of the IB technique for the tissue characterization of carotid and coronary plaques. This review summarizes concepts, experimental procedures, image reliability and the application of the IB technique. Furthermore, the IB technique is compared with other techniques.

  7. Propulsion Airframe Integration Test Techniques for Hypersonic Airbreathing Configurations at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, David W.; Huebner, Lawrence D.; Trexler, Carl A.; Cabell, Karen F.; Andrews, Earl H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The scope and significance of propulsion airframe integration (PAI) for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles is presented through a discussion of the PAI test techniques utilized at NASA Langley Research Center. Four primary types of PAI model tests utilized at NASA Langley for hypersonic airbreathing vehicles are discussed. The four types of PAI test models examined are the forebody/inlet test model, the partial-width/truncated propulsion flowpath test model, the powered exhaust simulation test model, and the full-length/width propulsion flowpath test model. The test technique for each of these four types of PAI test models is described, and the relevant PAI issues addressed by each test technique are illustrated through the presentation of recent PAI test data.

  8. Techniques for a Wind Energy System Integration with an Islanded Microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Megha; Fan, Yuanyuan; Ghosh, Arindam; Shahnia, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents two different techniques of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) integration with an islanded microgrid (MG). The islanded microgrid operates in a frequency droop control where its frequency can vary around 50 Hz. The permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based variable speed WECS is considered, which converts wind energy to a low frequency ac power. Therefore it needs to be connected to the microgrid through a back to back (B2B) converter system. One way of interconnection is to synchronize the MG side converter with the MG bus at which it is connected. In this case, this converter runs at the MG frequency. The other approach is to bring back the MG frequency to 50 Hz using the isochronization concept. In this case, the MG side converter operates at 50 Hz. Both these techniques are developed in this paper. The proposed techniques are validated through extensive PSCAD/EMTDC simulation studies.

  9. HUNTER-GATHERER: Three search techniques integrated for natural language semantics

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S.; Nirenburg, S.; Mahesh, K.

    1996-12-31

    This work integrates three related Al search techniques - constraint satisfaction, branch-and-bound and solution synthesis - and applies the result to semantic processing in natural language (NL). We summarize the approach as {open_quote}Hunter-Gatherer:{close_quotes} (1) branch-and-bound and constraint satisfaction allow us to {open_quote}hunt down{close_quotes} non-optimal and impossible solutions and prune them from the search space. (2) solution synthesis methods then {open_quote}gather{close_quotes} all optimal solutions avoiding exponential complexity. Each of the three techniques is briefly described, as well as their extensions and combinations used in our system. We focus on the combination of solution synthesis and branch-and-bound methods which has enabled near-linear-time processing in our applications. Finally, we illustrate how the use of our technique in a large-scale MT project allowed a drastic reduction in search space.

  10. Polymer microlens array integrated with imaging sensors by UV-molding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jianjun; Zhao, Yue; Ke, Caijun; Yi, Xinjian; Zhang, TianXu

    2005-01-01

    Fabrication of Polymer microlens array based on UV-molding techniques is presented. UV-molding enables for the integration of polymer microlens array on top of arbitrary substrates like glass, silicon other polymeric films. In this technique, photoresist or glass mold is first fabricated by conventional photolithnic method and subsequently served as transparent replication tool. UV curable polymer resin is then coated on patterned or unpatterned substrates and a contact mask aligner is used to align substrates and replication mold tool and then make the mold immersed into the resin. Replication of polymer on substrates is achieved by UV photopolymerisation of the resin. Resin thickness and gap distance between mold and substrate are carefully controlled in order to obtain acceptable thickness of cured polymer base. The UV molding technique was used to molding of a polymer film carring microlens array on the surface of an experimental CCD imaging sensor chip in this paper to enhance its fill factor and sensitivity.

  11. Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the Integrated Deployment model to accelerate market adoption of alternative energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles through a comprehensive and aggressive approach.

  12. Robust integral image rectification framework using perspective transformation supported by statistical line segment clustering.

    PubMed

    Koufogiannis, E T; Sgouros, N P; Sangriotis, M S

    2011-12-01

    In most integral image analysis and processing tasks, accurate knowledge of the internal image structure is required. In this paper we present a robust framework for the accurate rectification of perspectively distorted integral images based on multiple line segment detection. The use of multiple line segments increases the overall fault tolerance of our framework providing strong statistical support for the rectification process. The proposed framework is used for the automatic rectification, metric correction, and rotation of distorted integral images. The performance of our framework is assessed over a number of integral images with varying scene complexity and noise levels.

  13. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-11-15

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at the Large Helical Device. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICS can provide profile measurements of the local emissivity, temperature, and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modified Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example, geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.

  14. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaksa)

    SciTech Connect

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W.; Lazerson, S.; Morita, S.

    2014-08-08

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at LHD. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICS can provide pro file measurements of the local emissivity, temperature and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modifi ed Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.

  15. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaksa)

    DOE PAGES

    Pablant, N. A.; Bell, R. E.; Bitter, M.; ...

    2014-08-08

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at LHD. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICSmore » can provide pro file measurements of the local emissivity, temperature and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modifi ed Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.« less

  16. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints for line integrated spectroscopy in stellarators and tokamaks.

    PubMed

    Pablant, N A; Bell, R E; Bitter, M; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Hill, K W; Lazerson, S; Morita, S

    2014-11-01

    Accurate tomographic inversion is important for diagnostic systems on stellarators and tokamaks which rely on measurements of line integrated emission spectra. A tomographic inversion technique based on spline optimization with enforcement of constraints is described that can produce unique and physically relevant inversions even in situations with noisy or incomplete input data. This inversion technique is routinely used in the analysis of data from the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) installed at the Large Helical Device. The XICS diagnostic records a 1D image of line integrated emission spectra from impurities in the plasma. Through the use of Doppler spectroscopy and tomographic inversion, XICS can provide profile measurements of the local emissivity, temperature, and plasma flow. Tomographic inversion requires the assumption that these measured quantities are flux surface functions, and that a known plasma equilibrium reconstruction is available. In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often cannot produce unique and physically relevant solutions. The addition of physical constraints, such as parameter ranges, derivative directions, and boundary conditions, allow for unique solutions to be reliably found. The constrained inversion technique described here utilizes a modified Levenberg-Marquardt optimization scheme, which introduces a condition avoidance mechanism by selective reduction of search directions. The constrained inversion technique also allows for the addition of more complicated parameter dependencies, for example, geometrical dependence of the emissivity due to asymmetries in the plasma density arising from fast rotation. The accuracy of this constrained inversion technique is discussed, with an emphasis on its applicability to systems with limited plasma coverage.

  17. Integrator Windup Protection-Techniques and a STOVL Aircraft Engine Controller Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, K.; Narayanaswamy, S.

    1997-01-01

    Integrators are included in the feedback loop of a control system to eliminate the steady state errors in the commanded variables. The integrator windup problem arises if the control actuators encounter operational limits before the steady state errors are driven to zero by the integrator. The typical effects of windup are large system oscillations, high steady state error, and a delayed system response following the windup. In this study, methods to prevent the integrator windup are examined to provide Integrator Windup Protection (IW) for an engine controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. An unified performance index is defined to optimize the performance of the Conventional Anti-Windup (CAW) and the Modified Anti-Windup (MAW) methods. A modified Genetic Algorithm search procedure with stochastic parameter encoding is implemented to obtain the optimal parameters of the CAW scheme. The advantages and drawbacks of the CAW and MAW techniques are discussed and recommendations are made for the choice of the IWP scheme, given some characteristics of the system.

  18. Monolithic integration in III-V semiconductors via a universal damage enhanced quantum well intermixing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, John H.; Kowalski, Olek P.; McDougall, Stewart D.; Hamilton, Craig J.; Camacho, Fernando; Qiu, Bocang; Ke, Maolong; De La Rue, Richard M.; Bryce, A. Catrina

    1998-09-01

    A novel technique for quantum well intermixing is demonstrated which has proven to be a reliable means for obtaining post-growth shifts in the band edge of a wide range of III-V material systems. The techniques relies upon the generation of point defects via plasma induced damage during the deposition of sputtered silica, and provides a simple and reliable process for the fabrication of both wavelength tuned lasers and monolithically integrated devices. Wavelength tuned board area oxide stripe lasers are demonstrated in InGaAs-InAlGaAs, InGaAs-InGaAsP, and GaInP- AlInP quantum well systems, and it is shown that low absorption losses are obtained after intermixing. Oxide stripe lasers with integrated slab waveguides have also enabled the production of a narrow single lobed far field pattern in both InGaAs-InAlGaAs, and GaInP-AlGaInP devices. Extended cavity ridge waveguide lasers operating at 1.5 micrometers are demonstrated with low loss waveguides, and it is shown that this loss is limited only by free carrier absorption in the waveguide cladding layers. In addition, the operation of intermixed multi-mode interference coupler lasers is demonstrated, where four GaAs-AlGaAs laser amplifiers are monolithically integrated to produce high output powers of 180 mW in a single fundamental mode. The results illustrate that the technique can routinely be used to fabricate low los optical interconnects and offers a very promising route toward photonic integration.

  19. Study of {sup 3}He(e,e{prime}) longitudinal response functions with the integral-transform method

    SciTech Connect

    Dobretsov, V.Yu.; Efros, V.D.; Shao, B.

    1995-09-01

    The method of integral transforms is first applied to study of the {sup 3}He longitudinal response functions. The transforms are calculated from localized bound-state type solutions to an inhomogenous three-body equation. {sup 3}N dynamics and the conventional charge density operator serve as an input. The final-state interaction the contribution of the T = 3/2 final states to the problem suppressed and amounts to about 15%. This might be ascribed to symmetry properties of the final-state wave functions. The contributions of the p-wave N/N interaction and of the Coulomb interaction to the problem are studied and found to amount to several percent. Uncertainties due to different choices of s-wave NN forces are found to be of a similar magnitude. For q = 300 MeV/c, the results obtained agree with experiment. For q = 500 MeV/c, noticeable differences are detected. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Investigation of Prospective Teachers' Information and Communication Technology Integration Practices in Terms of Transformative Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin Izmirli, Özden; Kabakçi Yurdakul, Isil

    2014-01-01

    An examination of prospective teachers' information and communication technology (ICT) integration skills development in an undergraduate program indicated that the only course available to practice these skills was the teaching practice course. However, the practice and development of these ICT integration skills in the teaching practice course…

  1. Space-time domain solutions of the wave equation by a non-singular boundary integral method and Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Klaseboer, Evert; Sepehrirahnama, Shahrokh; Chan, Derek Y C

    2017-08-01

    The general space-time evolution of the scattering of an incident acoustic plane wave pulse by an arbitrary configuration of targets is treated by employing a recently developed non-singular boundary integral method to solve the Helmholtz equation in the frequency domain from which the space-time solution of the wave equation is obtained using the fast Fourier transform. The non-singular boundary integral solution can enforce the radiation boundary condition at infinity exactly and can account for multiple scattering effects at all spacings between scatterers without adverse effects on the numerical precision. More generally, the absence of singular kernels in the non-singular integral equation confers high numerical stability and precision for smaller numbers of degrees of freedom. The use of fast Fourier transform to obtain the time dependence is not constrained to discrete time steps and is particularly efficient for studying the response to different incident pulses by the same configuration of scatterers. The precision that can be attained using a smaller number of Fourier components is also quantified.

  2. Transforming Pedagogies: Integrating 21st Century Skills and Web 2.0 Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Shelia Y.

    2014-01-01

    According to (P21), Partnership for 21st Century Skills (n.d.), unless the gap is bridged between how students learn and how they live, today's education system will face irrelevance. The way people work and live has been transformed by demographic, economic, political, technological, and informational forces. Schools must adapt to these…

  3. A DNase encoded by integrated element CJIE1 inhibits natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The species Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) is considered naturally competent for DNA uptake and displays strong genetic diversity. Yet, non-transformable strains and several relatively stable clonal lineages exist. In the present study, the molecular mechanism responsible for the non-transformabil...

  4. Transformative Experience: An Integrative Construct in the Spirit of Deweyan Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A sentiment held by Dewey and shared by other educators is that learning should enrich and expand everyday experience. However, this goal has not been a focus of research. In this article, I propose "transformative experience" as a construct capable of reflecting this goal and functioning as an empirical research construct. I discuss the…

  5. Transforming University Practice through ICT--Integrated Perspectives on Organizational, Technological, and Pedagogical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Lone; Lorentsen, Annette

    2003-01-01

    The article focuses on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for strengthening and transforming university practice in line with the social and technological conditions of the new ideas for "interactive" universities. The purpose is to use ICT as a change-agent in order to establish new practices--new pedagogical…

  6. Quantitative Integration of Multiple Geophysical Techniques for Reducing Uncertainty in Discrete Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M. C.; Baker, G. S.; Herrmann, N.; Yerka, S.; Angst, M.

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to (1) utilize quantitative integration of multiple geophysical techniques, (2) determine geophysical anomalies that may indicate locations of various archaeological structures, and (3) develop techniques of quantifying causes of uncertainty. Two sites are used to satisfy these objectives. The first, representing a site with unknown target features, is an archaeological site on the Tennessee River floodplain. The area is divided into 437 (20 x 20 m) plots with 0.5 m spacing where magnetic gradiometry profiles were collected in a zig-zag pattern, resulting in 350 km of line data. Once anomalies are identified in the magnetics data, potential excavation sites for archeological features are determined and other geophysical techniques are utilized to gain confidence in choosing which anomalies to excavate. Several grids are resurveyed using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and EM-31 with a 0.25 m spacing in a grid pattern. A quantitative method of integrating data into one comprehensive set is developed, enhancing interpretation because each geophysical technique utilized within this study produced a unique response to noise and the targets. Spatial visualization software is used to interpolate irregularly spaced XYZ data into a regularly spaced grid and display the geophysical data in 3D representations. Once all data are exported from each individual instrument, grid files are created for quantitative merging of the data and to create grid-based maps including contour, image, shaded relief, and surface maps. Statistics were calculated from anomaly classification in the data and excavated features present. To study this methodology in a more controlled setting, a second site is used. This site is analogous to the first in that it is along the Tennessee River floodplain on the same bedrock units. However, this analog site contains known targets (previously buried and accurately located) including size, shape, and orientation. Four

  7. An integrated approach to the biomechanics and motor control of cricket fast bowling techniques.

    PubMed

    Glazier, Paul S; Wheat, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    To date, scientific investigations into the biomechanical aspects of cricket fast bowling techniques have predominantly focused on identifying the mechanical factors that may predispose fast bowlers to lower back injury with a relative paucity of research being conducted on the technical features that underpin proficient fast bowling performance. In this review paper, we critique the scientific literature examining fast bowling performance. We argue that, although many published investigations have provided some useful insights into the biomechanical factors that contribute to a high ball release speed and, to a lesser extent, bowling accuracy, this research has not made a substantive contribution to knowledge enhancement and has only had a very minor influence on coaching practice. To significantly enhance understanding of cricket fast bowling techniques and, therefore, have greater impact on practice, we recommend that future scientific research adopts an interdisciplinary focus, integrating biomechanical measurements with the analytical tools and concepts of dynamical systems motor control theory. The use of qualitative (topological) analysis techniques, in particular, promises to increase understanding of the coordinative movement patterns that define 'technique' in cricket fast bowling and potentially help distinguish between functional and dysfunctional aspects of technique for individual fast bowlers.

  8. Methodological integrative review of the work sampling technique used in nursing workload research.

    PubMed

    Blay, Nicole; Duffield, Christine M; Gallagher, Robyn; Roche, Michael

    2014-11-01

    To critically review the work sampling technique used in nursing workload research. Work sampling is a technique frequently used by researchers and managers to explore and measure nursing activities. However, work sampling methods used are diverse making comparisons of results between studies difficult. Methodological integrative review. Four electronic databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed articles published between 2002-2012. Manual scanning of reference lists and Rich Site Summary feeds from contemporary nursing journals were other sources of data. Articles published in the English language between 2002-2012 reporting on research which used work sampling to examine nursing workload. Eighteen articles were reviewed. The review identified that the work sampling technique lacks a standardized approach, which may have an impact on the sharing or comparison of results. Specific areas needing a shared understanding included the training of observers and subjects who self-report, standardization of the techniques used to assess observer inter-rater reliability, sampling methods and reporting of outcomes. Work sampling is a technique that can be used to explore the many facets of nursing work. Standardized reporting measures would enable greater comparison between studies and contribute to knowledge more effectively. Author suggestions for the reporting of results may act as guidelines for researchers considering work sampling as a research method. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Thermal Characterization of Anisotropic Materials at High Temperature Through Integral Methods and Localized Pulsed Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souhar, Youssef; Rémy, Benjamin; Degiovanni, Alain

    2013-02-01

    New applications in aerospace or energy industries require the development of new materials at high temperature exhibiting high anisotropic properties. Their thermal characterization requires the development of specific experimental benches. In this article, a new experiment is presented which allows one to estimate through only one experiment the three diffusivities of an orthotropic material at high temperatures without the need of vacuum. The estimation procedure is very fast and accurate due to using, on the one hand, integral transforms that allows one to get rid of the spatial distribution of the flash energy, and on the other hand, an infrared camera that provides a large amount of experimental data. And thanks to the use of a nonlinear parameter estimation and estimations made directly on Fourier transforms of the temperature field, the heat flux stimulation is no longer necessary to be Dirac in time. To validate the method and the experimental facility, measurements were performed on a Ti-6Al-4V alloy from room temperature up to 1000 ^{circ }{ C }. In addition, particular attention has been paid to the thermal coupling that can appear between the low conducting materials and the air, and a criterion has been established to determine if the in-plane thermal diffusivity measurements can be affected or not.

  10. Rolled-up transformer structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2015-01-27

    A rolled-up transformer structure comprises a multilayer sheet having a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises more than one conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, including a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a thickness direction. The first conductive film comprises an even number of primary conductive strips, where each primary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction, and the second conductive film comprises an even number of secondary conductive strips, where each secondary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, turns of the primary conductive strips and turns of the secondary conductive strips wrap around the longitudinal axis. The primary conductive strips serve as a primary winding and the secondary conductive strips serve as a secondary winding of the rolled-up transformer structure.

  11. Rolled-up transformer structure for a radiofrequency integrated circuit (RFIC)

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiuling; Huang, Wen

    2016-05-03

    A rolled-up transformer structure comprises a multilayer sheet having a rolled configuration comprising multiple turns about a longitudinal axis. The multilayer sheet comprises more than one conductive pattern layer on a strain-relieved layer, including a first conductive film and a second conductive film separated from the first conductive film in a thickness direction. The first conductive film comprises an even number of primary conductive strips, where each primary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction, and the second conductive film comprises an even number of secondary conductive strips, where each secondary conductive strip has a length extending in the rolling direction. In the rolled configuration, turns of the primary conductive strips and turns of the secondary conductive strips wrap around the longitudinal axis. The primary conductive strips serve as a primary winding and the secondary conductive strips serve as a secondary winding of the rolled-up transformer structure.

  12. Photonic Hilbert transformers based on laterally apodized integrated waveguide Bragg gratings on a SOI wafer.

    PubMed

    Bazargani, Hamed Pishvai; Burla, Maurizio; Chrostowski, Lukas; Azaña, José

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally demonstrate high-performance integer and fractional-order photonic Hilbert transformers based on laterally apodized Bragg gratings in a silicon-on-insulator technology platform. The sub-millimeter-long gratings have been fabricated using single-etch electron beam lithography, and the resulting HT devices offer operation bandwidths approaching the THz range, with time-bandwidth products between 10 and 20.

  13. Blue genes: An integrative laboratory to differentiate genetic transformation from gene mutation for underclassmen.

    PubMed

    Militello, Kevin T; Chang, Ming-Mei; Simon, Robert D; Lazatin, Justine C

    2016-01-01

    The ability of students to understand the relationship between genotype and phenotype, and the mechanisms by which genotypes and phenotypes can change is essential for students studying genetics. To this end, we have developed a four-week laboratory called Blue Genes, which is designed to help novice students discriminate between two mechanisms by which the genetic material can be altered: genetic transformation and gene mutation. In the first week of the laboratory, students incubate a plasmid DNA with calcium chloride-treated Escherichia coli JM109 cells and observe a phenotype change from ampicillin sensitive to ampicillin resistant and from white color to blue color on plates containing 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (X-gal) and isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Over the course of the next three weeks, students use a battery of approaches including plasmid DNA isolation experiments, restriction maps, and PCR to differentiate between mutation and transformation. The students ultimately come to the conclusion that the changes in phenotypes are due to genetic transformation and not mutation based on the evidence generated over the four-week period. Pre-laboratory tests and post-laboratory tests indicate that this set of exercises is successful in helping students differentiate between transformation and mutation. The laboratory is designed for underclassmen and is a good prerequisite for an apprentice-based research opportunity, although it is not designed as a class based research experience. Potential modifications and future directions of the laboratory based upon student experiences and assessment are presented.

  14. Transforming Assertive Community Treatment Into an Integrated Care System: The Role of Nursing and Primary Care Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Lara Carson; Henwood, Benjamin F.; Cody, Julianne W.; Jordan, Maria; Lelar, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high rate of co-occurring medical conditions experienced by individuals receiving assertive community treatment (ACT), this comprehensive service model continues to be considered primarily a mental health intervention. Without compromising fidelity to the model, ACT can serve as an ideal platform from which to provide both primary and behavioral health care to those with complex service needs. Using a case example, this article considers the transformation of the ACT mental health care model into an integrated health care delivery system through establishing nursing and primary care partnerships. Specifically, by expanding and explicitly redefining the role of the ACT nurse, well-developed care models, such as Guided Care, can provide additional guidelines and training to ACT nurses who are uniquely trained and oriented to serve as the leader and coordinator of health integration efforts. PMID:21659296

  15. High efficiency transformation of Penicillium nalgiovense with integrative and autonomously replicating plasmids.

    PubMed

    Fierro, Francisco; Laich, Federico; García-Rico, Ramón O; Martín, Juan F

    2004-01-15

    Penicillium nalgiovense is a filamentous fungus that is acquiring increasing biotechnological importance in the food industry due to its widespread use as starter culture for cured and fermented meat products. Strains of P. nalgiovense can be improved by genetic modification to remove the production of penicillin and other potentially hazardous secondary metabolites, to improve its capacity to control the growth of undesirable fungi and bacteria on the meat product, and other factors that contribute to the ripening of the product in order to get safer and better quality foods. Genetic manipulation of P. nalgiovense has been limited by the lack of molecular genetics tools that were available for this fungus, particularly for "self-cloning" avoiding the use of exogenous DNAs. In this article we describe a series of vectors, selectable markers and transformation methods that can be used for efficient transformation of P. nalgiovense, gene cloning and expression. A uridine auxotrophic P. nalgiovense mutant with an inactive pyrG gene has been isolated. The P. nalgiovense wild-type pyrG gene was cloned and sequenced, and vectors carrying the gene were shown to complement the pyrG mutant. Autonomously replicating plasmids carrying the AMA1 region from Aspergillus nidulans transformed P. nalgiovense very efficiently; these plasmids were shown to be maintained as stable extrachromosomal elements in P. nalgiovense and could be rescued in Escherichia coli. The mitotic stability of self-replicative AMA1 plasmids in P. nalgiovense was higher than that reported for Penicillium chrysogenum.

  16. Hybrid routing technique for a fault-tolerant, integrated information network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, B. D.

    1986-01-01

    The evolutionary growth of the space station and the diverse activities onboard are expected to require a hierarchy of integrated, local area networks capable of supporting data, voice, and video communications. In addition, fault-tolerant network operation is necessary to protect communications between critical systems attached to the net and to relieve the valuable human resources onboard the space station of time-critical data system repair tasks. A key issue for the design of the fault-tolerant, integrated network is the development of a robust routing algorithm which dynamically selects the optimum communication paths through the net. A routing technique is described that adapts to topological changes in the network to support fault-tolerant operation and system evolvability.

  17. Fault tolerance techniques to assure data integrity in high-volume PACS image archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yutao; Huang, Lu J.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Wingate, W. Keith; Avizienis, Algirdas

    1995-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) perform the systematic acquisition, archiving, and presentation of large quantities of radiological image and text data. In the UCLA Radiology PACS, for example, the volume of image data archived currently exceeds 2500 gigabytes. Furthermore, the distributed heterogeneous PACS is expected to have near real-time response, be continuously available, and assure the integrity and privacy of patient data. The off-the-shelf subsystems that compose the current PACS cannot meet these expectations; therefore fault tolerance techniques had to be incorporated into the system. This paper is to report our first-step efforts towards the goal and is organized as follows: First we discuss data integrity and identify fault classes under the PACS operational environment, then we describe auditing and accounting schemes developed for error-detection and analyze operational data collected. Finally, we outline plans for future research.

  18. Integrated ultrasonic transducers made by the sol gel spray technique for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, M.; Jen, C.-K.; Moisan, J.-F.; Mrad, N.; Nguyen, S. B.

    2007-04-01

    Integrated piezoelectric-based ultrasonic transducers (UTs) have been developed for potential structural health monitoring. Fabrication techniques and performance evaluation of these transducers at selected monitoring sites are presented. Our novel transducer fabrication approach focuses on the use of handheld and readily accessible equipment to perform sol-gel spray coating, including the use of a heat gun or a torch, to carry out drying and firing, poling and electrode fabrication. The application of these integrated UTs for thickness measurement of graphite/epoxy composites, thickness monitoring of ice build up on aluminum plates at low temperatures, viscosity measurement of a cooling oil flow at temperatures up to 160 °C and monitoring metal debris in cooling oil engines is demonstrated.

  19. Fourier Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Fourier transformation is a very important tool for signal analysis but also helpful to simplify the solution of differential equations or the calculation of convolution integrals. An important numerical method is the discrete Fourier transformation which can be used for trigonometric interpolation and also as a numerical approximation to the continuous Fourier integral. It can be realized efficiently by Goertzel's algorithm or the family of fast Fourier transformation methods. For real valued even functions the computationally simpler discrete cosine transformation can be applied. Several computer experiments demonstrate the principles of trigonometric interpolation and nonlinear filtering.

  20. Sequence stratigraphy: An integrated technique for exploration and exploitation, Part 2: Seismic examples

    SciTech Connect

    Burgis, W.A.

    1995-12-31

    Exxon`s concepts of sequence stratigraphy developed from the stratigraphic interpretation of reflection seismic data, a technique referred to as seismic stratigraphy. Differentiation of chronostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy is critical in interpreting sequences on seismic data, as well as in outcrops, logs, and cores. Extensive experience indicates that reflection geometries follow time lines in the rock record and that facies variations are recorded by lateral changes in reflection attributes, such as amplitude and continuity. Integration of all available well, outcrop, and literature data into a seismic interpretation is essential to reducing the risks associated with predictions of play parameters using seismic stratigraphy.

  1. Alignment and Integration Techniques for Mirror Segment Pairs on the Constellation X Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Lehan, John; Olsen, Larry; Owens, Scott; Saha, Timo; Wallace, Tom; Zhang, Will

    2007-01-01

    We present the concepts behind current alignment and integration techniques for testing a Constellation-X primary-secondary mirror segment pair in an x-ray beam line test. We examine the effects of a passive mount on thin glass x-ray mirror segments, and the issues of mount shape and environment on alignment. We also investigate how bonding and transfer to a permanent housing affects the quality of the final image, comparing predicted results to a full x-ray test on a primary secondary pair.

  2. Comparison of an integral equation on energy and the ray-tracing technique in room acoustics.

    PubMed

    Le Bot, A; Bocquillet, A

    2000-10-01

    This paper deals with a comparison of two room acoustic models. The first one is an integral formulation stemming from power balance and the second is the ray-tracing technique with a perfectly diffuse reflection law. The common assumptions to both models are the uncorrelated wave hypothesis and the perfectly diffuse reflection law. The latter allows the use of these methods for nondiffuse fields beyond the validity domain of Sabine's formula. Comparisons of numerical simulations performed with the softwares RAYON and CeReS point out that these results are close to each other and finally, a formal proof is proposed showing that both methods are actually equivalent.

  3. Integrated Imaging and Vision Techniques for Industrial Inspection: A Special Issue on Machine Vision and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Ukida, H.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Forsyth, D. S.

    2010-06-05

    Imaging- and vision-based techniques play an important role in industrial inspection. The sophistication of the techniques assures high- quality performance of the manufacturing process through precise positioning, online monitoring, and real-time classification. Advanced systems incorporating multiple imaging and/or vision modalities provide robust solutions to complex situations and problems in industrial applications. A diverse range of industries, including aerospace, automotive, electronics, pharmaceutical, biomedical, semiconductor, and food/beverage, etc., have benefited from recent advances in multi-modal imaging, data fusion, and computer vision technologies. Many of the open problems in this context are in the general area of image analysis methodologies (preferably in an automated fashion). This editorial article introduces a special issue of this journal highlighting recent advances and demonstrating the successful applications of integrated imaging and vision technologies in industrial inspection.

  4. Techniques and equipment for assessing the structural integrity of subterranean tower anchor rods

    DOEpatents

    Hinz, William R.; Parker, Matthew J.

    2001-01-01

    Techniques and equipment for evaluating structural integrity of buried anchor rods in situ are disclosed. The techniques avoid excavation of soil and avoid, or at least reduce, the possibility of damage to the rods or the concrete in which they may be embedded when evaluations are conducted. Instead, ultrasonic energy is transmitted through the rod from a portable transducer, and returned energy (in either or both of direct and mode-converted states) may be analyzed to assist in detecting flaws, corrosion, wastage, or other degradation of the rod. Data from a field evaluation may be compared with baseline data maintained either for a specific rod or for rods of similar composition and length (or both), and periodic field evaluations of a rod may be used to analyze trends in its structure over time.

  5. Integrated multi-criteria flood vulnerability approach using fuzzy TOPSIS and Delphi technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G.; Jun, K.-S.; Chung, E.-S.

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to develop a new procedure that combines multi-criteria spatial vulnerability analysis with the traditional linear probabilistic risk approach. This approach is named integrated fuzzy flood vulnerability assessment because it combines the watershed-based vulnerability framework with stream-based risk analysis. The Delphi technique and pressure-state-impact-response framework are introduced to objectively select evaluation criteria, and the fuzzy TOPSIS technique is proposed to address the uncertainty of weights to all criteria and crisp input data of all spatial units. ArcGIS is used to represent the spatial results to all criteria. This framework is applied to the south Han River basin in South Korea. As a result, the flood vulnerability ranking was derived and vulnerability characteristics of all spatial units were compared. This framework can be used to conduct a prefeasibility study for flood mitigation projects when various stakeholders should be included.

  6. New integration techniques for chemical kinetic rate equations. 2: Accuracy comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the accuracy of several techniques recently developed for solving stiff differential equations is presented. The techniques examined include two general purpose codes EEPISODE and LSODE developed for an arbitrary system of ordinary differential equations, and three specialized codes CHEMEQ, CREKID, and GCKP84 developed specifically to solve chemical kinetic rate equations. The accuracy comparisons are made by applying these solution procedures to two practical combustion kinetics problems. Both problems describe adiabatic, homogeneous, gas phase chemical reactions at constant pressure, and include all three combustion regimes: induction, heat release, and equilibration. The comparisons show that LSODE is the most efficient code - in the sense that it requires the least computational work to attain a specified accuracy level. An important finding is that an iterative solution of the algebraic enthalpy conservation equation for the temperature can be more accurate and efficient than computing the temperature by integrating its time derivative.

  7. New integration techniques for chemical kinetic rate equations. II - Accuracy comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the accuracy of several techniques recently developed for solving stiff differential equations is presented. The techniques examined include two general purpose codes EEPISODE and LSODE developed for an arbitrary system of ordinary differential equations, and three specialized codes CHEMEQ, CREKID, and GCKP84 developed specifically to solve chemical kinetic rate equations. The accuracy comparisons are made by applying these solution procedures to two practical combustion kinetics problems. Both problems describe adiabatic, homogeneous, gas phase chemical reactions at constant pressure, and include all three combustion regimes: induction heat release, and equilibration. The comparisons show that LSODE is the most efficient code - in the sense that it requires the least computational work to attain a specified accuracy level. An important finding is that an iterative solution of the algebraic enthalpy conservation equation for the temperature can be more accurate and efficient than computing the temperature by integrating its time derivative.

  8. New integration techniques for chemical kinetic rate equations. II - Accuracy comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, K.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of the accuracy of several techniques recently developed for solving stiff differential equations is presented. The techniques examined include two general purpose codes EEPISODE and LSODE developed for an arbitrary system of ordinary differential equations, and three specialized codes CHEMEQ, CREKID, and GCKP84 developed specifically to solve chemical kinetic rate equations. The accuracy comparisons are made by applying these solution procedures to two practical combustion kinetics problems. Both problems describe adiabatic, homogeneous, gas phase chemical reactions at constant pressure, and include all three combustion regimes: induction heat release, and equilibration. The comparisons show that LSODE is the most efficient code - in the sense that it requires the least computational work to attain a specified accuracy level. An important finding is that an iterative solution of the algebraic enthalpy conservation equation for the temperature can be more accurate and efficient than computing the temperature by integrating its time derivative.

  9. Image accuracy and representational enhancement through low-level, multi-sensor integration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Multi-Sensor Integration (MSI) is the combining of data and information from more than one source in order to generate a more reliable and consistent representation of the environment. The need for MSI derives largely from basic ambiguities inherent in our current sensor imaging technologies. These ambiguities exist as long as the mapping from reality to image is not 1-to-1. That is, if different {open_quotes}realities{close_quotes} lead to identical images, a single image cannot reveal the particular reality which was the truth. MSI techniques attempt to resolve some of these ambiguities by appropriately coupling complementary images to eliminate possible inverse mappings. What constitutes the best MSI technique is dependent on the given application domain, available sensors, and task requirements. MSI techniques can be divided into three categories based on the relative information content of the original images with that of the desired representation: (1) {open_quotes}detail enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the relative information content of the original images is less rich than the desired representation; (2) {open_quotes}data enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the MSI techniques are concerned with improving the accuracy of the data rather than either increasing or decreasing the level of detail; and (3) {open_quotes}conceptual enhancement,{close_quotes} wherein the image contains more detail than is desired, making it difficult to easily recognize objects of interest. In conceptual enhancement one must group pixels corresponding to the same conceptual object and thereby reduce the level of extraneous detail.

  10. An efficient technique for the reduction of wavelength noise in resonance-based integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Farshid; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali

    2014-11-21

    A systematic study of the limit of detection (LOD) in resonance-based silicon photonic lab-on-chip sensors is presented. The effects of the noise, temperature fluctuations, and the fundamental thermodynamic limit of the resonator are studied. Wavelength noise is identified as the dominant source of noise, and an efficient technique for suppressing this noise is presented. A large ensemble of statistical data from the transmission measurements in a laser-scanning configuration on five silicon nitride (SiN) microrings is collected to discuss and identify the sources of noise. The experimental results show that the LOD is limited by a 3σ wavelength noise of ∼1.8 pm. We present a sub-periodic interferometric technique, relying on an inverse algorithm, to suppress this noise. Our technique reduces the wavelength noise by more than one order of magnitude to an ensemble average of 3σ = 120 fm, for a resonator quality factor (Q) of about 5 × 10(4) without any temperature stabilization or cooling. This technique is readily amenable to on-chip integration to realize highly accurate and low-cost lab-on-chip sensors.

  11. Pulse-power integrated-decay technique for the measurement of thermal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharalkar, Nachiket M.; Hayes, Linda J.; Valvano, Jonathan W.

    2008-07-01

    A pulse-power integrated-decay technique for the measurement of thermal conductivity of biological tissues is presented. A self-heated thermistor probe is used to deliver heat and also to measure the temperature response. Three-dimensional finite element analyses are used in this paper to design and optimize the technique. The thermal conductivity measurements from the computer simulations were in close accordance with the experimental data. An empirical calibration process, performed in glycerol and agar-gelled water, provides accurate thermal conductivity measurements. An accuracy analysis evaluated multiple experimental protocols using three solutions of known thermal properties. The results indicate that the thermal decay technique protocol had better accuracy than the constant temperature heating techniques. In vitro measurements demonstrate the variability of tissue thermal conductivity, and the need to perform direct measurements for tissues of interest. The factors that may introduce error in the experimental data are (i) poor thermal/physical contact between the thermistor probe and tissue sample, (ii) water loss from tissue during the course of experimentation and (iii) temperature stability.

  12. PwrSoC (integration of micro-magnetic inductors/transformers with active semiconductors) for more than Moore technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathuna, Cian Ó.; Wang, Ningning; Kulkarni, Santosh; Roy, Saibal

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces the concept of power supply on chip (PwrSoC) which will enable the development of next-generation, functionally integrated, power management platforms with applications in dc-dc conversion, gate drives, isolated power transmission and ultimately, high granularity, on-chip, power management for mixed-signal, SOC chips. PwrSoC will integrate power passives with the power management IC, in a 3D stacked or monolithic form factor, thereby delivering the performance of a highefficiency dc-dc converter within the footprint of a low-efficiency linear regulator. A central element of the PwrSoC concept is the fabrication of power micro-magnetics on silicon to deliver micro-inductors and micro-transformers. The paper details the magnetics on silicon process which combines thin film magnetic core technology with electroplated copper conductors. Measured data for micro-inductors show inductance operation up to 20 MHz, footprints down to 0.5 mm2, efficiencies up to 93% and dc current carrying capability up to 600 mA. Measurements on micro-transformers show voltage gain of approximately - 1 dB at between 10 MHz and 30 MHz. Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  13. Improving Outcomes through Transformational Health and Social Care Integration - The Scottish Experience.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Anne; Taylor, Alison; Mercer, Stewart; Knight, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Scottish Parliament recently passed legislation on integrating healthcare and social care to improve the quality and outcomes of care and support for people with multiple and complex needs across Scotland. This ambitious legislation provides a national framework to accelerate progress in person-centred and integrated care and support for the growing number of people who have multiple physical and mental health conditions and complex needs. Additional investment and improvement capacity is helping to commission support and services that are designed and delivered with people in local communities and in partnership with housing, community, voluntary and independent sectors.

  14. A sub-second fast Fourier transform-adsorptive voltammetric technique for the nano-level determination of guthion at a gold microelectrode in flowing solutions.

    PubMed

    Nabi Bidhendi, Gholamreza; Norouzi, Parviz; Daneshgar, Parandis; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2007-05-08

    This research demonstrates the quick guthion monitoring with the help of a sensitive method called fast Fourier transformation continuous cyclic voltammetry (FFTCV). Fortunately, FFTCV illustrates the benefits of precision, determination speed, cost-effectiveness, accuracy and simplicity, in comparison with formerly reported techniques. In particular, this method was applied to a gold microelectrode in flowing solutions to detect the guthion concentration in its formulations. The effects of several parameters were examined regarding the sensitivity of the method. After a series of experiments, the detection limit of the method was found to be equal to 1.27 pg/mL, when the optimum conditions were imposed, which is a scan rate value of 40V/s, an accumulation time of 0.4s, an accumulation potential of 0mV and a pH value of 2. During the measurements performance, the integration range of currents included all the potential scan ranges, even the oxidation and reduction of the Au surface electrode, for the achievement of a sensitive determination. Then, the potential waveform, consisting of the potential steps for cleaning, accumulation and the step for the potential ramp, was applied to an Au disk microelectrode in a continuous way. It is also important to refer to the positive points, presented only by the use of this technique. Firstly, it is no longer necessary to remove the oxygen from the test solution. Furthermore, the quick determination of any such compound in many chromatographic methods is possible. Thirdly, the corresponding detection limit is of nanomolar level.

  15. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  16. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  17. Inverse measurement of stiffness by the normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric

    2012-06-07

    The single specimen normalization technique for J-integral fracture toughness has been successfully employed by several researchers to study the strongly non-linear fracture response of ductile semicrystalline polymers. As part of the normalization technique the load and the plastic component of displacement are normalized. The normalized data is then fit with a normalization function that approximates a power law for small displacements that are dominated by blunting and smoothly transitions to a linear relationship for large displacements that are dominated by stable crack extension. Particularly for very ductile polymers the compliance term used to determine the plastic displacement can dominate the solution and small errors in determining the elastic modulus can lead to large errors in the normalization or even make it ill-posed. This can be further complicated for polymers where the elastic modulus is strong strain rate dependent and simply using a 'quasistatic' modulus from a dogbone measurement may not equate to the dominant strain rate in the compact tension specimen. The current work proposes directly measuring the compliance of the compact tension specimen in the solution of J-integral fracture toughness and then solving for the elastic modulus. By comparison with a range of strain rate data the dominant strain rate can then be determined.

  18. Infrared Thermography-based Biophotonics: Integrated Diagnostic Technique for Systemic Reaction Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainer, Boris G.; Morozov, Vitaly V.

    A peculiar branch of biophotonics is a measurement, visualisation and quantitative analysis of infrared (IR) radiation emitted from living object surfaces. Focal plane array (FPA)-based IR cameras make it possible to realize in medicine the so called interventional infrared thermal diagnostics. An integrated technique aimed at the advancement of this new approach in biomedical science and practice is described in the paper. The assembled system includes a high-performance short-wave (2.45-3.05 μm) or long-wave (8-14 μm) IR camera, two laser Doppler flowmeters (LDF) and additional equipment and complementary facilities implementing the monitoring of human cardiovascular status. All these means operate synchronously. It is first ascertained the relationship between infrared thermography (IRT) and LDF data in humans in regard to their systemic cardiovascular reactivity. Blood supply real-time dynamics in a narcotized patient is first visualized and quantitatively represented during surgery in order to observe how the general hyperoxia influences thermoregulatory mechanisms; an abrupt increase in temperature of the upper limb is observed using IRT. It is outlined that the IRT-based integrated technique may act as a take-off runway leading to elaboration of informative new methods directly applicable to medicine and biomedical sciences.

  19. Integration of ab-initio nuclear calculation with derivative free optimization technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sharda, Anurag

    2008-01-01

    Optimization techniques are finding their inroads into the field of nuclear physics calculations where the objective functions are very complex and computationally intensive. A vast space of parameters needs searching to obtain a good match between theoretical (computed) and experimental observables, such as energy levels and spectra. Manual calculation defies the scope of such complex calculation and are prone to error at the same time. This body of work attempts to formulate a design and implement it which would integrate the ab initio nuclear physics code MFDn and the VTDIRECT95 code. VTDIRECT95 is a Fortran95 suite of parallel code implementing the derivative-free optimization algorithm DIRECT. Proposed design is implemented for a serial and parallel version of the optimization technique. Experiment with the initial implementation of the design showing good matches for several single-nucleus cases are conducted. Determination and assignment of appropriate number of processors for parallel integration code is implemented to increase the efficiency and resource utilization in the case of multiple nuclei parameter search.

  20. New Techniques for Simulation of Ion Implantation by Numerical Integration of Boltzmann Transport Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shyh-Wei; Guo, Shuang-Fa

    1998-01-01

    New techniques for more accurate and efficient simulation of ion implantations by a stepwise numerical integration of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) have been developed in this work. Instead of using uniform energy grid, a non-uniform grid is employed to construct the momentum distribution matrix. A more accurate simulation result is obtained for heavy ions implanted into silicon. In the same time, rather than utilizing the conventional Lindhard, Nielsen and Schoitt (LNS) approximation, an exact evaluation of the integrals involving the nuclear differential scattering cross-section (dσn=2πp dp) is proposed. The impact parameter p as a function of ion energy E and scattering angle φ is obtained by solving the magic formula iteratively and an interpolation techniques is devised during the simulation process. The simulation time using exact evaluation is about 3.5 times faster than that using the Littmark and Ziegler (LZ) spline fitted cross-section function for phosphorus implantation into silicon.

  1. Transforming Education into the 21st Century by Integrating 1:1 iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Kermit E.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers at Mason County High School are changing from predominantly teacher led instruction to increased student engagement by providing blended learning opportunities through technology integration. Every student and teacher at Mason County High School was provided an iPad as a resource to enhance instruction. The purpose of this case study is…

  2. Capacity Building through Integration and Transformational Leadership--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stöcklin, Sacha

    2011-01-01

    This article suggests that educational managers can have an influence through leadership by establishing certain moderators that integrate and shape the faculty into a solid team working towards a high performing organisation. The study looks at a case in China and draws suggestions that could be used in other similar settings. The conclusion is…

  3. Revenue Forecasting to Integrate CCC Planning and Resource Allocation for Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Ann

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the majority of California community colleges evaluated for re-accreditation received sanctions requiring documented improvement in the integration of college planning and budgeting processes. This study explores the challenges colleges face and the best practices utilized by successful colleges in implementing integrated…

  4. Transforming Education into the 21st Century by Integrating 1:1 iPads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Kermit E.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers at Mason County High School are changing from predominantly teacher led instruction to increased student engagement by providing blended learning opportunities through technology integration. Every student and teacher at Mason County High School was provided an iPad as a resource to enhance instruction. The purpose of this case study is…

  5. Non-canonical integration events in Pichia pastoris encountered during standard transformation analysed with genome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzhans, Jan-Philipp; Wibberg, Daniel; Winkler, Anika; Luttermann, Tobias; Kalinowski, Jörn; Friehs, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The non-conventional yeast Pichia pastoris is a popular host for recombinant protein production in scientific research and industry. Typically, the expression cassette is integrated into the genome via homologous recombination. Due to unknown integration events, a large clonal variability is often encountered consisting of clones with different productivities as well as aberrant morphological or growth characteristics. In this study, we analysed several clones with abnormal colony morphology and discovered unpredicted integration events via whole genome sequencing. These include (i) the relocation of the locus targeted for replacement to another chromosome (ii) co-integration of DNA from the E. coli plasmid host and (iii) the disruption of untargeted genes affecting colony morphology. Most of these events have not been reported so far in literature and present challenges for genetic engineering approaches in this yeast. Especially, the presence and independent activity of E. coli DNA elements in P. pastoris is of concern. In our study, we provide a deeper insight into these events and their potential origins. Steps preventing or reducing the risk for these phenomena are proposed and will help scientists working on genetic engineering of P. pastoris or similar non-conventional yeast to better understand and control clonal variability. PMID:27958335

  6. Revenue Forecasting to Integrate CCC Planning and Resource Allocation for Transformative Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Ann

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the majority of California community colleges evaluated for re-accreditation received sanctions requiring documented improvement in the integration of college planning and budgeting processes. This study explores the challenges colleges face and the best practices utilized by successful colleges in implementing integrated…

  7. [Community diagnosis using qualitative techniques of expectations and experiences in a health area in need of social transformation].

    PubMed

    Ramos Ruiz, Juan Andrés; Pérez Milena, Alejandro; Enguix Martínez, Natalia; Alvarez Nieto, Carmen; Martínez Fernández, M Luz

    2013-01-01

    To know the views, experiences and expectations of care provided by the Andalusian Public Health System (SSPA) of users of an urban area in need of social transformation (ZNTS). Qualitative methodology (exploratory study). Urban basic health zone (16,000 inhabitants, 40% ZNTS). Purposive sampling of users of SSPA and community leaders. Homogeneity criteria: age. Heterogeneity criteria: sex, frequency, active/pensioner, level cultural/economic. Conversational techniques recorded by videotape and moderated by a sociologist (user dicussion groups and in-depth interviews for community leaders). transcription of speeches, coding, categories triangulation and final outcome. Seven groups (43 participants, 58% ZNTS) and 6 leaders. They want continuity of care and choice of professionals, but not the medical change without information and attention's discontinuity primary care/hospital. There's bad physical accesibility by the urban environment in the ZNTS and is criticized admission services and paperwork; the programmed appointment and the electronic prescriptions are improvements but asking more hospital referrals and reviews. There's good appreciation of the professionals (primary care-closer, hospital-greater technical capacity). It needs to improve nursing education and speed of emergency assistance. There's a lack of leadership in the system organization, very fragmented. They know a range of services focusing on the demand for care; other health activities not spread to the users. The SSPA should incorporate the views and expectations of communities in social risk to a real improvement in the quality of care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Measuring Temperature-Dependent Propagating Disturbances in Coronal Fan Loops Using Multiple SDO-AIA Channels and Surfing Transform Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritskiy, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Ofman, Leon

    2013-01-01

    A set of co-aligned high resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling quantitative description of sub visual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional surfing signals extracted from position-timeplots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency - velocity space which exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square root dependence predicted for the slow mode magneto-acoustic wave which seems to be the dominating wave mode in the studied loop structures. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. (2012) to a more general class of fan loop systems not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  9. Simulation of the backscattering spectrometer IN16: how much can be gained by using the phase space transformation technique?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M. A.; Frick, B.

    IN16 is a backscattering spectrometer combining high flux and an excellent resolution. We have studied a possibility to improve both the flux and the dynamic range of this instrument by using the phase space transformation technique to monochromatize a white neutron beam. By using a crystal mounted on a chopper that moves perpendicularly to the average scattering vector of the incident neutrons, it is possible to increase significantly the number of neutrons in a given wavelength band at the expense of worsening the Q resolution. In order to obtain reliable information about the improvement that could be achieved by applying this principle to the existing instrument, we have performed simulations with the McStas package to compare the flux of IN16 in its present configuration with that of an hypothetical IN16B located at the end position of a straight focusing neutron guide. The simulations reproduce well several test experiments performed on IN16 and allow us to predict that a gain in flux of about an order of magnitude can be expected.

  10. Improving adaptive generalized polynomial chaos method to solve nonlinear random differential equations by the random variable transformation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, J.-C.; Romero, J.-V.; Roselló, M.-D.; Villanueva, R.-J.

    2017-09-01

    Generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) is a spectral technique in random space to represent random variables and stochastic processes in terms of orthogonal polynomials of the Askey scheme. One of its most fruitful applications consists of solving random differential equations. With gPC, stochastic solutions are expressed as orthogonal polynomials of the input random parameters. Different types of orthogonal polynomials can be chosen to achieve better convergence. This choice is dictated by the key correspondence between the weight function associated to orthogonal polynomials in the Askey scheme and the probability density functions of standard random variables. Otherwise, adaptive gPC constitutes a complementary spectral method to deal with arbitrary random variables in random differential equations. In its original formulation, adaptive gPC requires that both the unknowns and input random parameters enter polynomially in random differential equations. Regarding the inputs, if they appear as non-polynomial mappings of themselves, polynomial approximations are required and, as a consequence, loss of accuracy will be carried out in computations. In this paper an extended version of adaptive gPC is developed to circumvent these limitations of adaptive gPC by taking advantage of the random variable transformation method. A number of illustrative examples show the superiority of the extended adaptive gPC for solving nonlinear random differential equations. In addition, for the sake of completeness, in all examples randomness is tackled by nonlinear expressions.

  11. Extended motion adaptive signal integration technique for real-time image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, David C.; Piacentino, Michael; Chai, Sek

    2012-06-01

    Fast moving cameras often generate distorted and blurred images characterized by reduced sharpness (due to motion blur) and insufficient dynamic range. Reducing sensor integration times to minimize blur are often used but the light intensity and image Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) would be reduced as well. We propose a Motion Adaptive Signal Integration (MASI) algorithm that operates the sensor at a high frame rate, with real time alignment of individual image frames to form an enhanced quality video output. This technique enables signal integration in the digital domain, allowing both high SNR performance and low motion blur induced by the camera motion. We also show, in an Extended MASI (EMASI) algorithm, that high dynamic range can be achieved by combining high frame rate images of varying exposures. EMASI broadens the dynamic range of the sensor and extends the sensitivity to work in low light and noisy conditions. In a moving platform, it also reduces static noise in the sensor. This technology can be used in aerial surveillance, satellite imaging, border securities, wearable sensing, video conferencing and camera phone imaging applications.

  12. Extract transformation loading from OLTP to OLAP data using pentaho data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaki, R. J.; Waworuntu, J.; Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.

    2016-04-01

    The design of the data warehouse in this case is expected to solve the problem of evaluation of learning results as well as the relevance of the information received to support decision-making by the leader. Data warehouse design is very important, which is designed to utilize the existing resources of information. GPA (Grade Point Average) data warehouse can be used for the process of evaluation, decision making and even further planning of the study program of PTIK. The diversity of data sources in the course PTIK make decisionmaking and evaluation process becomes not easier. Pentaho Data Integration is used to integrate data in PTIK easy. CPI data warehouse design with multidimensional database modeling approach using the dimension tables and fact tables.

  13. Path integral approach to the pricing of timer options with the Duru-Kleinert time transformation.

    PubMed

    Liang, L Z J; Lemmens, D; Tempere, J

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a time substitution as used by Duru and Kleinert in their treatment of the hydrogen atom with path integrals is performed to price timer options under stochastic volatility models. We present general pricing formulas for both the perpetual timer call options and the finite time-horizon timer call options. These general results allow us to find closed-form pricing formulas for both the perpetual and the finite time-horizon timer options under the 3/2 stochastic volatility model as well as under the Heston stochastic volatility model. For the treatment of timer options under the 3/2 model we will rely on the path integral for the Morse potential, with the Heston model we will rely on the Kratzer potential. © 2011 American Physical Society

  14. Design of Hilbert transformers with tunable THz bandwidths using a reconfigurable integrated optical FIR filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Nam Quoc; Song, Yufeng; Lin, Bo

    2011-02-01

    We present the design and analysis of a wideband and tunable optical Hilbert transformer (OHT) using a tunable waveguide-based finite-impulse response (FIR) filter structure by using the digital filter design method and the Remez algorithm. The tunable Nth-order waveguide-based FIR filter, which simply consists of N delay lines, N tunable couplers, N tunable phase shifters and a combiner, can be tuned, by thermally adjusting the tunable couplers and tunable phase shifters, to tune the bandwidth of an OHT using silica-based planar lightwave circuit (PLC) technology. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, the simulation results have an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The tunable OHT can function as a wideband and tunable 90° phase shifter and thus has many potential applications. The two unique features of wideband characteristic (up to ~ 2 THz) and tunable bandwidth (THz tuning range) of the proposed OHT cannot be obtained from the existing OHTs.

  15. A Fully Integrated Global Strategic Supply Network - A Critical Enabler of DoD Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    3.1 Supply Chain Management Defined The Council of Logistics Management (CLM) defines Supply Chain Management ( SCM ) as “the process of planning...point of consumption for the purpose of conforming to customers requirements. “1 Effective SCM has become a core...leaders are expecting SCM to provide them improved methods of integrating their businesses with both suppliers and customers, while driving ever higher

  16. Pattern Representation and Evaluation of Data through Integration Correlation, and Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    iterative process to translate the CWA results into requirements for prototype visualizations. Mockup visualizations were developed for an integrated...stream (Milestone 2) as will be detailed later in this report. The results of the cognitive work analysis (reportable outcome 1) and prototype mockups ...reportable outcome 2) are detailed below. Each mockup underwent a series of design iterations to ensure that the visualizations made sense for the

  17. A technique for deriving column-integrated water content using VAS split-window data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillory, Anthony R.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm is examined that uses VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) 11- and 12-micron (split-window) data to derive column-integrated water content (IWC) at mesoscale resolution. The algorithm is physically based and derives its first-guess information from radiosonde data. The procedure is applied first to a test case data set and then to the 19 June 1986 study day from the Cooperative Huntsville Meteorological Experiment (COHMEX). Ground truth data for verifying results from the technique include IWC from National Weather Service and COHMEX radiosondes, the Multispectral Atmospheric Mapping Sensor (MAMS), and a special set of VAS soundings (12 channel) using an independent retrieval method. Results from the test case show reasonable accuracy with the rms errors as low as +/- 3.8 mm. On the 19 June case study day IWC analyses depict reasonable gradients and exhibit good spatial and temporal continuity. Furthermore, they provide insight into preferred regions for cumulus cloud and thunderstorm formation. On the average, a mean absolute retrieval error of 2.4 mm (an 8.1 percent error) and a rms error of +/- 2.9 mm are obtained on the case study day. These results compare favorably with those from existing VAS IWC techniques. Overall, the findings indicate that the technique has excellent potential to depict mesoscale moisture variations.

  18. Fabrication techniques for multiscale 3D-MEMS with vertical metal micro- and nanowire integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, F.; Quednau, S.; Dassinger, F.; Sarwar, R.; Schlaak, H. F.; Guttmann, M.; Meyer, P.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents different low-temperature and high-throughput LIGA-like processes for the batch fabrication of metal micro systems that use long nano- or microwires perpendicularly rising from a substrate. First, circuit paths and seed layers are fabricated applying standard UV lithography and PVD. Second, three lithography techniques are used, namely ion track lithography, enhanced UV lithography and aligned x-ray lithography, to structure 20-400 µm thick polymer films. Ion track lithography is only used to fabricate extremely high aspect ratio cylindrical pores with 0.1-1 µm diameter and 20-100 µm length. The aligned UV and x-ray lithographies are employed to structure templates for various micro system components. Third, these polymer templates are filled using low-temperature electroplating processes transferring the polymer openings into metal structures. Finally, the polymer is dry etched to release all metal structures. These structures are applicable in future accelerometers and gas flow sensors. Using five configurations to define five different functional structures, we demonstrate fabrication processes applying the three different types of lithography. The main aspects concern the combination of both standard lithography techniques and especially developed lithography techniques. Furthermore, these aspects comprise the use of structures created by lithography for high aspect ratio polymer templates and multilayer electroplating with varying aspect ratios. The growth in place of nanowire arrays and micropillars along with surrounding structures is the key feature for low-temperature large-scale micro-nano integration technology without harmful transfer technologies.

  19. GGOS-D: A German project on the integration of space geodetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothnagel, A.; Rothacher, M.; Angermann, D.; Artz, T.; Bökmann, S.; et al.

    2008-04-01

    Since September 2005 the German Ministry for Research and Education has been funding a group of scientists at GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ Potsdam), Deutsches Geod¨tisches Forschungsinstitut (DGFI a Munich), Bundesamt f¨ r Kartographie und Geod¨sie (BKG Frankfurt am Main) and Institut f¨ r Geod¨sie u a u a und Geoinformation der Universit¨t Bonn (IGGB Bonn) in a project related to the integration of space a geodetic techniques. These groups comprise experience in GPS, SLR, and VLBI observing techniques as well as in satellite altimetry, global gravity field investigations and large scale combinations. They cooperate with the aim to investigate the production of reference frames and related time series which are consistent across techniques by adapting software packages to common standards and by refining combination procedures. Since the aims of the project closely resemble the general ideas of the GGOS initiative (Global Geodetic Observing System) by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG), the group has gathered under the acronym GGOS-D.

  20. An integro-differential transform to analytically reduce H2 molecular integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straton, Jack

    2012-06-01

    Molecular integrals that have a coordinate dependence akin to the bonding H2 wave function are often carried out one-by-one, using hyper-spherical coordinates [1], Jacobi coordinates or bond-length coordinates [2], or confocal ellipsoidal coordinates [3]. An alternative strategy is to extend the general result developed by the author [4] for evaluating integrals of any number of products of multicenter ground-state or excited [5] atomic wave functions, Coulomb or Yukawa potentials, and Coulomb-waves [6] to include the H2 molecular wave function. Modifications for semi-infinite integrals that terminate on a surface such as a Scanning Tunneling Microscope sample are also discussed. [4pt] [1] Y. Zhou, C. D. Lin and J. Shertzer, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, 3937-3949 (1993).[0pt] [2] J. M. Hutson and P. Soldan, International Reviews in Physical Chemistry, 26(1) 1 - 28 (January 2007).[0pt] [3] J. P. Grivet, J. Chem. Educ., 79(1), 127 (2002).[0pt] [4] Jack C. Straton, Phys. Rev. A 39, 1676-84 (1989); Erratum Phys. Rev. A 40, 2819 (1989).[0pt] [5] Jack C. Straton, Phys. Rev. A 41, 71-7 (1990).[0pt] [6] Jack C. Straton, Phys. Rev. A 42, 307-10 (1990).