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Sample records for integrated blood bank

  1. Integration of automated systems in blood-banking services.

    PubMed

    Pálffy, S

    1981-03-01

    The objectives, place and advantages of automation in blood-banking services are outlined with reference to the perennial need of blood services to achieve the optimum balance between fluctuating requirements for and supplies of blood while allowing for the brevity of most blood products' useful life-span. Regional, national and international integration of automated systems in blood services is then shown to depend upon mutual agreement concerning data definitions, formats and representations and the development of an internationally accepted standard blood data communication record is proposed.

  2. Virtual blood bank.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kit Fai

    2011-01-24

    Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.

  3. Blood Bank Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Blood bank operations of various hospitals in the Monterey area and the Red Cross Center in San Jose were studied, and as a result a simulation model...is developed which is used to determine the effects on shortages and outdating of various operating policies in a given blood bank . Data from Fort

  4. [Cord blood banking].

    PubMed

    Cepulić, Branka Golubić; Bojanić, Ines; Mazić, Sanja

    2009-06-01

    Transplantation of cord blood stem cells is a new and rapidly developing area. It has been used as a treatment for many diseases such as hematologic malignancies, primary immune deficiencies and metabolic diseases. Recently, stem cells have been used in regenerative medicine, particularly in neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. For these reasons interest has been growing in banking cord blood. To be able to find an acceptable donor for any recipient in need, it is necessary to have on stock a great diversity of cells with different genetic types from different populations. Networks of banks and registries have been created around the world in order to share and exchange transplants. Public banks organize collection for altruistic donor of cord blood for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and for directed donation in families at risk. But there are increasing numbers of families that are requesting storage of cord blood for possible future therapeutic use in the family. Establishment of cord blood banks has raised a number of important scientific, legal, ethical and political issues, which are discussed in this paper.

  5. Cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Warwick, Ruth; Armitage, Sue

    2004-12-01

    Cord blood (CB) is a unique product, rich in haemopoietic stem cells (HSC), that is currently used in the transplantation setting to restore haemopoiesis. It restores haemopoietic stem cell function in patients suffering from malignancies, bone marrow (BM) failure disorders and inherited metabolic and immunological disorders. Related and unrelated CB donations have been successfully transplanted in both the paediatric and adult settings. CB, previously considered a waste product, can be collected from both vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections, either in utero or ex utero, at no risk to the donor, processed to remove excess plasma and red cells, cryopreserved, tested, HLA-typed and stored to provide an 'off-the-shelf' product. CB has a lower risk of some important viral infections and a lower incidence and severity of acute and chronic graft versus host disease (GvHD) than BM. CB transplantation is under innovative development and international collaborative studies are investigating ways to improve transplant outcomes. Other uses for CB remain speculative and it is premature to speculate whether non-haemopoietic stem cells are present in cord blood in sufficient numbers for use against degenerative conditions, as is currently postulated by some commercial organisations. Cord blood banking in EU member countries is now regulated by an EU Directive, which provides a statutory basis for regulation safety to ensure efficacy. Compliance is required by 2006. It requires that all banking establishments are inspected and accredited by a Competent Authority. This includes public altruistic banking as well as directed banking activities.

  6. Military Blood Banking (Civil Disasters).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    number of casualties the hospital can accommodate and this information should be available to the professional staff and blood bank . This variable is...responsible for handling mass casualties are strongly recommended for the blood bank and hospital staff. (Author)

  7. [Cord blood banks].

    PubMed

    Buljan Culej, Jasminka

    2007-12-01

    Cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells which are universal for all other cells of the whole body. They have the ability to develop in any of the body cells, depending on stimulation by different growth factors. The ease of sampling, cryopreservation, and above all successful engraftment make placental blood a possible alternative for bone marrow donation. The advantages of cord blood cells over bone marrow stem cells in allogeneic transplants include their young age and immature status, which reduce the severity of graft versus host reaction. However, the number of cells is much more limited than with bone marrow (about ten time less); therefore, for the time being, the procedure is not equivalent to marrow donation. Cord blood banks would increase HLA diversity, and they are therefore expected to solve two sets of immunogenetic problems: (1) since less stringent compatibility is needed, children with a rare HLA group could benefit from a graft when the donor is not perfectly matched; and (2) HLA types infrequently represented in registries may be represented more readily in placental blood banks; although they occur repeatedly in certain ethnic groups or populations, they are only rarely donated to volunteer registries, while these populations are also concerned in transplantation. Many countries in the world have recognized the significance of collecting and preserving cord blood stem cells and their ability to heal or at least improve life.

  8. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  9. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the Établissement français du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  10. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymphoma , aplastic anemia , severe sickle cell disease , and severe combined immunodeficiency . There are two types of banks that store ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Birthing Centers and Hospital Maternity Services A Guide ...

  11. Cord-Blood Banking

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord blood mainly because of the promise that stem cell research holds for the future. Most of us would have little use for stem cells now, but research into using them to treat diseases is ongoing — ...

  12. Experiences with "self service" electronic blood banking.

    PubMed

    Cheng, G

    1998-01-01

    Electronic verification of ABO compatibility (computer crossmatching) has been accepted as the crossmatching procedure for patients without clinically significant alloantibodies. Computer crossmatching offers several advantages over the immediate spin crossmatch and enables the setting up of a self service blood banking system. Self service blood banking saves manpower, improves crossmatch/transfusion(C/T) ratio and makes the maximum surgical blood ordering schedule (MSBOS) redundant. Blood banking service can also be provided at satellite hospitals without stationing blood banking staff there. We have also developed a novel self service system that does not require expensive computer hardware and networking.

  13. Umbilical cord blood banks. Ethical aspects. Public versus private banks.

    PubMed

    Aznar Lucea, Justo

    2012-01-01

    The creation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks raises interesting medical, social, economic and ethical issues. This paper reviews the ethical problems specifically. In this respect, it evaluates: a) whether there are advantages to the use of UCB compared to bone marrow, b) whether or not it is ethical to create UCB banks, c) whether their creation is ethically acceptable in terms of their clinical usefulness or d) the use made of them for therapeutic purposes, and finally e) whether their creation is ethically justified from a cost/profitability point of view. We focus primarily on evaluating the ethical controversy between public and private banks, particularly on whether it is ethical to bank autologous blood in private UCB banks, on the basis of its limited possibilities for use by the cord blood donor. We can conclude that, from an ethical point of view, autologous blood banks have limited acceptance among specialised researchers, scientific societies and other public institutions. Therefore, we believe that it is ethically more acceptable to support the creation of public UCB banks for medical and social reasons and, above all, based on the principle of justice and human solidarity. Nevertheless, there is no definitive ethical argument why a couple, according to their autonomy and freedom, cannot bank their child's UCB in a private bank. An equally acceptable solution could be the creation of mixed banks, such as that proposed by the Virgin Health Bank or like the Spanish system where autologous samples can be stored in public banks but with the proviso that if at any time the stored sample is required by any person other than the donor, it would have to be given to them.

  14. Banking on cord blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood gifted to non-profit public cord blood banks is now routinely used as an alternative source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation for children and adults with cancer, bone marrow failure syndromes, haemoglobinopathies and many genetic metabolic disorders. Because of the success and outcomes of public cord banking, many companies now provide private cord banking services. However, in the absence of any published transplant evidence to support autologous and non-directed family banking, commercial cord banks currently offer a superfluous service.

  15. Ethical considerations in umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nathan S; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2008-01-01

    Pregnant patients have the option at delivery of having their cord blood collected and stored for future use. At many hospitals, they have the option of donating their cord blood to the public banking system for future use by anyone who is an appropriate match (public banking). Patients also have the option of having their cord blood stored for a fee with a commercial/private company for future use within their family (private banking). Currently, private banking is not recommended by major obstetric and pediatric professional organizations. We applied current evidence of the risks and benefits of private and public cord blood banking and accepted ethical principles to answer the following two related questions: 1) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to comply with a request for private banking? and 2) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to routinely offer private banking to women who do not request it? The only situation where there is a known benefit to private banking is when public banking is not available and the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy. We conclude that when presented with a request for private banking, obstetricians have an ethical obligation to explain the lack of proven benefit of this procedure. If the patient still requests private banking, it would be appropriate to comply, because there is minimal or no risk to the procedure. However, obstetricians are not ethically obligated to offer private banking, even when public banking is not available, except in the limited circumstance when the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy.

  16. An audit of blood bank services

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Alok; Sharma, Satish; Ingole, Narayan; Gangane, Nitin

    2014-01-01

    Background: An audit is a written series of simple, direct questions, which when answered and reviewed, tell whether the laboratory is performing its procedures, activities, and policies correctly and on time. Aim: The aim of this study is to briefly highlight the importance of audit in blood bank services. Materials and Methods: An Audit of Blood Bank Services was carried out in a Blood bank of the tertiary care hospital, Central India by using the tool kit, (comprised of checklists) developed by Directorate General of Health Services, Dhaka WHO, July 2008. Results: After going through these checklists, we observed that there is no system for assessing the training needs of staff in the blood bank. There was no provision for duty doctor's room, expert room, medical technologist room and duty care service. There was no checklist for routine check for observation of hemolysis and deterioration of blood and plasma. There was no facility for separate private interview to exclude sexual disease in the donor. Requisition forms were not properly filled for blood transfusion indications. There was no facility for notification of donors who are permanently deferred. There were no records documented for donors who are either temporarily or permanently deferred on the basis of either clinical examination, history, or serological examination. It was found that wearing of apron, cap, and mask was not done properly except in serology laboratory. When the requisition forms for blood transfusions were audited, it was found that many requisition forms were without indications. Conclusion: Regular audit of blood bank services needs to be initiated in all blood banks and the results needs to be discussed among the managements, colleagues, and staffs of blood bank. These results will provide a good opportunity for finding strategies in improving the blood bank services with appropriate and safe use of blood. PMID:24741651

  17. Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking

    PubMed Central

    Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available. PMID:21750089

  18. Family-directed umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M

    2011-11-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available.

  19. Maintaining quality in blood banking.

    PubMed

    Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-03-01

    Regulation of transfusion or blood banking facilities has followed, rather than preceded the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and today we find, in Europe and the United States, the basic regulations developed for the pharmaceutical industry being extended to blood transfusion centres (BTC)*. In this article we explore the role of voluntary accreditation or registration to quality systems standards such as ISO 9000 and discuss how these can be used to advantage and how these standards can provide a substantial base for meeting legislative requirements. In the UK there is also a voluntary accreditation procedure available for all clinical laboratories, known as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA). Comparisons between ISO 9000, CPA and other standards are made. We also discuss how voluntary registration, particularly to ISO 9000 can provide an excellent basis for moving into more extensive and progressive Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes which in turn bring a variety of benefits, not least of which is increased staff involvement in your organisation. Experience of the route to quality through voluntary accreditation suggests that external assessment delivers new insights into the organisation that cannot easily be supplanted by internal audit. In Europe legislation relating to pharmaceuticals has steadily increased in scope and in detailed requirements from those set out in the 1965 Directive 65/65/EEC. The legislative framework has steadily increased, bringing plasma and plasma products as well as others such as radiopharmaceuticals, into the product licensing requirements. The progression of legislation seems unlikely to cease and it is debatable how long the Medicines Control Agency (MCA) and its Inspectorate will accept that BTCs can operate at a level which is different from that of the majority of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The change in emphasis in legislation particularly in Europe means that harm that is caused to a patient by a blood

  20. A Blood Bank Information Management System

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, James J.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized Blood Bank Management system is described. Features include product oriented data input, inventory control reports, product utilization reports, rapid retrieval of individual patient reports. Relative benefits of the system are discussed.

  1. Virtual blood banking in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, K F; Kwan, Angela M Y; Wong, Michael L G; Lam, Clarence C K; Yip, S C

    2012-08-01

    OBJECTIVE. To review our experience in virtual blood banking for intra-operative transfusion in Hong Kong. DESIGN. Retrospective study. SETTING. Three major acute hospitals and a specialised centre for joint replacement surgery with installation of an Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. PATIENTS. Patients undergoing surgery under anaesthesia and requiring intra-operative transfusion for the period from the implementation of the system in individual institutes (Queen Elizabeth Hospital: June 1997; Princess Margaret Hospital: May 2001; Queen Mary Hospital: October 2009; and Hong Kong Buddhist Hospital: December 2010) till September 2011. RESULTS. Under the system, 58 923 units of red cells were released intra-operatively for 18 264 patients (11% of the total number of blood units issued by the blood banks in these institutes during the study period). About 1% of them (613 units) entailed unmatched red cells given to 183 patients for emergency transfusions during surgery. The mean time required for the issue of the first unit of red cells was less than 1 minute. A total of 1231 units of red cells were returned unused after being released. Among them, 95 units were deemed unfit for re-issue because they had left the temperature-monitored blood storage refrigerators in the operating theatres for more than 30 minutes. There was no delay in transfusion or postponement of surgery due to problems or downtime of the Operating Theatre Blood Transaction System. CONCLUSION. Our experience has shown that our virtual blood banking system was efficient and effective, and helped ensure that the right patient received the right amount of the right blood at the right time. The system can be implemented either locally in the same hospital with a central blood bank, or in a more remote and networked site without a nearby supporting blood bank.

  2. A quality system for placental blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sirchia, G; Rebulla, P; Mozzi, F; Lecchi, L; Lazzari, L; Ratti, I

    1998-06-01

    A Quality System for Placental Blood Banking aimed at the transplantation of haematopoietic stem cells to related and unrelated allogeneic recipients is described. It includes the organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management. The Quality System described in this article is based on ISO 9002, a model for quality assurance in production, installation and servicing developed in 1987 and revised in 1994 by the International Organization for Standardization. ISO 9002 includes 20 clauses that provide guidance for the implementation of the Quality System. The development of the Quality System is started by the Placental Blood Bank Medical Director with the definition of a General Quality Plan including: (1) the written description of the Mission, Objectives, Technical and Organizational Policies, and Staff Organization Chart; (2) the definition and acquisition of adequate financial, human and structural resources; (3) the appointment of a Quality System Head, who must identify the Placental Blood Banking process together with the Placental Blood Bank personnel; implement a documentation plan; identify quality indicators; start regular internal audit; report audit results to the Medical Director for review. Following staff training and qualification, the Quality System is launched. The Placental Blood Bank can then undergo audit by an external inspector and be finally certified for compliance to ISO 9002. The Quality System must be maintained and subjected to external audit at regular intervals so that certification is confirmed.

  3. [Quality Control in Umbilical Cord Blood Bank

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Li; Song, Dao-Gang; Shen, Bai-Jun; Pan, Jie

    2001-03-01

    Recent clinical reports have demonstrated that the use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) opened a new source of stem cell for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, leading to the development of cord blood banks world-wide. Prior to the large scale construction of UCB banks, quality control must be performed for health care providers and manufactures. With increasingly stringent regulatory requirement in blood industry, quality control is playing an important role in the operation of blood centers and stem cell laboratories. Reviewed the lectures in the biology of UCB and UCB banks published in recent years, our experiences were discussed in setting up Shandong blood bank to define process variables associated with the collection of UCB, to determine and optimize the procedures and materials used, to ascertain how UCB can be processed in clean room as mononucleated cell preparations, and to analyze using of long-term storage of UCB in research and clinic in the future. Our conclusions are: (1) the establishment of UCB banks for use in transplantation appears to be easy, effective and particularly suitable approach in China under cGMP conditions; (2) the procedures for volume reduction by closed and semi-automated blood processing system, SSP HLA typing, biocode and local computer net, microbiological tests and the 50 ml cryobags for storage constitute a cost efficient system for large-scale UCB banking; (3) the average of 60 ml UCB collection may contain sufficent marrow repopulating cells for children and most of adult recipients; and (4) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in cord blood have a more potent proliferative ability than those derived from bone marrow in cell expansion potentials.

  4. Cord Blood Banking Standards: Autologous Versus Altruistic.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as "biological insurance" should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards.

  5. Cord blood banking: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Cristina; Contreras, Marcela

    2009-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains stem and progenitor cells capable of restoring haematopoietic and immunological function in vivo. UCB is currently used as an alternative source of haematopoietic stem cells for transplantation in patients suffering from haematological malignancies, bone marrow failures and inherited metabolic disorders. In order to facilitate transplantation, large repositories of frozen cord blood units (CBUs) from altruistic donations have been established in many parts of the world and to date there are more than 300,000 units stored worldwide. These products have been banked under stringent quality conditions, in order to ensure their safety and efficacy. The development and evolution of the policies and procedures currently in use in cord blood banking have been largely influenced by the clinical results of cord blood transplantation. This review aims to provide a historical overview of the various developments in the field of cord blood banking from its inception, highlighting the relevant aspects in their collection, banking and release that are known to influence the clinical outcome of these transplants.

  6. Towards responsible cord blood banking models.

    PubMed

    Rebulla, P; Lecchi, L

    2011-04-01

    On 31 May 2010, 14 072 567 bone marrow/apheresis donors registered in 44 countries and 426 501 cord blood units banked in 26 countries for public use were available to treat candidates to haemopoietic stem cell transplant lacking a family related compatible donor. Despite these impressive numbers, additional efforts are required to ensure that all patients, including those from ethnic minorities, can promptly find a suitable donor. Governments, clinicians, scientists, patients and stakeholders should share the responsibility to develop haemopoietic stem cell donation and cord blood banking models able to fully match all patient needs. In this regard, current scientific evidence and prevalent opinions among expert clinicians support solidaristic cord blood donation for public use against the alternative option of commercial autologous cord blood storage.

  7. Management of a Community Hospital Blood Bank: A Descriptive Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The operational activities of a community hospital blood bank are described at all levels with special attention given to the inventory management of...the bank . A distinguishing feature of this blood bank is the use of a centrifuge-freezer system which, prior to the ten day age limit, breaks down...inventory management policies thus include regulating the input of blood into the bank , the transfer of blood from the refrigerator to the freezer and

  8. Military walking blood bank and the civilian blood service.

    PubMed

    Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2012-06-01

    In most countries whole blood transfusions have been replaced by component therapy. This has allowed for both better usage of the blood donations and better quality during storage. While this strategy was initially motivated by the commercial need for plasma the plasma reduction also reduced the levels of low grade proteases and sialidase, hence minimizing the cellular storage lesion/microvesiculation during prolonged storage. Plasma reduction also reduces transfusion reactions associated with plasma. During special military conditions, however, blood transfusion is urgently needed without corresponding access to blood components, in particular platelets. Accordingly, new focus on whole blood has aroused and added a new challenge to the blood transfusion services. This special issue of "what is happening" highlights the planed efforts by Swedish and Norwegian groups in the developments of military walking blood bank, which is applicable to civil blood services.

  9. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  10. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  11. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  12. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  13. 27 CFR 22.105 - Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hospitals, blood banks... Tax-Free Alcohol § 22.105 Hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums. (a) Tax-free alcohol withdrawn for use by hospitals, blood banks, and sanitariums shall be used exclusively for medicinal,...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  17. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... such as blood bank pipettes, blood grouping slides, blood typing tubes, blood typing racks, and cold... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  18. Cord blood banking activity in Iran National Cord Blood Bank: a two years experience.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Mostafa; Atarodi, Kamran; Nakhlestani, Mozhdeh; Abolghasemi, Hasan; Sadegh, Hosein; Faranoosh, Mohammad; Golzade, Khadije; Fadai, Razieh; Niknam, Fereshte; Zarif, Mahin Nikougoftar

    2014-02-01

    Today umbilical cord blood (UCB) has known as a commonly used source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation and many cord blood banks have been established around the world for collection and cryopreservation of cord blood units. Herein, we describe our experience at Iran National Cord Blood Bank (INCBB) during 2 years of activity. From November 2010 to 2012, UCBs were collected from 5 hospitals in Tehran. All the collection, processing, testing, cryopreservation and storage procedures were done according to standard operation procedures. Total nucleated cells (TNC) count, viability test, CD34+ cell count, colony forming unit (CFU) assay, screening tests and HLA typing were done on all banked units. Within 3770 collected units, only 32.9% fulfilled banking criteria. The mean volume of units was 105.2 ml and after volume reduction the mean of TNC, viability, CD34+ cells and CFUs was 10.76×10(8), 95.2%, 2.99×10(6) and 7.1×10(5), respectively. One unit was transplanted at Dec 2012 to a 5-year old patient with five of six HLA compatibilities. In our country banking of UCB is new and high rate of hematopoietic stem cell transplants needs expanding CB banks capacity to find more matching units, optimization of methods and sharing experiences to improve biological characterization of units.

  19. [The banks of umbilical cord blood: biomedical and bioethical issues].

    PubMed

    Usanos, Rafael Amo

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the actuality of the Umbilical Cord Blood Banks (UCBB). Its aim is to offer the necessary notions for the understanding of their nature and of the ethical problems which they carry associated. In order to do this it will lean, on one hand, on the actual bibliography about blood of the umbilical cord and its present and future applications, and on the other hand, on the document of the European Group of Ethics where this issue is discussed. It is of special interest here the existence of the banks called "autologous" that, for some authors, seem to contradict the principle of solidarity. This work will examine, amidst others, this question, and it will suggest a solution articulating both "liberty" and "solidarity". Other topics such as respect to confidentiality, informed consent and integrity of the body will be approached.

  20. Private cord blood banking: current use and clinical future.

    PubMed

    Hollands, Peter; McCauley, Catherina

    2009-09-01

    International private umbilical cord blood banking has expanded rapidly in recent years since the first cord blood transplant which was 20 years ago. Private companies offer parents the opportunity to store umbilical cord blood for the possible future use by their child or other family members. The private cord blood industry has been criticised by a number of professional bodies including the EU Ethics Committee, the Royal College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, the Royal College of Midwives and the US College of Paediatrics. This review presents the arguments from the opponents of private cord blood banking, and then makes the case for private cord banking based on the latest scientific and clinical evidence.

  1. Blood, Soy Milk, and Vitality: The Wartime Origins of Blood Banking in China, 1943-45.

    PubMed

    Soon, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the multiple meanings of blood transfusion and banking in modern China through the history of the first Chinese blood bank, established by the Overseas Chinese in 1943 to solicit blood for the war effort. Through investigating the attitudes of Chinese soldiers and civilians toward the blood bank, this article argues for the multiplicity of motivations underpinning society's attitudes toward blood banking and donation. Cultural notions of blood were an important but not the sole factor in their consideration. Ideas of nationalism and altruism played a role too. What eventually turned out to be most effective for most donors was the promise of eggs and soy milk for blood. Its economic value in the context of wartime scarcity was enough for many to abandon opposition to blood banking. By drawing attention to socioeconomic concerns in biomedical practices, this article provides an alternative examination of blood banking in modern societies.

  2. Cord blood banking: what nurses and healthcare providers should know.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Yasmin

    2011-01-01

    Although the use of embryonic stem cells to treat disease has caused much controversy, one type of stem cell treatment has slowly and steadily shown promise but has not engendered negative ethical media attention: the use of umbilical stem cells. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains stem cells that have already successfully treated a variety of diseases, including leukemias, lymphomas, hemoglobinopathies, immunodeficiencies, and disorders of metabolism; ongoing research continues to explore additional diseases for potential treatment. Cord blood can be stored in private banks or public banks. Private cord blood banks save cord blood for use by the family only, at a cost. Public cord blood banks accept donations and the cord blood is then used for the general public and/or research. A review of the literature finds that public banking is the preferred recommendation over private unless there is a known family member with a disease that can currently be treated with cord blood. This article discusses cord blood banking options as well as the ethical issues and barriers facing both healthcare providers and patients when dealing with cord blood banking.

  3. Court upholds $405,000 award against blood banking industry.

    PubMed

    1995-06-30

    The New Jersey Superior Court has ruled that the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the nation's largest blood bank trade group, was negligent during the early 1980s when it recommended that blood banks not screen and test donors to reduce the chance of HIV contamination of the nation's blood supply. [Name removed], who received HIV-contaminated blood in 1984 as a result of a transfusion at St. Joseph's Hospital in Paterson, sued and reached out-of-court settlements with his doctors and the Bergen Community Blood Center, which provided the blood. Only the AABB suit proceeded to trial, with the jury finding that one-third of the damages were attributable to the AABB's actions. In 1983, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggested that blood banks might reduce the risk of AIDS entering the blood supply by using the surrogate hepatitis B test. The AABB, the American Red Cross, and the Council of Community Blood Centers recommended against testing, saying that evidence of transmission by blood was inconclusive and unproven. In March 1985, the AABB adopted the ELISA test. This is the first time the AABB has been held responsible; the AABB said it may appeal the decision. The court disagreed with AABB's claim that it was immune from liability because it was a charity, saying it also performs a critical governance function in respect of the operation of blood banks. The decision puts considerable liability for the U.S. cases of HIV contracted through tainted blood transfusions on the AABB.

  4. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  5. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  6. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  7. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  8. 21 CFR 864.9275 - Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a) Identification. A blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use is a device used only to separate blood...

  9. Ethical aspects of banking placental blood for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, J; Reisner, E G; Kurtzberg, J

    1995-12-13

    Transplantation of blood cells harvested from the umbilical cord immediately after birth has been effective in repopulating the bone marrow. These placental blood transplantations may be safer than conventional bone marrow transplantations and may suspend the need to harvest bone marrow, a process fraught with difficulties. Further understanding and advancement of this emerging technology require developing large banks of placental blood. In this article, we examine some of the ethical issues associated with placental blood banking, including (1) questions about ownership of the tissue, (2) the necessity and nature of obtaining informed consent from parents for harvesting placental blood and the information-gathering process associated with it, (3) obligations to notify parents and children of the results of medical testing for infectious diseases and genetic information, (4) matters of privacy and confidentiality related to such information, and (5) the need for fair and equitable harvesting of and access to placental blood.

  10. [Immunological blood transfusion safety and selection of red blood cells issued from hospital blood banks].

    PubMed

    Py, J-Y

    2010-12-01

    Allogeneic red blood cells transfusion is always an immunological challenge and the choice of the blood products is crucial for the patient safety. But this choice may be hampered by the quality or the quantity of the available supply. In the end, the lack of transfusion may be more harmful than transfusion. The balance between patients' needs and blood centres supplying is always delicate. The conditions are not the same for all blood groups. Things are easier for the KEL1 phenotype, where the supply must ensure only 92.5% of KEL: -1 red blood cells instead of the 91% expected. More complicated is the situation for group O red blood cells with 47 versus 43%. But the major problem concerns RH: -1 red blood cells, for which the needs reach 20.1 versus 15%. These challenges require a lot of efforts from blood centres staffs to influence blood donors' recruitment and appointments. A justified and carefully selected blood products issuing may be of great help, especially for group O RH: -1 red blood cells. Therefore, hospital blood banks must have ad hoc procedures and a trained staff to put them into practice.

  11. ISO 9000 quality standards: a model for blood banking?

    PubMed

    Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L

    1995-06-01

    The recent American Association of Blood Banks publications Quality Program and Quality Systems in the Blood Bank and Laboratory Environment, the FDA's draft guidelines, and recent changes in the GMP regulations all discuss the benefits of implementing quality systems in blood center and/or manufacturing operations. While the medical device GMPs in the United States have been rewritten to accommodate a quality system approach similar to ISO 9000, the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research of the FDA is also beginning to make moves toward adopting "quality systems audits" as an inspection process rather than using the historical approach of record reviews. The approach is one of prevention of errors rather than detection after the fact (Tourault MA, oral communication, November 1994). The ISO 9000 series of standards is a quality system that has worldwide scope and can be applied in any industry or service. The use of such international standards in blood banking should raise the level of quality within an organization, among organizations on a regional level, within a country, and among nations on a worldwide basis. Whether an organization wishes to become registered to a voluntary standard or not, the use of such standards to become ISO 9000-compliant would be a move in the right direction and would be a positive sign to the regulatory authorities and the public that blood banking is making a visible effort to implement world-class quality systems in its operations. Implementation of quality system standards such as the ISO 9000 series will provide an organized approach for blood banks and blood bank testing operations. With the continued trend toward consolidation and mergers, resulting in larger operational units with more complexity, quality systems will become even more important as the industry moves into the future.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  13. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  14. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  15. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  16. 21 CFR 864.9650 - Quality control kit for blood banking reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a) Identification. A quality control kit for blood banking reagents is a device that consists of sera,...

  17. [How do I assess requirement of a blood bank and its kind for a healthcare establishment?].

    PubMed

    Lafeuillade, B; Tixier, A; Bliem, C; Meyer, F

    2014-12-01

    Access to blood components is required for healthcare establishments, particularly for emergency situation and hospital blood bank was often a response to this requirement. However, the complexity of regulation and economic pressures lead healthcare establishment to review regularly their need for a blood bank. This assessment requires analysis of need for transfusions in terms of delay, quantity and clinical situations to which they must respond. When a blood bank is required, three kinds could be under consideration: emergency blood bank, intermediate blood bank and issuance blood bank. According to requirements, advantages and disadvantages of each kind, healthcare establishments would select the most suitable one.

  18. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-03-16

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serologic screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient's age was 6 years (11 months - 15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 ml (23 - 230) and 8.6 x108 (0.7 - 75 x108), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive Hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84) and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended for optimized utilization of these units.

  19. Can cord blood banks transform into induced pluripotent stem cell banks?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongyan; Rao, Mahendra S

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and the rapid evolution of clinically compliant protocols to generate such lines from a variety of tissue sources has raised the possibility that personalized medicine may be achievable in the near future. Several strategies to deliver iPSCs for iPSC-derived cell-based therapy have been proposed: one such model has been the cell-banking model, using processes developed by the cord blood industry. The cord blood industry has evolved primarily as a banking model in which units of cord blood harvested from discarded placenta are stored either in a public or a private cord blood bank for future use. The consideration of a cord blood--like banking model has been further spurred by the realization that this population of cells is an ideal starting sample to generate pluripotent cells. Spurred by these technological advances, major efforts are underway to develop a current Good Manufacturing Practice--compliant protocol to generate iPSCs from cord blood and to develop a haplobanking strategy. In this article, we discuss the issues that may affect such an effort.

  20. Umbilical Cord Blood: Counselling, Collection, and Banking.

    PubMed

    Armson, B Anthony; Allan, David S; Casper, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Objectif : Analyser les données probantes actuelles sur le counseling, le prélèvement et la mise en banque, en ce qui a trait au sang de cordon ombilical, et fournir des lignes directrices aux professionnels canadiens de la santé en ce qui concerne la sensibilisation des patientes, le consentement éclairé, les aspects techniques et les options pour la mise en banque de sang de cordon au Canada. Options : Prélèvement sélectif ou systématique et mise en banque du sang de cordon ombilical, en vue de futures greffes autologues (chez le patient même) ou allogéniques (lien de parenté ou non) de cellules souches visant la prise en charge de troubles malins et bénins chez les enfants et les adultes. Le sang de cordon peut être prélevé au moyen de techniques in utero ou ex utero. Issues : Counseling, prélèvement et mise en banque en ce qui a trait au sang de cordon ombilical, formation des professionnels de la santé, indications du prélèvement de sang de cordon, risques et avantages à court et à long terme, morbidité maternelle et périnatale, satisfaction parentale et coûts de santé. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans Medline et PubMed à partir de septembre 2013, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « fetal blood », « pregnancy », « transplantation », « ethics ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « umbilical cord blood », « banking », « collection », « pregnancy », « transplantation », « ethics », « public », « private ») MeSH appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux études observationnelles et aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs. Aucune limite n’a été imposée en matière de date, mais les résultats ont été limités aux articles publiés en anglais ou en français. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et int

  1. Cord blood banking in London: the first 1000 collections.

    PubMed

    Armitage, S; Warwick, R; Fehily, D; Navarrete, C; Contreras, M

    1999-07-01

    The London Cord Blood Bank was established with the aim of collecting, processing and storing 10000 unrelated stem cell donations for the significant number of children in the UK requiring transplantation, for whom a matched unrelated bone marrow donor cannot be found. Collection is performed at two hospitals by dedicated cord blood bank staff after delivery of the placenta. Mothers are interviewed regarding medical, ethnic and behavioural history by nurse counsellors and sign a detailed consent form. Donations are returned to the bank for processing. Volume reduction is undertaken by a simple, closed, semi-automated blood processing system, with excellent recovery of progenitor cells. Units are cryopreserved and stored in the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen. Blood samples from mothers and cord blood donations are tested for the UK mandatory red cell and microbiology markers for blood donors. Donations are typed for HLA-A, B and DR at medium resolution (antigen split) level using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probing and sequence-specific priming techniques. The selection of collection hospitals on the basis of ethnic mix has proven effective, with 41.5% of donations derived from non-European caucasoid donors. Bacterial contamination of collections has been dramatically reduced by implementation of improved umbilical cord decontamination protocols.

  2. Analyses of Blood Bank Efficiency, Cost-Effectiveness and Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen

    In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost

  3. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking

    PubMed Central

    Focosi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. Significance The aging population in Western countries is causing a progressive reduction of blood donors and a constant increase of blood recipients. Because blood is the main therapeutic option to treat acute hemorrhage, cost-effective alternatives to blood donations are being actively investigated. The enormous replication capability of induced pluripotent stem cells and their promising results in many other fields of medicine could be an apt solution to produce the large numbers of viable cells required in transfusion and usher in a new era in transfusion medicine. The present report describes the potentiality, technological hurdles, and promises of induced pluripotent stem cells to generate red blood cells by redifferentiation. PMID:26819256

  4. Umbilical cord blood banking: public good or private benefit?

    PubMed

    Samuel, Gabrielle N; Kerridge, Ian H; O'Brien, Tracey A

    2008-05-05

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an accepted curative therapy for many malignant and non-malignant conditions affecting children and adults. Where possible, stem cells for HSCT are provided by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched, related donors. Only 30% of patients have a suitable matched donor; for other patients, donors are sought from bone marrow registries or public umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks. While public UCB banks have been established to support transplant programs in Australia and internationally, parents also have the option of storing their child's UCB in a private commercial UCB bank for personal or family use. In contrast with public UCB banks, there is little social or medical justification for private UCB banking, as it provides no benefit to the community and little benefit to parents (other than reassurance and amelioration of regret), due to the very low likelihood of requiring autologous UCB later in life. Should UCB prove to be beneficial for tissue repair or replacement in the management of degenerative disorders, such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease, then a stronger case may be made in support of commercial banking of UCB for personal use. This may have a major impact on public UCB programs.

  5. Cord blood banking and transplant in Europe. Eurocord.

    PubMed

    Gluckman, E; Rocha, V; Chastang, C

    1998-01-01

    The number of cord blood transplants has been increasing very quickly with more than 250 cases reported to Eurocord Registry and more than 500 patients transplanted via the New York Cord Blood Bank. Cord blood transplants have been performed either with related or unrelated cord blood. Several cord blood banks established a group called Netcord whose goal is the standardization of the procedures, the organization of internal audits for accreditation and qualification, and the communication and exchange by internet of donor search on an international basis. More than 15,000 units of frozen cord blood are currently available and this number is increasing rapidly worldwide. Analysis of the clinical results has shown that related cord blood transplants give better results than unrelated cord blood transplants. Factors associated with better survival in related and unrelated cord blood transplants were lower age, diagnosis, with better results in inborn errors and in good risk children with acute leukemia. A larger number of nucleated cells in the transplant and the recipient being negative for CMV serology were also favourable risk factors for survival. Engraftment was improved with higher numbers of cells and HLA identity. Graft versus Host disease was reduced when compared to transplants of adult allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cells. HLA disparities did not influence GVH; the only factor associated with increased GVH was positive CMV serology in the recipient. This study shows that cord blood is an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation in children and in some adults. HLA disparity is not a limiting factor but the number of cells infused is important; currently the use of a number of nucleated cells inferior to 1 x 10(7)/kg is not recommended. Several questions remain including the criteria of choice of the donor, the indications in children and in adults, the comparison of cord blood transplants to other

  6. Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Optimizing Assignment of Blood in Blood Banking System

    PubMed Central

    Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Adewumi, Aderemi O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment. PMID:25815046

  7. Related cord blood banking for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Screnci, M; Murgi, E; Carmini, D; Piro, L; Cinelli, N; Laurenti, L; Iori, A P; Simone, F; Massari, S; Girelli, G

    2010-06-01

    The aims of this single centre study were to assess the feasibility of related cord blood collecting, the appropriateness of storage and the final suitability for transplantation. Since September 1994, 63 families were enrolled in this study. Families were eligible if they were caring for a patient with a disorder treatable by haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and were experiencing a pregnancy. A total of 72 cord blood units were collected and stored for 64 patients (both siblings and parents). We focussed on human leucocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility and cell content as critical requirements to unit's suitability for transplantation. HLA-typing was carried out for 34 donor-recipient couples and most units (72%) mismatched with the related patients. About 60% of collections had a minimum cell dose considered acceptable for transplantation. Only 21% of units had both compatibility degree and cell content suitable for transplantation. When applicable, information on the compatibility degree between the foetus and the patient should be obtained during pregnancy. Appropriateness of related cord blood banking for parents should be further investigated and cost-effective guidelines policies should be provided. Finally, as banking of related cord blood units is an important resource then, this public service should be supported and enhanced.

  8. Allogeneic unrelated cord blood banking worldwide: an update.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J

    2010-06-01

    Today Cord Blood (CB) Transplants are accepted as a therapeutic resource for the treatment of a variety of disorders, comparing in some cases, with transplants performed with other sources of progenitors. Unrelated Cord Blood Banks (CBBs) have significantly contributed to this improvement by the improvement on the knowledge of the CB biology and technical developments. Today, there are more than 100 active Cord Blood Banks (CBB), with an inventory of more than 400,000 units, which have generated more than 10000 cord blood transplants all around the world. Access to the world-wide CB inventory, as well as the hemopoietic progenitors inventory from adult donors, is a rather complex task which is continuously subject to improvements and consolidations. The growing numbers of CBBs and the search for efficiency has driven them to constitute or adapt consolidated data bases and access systems, and to develop a number of registries or networks to improved the access to inventories. The purpose of the present article is to provide a general overview on the number of CB units stored around the word, the quality accreditation systems and how the CB networks and their national and international inventories and registries are organized in order to support the, every time more efficient search for suitable CB units for patients lacking family donors.

  9. Role of Complement in Blood Preservation and Blood Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    ionic strength solutions (LISS), and characteriza- tion of the other related phenomena occurring under these conditions so that EC43 can be prepared in...or with IyG4, and some with both anti-IgG2, and anti- IgG4 , indicating that these antibodies did not crossreact with each other. Only rare blood group...IgG2, antl-IG3, anti- IgG4 , anti-IgA or anti-Ig4 was used (p ( .002 in all cases.) s* Speifaity of "!4gl GI 0 G G3 G4 A M Th5r UC:154 or W.Q 40- n-10

  10. [Blood products delivery by hospital blood banks in emergency situations in France].

    PubMed

    Schlanger, S; Daurat, G

    2013-12-01

    In France, 13.5% of labile blood products (LBP) are delivered by 644 hospital blood banks, 472 being devoted to emergency only. A nation-wide survey aimed to describe their activity in emergency situations was carried out from September 12th to 26th, 2011. All of 26 French regions but two participated, 548 (85%) of their hospital blood banks answered a questionnaire, of which 56% had actually issued blood in emergency situations. A total of 5241 LBP were delivered, 24% for utmost vital emergencies (UVE), 25% for vital emergencies (VE) and 51% for relative emergencies (RE). In UVE and VE, 47% of the packed red blood cells (PRBC) delivered were O RH1. Females were half of the 2102 patients, mean age was 67 years. In UVE, banks devoted to emergency only, issued LBP for 228 patients (57%) and other banks for 169, acute digestive tract and surgical hemorrhage being the most frequent indications. The average number of PRBC transfused in 24 hours per patient varied with the criticality of the emergency: 2.3 for RE, 3.9 for VE and 6.1 for UVE. The mortality rate at 24 hours of first delivery was 1.2% in RE, 2.8% in VE and 10.1% in UVE. Time between prescription and start of transfusion of PRBC in UVE was within 15 minutes in 50% of cases and within 25 minutes in 75% of cases for emergency devoted banks but respectively 25% and less than 50% for others. The proportion of surviving patients having received more than three LBP in 24 hours was 58% in UVE, 33% in VE and 10% in RE. The proportion of over the limit waiting time for PRBC transfusion in UVE is critical, mainly for banks not only devoted to emergencies. The high proportion of UVE and VE patients receiving three PRBC or less in 24 hours may also be an indicator that some physicians do not comply with emergency prescription rules. An effort should be made to improve the activity, in emergencies, of a part of hospital blood banks and the way physicians use them.

  11. Operational effectiveness and quality assurance mechanisms with stochastic demand of blood supply: blood bank case study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    A general overview of various blood products operational effectiveness and related strategies that can be utilised by service providers (in particular, healthcare providers) is presented in the present study. In terms of the massive volumes of blood products, the North American blood centres collect more than eight million units of whole blood, which represents appropriately 50% of the US and Quebec, Canada?s volunteer donor blood supply. A case study of the quality inspection and inventory control concerns of the Central Blood Bank, located in the metropolitan area of Pittsburgh, PA, is presented. Initially, brief introduction to its general operating environment is followed by sections describing its general situation, quality-service initiatives, and followed by a fairly detailed discussion of the practical applications of lessons learned from the case study.

  12. Prevalence of immediate vasovagal reaction in blood donors visiting two blood banks of Karachi.

    PubMed

    Rohra, D K; Juriasinghani, V; Rai, K; Azam, S I

    2010-06-01

    Vasovagal reaction (VVR) is a very common adverse event related to blood donation. No study has been conducted in Pakistan to estimate the prevalence of VVR in blood donors. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of immediate VVR in blood donors of Karachi, Pakistan. The study was conducted in two blood banks of Karachi. Data regarding the development of immediate VVR were documented. The effect of blood donation on vital parameters like pulse rate, blood pressure (BP), temperature and respiratory rate was also observed. Six hundred and seventy-four blood donors were recruited. All the donors who consented were males. Weakness and dizziness were two most common symptoms which were reported by 91 (13.5%) and 73 (10.8%) of the participants, respectively. Out of 91 donors in whom signs and symptoms of immediate VVR were observed, a significant drop in systolic BP (13.5 +/- 2.5 mmHg) and decrease in pulse rate (13.3 +/- 3.6) were concurrently noted in 55 donors (8.2% of all the participants). There was lack of association of age, body mass index (BMI), estimated blood volume, ethnicity, educational status, profession and first time donation status with the frequency of VVR. Only marital status was found to be significantly associated with higher frequency of immediate VVR, where married donors were having higher odds as compared to singles. The prevalence of VVR in the blood donors at two blood banks of Karachi is at least 8.2%. Furthermore, married men are at more risk of experiencing VVR in our population.

  13. Targeted quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of erythrocyte membranes during blood bank storage.

    PubMed

    Rinalducci, Sara; Longo, Valentina; Ceci, Luigi R; Zolla, Lello

    2015-02-01

    One of the hallmarks of blood bank stored red blood cells (RBCs) is the irreversible transition from a discoid to a spherocyte-like morphology with membrane perturbation and cytoskeleton disorders. Therefore, identification of the storage-associated modifications in the protein-protein interactions between the cytoskeleton and the lipid bilayer may contribute to enlighten the molecular mechanisms involved in the alterations of mechanical properties of stored RBCs. Here we report the results obtained analyzing RBCs after 0, 21 and 35 days of storage under standard blood banking conditions by label free mass spectrometry (MS)-based experiments. We could quantitatively measure changes in the phosphorylation level of crucial phosphopeptides belonging to β-spectrin, ankyrin-1, α-adducin, dematin, glycophorin A and glycophorin C proteins. Data have been validated by both western blotting and pseudo-Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM). Although each phosphopeptide showed a distinctive trend, a sharp increase in the phosphorylation level during the storage duration was observed. Phosphopeptide mapping and structural modeling analysis indicated that the phosphorylated residues localize in protein functional domains fundamental for the maintenance of membrane structural integrity. Along with previous morphological evidence acquired by electron microscopy, our results seem to indicate that 21-day storage may represent a key point for the molecular processes leading to the erythrocyte deformability reduction observed during blood storage. These findings could therefore be helpful in understanding and preventing the morphology-linked mechanisms responsible for the post-transfusion survival of preserved RBCs.

  14. US Public Cord Blood Banking Practices: Recruitment, Donation, and the Timing of Consent

    PubMed Central

    Broder, Sherri; Ponsaran, Roselle; Goldenberg, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks. RESULTS 13 of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. 15 banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. 7 obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and 8 conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. 9 participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors. CONCLUSION Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That, and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites, are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking. PMID:22803637

  15. Bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion at university of gondar hospital blood bank, northwest ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wondimu, Hailegebriel; Addis, Zelalem; Moges, Feleke; Shiferaw, Yitayal

    2013-01-01

    Background. Transfusion associated bacterial infection has remained more frequent with a sever risk of morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the bacteriological safety of blood collected for transfusion. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted at University of Gondar hospital blood bank from December 2011 to June 2012. Bacterial isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were done as per the standard procedure. Chi-square test and P value were used to assess associations between risk factors and the bacterial isolation rate. Results. Twenty-one (15.33%) blood units were found contaminated with bacteria, and 95.24% contamination was due to external sources. The commonly isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Streptococci species, Enterobacter species, and Citrobacter species. All of the bacteria isolated were 100% sensitive to Gentamicin, Chloramphenicol, Amoxicillin, and Doxycycline. Multiple antimicrobial resistances were observed in 66.7% of the isolates. Not using glove by phlebotomist, touching disinfected phlebotomy site and double puncture at the same hand or both hands of a donor were found to be risk factors for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Bacterial contamination of blood to be transfused is a common problem in the hospital. So attention should be given to activities performed at the blood bank for safe transfusion practices.

  16. Architecture. Intermediate ThemeWorks. An Integrated Activity Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Kelly

    This resource book offers an activity bank of learning experiences related to the theme of architecture. The activities, which are designed for use with students in grades 4-6, require active engagement of the students and integrate language arts, mathematics, science, social studies, and art experiences. Activities exploring the architectural…

  17. Blood-banking techniques for plateletpheresis in swine.

    PubMed

    Sondeen, Jill L; Prince, Malcolm D; Polykratis, Irene A; Hernandez, Orlando; Torres-Mendoza, Jaime; De Guzman, Rodolfo; Aden, James K; Dubick, Michael A

    2014-05-01

    During the past several years, trauma resuscitation in human patients has evolved from decreased use of crystalloids to increased use of blood products. Of high interest is the role of platelets in trauma resuscitation. Because conducting prehos- pital resuscitation in human trauma patients is very difficult, swine are often the animal model of choice for such studies because their coagulation and hemodynamic systems are similar to those in humans. However, consistent production of sufficient swine platelets for such studies has not previously been achieved. We developed a method for producing swine platelets by using standard human techniques and equipment. We assessed pH, pO2, pCO2, lactate, thromboelastography, and platelet aggregation over 5 d of storage to determine whether the swine platelet product met the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB) standards for transfusion. Swine platelets met AABB standards at 24 h but not at later time points. In addition, we fluorescently labeled nonautologous platelets and then measured their percentage recovery over 5 h (the time used in subsequent experimental studies) when transfused into a recipient pig. We showed that 80% of the platelets stored for 24 h remained in the circulation and increased the recipient pigs' thromboelastographic responses, indicating that the platelets were viable and active. Therefore, swine platelets stored for 24 h by using standard human products met the AABB criteria and were functional.

  18. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Integrity and Protection Data Bank. 61.12 Section 61.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION... Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.12 Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity...

  19. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  20. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  1. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  2. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  3. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... ESTABLISHMENT REGISTRATION AND PRODUCT LISTING FOR MANUFACTURERS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS General Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other...

  4. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value <0.05. Results Erythropoietin, when added to red blood cell units, has a half-life >6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  5. ACOG committee opinion number 399, February 2008: umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    2008-02-01

    Two types of banks have emerged for the collection and storage of umbilical cord blood--public banks and private banks. Public banks promote allogenic (related or unrelated) donation, analogous to the current collection of whole blood units in the United States. Private banks were initially developed to store stem cells from umbilical cord blood for autologous use (taken from an individual for subsequent use by the same individual) by a child if the child develops disease later in life. If a patient requests information on umbilical cord blood banking, balanced and accurate information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of public versus private banking should be provided. The remote chance of an autologous unit of umbilical cord blood being used for a child or a family member (approximately 1 in 2,700 individuals) should be disclosed. The collection should not alter routine practice for the timing of umbilical cord clamping. Physicians or other professionals who recruit pregnant women and their families for for-profit umbilical cord blood banking should disclose any financial interests or other potential conflicts of interest.

  6. Age, Sex, and Religious Beliefs Impact the Attitude towards Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.

  7. Signalment and blood types in cats being evaluated as blood donors at two italian university blood banks.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Miglio, Arianna; Proverbio, Daniela; Antognoni, Maria Teresa; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta; Mangili, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Data from potential feline blood donors presented at two university blood banks in Italy were recorded. Blood typing was performed using an immunochromatographic method. Over the three years of the study 357 cats representing 15 breeds, 45.3% female and 54.7% male, with a mean age of 3.8 years were evaluated. Of these 90.5% were blood type A, 5.6% type B, and 3.9% type AB. The majority of the cats (54.6%) were European DSH (92.3% were type A, 5.1% type B, and 2.6% type AB), and 21% were Maine Coon (MCO) cats (100% blood type A). The estimated frequencies of transfusion reactions following an unmatched transfusion between DSH (donors and recipients), MCO (donor and recipients), DSH donors and MCO recipients, and MCO donors and DSH recipients were 4.8%, 0%, 0%, and 5.1% for major reactions and 7.2%, 0%, 7.7%, and 0% for minor transfusions reactions, respectively. In a population of blood donors that includes DSH and MCO the risk of transfusion reaction is between 5% and 8% if typing is not performed on donor and recipient blood. Blood typing should therefore be performed before transfusion to remove the risk of transfusion reactions due to blood type incompatibilities.

  8. 45 CFR 61.1 - The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank... HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS General Provisions § 61.1 The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank....

  9. 45 CFR 61.1 - The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank... HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS General Provisions § 61.1 The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank....

  10. 45 CFR 61.1 - The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank... HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS General Provisions § 61.1 The Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank....

  11. Low usage rate of banked sibling cord blood units in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for children with hematological malignancies: implications for directed cord blood banking policies.

    PubMed

    Goussetis, Evgenios; Peristeri, Ioulia; Kitra, Vasiliki; Papassavas, Andreas C; Theodosaki, Maria; Petrakou, Eftichia; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Paisiou, Anna; Soldatou, Alexandra; Stavropoulos-Giokas, Catherine; Graphakos, Stelios

    2011-02-15

    Directed sibling cord blood banking is indicated in women delivering healthy babies who already have a sibling with a disease that is potentially treatable with an allogeneic cord blood transplant. We evaluated the effectiveness of a national directed cord blood banking program in sibling HLA-identical stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies and the factors influencing the usage rate of the stored cord blood units. Fifty families were enrolled from which, 48 cord blood units were successfully collected and 2 collections failed due to damaged cord/placenta at delivery. Among enrolled families 4 children needed transplantation; however, only one was successfully transplanted using the collected cord blood unit containing 2×10(7) nucleated cells/kg in conjunction with a small volume of bone marrow from the same HLA-identical donor. Two children received grafts from matched unrelated donors because their sibling cord blood was HLA-haploidentical, while the fourth one received bone marrow from his HLA-identical brother, since cord blood could not be collected due to damaged cord/placenta at delivery. With a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 2-12) for the 9 remaining HLA-matched cord blood units, none from the prospective recipients needed transplantation. The low utilization rate of sibling cord blood in the setting of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for pediatric hematological malignant diseases necessitates the development of directed cord blood banking programs that limit long-term storage for banked cord blood units with low probability of usage such as non-HLA-identical or identical to patients who are in long-term complete remission.

  12. 77 FR 38838 - Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110-Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 230.110--Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood or Blood Products... Registration of Blood Banks, Other Firms Collecting, Manufacturing, Preparing, or Processing Human Blood...

  13. Are hybrid umbilical cord blood banks really the best of both worlds?

    PubMed

    Guilcher, Gregory M T; Fernandez, Conrad V; Joffe, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Since the first use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a medical therapy, the number of UCB banks worldwide has grown. Public UCB banks offer the option of altruistic donation, whereas private banks allow a product to be stored for the exclusive use of the paying client. With many more UCB products banked privately than publicly in countries such as the USA, hybrid models blending aspects of public and private banking have been proposed. One such bank is in operation in the UK. In this paper we review the hybrid UCB model and conclude that it offers limited benefit to the general public. Furthermore, compared with private banking, this model provides few advantages and potential disadvantages to private clients.

  14. Effect of blood bank storage on the rheological properties of male and female donor red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Daly, Amanda; Raval, Jay S; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H; Kameneva, Marina V

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) deformability progressively decreases during storage along with other changes in RBC mechanical properties. Recently, we reported that the magnitude of changes in RBC mechanical fragility associated with blood bank storage in a variety of additive solutions was strongly dependent on the donor gender [15]. Yet, the potential dependence of changes in the deformability and relaxation time of stored blood bank RBCs on donor gender is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of donor gender and blood bank storage on RBC deformability and relaxation time through the measurement of RBC suspension viscoelasticity. Packed RBC units preserved in AS-5 solution from 12 male and 12 female donors (three from each ABO group) were obtained from the local blood center and tested at 1, 4 and 7 weeks of storage at 1-6°C. At each time point, samples were aseptically removed from RBC units and hematocrit was adjusted to 40% before assessment of cell suspension viscoelasticity. RBC suspensions from both genders demonstrated progressive increases (p < 0.05) in viscosity, elasticity and relaxation time at equivalent shear rates over seven weeks of storage indicating a decrease in RBC deformability. No statistically significant differences in RBC deformability or relaxation time were observed between male and female RBCs at any storage time. The decrease in RBC deformability during blood bank storage may reduce tissue perfusion and RBC lifespan in patients receiving blood bank RBCs.

  15. Blood banking-induced alteration of red blood cell oxygen release ability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaojin; Xiong, Yanlian; Wang, Ruofeng; Tang, Fuzhou; Wang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Current blood banking procedures may not fully preserve red blood cell (RBC) function during storage, contributing to the decrease of RBC oxygen release ability. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of routine cold storage on RBC oxygen release ability. Materials and methods RBC units were collected from healthy donors and each unit was split into two parts (whole blood and suspended RBC) to exclude possible donor variability. Oxygen dissociation measurements were performed on blood units stored at 4 °C during a 5-week period. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and fluorescent micrographs of erythrocyte band 3 were also analysed. Results P50 and oxygen release capacity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks, and then did not change significantly. In contrast, the kinetic properties (PO2-t curve and T*50) of oxygen release changed slowly during the first 3 weeks of storage, but then decreased significantly in the last 2 weeks. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate decreased quickly during the first 3 weeks of storage to almost undetectable levels. Band 3 aggregated significantly during the last 2 weeks of storage. Discussion RBC oxygen release ability appears to be sensitive to routine cold storage. The thermodynamic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability changed mainly in the first 3 weeks of storage, due to the decrease of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, whereas the kinetic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability decreased significantly at the end of storage, probably affected by alterations of band 3. PMID:26674824

  16. 75 FR 26759 - Health Care Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) and National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2010-11368] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Care Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB) and National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB... 1996. Government agencies that license or certify health care practitioners, providers or...

  17. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Protection Data Bank information. 61.14 Section 61.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON... and Protection Data Bank § 61.14 Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data...

  18. Obstetricians and their role in cord blood banking: promoting a public model.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Mary M; Delpapa, Ellen H

    2013-04-01

    Umbilical cord blood, the blood remaining in the umbilical cord at birth, can be collected at birth and be a source of stem cells for a patient in need of a bone marrow transplant. Obstetricians and other health care practitioners are recognized as a patient's primary source for medical information affecting the mother and her neonate and frequently are asked to provide education and guidance regarding options of private and public cord blood banking. As the use of cord blood continues to grow in medicine and research uncovers more potential for cord blood, cord blood banking has become an important resource. The Stem Cell Therapeutic and Research Act has provided funding to expand public banking initiatives in the United States and to create a more ethnically diverse inventory of units. Private storage is not advocated unless there is an identified need in the family such that banked cord blood would offer a benefit. A recent report outlined the challenges of increasing participation and inventory, particularly among minority groups. Obstetricians and other health care practitioners should have a primary role in efforts to increase awareness of umbilical cord blood donation and be involved in initiatives to expand current public banking activities.

  19. High quality cord blood banking is feasible with delayed clamping practices. The eight-year experience and current status of the national Swedish Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Frändberg, Sofia; Waldner, Berit; Konar, Jan; Rydberg, Lennart; Fasth, Anders; Holgersson, Jan

    2016-09-01

    The National Swedish Cord Blood Bank (NS-CBB) is altruistic and publicly funded. Herein we describe the status of the bank and the impact of delayed versus early clamping on cell number and volume. Cord Blood Units (CBUs) were collected at two University Hospitals in Sweden. Collected volume and nucleated cell content (TNC) were investigated in 146 consecutive Cord Blood (CB) collections sampled during the first quarter of 2012 and in 162 consecutive CB collections done in the first quarter of 2013, before and after clamping practices were changed from immediate to late (60 s) clamping. NS-CBB now holds close to 5000 units whereof 30 % are from non-Caucasian or mixed origins. Delayed clamping had no major effect on collection efficiency. The volume collected was slightly reduced (mean difference, 8.1 ml; 95 % CI, 1.3-15.0 ml; p = 0.02), while cell recovery was not (p = 0.1). The proportion of CBUs that met initial total TNC banking criteria was 60 % using a TNC threshold of 12.5 × 10(8), and 47 % using a threshold of 15 × 10(8) for the early clamping group and 52 and 37 % in the late clamping group. Following implementation of delayed clamping practices at NS-CBB; close to 40 % of the collections in the late clamping group still met the high TNC banking threshold and were eligible for banking, implicating that that cord blood banking is feasible with delayed clamping practices.

  20. Benefits to blood banks of a sales and operations planning process.

    PubMed

    Keal, Donald A; Hebert, Phil

    2010-12-01

    A formal sales and operations planning (S&OP) process is a decision making and communication process that balances supply and demand while integrating all business operational components with customer-focused business plans that links high level strategic plans to day-to-day operations. Furthermore, S&OP can assist in managing change across the organization as it provides the opportunity to be proactive in the face of problems and opportunities while establishing a plan for everyone to follow. Some of the key outcomes from a robust S&OP process in blood banking would include: higher customer satisfaction (donors and health care providers), balanced inventory across product lines and customers, more stable production rates and higher productivity, more cooperation across the entire operation, and timely updates to the business plan resulting in better forecasting and fewer surprises that negatively impact the bottom line.

  1. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-15

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  2. [Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated cord blood: report of three cases from the Chilean cord blood bank].

    PubMed

    Barriga, Francisco; Wietstruck, Angélica; Rojas, Nicolás; Bertin, Pablo; Pizarro, Isabel; Carmona, Amanda; Guilof, Alejandro; Rojas, Iván; Oyarzún, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    Public cord blood banks are a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with hematological diseases who lack a family donor and need allogeneic transplantation. In June 2007 we started a cord blood bank with units donated in three maternity wards in Santiago, Chile. We report the first three transplants done with cord blood units form this bank. Cord blood units were obtained by intrauterine collection at delivery. They were depleted of plasma and red cells and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tests for total nucleated cells, CD34 cell content, viral serology, bacterial cultures and HLA A, B and DRB1 were done. Six hundred cord blood units were stored by March 2012. Three patients received allogeneic transplant with cord blood from our bank, two with high risk lymphoblastic leukemia and one with severe congenital anemia. They received conditioning regimens according to their disease and usual supportive care for unrelated donor transplantation until full hematopoietic and immune reconstitution was achieved. The three patients had early engraftment of neutrophils and platelets. The child corrected his anemia and the leukemia patients remain in complete remission. The post-transplant course was complicated with Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection. Two patients are fully functional 24 and 33 months after transplant, the third is still receiving immunosuppression.

  3. A study of the noncompliance of blood banks on safety and quality parameters in blood donation camps in Bengaluru

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Rajat Kumar; Dhanya, Rakesh; Parmar, Lalith G.; Vaish, Arpit; Sedai, Amit; Periyavan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The compliance of safety and quality parameters laid out by national and international guidelines in outdoor blood donation camps has not been studied in India. Our study aimed at identifying, monitoring, analyzing, and developing preventive strategies for several key parameters associated with the quality and safety of outdoor voluntary blood donation camps (VBDC). Settings: The study covered a total of 424 VBDCs at various locations in Bengaluru, Karnataka (South India) from 2009 to 2013. Seven government hospitals based blood banks, three private hospitals based blood banks and two voluntary standalone blood banks participated in the VBDCs included in the study. Materials and Methods: At the onset, the quality and safety standards to be followed were discussed and agreed upon. During the study, noncompliance (NC) to the agreed upon standards were recorded and shared. Periodic trainings were also organized to help minimize NC. Results: One or more instances of NC in 73% of the VBDCs. Highest NC were observed associated with punctuality (34%), wearing gloves (16%), hemoglobin (Hb) estimation (11%) and donor screening and selection other than Hb check (8-9%). Conclusion: For all 16 parameters under study, significant NC was observed. As a whole private hospital based blood banks were more noncompliant. The high degree of NC to matters relating to quality and safety in VBDCs is high and warrants for urgent attention and further study. Our study also shows that regular monitoring and systematic and strategic intervention can decrease the rate of NC. PMID:25722568

  4. Chagas Disease Screening in Maternal Donors of Publicly Banked Umbilical Cord Blood, United States

    PubMed Central

    Gilner, Jennifer B.; Hernandez, Jose; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Heine, R. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    To assess patterns of Chagas disease, we reviewed results of screening umbilical cord blood from a US public cord blood bank during 2007–2014. Nineteen maternal donors tested positive for Trypanosoma cruzi parasites (0.04%). Because perinatal transmission of Chagas disease is associated with substantial illness, targeted prenatal programs should screen for this disease. PMID:27433974

  5. A matter of health? Legal aspects of private umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Vidalis, Takis

    2011-03-01

    Private umbilical cord blood banking raises a question of special legal regulation. This practice promises the safe storage of biological material on the assumption that it may be useful, at a certain moment in future, for its own donor (or for a donor's close family member) for curing serious blood diseases. Although currently the therapeutic value of umbilical cord blood is confirmed, there are strong scientific doubts and relevant controversies regarding its use in autologous transplantations. This fact produces conditions of legal uncertainty, since the benefit for those wanting to conclude contracts with private umbilical cord blood banks is not clear. The Greek example illustrates this situation of regulatory deficit well, which eventually creates a major problem, given the increasing number of private banks offering relevant services in the country.

  6. Banking for the future: Prospects for integrated cyclical water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Integrated management of surface water and groundwater can provide efficient and flexible use of water by making the best use of the properties of different types of water resources. Integrated cyclical water management can help adaptation to climate variation and uncertainty by varying the proportion of surface water and groundwater allocations over time in response to changing water availability. Water use entitlements and rules specify conditions for the use, storage and exchange of surface water and groundwater. These entitlements and rules provide certainty for water users, investors and managers. Entitlements and rules also need to be flexible to enable users and managers to respond to changing water availability and knowledge. Arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility can conflict. For example guarantees of specific long-term allocations of water, or shares of allocations can conflict with arrangements to bank water underground during wet periods and then to use an increased amount of groundwater in dry periods. Systems of water entitlements and rules need to achieve a balance between certainty and flexibility. This article explores the effect of water entitlements and rules, and arrangements to provide certainty and flexibility for the integration of surface water and groundwater management over time. The analysis draws on case studies from the Namoi River basin in New South Wales and the South Platte River basin in Colorado. Integrated cyclical water management requires a comprehensive, flexible and balanced system of water entitlements and rules that allow extended water carryover, water banking, aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle. Opportunities for extended carryover and aquifer storage and recovery over the wet and dry climate cycle merit further consideration in New South Wales, Colorado and other jurisdictions.

  7. Phototherapies: photosensitized inactivation of viral and protozoan infectious agents and potential application in blood banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judy, Millard M.; Matthews, James Lester; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Newman, Joseph T.; Chanh, Tran C.; Marengo-Rowe, Alain J.

    1992-06-01

    More than 10 million units of human blood components are processed annually in the United States. Although donor screening and testing have greatly lowered the risk of transmission of viral and protozoan infectious agents, additional sterilization procedures which also preserve blood component function would be of significant value. Use of UV-A and visible-light-range photosensitizers for sterilization of blood platelets and red blood cells, respectively, is currently being aggressively investigated in laboratory-scale optical-mechanical systems. With successful demonstration of the efficacy and safety of these sterilization techniques, implementation in the blood bank setting will require scale-up to optical-mechanical systems capable of handling approximately 25,000 units daily in 500 - 1,000 blood banks in the United States.

  8. [Blood system peculiarities in the bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) under chronic environmental pollution].

    PubMed

    Tarakhtiĭ, É A; Mukhacheva, S V

    2011-01-01

    The parameters of peripheral blood and hemopoietic organs in mature and immature bank voles inhabiting a chemically polluted area were studied. Variability of the blood system parameters depending on the level of toxic load and the animals' reproductive status was determined. Alteration of the cell composition of erythrocytes and leucocytes, the structure of erythrocytes, and the hemoglobin fractions and leucocyte functions describe the adaptive response to the factors of a changed environment more than the concentration of leucocytes, erythrocytes, and blood hemoglobin.

  9. Survivability and Infectivity of Viscerotropic Leishmania Tropica from Operation Desert Storm Participants in Human Blood Products Maintained Under Blood Bank Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    IC. 1986. Leishmania donovani : an opportu- 6. Gupta I3MD, 1930. The diagnosis of kala-azar b,. nistic microbe associated with progressive dis...survival of Leishmania in blood products under blood bank storage conditions. We report that L. tropica- or L. donovani - contaminated transfusable blood...transfusion, we studied the survival of Leishmania in blood products under blood bank _ storage conditions. We report that L. tropica- or L. donovani

  10. Early, Prehospital Activation of the Walking Blood Bank Based on Mechanism of Injury Improves Time to Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Aaron K; Auten, Jonathan D; Zieber, Tara J; Lunceford, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Balanced component therapy (BCT) remains the mainstay in trauma resuscitation of the critically battle injured. In austere medical environments, access to packed red blood cells, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is often limited. Transfusion of warm, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used to augment limited access to full BCT in these settings. The main limitation of FWB is that it is not readily available for transfusion on casualty arrival. This small case series evaluates the impact early, mechanism-of-injury (MOI)-based, preactivation of the walking blood bank has on time to transfusion. We report an average time of 18 minutes to FWB transfusion from patient arrival. Early activation of the walking blood bank based on prehospital MOI may further reduce the time to FWB transfusion.

  11. 21 CFR 864.9050 - Blood bank supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood... Biologics Evaluation and Research of the Food and Drug Administration. (b) Classification. Class I...

  12. Implementation of a quality system (ISO 9000 series) for placental blood banking.

    PubMed

    Sirchia, G; Rebulla, P; Lecchi, L; Mozzi, F; Crepaldi, R; Parravicini, A

    1998-02-01

    Although placental blood has recently become a new source of hematopoietic progenitors for marrow replacement, limited attention has been given to systems suitable to ensure the short-term and long-term quality of placental blood units used for transplantation. In this article, we describe a quality system for placental blood banking developed in accord with ISO 9002 norms at Milano Cord Blood Bank. The quality system is the organizational structure, procedures, processes, and resources needed to implement quality management. ISO 9002 is a model for quality assurance in production, installation, and servicing, which includes a number of clauses providing guidance for the implementation of the quality system. The quality system was started by the bank medical director with step 1: the general quality plan, which included (a) the written description of mission, objectives, technical and organizational policies, and staff organization chart of the placental blood bank, (b) the definition and acquisition of adequate financial, human, and structural resources, (c) the appointment of a quality system head independent from the production laboratory and reporting directly to the medical director. Tasks of the quality system head were (a) to identify the placental blood banking process together with the placental blood bank personnel, (b) to implement a documentation plan finalized at the production and maintenance of (i) the quality manual, which provides a summary on how the bank operates with a quality system in compliance with the ISO 9002 clauses, (ii) the general procedures (or quality system procedures), which provide more detail on selected clauses, including at least those prescribed by the ISO 9002 standard, (iii) the operative procedures (or process procedures), which describe in detail the process of placental blood banking and how technical activities must be performed, (iv) the work instructions, which provide stepwise descriptions of individual activities, (v

  13. Studies on RBC lipid and protein phosphorylation during blood bank storage

    SciTech Connect

    Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.

    1986-05-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP/sub 2/), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the ..beta..-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and ..beta..-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations.

  14. The Accreditation Experience of Clinical Laboratories and Blood Banks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The accreditation of clinical laboratories and blood banks based on ISO 15189 is now being consolidated in Mexico, and is coordinated by the Mexican accreditation entity innovative strategies, A.C. (ema) and supported by the activities of the committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks. The active participation in working groups formed by the technical committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks in specific areas, has contributed to the formulation of technical documents and criteria of evaluation that strengthen the current accreditation scheme. The national registry of evaluation (PNE) consists of technical experts and evaluators from different disciplines of clinical laboratory; the evaluators actively participate in accreditation assessment, with an ultimate goal to receive training and feedback for continuous improvement of its own performance.

  15. The Accreditation Experience of Clinical Laboratories and Blood Banks in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation of clinical laboratories and blood banks based on ISO 15189 is now being consolidated in Mexico, and is coordinated by the Mexican accreditation entity innovative strategies, A.C. (ema) and supported by the activities of the committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks. The active participation in working groups formed by the technical committee of clinical laboratories and blood banks in specific areas, has contributed to the formulation of technical documents and criteria of evaluation that strengthen the current accreditation scheme. The national registry of evaluation (PNE) consists of technical experts and evaluators from different disciplines of clinical laboratory; the evaluators actively participate in accreditation assessment, with an ultimate goal to receive training and feedback for continuous improvement of its own performance. PMID:27683498

  16. Does a liberal national transfusion law assure blood safety? A survey of blood bank directors' perspectives in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Antoine; Bou Assi, Tarek; Ammar, Walid; Baz, Elizabeth

    2013-11-01

    In transfusion medicine today, 'zero risk' has become a universal objective. Thus, we investigated whether the level of blood safety as defined by Lebanese legislation is satisfactory. Our work covered the period from September 2008 to June 2012. First, we studied each chapter in law and regulations, and compared them with the latest French regulations. The standards of Good Manufacturing Practice, characteristics of blood products and their storage, and the overall organization and haemovigilance for recipients and donors are not defined. Our analysis revealed numerous problems in today's blood safety situation. There is, for example, no clear definition or identification of the different blood safety components. Then, we conducted a national survey of blood bank directors to assess their perception of blood safety in Lebanon. Our survey revealed a negative perception (52.4 per cent) of the current blood safety situation, with more than 90 per cent of respondents in favor of national regulatory improvements.

  17. Temporal sequence of major biochemical events during Blood Bank storage of packed red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Karon, Brad S.; van Buskirk, Camille M.; Jaben, Elizabeth A.; Hoyer, James D.; Thomas, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Background. We used sensitive spectroscopic techniques to measure changes in Band 3 oligomeric state during storage of packed red blood cells (RBC); these changes were compared to metabolic changes, RBC morphology, cholesterol and membrane protein loss, phospholipid reorganisation of the RBC membrane, and peroxidation of membrane lipid. The aim of the study was to temporally sequence major biochemical events occurring during cold storage, in order to determine which changes may underlie the structural defects in stored RBC. Materials and methods. Fifteen RBC units were collected from normal volunteers and stored under standard blood bank conditions; both metabolic changes and lipid parameters were measured by multiple novel assays including a new mass spectrometric measurement of isoprostane (lipid peroxidation) and flow cytometric assessment of CD47 expression. Band 3 oligomeric state was assessed by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy, and RBC morphology by microscopy of glutaraldehyde-fixed RBC. Results. Extracellular pH decreased and extracellular potassium increased rapidly during cold storage. Band 3 on the RBC membrane aggregated into large oligomers early in the storage period and coincident with changes in RBC morphology. Membrane lipid changes, including loss of unesterified cholesterol, lipid peroxidation and expression of CD47, also changed early during the storage period. In contrast loss of acetylcholinesterase activity and haemolysis of RBC occurred late during storage. Discussion. Our results demonstrate that changes in the macromolecular organisation of membrane proteins on the RBC occur early in storage and suggest that lipid peroxidation and/or oxidative damage to the membrane are responsible for irreversible morphological changes and loss of function during red cell storage. PMID:22507860

  18. The Blood Bank as a Public Health Service

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Byron A.; Adashek, Eugene P.; Adashek, William H.

    1969-01-01

    The donation of blood is presented to the public as an altruistic service in which one human helps another. At the same time, the donor receives some help for himself. In the process of blood donation, a medical history is taken, an extremely short physical examination is done, and the donor's blood is studied by various tests. Although this is by no means the equivalent of a complete physical examination performed by a physician, it sometimes can be helpful in discovering early disease or other medical findings which could be pertinent to the donor's health. PMID:5798005

  19. Challenges in umbilical cord blood stem cell banking for stem cell reviews and reports.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Twenty years has passed since the first report of a successful cord blood transplant was reported in 1989 in a child with Fanconi's anemia. During these 20 years, the cord blood field has had dramatic growth, with over 400,000 cord blood units donated and stored worldwide for unrelated use. Approximately, 14,000 unrelated cord blood transplants have been performed to date for patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow disorders, and who do not have matched family or unrelated donors. In contrast, about 900,000 cord blood units have been stored privately for personal use, with about 100 autologous transplants performed. Twenty years ago, due to the low cell dose, cord blood transplants were only performed in children. Today, with the use of better banking techniques, reduced intensity transplants, and double cord blood transplantation, the majority of cord blood transplants are being performed in adults. In this chapter, we review the scientific basis for cord blood transplantation, and outcome data in both pediatric and adult transplantation. We will then focus on the recent concerns regarding private and public cord blood banking. Finally, we discuss the future of cord blood transplantation, and the exciting work beginning outside of oncology.

  20. Blood-Banking Techniques for Plateletpheresis in Swine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    the Emden–Meyerhof pathway is accelerated and oxidative phosphorylation via the Krebs cycle –tricarboxylic acid pathway is inhibited. This outcome...blood- volume value to 4200 mL in the machine. The second setting adjustment involved the number of cycles . The number of cycles used by the blood... cycle to compensate for the volume removed in the platelets product. Alternatively, we returned fluid after the plateletpheresis procedure, because

  1. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France: what has been done and what remains to be done].

    PubMed

    Py, J-Y; Schlanger, S; Gorodetzky, D; Lapègue, R; Besse-Moreau, M; Herr, A-L; Renaudier, P; Daurat, G; Breton, P

    2012-11-01

    French regulation requires hospital blood banks to have data processing of their blood transfusion activities. In order to help them to achieve this goal, guidelines were published by an official working party. For their diffusion, a study was launched to assess current gaps between guidelines and reality. Analysis of the first forty responses shows: 1) computerization is already set up for main blood banks and is going well for the others; 2) most of guideline functionalities are now working in main blood banks; but some points need specific developments; 3) taken as a whole, other blood banks are further from guideline requirements, even if some have already reached the goal; 4) guidelines are able to point out to all hospital blood banks what remains to be done.

  2. Optimizing Donor Selection for Public Cord Blood Banking: Influence of Maternal, Infant and Collection Characteristics on Cord Blood Unit Quality

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kristin M.; Mendizabal, Adam; Betz-Stablein, Brigid; Wease, Stephen; Shoulars, Kevin; Gentry, Tracy; Prasad, Vinod K.; Sun, Jessica; Carter, Shelly; Balber, Andrew E.; Kurtzberg, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Background Banked unrelated donor umbilical cord blood (CB) has improved access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients without a suitably matched donor. In a resource-limited environment, ensuring that the public inventory is enriched with high-quality cord blood units (CBUs) addressing the needs of a diverse group of patients is a priority. Identification of donor characteristics correlating with higher CBU quality could guide operational strategies to increase the yield of banked high-quality CBUs. Methods Characteristics of 5267 CBUs donated to the Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, a public bank participating in the National Cord Blood Inventory, were retrospectively analyzed. Eligible CBUs, collected by trained personnel, were processed using standard procedures. Routine quality and potency metrics [post-processing total nucleated cell count (post-TNCC), CD34+, colony-forming units (CFUs)] were correlated with maternal, infant, and collection characteristics. Results High-quality CBUs were defined as those with higher post-TNCC (>1.25×109), and CD34+ + CFU in the upper quartile. Factors associated with higher CD34+ or CFU content included a shorter interval from collection to processing (<10 hours), younger gestational age (34–37 weeks; CD34++CFU) Caucasian race, higher birth weight (>3500grams) and larger collection volumes (>80ml). Conclusions We describe characteristics identifying high-quality CBUs, which can be used to inform strategies for CBU collection for public banks. Efforts should be made to prioritize collections from larger babies born before 38 weeks of gestation. CBUs should be rapidly transported to the processing laboratory. The lower quality of CBUs from non-Caucasian donors highlights the challenges of building a racially diverse public CB inventory. PMID:23711284

  3. Legal issues in blood banking. Elements of informed consent.

    PubMed

    Sherman, L A

    1996-12-01

    In the past, informed consent in pathology was confined chiefly to autopsies. Changes in both consent law and pathology practice led to consent being important in a broader sense in the laboratory. Areas discussed in this article include blood transfusion, tissue specimens, fine needle aspiration, and phlebotomy.

  4. Blood Banks Face Seasonal Shortages, New Screening Rules

    MedlinePlus

    ... But, tighter testing for a rare complication of transfusions makes the need for platelets even more urgent, experts at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas say. Platelets are a component of blood that are essential for ... called transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), is the leading ...

  5. Trust, Nostalgia and Narrative Accounts of Blood Banking in England in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Busby, Helen Wynne

    2010-01-01

    Historically, cultural accounts and descriptions of blood banking in Britain have been associated with notions of altruism, national solidarity and imagined community. While these ideals have continued to be influential, the business of procuring and supplying blood has become increasingly complex. Drawing on interview data with donors in one blood centre in England, this article reports that these donors tend not to acknowledge the complex dynamics of production and exchange in modern blood systems. This, it is argued, is congruent with nostalgic narratives in both popular and official accounts of blood services, which tend to bracket these important changes. A shift to a more open institutional narrative about modern blood services is advocated, as blood services face current and future challenges. PMID:20603307

  6. Trust, nostalgia and narrative accounts of blood banking in England in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wynne Busby, Helen

    2010-07-01

    Historically, cultural accounts and descriptions of blood banking in Britain have been associated with notions of altruism, national solidarity and imagined community. While these ideals have continued to be influential, the business of procuring and supplying blood has become increasingly complex. Drawing on interview data with donors in one blood centre in England, this article reports that these donors tend not to acknowledge the complex dynamics of production and exchange in modern blood systems. This, it is argued, is congruent with nostalgic narratives in both popular and official accounts of blood services, which tend to bracket these important changes. A shift to a more open institutional narrative about modern blood services is advocated, as blood services face current and future challenges.

  7. Ethical issues relating to the banking of umbilical cord blood in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Umbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico. Discussion A number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes beyond the mere utilization of human tissues for the purpose of treatment. This tissue is also used in research studies: genetic studies, studies to evaluate the effectiveness of new antibiotics, studies to identify new proteins, etc. Meanwhile, others claim that the law and other norms for the functioning of cord banks are not consistent and are poorly defined. Some of these critics point out that the confidentiality of donor information is handled differently in different places. The fact that private cord banks offer their services as "biological insurance" in order to obtain informed consent by promising the parents that the tissue that will be stored insures the health of their child in the future raises the issue of whether the consent is freely given or given under coercion. Another consideration that must be made in relation to privately owned cord banks has to do with the ownership of the stored umbilical cord. Summary Conflicts between moral principles and economic interests (non-moral principles) cause dilemmas in the clinical practice of umbilical cord blood storage and use especially in privately owned banks. This article presents a reflection and some of the guidelines that must be followed by umbilical cord banks in order to deal with these conflicts. This reflection is based on the fundamental notions of ethics and public health and seeks to be a contribution towards the improvement of umbilical cord banks' performance. PMID:19678958

  8. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time.

  9. Optical Assay of Erythrocyte Function in Banked Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bhaduri, Basanta; Kandel, Mikhail; Brugnara, Carlo; Tangella, Krishna; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Stored red blood cells undergo numerous biochemical, structural, and functional changes, commonly referred to as storage lesion. How much these changes impede the ability of erythrocytes to perform their function and, as result, impact clinical outcomes in transfusion patients is unknown. In this study we investigate the effect of the storage on the erythrocyte membrane deformability and morphology. Using optical interferometry we imaged red blood cell (RBC) topography with nanometer sensitivity. Our time-lapse imaging quantifies membrane fluctuations at the nanometer scale, which in turn report on cell stiffness. This property directly impacts the cell's ability to transport oxygen in microvasculature. Interestingly, we found that cells which apparently maintain their normal shape (discocyte) throughout the storage period, stiffen progressively with storage time. By contrast, static parameters, such as mean cell hemoglobin content and morphology do not change during the same period. We propose that our method can be used as an effective assay for monitoring erythrocyte functionality during storage time. PMID:25189281

  10. Current status of cord blood banking during first two years of 'National Government-Assigned Public Cord Blood Banks Operation' in Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Eun Youn; Lee, Jung Lim; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Song, Do Young; Kim, Tai Gyu; Shin, Sue

    2014-10-01

    Cord blood (CB) has become a viable stem cell source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and public cord blood banks (CBBs) have been established to manage donated cord blood units (CBUs) for unrelated HSCT. As the potential uses for CB continue to grow, there is a global tendency to encourage public CBBs. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of public CBBs that were designated and supported by the Korean national government. We analyzed 6,168 CBUs preserved at the 3 Government-Assigned Public CBBs during their first two years of operation (2012-2013) and the standard operating procedures for CB processing at each CBB. CBU inventories at ALLCORD, Catholic HSC Bank and Fatima Public CBB were 4,022, 1,207 and 939 units, respectively. Total nucleated cell (TNC) counts per unit were 11.0 × 10(8) at ALLCORD, 10.7 × 10(8) at Fatima and 9.8 × 10(8) at Catholic, and all far exceeded the requirement for cryopreservation under the law (7.0 × 10(8)). CD34(+) cell counts and % were as follows: 3.5 × 10(6) (0.31 %) in ALLCORD, 2.2 × 10(6) (0.20 %) in Fatima and 2.2 × 10(6) (0.22 %) in Catholic. All the three banks observed the 'CB Act' in dealing with CBUs, including collection, processing, laboratory tests and cryopreservation. Government supported and strictly law-abiding public CBBs in Korea have considerable CBU inventories of high quality in terms of efficacy and safety. Legislation and accompanying government-support will be helpful for establishing CB standardization, vitalizing CBT and improving clinical outcomes.

  11. Umbilical Cord Blood Banking for Transplantation in Morocco: Problems and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Mazini, Loubna; Matar, Nourredine; Bouhya, Said; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-01-01

    Since the success of the first umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation in a child with Fanconi anaemia in 1989, great interests have emerged for this source of stem cells. UCB provides an unlimited source of ethnically diverse stem cells and is an alternative for bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Thus, UCB and manipulated stem cells are now collected and banked according to international accreditation standards for listing on registries allowing rapid search and accessibility worldwide. This work aims to identify problems limiting the creation of a Moroccan cord blood bank and to highlight opportunities and issues of a new legislation promoting additional applications of cell therapy. PMID:25705096

  12. Cord blood banks collect units with different HLA alleles and haplotypes to volunteer donor banks: a comparative report from Swiss Blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Monard, S; Passweg, J; Troeger, C; Eberhard, H-P; Roosnek, E; de Faveri, G Nicoloso; Chalandon, Y; Rovo, A; Kindler, V; Irion, O; Holzgreve, W; Gratwohl, A; Müller, C; Tichelli, A; Tiercy, J-M

    2009-05-01

    Allogeneic haematopoietic SCT is a standard therapy for many patients with haematological diseases. A major aim of public umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking is to establish an inventory with a large HLA diversity. Few studies have compared HLA diversity between UCB banks and volunteer unrelated donor (VUD) registries and examined whether UCB banks indeed collect more units with rare alleles and haplotypes. This study compares HLA-A/B/DRB1 allele frequencies and inferred A/B/DRB1-haplotypes in 1602 UCB units and 3093 VUD from two centres in distinct recruitment areas in Switzerland. The results show that the frequencies of HLA-DRB1 alleles as well as of the HLA-A/B/DRB1 haplotypes differ between UCB and VUD. Ten DRB1 alleles occurred at a 2- to 12-fold higher relative frequency in UCB than in VUD and 27 rare alleles were identified in UCB. Out of these 27 alleles, 15 were absent in the entire VUD data set of the national registry. This difference in allele frequencies was found only by intermediate/high-resolution typing. Targeted recruitment of UCB units from non-Caucasian donors could further increase HLA allele and haplotype diversity of available donors. Intermediate or high-resolution DNA typing is essential to identify rare alleles or allele groups.

  13. Developing Educational Resources to Advance Umbilical Cord Blood Banking and Research: A Canadian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Pereira Beak, Carla; Chargé, Sophie B; Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-05-01

    In 2013 Canadian Blood Services (CBS) launched the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB), a program to collect, process, test, and store cord blood units donated for use in transplantation. A key component of the creation of the NPCBB is the establishment of a program that enables cord blood not suitable for banking or transplantation to be used for biomedical research purposes. Along with the development of processes and policies to manage the NPCBB and the cord blood research program, CBS-in collaboration with researchers from the Stem Cell Network-have also developed educational tools to provide relevant information for target audiences to aid implementation and operation. We describe here one of these tools, the REB Primer on Research and Cord Blood Donation (the Primer), which highlights key ethical and legal considerations and identifies Canadian documents that are relevant to the use of cord blood in biomedical research. The Primer also introduces the NPCBB and describes the systems CBS is implementing to address ethical issues. The Primer is intended to assist research ethics boards in evaluating the ethical acceptability of research protocols, to facilitate harmonized decision-making by providing a common reference, and to highlight the role of research ethics boards in governance frameworks. With the Primer we hope to illustrate how the development of such educational tools can facilitate the ethical implementation and governance of programs related to stem cell research in Canada and abroad.

  14. Quality Control in Screening for Infectious Diseases at Blood Banks. Rationale and Methodology.

    PubMed

    Sáez-Alquezar, Amadeo; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Guimarães, André Valpassos; Corrêa, José Abol

    2015-11-01

    Quality control procedures are indispensable to ensure the reliability of the results provided by laboratories responsible for serological screening in blood banks. International recommendations on systems of quality management classify as a top component the inclusion of two types of control: (a) internal quality control (IQC) and (b) external quality control (EQC). In EQC it is essential to have, at least, a monthly frequency of laboratory assessment. On the other hand, IQC involves the daily use of low-reactivity control sera, which should be systematically added in all run, carried out in the laboratory for each parameter. Through the IQC analysis some variations in the criteria of run acceptance and rejection may be revealed, but it is of paramount importance to ensure the previous definition of these criteria and even more importantly, the adherence to them; and that corresponds to the validation of analytical runs of each test. Since 2010 this has been, for instance, the experience of the PNCQ*, developing external quality control programmes on serology for blood banks. These programmes use samples of lyophilized sera well-characterized for the reactivity related to the parameters used for the serological screening of blood donors. The programmes have used blind panels of six samples for monthly assessments. In the last 50 assessments, which involved 68 blood banks in Brazil, a significant number of instances of non-compliance were observed in all monthly assessments. These results provide strong support to the recommendation of systematic monthly assessments. (*) National Quality Control Programme (PNCQ).

  15. Quality Control in Screening for Infectious Diseases at Blood Banks. Rationale and Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Guimarães, André Valpassos; Corrêa, José Abol

    2015-01-01

    Quality control procedures are indispensable to ensure the reliability of the results provided by laboratories responsible for serological screening in blood banks. International recommendations on systems of quality management classify as a top component the inclusion of two types of control: (a) internal quality control (IQC) and (b) external quality control (EQC). In EQC it is essential to have, at least, a monthly frequency of laboratory assessment. On the other hand, IQC involves the daily use of low-reactivity control sera, which should be systematically added in all run, carried out in the laboratory for each parameter. Through the IQC analysis some variations in the criteria of run acceptance and rejection may be revealed, but it is of paramount importance to ensure the previous definition of these criteria and even more importantly, the adherence to them; and that corresponds to the validation of analytical runs of each test. Since 2010 this has been, for instance, the experience of the PNCQ*, developing external quality control programmes on serology for blood banks. These programmes use samples of lyophilized sera well-characterized for the reactivity related to the parameters used for the serological screening of blood donors. The programmes have used blind panels of six samples for monthly assessments. In the last 50 assessments, which involved 68 blood banks in Brazil, a significant number of instances of non-compliance were observed in all monthly assessments. These results provide strong support to the recommendation of systematic monthly assessments. (*) National Quality Control Programme (PNCQ) PMID:27683500

  16. Analysis of the adequate size of a cord blood bank and comparison of HLA haplotype distributions between four populations.

    PubMed

    Haimila, Katri; Penttilä, Antti; Arvola, Anne; Auvinen, Marja-Kaisa; Korhonen, Matti

    2013-02-01

    The number of units and especially the number of different HLA haplotypes present in a cord blood (CB) bank is a crucial determinant of its usefulness. We generated data relevant to the development of our national CB in Finland. The HLA haplotype distribution was examined between specific populations. We developed graphical ways of data presentation that enable easy visualization of differences. First, we estimated the optimal size of a CB bank for Finland and found that approximately 1700 units are needed to provide a 5/6 HLA-matched donor for 80% of Finnish patients. Secondly, we evaluated HLA haplotype distributions between four locations, Finland, Japan, Sweden and Belgium. Our results showed that the Japanese Tokyo Cord Blood Bank differs in both the frequency and distribution of haplotypes from the European banks. The European banks (Finnish Cord Blood Registry, The Swedish National Cord Blood Bank, and Marrow Donor Program-Belgium) have similar frequencies of common haplotypes, but 26% of the haplotypes in the Finnish CB bank are unique, which justifies the existence of a national bank. The tendency to a homogenous HLA haplotype distribution in banks underlines the need for targeting recruitment at the poorly represented minority populations.

  17. Collaboration between hematopoietic stem cell donor registry and cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Raffoux, C

    2010-10-01

    Despite the huge number of volunteer donors registered worldwide, only a mean of 50% of patients not having a family donor are transplanted with an unrelated donor. Since 1990, a network has been implemented among some European registries. With the help of the European Community, a more sophisticated network has been developed, the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS). A new project underwent development by registries and the Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide: the EMDIS Cord Blood Registry. It will in the future permit to obtain after a search request, one report containing all of the best donors worldwide and best umbilic cord blood for each patient, taking into account possible double cord blood transplantations and other factors, such as number of nucleated cells, number of CD34+ cells, and methods of reduction. Only a strong collaboration between all hematopoietic stem cell registries and cord blood banks would allow a Registry to propose the best donor/cord blood unit for each patient in each country. Progress in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be obtained by the parallel development of cord blood banks worldwide and bone marrow donor registries among countries that include minorities.

  18. They're Here! How to Prepare Your Blood Bank for Inspection.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Karen M; Frank, Ernest G; Gedman, Lauren A; Ivey, Julie R

    2015-01-01

    The importance of an inspection ready blood bank cannot be overemphasized. Various agencies perform inspections to ensure that facilities are compliant with federal and state regulations, as well as with standards defined by professional organizations. Inspections may strike fear into the staff members of the organizations being inspected. When a laboratory is in a state of constant readiness, such anxiety is likely to be lessened. Facilities may differ in structure and size and yet be held to the same standards. This article discusses the who, when, and why of laboratory safety inspections. We share helpful information gathered from various resources, including interviews with a quality assurance specialist, a blood bank manager, and an assessor, to help facilities work towards an inspection ready state.

  19. Emergency care necessity for sickle cell disease patients at Rio de Janeiro State Coordinating Blood Bank

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Mario Sant'Anna; de Matos, Haroldo José; Fidlarczyk, Delaine

    2011-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies, in particular sickle cell disease, is the most prevalent group of genetically transmitted diseases in the Brazilian population and should thus be treated as a public health problem. Many of these patients frequently present with complications and require emergency care at the blood bank Coordinator in Rio de Janeiro. This study was developed with the aim of characterizing the emergency assistance required by sickle cell disease patients registered in the blood bank from January 2007 to December 2008. A retrospective study of medical records was made of 78, mostly children, patients from the date of their registration until December 2009. Most attendances (63.7%) were not considered emergency care. The use of specialized services for cases that do not require this level of complexity may saturate the capacity of these centers. However, delay of intervention for complications due to the transportation of patients to specialist centers may lead to deterioration in the clinical condition. PMID:23284258

  20. Umbilical cord blood banking and the next generation of human tissue regulation: an agenda for research.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cameron; Kerridge, Ian

    2012-03-01

    The transformation of umbilical cord blood from being a waste product to being a valuable source of stem cells has led to the emergence of significant legal, ethical and social issues. This editorial proposes an agenda for research into the regulation of umbilical cord blood banking which focuses on issues of characterisation, consent, the interplay of public and private services, and the importance of applying property concepts. It concludes by stressing the need for reform to be based on well-informed public debate.

  1. The role of comprehensive check at the blood bank reception on blood requisitions in detecting potential transfusion errors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashish; Kumari, Sonam; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram

    2015-06-01

    Pre-transfusion testing includes proper requisitions, compatibility testing and pre-release checks. Proper labelling of samples and blood units and accurate patient details check helps to minimize the risk of errors in transfusion. This study was aimed to identify requisition errors before compatibility testing. The study was conducted in the blood bank of a tertiary care hospital in north India over a period of 3 months. The requisitions were screened at the reception counter and inside the pre-transfusion testing laboratory for errors. This included checking the Central Registration number (C.R. No.) and name of patient on the requisition form and the sample label; appropriateness of sample container and sample label; incomplete requisitions; blood group discrepancy. Out of the 17,148 blood requisitions, 474 (2.76 %) requisition errors were detected before the compatibility testing. There were 192 (1.11 %) requisitions where the C.R. No. on the form and the sample were not tallying and in 70 (0.40 %) requisitions patient's name on the requisition form and the sample were different. Highest number of requisitions errors were observed in those received from the Emergency and Trauma services (27.38 %) followed by Medical wards (15.82 %) and the lowest number (3.16 %) of requisition errors were observed from Hematology and Oncology wards. C.R. No. error was the most common error observed in our study. Thus a careful check of the blood requisitions at the blood bank reception counter helps in identifying the potential transfusion errors.

  2. Public banking of umbilical cord blood or storage in a private bank: testing social and ethical policy in northeastern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Parco, Sergio; Vascotto, Fulvia; Visconti, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin VDRL (75.0%) tests (P < 0.05, χ2 test). The specificity link between the two automatic methods versus microscopes for WBC dosing and NRBC interference was r2 = 0.08 (ADVIA 120) and r2 = 0.94 (XE-2100). The public system does not include human T-cell lymphotropic virus testing; this is reserved for the population from endemic zones. Conclusion In northeastern Italy current legislation prevents the establishment of private fee-based banks for storage of CB-SC. The cryopreservation, for future autologous personal or family use, is possible only by sending to foreign private banks, with a further fee of €300. These regulations confirm that Italian legislation tries to increase the anonymous allogenic donations and the number of CB-CS bags stored in the free-cost public system, that are available to anyone with therapeutic needs. Private banking is used almost exclusively by the wealthier local population. In the public system, many physicians continue to use older Italian laws regarding syphilis diagnosis, and NRBC interference on WBC count may have an impact on cord blood harvesting. Our findings suggest that in the EU there is no consensus policy on donor management. The value of storage for potential use within the family is useful only with collaboration between the public and the private systems. PMID:23610532

  3. The quest for quality blood banking program in the new millennium the American way.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Un

    2002-08-01

    For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, "QUALITY" must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters, viral and blood group testing, crossmatching, automation, and computerization including bar coding, etc. has contributed to the quality and safety of the blood products and transfusion service. However, with the advent of the AIDS era, an increasingly sensitized and informed public is continuously demanding that the highest level of quality be achieved and maintained in all processes involved in providing all blood products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced the concept of a "zero risk blood supply" as the industry goal. Furthermore, the cost containment and resource-constrained environment have changed the complexity of the quality practice. Both regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Health Care Financing Administration [HCFA, which was recently renamed as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in July, 2001], and the State Department of Health, and accrediting agencies, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the College of American Pathologists (CAP), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), require blood banks and transfusion services to establish and follow a Quality Control and Quality Assurance Program for their licensing, certification and accreditation. Every laboratory has to comply with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) quality requirements being implemented by the CMS. The FDA guidelines assist facilities in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). The AABB's Quality System Essentials (QSE) are based on these specifications and provide additional guidance in

  4. Prevalence of Principal Rh Blood Group Antigens in Blood Donors at the Blood Bank of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Vijaya, Sreedhar Babu Kinnera; Rajendran, Arun; Sarella, Jothibai Dorairaj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rhesus (Rh) antigen was discovered in 1940 by Karl Landsteiner and Wiener. Due to its immunogenicity along with A, B antigens, Rh D antigen testing was made mandatory in pre-transfusion testing. Presently there are more than 50 antigens in Rh blood group system but major ones are D, C, E, c, and e. Very few reports are available regarding their prevalence in India and no reports are available from Andhra Pradesh. Aim To study the prevalence of principal Rh blood group antigens like D, C, E, c & e in the voluntary blood donors attending our blood bank. Materials and Methods A prospective cross-sectional non interventional study was carried out on 1000 healthy blood donors from August 2013 to July 2014 at our blood bank. Donors were grouped and typed for ABO and Rh major antigens using monoclonal blood grouping reagents as per the manufacturer’s instructions. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16. Comparison of categorical data between antigen positive and negative individuals was done using Chi-square test. Descriptive statistics for the categorical variables were performed by computing the frequencies (percentages) in each category. Incidence was given in proportion with 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 1000 blood samples from donors were phenotyped. Among Rh antigens, e was the most common antigen (98.4%), followed by D-94.1%, C-88%, c-54.9% and E-18.8% with DCe/DCe (R1R1) (43.4%) being the most common phenotype and the least common phenotype is r’r’ (0.1%). Conclusion Database for antigen frequency to at least Rh blood group system in local donors helps to provide antigen negative blood to patients with multiple alloantibodies, minimize alloimmunization rate, and thereby improve blood safety. PMID:27437223

  5. Feasibility of hospital-based blood banking: a Tanzanian case study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, B; Mercer, A

    1999-12-01

    The demand for blood transfusion is high in sub-Saharan Africa because of the high prevalence of anaemia and pregnancy related complications, but the practice is estimated to account for 10% of HIV infections in some regions. The main response to this problem by the international donor community is to establish vertically implemented blood transfusion services producing suitable (safe) blood at a cost of US$25-40 per unit. However, the economic sustainability of such interventions is questionable and it is argued here that hospital-based blood transfusion services operating at a basic adequate level are sufficient for low-income African countries. The results of a project aimed at improving such services in Tanzania are presented. The main findings are: (1) the cost per suitable blood unit produced was US$12.4; (2) at an HIV test sensitivity of 93.5% during the study period, discounted financial benefits of the interventions exceeded costs by a factor of between 17.2 and 37.1; (3) the cost per undiscounted year of life saved by use of these interventions was US$2.7-2.8; and (4) safe blood transfusion practices can be assured at an annual cost of US$0.07 per capita. Recommendations are made to ensure safe blood transfusion practices at hospital-based blood banks in Tanzania.

  6. Incidence of Cytomegaloviremia in Blood-Bank Donors and in Infants with Congenital Cytomegalic Inclusion Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, R.; Werch, J.; South, M. A.; Benyesh-Melnick, M.

    1971-01-01

    During a 15-month period, cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolations were attempted from leukocytes derived from 290 healthy blood-bank donors. The major proportion of the specimens were tested 2 to 5 hr after donation. However, CMV was not recovered from any of the specimens examined. At the time of donation, 75% of donors had CMV complement-fixing antibodies demonstrable in titers of 10 to ≥320. The age of the study group ranged from 17 to 57 years. During the same time period and with the use of identical isolation techniques, postnatal cytomegaloviremia was demonstrated in four infants with cytomegalic inclusion disease. Failure to detect cytomegaloviremia in 290 normal blood donors questions its occurrence outside pathological conditions. These results do not support the concept that CMV infection, concurrent with post-transfusion mononucleosis syndrome, is transmitted through the blood donor's leukocytes. PMID:16557945

  7. [Guidelines for Chagas disease: Part III. Chagas disease in donors to blood banks].

    PubMed

    Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

    2008-08-01

    In this chapter it is emphasized the importance to guarantee safety and high quality blood transfusions. Besides, the following topics are analyzed: the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection acquired by blood transfusions, the obligatory screening implemented in Chilean blood banks and serological diagnostic techniques used that for, the seroprevalence observed, the importance to confirm results and methods recommended in this purpose and, to notify the donor once the infection is confirmed. In addition a facsímil of a letter used to notify the positive donor is included as guidelines to make advice after, attaching a pro-forma of clinical-epidemiological registration to refer the donor to medical evaluation and treatment.

  8. Establishing an integrated human milk banking approach to strengthen newborn care.

    PubMed

    DeMarchis, A; Israel-Ballard, K; Mansen, Kimberly Amundson; Engmann, C

    2016-11-10

    The provision of donor human milk can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality among vulnerable infants and is recommended by the World Health Organization as the next best option when a mother's own milk is unavailable. Regulated human milk banks can meet this need, however, scale-up has been hindered by the absence of an appropriate model for resource-limited settings and a lack of policy support for human milk banks and for the operational procedures supporting them. To reduce infant mortality, human milk banking systems need to be scaled up and integrated with other components of newborn care. This article draws on current guidelines and best practices from human milk banks to offer a compilation of universal requirements that provide a foundation for an integrated model of newborn care that is appropriate for low- and high-resource settings alike.Journal of Perinatology advance online publication, 10 November 2016; doi:10.1038/jp.2016.198.

  9. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America.

  10. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Shrivastava, Prabha; Ray, Tapobrata Guha

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85%) of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41%) followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60%) and hepatitis C (0.59%) and least for syphilis (0.23%). Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  11. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare...

  12. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare...

  13. Analysis of immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa Neto, Adriana Lemos; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood transfusion is imperative when treating certain patients; however, it is not risk free. In addition to the possible transmission of contagious infectious diseases, incidents can occur immediately after transfusion and at a later time. Aims This study aimed to examine the immediate transfusion incidents reported in a regional blood bank in the state of Minas Gerais between December 2006 and December 2009. A retrospective quantitative epidemiological study was conducted. Data were obtained from 202 transfusion incident reports of 42 health institutions served by the blood bank. Data processing and analysis were carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Results The rate of immediate transfusion incidents reported in the period was 0.24%; febrile non-hemolytic reactions were the most common type of incident (56.4%). The most frequent clinical manifestations listed in transfusion incident reports were chills (26.9%) and fever (21.6%). There was a statistically significant association (p-value < 0.05) between the infusion of platelet concentrates and febrile non-hemolytic reactions and between fresh frozen plasma and febrile non-hemolytic reaction. The majority (73.3%) of transfused patients who suffered immediate transfusion incidents had already been transfused and 36.5% of the cases had previous transfusion incident reports. Conclusions Data from the present study corroborate the implementation of new professional training programs aimed at blood transfusion surveillance. These measures should emphasize prevention, identification and reporting of immediate transfusion incidents aiming to increase blood transfusion quality and safety. PMID:23049336

  14. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  15. A Need for Renewed and Cohesive US Policy on Cord Blood Banking.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-12-01

    Stem cells obtained from umbilical cord blood (CB) are used to treat more than 80 different diseases and are a standard treatment for many types of leukemias, lymphomas, myelodysplasias, and inherited immune system disorders. CB transplants have been carried out in humans for over 25 years, and hundreds of clinical trials are currently underway investigating CB's therapeutic potential for a wide range of disorders, including autism, diabetes, cerebral palsy, and spinal cord injury. Extensive storage facilities have been established in the United States and around the world to collect, test, and freeze CB for later use in medical procedures. However, a divide between two different banking models-public versus private-has emerged, presenting several policy challenges. While the Food and Drug Administration currently regulates CB storage and use in the United States, other state and federal guidelines on CB education, awareness, and ethical considerations remain variable, and no mandatory international guidelines exist. In addition, federal funding for an important CB collection initiative that specifically targets minority populations is set to expire by the end of FY2015. To help organize and coordinate efforts across the United States and other nations, policymakers should implement regulations for: high quality standards for both private and public CB banks, a commitment to ethical practices, and an investment in educational campaigns and training programs for all steps of the CB banking process.

  16. Detection of bacterial contamination and DNA quantification in stored blood units in 2 veterinary hospital blood banks.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Miglio, Arianna; Cappelli, Katia; Capomaccio, Stefano; Sgariglia, Elisa; Marenzoni, Maria L; Antognoni, Maria T; Coletti, Mauro; Mangili, Vittorio; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2016-09-01

    Blood transfusions in veterinary medicine have become increasingly more common and are now an integral part of lifesaving and advanced treatment in small and large animals. Important risks associated with transfusion of blood products include the transmission of various infectious diseases. Several guidelines suggest what infectious agents to screen for in canine and feline transfusion medicine. However, while the risk of bacterial contamination of blood products during storage and administration has not been documented in veterinary medicine, it has emerged as a cause of morbidity and mortality in human transfusion medicine. Clinical experience shows that the majority of blood component bacterial contaminations are caused by only a few species. Unlike other types of bacteria, psychrotolerant species like Pseudomonas spp. and Serratia spp. can proliferate during the storage of blood units at 4°C from a very low titer at the time of blood collection to a clinically significant level (> 10(5) CFU/mL) causing clinical sepsis resulting from red blood cell concentrate transfusions in human medicine. The purpose of this report was to describe the detection and quantification procedures applied in 4 cases of bacterial contamination of canine and feline blood units, which suggest the need for further investigations to optimize patients' safety in veterinary transfusion medicine.

  17. Comprehensive banking of sibling donor cord blood for children with malignant and nonmalignant disease.

    PubMed

    Reed, William; Smith, Renée; Dekovic, Florinna; Lee, Joanna Y; Saba, Julie D; Trachtenberg, Elizabeth; Epstein, Joanna; Haaz, Steffany; Walters, Mark C; Lubin, Bertram H

    2003-01-01

    Banking of cord blood (CB) for unrelated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is well established. However, directed-donor banking of CB for siblings in a current good tissue practices (cGTP) environment has not previously been investigated. Families were eligible for the present study if they were caring for a child with a disorder treatable by HSC transplantation and expecting the birth of a full sibling. We devised standard operating procedures and policies to address eligibility, donor recruitment, donor and recipient evaluation, CB collection, shipping, graft characterization, storage, and release of CB from quarantine. Many of these policies are distinctly different from those established for unrelated-donor CB banks. We enrolled 540 families from 42 states. Collections occurred at several hundred different hospitals. No family was deferred on the basis of health history or infectious disease testing, but departures from standard donor suitability criteria were documented. Disease categories for sibling recipients included malignancy, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia major, nonmalignant hematological conditions, and metabolic errors. Mean CB volume (including anticoagulant) was 103.1 mL; mean nucleated cell count was 8.9 x 10(8). Cell dose exceeded 1.5 x 10(7) nucleated cells per kilogram for 90% of banked units. Seventeen units (3.4%) have been transplanted. Sixteen of the 17 CB allograft recipients had stable engraftment of donor cells. Remote-site collection of sibling donor CB can be accomplished with a high success rate and in a cGTP-guided environment. The cellular products have been used successfully for transplantation; their number and characteristics should be adequate to support the first prospective clinical investigations of sibling CB transplantation.

  18. Changes in Band 3 oligomeric state precede cell membrane phospholipid loss during blood bank storage of red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Karon, Brad S.; Hoyer, James D.; Stubbs, James R.; Thomas, David D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid loss in the form of vesicles contributes to the red blood cell (RBC) storage lesion, and this loss of lipid is correlated with changes in membrane protein function. Sensitive spectroscopic techniques were used to measure changes in Band 3 oligomeric state during storage of RBCs, compared to metabolic changes and phospholipid loss. The aim of the study was to determine whether changes in the macromolecular organization of membrane proteins occur before, coincident with, or after lipid loss during RBC storage. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Five RBC units were collected from normal volunteers and stored under standard blood bank conditions, and both metabolic changes and lipid loss were measured by multiple assays. Band 3 oligomeric state was assessed by time-resolved phosphorescence anisotropy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer of eosin-5-maleimide–labeled RBC ghosts. RESULTS Extracellular pH decreased and extracellular potassium increased rapidly during cold storage of blood. Band 3 on the RBC membrane exhibited a shift from small to large oligomers early in the storage period and before detectable loss of phospholipid from the RBC membrane. The immobilized fraction of Band 3, that which is tethered to the cytoskeletal network via spectrin and ankyrin, did not change during cold storage. CONCLUSION Our results demonstrate that changes in the macromolecular organization of membrane proteins on the RBC occur early in storage, and these changes may induce phospholipid loss, irreversible morphologic changes, and loss of function during RBC storage. PMID:19389033

  19. Directed sibling cord blood banking for transplantation: the 10-year experience in the national blood service in England.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Jon; Armitage, Sue; McDonald, Dorothy; Pamphilon, Derwood; Guttridge, Martin; Brown, Juliette; Green, Ann; Brown, Colin; Warwick, Ruth M; Lankester, Alan; Fehily, Deirdre; Contreras, Marcela; Navarrete, Cristina; Watt, Suzanne M

    2007-08-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Although UCB is often collected from unrelated donors, directed umbilical cord blood (DCB) from sibling donors also provides an important source of UCB for transplantation. This report summarizes the experience in collection, testing, storage, and transplantation of DCB units by the National Blood Service for England and North Wales over 10 years. Eligibility for collection was based on an existing sibling suffering from a disease that may be treated by stem cell transplantation or a family history that could result in the birth of a sibling with a disease that could be treated by stem cell transplantation. Collections were made on the provision that the sibling's clinician was willing to financially support the collection and to take responsibility for medical review of the mother and potential recipient. Given the high investment in UCB banking and the introduction of new regulations and mandatory licensing under the European Union Tissues and Cells Directive and those proposed in the U.S., this report details the procedures that we have used for DCB donations, the outcome data where donations have been used for transplantation, and it provides some timely recommendations for best practices. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  20. Renitrosylation of banked human red blood cells improves deformability and reduces adhesivity

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Daniel A.; Zhu, Hongmei; Foster, Matthew W.; Huang, Brendan; Hofmann, Christina L.; Palmer, Gregory M.; McMahon, Tim J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a frequent healthcare practice. However, unfavorable consequences may occur from transfusions of stored RBCs and are associated with RBC changes during storage. Loss of S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) and other S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) during storage is implicated as a detriment to transfusion efficacy. It was hypothesized that restoring SNOs within banked RBCs would improve RBC functions relevant to successful transfusion outcomes, namely increased deformability and decreased adhesivity. Study Design and Methods Stored human RBCs were incubated with nitric oxide (NO) donors PROLI/NO and DEA/NO (disodium 1-[2-(carboxylato)-pyrrolidin-1-yl]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate and diethylammonium (Z)-1-(N,N-diethylamino)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) under different experimental conditions (e.g., aerobic/anaerobic incubation, NO donor to RBC ratio). SNO restoration was evaluated in vitro and in vivo as a means to improve RBC function after storage. Results Incubation of RBCs with the NO donors resulted in tenfold greater levels of SNO-Hb versus untreated control or sham RBCs, with significantly higher Hb-bound NO yields from an NO dose delivered by DEA/NO. RBC incubation with DEA/NO at a stoichiometry of 1:62.5 NO:Hb significantly increased RBC deformabilty and reduced adhesion to cultured endothelial cells. RBC incubation with DEA/NO also increased S-nitrosylation of RBC cytoskeletal and membrane proteins, including the beta spectrin chain. Renitrosylation attenuated both RBC sequestration in the lung and the mild blood oxygen saturation impairments seen with banked RBCs in a mouse model of transfusion. Conclusions RBC renitrosylation using NO donors has promise for correcting deficient properties (e.g., adhesivity, rigidity, and SNO loss) of banked RBCs and in turn improving transfusion outcomes. PMID:26098062

  1. Sibling donor cord blood banking for children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Reed, W; Walters, M; Trachtenberg, E; Smith, R; Lubin, B H

    2001-01-01

    Although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has curative potential for selected patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), most patients who are eligible for transplantation do not have a suitable donor. Cord blood (CB) from a sibling could provide an alternative stem cell source that, while not as well established as marrow, may offer certain advantages for selected families. These potential advantages include low risk to the infant donor, the possibility that mismatched CB units from sibling donors may be acceptable for transplantation, prompt availability of a stored CB unit for transplant, and decreased risk of clinically significant graft-versus-host disease. When families with SCD (or other transplant-treatable condition) conceive a sibling, no comprehensive research resource exists to assist the family in collecting the new infant's CB. With support from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, we are developing a noncommercial research-based CB Banking Program specifically for medically indicated sibling donations. In preliminary experience, we have collected CB from 52 SCD families across 19 states. Of these, 2 CB units have thus far been used for transplantation and 9 others are HLA-identical. We conclude that a CB bank focusing on sibling-donations may be feasible, but further study is required to determine whether such a bank can collect CB units of sufficient quantity and quality to support controlled trials of sibling CB transplantation. Families with a specific medical need, such as those already caring for a child with SCD, should consider collecting sibling CB as part of comprehensive care if the opportunity becomes available.

  2. Ethnicity, equity and public benefit: a critical evaluation of public umbilical cord blood banking in Australia.

    PubMed

    Samuel, G N; Kerridge, I H; Vowels, M; Trickett, A; Chapman, J; Dobbins, T

    2007-10-01

    Over the past decade umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been increasingly used as a source of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for patients who require a HSC transplant but do not have an HLA-matched donor. It was anticipated that using UCB as an alternative source of HSCs would increase the chance of finding a donor, particularly for the otherwise underrepresented ethnic minority groups. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Australian public UCB banks to increase the ethnic diversity of available HSC donations, this paper analyses the ethnic diversity of the Sydney Cord Blood Bank (SCBB), comparing this diversity to that of the Australian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (ABMDR). It also examines the ethnic diversity of those patients who, after requesting a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the 2-year period between 2003 and 2005, managed to find a suitably matched bone marrow or UCB donor. We show that the ethnic mix of donors to the SCBB has remained generally broad in source, is comparative to the Australian population, and is more diverse than the ABMDR. This, however, may still not be sufficient to substantially increase the likelihood of finding a donor for some ethnic minority groups.

  3. Transfusion medicine in the Formosa Fun Coast water park explosion: The role of combined tissue and blood banking.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Yeh, Chin-Chuan; Chu, Fang-Yeh

    2016-10-01

    The Formosa Fun Coast explosion, occurring in a recreational water park located in the Northern Taiwan on 27 June 2015, made 499 people burn-injured. For those who had severe burn trauma, surgical intervention and fluid resuscitation were necessary, and potential blood transfusion therapy could be initiated, especially during and after broad escharotomy. Here, we reviewed the literature regarding transfusion medicine and skin grafting as well as described the practicing experience of combined tissue and blood bank in the burn disaster in Taiwan. It was reported that patients who were severely burn-injured could receive multiple blood transfusions during hospitalization. Since the use of skin graft became a mainstay alternative for wound coverage after the early debridement of burn wounds at the beginning of the 20th century, the development of tissue banking program was initiated. In Taiwan, the tissue banking program was started in 2006. And the first combined tissue and blood bank was established in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital in 2010, equipped with the non-sterile, clean and sterile zones distinctly segregated with a unidirectional movement in the sterile area. The sterile zone was a class 10000 clean room equipped with high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPAF) and positive air pressure ventilation. The combined tissue and blood bank has been able to provide the assigned blood products and tissue graft timely and accurately, with the concepts of centralized management. In the future, the training of tissue and blood bank technicians would be continued and fortified, particularly on the regulation and quality control for further bio- and hemovigilance.

  4. [Screening of infectious microorganisms in blood banks in Douala (1995-2004)].

    PubMed

    Mogtomo, Martin Luther Koanga; Fomekong, Sylvie Louandji; Kuate, Honoré Fotso; Ngane, Annie Ngono

    2009-01-01

    The infection of people with haemophilia by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through blood transfusions demonstrated the potential risks of infectious disease transmission by transfusions. The microorganisms that can be transmitted through transfusion include: hepatitis viruses B, C, D, and G, HIV, cytomegalovirus, human T lymphotrophic virus (HTLV I and II), Treponema pallidum, Brucella spp, Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp and trypanosoma cruzi. We estimated the prevalence of transfusion-transmissible HIV, hepatitis B and C viruses, syphilis, and Plasmodium falciparum infection in two groups of blood donors at Douala city over the period of 1995 -2004. Our results for the donors at Douala University show that at points during that period the seroprevalence of HIV ranged from 2.20% to 8.12%, for HBV from 6.10% to 16%, for HCV from 0.80% to 1.65% and for syphilis from 1.10 to 22.81%. For the blood bank of Laquintinie Hospital we observed the following prevalences: 7.89%, for HIV, 6.91% for HBV, 2.32%, for HCV, 7.90% for syphilis, and 12.82% for P. falciparum infection. These results highlight the need for continuous monitoring for safe blood transfusion.

  5. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.

  6. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). Methods This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as ‘adequate’ (≥80 points), ‘partially adequate’ (from 50 to 80 points), or ‘inadequate’ (<50 points). The following components were evaluated: ‘donor education’ (5 points), ‘clinical screening’ (40 points), ‘laboratory screening’ (40 points) and ‘hemovigilance’ (15 points). Results The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78). Five blood banks were classified as ‘inadequate’ and five as ‘partially adequate’. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32). The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32). Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Conclusion Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as ‘adequate’ in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with. PMID:25453648

  7. Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation: the 20-year experience in the Rome Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Valle, Veronica; Tamburini, Anna; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Strano, Sabrina; Corona, Francesca; Ambrogi, Eleonora Barbacci; Girelli, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients lacking a suitably matched and readily available related or unrelated stem cell donor. As UCB transplantation from compatible sibling provides good results in children therefore directed sibling UCB collection and banking is indicated in family who already have a child with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Particularly, related UCB collection is recommended when the patients urgently need a transplantation. To provide access to all patients in need, we developed a "Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation". Here we report results of this project started 20years ago. To date, in this study a total of 194 families were enrolled, a total of 204 UCB samples were successfully collected and 15 pediatric patients have been transplanted. Recently, some authors have suggested novel role for UCB other than in the transplantation setting. Therefore, future studies in the immunotherapy and regenerative medicine areas could expand indication for sibling directed UCB collection.

  8. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requesting information from the Healthcare... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the...

  9. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requesting information from the Healthcare... SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the...

  10. Investigation of the immature stage of the cord blood banks and their regulation in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinliang

    2008-12-01

    Cord blood banks (CBBs) collect umbilical cord blood and isolate therefrom the stem cells which may be transplanted into patients serving treatment of many kinds of serious diseases. As one kind of health resource, CBBs need regulation to guarantee its fair development and safe application. During the past decade, several CBBs have been established in China and related measures have been administered to regulate their establishment and manipulation. How about the actual situation of CBBs in China, including, how are they regulated and what are the problems with the CBBs in practice? Upon introduction to cord blood and the CBBs, this paper investigates the practical situation of the CBBs in China and their regulation, and explores the corresponding problems which need to be dealt with. It is held that the CBB system in China is still at an initial stage, not only for its establishment and operation, but for its regulation as well; and, therefore, justification of a more sustainable CBB system for a better development is needed in China.

  11. Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C

    2015-04-01

    Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (P<0.001). No difference was observed between TNC count and volume according to geographic origin. Our study shows that diverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities.

  12. An integrated data envelopment analysis-artificial neural network approach for benchmarking of bank branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokrollahpour, Elsa; Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, Farhad; Zandieh, Mostafa

    2016-02-01

    Efficiency and quality of services are crucial to today's banking industries. The competition in this section has become increasingly intense, as a result of fast improvements in Technology. Therefore, performance analysis of the banking sectors attracts more attention these days. Even though data envelopment analysis (DEA) is a pioneer approach in the literature as of an efficiency measurement tool and finding benchmarks, it is on the other hand unable to demonstrate the possible future benchmarks. The drawback to it could be that the benchmarks it provides us with, may still be less efficient compared to the more advanced future benchmarks. To cover for this weakness, artificial neural network is integrated with DEA in this paper to calculate the relative efficiency and more reliable benchmarks of one of the Iranian commercial bank branches. Therefore, each branch could have a strategy to improve the efficiency and eliminate the cause of inefficiencies based on a 5-year time forecast.

  13. Integrated Framework for Information Security in Mobile Banking Service Based on Smart Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yong-Nyuo; Chun, Myung Geun

    Since Apple launched the iPhone service in November 2009 in Korea, smartphone banking users are increasing dramatically, forcing lenders to develop new products to deal with such demand. The bank of korea took the lead in jointing together to create a mobile banking application that each bank can adapt for its own use. In providing smartphone services, it is of critical importance to take the proper security measures, because these services, while offering excellent mobility and convenience, can be easily exposed to various infringement threats. This paper proposes a security framework that should be taken into account by the joint smartphone-based mobile banking development project. The purpose of this paper lies in recognizing the value of smartphones as well as the security threats that are exposed when smartphones are introduced, and provides countermeasures against those threats, so that an integrated information security framework for reliable smartphone-based mobile financial services can be prepared, by explicitly presenting the difference between personal computers and smartphones from the perspective of security.

  14. How Cell Number and Cellular Properties of Blood-Banked Red Blood Cells of Different Cell Ages Decline during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Tuo, Wei-Wei; Wang, Di; Liang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Yao-Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Aims Numerous studies have suggested that transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) stored over a long period of time may induce harmful effects due to storage-induced lesions. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this damage have not been identified. Furthermore, it is unclear why and how up to 30% of long-stored RBCs disappear from the circulation within 24 hours after transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine how the cell number of RBCs of different ages changes during storage and how these cells undergo cumulative structural and functional changes with storage time. Methods and Results We used Percoll centrifugation to fractionate the RBCs in blood bank stored RBC units into different aged sub-populations and then measured the number of intact cells in each sub-population as well the cells’ biomechanical and biochemical parameters as functions of the storage period. We found that the RBC units stored for ≤ 14 days could be separated into four fractions: the top or young cell fraction, two middle fractions, and the lower or old fraction. However, after 14 days of storage, the cell number and cellular properties declined rapidly whereby the units stored for 21 days only exhibited the three lower fractions and not the young fraction. The cell number within a unit stored for 21 days decreased by 23% compared to a fresh unit and the cells that were lost had hemolyzed into harmful membrane fragments, microparticles, and free hemoglobin. All remaining cells exhibited cellular properties similar to those of senescent cells. Conclusion In RBC units stored for greater than 14 days, there were fewer intact cells with no healthy cells present, as well as harmful membrane fragments, microparticles, and free hemoglobin. Therefore, transfusion of these stored units would not likely help patients and may induce a series of clinical problems. PMID:25167052

  15. Potential use of blood bank platelet concentrates to accelerate wound healing of diabetic ulcers.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Deok-Woo; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Hong, Yong-Taek; Woo, Hong-Suh; Kim, Woo-Kyung; Gottrup, Finn

    2007-11-01

    Many clinical trials have shown the effectiveness of platelet releasates on diabetic wound healing, but large volumes of blood must be aspirated from patients and a platelet separator is required. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential of blood bank platelet concentrate (BBPC) for accelerating diabetic wound healing. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) contents in BBPC were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in vitro, and the in vivo study involved comparing extents of wound healing in BBPC-treated and control groups using diabetic mouse wound models. In the in vitro study, 5.2 +/- 1.2 pg of PDGF-BB was found to be released by 1 million platelets in fresh BBPC, and adding thrombin to BBPC significantly increased the levels of PDGF-BB released. Our in vivo study in diabetic mice revealed that BBPC treatment greatly accelerated wound healing. Our results suggest that BBPC has potential to accelerate the healing of diabetic ulcers.

  16. Transfusion Practices Committee of a public blood bank network in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Results Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. Conclusion The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required. PMID:23323064

  17. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    PubMed

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  18. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out. PMID:27034840

  19. Integrative regulation of human brain blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Christopher K; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Fisher, Joseph A; Ainslie, Philip N

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we review mechanisms regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF), with specific focus on humans. We revisit important concepts from the older literature and describe the interaction of various mechanisms of cerebrovascular control. We amalgamate this broad scope of information into a brief review, rather than detailing any one mechanism or area of research. The relationship between regulatory mechanisms is emphasized, but the following three broad categories of control are explicated: (1) the effect of blood gases and neuronal metabolism on CBF; (2) buffering of CBF with changes in blood pressure, termed cerebral autoregulation; and (3) the role of the autonomic nervous system in CBF regulation. With respect to these control mechanisms, we provide evidence against several canonized paradigms of CBF control. Specifically, we corroborate the following four key theses: (1) that cerebral autoregulation does not maintain constant perfusion through a mean arterial pressure range of 60–150 mmHg; (2) that there is important stimulatory synergism and regulatory interdependence of arterial blood gases and blood pressure on CBF regulation; (3) that cerebral autoregulation and cerebrovascular sensitivity to changes in arterial blood gases are not modulated solely at the pial arterioles; and (4) that neurogenic control of the cerebral vasculature is an important player in autoregulatory function and, crucially, acts to buffer surges in perfusion pressure. Finally, we summarize the state of our knowledge with respect to these areas, outline important gaps in the literature and suggest avenues for future research. PMID:24396059

  20. Utility of bag segment and cryovial samples for quality control and confirmatory HLA typing in umbilical cord blood banking.

    PubMed

    Solves, P; Planelles, D; Mirabet, V; Blasco, I; Carbonell-Uberos, F; Soler, M A; Roig, R J

    2004-12-01

    Many cord blood (CB) banks have been established worldwide as a response to the increasing number of CB transplantations. In this study, we describe a quality control program in which the utility of an integral bag segment and cryovial containing aliquots of cryopreserved product as haematopoietic content control and HLA typing confirmation for CB units has been evaluated. For this purpose, every month one stored CB unit and its satellite cryovials were thawed and washed. Nucleated cell counts, viability and clonogenic assays were performed from the bag and cryovial before washing. After washing, total nucleated cell, CD34+ counts, viability, and clonogenic assays were performed from the bag. In order to assure the ability of bag segments to confirm hematopoietic potential of CB units, clonogenic assays and viability were performed from attached segments of 10 CB units and the results were compared with those from bags and cryovials. When comparing all variables between thawed bag and cryovial samples, they showed similar results. Mean colony-forming unit (CFU) content of segment samples was 118.8 +/- 93.72 x 10(4) that resulted similar to bags and cryovials haematopoietic content. In conclusion, the quality control system described in this paper demonstrates that CB units are processed preserving the quantity and quality of the progenitor cells. The contiguous segment haematopoietic content is representative of the final product.

  1. Convalescent transfusion for pandemic influenza: preparing blood banks for a new plasma product?

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P; Brunker, Patricia A R; Ness, Paul M

    2010-06-01

    Due to the potential of a severe pandemic to limit efficacy or availability of medical countermeasures, some researchers have begun a search for new interventions that could complement the planned antiviral- and vaccine-based response to an influenza pandemic. One such countermeasure-the transfusion of pandemic influenza-specific antibodies from surviving patients to the clinically ill-is the focus of this commentary. Passive immunotherapy, which includes the use of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs), hyperimmune globulin, or convalescent plasma, had been used before the advent of antibiotics and has recently reentered the limelight due to the accelerating development of MoAb therapies against cancer, a number of microbes, allograft rejection, and a host of other conditions. After the plausible biologic mechanism and somewhat limited data supporting the efficacy for this modality against influenza are reviewed, safety and logistical concerns for utilization of this potential new product (fresh convalescent plasma against influenza [FCP-Flu]) are discussed. FCP-Flu could indeed prove useful in a response to a pandemic, but two necessary items must first be satisfied. Most importantly, more research should be conducted to establish FCP-Flu efficacy against the current and other pandemic strains. Second, and also importantly, blood banks and donor centers should examine whether offering this new product would be feasible in a pandemic and begin planning before a more severe pandemic forces us to respond without adequate preparation.

  2. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems.

    PubMed

    Takecian, Pedro L; Oikawa, Marcio K; Braghetto, Kelly R; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B F; Sabino, Ester C; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P; Ferreira, João E

    2013-06-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development.

  3. Methodological Guidelines for Reducing the Complexity of Data Warehouse Development for Transactional Blood Bank Systems

    PubMed Central

    Takecian, Pedro L.; Oikawa, Marcio K.; Braghetto, Kelly R.; Rocha, Paulo; Lucena, Fred; Kavounis, Katherine; Schlumpf, Karen S.; Acker, Susan; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna B. F.; Sabino, Ester C.; Custer, Brian; Busch, Michael P.; Ferreira, João E.

    2013-01-01

    Over time, data warehouse (DW) systems have become more difficult to develop because of the growing heterogeneity of data sources. Despite advances in research and technology, DW projects are still too slow for pragmatic results to be generated. Here, we address the following question: how can the complexity of DW development for integration of heterogeneous transactional information systems be reduced? To answer this, we proposed methodological guidelines based on cycles of conceptual modeling and data analysis, to drive construction of a modular DW system. These guidelines were applied to the blood donation domain, successfully reducing the complexity of DW development. PMID:23729945

  4. Military Blood Banking. Immunohematology for the Reference and Forensic Testing Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    blood components and plasmapheresis, donor immunization and hyperimmunization, tissue transplantation, scientific treatises in blood group immunology, consumption coagulopathy, and blood group antigens stored over five months in

  5. Seroprevalence and trends in transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in a university hospital blood bank: a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, P; Ganesh, C K; Jayashree, K; Manjunath, G V

    2011-03-01

    Blood is life. Transfusion of blood and blood components, as a specialized modality of patient management saves millions of lives worldwide each year and reduce morbidity. It is well known that blood transfusion is associated with a large number of complications, some are only trivial and others are potentially life threatening, demanding for meticulous pretransfusion testing and screening particularly for transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). These TTI are a threat to blood safety. The priority objective of BTS is thus to ensure safety, adequacy, accessibility and efficiency of blood supply at all levels. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence and trend of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) among voluntary and replacement donors in the Department of Blood bank and transfusion Medicine of JSS College Hospital, a teaching hospital of Mysore during the period from 2004 to 2008. A retrospective review of donors record covering the period between 2004 and 2008 at the blood bank, JSS Hospital, Mysore was carried out. All samples were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria. Of the 39,060, 25,303 (64.78%) were voluntary donors and the remaining 13,757 (35.22%) were replacement donors. The overall prevalence of HIV, HbsAg, HCV and syphilis were 0.44, 1.27, 0.23 and 0.28%, respectively. No blood donor tested showed positivity for malarial parasite. Majority were voluntary donors with male preponderance. In all the markers tested there was increased prevalence of TTI among the replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. With the implementation of strict donor criteria and use of sensitive screening tests, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of TTI in the Indian scenario.

  6. Reduction of hepatitis B seroprevalence in blood banking units by combined utilization of self-exclusion forms and clinical evaluation of blood donation candidates in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yenicesu, Idil; Dilsiz, Günter; Oztürk, Gülyüz

    2008-04-01

    In this retrospectively designed study, we evaluate the influence of the permanence and qualifications of health-care professionals on blood disposal rates due to hepatitis seropositivity. We observed a decrease of 44.2% in the number of blood units being rejected due to the donor's hepatitis B seropositivity in the second study period in which self-exclusion forms and where blood donation candidates were evaluated by a family physician. However, a similar decrease of the disposal rate due to hepatitis C seropositivity was not observed. This is especially important in countries which cannot afford many of the expensive modern laboratory tests. A comprehensive evaluation of self-exclusion forms and a brief examination prior to donation will greatly increase transfusion safety. Unfortunately, there are blood banks in Turkey which employ no physicians at all.

  7. Business on hope: a case study on private cord blood stem cell banking.

    PubMed

    Kiatpongsan, Sorapop

    2008-04-01

    Traditionally, medical practice has been recognized as one of the professional practices with high honors. The interaction between physicians and patients is to provide health care services without the profit orientation. In modernized economy and in today's world of business, the relationship between doctors and patients has been dramatically changed. This transformation is very obvious in the private sector. Health care providers sell their services. Patients have been approached as customers. Decisions to make an investment on new medical technologies or new services would accompany with careful consideration on cost-benefit ratio, on marketing and also on short and long term return of the investment. However most of the medical services available in the past were focusing on the "real" and "tangible" products. This means that the patients or the customers would obtain diagnosis, treatment, palliation or prevention for the fees they paid. They can at least obtain and can feel some direct or indirect health benefits from the services. With the advancement of science and technology, there is recently a new model of business that sells only the hope for future use. Private cord blood stem cell banking is a good example for this business model. Actually, business on hope is not the brand new business model. Insurance is a well-known classical prototype of business on hope. However, when this kind of business model is applied for medical services, there should be some precautions and also intervention including an oversight system from the government sector to make sure that all the information delivered to the clients and family is accurate and unbiased. From the public policy perspective, this business of hope should be appropriately regulated to preserve consumer rights while promoting the advancement of science and technology through sustainable business development.

  8. Family directed umbilical cord blood banking for acute leukemia: usage rate in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Screnci, M; Murgi, E; Tamburini, A; Pecci, M R; Ballatore, G; Cusanno, A; Valle, V; Luciani, P; Corona, F; Girelli, G

    2015-04-01

    Family-directed umbilical cord blood (UCB) collection and banking is indicated in women delivering healthy babies who already have a member of their own family with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSCs) transplantation (HSCT). The rapid availability of UCB is an important issue in HSCs procurement particularly for recipients with acute leukemia who urgently need HSCT. The aims of this study were to assess the usage rate of family UCB collections directed to patients with acute leukemia and to investigate the factors influencing the usage rate. A total of 113 families were enrolled, 118 UCB units were successfully collected and one collection failed due to emergency occurred during delivery. Among these, 7 collections were required for children who were in urgent need of a transplant: three HLA-matched units were successfully transplanted, respectively after 2, 5 and 6 months from collection; three collections resulted HLA-mismatched, while HLA-typing is pending for one unit. The remaining collections were mostly required for potential future use, among these units only one was transplanted in a HLA compatible sibling after 3 years and 4 months from collection. After a median time of storage of 8.5 years (range 0.1-20 years) a total of 4/118 (3.4 %) collection has been transplanted. During this time interval, considering only patients who have had the need of a transplant, the main factor influencing low utilization rate of UCB collections was due to HLA disparity, indeed among typed UCB unit mostly (77 %) resulted HLA mismatched with the intended recipient.

  9. An experience of the introduction of a blood bank automation system (Ortho AutoVue Innova) in a regional acute hospital.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuk Wah; Wilkinson, Jenny M

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on an evaluation of the introduction of a blood bank automation system (Ortho AutoVue(®) Innova) in a hospital blood bank by considering the performance and workflow as compared with manual methods. The turnaround time was found to be 45% faster than the manual method. The concordance rate was found to be 100% for both ABO/Rh(D) typing and antibody screening in both of the systems and there was no significant difference in detection sensitivity for clinically significant antibodies. The Ortho AutoVue(®) Innova automated blood banking system streamlined the routine pre-transfusion testing in hospital blood bank with high throughput, equivalent sensitivity and reliability as compared with conventional manual method.

  10. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber of four seal species: integrating biomonitoring and specimen banking.

    PubMed

    Krahn, M M; Becker, P R; Tilbury, K L; Stein, J E

    1997-05-01

    Blubber samples from four Alaska seal species (bearded seal, Erignathus barbatus, harbor seal, Phoca vitulina, northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, ringed seal, P. hispida) were collected for inclusion in the US National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank, as well as for immediate analysis as part of the contaminant monitoring component of the US National Marine Fisheries Service's Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program. The blubber samples were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) contaminants (e.g., PCB congeners, pesticides, DDTs). Results for bearded and ringed seals from the Alaska Arctic revealed low blubber concentrations of OC contaminants. Harbor seals from Prince William Sound. Gulf of Alaska, had somewhat higher blubber concentrations of OC contaminants. In contrast, northern fur seals sampled from the Pribilof Islands had blubber concentrations of certain OC contaminants that were about an order of magnitude higher than those found in the other seal species. Differences in contaminant concentrations among the Alaska seals may be explained by differences in feeding habits and migratory patterns, age or gender did not appear to account for the differences observed. The highest concentrations of OCs were found in harbor seals stranded along the northwestern US mainland, which is consistent with higher concentrations of anthropogenic contaminants being found in urban coastal areas than in more remote Arctic environments. The integration of real-time contaminant monitoring with specimen banking provides important baseline data that can be used to plan and manage banking activities. This includes identifying appropriate specimens that are useful in assessing temporal trends and increasing the utility of the banked samples in assessing chemical contaminant accumulation and relationships to biological effects.

  11. Development of stem cells from umbilical cord blood and blood banking: "non-controversial" and "free of political and ethical debate"?

    PubMed

    Skene, Loane

    2012-03-01

    Opponents of human embryo research have understandably welcomed pluripotent stem cells being derived from body cells including cells from umbilical cords after childbirth. The cord would otherwise be discarded and embryos are not destroyed. However, there are other ethical, legal and political issues in cord blood collection, whether for the child's future use, or a public blood bank. Information and consent procedures may be misleading. Some parents have false hopes about potential outcomes. The right of access to stored blood and other benefits is sometimes uncertain for children and their families. Private stem cell repositories may compete with public ones. People may want to impose conditions on donation. Quality control may be an issue.

  12. Long-Term Quality Control Program Plan for Cord Blood Banks in Korea: A Pilot Study for Cryopreservation Stability

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Soo Hyun; Shin, Sue; Roh, Eun Youn; Song, Eun Young; Oh, Sohee; Kim, Byoung Jae

    2017-01-01

    Background Maintaining the quality of cryopreserved cord blood is crucial. In this pilot study, we describe the results of the internal quality control program for a cord blood bank thus far. Methods Donated cord blood units unsuitable for transplantation were selected for internal quality control once a month. One unit of cord blood, aliquoted into 21 capillaries, was cryopreserved and thawed annually to analyze the total nucleated cell count, CD34+ cell count, cell viability test, and colony-forming units assay. Results No significant differences in the variables (total nucleated cell count, cell viability, CD34+ cell count) were observed between samples cryopreserved for one and two years. Upon comparing the variables before cryopreservation and post thawing with the capillaries of one year of storage, cell viability and CD34+ cell counts decreased significantly. The use of cord blood samples in capillaries, which can be easily stored for a long period, was similar to the methods used for testing segments attached to the cord blood unit. Conclusions The results of this study may be useful for determining the period during which the quality of cryopreserved cord blood units used for transplantation is maintained. PMID:28028998

  13. Establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank for South Africa: an enquiry into public acceptability.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA.

  14. Isolation of three important types of stem cells from the same samples of banked umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Phuc, Pham Van; Ngoc, Vu Bich; Lam, Dang Hoang; Tam, Nguyen Thanh; Viet, Pham Quoc; Ngoc, Phan Kim

    2012-06-01

    It is known that umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of stem cells with practical and ethical advantages. Three important types of stem cells which can be harvested from umbilical cord blood and used in disease treatment are hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Since these stem cells have shown enormous potential in regenerative medicine, numerous umbilical cord blood banks have been established. In this study, we examined the ability of banked UCB collected to produce three types of stem cells from the same samples with characteristics of HSCs, MSCs and EPCs. We were able to obtain homogeneous plastic rapidly-adherent cells (with characteristics of MSCs), slowly-adherent (with characteristics of EPCs) and non-adherent cells (with characteristics of HSCs) from the mononuclear cell fractions of cryopreserved UCB. Using a protocol of 48 h supernatant transferring, we successfully isolated MSCs which expressed CD13, CD44 and CD90 while CD34, CD45 and CD133 negative, had typical fibroblast-like shape, and was able to differentiate into adipocytes; EPCs which were CD34, and CD90 positive, CD13, CD44, CD45 and CD133 negative, adherent with cobble-like shape; HSCs which formed colonies when cultured in MethoCult medium.

  15. Portable blood extraction device integrated with biomedical monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khumpuang, S.; Horade, M.; Fujioka, K.; Sugiyama, S.

    2006-01-01

    Painless and portable blood extraction device has been immersed in the world of miniaturization on bio-medical research particularly in manufacturing point-of-care systems. The fabrication of a blood extraction device integrated with an electrolyte-monitoring system is reported in this paper. The device has advantages in precise controlled dosage of blood extracted including the slightly damaged blood vessels and nervous system. The in-house blood diagnostic will become simple for the patients. Main components of the portable system are; the blood extraction device and electrolyte-monitoring system. The monitoring system consists of ISFET (Ion Selective Field Effect Transistor) for measuring the concentration level of minerals in blood. In this work, we measured the level of 3 ions; Na+, K+ and Cl-. The mentioned ions are frequently required the measurement since their concentration levels in the blood can indicate whether the kidney, pancreas, liver or heart is being malfunction. The fabrication of the whole system and experimentation on each ISM (Ion Sensitive Membrane) will be provided. Taking the advantages of LIGA technology, the 100 hollow microneedles fabricated by Synchrotron Radiation deep X-ray lithography through PCT (Plane-pattern to Cross-section Transfer) technique have been consisted in 5x5 mm2 area. The microneedle is 300 μm in base-diameter, 500 μm-pitch, 800 μm-height and 50 μm hole-diameter. The total size of the blood extraction device is 2x2x2 cm 3. The package is made from a plastic socket including slots for inserting microneedle array and ISFET connecting to an electrical circuit for the monitoring. Through the dimensional design for simply handling and selection of disposable material, the patients can self-evaluate the critical level of the body minerals in anywhere and anytime.

  16. NIR-integrating sphere spectroscopy to determine various blood properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, Martina; Friebel, Moritz; Gersonde, Ingo H.; Muller, Gerhard J.

    2005-03-01

    Near infrared integrating sphere spectroscopy and chemometric multivariate calibration were applied to determine hematocrit (HCT) and oxygen saturation (O2Sat) of circulating human blood. The diffuse reflectance were measured and the partial least square method (PLS) was used for calibration considering different wavelength ranges. The HCT and the O2Sat could be predicted with a root mean square error (PRMSE) of 1.9% and 2.8% respectively, using PLS. Each parameter was adjusted to various levels, and three measurement series from blood of three different donors were carried out for the calibration with the PLS. The calibration includes changes in hemolysis and osmolarity as well as inter-individual differences in cell dimensions and hemoglobin content. Prediction of hemolysis was also possible for one blood sample with a PRMSE of 0.8%.

  17. Blood viscosity measurement: an integral method using Doppler ultrasonic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaud, P.; Bensalah, A.

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new indirect and noninvasive method for the measurement of the Newtonian blood viscosity. Based on an integral form of the axial Navier-Stokes equation, this method is particularly suited for in vivo investigations using ultrasonic arterial blood velocity profiles. Its main advantage is that it is applicable to periodic as well as non periodic flows. Moreover it does not require classical filtering methods enhancing signal to noise ratio of the physiological signals. This method only requires the knowledge of the velocimetric data measured inside a spatially and temporally optimized zone of the Doppler velocity profiles. The results obtained using numerical simulation as well as in vitro or in vivo experiments prove the effectiveness of the method. It is then well adapted to the clinical environment as a systematic quasi on-line method for the measurement of the blood viscosity.

  18. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    PubMed

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients.

  19. Prevention of non-immune mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury; from blood bank to patient.

    PubMed

    van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a severe form of pulmonary insufficiency induced by transfusion. TRALI is the leading cause of transfusion-related death, and is caused by the infusion of either anti-leukocyte antibodies in plasma containing blood products or neutrophil priming substances that accumulate during storage of cellular blood products. Among these neutrophil priming substances are bioactive lipids, such as lyso-phosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) and arachidonic acid, soluble CD40L (sCD40L) and possibly other, as yet unidentified substances. The accumulation of these substances during cellular blood product storage and their role in the induction of "non-immune mediated" TRALI pathogenesis are highly relevant for the current debate of the use of longer vs. shorter stored blood products. In this review, the accumulation of these different substances during storage, as well as their mode of action in inducing TRALI are discussed. In addition, different improvements in current blood banking procedures to prevent TRALI due to these non-immune mediators will be proposed.

  20. [Exploration of regulating blood lipids metabolism by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-shan; Wu, Wei; Qing, Li-jin

    2015-02-01

    Hyperlipidemia is an important risk factor of cardio-/cerebrovascular disease, and reducing lipids has become an important project for itsclinical preventing and treating. Western medicine, with its confirmative efficacy and clear mechanism, has played an irreplaceable role. Along with the development of modern medicine, integrative medicine has gradually become a growing trend in regulating blood lipids metabolism. It not only could make up the insufficient power for Chinese medicine in lowering lipids, but also could reduce adverse reactions and economic costs brought by long-term administration of Western medicine. As a modern practitioner of Chinese medicine, we should keep clear that integrative medicine regulating blood lipids metabolism does not mean a simple combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine. We should treat it guided by systematic theories. We combine disease identification and syndrome differentiation, guide lipids lowering by integrative medicine including selecting Western drugs for blood lipids lowering, Chinese medical prescriptions for syndrome typing, and effective Chinese herbs based on modern pharmacologies.

  1. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  2. A question of clarity: redesigning the American Association Of Blood Banks blood donor history questionnaire--a chronology and model for donor screening.

    PubMed

    Fridey, Joy L; Townsend, Mary J; Kessler, Debra A; Gregory, Kay R

    2007-07-01

    A new donor history questionnaire, introduced by the American Association of Blood Banks in 2004 and approved by Food and Drug Administration in 2006, is now in widespread use in the United States. The development of this questionnaire involved an in-depth look at the entire system of donor screening questions, and is notable for its use of survey design experts as well as blood banking experts, government agencies, and an ethicist who represented the public interest in developing the actual questions. The end result is a questionnaire that uses capture questions in a time bounded format, donor educational materials, and a medication deferral list. Detailed instructions for donor screeners include follow-up questions in easy-to-follow flow-charts. Most importantly, for the first time in the history of developing donor history questions, all materials were tested for donor comprehension using cognitive interview evaluation. This article discusses the development of the questionnaire, explains the methodology, and describes the thinking and rationale for decisions made during redesign of the questionnaire.

  3. The RCSB protein data bank: integrative view of protein, gene and 3D structural information.

    PubMed

    Rose, Peter W; Prlić, Andreas; Altunkaya, Ali; Bi, Chunxiao; Bradley, Anthony R; Christie, Cole H; Costanzo, Luigi Di; Duarte, Jose M; Dutta, Shuchismita; Feng, Zukang; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S; Hudson, Brian; Kalro, Tara; Lowe, Robert; Peisach, Ezra; Randle, Christopher; Rose, Alexander S; Shao, Chenghua; Tao, Yi-Ping; Valasatava, Yana; Voigt, Maria; Westbrook, John D; Woo, Jesse; Yang, Huangwang; Young, Jasmine Y; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M; Burley, Stephen K

    2017-01-04

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://rcsb.org), the US data center for the global PDB archive, makes PDB data freely available to all users, from structural biologists to computational biologists and beyond. New tools and resources have been added to the RCSB PDB web portal in support of a 'Structural View of Biology.' Recent developments have improved the User experience, including the high-speed NGL Viewer that provides 3D molecular visualization in any web browser, improved support for data file download and enhanced organization of website pages for query, reporting and individual structure exploration. Structure validation information is now visible for all archival entries. PDB data have been integrated with external biological resources, including chromosomal position within the human genome; protein modifications; and metabolic pathways. PDB-101 educational materials have been reorganized into a searchable website and expanded to include new features such as the Geis Digital Archive.

  4. Hemovigilance in Massachusetts and the adoption of statewide hospital blood bank reporting using the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Melissa; Osinski, Anthony; O'Hearn, Lynne; Waksmonski, Pamela; Herman, Michele; Gordon, Deborah; Griffiths, Elzbieta; Knox, Kim; McHale, Eileen; Quillen, Karen; Rios, Jorge; Pisciotto, Patricia; Uhl, Lynne; DeMaria, Alfred; Andrzejewski, Chester

    2017-02-01

    A collaboration that grew over time between local hemovigilance stakeholders and the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) resulted in the change from a paper-based method of reporting adverse reactions and monthly transfusion activity for regulatory compliance purposes to statewide adoption of electronic reporting via the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). The NHSN is a web-based surveillance system that offers the capacity to capture transfusion-related adverse events, incidents, and monthly transfusion statistics from participating facilities. Massachusetts' hospital blood banks share the data they enter into NHSN with the MDPH to satisfy reporting requirements. Users of the NHSN Hemovigilance Module adhere to specified data entry guidelines, resulting in data that are comparable and standardized. Keys to successful statewide adoption of this reporting method include the fostering of strong partnerships with local hemovigilance champions and experts, engagement of regulatory and epidemiology divisions at the state health department, the leveraging of existing relationships with hospital NHSN administrators, and the existence of a regulatory deadline for implementation. Although limitations exist, successful implementation of statewide use of the NHSN Hemovigilance Module for hospital blood bank reporting is possible. The result is standardized, actionable data at both the hospital and state level that can facilitate interfacility comparisons, benchmarking, and opportunities for practice improvement.

  5. Confidential unit exclusion at the regional blood bank in Montes Claros - Fundação Hemominas

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Caroline Nogueira; Ruas, Munic de Oliveira; Urias, Elaine Veloso Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed at analyzing the rate of self-exclusion at the Regional Blood Bank in Montes Claros. Methods Data of self-excluding donors from August 2008 to August 2010 were analyzed. The following variables were considered: age, marital status, gender, ethnical background, blood group, Rh factor, number of donations, type of donation and serologic results. Results During the analyzed period, 34,778 individuals donated blood, 215 (0.62%) of which were self-excluded; 12% of donors did not answer, 6.3% ballots were spoilt and 13.6% of the responses were considered non-compliant. The profile of the donors was: male (81.9%), single (50.7%), aged between 19 and 29 years old (52.1%), Mulatto (48.3%), blood group O (32.1%) and positive Rh (32.1%). Most individuals were donating for the 2ndto 5th time (43.7%) and had negative serology (94.4%). Conclusion It was not evident that self-excluding donors had higher rates of seropositivity. PMID:23049378

  6. 45 CFR 61.15 - How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the...

  7. 45 CFR 61.15 - How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to dispute the accuracy of Healthcare... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the...

  8. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood.

  9. A spectral boundary integral method for flowing blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong; Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Olson, Luke N.; Freund, Jonathan B.

    2010-05-01

    A spectral boundary integral method for simulating large numbers of blood cells flowing in complex geometries is developed and demonstrated. The blood cells are modeled as finite-deformation elastic membranes containing a higher viscosity fluid than the surrounding plasma, but the solver itself is independent of the particular constitutive model employed for the cell membranes. The surface integrals developed for solving the viscous flow, and thereby the motion of the massless membrane, are evaluated using an O(NlogN) particle-mesh Ewald (PME) approach. The cell shapes, which can become highly distorted under physiologic conditions, are discretized with spherical harmonics. The resolution of these global basis functions is, of course, excellent, but more importantly they facilitate an approximate de-aliasing procedure that stabilizes the simulations without adding any numerical dissipation or further restricting the permissible numerical time step. Complex geometry no-slip boundaries are included using a constraint method that is coupled into an implicit system that is solved as part of the time advancement routine. The implementation is verified against solutions for axisymmetric flows reported in the literature, and its accuracy is demonstrated by comparison against exact solutions for relaxing surface deformations. It is also used to simulate flow of blood cells at 30% volume fraction in tubes between 4.9 and 16.9 μm in diameter. For these, it is shown to reproduce the well-known non-monotonic dependence of the effective viscosity on the tube diameter.

  10. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion.

  11. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood…

  12. Integration and Modulation of Intercellular Signaling Underlying Blood Flow Control

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular resistance networks control tissue blood flow in concert with regulating arterial perfusion pressure. In response to increased metabolic demand, vasodilation arising in arteriolar networks ascends to encompass proximal feed arteries. By reducing resistance upstream, ascending vasodilation (AVD) increases blood flow into the microcirculation. Once initiated [e.g., through local activation of K+ channels in endothelial cells (ECs)], hyperpolarization is conducted through gap junctions along the endothelium. Via EC projections through the internal elastic lamina, hyperpolarization spreads into the surrounding smooth muscle cells (SMCs) through myoendothelial gap junctions (MEGJs) to promote their relaxation. Intercellular signaling through electrical signal transmission (i.e., cell-to-cell conduction) can thereby coordinate vasodilation along and among the branches of microvascular resistance networks. Perivascular sympathetic nerve fibers course through the adventitia and release norepinephrine to stimulate SMCs via α-adrenoreceptors to produce contraction. In turn, SMCs can signal ECs through MEGJs to activate K+ channels and attenuate sympathetic vasoconstriction. Activation of K+ channels along the endothelium will dissipate electrical signal transmission and inhibit AVD, thereby restricting blood flow into the microcirculation while maintaining peripheral resistance and perfusion pressure. This review explores the origins and nature of intercellular signaling governing blood flow control in skeletal muscle with respect to the interplay between AVD and sympathetic innervation. Whereas these interactions are integral to physical daily activity and athletic performance, resolving the interplay between respective signaling events provides insight into how selective interventions can improve tissue perfusion and oxygen delivery during vascular disease. PMID:26368324

  13. Approaches to minimize infection risk in blood banking and transfusion practice.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Paul F; Annen, Kyle; Ramsey, Glenn

    2011-02-01

    The use of blood donor history and state-of-the-art FDA-licensed serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays have greatly reduced the "infectious window" for several transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Currently transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), hepatitis viruses and West Nile Virus are rare events. The seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus in the donor population is high and cytomegalovirus infection can cause significant complications for immunocompromised recipients of blood transfusion. Careful use of CMV seronegative blood resources and leukoreduction of blood products are able to prevent most CMV infections in these patients. Currently, bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates is the greatest remaining infectious disease risk in blood transfusion. Specialized donor collection procedures reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of blood products; blood culture and surrogate testing procedures are used to detect potential bacterially contaminated platelet products prior to transfusion. A rapid quantitative immunoassay is now available to test for the presence of lipotechoic acid and lipopolysaccharide bacterial products prior to platelet transfusion. Attention has now turned to emerging infectious diseases including variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, dengue, babesiosis, Chagas' disease and malaria. Challenges are presented to identify and prevent transmission of these agents. Several methods are being used or in development to reduce infectivity of blood products, including solvent-detergent processing of plasma and nucleic acid cross-linking via photochemical reactions with methylene blue, riboflavin, psoralen and alkylating agents. Several opportunities exist to further improve blood safety through advances in infectious disease screening and pathogen inactivation methods.

  14. Data bank of optical properties of biological tissue and blood in the visible and near infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairullina, Alphiya Y.; Bui, Lilia; Oleinik, Tatiana V.; Artishevsky, Nelli; Prigoun, Natalia; Sevkovsky, Jakov; Mokhort, Tatiana

    1996-12-01

    The data bank contains optical, ordinary biochemical and biophysical information on 120 venous blood samples of donors, healthy persons, patients with high pathology, 60 tissue samples. The optical parameters include diffuse reflection R((lambda) ) and transmission T((lambda) ) coefficients for optically thick layers, the absorption K((lambda) ) and extinction (epsilon) ((lambda) ) spectra, oxygenation degree CO2, parameter p determined by sizes and shapes of cells and their aggregates, refractive index of a disperse phase relative to surrounding media, and cooperative effects at high relative concentration. The peculiarities in absorption K((lambda) spectra are connected with different pathologies. It is shown from K((lambda) ) that the grade of pathology connected with the concentration of hemoglobin and mithohondrion together with oxygenation degree of blood and tissues, with the pathological hemoglobin's forms and its decomposition products of different levels. Parameter p is an important diagnostic parameter. We consider that it is necessary to include the oxygenation degree and erythrocyte's aggregation parameter to extend the range of common diagnostic parameters of blood by the first rota.

  15. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia. PMID:26925291

  16. Assessing ABO/Rh Blood Group Frequency and Association with Asymptomatic Malaria among Blood Donors Attending Arba Minch Blood Bank, South Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Alemu, Getaneh; Mama, Mohammedaman

    2016-01-01

    Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22 ± 0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean). Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%), A (136, 32.7%), B (87, 20.9%), and AB (18, 4.3%). Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%). The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416). ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P = 0.022). High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P = 0.003) compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.

  17. The Royan Public Umbilical Cord Blood Bank: Does It Cover All Ethnic Groups in Iran Based on HLA Diversity?

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. Methods From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. Results The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 107-107 × 107. The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Conclusions Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future. PMID:24847189

  18. Community monitoring of integrated pest management versus conventional pesticide use in a World Bank project in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ishii-Eiteman, Marcia J; Ardhianie, Nila

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) collaborated with a local Indonesian nongovernmental organization (NGO), Yayasan Duta Awam (YDA), in monitoring impacts of the World Bank-financed Integrated Swamps Development Project (ISDP). This paper reports the results of the community-based investigation, which found wide disparities between the World Bank's policy on pest management and its implementation. Instead of reducing farmers' reliance on pesticides as required, the ISDP led to increased intensity and frequency of pesticide use and adverse health and environmental effects from pesticide exposures. YDA and PANNA presented the findings to the Indonesian government and World Bank officials, and farmers requested training in IPM among other recommendations. After NGOs undertook joint advocacy efforts to reduce pesticide dependence in the project, the World Bank withdrew hazardous pesticides from input packages, IPM training was initiated, and community monitors became local leaders in their villages. The study demonstrates the importance and efficacy of independent community-based monitoring in documenting pesticide problems and replacing pesticides with IPM in World Bank development projects.

  19. Cord blood banking: regulations, ethics and practice in a disputed Italian case.

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2012-01-01

    Current Italian regulations allow the free storage in public biobanks within the Italian National Health Service (SSN) of voluntarily donated cord blood, which can then be made available for transplantation in Italian and foreign patients. The same regulations allow the free storage of cord blood for directed use (in other words, for all cases in which it can be used for a family member suffering from a disease that can be cured through the use of hematopoietic stem cells) and in cases where a family runs a high risk of genetic disorders. This article briefly describes and discusses an episode involving an Italian hospital: an appeal by a woman led to a court provision imposing the collection and storage of a cord blood unit outside the conditions established by law. The provision aroused controversy and led to a series of inappropriate actions.

  20. The RCSB protein data bank: integrative view of protein, gene and 3D structural information

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter W.; Prlić, Andreas; Altunkaya, Ali; Bi, Chunxiao; Bradley, Anthony R.; Christie, Cole H.; Costanzo, Luigi Di; Duarte, Jose M.; Dutta, Shuchismita; Feng, Zukang; Green, Rachel Kramer; Goodsell, David S.; Hudson, Brian; Kalro, Tara; Lowe, Robert; Peisach, Ezra; Randle, Christopher; Rose, Alexander S.; Shao, Chenghua; Tao, Yi-Ping; Valasatava, Yana; Voigt, Maria; Westbrook, John D.; Woo, Jesse; Yang, Huangwang; Young, Jasmine Y.; Zardecki, Christine; Berman, Helen M.; Burley, Stephen K.

    2017-01-01

    The Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics Protein Data Bank (RCSB PDB, http://rcsb.org), the US data center for the global PDB archive, makes PDB data freely available to all users, from structural biologists to computational biologists and beyond. New tools and resources have been added to the RCSB PDB web portal in support of a ‘Structural View of Biology.’ Recent developments have improved the User experience, including the high-speed NGL Viewer that provides 3D molecular visualization in any web browser, improved support for data file download and enhanced organization of website pages for query, reporting and individual structure exploration. Structure validation information is now visible for all archival entries. PDB data have been integrated with external biological resources, including chromosomal position within the human genome; protein modifications; and metabolic pathways. PDB-101 educational materials have been reorganized into a searchable website and expanded to include new features such as the Geis Digital Archive. PMID:27794042

  1. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline de Fátima Aquino; Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of implementation methods for ELISA serology testing of Trypanosoma cruzi in California blood banks.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Leslie S; Ramsey, Janine M; Koplowicz, Yelena B; Valiente-Banuet, Leopoldo; Motter, Christi; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Tobler, Leslie H

    2008-07-01

    The first U.S. ELISA test for T. cruzi antibodies was licensed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 13, 2006. Blood banks have begun screening in absence of FDA recommendations for best implementation methods. We surveyed 2,029 blood donors at five California sites with three risk-based Chagas risk-screening questions. Semi-Markov models compared the cost-effectiveness of three testing strategies. 30% of donors screened positively. Screening all dominated doing nothing, being less costly, and saving more lives. The choice to "screen and test" compared with "testing all" varied by Chagas prevalence, "screening and testing" being cost-effective for high (0.004) and low (0.00004) prevalences, and "testing all" cost-effective for moderate risk (0.0004). It is cost-effective to screen by ELISA rather than do nothing. The best strategy depends on site-specific risk. Census estimates of Hispanics do not predict donor risk well. We suggest using our screening questions to determine risk level and most cost-effective testing strategy.

  3. Integrative network analysis reveals molecular mechanisms of blood pressure regulation

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Tianxiao; Meng, Qingying; Saleh, Mohamed A; Norlander, Allison E; Joehanes, Roby; Zhu, Jun; Chen, Brian H; Zhang, Bin; Johnson, Andrew D; Ying, Saixia; Courchesne, Paul; Raghavachari, Nalini; Wang, Richard; Liu, Poching; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Vasan, Ramachandran; Munson, Peter J; Madhur, Meena S; Harrison, David G; Yang, Xia; Levy, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with blood pressure (BP). The molecular mechanisms underlying BP regulation, however, remain unclear. We investigated BP-associated molecular mechanisms by integrating BP GWAS with whole blood mRNA expression profiles in 3,679 individuals, using network approaches. BP transcriptomic signatures at the single-gene and the coexpression network module levels were identified. Four coexpression modules were identified as potentially causal based on genetic inference because expression-related SNPs for their corresponding genes demonstrated enrichment for BP GWAS signals. Genes from the four modules were further projected onto predefined molecular interaction networks, revealing key drivers. Gene subnetworks entailing molecular interactions between key drivers and BP-related genes were uncovered. As proof-of-concept, we validated SH2B3, one of the top key drivers, using Sh2b3−/− mice. We found that a significant number of genes predicted to be regulated by SH2B3 in gene networks are perturbed in Sh2b3−/− mice, which demonstrate an exaggerated pressor response to angiotensin II infusion. Our findings may help to identify novel targets for the prevention or treatment of hypertension. PMID:25882670

  4. Directed sibling donor cord blood banking for children with beta-thalassemia major in Greece: usage rate and outcome of transplantation for HLA-matched units.

    PubMed

    Goussetis, Evgenios; Petrakou, Eftichia; Theodosaki, Maria; Kitra, Vasiliki; Peristeri, Ioulia; Vessalas, George; Dimopoulou, Maria N; Spiropoulos, Antonia; Papassavas, Andreas C; Stavropoulos-Giokas, Catherine; Graphakos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    Several cord blood banks store cord blood units from healthy siblings of patients, who are candidates for stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the quality characteristics of 50 cord blood units collected from families with beta-thalassemia major and the outcome of subsequent stem cell transplantations during a 15-year period. All cord blood units were found suitable for banking based on a minimum net volume of 40 ml. The mean volume of the units was 98.9 ml; the mean total nucleated cell count (NC) was 7.8 x 10(8) and the mean CD34+ cell count was 2.8 x 10(6). Eight out of twelve HLA matched collections were released for transplantation. All but one recipient belonged to Pesaro II-III risk classes. Three patients received a cord blood graft with >5 x 10(7) NC/kg . One of them with Pesaro class I disease engrafted, whereas the other two who failed to engraft, were re-transplanted with bone marrow from the same donor later. Cord blood grafts containing NCs <4 x 10(7)/kg combined with reduced volume bone marrow from the same donor were used in all 5 remaining cases and stable engraftment was achieved. All patients survived, 7/8 thalassemia-free. Cord blood banking from healthy siblings of children with beta-thalassemia major can result in a successful transplantation in cases in which there is HLA compatibility. However, in high-risk patients, the use of combined cord blood and bone marrow grafts seems necessary in order to ensure stable engraftment, especially when cord blood unit cell counts are low.

  5. Integrating genomic information with protein sequence and 3D atomic level structure at the RCSB protein data bank.

    PubMed

    Prlić, Andreas; Kalro, Tara; Bhattacharya, Roshni; Christie, Cole; Burley, Stephen K; Rose, Peter W

    2016-12-15

    The Protein Data Bank (PDB) now contains more than 120,000 three-dimensional (3D) structures of biological macromolecules. To allow an interpretation of how PDB data relates to other publicly available annotations, we developed a novel data integration platform that maps 3D structural information across various datasets. This integration bridges from the human genome across protein sequence to 3D structure space. We developed novel software solutions for data management and visualization, while incorporating new libraries for web-based visualization using SVG graphics.

  6. Umbilical cord blood banking: from personal donation to international public registries to global bioeconomy

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    The procedures for collecting voluntarily and freely donated umbilical cord blood (UCB) units and processing them for use in transplants are extremely costly, and the capital flows thus generated form part of an increasingly pervasive global bioeconomy. To place the issue in perspective, this article first examines the different types of UCB biobank, the organization of international registries of public UCB biobanks, the optimal size of national inventories, and the possibility of obtaining commercial products from donated units. The fees generally applied for the acquisition of UCB units for transplantation are then discussed, and some considerations are proposed regarding the social and ethical implications raised by the international network for the importation and exportation of UCB, with a particular emphasis on the globalized bioeconomy of UCB and its commerciality or lack thereof. PMID:24971040

  7. What is happening? The evolving role of the blood bank in the management of the bleeding patient: The impact of TEG as an early diagnostic predictor for bleeding.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Aurora; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-12-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding and treatment of coagulopathy, the management of the bleeding patient remains as a major challenge. Traditionally, the main task of the blood bank has been to guarantee the supply of high quality blood and blood components/products to the hospital. Decisions regarding the use of blood components have always been the clinicians' responsibility, with little active involvement of the transfusion service. In the last years, many hospitals have implemented the use of "acute transfusion packages" for massively bleeding patients and point-of-care (POC) instruments such as TEG and RoTEM for monitoring coagulation status in this patient group. This, in addition to the implementation of patient blood management programs in the hospitals, has led to an increasing involvement of transfusion medicine specialists in transfusion decision making, especially regarding strategies for monitoring and treatment of the massively bleeding patient. This new trend may contribute to a more optimal management and monitoring of the bleeding patient, as POC testing may be used as an early predictor for blood usage. The blood bank should optimise the use of POC testing to provide accurate information in a cost-effective way.

  8. Pilot social feasibility study for the establishment of a public human umbilical cord blood stem cell bank in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Young, Wendy; Rangaka, Isabella; Lombaard, Hennie; Dhai, Ames; Tsotsi, Norma; Pepper, Michael S

    2012-12-01

    There is a large unmet need in South Africa for bone marrow transplantation. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of stem cells for the treatment of haematological and non-haematological diseases. Access to the two existing private umbilical cord blood stem cell banks (UCB SCBs) in South Africa is limited to individuals that can afford it, which further aggravates the ever increasing divide between families from different socio-economic classes. The problem is compounded by a severe global shortage of genetically compatible samples, representative of the South African demographics. Establishing a public human UCB SCB in South Africa would provide more South Africans with access to previously unavailable treatment in the form of affordable, genetically compatible stem cells for bone marrow transplantation. A public UCB SCB has many facets to consider, one of which is public preparedness and support for the bank. This was assessed in a social feasibility pilot study which is reported here. In addition to the findings of this social feasibility study, other important considerations for establishing a public human UCB SCB in SA include; (a) testing the samples for HIV and other infectious diseases (required for compliance with international regulatory standards); (b) flow cytometric analysis for enumeration of CD34+ UCB stem cells; (c) mapping of HLA genotypes/alleles; and (d) a study of the economic feasibility of this endeavour.The social feasibility study was conducted to gauge public preparedness and support for a public SCB through patient interviews and questionnaires. The process was dynamic due to its novel nature for interviewers and interviewees alike. Many obstacles were met and dealt with which lead to the compilation of results discussed here in the form of a pilot social feasibility study.In the South African context, we are faced with unique and rich challenges relating to cultural and religious differences that are further augmented by

  9. Scientific innovation's two Valleys of Death: how blood and tissue banks can help to bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sean D A

    2014-12-01

    Most biomedical basic research in the United States takes place at universities and research institutes and is funded by federal grants. Basic research is awarded billions of federal dollars every year, enabling new discoveries and greater understanding of the fundamental science that makes new innovations and therapies possible. However, when basic research yields an invention of practical use and the research evolves from basic to applied, the playing field changes. Pre-technology licensing federal dollars all but disappear, and innovations rely predominantly on private funding to support the full path from bench to bedside. It is along this path that the scientific advance faces two Valleys of Death. These sometimes insurmountable development stages are the product of the innovation's inherent financial, business and investment risks. Well-planned and executed in vivo studies using quality biological materials demonstrating proof-of-concept is often the key to bridging these gaps, and blood and tissue banks offer unique services and resources to enable this process.

  10. Scientific Innovation's Two Valleys of Death: How Blood and Tissue Banks Can Help to Bridge the Gap

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sean D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most biomedical basic research in the United States takes place at universities and research institutes and is funded by federal grants. Basic research is awarded billions of federal dollars every year, enabling new discoveries and greater understanding of the fundamental science that makes new innovations and therapies possible. However, when basic research yields an invention of practical use and the research evolves from basic to applied, the playing field changes. Pre-technology licensing federal dollars all but disappear, and innovations rely predominantly on private funding to support the full path from bench to bedside. It is along this path that the scientific advance faces two Valleys of Death. These sometimes insurmountable development stages are the product of the innovation’s inherent financial, business and investment risks. Well-planned and executed in vivo studies using quality biological materials demonstrating proof-of-concept is often the key to bridging these gaps, and blood and tissue banks offer unique services and resources to enable this process. PMID:25457967

  11. Mapping Depositional Facies on Great Bahama Bank: An Integration of Groundtruthing and Remote Sensing Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariss, M.; Purkis, S.; Ellis, J. M.; Swart, P. K.; Reijmer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Great Bahama Bank (GBB) has been used in many models to illustrate depositional facies variation across flat-topped, isolated carbonate platforms. Such models have served as subsurface analogs at a variety of scales. In this presentation we have integrated Landsat TM imagery, a refined bathymetric digital elevation model, and seafloor sample data compiled into ArcGIS and analyzed with eCognition to develop a depositional facies map that is more robust than previous versions. For the portion of the GBB lying to the west of Andros Island, the facies map was generated by pairing an extensive set of GPS-constrained field observations and samples (n=275) (Reijmer et al., 2009, IAS Spec Pub 41) with computer and manual interpretation of the Landsat imagery. For the remainder of the platform, which lacked such rigorous ground-control, the Landsat imagery was segmented into lithotopes - interpreted to be distinct bodies of uniform sediment - using a combination of edge detection, spectral and textural analysis, and manual editing. A map was then developed by assigning lithotopes to facies classes on the basis of lessons derived from the portion of the platform for which we had rigorous conditioning. The new analysis reveals that GBB is essentially a very grainy platform with muddier accumulations only in the lee of substantial island barriers; in this regard Andros Island, which is the largest island on GBB, exerts a direct control over the muddiest portion of GBB. Mudstones, wackestones, and mud-rich packstones cover 7%, 6%, and 15%, respectively, of the GBB platform top. By contrast, mud-poor packstones, grainstones, and rudstones account for 19%, 44%, and 3%, respectively. Of the 44% of the platform-top classified as grainstone, only 4% is composed of 'high-energy' deposits characterized by the development of sandbar complexes. The diversity and size of facies bodies is broadly the same on the eastern and western limb of the GBB platform, though the narrower eastern

  12. Renoprotection, renin inhibition, and blood pressure control: the impact of aliskiren on integrated blood pressure control.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Haroon-Ur

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is an important factor in progressive loss of renal function. The kidney can be both a contributor to and a target of HTN. The functional integrity of the kidney is vital for the maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. Chronic activation of the renin system causes HTN and, ultimately, end-organ damage. Direct renin inhibitors (DRIs) inhibit plasma renin activity (PRA), thereby preventing the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I; consequently, the levels of both Ang I and Ang II are reduced. There is no compensatory increase in PRA activity with DRIs as seen with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). There are reasons to speculate that renin inhibition might prove to be a superior strategy for blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system compared with ACEIs or ARBs. Evidence for the efficacy of aliskiren (a DRI) is considered to be relatively strong, based on published, short-term, double-blind, randomized, controlled trials showing that aliskiren is as effective as other antihypertensive agents in reducing blood pressure (BP), with no rebound effects on BP after treatment withdrawal. When combined with diuretics, fully additive BP reduction is seen. When given with an ACEI or ARB, aliskiren produces significant additional BP reduction indicative of complimentary pharmacology and more complete renin-angiotensin system blockade.

  13. Integrating research on thyroid cancer after Chernobyl--the Chernobyl Tissue Bank.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G A; Bethel, J A; Galpine, A; Mathieson, W; Krznaric, M; Unger, K

    2011-05-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

  14. Integrating genomic information with protein sequence and 3D atomic level structure at the RCSB protein data bank

    PubMed Central

    Prlić, Andreas; Kalro, Tara; Bhattacharya, Roshni; Christie, Cole; Burley, Stephen K.; Rose, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The Protein Data Bank (PDB) now contains more than 120,000 three-dimensional (3D) structures of biological macromolecules. To allow an interpretation of how PDB data relates to other publicly available annotations, we developed a novel data integration platform that maps 3D structural information across various datasets. This integration bridges from the human genome across protein sequence to 3D structure space. We developed novel software solutions for data management and visualization, while incorporating new libraries for web-based visualization using SVG graphics. Availability and Implementation: The new views are available from http://www.rcsb.org and software is available from https://github.com/rcsb/. Contact: andreas.prlic@rcsb.org Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27551105

  15. Effects of an ergonomics-based job stress management program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol among employees of a national private bank in Denpasar Bali.

    PubMed

    Purnawati, Susy; Kawakami, Norito; Shimazu, Akihito; Sutjana, Dewa Putu; Adiputra, Nyoman

    2016-08-06

    The present work describes a newly developed ergonomics-based job stress management program - Ergo-JSI (Ergonomics-based Job Stress Intervention) - including a pilot study to ascertain the effects of the program on job strain, psychological distress, and blood cortisol levels among bank employees in Indonesia. A single-group, pre- and post-test experimental study was conducted in a sample of employees in a National Bank in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The outcomes of the study focused on reductions in job strain index and psychological distress, measured by the Indonesian version of the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire (BJSQ), and improvement in blood cortisol levels following the study.A total of 25 male employees, with an average age of 39, received an eight-week intervention with the Ergo-JSI. Compared to baseline, the job strain index decreased by 46% (p<0.05), and psychological distress decreased by 28% (p<0.05). These changes were accompanied by a 24% reduction in blood cortisol levels (p<0.05). The newly developed Ergo-JSI program may hence be effective for decreasing job strain, psychosocial distress, and blood cortisol among employees in Indonesia.

  16. Updates on drug-target network; facilitating polypharmacology and data integration by growth of DrugBank database.

    PubMed

    Barneh, Farnaz; Jafari, Mohieddin; Mirzaie, Mehdi

    2016-11-01

    Network pharmacology elucidates the relationship between drugs and targets. As the identified targets for each drug increases, the corresponding drug-target network (DTN) evolves from solely reflection of the pharmaceutical industry trend to a portrait of polypharmacology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentials of DrugBank database in advancing systems pharmacology. We constructed and analyzed DTN from drugs and targets associations in the DrugBank 4.0 database. Our results showed that in bipartite DTN, increased ratio of identified targets for drugs augmented density and connectivity of drugs and targets and decreased modular structure. To clear up the details in the network structure, the DTNs were projected into two networks namely, drug similarity network (DSN) and target similarity network (TSN). In DSN, various classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs with distinct therapeutic categories were linked together based on shared targets. Projected TSN also showed complexity because of promiscuity of the drugs. By including investigational drugs that are currently being tested in clinical trials, the networks manifested more connectivity and pictured the upcoming pharmacological space in the future years. Diverse biological processes and protein-protein interactions were manipulated by new drugs, which can extend possible target combinations. We conclude that network-based organization of DrugBank 4.0 data not only reveals the potential for repurposing of existing drugs, also allows generating novel predictions about drugs off-targets, drug-drug interactions and their side effects. Our results also encourage further effort for high-throughput identification of targets to build networks that can be integrated into disease networks.

  17. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank: integrating research on radiation-induced thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G A

    2012-03-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. Cancer is a complicated disease and it is unclear whether the mechanism by which radiation gives rise to cancer differs from that involved in the generation of cancers of the same type by other environmental stimuli. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established in response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl to address this question. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 23 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

  18. Dominant unit CD34+ cell dose predicts engraftment after double-unit cord blood transplantation and is influenced by bank practice.

    PubMed

    Purtill, Duncan; Smith, Katherine; Devlin, Sean; Meagher, Richard; Tonon, Joann; Lubin, Marissa; Ponce, Doris M; Giralt, Sergio; Kernan, Nancy A; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Stevens, Cladd E; Barker, Juliet N

    2014-11-06

    We investigated the unit characteristics associated with engraftment after double-unit cord blood (CB) transplantation (dCBT) and whether these could be reliably identified during unit selection. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment in 129 myeloablative dCBT recipients was 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-98%). When precryopreservation characteristics were analyzed, the dominant unit CD34(+) cell dose was the only characteristic independently associated with engraftment (hazard ratio, 1.43; P = .002). When postthaw characteristics were also included, only dominant unit infused viable CD34(+) cell dose independently predicted engraftment (hazard ratio, 1.95; P < .001). We then examined the determinants of infused viable CD34(+) cell dose (precryopreservation count, postthaw recovery, and postthaw viability) in 402 units thawed at our center. This revealed close correlation between precryopreservation and postthaw CD34(+) cell counts (r(2) = 0.73). Median CD34(+) cell recovery was 101%, although it ranged from 12% to 1480%. Notably, units from non-Netcord Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (Netcord-FACT)-accredited banks were more likely to have low recovery (P < .001). Furthermore, although median postthaw CD34(+) cell viability was 92%, 33 (8%) units had <75% viable CD34(+) cells. Units from non-Netcord-FACT-accredited banks and units with cryovolumes other than 24.5 to 26.0 mL were more likely to have poor postthaw viability. Precryopreservation CD34(+) cell dose and banking practices should be incorporated into CB unit selection.

  19. [Banks of vascular homografts].

    PubMed

    Polvani, G L; Guarino, A; Pompilio, G; Parolari, A; Piccolo, G; Sala, A; Biglioli, P

    2001-01-01

    We define as Banking of the tissues all the procedures that include the finding, preparation, conservation and distribution of the homograft. The vascular homografts are taken and put into a solution of transportation at +4 degrees C and kept at this temperature till their arrival at the Bank. The following step is the dissection of the homograft which will have to be performed as quickly as possible at most 24 hours after the taking in conditions of maximum sterility. At the Italian Homograft Bank at Centro Cardiologico, the vascular homografts are kept at +4 degrees C for 96 hours on average with antibiotics. After a phase of sterilization at +4 degrees C the tissue is frozen according to a homogeneous and controlled thermic decrease and stored at -150 degrees C/-180 degrees C in fumes of liquid nitrogen till the moment of their employment allowing a long term conservation. The aim of all these procedures of cryopreservation is to keep the structural and functional integrity of cells and tissues. The thermic decrease of the tissues must occur so that to avoid all the damages of the cellular vitality and functionality and especially of the tissue structure in toto. In order to limitate these events some cryoprotector agents are employed because they reduce the concentration of the solutes, the cellular dehydration, the formation of micro-macro crystals. Another step to establish if the homograft is proper is the study of bacteriological and viral aspects. The viral screenings are performed on the donor's blood and the bacteriological tests are performed on the tissue and on the liquids. For each phase of the banking a series of information about the donor and about the tissues are recorded and filed both on paper and database so that to grant always a right conduct of the material.

  20. HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies in 6384 umbilical cord blood units and transplantation matching and engraftment statistics in the Zhejiang cord blood bank of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; He, J; Chen, S; Qin, F; Dai, B; Zhang, W; Zhu, F M; Lv, H J

    2014-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a widely accepted source of progenitor cells, and now, many cord blood banks were established. Here, we analysed the HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 allele and haplotype frequencies, HLA matching possibilities for searching potential donors and outcome of UCB transplantations in Zhejiang cord blood bank of China. A total of 6384 UCB units were characterized for 17 HLA-A, 30 HLA-B and 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles at the first field resolution level. Additionally, B*14, B*15 and B*40 were typed to the second field level. A total of 1372 distinct A-B-DRB1 haplotypes were identified. The frequencies of 7 haplotypes were more than 1%, and 439 haplotypes were <0.01%. A*02-B*46-DRB1*09, A*33-B*58-DRB1*03 and A*30-B*13-DRB1*07 were the most common haplotypes, with frequencies of 4.4%, 3.3%, and 2.9%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium(LD) analysis showed that there were 83 A-B, 106 B-DRB1, 54 A-DRB1 haplotypes with positive LD, in which 51 A-B, 60 B-DRB1, 32 A-DRB1 haplotypes exhibited a significant LD (P < 0.05). In 682 search requests, 12.9%, 40.0% and 42.7% of patients were found to have 6 of 6, 5 of 6 and 4 of 6 HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 matching donors, respectively. A total of 30 UCB units were transplanted to 24 patients (3 patients not evaluated due to early death); 14 of 21 patients (66.7%) engrafted. This study reveals the HLA distribution and its transplantation application in the cord blood bank of Zhejiang province. These data can help to select potential UCB donors for transplantation and used to assess the scale of new cord blood banking endeavours.

  1. [Who are the recipients of labile blood products? A multicenter nation-wide study--a "donation day." Blood banks, health facilities].

    PubMed

    Quaranta, J-F; Berthier, F; Courbil, R; Courtois, F; Chenais, F; Waller, C; Leconte des Floris, M-F; Andreu, G; Fontaine, O; Le Niger, C; Puntous, M; Mercadier, A; Nguyen, L; Pélissier, E; Gondrexon, G; Staccini, P

    2009-03-01

    During the years 1994-2001, a progressive decrease of the number of blood units transfused has been reported in France. In contrast, since 2002, there is an increasing number of blood units issuing (+7.6% between 2001 and 2006) and this must be investigated. On behalf of the French Society of Blood Transfusion, the "Recipients" working group promoted a nation wide survey with the support of the regional blood transfusion centres. This survey was aimed at describing the profiles of the transfused patients: socio-demographical patterns, and reasons of the blood transfusion (main and associated diagnoses). A cross-sectional survey was designed. All the patients who received a blood unit during a specific day were considered as the population of the study. They were identified by the regional transfusion centres by means of the "individual issuing form". Survey forms were fully filled for 90% of the patients. It has been considered as a good answer rate. Seven thousand four hundred and twenty-two blood units, delivered to 3450 patients were analyzed. Three groups of pathologies were found as a reason of transfusion: haematology-oncology (52.70% of the prescriptions) with 892 patients (27.8%) for haematological malignancies; surgical procedures (23.99%); intensive care and medicine procedures (21.92%). More than 50% of the recipients are 70 years old and more. This result is explained by the age distribution of inpatients. In a context of lack of donors and consequently difficulties to provide patients with optimal number of blood units, this study is helpful. Variability of blood unit issuings must be detected, analyzed and monitored in real time by the actors of the transfusion process, using computerized dashboards: the blood units provider (in order to adjust the strategy of blood units provision) and the health care establishment as well as care blood components prescribers (reasons of blood transfusion and evaluation of practices).

  2. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... The liquid part, called plasma, is made of water, salts, and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red ...

  3. Rural Poverty Alleviation in Brazil: Toward an Integrated Strategy. World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alberto; Mistiaen, Johan A.

    This report constitutes a step toward designing an integrated strategy for rural poverty reduction in Brazil. The report contains an updated and detailed profile of the rural poor in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil; identifies key components of rural poverty in those regions; and proposes a five-pronged strategic framework in which…

  4. Community Characteristics are Associated with Blood Pressure Levels in a Racially Integrated Community.

    PubMed

    Samuel, L J; Thorpe, R J; Bower, K M; LaVeist, T A

    2015-06-01

    Community problems have been associated with higher, and community resources and social cohesion with lower, blood pressure. However, prior studies have not accounted for potential confounding by residential racial segregation. This study tested associations between community characteristics and blood pressure levels and prevalent hypertension in a racially integrated community. The Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study measured blood pressure in residents of two contiguous racially integrated and low-income US Census Tracts. Community characteristics included a standardized community problem score and binary indicators for community social cohesion, having a community leader available, and having at least one community resource observed on the participant's block. In adjusted models, greater community problems and proximity to resources were associated with lower systolic (β = -2.020, p = 0.028; β = -4.132, p = 0.010) and diastolic (β = -1.261, p = 0.038; β = -2.290, 0.031) blood pressure, respectively, among whites (n = 548). Social cohesion was associated with higher systolic (β = 4.905, p = 0.009) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 3.379, p = 0.008) among African Americans (n = 777). In one racially integrated low-income community, community characteristics were associated with blood pressure levels, and associations differed by race. Directions of associations for two findings differed from prior studies; greater community problem was associated with lower blood pressure in whites and community social cohesion was associated with higher blood pressure in African Americans. These findings may be due to exposure to adverse environmental conditions and hypertensive risk factors in this low-income community.

  5. Umbilical cord blood donation: public or private?

    PubMed

    Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J

    2015-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.

  6. Integration of detailed modules in a core model of body fluid homeostasis and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Alfredo I; Le Rolle, Virginie; Ojeda, David; Baconnier, Pierre; Fontecave-Jallon, Julie; Guillaud, François; Grosse, Thibault; Moss, Robert G; Hannaert, Patrick; Thomas, S Randall

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a contribution to the definition of the interfaces required to perform heterogeneous model integration in the context of integrative physiology. A formalization of the model integration problem is proposed and a coupling method is presented. The extension of the classic Guyton model, a multi-organ, integrated systems model of blood pressure regulation, is used as an example of the application of the proposed method. To this end, the Guyton model has been restructured, extensive sensitivity analyses have been performed, and appropriate transformations have been applied to replace a subset of its constituting modules by integrating a pulsatile heart and an updated representation of the renin-angiotensin system. Simulation results of the extended integrated model are presented and the impacts of their integration within the original model are evaluated.

  7. Banking of pluripotent adult stem cells as an unlimited source for red blood cell production: potential applications for alloimmunized patients and rare blood challenges.

    PubMed

    Peyrard, Thierry; Bardiaux, Laurent; Krause, Claire; Kobari, Ladan; Lapillonne, Hélène; Andreu, Georges; Douay, Luc

    2011-07-01

    The transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is now considered a well-settled and essential therapy. However, some difficulties and constraints still occur, such as long-term blood product shortage, blood donor population aging, known and yet unknown transfusion-transmitted infectious agents, growing cost of the transfusion supply chain management, and the inescapable blood group polymorphism barrier. Red blood cells can be now cultured in vitro from human hematopoietic, human embryonic, or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The highly promising hiPSC technology represents a potentially unlimited source of RBCs and opens the door to the revolutionary development of a new generation of allogeneic transfusion products. Assuming that in vitro large-scale cultured RBC production efficiently operates in the near future, we draw here some futuristic but realistic scenarios regarding potential applications for alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group. We retrospectively studied a cohort of 16,486 consecutive alloimmunized patients (10-year period), showing 1 to 7 alloantibodies with 361 different antibody combinations. We showed that only 3 hiPSC clones would be sufficient to match more than 99% of the 16,486 patients in need of RBC transfusions. The study of the French National Registry of People with a Rare Blood Phenotype/Genotype (10-year period) shows that 15 hiPSC clones would cover 100% of the needs in patients of white ancestry. In addition, one single hiPSC clone would meet 73% of the needs in alloimmunized patients with sickle cell disease for whom rare cryopreserved RBC units were required. As a result, we consider that a very limited number of RBC clones would be able to not only provide for the need for most alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group but also efficiently allow for a policy for alloimmunization prevention in multiply transfused patients.

  8. Blood banks meet the paradox of Gabriel's Horn: what are the options to maintain supply as demand decreases?

    PubMed

    Beckman, N; Yazer, M; Land, K; Chesneau, S; Caulfield, J

    2016-06-01

    Blood services worldwide have observed a decline in the demand for red blood cells (RBC). Despite this general decline, the demand profile has changed significantly with the demand for O D negative RBCs being maintained; whereas B D positive and AB D positive RBC demand has been reduced. In 2015, the blood type O D negative was seen in 6·3% of the combined first time donors among the five American Blood Centres involved in this study and 7·4% of first time Australian donors in 2014/2015, whereas O D negative distributions accounted for 10·5% of all red cell units issued by the American centres and 13·9% by the Australian centres. Inventory can therefore be of sufficient overall quantity but may not be adequate for the demand for units with specific blood types. Recruitment of new donors may need to become more targeted and/or financial or inventory control measures could also be required to ensure inventory matches demand. Blood Services will need to consider the available options in order to ensure that sufficiency of supply is secure and the donor panel is optimised to meet the new demand paradigm.

  9. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... that die or are lost from the body. White Blood Cells White blood cells (WBCs, and also ... of severe pain. previous continue Diseases of the White Blood Cells Neutropenia (pronounced: new-truh-PEE-nee- ...

  10. Comparison of Eleven Methods for Genomic DNA Extraction Suitable for Large-Scale Whole-Genome Genotyping and Long-Term DNA Banking Using Blood Samples

    PubMed Central

    Psifidi, Androniki; Dovas, Chrysostomos I.; Bramis, Georgios; Lazou, Thomai; Russel, Claire L.; Arsenos, Georgios; Banos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, next generation sequencing and microarray technologies have revolutionized scientific research with their applications to high-throughput analysis of biological systems. Isolation of high quantities of pure, intact, double stranded, highly concentrated, not contaminated genomic DNA is prerequisite for successful and reliable large scale genotyping analysis. High quantities of pure DNA are also required for the creation of DNA-banks. In the present study, eleven different DNA extraction procedures, including phenol-chloroform, silica and magnetic beads based extractions, were examined to ascertain their relative effectiveness for extracting DNA from ovine blood samples. The quality and quantity of the differentially extracted DNA was subsequently assessed by spectrophotometric measurements, Qubit measurements, real-time PCR amplifications and gel electrophoresis. Processing time, intensity of labor and cost for each method were also evaluated. Results revealed significant differences among the eleven procedures and only four of the methods yielded satisfactory outputs. These four methods, comprising three modified silica based commercial kits (Modified Blood, Modified Tissue, Modified Dx kits) and an in-house developed magnetic beads based protocol, were most appropriate for extracting high quality and quantity DNA suitable for large-scale microarray genotyping and also for long-term DNA storage as demonstrated by their successful application to 600 individuals. PMID:25635817

  11. Modeling and analysis of a density-dependent stochastic integral projection model for a disturbance specialist plant and its seed bank.

    PubMed

    Eager, Eric Alan; Rebarber, Richard; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    In many plant species dormant seeds can persist in the soil for one to several years. The formation of these seed banks is especially important for disturbance specialist plants, as seeds of these species germinate only in disturbed soil. Seed movement caused by disturbances affects the survival and germination probability of seeds in the seed bank, which subsequently affect population dynamics. In this paper, we develop a stochastic integral projection model for a general disturbance specialist plant-seed bank population that takes into account both the frequency and intensity of random disturbances, as well as vertical seed movement and density-dependent seedling establishment. We show that the probability measures associated with the plant-seed bank population converge weakly to a unique measure, independent of initial population. We also show that the population either persists with probability one or goes extinct with probability one, and provides a sharp criteria for this dichotomy. We apply our results to an example motivated by wild sunflower (Helianthus annuus) populations, and explore how the presence or absence of a "storage effect" impacts how a population responds to different disturbance scenarios.

  12. Excluding Anti-cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin M-Positive Cord Blood Units Has a Minimal Impact on the Korean Public Cord Blood Bank Inventory.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sue; Roh, Eun Youn; Oh, Sohee; Song, Eun Young; Kim, Eui Chong; Yoon, Jong Hyun

    2017-01-24

    Cord blood units (CBUs) for transplantation should be free of communicable disease and must contain a specific amount of total nucleated cells and CD34+ cells. Although posttransplantation cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are from latent infection in patients, ensuring CMV-free CBUs by performing CMV-specific IgM and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) is one of the mandatory procedures for the safety of CBUs. However, the exclusion policies (based on these test results) vary among nations and institutions. We tested 28,000 processed CBUs between May 2006 and June 2014. The cord blood leukocytes from CMV IgM-positive samples were then subjected to NAT. The total nucleated cell and CD34+ cell counts were measured for each CBU, and the results were compared to the CMV IgM and IgG results. The seroprevalence of CMV among pregnant women was 98.1% (18,459/18,818) for IgG and 1.7% (441/25,293) for IgM. The concentration and the total number of CD34+ cells were significantly higher in CBUs from IgM-negative mothers compared to those from IgM-positive mothers (72.4/μl vs. 57.2/μl, respectively, p < 0.0001; 1.45 × 106/unit vs. 1.15 × 106/unit, respectively, p < 0.0001). Among CBUs with positive CMV IgM in their mothers' plasma or cord blood plasma, only 0.58% of the samples (3/517) had a positive NAT. The number of excluded CBUs from inventory due to positive CMV IgM in the cord blood was 54 of 18,326 (0.3%). For inventory purposes, it is appropriate to remove CBUs with positive cord blood CMV IgM findings irrespective of the NAT status as well as positive maternal CMV IgM in South Korea.

  13. Systems to Detect Bacterial Contamination of Banked Blood in a Rapid, Non-Invasive Low Technology Manner. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-25

    Serratia rubidea ns ns *** ns Proteus vulgaris ns ns ns ns Yersinia enterocolitica ns ns *** ns KEY: ns = not significant; * = p< 0.05; ** = p< 0.01...contamination in white cell-reduced and non-reduced platelets. Transfusion 33: 450-457 (1993) 11. Feng, P. et al. Direct identification of Yersinia ... enterocolitica in blood of polymerase chain reaction amplification. Tranqfusion 32: 850-854 (1992). 11 (9) Appendix: PAGEA TITLE IA Table 1- Selected

  14. Adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells transdifferentiate in vitro and integrate into the retina in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Guan, Liping; Huang, Bing; Li, Weihua; Su, Qiao; Yu, Minbin; Xu, Xiaoping; Luo, Ting; Lin, Shaochun; Sun, Xuerong; Chen, Mengfei; Chen, Xigu

    2011-06-01

    Adult peripheral blood-derived cells are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types, including nerve cells, liver-like cells and epithelial cells. However, their differentiation into retina-like cells is controversial. In the present study, transdifferentiation potential of human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells into retina-like cells and integration into the retina of mice were investigated. Freshly isolated adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells were divided into two groups: cells in group I were cultured in neural stem cell medium, and cells in group II were exposed to conditioned medium from rat retinal tissue culture. After 5 days, several distinct cell morphologies were observed, including standard mononuclear, neurons with one or two axons and elongated glial-like cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of neural stem cell, neuron and retina cell markers demonstrated that cells in both groups were nestin-, MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein)- and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive. Flow cytometry results suggested a significant increase in nestin-, MAP2- and CD16-positive cells in group I and nestin-, GFAP-, MAP2-, vimentin- and rhodopsin-positive cells in group II. To determine survival, migration and integration in vivo, cell suspensions (containing group I or group II cells) were injected into the vitreous or the peritoneum. Tissue specimens were obtained and immunostained 4 weeks after transplantation. We found that cells delivered by intravitreal injection integrated into the retina. Labelled cells were not detected in the retina of mice receiving differentiated cells by intraperitoneal injection, but cells (groups I and II) were detected in the liver and spleen. Our findings revealed that human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be induced to transdifferentiate into neural precursor cells and retinal progenitor cells in vitro, and the differentiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can migrate and integrate

  15. An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Jun; Luo, Zhan Hong Henry; Huang, Min Joon; Ang, Jun'an Jason; Kang, Tae Goo; Ji, Hongmiao

    2011-10-15

    Cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death among adults worldwide. Electrocardiogram (ECG) is a first test when a patient suffering from chest pain sees a doctor, however, it is lack of the required sensitivity. Standard assays to detect cardiac biomarkers, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) are sensitive, but suffer from important sample and reagent consumption in large-scale studies. Moreover they are performed in central laboratories of clinics and hospitals and take a long time, which is highly incompatible with the quick decisions needed to save a heart attack patient. Herein, we describe an integrated chip allowing rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous analysis of three cardiac biomarkers in fingerprick blood. The integrated chip is composed of a filtration chip for plasma separation from blood and a silicon nanowire (SiNW) array sensor chip for protein detection. These two chips are fabricated separately and bonded to form a single unit after alignment. The integrated chip is capable of reducing the dead volume of the sample by eliminating the tubing between the two chips. After the plasma is filtrated by the filtration chip, the SiNW sensor, spotted with three different antibodies, enabled us to detect three cardiac biomarkers, troponin T (cTnT), creatine kinase MM (CK-MM) and creatine kinase MB (CK-MB), simultaneously. The integrated chip is able to attain a low detection limit of 1 pg/ml for the three cardiac biomarkers from 2 μl blood in 45 min.

  16. HIV-1 Integrates Widely throughout the Genome of the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Victoria H.; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Yan, Hong-bin; Huckvale, Thomas; Protasio, Anna V.; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Bukrinsky, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The appearance of strong stop and positive strand cDNAs indicated that virions fused to schistosome cells, the nucleocapsid internalized and the RNA genome reverse transcribed. Anchored PCR analysis, sequencing HIV-1-specific anchored Illumina libraries and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) of schistosomes confirmed chromosomal integration; >8,000 integrations were mapped, distributed throughout the eight pairs of chromosomes including the sex chromosomes. The rate of integrations in the genome exceeded five per 1,000 kb and HIV-1 integrated into protein-encoding loci and elsewhere with integration bias dissimilar to that of human T cells. We estimated ~ 2,100 integrations per schistosomulum based on WGS, i.e. about two or three events per cell, comparable to integration rates in human cells. Accomplishment in schistosomes of post-entry processes essential for HIV-1replication, including integrase-catalyzed integration, was remarkable given the phylogenetic distance between schistosomes and primates, the natural hosts of the genus Lentivirus. These enigmatic findings revealed that HIV-1 was active within cells of S. mansoni, and provided the first demonstration that HIV-1 can integrate into the genome of an invertebrate. PMID:27764257

  17. HIV-1 Integrates Widely throughout the Genome of the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Suttiprapa, Sutas; Rinaldi, Gabriel; Tsai, Isheng J; Mann, Victoria H; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Yan, Hong-Bin; Holroyd, Nancy; Huckvale, Thomas; Durrant, Caroline; Protasio, Anna V; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Berriman, Matthew; Bukrinsky, Michael I; Brindley, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The appearance of strong stop and positive strand cDNAs indicated that virions fused to schistosome cells, the nucleocapsid internalized and the RNA genome reverse transcribed. Anchored PCR analysis, sequencing HIV-1-specific anchored Illumina libraries and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) of schistosomes confirmed chromosomal integration; >8,000 integrations were mapped, distributed throughout the eight pairs of chromosomes including the sex chromosomes. The rate of integrations in the genome exceeded five per 1,000 kb and HIV-1 integrated into protein-encoding loci and elsewhere with integration bias dissimilar to that of human T cells. We estimated ~ 2,100 integrations per schistosomulum based on WGS, i.e. about two or three events per cell, comparable to integration rates in human cells. Accomplishment in schistosomes of post-entry processes essential for HIV-1replication, including integrase-catalyzed integration, was remarkable given the phylogenetic distance between schistosomes and primates, the natural hosts of the genus Lentivirus. These enigmatic findings revealed that HIV-1 was active within cells of S. mansoni, and provided the first demonstration that HIV-1 can integrate into the genome of an invertebrate.

  18. Noninherited maternal antigens identify acceptable HLA mismatches: benefit to patients and cost-effectiveness for cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Van der Zanden, Henk G M; Van Rood, Jon J; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Bakker, Jack N A; Melis, Angelo; Brand, Anneke; Scaradavou, Andromachi; Rubinstein, Pablo

    2014-11-01

    Cord blood unit (CBU) transplantations to patients mismatched for only 1 HLA antigen, which is identical to the CBU noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA), are designated as having a 6/6 "virtual" NIMA-matched phenotype and have a prognosis similar to 6/6 inherited HLA-matched CBUs. Such virtual HLA phenotypes of CBUs can be created by replacing the inherited alleles with 1 or more NIMAs. Phenotypes of Dutch patients (n = 2020) were matched against the inherited and virtual HLA phenotypes of the National Cord Blood Program CBU file (with known NIMA, n = 6827). Inherited 6/6 matches were found for 11% of the patients. Including virtual phenotypes resulted in, overall, 19-fold more different phenotypes than were inherited, conferring 6/6 virtual matches for an additional 20% of the patients, whereas another 17% might benefit from CBUs with a 4/6 HLA match and 1 NIMA match (4/6 + 1NIMA or 5/6 virtual match). The elucidation of donors' maternal HLA phenotypes can provide significant numbers of 6/6 and 5/6 virtually matched CBUs to patients and is potentially cost effective.

  19. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank — A Repository for Biomaterial and Data Used in Integrative and Systems Biology Modeling the Human Response to Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Geraldine; Unger, Kristian; Krznaric, Marko; Galpine, Angela; Bethel, Jackie; Tomlinson, Christopher; Woodbridge, Mark; Butcher, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer post Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank (CTB: www.chernobyltissuebank.com) was established in 1998. Thus far it is has collected biological samples from 3,861 individuals, and provided 27 research projects with 11,254 samples. The CTB was designed from its outset as a resource to promote the integration of research and clinical data to facilitate a systems biology approach to radiation related thyroid cancer. The project has therefore developed as a multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians, dosimetrists, molecular biologists and bioinformaticians and serves as a paradigm for tissue banking in the omics era. PMID:24704918

  20. Chronic systemic IL-1β exacerbates central neuroinflammation independently of the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Murta, Verónica; Farías, María Isabel; Pitossi, Fernando Juan; Ferrari, Carina Cintia

    2015-01-15

    Peripheral circulating cytokines are involved in immune to brain communication and systemic inflammation is considered a risk factor for flaring up the symptoms in most neurodegenerative diseases. We induced both central inflammatory demyelinating lesion, and systemic inflammation with an interleukin-1β expressing adenovector. The peripheral pro-inflammatory stimulus aggravated the ongoing central lesion independently of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. This model allows studying the role of specific molecules and cells (neutrophils) from the innate immune system, in the relationship between central and peripheral communication, and on relapsing episodes of demyelinating lesions, along with the role of BBB integrity.

  1. Antiretroviral Treatment with Efavirenz Disrupts the Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Increases Stroke Severity

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Luc; Dygert, Levi; Toborek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of antiretroviral drugs (ARVd) changed the prognosis of HIV infection from a deadly disease to a chronic disease. However, even with undetectable viral loads, patients still develop a wide range of pathologies, including cerebrovascular complications and stroke. It is hypothesized that toxic side effects of ARVd may contribute to these effects. To address this notion, we evaluated the impact of several non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI; Efavirenz, Etravirine, Rilpivirine and Nevirapine) on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, and their impact on severity of stroke. Among studied drugs, Efavirenz, but not other NNRTIs, altered claudin-5 expression, increased endothelial permeability, and disrupted the blood-brain barrier integrity. Importantly, Efavirenz exposure increased the severity of stroke in a model of middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice. Taken together, these results indicate that selected ARVd can exacerbate HIV-associated cerebrovascular pathology. Therefore, careful consideration should be taken when choosing an anti-retroviral therapy regimen. PMID:28008980

  2. Microfluidic cytometers with integrated on-chip optical systems for red blood cell and platelet counting.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiaoming; Lo, Yuhwa

    2016-11-01

    A microfluidic cytometer with integrated on-chip optical systems was designed for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) counting. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the microfluidic cytometer with on-chip optical signal detection were described. With process using only a single mask, the device that integrates optical fibers and on-chip microlens with microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane layer by standard soft photolithography. This compact structure increased the sensitivity of the device and eliminated time-consuming free-space optical alignments. The microfluidic cytometer was used to count red blood cells and platelets. Forward scatter and extinction were collected simultaneously for each cell. Experimental results indicated that the microfluidic cytometer exhibited comparable performance with a conventional cytometer and demonstrated superior capacity to detect on-chip optical signals in a highly compact, simple, truly portable, and low-cost format that is well suitable for point-of-care clinical diagnostics.

  3. Research and fabrication of integrated bio-sensor for blood analysis based on µTAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, De; Wei, Jianxia; Tong, Zhengrong; Chen, Caihe; Cui, Yuming; Xu, Kexin; Si, Qin; Li, Chao; Liu, Jie

    2007-01-01

    For simultaneously detecting multi-parameters of blood in the clinical diagnosis, the analysis apparatus should be smaller in size, more reliable and sensitive. So a kind of integrated bio-sensor for blood analysis based on Micro Total Analysis System (μTAS) is presented. It provides modern bio-sensor prospect with a novel technology. A multi-parameters of blood analysis integration sensor is μTAS bio-sensor based on 4 groups of interdigital array (IDA)microelectrodes. The IDA microelectrodes are fabricated on glass substrates by photography, film deposition and other microfabrication techniques. Thin-film gold microelectrode with a thickness of 250nm is deposited on a chromium-adhesion layer. The finger microelectrode width and space are both 10μm. The work space is 2×2cm2. The concentration of Blood sugar, Total Cholesterol, Acetone body and Lactic acid is measured by detecting steady-state limiting currents in IDA microelectrodes modified with enzymes on the "generate-collect" mode. Blood distribution structure is designed and fabricated, to distribute blood and isolate reaction areas. By contrasting two kinds of process flow based on lift-off and etching, etching is adopted to preparation method of microelectrode. A multi-channel apparatus for current measurement is accompleted. The system characteristics of the bio-sensor are tested. The curve of the apparatus time to current response is achieved by testing on real-time. The relationships between parameter concentration and current are analyzed in detail. The experimental data indicates: current measurement dimension 0~40μA, certainty of measurement 0.1μA, the performances of the bio-sensor meets design requirement.

  4. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for over 340 000 formally described species. Recent developments include a new starting page for submitters, a shift toward using accession.version identifiers rather than GI numbers, a wizard for submitting 16S rRNA sequences, and an Identical Protein Report to address growing issues of data redundancy. GenBank organizes the sequence data received from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects into 18 divisions, and GenBank staff assign unique accession.version identifiers upon data receipt. Most submitters use the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the nuccore, nucest, and nucgss databases of the Entrez retrieval system, which integrates these records with a variety of other data including taxonomy nodes, genomes, protein structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. PMID:26590407

  5. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2008-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 260 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  6. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 380,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  7. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2010-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bi-monthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  8. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2007-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).

  9. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2006-01-01

    GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the Web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  10. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W

    2009-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 300,000 organisms named at the genus level or lower, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank(R) staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory Nucleotide Sequence Database in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI Homepage: www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  11. GenBank.

    PubMed

    Benson, Dennis A; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L

    2005-01-01

    GenBank is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available DNA sequences for more than 165,000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in the UK and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps to ensure worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through NCBI's retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  12. Association of an In-House Blood Bank with Therapy and Outcome in Severely Injured Patients: An Analysis of 18,573 Patients from the TraumaRegister DGU®

    PubMed Central

    Debus, Florian; Lefering, Rolf; Lechler, Philipp; Schwarting, Tim; Bockmann, Benjamin; Strasser, Erwin; Mand, Carsten; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hemorrhagic shock remains one of the most common causes of death in severely injured patients. It is unknown to what extent the presence of a blood bank in a trauma center influences therapy and outcome in such patients. Material and Methods We retrospectively analyzed prospectively recorded data from the TraumaRegister DGU® and the TraumaNetzwerk DGU®. Inclusion criteria were Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 16, primarily treated patients, and hospital admission 2 years before or after the audit process. Results Complete data sets of 18,573 patients were analyzed. Of 457 hospitals included, 33.3% had an in-house blood bank. In trauma centers with a blood bank (HospBB), packed red blood cells (PRBCs) (21.0% vs. 17.4%, p < 0.001) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) (13.9% vs. 10.2%, p <0.001) were transfused significantly more often than in hospitals without a blood bank (Hosp0). However, no significant difference was found for in-hospital mortality (standard mortality ratio [SMR, 0.907 vs. 0.945; p = 0.25). In patients with clinically apparent shock on admission, no difference of performed transfusions were present between HospBB and Hosp0 (PRBCs, 51.4% vs. 50.4%, p = 0.67; FFP, 32.7% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.99), and no difference in in-hospital mortality was observed (SMR, 0.907 vs. 1.004; p = 0.21). Discussion In HospBB transfusions were performed more frequently in severely injured patients without positively affecting the 24h mortality or in-house mortality. Easy access may explain a more liberal transfusion concept. PMID:27812103

  13. Feasibility of implementing an automated culture system for bacteria screening in platelets in the blood bank routine.

    PubMed

    Castro, E; Bueno, J L; Barea, L; González, R

    2005-06-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood components is the principal infectious complication linked to transfusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate the applicability of an automated culture system for platelets. 10 141 platelet concentrates were cultured individually and in pools of five on storage days 1 and 7 using Bact/Alert system aerobic bottles. A modified collection bag was used for improved sampling. Five-millilitre samples were cultured at 37 degrees C for 7 days. Only those samples where the same bacteria were identified in reculture were considered true positives (TP). Homogeneity of proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test. The rate of TP was 30 per 100 000 (95% CI, 6.1-86.4) sampling on day 1; 33 per 100 000 (95% CI, 7-96) on day 7; and 40 per 100 000 (95% CI, 1.28-122.4) if the screening was based on taking both samples (day 1 and 7). Only one TP was detected in the pool testing. The time for detection among TPs on day 1 ranged between 30 and 134 h. The system is not considered practical for use as a routine screening method, as the time for detection is too long. Pool testing is insensitive. Faster screening methods or pathogen-inactivation systems are needed.

  14. Novel methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus clone isolated from patients with haematological diseases at the Blood Bank Centre of Amazon, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristina Motta; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Ferreira, William Antunes; de Oliveira, Cíntia Mara Costa; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale

    2013-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus remains a severe public health problem worldwide. This research was intended to identify the presence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci clones and their staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec)-type isolate from patients with haematologic diseases presenting bacterial infections who were treated at the Blood Bank of the state of Amazonas in Brazil. Phenotypic and genotypic tests, such as SCCmec types and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), were developed to detect and characterise methicillin-resistant isolates. A total of 26 Gram-positive bacteria were isolated, such as: Staphylococcus epidermidis (8/27), Staphylococcus intermedius (4/27) and Staphylococcus aureus (4/27). Ten methicillin-resistant staphylococcal isolates were identified. MLST revealed three different sequence types: S. aureus ST243, S. epidermidis ST2 and a new clone of S. epidermidis, ST365. These findings reinforce the potential of dissemination presented by multi-resistant Staphylococcus and they suggest the introduction of monitoring actions to reduce the spread of pathogenic clonal lineages of S. aureus and S. epidermidis to avoid hospital infections and mortality risks. PMID:23579805

  15. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  16. Gas exchange efficiency of an oxygenator with integrated pulsatile displacement blood pump for neonatal patients.

    PubMed

    Schlanstein, Peter C; Borchardt, Ralf; Mager, Ilona; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Arens, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenators have been used in neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) since the 1970s. The need to develop a more effective oxygenator for this patient cohort exists due to their size and blood volume limitations. This study sought to validate the next design iteration of a novel oxygenator for neonatal ECMO with an integrated pulsatile displacement pump, thereby superseding an additional blood pump. Pulsating blood flow within the oxygenator is generated by synchronized active air flow expansion and contraction of integrated silicone pump tubes and hose pinching valves located at the oxygenator inlet and outlet. The current redesign improved upon previous prototypes by optimizing silicone pump tube distribution within the oxygenator fiber bundle; introduction of an oval shaped inner fiber bundle core, and housing; and a higher fiber packing density, all of which in combination reduced the priming volume by about 50% (50 to 27 mL and 41 to 20 mL, respectively). Gas exchange efficiency was tested for two new oxygenators manufactured with different fiber materials: one with coating and one with smaller pore size, both capable of long-term use (OXYPLUS® and CELGARD®). Results demonstrated that the oxygen transfer for both oxygenators was 5.3-24.7 mlO2/min for blood flow ranges of 100-500 mlblood/min. Carbon dioxide transfer for both oxygenators was 3.7-26.3 mlCO2/min for the same blood flow range. These preliminary results validated the oxygenator redesign by demonstrating an increase in packing density and thus in gas transfer, an increase in pumping capacity and a reduction in priming volume.

  17. Rapid detection of single bacteria in unprocessed blood using Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong-Ku; Ali, M. Monsur; Zhang, Kaixiang; Huang, Susan S.; Peterson, Ellena; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Zhao, Weian

    2014-01-01

    Blood stream infection or sepsis is a major health problem worldwide, with extremely high mortality, which is partly due to the inability to rapidly detect and identify bacteria in the early stages of infection. Here we present a new technology termed ‘Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection’ (IC 3D) that can selectively detect bacteria directly from milliliters of diluted blood at single-cell sensitivity in a one-step, culture- and amplification-free process within 1.5–4 h. The IC 3D integrates real-time, DNAzyme-based sensors, droplet microencapsulation and a high-throughput 3D particle counter system. Using Escherichia coli as a target, we demonstrate that the IC 3D can provide absolute quantification of both stock and clinical isolates of E. coli in spiked blood within a broad range of extremely low concentration from 1 to 10,000 bacteria per ml with exceptional robustness and limit of detection in the single digit regime. PMID:25391809

  18. [Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell use and commercial umbilical cord blood stem cell banking. Ethical reflections on the occasion of the regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products].

    PubMed

    Virt, G

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products also includes therapies with human embryonic stem cells. The use of these stem cells is controversially and heavily discussed. Contrary to the use of adult stem cells, medical and ethical problems concerning the use of human embryonic stem cells persists, because this use is based on the destruction of human life at the very beginning. The regulation foresees, therefore, subsidiarity within the European Member States. Although there are no ethical problems in principle with the use of stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, there are social ethical doubts with the banking of these stem cells for autologous use without any currently foreseeable medical advantage by commercial blood banks. Also in this case subsidiarity is valid.

  19. Microfluidic cytometers with integrated on-chip optical components for blood cell analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yingying; Li, Qin; Hu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-10-01

    In the last two decades, microfluidic technologies have shown the great potential in developing portable and point-of care testing blood cell analysis devices. It is challenging to integrate all free-space detecting components in a single microfluidic platform. In this paper, a microfluidic cytometer with integrated on-chip optical components was demonstrated. To facilitate on-chip detection, the device integrated optical fibers and on-chip microlens with microfluidic channels on one polydimethylsiloxane layer by standard soft photolithography. This compact design increased the sensitivity of the device and also eliminated time-consuming free-space optical alignments. Polystyrene particles, together with red blood cells and platelets, were measured in the microfluidic cytometer by small angle forward scatter. Experimental results indicated that the performance of the microfluidic device was comparable to a conventional cytometer. And it was also demonstrated its ability to detect on-chip optical signals in a highly compact, simple, truly portable and low cost format which was perfect suitable for point-of-care testing clinical hematology diagnostics.

  20. Interleukin-34 restores blood-brain barrier integrity by upregulating tight junction proteins in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shijie; Sonobe, Yoshifumi; Kawanokuchi, Jun; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Cheng, Yi; Wang, Yue; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Suzumura, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-34 (IL-34) is a newly discovered cytokine as an additional ligand for colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R), and its functions are expected to overlap with colony stimulating factor-1/macrophage-colony stimulating factor. We have previously shown that the IL-34 is primarily produced by neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) and induces proliferation and neuroprotective properties of microglia which express CSF1R. However, the functions of IL-34 in the CNS are still elucidative. Here we show that CNS capillary endothelial cells also express CSF1R. IL-34 protected blood-brain barrier integrity by restored expression levels of tight junction proteins, which were downregulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. The novel function of IL-34 on the blood-brain barrier may give us a clue for new therapeutic strategies in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Statistics of the integrated backscatter estimate from a blood-mimicking fluid.

    PubMed

    Cakareski, E; Pedersen, P C

    2001-11-01

    This work evaluates the variance of the integrated backscatter (IBS) from moving blood [or blood-mimicking fluid (bmf)] as a way of determining the quality of the mean IBS estimate. The main motivation for this work comes from the fact that absolute IBS values from tissues adjacent to arterial blood can be found by normalizing the measured backscatter energy with the IBS of moving, deaggregated blood. The paper describes the parameters that control the statistics of the IBS estimate, which is calculated for the stochastic ultrasound backscatter signals from flowing blood. It further formulates how the measurement parameters should be specified so that an appropriately low blood IBS variance is ensured or, alternatively, a specified accuracy of the tissue IBS estimate is obtained. First, the paper provides an analytic formulation of the statistics of the IBS, based on a sequence of sampled echoes from a nonstationary Gaussian scattering medium. The analysis incorporates the correlation between the sample values as well as the correlation between the IBS of the individual echoes. The estimate of the mean IBS has been shown to be chi-squared distributed with a determinable order. With the degree of correlation between the samples and between the IBS of individual echoes specified, the number of measurements required to obtain an IBS estimate with a specified variance is readily calculated. Next, a sequence of synthetic echoes is produced and arranged as columns in a data matrix. The echoes are generated such that the second-order statistics along the rows and columns of the matrix match that of actually observed echoes. The actual variance of the mean IBS estimate for the synthetic echoes is calculated and compared with the variance determined from the analytic model, and a good agreement has been found. Finally, sequences of actual backscattered echoes from circulating blood-mimicking fluid are acquired and analyzed to determine the variance of their mean IBS

  2. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Eric W; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene

    2016-01-01

    GenBank(®) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for 300,000 named organisms, more than 110,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system that integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, as well as the biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available via FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI home page at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov .

  3. Using GenBank.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, David

    2007-01-01

    GenBank(R) is a comprehensive database of publicly available DNA sequences for more than 205,000 named organisms and for more than 60,000 within the embryophyta, obtained through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Daily data exchange with the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) retrieval system, Entrez, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure, and domain information and the biomedical journal literature through PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available through FTP. GenBank usage scenarios ranging from local analyses of the data available through FTP to online analyses supported by the NCBI Web-based tools are discussed. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, go to the NCBI Homepage at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.

  4. A piezoelectric micro control valve with integrated capacitive sensing for ambulant blood pressure waveform monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Maarten S.; Wu, Kai; Brookhuis, Robert A.; van Houwelingen, Marc J.; Brouwer, Dannis M.; Lötters, Joost C.; Wiegerink, Remco J.

    2014-12-01

    We have designed and characterized a MEMS microvalve with built-in capacitive displacement sensing and fitted it with a miniature piezoelectric actuator to achieve active valve control. The integrated displacement sensor enables high bandwidth proportional control of the gas flow through the valve. This is an essential requirement for non-invasive blood pressure waveform monitoring based on following the arterial pressure with a counter pressure. Using the capacitive sensor, we demonstrate negligible hysteresis in the valve control characteristics. Fabrication of the valve requires only two mask steps for deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and one release etch.

  5. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    PubMed Central

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples <75 mg/dl) and ±20% (samples ≥75 mg/dl)]. Clinical accuracy was determined by Parkes error grid analysis. Subject labeling comprehension was assessed by HCP ratings of subject proficiency. Key system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  6. Preclinical characterization of DUOC-01, a cell therapy product derived from banked umbilical cord blood for use as an adjuvant to umbilical cord blood transplantation for treatment of inherited metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    KURTZBERG, JOANNE; BUNTZ, SUSAN; GENTRY, TRACY; NOELDNER, PAMELA; OZAMIZ, APRIL; RUSCHE, BENJAMIN; STORMS, ROBERT W.; WOLLISH, AMY; WENGER, DAVID A.; BALBER, ANDREW E.

    2016-01-01

    Background aims Cord blood (CB) transplantation slows neurodegeneration during certain inherited metabolic diseases. However, the number of donor cells in the brain of patients does not appear to be sufficient to provide benefit until several months after transplant. We developed the cell product DUOC-01 to provide therapeutic effects in the early post-transplant period. Methods DUOC-01 cultures initiated from banked CB units were characterized by use of time-lapse photomicroscopy during the 21-day manufacturing process. Antigen expression was measured by means of flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry; transcripts for cytokines and enzymes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; activities of lysosomal enzymes by direct biochemical analysis; alloreactivity of DUOC-01 and of peripheral blood (PB) mononuclear cells (MNC) to DUOC-01 by mixed lymphocyte culture methods; and cytokine secretion by Bioplex assays. Results DUOC-01 cultures contained highly active, attached, motile, slowly proliferating cells that expressed common (cluster of differentiation [CD]11b, CD14 and Iba1), M1 type (CD16, inducible nitric oxide synthase), and M2-type (CD163, CD206) macrophage or microglia markers. Activities of 11 disease-relevant lysosomal enzymes in DUOC-01 products were similar to those of normal PB cells. All DUOC-01 products secreted interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. Accumulation of transforming growth factor-β, IL-1β, interferon-γ and TNF-α in supernatants was variable. IL-12, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 were not detected at significant concentrations. Galactocerebrosidase, transforming growth factor-β and IL-10 transcripts were specifically enriched in DUOC-01 relative to CB cells. PB MNCs proliferated and released cytokines in response to DUOC-01. DUOC-01 did not proliferate in response to mismatched MNC. Conclusions DUOC-01 has potential as an adjunctive cell therapy to myeloablative CB transplant for treatment of inherited metabolic diseases. PMID:25770677

  7. Astrocytic laminin regulates pericyte differentiation and maintains blood brain barrier integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Chen, Zu-Lin; Norris, Erin H.; Strickland, Sidney

    2014-03-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) breakdown is not only a consequence of but also contributes to many neurological disorders, including stroke and Alzheimer’s disease. How the basement membrane (BM) contributes to the normal functioning of the BBB remains elusive. Here we use conditional knockout mice and an acute adenovirus-mediated knockdown model to show that lack of astrocytic laminin, a brain-specific BM component, induces BBB breakdown. Using functional blocking antibody and RNAi, we further demonstrate that astrocytic laminin, by binding to integrin α2 receptor, prevents pericyte differentiation from the BBB-stabilizing resting stage to the BBB-disrupting contractile stage, and thus maintains the integrity of BBB. Additionally, loss of astrocytic laminin decreases aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction protein expression. Altogether, we report a critical role for astrocytic laminin in BBB regulation and pericyte differentiation. These results indicate that astrocytic laminin maintains the integrity of BBB through, at least in part, regulation of pericyte differentiation.

  8. Integrated Bioinformatics Approach Reveals Crosstalk Between Tumor Stroma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Lang; Wang, Dan; Wei, Na; Guo, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is now the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. Cancer progression is driven not only by cancer cell intrinsic alterations and interactions with tumor microenvironment, but also by systemic effects. Integration of multiple profiling data may provide insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of complex systemic processes. We performed a bioinformatic analysis of two public available microarray datasets for breast tumor stroma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, featuring integrated transcriptomics data, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and protein subcellular localization, to identify genes and biological pathways that contribute to dialogue between tumor stroma and the peripheral circulation. Genes of the integrin family as well as CXCR4 proved to be hub nodes of the crosstalk network and may play an important role in response to stroma-derived chemoattractants. This study pointed to potential for development of therapeutic strategies that target systemic signals travelling through the circulation and interdict tumor cell recruitment.

  9. The role of pericytic laminin in blood brain barrier integrity maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Jyoti; Zhang, Xuanming; Yao, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Laminin, a major component of the basement membrane, plays an important role in blood brain barrier regulation. At the neurovascular unit, brain endothelial cells, astrocytes, and pericytes synthesize and deposit different laminin isoforms into the basement membrane. It has been shown that laminin α4 (endothelial laminin) regulates vascular integrity at embryonic/neonatal stage, while astrocytic laminin maintains vascular integrity in adulthood. Here, we investigate the function of pericyte-derived laminin in vascular integrity. Using a conditional knockout mouse line, we report that loss of pericytic laminin leads to hydrocephalus and BBB breakdown in a small percentage (10.7%) of the mutants. Interestingly, BBB disruption always goes hand-in-hand with hydrocephalus in these mutants, and neither symptom is observed in the rest 89.3% of the mutants. Further mechanistic studies show that reduced tight junction proteins, diminished AQP4 expression, and decreased pericyte coverage are responsible for the BBB disruption. Together, these data suggest that pericyte-derived laminin is involved in the maintenance of BBB integrity and regulation of ventricular size/development. PMID:27808256

  10. Integrated fiber optical and thermal sensor for noninvasive monitoring of blood and human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Schiffner, Gerhard

    2007-05-01

    A novel concept of noninvasive monitoring of human tissue and blood based on optical diffuse reflective spectroscopy combined with metabolic heat measurements has been under development. A compact integrated fiber optical and thermal sensor has been developed. The idea of the method was to evaluate by optical spectroscopy haemoglobin and derivative concentrations and supplement with data associated with the oxidative metabolism of glucose. Body heat generated by glucose oxidation is based on the balance of capillary glucose and oxygen supply to the cells. The variation in glucose concentration is followed also by a difference from a distance (or depth) of scattered through the body radiation. So, blood glucose can be estimated by measuring the body heat and the oxygen supply. The sensor pickup contains of halogen lamp and LEDs combined with fiber optical bundle to deliver optical radiation inside and through the patient body, optical and thermal detectors. Fiber optical probe allows diffuse scattering measurement down to a depth of 2.5 mm in the skin including vascular system, which contributes to the control of the body temperature. The sensor pickup measures thermal generation, heat balance, blood flow rate, haemoglobin and derivative concentrations, environmental conditions. Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to convert various signals from the sensor pickup into physicochemical variables. By comparing the values from the noninvasive measurement with the venous plasma result, analytical functions for patient were obtained. Cluster analysis of patient groups was used to simplify a calibration procedure. Clinical testing of developed sensor is being performed.

  11. Exercise maintains blood-brain barrier integrity during early stages of brain metastasis formation.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Gretchen; Davidson, Sarah J; Wrobel, Jagoda K; Toborek, Michal

    2015-08-07

    Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier, which is a highly protected microvascular environment fortified with tight junction (TJ) proteins. TJ integrity can be regulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. There is evidence that exercise can modulate oxidation status within the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell extravasation and metastasis formation. In order to study these events, mature male mice were given access to voluntary exercise on a running wheel (exercise) or access to a locked wheel (sedentary) for five weeks. The average running distance was 9.0 ± 0.2 km/day. Highly metastatic tumor cells (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) were then infused into the brain microvasculature through the internal carotid artery. Analyses were performed at early stage (48 h) and late stage (3 weeks) post tumor cell infusion. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed fewer isolated tumor cells extravasating into the brain at both 48 h and 3 weeks post surgery in exercised mice. Occludin protein levels were reduced in the sedentary tumor group, but maintained in the exercised tumor group at 48 h post tumor cell infusion. These results indicate that voluntary exercise may participate in modulating blood-brain barrier integrity thereby protecting the brain during metastatic progression.

  12. A novel integrated rotor of axial blood flow pump designed with computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Xue, Song; Gui, Xing-min; Sun, Han-song; Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Xiao-dong; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2007-07-01

    Due to the smaller size, smaller artificial surface, and higher efficiency, axial blood pumps have been widely applied in clinic in recent years. However, because of its high rotor speed, axial flow pump always has a high risk for hemolysis, which the red blood cells devastated by the shearing of tip clearance flow. We reported a novel design with the integrated blade-shroud structure that was expected to solve this problem by abolishing the radial clearance between blade and casing designed with the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the numerical simulation result of the newly designed structure showed an unexpected backflow (where flow velocity is reverse of the main flow direction) at the blade tip. In order to eliminate this backflow, four flow passes were attempted, and the expansion angles (which reflect the radial amplification of the flow pass, on the meridional section, and should be defined as the angle between the center line of the flow pass and the axial direction) of the blades of the integrated rotor are 0 degrees, 8 degrees, 15 degrees, and 20 degrees, respectively. In the CFD result, it could be easily found as the expansion angles increased, the backflow was restrained gradually, and was eliminated at last. After numerous "cut and try" circles, the pump model was finally optimized. The numerical simulation of this model also showed a stable hydraulic characteristic.

  13. Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased red blood cell destruction can affect teens: G6PD deficiency. G6PD is an enzyme that helps to protect ... can cause red cells to hemolyze, or burst. G6PD deficiency is a common hereditary disease among people of ...

  14. Does yoga therapy reduce blood pressure in patients with hypertension?: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Okonta, Nkechi Rose

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to present a evidence-based integrative research review that validates yoga therapy as an effective complementary treatment in the management of high blood pressure (BP). The article also uses the theoretical framework of Dr Hans Selye's general adaptation syndrome. Yoga researchers demonstrate that yoga works because it modulates the physiological system of the body, specifically its effect on the heart rate. This review is significant because yoga presents an effective method of treating hypertension that is nonpharmacologic and therefore there are no adverse effects and there are other valuable health benefits. Research suggests that stress is a contributing factor to high BP; hence, the use of the general adaptation syndrome and the most important attribute of yoga, that is, it is a physical and mental exercise program, that is in sync with the philosophy of holistic nursing care where one treats the whole individual and not just the disease. The review was conducted with a search of computerized databases such as OVID, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Health Source: Nursing/Academic edition, PsychINFO, as well as reliable Web sites such as the cdc.gov, among others. An integrative review search was conducted, and 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. They include a combination of randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and pilot studies. Yoga therapy is a multifunctional exercise modality with numerous benefits. Not only does yoga reduce high BP but it has also been demonstrated to effectively reduce blood glucose level, cholesterol level, and body weight, major problems affecting the American society. The completed integrative review provides guidelines for nursing implementation as a complementary treatment of high BP.

  15. Computational analysis of blood flow in an integrated model of the left ventricle and the aorta.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masanori; Wada, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2006-12-01

    To study the effects of intraventricular flow dynamics on the aortic flow, we created an integrated model of the left ventricle and aorta and conducted a computer simulation of diastolic and systolic blood flow within this model. The results demonstrated that the velocity profile at the aortic annulus changed dynamically, and was influenced by the intraventricular flow dynamics. The profile was almost flat in early systole but became nonuniform as systole progressed, and was skewed toward the posterior side in midsystole and toward the anterior side in later systole. At a distance from the aortic annulus, a different velocity profile was induced by the twisting and torsion of the aorta. In the ascending aorta, the fastest flow was initially located in the posteromedial sector, and it moved to the posterior section along the circumference as systole progressed. The nonuniformity of the aortic inflow gave rise to a complex wall shear stress (WSS) distribution in the aorta. A comparison of the WSS distribution obtained in this integrated analysis with that obtained in flow calculations using an isolated aorta model with Poiseuille and flat inlet conditions showed that intraventricular flow affected the WSS distribution in the ascending aorta. These results address the importance of an integrated analysis of flow in the left ventricle and aorta.

  16. Integrated self-monitoring of blood glucose system: handling step analysis.

    PubMed

    Freckmann, Guido; Schmid, Christina; Ruhland, Katharina; Baumstark, Annette; Haug, Cornelia

    2012-07-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) implicates a number of handling steps with the meter and the lancing device. Numerous user errors can occur during SMBG, and each step adds to the complexity of use. This report compares the required steps to perform SMBG of one fully integrated (the second generation of the Accu-Chek® Mobile), three partly integrated (Accu-Chek Compact Plus, Ascensia® Breeze®2, and Accu-Chek Aviva), and six conventional (Bayer Contour®, Bayer Contour USB, BGStar™, FreeStyle Lite®, OneTouch® Ultra® 2, and OneTouch Verio™Pro) systems. The results show that the fully integrated system reduces the number of steps to perform SMBG. The mean decrease is approximately 70% compared with the other systems. We assume that a reduction of handling steps also reduces the risk of potential user errors and improves the user-friendliness of the system.

  17. The effects of hyperbaric air and hyperbaric oxygen on blood-brain barrier integrity in rats.

    PubMed

    Cevik, Nihal Gunes; Orhan, Nurcan; Yilmaz, Canan Ugur; Arican, Nadir; Ahishali, Bulent; Kucuk, Mutlu; Kaya, Mehmet; Toklu, Akin Savas

    2013-09-19

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment yields conflicting results on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity under various pathological conditions and the effects of HBO on healthy brain is poorly understood. In this experimental study, the effects of HBO on BBB integrity were investigated in comparison with hyperbaric air (HBA) in intact rats. Four sessions of HBA or HBO were applied to intact rats in 24h. BBB integrity was functionally and structurally evaluated by determining extravasation of Evans blue (EB) dye and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracers. In immunohistochemical evaluation, relative staining intensity for occludin, a tight junction (TJ) protein, and aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water-channel protein, was detected in the barrier type of microvessels of brain by image analysis. BBB permeability to EB dye significantly increased in animals in HBO treatment group compared to those in HBA and control groups (p<0.05). The immunoreactivity of occludin, a tight junction protein, remained essentially unaltered in capillaries of hippocampus in all groups. In animals exposed to HBO, AQP4 immunoreactivity significantly increased in parietal cortex compared to those in HBA and control groups (p<0.01). Ultrastructurally, frequent vesicles containing HRP reaction products were observed in capillary endothelial cells in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to both HBA and HBO. Our results indicate that the HBO administration to intact rats increased BBB permeability to both EB and HRP while HBA increased only HRP extravasation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that HBA also impairs the BBB integrity in intact rats as well as HBO.

  18. Integrated quantitative phase and birefringence microscopy for imaging malaria-infected red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengshuai; Chen, Shichao; Klemba, Michael; Zhu, Yizheng

    2016-09-01

    A dual-modality birefringence/phase imaging system is presented. The system features a crystal retarder that provides polarization mixing and generates two interferometric carrier waves in a single signal spectrum. The retardation and orientation of sample birefringence can then be measured simultaneously based on spectral multiplexing interferometry. Further, with the addition of a Nomarski prism, the same setup can be used for quantitative differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging. Sample phase can then be obtained with two-dimensional integration. In addition, birefringence-induced phase error can be corrected using the birefringence data. This dual-modality approach is analyzed theoretically with Jones calculus and validated experimentally with malaria-infected red blood cells. The system generates not only corrected DIC and phase images, but a birefringence map that highlights the distribution of hemozoin crystals.

  19. S1P₁ localizes to the colonic vasculature in ulcerative colitis and maintains blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    Montrose, David C; Scherl, Ellen J; Bosworth, Brian P; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Jung, Bongnam; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hla, Timothy

    2013-03-01

    Signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor₁ (S1P₁) promotes blood vessel barrier function. Degradation of S1P₁ results in increased vascular permeability in the lung and may explain side effects associated with administration of FTY720, a functional antagonist of the S1P₁ receptor that is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by an increased density of abnormal vessels. The expression or role of S1P₁ in blood vessels in the colon has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that S1P₁ is overexpressed in the colonic mucosa of UC patients. This increase in S1P₁ levels reflects increased vascular density in the inflamed mucosa. Genetic deletion of S1pr1 in mice increases colonic vascular permeability under basal conditions and increases bleeding in experimental colitis. In contrast, neither FTY720 nor AUY954, two S1P receptor-targeting agents, increases bleeding in experimental colitis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that S1P₁ is critical to maintaining colonic vascular integrity and may play a role in UC pathogenesis.

  20. A glutamate-dependent redox system in blood cells is integral for phagocytosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth A; Garg, Aprajita; Tang, Jessica; Nazario-Toole, Ashley E; Wu, Louisa P

    2013-11-18

    Glutamate transport is highly regulated as glutamate directly acts as a neurotransmitter and indirectly regulates the synthesis of antioxidants. Although glutamate deregulation has been repeatedly linked to serious human diseases such as HIV infection and Alzheimer's, glutamate's role in the immune system is still poorly understood. We find that a putative glutamate transporter in Drosophila melanogaster, polyphemus (polyph), plays an integral part in the fly's immune response. Flies with a disrupted polyph gene exhibit decreased phagocytosis of microbial-derived bioparticles. When infected with S. aureus, polyph flies show an increase in both susceptibility and bacterial growth. Additionally, the expression of two known glutamate transporters, genderblind and excitatory amino acid transporter 1, in blood cells affects the flies' ability to phagocytose and survive after an infection. Consistent with previous data showing a regulatory role for glutamate transport in the synthesis of the major antioxidant glutathione, polyph flies produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS) as compared to wild-type flies when exposed to S. aureus. In conclusion, we demonstrate that a polyph-dependent redox system in blood cells is necessary to maintain the cells' immune-related functions. Furthermore, our model provides insight into how deregulation of glutamate transport may play a role in disease.

  1. Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group: An Integrated Network for Congenital Heart Disease Research.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, Sara K; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Farber, Gregory K; Bertoch, David; Blume, Elizabeth D; Burns, Kristin M; Campbell, Robert; Chang, Anthony C; Chung, Wendy K; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Curtis, Lesley H; Forrest, Christopher B; Gaynor, William J; Gaies, Michael G; Go, Alan S; Henchey, Paul; Martin, Gerard R; Pearson, Gail; Pemberton, Victoria L; Schwartz, Steven M; Vincent, Robert; Kaltman, Jonathan R

    2016-04-05

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group in January 2015 to explore issues related to an integrated data network for congenital heart disease research. The overall goal was to develop a common vision for how the rapidly increasing volumes of data captured across numerous sources can be managed, integrated, and analyzed to improve care and outcomes. This report summarizes the current landscape of congenital heart disease data, data integration methodologies used across other fields, key considerations for data integration models in congenital heart disease, and the short- and long-term vision and recommendations made by the working group.

  2. Gpr124 is essential for blood-brain barrier integrity in central nervous system disease.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junlei; Mancuso, Michael R; Maier, Carolina; Liang, Xibin; Yuki, Kanako; Yang, Lu; Kwong, Jeffrey W; Wang, Jing; Rao, Varsha; Vallon, Mario; Kosinski, Cynthia; Zhang, J J Haijing; Mah, Amanda T; Xu, Lijun; Li, Le; Gholamin, Sharareh; Reyes, Teresa F; Li, Rui; Kuhnert, Frank; Han, Xiaoyuan; Yuan, Jenny; Chiou, Shin-Heng; Brettman, Ari D; Daly, Lauren; Corney, David C; Cheshier, Samuel H; Shortliffe, Linda D; Wu, Xiwei; Snyder, Michael; Chan, Pak; Giffard, Rona G; Chang, Howard Y; Andreasson, Katrin; Kuo, Calvin J

    2017-04-01

    Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) compromise is central to the etiology of diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders, endothelial receptor proteins that control BBB function are poorly defined. The endothelial G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Gpr124 has been reported to be required for normal forebrain angiogenesis and BBB function in mouse embryos, but the role of this receptor in adult animals is unknown. Here Gpr124 conditional knockout (CKO) in the endothelia of adult mice did not affect homeostatic BBB integrity, but resulted in BBB disruption and microvascular hemorrhage in mouse models of both ischemic stroke and glioblastoma, accompanied by reduced cerebrovascular canonical Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Constitutive activation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling fully corrected the BBB disruption and hemorrhage defects of Gpr124-CKO mice, with rescue of the endothelial gene tight junction, pericyte coverage and extracellular-matrix deficits. We thus identify Gpr124 as an endothelial GPCR specifically required for endothelial Wnt signaling and BBB integrity under pathological conditions in adult mice. This finding implicates Gpr124 as a potential therapeutic target for human CNS disorders characterized by BBB disruption.

  3. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... two tests will be done before the transfusion: Blood typing. To confirm your child's blood type, a nurse ... blood bank lab, where technicians test it for blood type. Cross-matching. Once typing is complete, a compatible donor blood is chosen. ...

  4. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in experimental lupus.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Alexander; Hack, Bradley; Chiang, Eddie; Garcia, Joe G N; Quigg, Richard J; Alexander, Jessy J

    2010-06-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a crucial anatomic location in the brain. Its dysfunction complicates many neurodegenerative diseases, from acute conditions, such as sepsis, to chronic diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Several studies suggest an altered BBB in lupus, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In the current study, we observed a definite loss of BBB integrity in MRL/MpJ-Tnfrsf6(lpr) (MRL/lpr) lupus mice by IgG infiltration into brain parenchyma. In line with this result, we examined the role of complement activation, a key event in this setting, in maintenance of BBB integrity. Complement activation generates C5a, a molecule with multiple functions. Because the expression of the C5a receptor (C5aR) is significantly increased in brain endothelial cells treated with lupus serum, the study focused on the role of C5a signaling through its G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR in brain endothelial cells, in a lupus setting. Reactive oxygen species production increased significantly in endothelial cells, in both primary cells and the bEnd3 cell line treated with lupus serum from MRL/lpr mice, compared with those treated with control serum from MRL(+/+) mice. In addition, increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance, cytoskeletal remodeling caused by actin fiber rearrangement, and increased iNOS mRNA expression were observed in bEnd3 cells. These disruptive effects were alleviated by pretreating cells with a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRant) or a C5a antibody. Furthermore, the structural integrity of the vasculature in MRL/lpr brain was maintained by C5aR inhibition. These results demonstrate the regulation of BBB integrity by the complement system in a neuroinflammatory setting. For the first time, a novel role of C5a in the maintenance of BBB integrity is identified and the potential of C5a/C5aR blockade highlighted as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Blood Donation Process

    MedlinePlus

    ... HUB AABB Professional Engagement Program (PEP) Association Bulletins Governance and Policies Membership Directory Team Sites Blood FAQ ... traveled outside of the country, it’s also a good idea to inform the blood bank at the ...

  6. An integrated approach to blood-based cancer diagnosis and biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Min, Martin Renqiang; Chowdhury, Salim; Qi, Yanjun; Stewart, Alex; Ostroff, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted or abnormal biological processes responsible for cancers often quantitatively manifest as disrupted additive and multiplicative interactions of gene/protein expressions correlating with cancer progression. However, the examination of all possible combinatorial interactions between gene features in most case-control studies with limited training data is computationally infeasible. In this paper, we propose a practically feasible data integration approach, QUIRE (QUadratic Interactions among infoRmative fEatures), to identify discriminative complex interactions among informative gene features for cancer diagnosis and biomarker discovery directly based on patient blood samples. QUIRE works in two stages, where it first identifies functionally relevant gene groups for the disease with the help of gene functional annotations and available physical protein interactions, then it explores the combinatorial relationships among the genes from the selected informative groups. Based on our private experimentally generated data from patient blood samples using a novel SOMAmer (Slow Off-rate Modified Aptamer) technology, we apply QUIRE to cancer diagnosis and biomarker discovery for Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) and Ovarian Cancer (OVC). To further demonstrate the general applicability of our approach, we also apply QUIRE to a publicly available Colorectal Cancer (CRC) dataset that can be used to prioritize our SOMAmer design. Our experimental results show that QUIRE identifies gene-gene interactions that can better identify the different cancer stages of samples, as compared to other state-of-the-art feature selection methods. A literature survey shows that many of the interactions identified by QUIRE play important roles in the development of cancer.

  7. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  8. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) Control of Secreted Factors for Blood Stem Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Julia; Wang, Weijia; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical use of umbilical cord blood has typically been limited by the need to expand hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) ex vivo. This expansion is challenging due to the accumulation of secreted signaling factors in the culture that have a negative regulatory effect on HSPC output. Strategies for global regulation of these factors through dilution have been developed, but do not accommodate the dynamic nature or inherent variability of hematopoietic cell culture. We have developed a mathematical model to simulate the impact of feedback control on in vitro hematopoiesis, and used it to design a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. This algorithm was implemented with a fed-batch bioreactor to regulate the concentrations of secreted factors. Controlling the concentration of a key target factor, TGF-β1, through dilution limited the negative effect it had on HSPCs, and allowed global control of other similarly-produced inhibitory endogenous factors. The PID control algorithm effectively maintained the target soluble factor at the target concentration. We show that feedback controlled dilution is predicted to be a more cost effective dilution strategy compared to other open-loop strategies, and can enhance HSPC expansion in short term culture. This study demonstrates the utility of secreted factor process control strategies to optimize stem cell culture systems, and motivates the development of multi-analyte protein sensors to automate the manufacturing of cell therapies. PMID:26348930

  9. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities. PMID:25307962

  10. An integrative evolution theory of histo-blood group ABO and related genes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Fumiichiro; Cid, Emili; Yamamoto, Miyako; Saitou, Naruya; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Blancher, Antoine

    2014-10-13

    The ABO system is one of the most important blood group systems in transfusion/transplantation medicine. However, the evolutionary significance of the ABO gene and its polymorphism remained unknown. We took an integrative approach to gain insights into the significance of the evolutionary process of ABO genes, including those related not only phylogenetically but also functionally. We experimentally created a code table correlating amino acid sequence motifs of the ABO gene-encoded glycosyltransferases with GalNAc (A)/galactose (B) specificity, and assigned A/B specificity to individual ABO genes from various species thus going beyond the simple sequence comparison. Together with genome information and phylogenetic analyses, this assignment revealed early appearance of A and B gene sequences in evolution and potentially non-allelic presence of both gene sequences in some animal species. We argue: Evolution may have suppressed the establishment of two independent, functional A and B genes in most vertebrates and promoted A/B conversion through amino acid substitutions and/or recombination; A/B allelism should have existed in common ancestors of primates; and bacterial ABO genes evolved through horizontal and vertical gene transmission into 2 separate groups encoding glycosyltransferases with distinct sugar specificities.

  11. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Alluri, Himakarnika; Wilson, Rickesha L.; Anasooya Shaji, Chinchusha; Wiggins-Dohlvik, Katie; Patel, Savan; Liu, Yang; Peng, Xu; Beeram, Madhava R.; Davis, Matthew L.; Huang, Jason H.; Tharakan, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI). At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours)-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour), GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour), MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour) or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours) in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  12. Serologial screening of human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II (HTLV I/II) in blood banks by immunoblotting and enzyme-immuno assays: to demand or to defeat?

    PubMed

    Kawashti, Maha I Sh; Hindawi, S I; Damanhouri, G A; Rowehy, Nadia G; Bawazeer, Manal M; Alshawa, M

    2005-01-01

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II (HTLV I/II) has been recommended to be screened for blood donors since 1988, and it become a mandatory test to get college of american Pathologists (CAP) accreditation. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence rate of HTLV I/II among Arab blood donors, to revise whether is its screening mandatory? Thirty-thousand (30,000) Arab donors along two years attending two central hospital blood banks in Jeddah. Antibodies to HTLV I/II have been screened using enzyme immunoassay (E.I.A) and immunoblotting assay (Western blot). Results revealed zero prevalence rate. Based upon this finding, no potential risk of HTLV I/II transmission among blood donors population exist. As screening for HTLV I/II is still mandatory, it could be done on pools of sera rather than on individual serum samples, after standardization of a pooling protocol, to fulfill coast-effectiveness and reduce the coasts by 90-95%.

  13. Integrating Out-of-Office Blood Pressure in the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jordana B; Cohen, Debbie L

    2016-11-01

    Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension were historically based on in-office blood pressure measurements. However, the US Preventive Services Task Force recently expanded their recommendations on screening for hypertension to include out-of-office blood pressure measurements to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Out-of-office blood pressure monitoring modalities, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, are important tools in distinguishing between normotension, masked hypertension, white-coat hypertension, and sustained (including uncontrolled or drug-resistant) hypertension. Compared to in-office readings, out-of-office blood pressures are a greater predictor of renal and cardiac morbidity and mortality. There are multiple barriers to the implementation of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring which need to be overcome in order to promote more widespread use of these modalities.

  14. Bank Terminals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, employees of the UAB Bank, Knoxville, Tennessee, are using Teller Transaction Terminals manufactured by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, an electronics firm which has worked on a number of space projects under contract with NASA. The terminals are part of an advanced, computerized financial transaction system that offers high efficiency in bank operations. The key to the system's efficiency is a "multiplexing" technique developed for NASA's Space Shuttle. Multiplexing is simultaneous transmission of large amounts of data over a single transmission link at very high rates of speed. In the banking application, a small multiplex "data bus" interconnects all the terminals and a central computer which stores information on clients' accounts. The data bus replaces the maze-of wiring that would be needed to connect each terminal separately and it affords greater speed in recording transactions. The SCI system offers banks real-time data management through constant updating of the central computer. For example, a check is immediately cancelled at the teller's terminal and the computer is simultaneously advised of the transaction; under other methods, the check would be cancelled and the transaction recorded at the close of business. Teller checkout at the end of the day, conventionally a time-consuming matter of processing paper, can be accomplished in minutes by calling up a summary of the day's transactions. SCI manufactures other types of terminals for use in the system, such as an administrative terminal that provides an immediate printout of a client's account, and another for printing and recording savings account deposits and withdrawals. SCI systems have been installed in several banks in Tennessee, Arizona, and Oregon and additional installations are scheduled this year.

  15. Relationship between the Integrated Intensity of the Power Spectrum of Scattered Light and Tissue Blood Volume by the Dynamic Light Scattering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, Susumu; Nishihara, Minoru; Takemoto, Yoshihiro; Osawa, Toshihiko

    1990-09-01

    The laser scattering characteristics from tissue microvasculature have been made clear by means of theoretical and experimental approaches. Our results show that the integrated intensity of the power spectrum correlates linearly with the volume of red blood cells in a given tissue provided the average collision number (\\bar{m}) between photons and moving red blood cells is less than unity. Also, the integrated intensity of the power spectrum is proportional to tissue blood volume if the density of red blood cells in blood (hematocrit) is constant.

  16. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  18. Toxic metals status in human blood and breast milk samples in an integrated steel plant environment in Central India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajnikant; Pervez, Shamsh

    2005-02-01

    Owing to its unique nutritional and immunological characteristics, human milk is the most important food source for infants. Breast milk can, however, also be a pathway of maternal excretion of toxic elements. Selected toxic elements (As, Pb, Mn,a Hg and Cd) were determined in human breast milk and blood samples obtained from 120 subjects related to an integrated steel plant environment located in central India. Samples of breast milk and blood from subjects living outside the steel plant environment were also analyzed for comparative study. Higher levels of these toxic elements were found in blood samples as compared to breast milk samples. Plant workers showed the higher presence of these metals in their breast milk and blood samples compared to the residents of the area and the subjects living outside the industrial environment, respectively. Mn, Pb and Hg have shown a higher tendency to associate with blood and breast milk than As and Cd. The order of occurrence of these metals in blood and milk samples thus found is Mn > Pb > Hg > As > Cd.

  19. iSIMM (Integrated Seismic Imaging and Modelling of Margins): Seismic Acquisition on the Faroes Shelf, Hatton Bank and adjacent Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B.; Kusznir, N.; Christie, P.; Roberts, A. M.; Lunnon, Z.; Roberts, A. W.; Hurst, N.; Smith, L.; Parkin, C.; Surendra, A.; Davies, A.

    2002-12-01

    the integration of high-quality, long-offset streamer data with 4-component bottom recording on the OBS to allow imaging of the sub-basalt and deep underplated crust in this region. In the Hatton Bank region we deployed 89 4-component OBS and 1 vertical array along a 450 km dip line, running perpendicular to the continental margin from the centre of the Hatton-Rockall Basin across Hatton Bank into the oceanic South Iceland Basin, with two strike lines totalling 240 km length (one on the continental margin and one oceanic). MCS was acquired simultaneously with airgun shooting into the OBS, using the same 6,300 cubic inch airgun array with peak-pulse tuning. Excellent recordings of crustal and mantle arrivals were made to ranges in excess of 150 km. The vertical arrays were deployed to monitor the far-field waveforms, and to test theoretical modelling of the array signature. Gravity and magnetic data was acquired simultaneously with seismic data. The iSIMM project is supported by NERC, WesternGeco, 8 oil companies and DTI.

  20. Simulating Retail Banking for Banking Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…

  1. Integrated Acoustic Separation, Enrichment, and Microchip Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Bacteria from Blood for Rapid Sepsis Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Pelle; Evander, Mikael; Petersson, Klara; Mellhammar, Lisa; Lehmusvuori, Ari; Karhunen, Ulla; Soikkeli, Minna; Seppä, Titta; Tuunainen, Emilia; Spangar, Anni; von Lode, Piia; Rantakokko-Jalava, Kaisu; Otto, Gisela; Scheding, Stefan; Soukka, Tero; Wittfooth, Saara; Laurell, Thomas

    2016-10-04

    This paper describes an integrated microsystem for rapid separation, enrichment, and detection of bacteria from blood, addressing the unmet clinical need for rapid sepsis diagnostics. The blood sample is first processed in an acoustophoresis chip, where red blood cells are focused to the center of the channel by an acoustic standing wave and sequentially removed. The bacteria-containing plasma proceeds to a glass capillary with a localized acoustic standing wave field where the bacteria are trapped onto suspended polystyrene particles. The trapped bacteria are subsequently washed while held in the acoustic trap and released into a polymer microchip containing dried polymerase chain reaction (PCR) reagents, followed by thermocycling for target sequence amplification. The entire process is completed in less than 2 h. Testing with Pseudomonas putida spiked into whole blood revealed a detection limit of 1000 bacteria/mL for this first-generation analysis system. In samples from septic patients, the system was able to detect Escherichia coli in half of the cases identified by blood culture. This indicates that the current system detects bacteria in patient samples in the upper part of the of clinically relevant bacteria concentration range and that a further developed acoustic sample preparation system may open the door for a new and faster automated method to diagnose sepsis.

  2. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties.

  3. Effect of tissue shipping on plasma cell isolation, viability, and RNA integrity in the context of a centralized good laboratory practice-certified tissue banking facility.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, Gregory J; Chng, Wee Joo; Henderson, Kimberly J; Price-Troska, Tammy L; DeGoey, Roberta W; Timm, Michael M; Dispenzieri, Angela; Greipp, Philip R; Sable-Hunt, Alicia; Bergsagel, Leif; Fonseca, Rafael

    2008-03-01

    The Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium has established a tissue bank for the deposition of bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma to be mailed and processed under good laboratory practices. To date, over 1,000 samples have been collected. At this time, limited information is available on shipped bone marrow aspirates in regards to cell viability, yield, purity, and subsequent RNA yield and quality. To test these determinants, we did a pilot study on behalf of the Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium where samples were drawn at Mayo Clinic Rochester (MCR) pooled and split into two equal aliquots. One-half of each sample was processed following good laboratory practices compliant standard operating procedures, immediately after sample procurement, at MCR. The CD138+ cells were stored at -80 degrees C as a Trizol lysate. The other half of the aspirate was sent overnight to Mayo Clinic Scottsdale where they were processed using identical standard operating procedures. The RNA was extracted and analyzed in a single batch at MCR. At both locations, samples were assayed for the following quality determinants: Viability was assessed using a three-color flow cytometric method (CD45, CD38, and 7-AAD). Cell counts were done to determine plasma cell recovery and post-sort purity determined by means of a slide-based immunofluorescent assay. RNA recovery and integrity was assessed using the Agilent Bioanalyzer. Lastly, gene expression profiles were compared to determine the signature emanating from the shipment of samples. Despite minor differences, our results suggest that shipment of samples did not significantly affect these quality determinants in aggregate.

  4. Integration of Acoustic Radiation Force and Optical Imaging for Blood Plasma Clot Stiffness Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caroline W.; Perez, Matthew J.; Helmke, Brian P.; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood’s transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties. PMID:26042775

  5. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks in Australia.

    PubMed

    Varettas, Kerry

    2012-11-01

    In Australia, there are six Therapeutic Goods Administration-licensed clinical bacteriology laboratories providing bacterial and fungal bioburden testing of allograft musculoskeletal samples sent from 10 tissue banks. Musculoskeletal swab and/or tissue biopsy samples are collected at the time of allograft retrieval and sent to bacteriology laboratories for bioburden testing, in some cases requiring interstate transport. Bacteria and fungi may be present within the allograft at the time of retrieval or contaminated from an external source. The type of organism recovered will determine if the allograft is rejected for transplant, which may include all allografts from the same donor. Bacteriology staff also provides unpaid support of tissue banks through meeting involvement, consultations, licence-related activities, validations and research funded by their organisation and not part of any contractual agreement. Bacteriology laboratories and tissue banks must be compliant to the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice - Human Blood and Tissues and regulated by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Clinical bacteriology laboratories also require mandatory accreditation to Standards Australia International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) 15189:2009 medical laboratories - particular requirements for quality and competence, and may also attain Standards Australia/New Zealand Standard ISO 9001:2000 quality management systems certification. Bacteriology laboratories and musculoskeletal tissue banks are integral partners in providing safe allograft musculoskeletal tissue for transplant.

  6. Permeability of ergot alkaloids across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and influence on the barrier integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mulac, Dennis; Hüwel, Sabine; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Scope Ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites of Claviceps spp. and they have been in the focus of research for many years. Experiments focusing on ergotamine as a former migraine drug referring to the ability to reach the brain revealed controversial results. The question to which extent ergot alkaloids are able to cross the blood-brain barrier is still not answered. Methods and results In order to answer this question we have studied the ability of ergot alkaloids to penetrate the blood-brain barrier in a well established in vitro model system using primary porcine brain endothelial cells. It could clearly be demonstrated that ergot alkaloids are able to cross the blood-brain barrier in high quantities in only a few hours. We could further identify an active transport for ergometrine as a substrate for the BCRP/ABCG2 transporter. Investigations concerning barrier integrity properties have identified ergocristinine as a potent substance to accumulate in these cells ultimately leading to a weakened barrier function. Conclusion For the first time we could show that the so far as biologically inactive described 8-(S) isomers of ergot alkaloids seem to have an influence on barrier integrity underlining the necessity for a risk assessment of ergot alkaloids in food and feed. PMID:22147614

  7. An Integrated Platform for Isolation, Processing, and Mass Spectrometry-based Proteomic Profiling of Rare Cells in Whole Blood*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Siyang; Plouffe, Brian D.; Belov, Arseniy M.; Ray, Somak; Wang, Xianzhe; Murthy, Shashi K.; Karger, Barry L.; Ivanov, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation and molecular characterization of rare cells (e.g. circulating tumor and stem cells) within biological fluids and tissues has significant potential in clinical diagnostics and personalized medicine. The present work describes an integrated platform of sample procurement, preparation, and analysis for deep proteomic profiling of rare cells in blood. Microfluidic magnetophoretic isolation of target cells spiked into 1 ml of blood at the level of 1000–2000 cells/ml, followed by focused acoustics-assisted sample preparation has been coupled with one-dimensional PLOT-LC-MS methodology. The resulting zeptomole detection sensitivity enabled identification of ∼4000 proteins with injection of the equivalent of only 100–200 cells per analysis. The characterization of rare cells in limited volumes of physiological fluids is shown by the isolation and quantitative proteomic profiling of first MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood as a model system and then two CD133+ endothelial progenitor and hematopoietic cells in whole blood from volunteers. PMID:25755294

  8. Fibroblast growth factor signaling affects vascular outgrowth and is required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Frederik; Tembuyser, Bieke; Lenard, Anna; Claes, Filip; Zhang, Jie; Michielsen, Christof; Van Schepdael, Ann; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bono, Françoise; Affolter, Markus; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-10-23

    Angiogenesis contributes to the development of numerous disorders. Even though fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were discovered as mediators of angiogenesis more than 30 years ago, their role in developmental angiogenesis still remains elusive. We use a recently described chemical probe, SSR128129E (SSR), that selectively inhibits the action of multiple FGF receptors (FGFRs), in combination with the zebrafish model to examine the role of FGF signaling in vascular development. We observe that while FGFR signaling is less important for vessel guidance, it affects vascular outgrowth and is especially required for the maintenance of blood vessel integrity by ensuring proper cell-cell junctions between endothelial cells. In conclusion, our work illustrates the power of a small molecule probe to reveal insights into blood vessel formation and stabilization and thus of broad interest to the vascular biology community.

  9. Efforts in blood safety: Integrated approach for serological diagnosis of syphilis

    PubMed Central

    Sommese, Linda; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Capuano, Maria; Napoli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Recent efforts in transfusion medicine are focused on improving blood safety as well as establishing effective and efficient diagnostic algorithms for donor screening. To date, syphilis is a transfusion-transmitted infection re-emerged in many countries as a public health threat especially among populations at specific risk. This task requires new diagnostic tools and hemovigilance programs. The current diagnostic methodologies are debated, since presenting limitations and unresolved issues with special regard to the clinical interpretation of serological patterns, especially in asymptomatic patients and in blood donors. Furthermore, the switch from the traditional to alternative diagnostic algorithms underlines the lack of a gold standard, which has not been supported by shared guidelines. Besides, a lot of ongoing clinical trials on the performance of diagnostic assays, on the serological response associated with different pharmacological treatments, as well as on the prevention programs are currently under investigation. Here, we review the recent literature about the diagnosis of syphilis especially for low-risk populations proposing the adoption of an algorithm for blood donor screening that should satisfy the need of increasing safety for transfusion-transmitted infections in the modern blood transfusion centers. PMID:27011666

  10. The Aachen MiniHLM--a miniaturized heart-lung machine for neonates with an integrated rotary blood pump.

    PubMed

    Arens, Jutta; Schnoering, Heike; Pfennig, Michael; Mager, Ilona; Vázquez-Jiménez, Jaime F; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2010-09-01

    The operation of congenital heart defects in neonates often requires the use of heart-lung machines (HLMs) to provide perfusion and oxygenation. This is prevalently followed by serious complications inter alia caused by hemodilution and extrinsic blood contact surfaces. Thus, one goal of developing a HLM for neonates is the reduction of priming volume and contact surface. The currently available systems offer reasonable priming volumes for oxygenators, reservoirs, etc. However, the necessary tubing system contains the highest volumes within the whole system. This is due to the use of roller pumps; hence, the resulting placement of the complete HLM is between 1 and 2 m away from the operating table due to connective tubing between the components. Therefore, we pursued a novel approach for a miniaturized HLM (MiniHLM) by integrating all major system components in one single device. In particular, the MiniHLM is a HLM with the rotary blood pump centrically integrated into the oxygenator and a heat exchanger integrated into the cardiotomy reservoir which is directly connected to the pump inlet. Thus, tubing is only necessary between the patient and MiniHLM. A total priming volume of 102 mL (including arterial filter and a/v line) could be achieved. To validate the overall concept and the specific design we conducted several in vitro and in vivo test series. All tests confirm the novel concept of the MiniHLM. Its low priming volume and blood contact surface may significantly reduce known complications related to cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates (e.g., inflammatory reaction and capillary leak syndrome).

  11. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... educational meetings and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: ... Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that ...

  12. An intraventricular axial flow blood pump integrated with a bearing purge system.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, K; Kormos, R; Mori, T; Umezu, M; Kameneva, M; Antaki, J; Outa, E; Litwak, P; Kerrigan, J; Tomczak, J

    1995-01-01

    The future development of implantable axial flow blood pumps must address two major issues: mechanically induced hemolysis and shaft seal reliability. The recent revisions to our miniature intraventricular axial flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) were aimed particularly at addressing these concerns. To improve hemocompatibility, a new impeller has been designed according to the following criteria: 1) gradual pressure rise along the blade chord; 2) minimized local fluid acceleration to prevent cavitation; 3) minimum surface roughness; and 4) radius edges. Subsequent in vitro hemolysis tests conducted with bovine and ovine blood have demonstrated very low hemolysis (normalized index of hemolysis = 0.0051 +/- 0.0047 g/100 L) with this new impeller design. To address the need for a reliable seal, we have developed a purged seal system consisting of a miniature lip seal and ceramic pressure groove journal bearing that also acts as a purge pump. Several spiral grooves formed on the bearing surface provide viscous pumping of the purge fluid, generating more than 3,000 mmHg at 10,000 rpm. This purge flow flushes the lip seal and prevents blood backflow into the bearing. We have found this purge pump to offer several advantages because it is simple, compact, durable, does not require separate actuation, and offers a wide range of flow, depending upon the groove design. In vivo animal tests demonstrated the potential of the purged seal system.

  13. The Bank that Failed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    The school bank at Easton Middle School operated successfully as an educational experience until the state bank examiners closed it for violating banking laws. The process has become a "real life" education as school authorities and students work to change the law and open a "legal bank." (MD)

  14. Performance and Storage Integrity of Dried Blood Spots for PCB, BFR and Pesticide Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Chernyak, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) can provide accurate and valuable estimates of exposure to environmental toxicants, and the use of information derived from archived newborn DBS information has enormous potential to open up new research on the impacts of early chemical exposure on disease. Broad application of DBS for the purpose of quantitative exposure estimation requires robust and validated methods. This study investigates the suitability of DBS analyses for population studies of exposure to three chemical groups: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and chlorinated pesticides. It examines background (matrix) contamination, recovery and extraction variability, sensitivity, and storage stability. DBS samples prepared using 50 μL of adult blood were analyzed by GC/MS, and method performance was confirmed by using certified materials and paired DBS-blood samples from six volunteers. Several of the target compounds and their degradation products have not been previously measured in DBS. All target compounds were detected in DBS samples collected from the volunteers. Sample DBS cards showed background contamination of several compounds. When stored at room temperature, target compounds, excluding PBDEs, were stable for up to one month. When refrigerated or frozen, stability was acceptable for all compounds up to one year, and multiyear storage appears acceptable at colder (e.g., −80 °C) temperatures. Multicompartment models may be used to estimate or correct for storage losses. Considering concentrations of contaminants for adults and children reported in the literature, and experimental values of detection limits and background contamination, DBS samples are suitable for quantifying exposures to many PCBs, BFRs and persistent pesticides. PMID:25058892

  15. Polyploidization of glia in neural development links tissue growth to blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Unhavaithaya, Yingdee; Orr-Weaver, Terry L

    2012-01-01

    Proper development requires coordination in growth of the cell types composing an organ. Many plant and animal cells are polyploid, but how these polyploid tissues contribute to organ growth is not well understood. We found the Drosophila melanogaster subperineurial glia (SPG) to be polyploid, and ploidy is coordinated with brain mass. Inhibition of SPG polyploidy caused rupture of the septate junctions necessary for the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the increased SPG cell size resulting from polyploidization is required to maintain the SPG envelope surrounding the growing brain. Polyploidization likely is a conserved strategy to coordinate tissue growth during organogenesis, with potential vertebrate examples.

  16. Study of Estimation Method for Unsteady Inflow Velocity in Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic-Measurement-Integrated Blood Flow Simulation.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Hiroko; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Funamoto, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Information on hemodynamics is essential for elucidation of mechanisms and development of novel diagnostic methods for circulatory diseases. Two-dimensional ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (2D-UMI) simulation can correctly reproduce an intravascular blood flow field and hemodynamics by feeding back an ultrasonic measurement to the numerical blood flow simulation. In this method, it is critically important to give the correct cross-sectional average inflow velocity (inflow velocity) as the boundary condition. However, systematic study has not been done on the relative validity and effectiveness of existing inflow velocity estimation methods for various target flow fields. The aim of this study was to examine the existing methods systematically and to establish a method to accurately estimate inflow velocities for various vessel geometries and flow conditions in 2D-UMI simulations. A numerical experiment was performed for 2D-UMI simulation of blood flow models in a straight vessel with inflow velocity profiles symmetric and asymmetric to the vessel axis using existing evaluation functions based on Doppler velocity error for the inflow velocity estimation. As a result, it was clarified that a significantly large estimation error occurs in the asymmetric flow due to a nonfeedback domain near the downstream end of the calculation domain. Hence, a new inflow velocity estimation method of 2D-UMI simulation is proposed in which the feedback and evaluation domains are extended to the downstream end. Further numerical experiments of 2D-UMI simulation for two realistic vessel geometries of a healthy blood vessel and a stenosed one confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Improvement in the Diagnostic Evaluation of a Positive Fecal Occult Blood Test in an Integrated Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Bradford, Susan Carol; Zauber, Ann G.; Kessler, Larry G.; Feuer, Eric J.; Grossman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Screening for fecal occult blood can be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality only if positive tests are appropriately followed up with complete diagnostic evaluation (i.e., colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy with double contrast barium enema) and treatment. Objectives To examine whether rates of complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) have improved over time after the implementation of tracking systems and physician guidelines within a large integrated health care organization. Research Design From 1993 to 2005, 8513 positive FOBTs were identified on 8291 enrollees aged 50–79 of a large health care system. Automated records were used to identify repeat FOBTs, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and double-contrast barium enema within one year after the positive FOBT. National rates of complete diagnostic evaluation were estimated from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey. Results In this integrated health care organization, the percentage of positive FOBTs followed by complete diagnostic evaluation within one year increased from 57%–64% in 1993–1996 to 82%–86% from 2000–2005. Use of repeat FOBT following a positive FOBT decreased from 28–31% in 1993–1996 to 6–11% in 2000–2005. Based on the National Health Interview Survey, only 52% of positive FOBTs from 2000–2005 were followed by complete diagnostic evaluation nationally. Conclusions Adherence to recommendations for complete diagnostic evaluation following a positive FOBT has greatly improved over time in an integrated group medical practice. Through the use of tracking systems and screening guidelines, it may be possible to reach levels of follow-up that are comparable to those observed in randomized trials. PMID:18725839

  18. miR-285-Yki/Mask double-negative feedback loop mediates blood-brain barrier integrity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Liu, Yanling; Pei, Chunli; Zhang, Peng; Pan, Linqing; Xiao, Jing; Meng, Songshu; Yuan, Zengqiang; Bi, Xiaolin

    2017-03-21

    The Hippo signaling pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to mammals and plays a central role in maintaining organ size and tissue homeostasis. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) physiologically isolates the brain from circulating blood or the hemolymph system, and its integrity is strictly maintained to perform sophisticated neuronal functions. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of subperineurial glia (SPG) growth and BBB maintenance during development are not clear. Here, we report an miR-285-Yorkie (Yki)/Multiple Ankyrin repeats Single KH domain (Mask) double-negative feedback loop that regulates SPG growth and BBB integrity. Flies with a loss of miR-285 have a defective BBB with increased SPG ploidy and disruptive septate junctions. Mechanistically, miR-285 directly targets the Yki cofactor Mask to suppress Yki activity and down-regulates the expression of its downstream target cyclin E, a key regulator of cell cycle. Disturbance of cyclin E expression in SPG causes abnormal endoreplication, which leads to aberrant DNA ploidy and defective septate junctions. Moreover, the expression of miR-285 is increased by knockdown of yki or mask and is decreased with yki overexpression, thus forming a double-negative feedback loop. This regulatory loop is crucial for sustaining an appropriate Yki/Mask activity and cyclin E level to maintain SPG ploidy and BBB integrity. Perturbation of this signaling loop, either by dysregulated miR-285 expression or Yki activity, causes irregular SPG ploidy and BBB disruption. Furthermore, ectopic expression of miR-285 promotes canonical Hippo pathway-mediated apoptosis independent of the p53 or JNK pathway. Collectively, these results reveal an exquisite regulatory mechanism for BBB maintenance through an miR-285-Yki/Mask regulatory circuit.

  19. The Effects of a High-Energy Diet on Hippocampal Function and Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Kanoski, Scott E.; Zhang, Yanshu; Zheng, Wei; Davidson, Terry L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease are linked with intake of a Western Diet, characterized by high levels of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates. In rats, these dietary components have been shown to disrupt hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, particularly those involving spatial memory. Using a rat model, the present research assessed the degree to which consumption of a high-energy (HE) diet, similar to those found in modern Western cultures, produces a selective impairment in hippocampal function as opposed to a more global cognitive disruption. Learning and memory performance was examined following 90-days consumption of an HE-diet in three nonspatial discrimination learning problems that differed with respect to their dependence on the integrity of the hippocampus. The results showed that consumption of the HE-diet impaired performance in a hippocampal-dependent feature negative discrimination problem relative to chow-fed controls, whereas performance was spared on two discrimination problems that do not rely on the hippocampus. To explore the mechanism whereby consuming HE-diets impairs cognitive function, we investigated the effect of HE-diets on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We found that HE-diet consumption produced a decrease in mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, particularly Claudin-5 and -12, in the choroid plexus and the BBB. Consequently, an increased blood-to-brain permeability of sodium fluorescein was observed in the hippocampus, but not in the striatum and prefrontal cortex following HE-diet access. There results indicate that hippocampal function may be particularly vulnerable to disruption by HE-diets, and this disruption may be related to impaired BBB integrity. PMID:20413889

  20. An integrative 'omics' solution to the detection of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood doping.

    PubMed

    Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Durussel, Jérôme; Rabin, Olivier

    2014-05-01

    Administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHumanEPO) improves sporting performance and hence is frequently subject to abuse by athletes, although rHumanEPO is prohibited by the WADA. Approaches to detect rHumanEPO doping have improved significantly in recent years but remain imperfect. A new transcriptomic-based longitudinal screening approach is being developed that has the potential to improve the analytical performance of current detection methods. In particular, studies are being funded by WADA to identify a 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO doping and preliminary results are promising. In the first systematic study to be conducted, the expression of hundreds of genes were found to be altered by rHumanEPO with numerous gene transcripts being differentially expressed after the first injection and further transcripts profoundly upregulated during and subsequently downregulated up to 4 weeks postadministration of the drug; with the same transcriptomic pattern observed in all participants. The identification of a blood 'molecular signature' of rHumanEPO administration is the strongest evidence to date that gene biomarkers have the potential to substantially improve the analytical performance of current antidoping methods such as the Athlete Biological Passport for rHumanEPO detection. Given the early promise of transcriptomics, research using an 'omics'-based approach involving genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics should be intensified in order to achieve improved detection of rHumanEPO and other doping substances and methods difficult to detect such a recombinant human growth hormone and blood transfusions.

  1. Galectin-1 suppresses methamphetamine induced neuroinflammation in human brain microvascular endothelial cells: Neuroprotective role in maintaining blood brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Neil U; Aalinkeel, R; Reynolds, J L; Nair, B B; Sykes, D E; Mammen, M J; Schwartz, S A; Mahajan, S D

    2015-10-22

    Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse can lead to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity leading to compromised CNS function. The role of Galectins in the angiogenesis process in tumor-associated endothelial cells (EC) is well established; however no data are available on the expression of Galectins in normal human brain microvascular endothelial cells and their potential role in maintaining BBB integrity. We evaluated the basal gene/protein expression levels of Galectin-1, -3 and -9 in normal primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) that constitute the BBB and examined whether Meth altered Galectin expression in these cells, and if Galectin-1 treatment impacted the integrity of an in-vitro BBB. Our results showed that BMVEC expressed significantly higher levels of Galectin-1 as compared to Galectin-3 and -9. Meth treatment increased Galectin-1 expression in BMVEC. Meth induced decrease in TJ proteins ZO-1, Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 was reversed by Galectin-1. Our data suggests that Galectin-1 is involved in BBB remodeling and can increase levels of TJ proteins ZO-1 and Claudin-3 and adhesion molecule ICAM-1 which helps maintain BBB tightness thus playing a neuroprotective role. Galectin-1 is thus an important regulator of immune balance from neurodegeneration to neuroprotection, which makes it an important therapeutic agent/target in the treatment of drug addiction and other neurological conditions.

  2. Endothelial β-Catenin Signaling Is Required for Maintaining Adult Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and CNS Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Khiem A.; Zhang, Xianming; Predescu, Dan; Huang, Xiaojia; Machado, Roberto F.; Göthert, Joachim R.; Malik, Asrar B.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Zhao, You-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background The blood-brain barrier (BBB) formed by brain endothelial cells (ECs) interconnected by tight junctions (TJs) is essential for the homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS). Although studies have shown the importance of various signaling molecules in BBB formation during development, little is known about the molecular basis regulating the integrity of the adult BBB. Methods and Results Using a mouse model with tamoxifen-inducible EC-restricted disruption of ctnnb1 (iCKO), here we show that endothelial β-catenin signaling is essential for maintaining BBB integrity and CNS homeostasis in adult. The iCKO mice developed severe seizures accompanied by neuronal injury, multiple brain petechial hemorrhages, and CNS inflammation, and all died postictal. Disruption of endothelial β-catenin induced BBB breakdown and downregulation of specific TJ proteins Claudin-1 and -3 in adult brain ECs. The clinical relevance of the data is indicated by the observation of decreased expression of Claudin-1 and nuclear β-catenin in brain ECs of hemorrhagic lesions of hemorrhagic stroke patients. Conclusion These results demonstrate the prerequisite role of endothelial β-catenin in maintaining the integrity of adult BBB. The results suggest that BBB dysfunction secondary to defective β-catenin transcription activity is a key pathogenic factor in hemorrhagic stroke, seizure activity and CNS inflammation. PMID:26538583

  3. IL17A impairs blood-testis barrier integrity and induces testicular inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cecilia Valeria; Pellizzari, Eliana Herminia; Cigorraga, Selva Beatriz; Galardo, María Noel; Naito, Munekazu; Lustig, Livia; Jacobo, Patricia Verónica

    2014-12-01

    Experimental autoimmune orchitis is a useful model for studying testicular inflammation and germ/immune cell interactions. Th17 cells and their hallmark cytokine IL17A were reported to be involved in the development of autoimmune orchitis. The aim of the present work is to investigate the pathogenic role of IL17A in rat testis. In vitro experiments were performed in order to analyze effects of IL17A on Sertoli cell tight junctions. The addition of IL17A to normal rat Sertoli cell cultures induced a significant decline in transepithelial electrical resistance and a reduction of occludin expression and redistribution of occludin and claudin 11, altering the Sertoli cell tight junction barrier. Intratesticular injection of 1 μg of recombinant rat IL17A to Sprague-Dawley rats induced increased blood-testis barrier permeability, as shown by the presence of biotin tracer in the seminiferous tubule adluminal compartment, and delocalization of occludin and claudin 11. Results showed that IL17A induced focal inflammatory cell infiltration in the interstitium and germ cell sloughing in adjacent seminiferous tubules. Moreover, an increase in TUNEL+ apoptotic germ cells was also observed. Inflammatory ED1+ macrophages were the main population infiltrating the interstitium following IL17A injection. This correlated with an increase in mRNA expression of the monocyte chemoattractant protein Ccl2, its receptor Ccr2 and the vascular cell adhesion molecule Vcam1. Overall results suggest a relevant role of IL17A in the development of testicular inflammation, facilitating the recruitment of immune cells to the testicular interstitium and inducing impairment of blood-testis barrier function.

  4. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in a human in vitro model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Parikh, Neil U; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Lopez, Molly; Hennon, Teresa; Cunningham, Patrick; Quigg, Richard J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Alexander, Jessy J

    2015-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in brain homeostasis, thereby maintaining the brain environment precise for optimal neuronal function. Its dysfunction is an intriguing complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disorder where neurological complications occur in 5-50% of cases and is associated with impaired BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in SLE and is an important part of the clinical profile. Our earlier studies demonstrated that C5a generated by complement activation caused the loss of brain endothelial layer integrity in rodents. The goal of the current study was to determine the translational potential of these studies to a human system. To assess this, we used a two dimensional in vitro BBB model constructed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astroglial cells, which closely emulates the in vivo BBB allowing the assessment of BBB integrity. Increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance and cytoskeletal remodelling caused by actin fiber rearrangement were observed when the cells were exposed to lupus serum and C5a, similar to the observations in mice. In addition, our data show that C5a/C5aR1 signalling alters nuclear factor-κB translocation into nucleus and regulates the expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and zonula occludens 1 in this setting. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates BBB integrity in a neuroinflammatory setting where it affects both endothelial and astroglial cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that our previous findings in a mouse model, were emulated in human cells in vitro, bringing the studies one step closer to understanding the translational potential of C5a/C5aR1 blockade as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  5. Erythropoietin attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage by diminishing matrix metalloproteinases and maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ogle, M E; Wallace, G C; Lu, Z Y; Yu, S P; Wei, L

    2008-01-01

    The protective mechanism of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) after brain injury is associated with the attenuation of neuro-inflammation. We hypothesize that rhEPO treatment after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) modulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, maintains BBB integrity, and reduces BBB breakdown-associated inflammation. Adult male 129S2/sv mice were subjected to autologous whole blood-induced ICH. rhEPO or saline was administered intraperitoneally immediately after surgery and for 3 more days until day of sacrifice. BBB permeability was measured by Evans blue leakage, and edema was assessed by brain water content. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting were performed to detect expression of tight junction marker occludin, type IV collagen, MMPs, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP), and glial fibrillary acidic protein, rhEPO prevented Evans blue leakage, reduced brain edema, and preserved expression of occludin and collagen IV. rhEPO treatment decreased MMP-2 expression, increased TIMP-2 expression, and reduced the number of reactive astrocytes in the brain compared to saline control. We conclude that rhEPO reduces MMP activity, BBB disruption, and the glial cell inflammatory reaction 3 days after ICH. Our study provides additional evidence for the mechanism of rhEPO's neurovascular protective effects and a potential clinical application in the treatment of ICH.

  6. Infusion pumps and red blood cell damage in transfusion therapy: an integrative revision of the academic literature 1

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Ana Maria Miranda Martins; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to obtain information from scientific literature concerning infusion pumps used in administering erythrocyte (red blood cells) and to evaluate the implications in the practical use of this equipment by nurses when conducting transfusions. Method: an integrative revision of the following scientific databases: Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, the Virtual Library for Health, SciELO, Web of Science and Cochrane. The following descriptors were used: "infusion pumps", "blood transfusion", "transfused erythrocyte" and "hemolyis". There were no restrictions on the scope of the initial data and it was finalized in December 2014. 17 articles were identified in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: all of the publications included in the studies were experimental in vitro and covered the use of infusion pumps in transfusion therapy. A summary of the data was presented in a synoptic chart and an analysis of it generated the following categories: cellular damage and the infusion mechanism. Conclusion: infusion pumps can be harmful to erythrocytes based on the infusion mechanism that is used, as the linear peristaltic pump is more likely to cause hemolysis. Cellular damage is related to the plasmatic liberation of markers that largely dominate free hemoglobin and potassium. We reiterate the need for further research and technological investments to guide the development of protocols that promote safe practices and that can contribute to future clinical studies. PMID:27533272

  7. Cadmium in blood as an indicator of integrated exposure to cadmium in the urban population

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, S.; Azaric, J.; Prpic-Majic, D.

    1986-04-01

    The concentration of cadmium in blood (CdB) is generally regarded as the best biological indicator of recent exposure to cadmium. However, since cadmium is a cumulative toxic agent with a biological half-life in the human body of about 20 years, it is not clear to what extent the CdB level reflects the body burden and recent exposure in conditions of low exposure to cadmium in the general population. The influence of duration of exposure to cadmium on the CdB level was examined in teachers and school children who attend the same schools and live in the same urban area of Zagreb. The results have shown 2.5-3 times higher CdB levels in adult nonsmokers as compared to children. Since the current environmental exposure to cadmium can be regarded as being comparable in the two groups, it appears that more than 60% of the CdB level in adults (nonsmokers) could be attributed to the influence of the body burden.

  8. The TAM receptor Mertk protects against neuroinvasive viral infection by maintaining blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jonathan J; Daniels, Brian P; Shrestha, Bimmi; Proenca-Modena, Jose L; Lew, Erin D; Lazear, Helen M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lemke, Greg; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    The TAM receptors Tyro3, Axl and Mertk are receptor tyrosine kinases that dampen host innate immune responses following engagement with their ligands Gas6 and Protein S, which recognize phosphatidylserine on apoptotic cells. In a form of apoptotic mimicry, many enveloped viruses display phosphatidylserine on the outer leaflet of their membranes, enabling TAM receptor activation and downregulation of antiviral responses. Accordingly, we hypothesized that a deficiency of TAM receptors would enhance antiviral responses and protect against viral infection. Unexpectedly, mice lacking Mertk and/or Axl, but not Tyro3, exhibited greater vulnerability to infection with neuroinvasive West Nile and La Crosse encephalitis viruses. This phenotype was associated with increased blood-brain barrier permeability, which enhanced virus entry into and infection of the brain. Activation of Mertk synergized with interferon-β to tighten cell junctions and prevent virus transit across brain microvascular endothelial cells. Because TAM receptors restrict pathogenesis of neuroinvasive viruses, these findings have implications for TAM antagonists that are currently in clinical development.

  9. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates cerebral edema formation by protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Reiner; Urrutia, Andrés; Hoffmann, Angelika; Liu, Hui; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Reischl, Stefan; Korff, Thomas; Marti, Hugo H

    2015-04-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of various neuropathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to characterize how tissue hypoxia, together with oxidative stress and inflammation, leads to capillary dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse stroke model we show that systemic treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant drug clinically used for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, significantly prevented edema formation in vivo. Indeed, DMF stabilized the BBB by preventing disruption of interendothelial tight junctions and gap formation, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain tissue. In vitro, DMF directly sustained endothelial tight junctions, inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression, and attenuated leukocyte transmigration. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). DMF activated the Nrf2 pathway as shown by up-regulation of several Nrf2 target genes in the brain in vivo, as well as in cerebral endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, where DMF also increased protein abundance of nuclear Nrf2. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown in endothelial cells aggravated subcellular delocalization of tight junction proteins during ischemic conditions, and attenuated the protective effect exerted by DMF. Overall, our data suggest that DMF protects from cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke by targeting interendothelial junctions in an Nrf2-dependent manner, and provide the basis for a completely new approach to treat brain edema.

  10. Frozen blood products: clinically effective and potentially ideal for remote Australia.

    PubMed

    Holley, A; Marks, D C; Johnson, L; Reade, M C; Badloe, J F; Noorman, F

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective cryopreservation techniques for both red blood cells and platelets, which maintain ex vivo biological activity, in combination with frozen plasma, provides for a unique blood banking strategy. This technology greatly enhances the storage life of these products. The rationale and potential advantages of using cryopreservation techniques for the provision of blood products to remote and military environments have been effectively demonstrated in several conflicts over the last decade. Current haemostatic resuscitation doctrine for the exsanguinating patient supports the use of red blood cells, platelets and frozen plasma early in the resuscitation. We believe an integrated fresh-frozen blood bank inventory could facilitate provision of blood products, not only in the military setting but also in regional Australia, by overcoming many logistic and geographical challenges. The processes involved in production and point of care thawing are sufficiently well developed and achievable to make this technology a viable option. The potential limitations of cryopreservation and subsequent product thawing need to be considered if such a strategy is to be developed. A substantial body of international experience using cryopreserved products in remote settings has already been accrued. This experience provides a template for the possible creation of an Australian integrated fresh-frozen blood bank inventory that could conceivably enhance the care of patients in both regional Australia and in the military setting.

  11. Bryostatin-1 Restores Blood Brain Barrier Integrity following Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Smith, Kelly E.; Turner, Ryan C.; Alkon, Daniel L.; Tan, Zhenjun; Naser, Zachary J.; Knotts, Chelsea M.; Huber, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have accounted for an estimated 270,000 blast exposures among military personnel. Blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the ‘signature injury’ of modern warfare. Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption following blast TBI can lead to long-term and diffuse neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigate for the first time the role of bryostatin-1, a specific protein kinase C (PKC) modulator, in ameliorating BBB breakdown. Thirty seven Sprague–Dawley rats were used for this study. We utilized a clinically relevant and validated blast model to expose animals to moderate blast exposure. Groups included: control, single blast exposure, and single blast exposure + bryostatin-1. Bryostatin-1 was administered i.p. 2.5 mg/kg after blast exposure. Evan’s blue, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis were performed to assess injury. Evan’s blue binds to albumin and is a marker for BBB disruption. The single blast exposure caused an increase in permeability compared to control (t=4.808, p<0.05), and a reduction back toward control levels when bryostatin-1 was administered (t=5.113, p<0.01). Three important PKC isozymes, PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε, were co-localized primarily with endothelial cells but not astrocytes. Bryostatin-1 administration reduced toxic PKCα levels back toward control levels (t=4.559, p<0.01) and increased the neuroprotective isozyme PKCε (t=6.102, p<0.01). Bryostatin-1 caused a significant increase in the tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, and occludin through modulation of PKC activity. Bryostatin-1 ultimately decreased BBB breakdown potentially due to modulation of PKC isozymes. Future work will examine the role of bryostatin-1 in preventing chronic neurodegeneration following repetitive neurotrauma. PMID:25301233

  12. Bryostatin-1 Restores Blood Brain Barrier Integrity following Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Logsdon, Aric F; Smith, Kelly E; Turner, Ryan C; Alkon, Daniel L; Tan, Zhenjun; Naser, Zachary J; Knotts, Chelsea M; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2015-12-01

    Recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have accounted for an estimated 270,000 blast exposures among military personnel. Blast traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the 'signature injury' of modern warfare. Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption following blast TBI can lead to long-term and diffuse neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigate for the first time the role of bryostatin-1, a specific protein kinase C (PKC) modulator, in ameliorating BBB breakdown. Thirty seven Sprague-Dawley rats were used for this study. We utilized a clinically relevant and validated blast model to expose animals to moderate blast exposure. Groups included: control, single blast exposure, and single blast exposure + bryostatin-1. Bryostatin-1 was administered i.p. 2.5 mg/kg after blast exposure. Evan's blue, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analysis were performed to assess injury. Evan's blue binds to albumin and is a marker for BBB disruption. The single blast exposure caused an increase in permeability compared to control (t = 4.808, p < 0.05), and a reduction back toward control levels when bryostatin-1 was administered (t = 5.113, p < 0.01). Three important PKC isozymes, PKCα, PKCδ, and PKCε, were co-localized primarily with endothelial cells but not astrocytes. Bryostatin-1 administration reduced toxic PKCα levels back toward control levels (t = 4.559, p < 0.01) and increased the neuroprotective isozyme PKCε (t = 6.102, p < 0.01). Bryostatin-1 caused a significant increase in the tight junction proteins VE-cadherin, ZO-1, and occludin through modulation of PKC activity. Bryostatin-1 ultimately decreased BBB breakdown potentially due to modulation of PKC isozymes. Future work will examine the role of bryostatin-1 in preventing chronic neurodegeneration following repetitive neurotrauma.

  13. Portable microsystem integrates multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations and a surface stress biosensor to detect red blood cells for hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shengbo; Feng, Qiliang; Jian, Aoqun; Li, Huiming; Ji, Jianlong; Duan, Qianqian; Zhang, Wendong; Wang, Tao

    2016-09-20

    Hemolytic anemia intensity has been suggested as a vital factor for the growth of certain clinical complications of sickle cell disease. However, there is no effective and rapid diagnostic method. As a powerful platform for bio-particles testing, biosensors integrated with microfluidics offer great potential for a new generation of portable point of care systems. In this paper, we describe a novel portable microsystem consisting of a multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations (MDM) device and a surface stress biosensor to separate and detect red blood cells (RBCs) for diagnosis of hemolytic anemia. The peripheral circuit to power the interdigitated electrode array of the MDM device and the surface stress biosensor test platform were integrated into a portable signal system. The MDM includes a preparing region, a focusing region, and a sorting region. Simulation and experimental results show the RBCs trajectories when they are subjected to the positive DEP force, allowing the successful sorting of living/dead RBCs. Separated RBCs are then transported to the biosensor and the capacitance values resulting from the variation of surface stress were measured. The diagnosis of hemolytic anemia can be realized by detecting RBCs and the portable microsystem provides the assessment to the hemolytic anemia patient.

  14. Silencing microRNA-143 protects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier: implications for methamphetamine abuse

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Hua, Jun; Yang, Xiangyu; Zhang, Xiaotian; Duan, Ming; Zhu, Xinjian; Huang, Wenhui; Chao, Jie; Zhou, Rongbin; Hu, Gang; Yao, Honghong

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-143 (miR-143) plays a critical role in various cellular processes; however, the role of miR-143 in the maintenance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity remains poorly defined. Silencing miR-143 in a genetic animal model or via an anti-miR-143 lentivirus prevented the BBB damage induced by methamphetamine. miR-143, which targets p53 unregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), increased the permeability of human brain endothelial cells and concomitantly decreased the expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs). Silencing miR-143 increased the expression of TJPs and protected the BBB integrity against the effects of methamphetamine treatment. PUMA overexpression increased the TJP expression through a mechanism that involved the NF-κB and p53 transcription factor pathways. Mechanistically, methamphetamine mediated up-regulation of miR-143 via sigma-1 receptor with sequential activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3′ kinase (PI3K)/Akt and STAT3 pathways. These results indicated that silencing miR-143 could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for BBB damage-related vascular dysfunction. PMID:27767041

  15. Portable microsystem integrates multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations and a surface stress biosensor to detect red blood cells for hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shengbo; Feng, Qiliang; Jian, Aoqun; Li, Huiming; Ji, Jianlong; Duan, Qianqian; Zhang, Wendong; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Hemolytic anemia intensity has been suggested as a vital factor for the growth of certain clinical complications of sickle cell disease. However, there is no effective and rapid diagnostic method. As a powerful platform for bio-particles testing, biosensors integrated with microfluidics offer great potential for a new generation of portable point of care systems. In this paper, we describe a novel portable microsystem consisting of a multifunctional dielectrophoresis manipulations (MDM) device and a surface stress biosensor to separate and detect red blood cells (RBCs) for diagnosis of hemolytic anemia. The peripheral circuit to power the interdigitated electrode array of the MDM device and the surface stress biosensor test platform were integrated into a portable signal system. The MDM includes a preparing region, a focusing region, and a sorting region. Simulation and experimental results show the RBCs trajectories when they are subjected to the positive DEP force, allowing the successful sorting of living/dead RBCs. Separated RBCs are then transported to the biosensor and the capacitance values resulting from the variation of surface stress were measured. The diagnosis of hemolytic anemia can be realized by detecting RBCs and the portable microsystem provides the assessment to the hemolytic anemia patient. PMID:27647457

  16. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  17. Banking on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Internet Research, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Electronic ground was broken in 1995 with the development of the completely Internet-based bank Security First Network Bank. This article discusses the need for developing online services, outlines the reasons for the formation of an Internet-based bank and argues that to remain competitive financial services providers must provide easier customer…

  18. Candidate gene networks and blood biomarkers of methamphetamine-associated psychosis: an integrative RNA-sequencing report

    PubMed Central

    Breen, M S; Uhlmann, A; Nday, C M; Glatt, S J; Mitt, M; Metsalpu, A; Stein, D J; Illing, N

    2016-01-01

    The clinical presentation, course and treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-associated psychosis (MAP) are similar to that observed in schizophrenia (SCZ) and subsequently MAP has been hypothesized as a pharmacological and environmental model of SCZ. However, several challenges currently exist in diagnosing MAP accurately at the molecular and neurocognitive level before the MAP model can contribute to the discovery of SCZ biomarkers. We directly assessed subcortical brain structural volumes and clinical parameters of MAP within the framework of an integrative genome-wide RNA-Seq blood transcriptome analysis of subjects diagnosed with MAP (N=10), METH dependency without psychosis (MA; N=10) and healthy controls (N=10). First, we identified discrete groups of co-expressed genes (that is, modules) and tested them for functional annotation and phenotypic relationships to brain structure volumes, life events and psychometric measurements. We discovered one MAP-associated module involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis downregulation, enriched with 61 genes previously found implicated in psychosis and SCZ across independent blood and post-mortem brain studies using convergent functional genomic (CFG) evidence. This module demonstrated significant relationships with brain structure volumes including the anterior corpus callosum (CC) and the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, a second MAP and psychoticism-associated module involved in circadian clock upregulation was also enriched with 39 CFG genes, further associated with the CC. Subsequently, a machine-learning analysis of differentially expressed genes identified single blood-based biomarkers able to differentiate controls from methamphetamine dependents with 87% accuracy and MAP from MA subjects with 95% accuracy. CFG evidence validated a significant proportion of these putative MAP biomarkers in independent studies including CLN3, FBP1, TBC1D2 and ZNF821 (RNA degradation), ELK3 and SINA3 (circadian clock) and PIGF and

  19. Candidate gene networks and blood biomarkers of methamphetamine-associated psychosis: an integrative RNA-sequencing report.

    PubMed

    Breen, M S; Uhlmann, A; Nday, C M; Glatt, S J; Mitt, M; Metsalpu, A; Stein, D J; Illing, N

    2016-05-10

    The clinical presentation, course and treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-associated psychosis (MAP) are similar to that observed in schizophrenia (SCZ) and subsequently MAP has been hypothesized as a pharmacological and environmental model of SCZ. However, several challenges currently exist in diagnosing MAP accurately at the molecular and neurocognitive level before the MAP model can contribute to the discovery of SCZ biomarkers. We directly assessed subcortical brain structural volumes and clinical parameters of MAP within the framework of an integrative genome-wide RNA-Seq blood transcriptome analysis of subjects diagnosed with MAP (N=10), METH dependency without psychosis (MA; N=10) and healthy controls (N=10). First, we identified discrete groups of co-expressed genes (that is, modules) and tested them for functional annotation and phenotypic relationships to brain structure volumes, life events and psychometric measurements. We discovered one MAP-associated module involved in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis downregulation, enriched with 61 genes previously found implicated in psychosis and SCZ across independent blood and post-mortem brain studies using convergent functional genomic (CFG) evidence. This module demonstrated significant relationships with brain structure volumes including the anterior corpus callosum (CC) and the nucleus accumbens. Furthermore, a second MAP and psychoticism-associated module involved in circadian clock upregulation was also enriched with 39 CFG genes, further associated with the CC. Subsequently, a machine-learning analysis of differentially expressed genes identified single blood-based biomarkers able to differentiate controls from methamphetamine dependents with 87% accuracy and MAP from MA subjects with 95% accuracy. CFG evidence validated a significant proportion of these putative MAP biomarkers in independent studies including CLN3, FBP1, TBC1D2 and ZNF821 (RNA degradation), ELK3 and SINA3 (circadian clock) and PIGF and

  20. Beta-trace Protein as a new non-invasive immunological Marker for Quinolinic Acid-induced impaired Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Baranyi, Andreas; Amouzadeh-Ghadikolai, Omid; Lewinski, Dirk von; Breitenecker, Robert J.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; März, Winfried; Robier, Christoph; Rothenhäusler, Hans-Bernd; Mangge, Harald; Meinitzer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Quinolinic acid, a macrophage/microglia-derived excitotoxin fulfills a plethora of functions such as neurotoxin, gliotoxin, and proinflammatory mediator, and it alters the integrity and cohesion of the blood-brain barrier in several pathophysiological states. Beta-trace protein (BTP), a monomeric glycoprotein, is known to indicate cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Thus, the prior aim of this study was to investigate whether BTP might non-invasively indicate quinolinic acid-induced impaired blood-brain barrier integrity. The research hypotheses were tested in three subsamples with different states of immune activation (patients with HCV-infection and interferon-α, patients with major depression, and healthy controls). BTP has also been described as a sensitive marker in detecting impaired renal function. Thus, the renal function has been considered. Our study results revealed highest quinolinic acid and highest BTP- levels in the subsample of patients with HCV in comparison with the other subsamples with lower or no immune activation (quinolinic acid: F = 21.027, p < 0.001 [ANOVA]; BTP: F = 6.792, p < 0.01 [ANOVA]). In addition, a two-step hierarchical linear regression model showed that significant predictors of BTP levels are quinolinic acid, glomerular filtration rate and age. The neurotoxin quinolinic acid may impair blood-brain barrier integrity. BTP might be a new non-invasive biomarker to indicate quinolinic acid-induced impaired blood-brain barrier integrity. PMID:28276430

  1. Bahrain's offshore banking center

    SciTech Connect

    Gerakis, A.S.; Roncesvalles, O.

    1983-01-01

    The economic effects of Bahrain's schemes for licensing offshore banking units (OBUs) were the immediate response of major international banks and the financial services the banking center has rendered by improving regional money and exchange markets at a time when a Middle East link was needed to service the increasing demand for oil-wealth banking services. Bahrain's leadership also created a favorable climate. Aggressive competition from banks in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia have caused some friction, but informal supervision by the Bahrain Monetary Agency (BMA) should be able to avoid serious difficulty. Bahrain's success required a banking infrastructure, a free-enterprise system, a willingness to maintain banking standards, a country small enough to benefit directly from OBU income, and a gap in nearby competing centers. 39 references, 1 figure, 5 tables. (DCK)

  2. Towards microfluidic-based depletion of stiff and fragile human red cells that accumulate during blood storage

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sha; Hou, Han Wei; Kanias, Tamir; Sertorio, JT; Chen, Huichao; Sinchar, Derek; Gladwin, Mark; Han, Jongyoon

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of prolonged storage on several biophysical properties of red blood cells (RBCs) were investigated. Single cell deformability was used as an important criterion in determining subgroups of RBCs evolved during storage lesion. A deformability-based microfluidic cell sorting technology was applied, which demonstrates the ability to enrich and separate the less deformable subpopulations of stored blood. These less deformable RBC subpopulations were then associated with other important markers such as osmotic fragility indicating cell integrity as well as microparticle content. This work demonstrates a systematic methodology to both monitor and improve banked blood quality, thereby reducing risks related to blood transfusion. PMID:25406942

  3. Differences in HTLV-I integration patterns between skin lesions and peripheral blood lymphocytes of HTLV-I seropositive patients with cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hamada, T; Setoyama, M; Katahira, Y; Furuno, T; Fujiyoshi, T; Sonoda, S; Tashiro, M

    1992-09-01

    We examined HTLV-I integration patterns in nine cases of HTLV-I-seropositive patients with cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders. The Southern blot on EcoRI digests of DNA revealed a discrete band of HTLV-I provirus (monoclonal integration) in either skin lesions or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Four cases showed the monoclonal integration of HTLV-I provirus only in skin lesions: one case showed only in PBL and two cases showed in both skin and PBL. The Southern blot on PstI digests of DNA revealed a 2.4 Kb band of the internal construct of HTLV-I provirus (polyclonal integration) in the PBL of EcoRI-negative samples. The difference in HTLV-I integration patterns between skin lesions and PBL in these cases suggests that the monoclonal outgrowth of HTLV-I-infected cells in the skin is causatively associated with the pathogenesis of cutaneous ATL.

  4. Chronic type 2 diabetes reduces the integrity of the blood-brain barrier by reducing tight junction proteins in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Yim, Hee Sun; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Seong, Je Kyung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Kim, Dae Won; Hwang, In Koo

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier and tight junction markers in the rat hippocampus. Forty-week-old diabetic (Zucker diabetic fatty, ZDF) rats and littermate control (Zucker lean control, ZLC) rats were used in this study. We evaluated the integrity of the blood-brain barrier by measuring sodium fluorescein extravasation and blood vessel ultrastructure. In addition, tight junction markers, such as zona occludens-1, occludin and claudin-5, were quantified by western blot analysis. ZDF rats showed significantly increased sodium fluorescein leakage in the hippocampus. Tight junction markers, such as occludin and claudin-5, were significantly decreased in the hippocampi of ZDF rats compared to those of ZLC rats. In addition, ZDF rats showed ultrastructural changes with phagocytic findings in the blood vessels. These results suggest that chronic untreated diabetes impairs the permeability of the hippocampal blood-brain barrier by down-regulating occludin and claudin-5, indicating that chronic untreated diabetes may cause hippocampus-dependent dysfunction.

  5. Umbilical cord cell banking-implications for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, Jennifer . E-mail: gunning@cf.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    The first successful cord cell transplant to a sibling with Fanconi's anaemia took place 15 years ago. This proven utility of cord blood led to the establishment of cord blood banks both private and public and there are now nearly 100 cord blood banks worldwide. It is estimated that over 200,000 cord blood units (CBU) are held by the private sector and over 160,000 CBU are registered with the largest public cord blood registry. There is a tension between private cord blood banks, which store CBU for autologous or family use, and public banks, which store CBU for unrelated use and the ethics of private cord blood storage has been questioned. But more general ethical questions also arise regarding ownership, consent, confidentiality, costs and quality standards and patenting. In looking at these ethical issues one also needs to look at potential future use of cord blood stem cells. Up until now cord cells have principally been used in the treatment of paediatric blood and immune disorders. Improvements in cell expansion technology will make CBU more appropriate also for treating adults with such disorders. However, it has also been demonstrated that cord blood stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into other types of cells, neuronal, bone, epithelial and muscle which would have a future role to play in cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  6. Umbilical cord cell banking--implications for the future.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Jennifer

    2005-09-01

    The first successful cord cell transplant to a sibling with Fanconi's anaemia took place 15 years ago. This proven utility of cord blood led to the establishment of cord blood banks both private and public and there are now nearly 100 cord blood banks worldwide. It is estimated that over 200,000 cord blood units (CBU) are held by the private sector and over 160,000 CBU are registered with the largest public cord blood registry. There is a tension between private cord blood banks, which store CBU for autologous or family use, and public banks, which store CBU for unrelated use and the ethics of private cord blood storage has been questioned. But more general ethical questions also arise regarding ownership, consent, confidentiality, costs and quality standards and patenting. In looking at these ethical issues one also needs to look at potential future use of cord blood stem cells. Up until now cord cells have principally been used in the treatment of paediatric blood and immune disorders. Improvements in cell expansion technology will make CBU more appropriate also for treating adults with such disorders. However, it has also been demonstrated that cord blood stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into other types of cells, neuronal, bone, epithelial and muscle which would have a future role to play in cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  7. Bank Record Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Barnett Banks of Florida, Inc. operates 150 banking offices in 80 Florida cities. Banking offices have computerized systems for processing deposits or withdrawals in checking/savings accounts, and for handling commercial and installment loan transactions. In developing a network engineering design for the terminals used in record processing, an affiliate, Barnett Computing Company, used COSMIC's STATCOM program. This program provided a reliable network design tool and avoided the cost of developing new software.

  8. Oceanographic Data Bank Survey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings of an Oceanographic Data Bank Survey. The survey was conducted in order to eliminate duplication of data base...development and to aid the Data Base Manager in establishing the data banks for the Acoustic Environmental Support Detachment (AESD). A key finding is...that no one data bank exists that will satisfy the total needs of AESD. Data bases available from the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC), Fleet

  9. Banking: shop and compare.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jennifer A; DeJarnette, Sherry

    2014-01-01

    There are many reasons to take a critical look at the practice's banking relationship(s)--technology advancements, security measures, improvements in available services, recent banking enhancements designed specifically for medical practices, the impact of the financial crisis on bank ratings and stability, changing practice needs, opportunities for operational automation at the practice--and it is just simply smart to periodically evaluate and compare the features, pricing, and potential savings offered by vendors.

  10. Cross-referencing of ISO-9000 and regulatory quality systems at blood centers.

    PubMed

    Healy-Collier, K

    1998-05-01

    Blood banks can utilize ISO-9000 to standardize the level of quality within the organization. This standardization can be cross-referenced with the existing quality system in the blood bank, more specifically the quality systems required by the Food and Drug Administration and the American Association of Blood Banks, to provide for higher-quality products and services.

  11. Drug transporter, P-glycoprotein (MDR1), is an integrated component of the mammalian blood-testis barrier§

    PubMed Central

    Su, Linlin; Cheng, Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout spermatogenesis, leptotene spermatocytes traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to enter the adluminal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium for continued development. At the same time, the integrity of the BTB, which is constituted by co-existing tight junctions (TJ), basal ectoplasmic specializations (basal ES) and desmosome-like junctions, must be maintained since a breach in barrier function can result in spermatogenic arrest and infertility. There is evidence to suggest that drug transporters may function at the BTB, but little is known about how they contribute to spermatogenesis. In this study, we investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux pump, in BTB dynamics. A survey by RT-PCR revealed several transport proteins to be expressed by the testis, including Mdr1 (gene symbol for P-gp), Mrp1, Abcc5 and Slc15a1. It was also demonstrated that P-gp localizes to the BTB in all stages of the epithelial cycle in the adult rat testis, as well as to the Sertoli cell elongated spermatid interface in stages VII–VIII. We continued our study by examining the levels of several transporters in the testis following oral administration of Adjudin, a compound known to affect Sertoli-germ cell adhesion. In this experiment, the steady-state levels of P-gp, MRP1, ABCG1 and SLC15A1 were all found to increase by several-fold within hours of Adjudin treatment during junction restructuring. More importantly, an increase in P-gp association with TJ proteins (e.g., occludin, claudin-11 and JAM-A) was noted when testis lysates from Adjudin-treated rats were used for co-immunoprecipitation experiments, suggesting that P-gp may enhance BTB function during Sertoli-germ cell junction restructuring. PMID:19720156

  12. Role of Complement in Blood Preservation and Blood Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    radial immunodiffusion . Immunochemistry 1965; 2:235. 4. Stratton F, Rawlinson V: Observations on the antiglobulin tests. II. C4 components on...normal seru and incubated normal seru by the radial immunodiffusion (RID) method and in the incubated nomal serum by an automated (AA) method. C3...19 Table 1. Calculation of C3 concentration in native normal serum and incubated normal serum by the radial lmmunodif- fusion (RIO) method and in the

  13. BDB: biopanning data bank

    PubMed Central

    He, Bifang; Chai, Guoshi; Duan, Yaocong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Liuyang; Zhang, Huixiong; Liu, Zechun; He, Qiang; Han, Ke; Ru, Beibei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Rao, Nini; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The BDB database (http://immunet.cn/bdb) is an update of the MimoDB database, which was previously described in the 2012 Nucleic Acids Research Database issue. The rebranded name BDB is short for Biopanning Data Bank, which aims to be a portal for biopanning results of the combinatorial peptide library. Last updated in July 2015, BDB contains 2904 sets of biopanning data collected from 1322 peer-reviewed papers. It contains 25 786 peptide sequences, 1704 targets, 492 known templates, 447 peptide libraries and 310 crystal structures of target-template or target-peptide complexes. All data stored in BDB were revisited, and information on peptide affinity, measurement method and procedures was added for 2298 peptides from 411 sets of biopanning data from 246 published papers. In addition, a more professional and user-friendly web interface was implemented, a more detailed help system was designed, and a new on-the-fly data visualization tool and a series of tools for data analysis were integrated. With these new data and tools made available, we expect that the BDB database would become a major resource for scholars using phage display, with improved utility for biopanning and related scientific communities. PMID:26503249

  14. BDB: biopanning data bank.

    PubMed

    He, Bifang; Chai, Guoshi; Duan, Yaocong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Qiu, Liuyang; Zhang, Huixiong; Liu, Zechun; He, Qiang; Han, Ke; Ru, Beibei; Guo, Feng-Biao; Ding, Hui; Lin, Hao; Wang, Xianlong; Rao, Nini; Zhou, Peng; Huang, Jian

    2016-01-04

    The BDB database (http://immunet.cn/bdb) is an update of the MimoDB database, which was previously described in the 2012 Nucleic Acids Research Database issue. The rebranded name BDB is short for Biopanning Data Bank, which aims to be a portal for biopanning results of the combinatorial peptide library. Last updated in July 2015, BDB contains 2904 sets of biopanning data collected from 1322 peer-reviewed papers. It contains 25,786 peptide sequences, 1704 targets, 492 known templates, 447 peptide libraries and 310 crystal structures of target-template or target-peptide complexes. All data stored in BDB were revisited, and information on peptide affinity, measurement method and procedures was added for 2298 peptides from 411 sets of biopanning data from 246 published papers. In addition, a more professional and user-friendly web interface was implemented, a more detailed help system was designed, and a new on-the-fly data visualization tool and a series of tools for data analysis were integrated. With these new data and tools made available, we expect that the BDB database would become a major resource for scholars using phage display, with improved utility for biopanning and related scientific communities.

  15. 78 FR 12360 - PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank Franklin, PA; PNC Bank, National Association, Retail Bank West Chester, IL; Notice of Negative Determination Regarding Application... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of PNC Bank, National Association, Retail...

  16. Label-free isolation of a prostate cancer cell among blood cells and the single-cell measurement of drug accumulation using an integrated microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Khamenehfar, A.; Beischlag, T. V.; Russell, P. J.; Ling, M. T. P.; Nelson, C.; Li, P. C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of patients with cancer. Although these cells are rare, they can provide useful information for chemotherapy. However, isolation of these rare cells from blood is technically challenging because they are small in numbers. An integrated microfluidic chip, dubbed CTC chip, was designed and fabricated for conducting tumor cell isolation. As CTCs usually show multidrug resistance (MDR), the effect of MDR inhibitors on chemotherapeutic drug accumulation in the isolated single tumor cell is measured. As a model of CTC isolation, human prostate cancer cells were mixed with mouse blood cells and the label-free isolation of the tumor cells was conducted based on cell size difference. The major advantages of the CTC chip are the ability for fast cell isolation, followed by multiple rounds of single-cell measurements, suggesting a potential assay for detecting the drug responses based on the liquid biopsy of cancer patients. PMID:26594265

  17. Wetlands Mitigation Banking Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    Naval Amphibious Bas Eslgrss Mit. Bank CA, San Diego Co. dredging & facilities Dept of the Navy SeaWorld Eelgras Mitigation Dank CA, San Diego Co...shore development, private projects SeaWorld 8 Table 2. WETLAND MITIGATION BANKS UNDER PLANNING, Institute for Water Resources Preliminary Survey Data

  18. Airport Land Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    the Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study with respect to the feasibility, practicability, and cost of land bank planning and development...1977. Airport land banking was studied and analyzed from several different perspectives, including legal, economic, and financial, and the results of this study are reported in this document. (Author)

  19. Volunteer Community Language Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Sigfrid S.; And Others

    Lake Charles, Louisiana established a language bank capable of providing interpreters for 20 foreign languages. All participants are volunteers who offer to help free of charge in case of emergencies arising because of the considerable numbers of foreign visitors in the area. Smooth operation of the language bank depends on the following: (1) an…

  20. Integration of Genome-Wide SNP Data and Gene-Expression Profiles Reveals Six Novel Loci and Regulatory Mechanisms for Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Frank; Holdt, Lesca M.; Gross, Arnd; Teren, Andrej; Tönjes, Anke; Becker, Susen; Krohn, Knut; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Scholz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Profiling amino acids and acylcarnitines in whole blood spots is a powerful tool in the laboratory diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism. Emerging data suggests that altered blood levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines are also associated with common metabolic diseases in adults. Thus, the identification of common genetic determinants for blood metabolites might shed light on pathways contributing to human physiology and common diseases. We applied a targeted mass-spectrometry-based method to analyze whole blood concentrations of 96 amino acids, acylcarnitines and pathway associated metabolite ratios in a Central European cohort of 2,107 adults and performed genome-wide association (GWA) to identify genetic modifiers of metabolite concentrations. We discovered and replicated six novel loci associated with blood levels of total acylcarnitine, arginine (both on chromosome 6; rs12210538, rs17657775), propionylcarnitine (chromosome 10; rs12779637), 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (chromosome 21; rs1571700), stearoylcarnitine (chromosome 1; rs3811444), and aspartic acid traits (chromosome 8; rs750472). Based on an integrative analysis of expression quantitative trait loci in blood mononuclear cells and correlations between gene expressions and metabolite levels, we provide evidence for putative causative genes: SLC22A16 for total acylcarnitines, ARG1 for arginine, HLCS for 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine, JAM3 for stearoylcarnitine via a trans-effect at chromosome 1, and PPP1R16A for aspartic acid traits. Further, we report replication and provide additional functional evidence for ten loci that have previously been published for metabolites measured in plasma, serum or urine. In conclusion, our integrative analysis of SNP, gene-expression and metabolite data points to novel genetic factors that may be involved in the regulation of human metabolism. At several loci, we provide evidence for metabolite regulation via gene-expression and observed overlaps with GWAS

  1. No CLL transmission through blood transfusion.

    PubMed

    Landgren, Ola

    2015-10-22

    In this issue of Blood, Hjalgrim et al used the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database, which includes comprehensive information on donors and recipients of >20 million blood products handled by the Danish and Swedish blood banks between 1968 and 2010, to address the clinically relevant question of whether chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is transmitted through blood transfusions.

  2. In-Line Microwave Warmer for Blood and Intravenous Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    blood components prior to microwave warming. Results show no significant changes in blood component longevity between samples that were warmed with microwave energy versus control samples. In addition in-vitro tests using blood-bank blood were performed and again biochemistry and hematologic analysis showed no significant changes in blood components of microwave warmed blood versus control

  3. The World Bank and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    In September 1989 the World Bank set out a three-year agenda for action to combat environmental degradation. The main goal of this agenda has been the integration of environmental concerns into the Bank's development work. This report- the Bank's first annual report on the environment - reviews progress in this area during fiscal 1990 (July 1989 - June 1990). Environmental concerns were addressed in Bank operations during FY90 through country-focused environmental strategy work, policy and research activities, and lending operations. Five problem areas required special attention: destruction of natural habitats; land degradation; degradation and depletion of fresh water resources; urban, industrial, and agricultural pollution; and degradation of the global commons' through, for example, atmospheric and marine pollution. The book describes not only the Bank's successes in its environmental work but also the problems it has encountered. It raises important questions about whether real progress can be made by the Bank if inadequate resources are devoted to supervision, project monitoring, and environmental regulation.

  4. Sex, ageing and resting blood pressure: gaining insights from the integrated balance of neural and haemodynamic factors.

    PubMed

    Hart, Emma C; Joyner, Michael J; Wallin, B Gunnar; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2012-05-01

    Young women tend to have lower blood pressure, and less risk of hypertension, compared to young men. As people age, both blood pressure and the risk of hypertension increase in both sexes; this occurs most strikingly in women after menopause. However, the mechanisms for these influences of sex and age remain incompletely understood. In this review we are specifically interested in the interaction between neural (sympathetic nerve activity; SNA) and haemodynamic factors (cardiac output, blood pressure and vascular resistance) and how these change with sex and age. While peripheral vascular SNA can vary 7- to 10-fold among normotensive young men and women, it is reproducible in a given individual. Surprisingly, higher levels of SNA are not associated with higher blood pressures in these groups. In young men, high SNA is associated with higher total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR), and appears to be balanced by lower cardiac output and less peripheral vascular responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. Young women do not exhibit the SNA-TPR relationship. Recent evidence suggests that β-adrenergic vasodilatation offsets the vasoconstrictor effects of α-adrenergic vasoconstriction in young women, which may contribute to the generally lower blood pressures in this group. Sympathetic nerve activity increases with age, and in groups over 40, levels of SNA are more tightly linked to levels of blood pressure. The potentially protective β-adrenergic effect seen in young women appears to be lost after menopause and probably contributes to the increased blood pressure and increased risk of hypertension seen in older women.

  5. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  6. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  7. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Dennis A.; Cavanaugh, Mark; Clark, Karen; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Sayers, Eric W.

    2017-01-01

    GenBank® (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for 370 000 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or the NCBI Submission Portal. GenBank staff assign accession numbers upon data receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Nucleotide database, which links to related information such as taxonomy, genomes, protein sequences and structures, and biomedical journal literature in PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. Recent updates include changes to policies regarding sequence identifiers, an improved 16S submission wizard, targeted loci studies, the ability to submit methylation and BioNano mapping files, and a database of anti-microbial resistance genes. PMID:27899564

  8. High-Throughput Screening for Identification of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity Enhancers: A Drug Repurposing Opportunity to Rectify Vascular Amyloid Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Qosa, Hisham; Mohamed, Loqman A; Al Rihani, Sweilem B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Duong, Quoc-Viet; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-07-06

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a dynamic interface that maintains brain homeostasis and protects it from free entry of chemicals, toxins, and drugs. The barrier function of the BBB is maintained mainly by capillary endothelial cells that physically separate brain from blood. Several neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are known to disrupt BBB integrity. In this study, a high-throughput screening (HTS) was developed to identify drugs that rectify/protect BBB integrity from vascular amyloid toxicity associated with AD progression. Assessing Lucifer Yellow permeation across in-vitro BBB model composed from mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) grown on 96-well plate inserts was used to screen 1280 compounds of Sigma LOPAC®1280 library for modulators of bEnd3 monolayer integrity. HTS identified 62 compounds as disruptors, and 50 compounds as enhancers of the endothelial barrier integrity. From these 50 enhancers, 7 FDA approved drugs were identified with EC50 values ranging from 0.76-4.56 μM. Of these 7 drugs, 5 were able to protect bEnd3-based BBB model integrity against amyloid toxicity. Furthermore, to test the translational potential to humans, the 7 drugs were tested for their ability to rectify the disruptive effect of Aβ in the human endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. Only 3 (etodolac, granisetron, and beclomethasone) out of the 5 effective drugs in the bEnd3-based BBB model demonstrated a promising effect to protect the hCMEC/D3-based BBB model integrity. These drugs are compelling candidates for repurposing as therapeutic agents that could rectify dysfunctional BBB associated with AD.

  9. A review of human milk banking and public health policy in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lording, Roslyn J

    2006-11-01

    Breastmilk is the perfect food for human infants. It is markedly different from, and uniquely superior to, artificial baby milk. Human milk banks are services which collect, screen, process and distribute donated breastmilk. Recipients are generally ill and premature infants whose mothers are unable to breastfeed them. This review of human milk banking in Australian public health policy draws from local and international research. This history of human milk banking and contemporary Australian policies, pertaining to breastfeeding and milk banking, are examined. Human milk banking is noted to be largely invisible from national breastfeeding policies. The barriers to establishing human milk banks in the Australian context are explored. Strategies which have helped generate support for human milk banking are discussed. International research has demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of banked donor milk. It is time for human milk banking to become an integral component of Australian breastfeeding policies, viewed as one of several initiatives to protect and support breastfeeding.

  10. It's time for health record banking!

    PubMed

    Shabo, A

    2014-01-01

    This article is part of a Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on Health Record Banking. This Focus Theme aims at describing the Health Record Banking (HRB) paradigm, which offers an alternative constellation of health information exchange and integration through sustainability of health records over the lifetime of individuals by independent and trusted organizations. It also aims at describing various approaches to HRB and reporting on the state-of-the-art HRB through actual implementations and lessons learned, as described in articles of this Focus Theme.

  11. Tree-bank grammars

    SciTech Connect

    Charniak, E.

    1996-12-31

    By a {open_quotes}tree-bank grammar{close_quotes} we mean a context-free grammar created by reading the production rules directly from hand-parsed sentences in a tree bank. Common wisdom has it that such grammars do not perform well, though we know of no published data on the issue. The primary purpose of this paper is to show that the common wisdom is wrong. In particular, we present results on a tree-bank grammar based on the Penn Wall Street Journal tree bank. To the best of our knowledge, this grammar outperforms all other non-word-based statistical parsers/grammars on this corpus. That is, it outperforms parsers that consider the input as a string of tags and ignore the actual words of the corpus.

  12. Mitigation Banking Factsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A mitigation bank is an aquatic resource area that has been restored, established, enhanced, or preserved for the purpose of providing compensation for unavoidable impacts to aquatic resources permitted under Section 404

  13. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... ABO blood typing; Blood group; Anemia - immune hemolytic blood type; ABO blood type; A blood type; AB blood type; O blood type ... The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type. Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO ...

  14. Femoral head banking: NUH tissue bank experience.

    PubMed

    Nather, Aziz; David, Vikram

    2007-04-01

    National University Hospital Tissue Bank protocol follows guidelines recommended by the American Association of Tissue Banks and the European Association of Tissue Banks using donor selection criteria: medical history, clinical examination, chart review and laboratory tests for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, syphilis, and specimen for culture/sensitivity tests. For living donors, repeat testing is performed for AIDS and hepatitis C approximately 180 days after procurement. Femoral heads are procured using the "sterile double jar technique" and stored at -80 degrees C. Our first study of 273 consecutive potential donors undergoing hemiarthroplasty from 1989 to 1994 showed that a high percentage (42.5%) was unsuitable for use. A second study involving 175 potential donors was conducted from 1995 to 2003 after hepatitis C screening was introduced. The bacterial contamination rates in both studies (3.5% and 5.7%) are low. The incidence of other diseases also are low: hepatitis B, 2.3% and syphilis, 1.8% in the first study and hepatitis B, 5.7%; hepatitis C, 0.6%; and syphilis, 5.1% in the second cohort. No cases of AIDS were reported in either study. By 2003, femoral heads were transplanted in 205 patients with a low complication rate of 2.9%.

  15. Blood transfusion in obstetrics.

    PubMed

    Nigam, A; Prakash, A; Saxena, P

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood and blood components is a common practice in obstetric wards but it is not without risk. The incidence of transfusion reactions varies from 4 in every hundred transfusions for non-haemolytic reactions to one in every 40,000 for haemolytic transfusion reactions. The physiological basis of blood transfusion is outlined in this article. Most of the donated blood is processed into components: packed red cells (PRBCs), platelets, and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or cryoprecipitate. Various alternatives to blood transfusion exist and include autotransfusion, pre-autologous blood storage, use of oxygen carrying blood substitutes and intraoperative cell salvage. Despite the risks associated with transfusions, obstetricians are frequently too aggressive in transfusing blood and blood products to their patients. Acute blood loss in obstetrics is usually due to placenta praevia, postpartum blood loss and surgery related. An early involvement of a consultant obstetrician, anaesthetist, haematologist and the blood bank is essential. There are no established criteria for initiating red cell transfusions and the decision is purely based on clinical and haematological parameters, which have been discussed along with the general principles of blood transfusion in obstetrics and some practical guidelines.

  16. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the twenty-first century and what are the alternatives?

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Norman R.; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualizable dextrans and radiolabeled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity. PMID:26578854

  17. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity: how appropriate is Evans blue in the twenty-first century and what are the alternatives?

    PubMed

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld; Habgood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of HRP in the mid twentieth-century was an important advance because its reaction product can be visualized at the electron microscopical level, but it also has limitations. Advantages and disadvantages of these markers will be discussed together with a critical evaluation of alternative approaches. There is no single marker suitable for all purposes. A combination of different sized, visualizable dextrans and radiolabeled molecules currently seems to be the most appropriate approach for qualitative and quantitative assessment of barrier integrity.

  18. Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells do not differentiate into neural cell types or integrate into the retina after intravitreal grafting in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew J; Zwart, Isabel; Tam, Henry H; Chan, Jane; Navarrete, Cristina; Jen, Ling-Sun; Navarrete, Roberto

    2009-04-01

    This study investigated the ability of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from full-term human umbilical cord blood to survive, integrate and differentiate after intravitreal grafting to the degenerating neonatal rat retina following intracranial optic tract lesion. MSCs survived for 1 week in the absence of immunosuppression. When host animals were treated with cyclosporin A and dexamethasone to suppress inflammatory and immune responses, donor cells survived for at least 3 weeks, and were able to spread and cover the entire vitreal surface of the host retina. However, MSCs did not significantly integrate into or migrate through the retina. They also maintained their human antigenicity, and no indication of neural differentiation was observed in retinas where retinal ganglion cells either underwent severe degeneration or were lost. These results have provided the first in vivo evidence that MSCs derived from human umbilical cord blood can survive for a significant period of time when the host rat response is suppressed even for a short period. These results, together with the observation of a lack of neuronal differentiation and integration of MSCs after intravitreal grafting, has raised an important question as to the potential use of MSCs for neural repair through the replacement of lost neurons in the mammalian retina and central nervous system.

  19. Integration of Quantitative Positron Emission Tomography Absolute Myocardial Blood Flow Measurements in the Clinical Management of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Gewirtz, Henry; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2016-05-31

    In the >40 years since planar myocardial imaging with(43)K-potassium was introduced into clinical research and management of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), diagnosis and treatment have undergone profound scientific and technological changes. One such innovation is the current state-of-the-art hardware and software for positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging, which has advanced it from a strictly research-oriented modality to a clinically valuable tool. This review traces the evolving role of quantitative positron emission tomography measurements of myocardial blood flow in the evaluation and management of patients with CAD. It presents methodology, currently or soon to be available, that offers a paradigm shift in CAD management. Heretofore, radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has been primarily qualitative or at best semiquantitative in nature, assessing regional perfusion in relative terms. Thus, unlike so many facets of modern cardiovascular practice and CAD management, which depend, for example, on absolute values of key parameters such as arterial and left ventricular pressures, serum lipoprotein, and other biomarker levels, the absolute levels of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow have yet to be incorporated into routine clinical practice even in most positron emission tomography centers where the potential to do so exists. Accordingly, this review focuses on potential value added for improving clinical CAD practice by measuring the absolute level of rest and maximal myocardial blood flow. Physiological principles and imaging fundamentals necessary to understand how positron emission tomography makes robust, quantitative measurements of myocardial blood flow possible are highlighted.

  20. DNA banking for plant breeding, biotechnology and biodiversity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Trevor R; Waldren, Stephen; Parnell, John A N; Kelleher, Colin T; Salamin, Karine; Salamin, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The manipulation of DNA is routine practice in botanical research and has made a huge impact on plant breeding, biotechnology and biodiversity evaluation. DNA is easy to extract from most plant tissues and can be stored for long periods in DNA banks. Curation methods are well developed for other botanical resources such as herbaria, seed banks and botanic gardens, but procedures for the establishment and maintenance of DNA banks have not been well documented. This paper reviews the curation of DNA banks for the characterisation and utilisation of biodiversity and provides guidelines for DNA bank management. It surveys existing DNA banks and outlines their operation. It includes a review of plant DNA collection, preservation, isolation, storage, database management and exchange procedures. We stress that DNA banks require full integration with existing collections such as botanic gardens, herbaria and seed banks, and information retrieval systems that link such facilities, bioinformatic resources and other DNA banks. They also require efficient and well-regulated sample exchange procedures. Only with appropriate curation will maximum utilisation of DNA collections be achieved.

  1. 76 FR 15982 - Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Blood Safety and Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Blood Banks); the plasma protein fraction community; one of the two major distributors of blood on a rotating basis, a trade organization or manufacturer of blood, plasma, infectious disease screening assays... blood banking, transfusion medicine, plasma therapies, transfusion and transplantation safety,...

  2. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  3. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5 Bank... the bank's loan customers. (b) Income derived from credit life insurance sales to loan customers...

  4. Development of tissue bank

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole. PMID:23162240

  5. Development of tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Narayan, R P

    2012-05-01

    The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.

  6. Donating Blood

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood transfusion. Blood donors — especially donors with certain blood types — are always in demand. Who Can Donate Blood? ... Natural Disasters: How to Help Blood Blood Transfusions Blood Types Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  7. The influence of a novel pentadecapeptide, BPC 157, on N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester and L-arginine effects on stomach mucosa integrity and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Separović, J; Hanzevacki, M; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Gjurasin, M; Miklić, P; Stancić-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Jelovac, N; Marović, A

    1997-07-30

    -arginine were combined. In summary, BPC 157 could interfere with the effects of NO on both gastric mucosal integrity and blood pressure maintenance in a specific way, especially with L-arginine, having a more prominent and/or particularly different effect from that of NO.

  8. American Trypanosomiasis (Also Known as Chagas Disease) Blood Screening FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Blood Screening FAQs Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... be concerned about getting Chagas disease? Why are blood banks now screening for Chagas disease? The transmission ...

  9. An integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip for bacteria detection in human whole blood and milk without a sample preparation step.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Jee Won; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-05-15

    We have developed an integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Direct LAMP) microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) to identify bacteria contaminated in real samples. The Direct LAMP is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique which does not require thermal cycling steps as well as any sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction for amplifying specific target genes. In addition, the resultant amplicons were colorimetrically detected on the ICS, thereby enabling the entire genetic analysis process to be simplified. The two functional units (Direct LAMP and ICS) were integrated on a single device without use of the tedious and complicated microvalve and tubing systems. The utilization of a slidable plate allows us to manipulate the fluidic control in the microchannels manually and the sequential operation of the Direct LAMP and ICS detection could be performed by switching the slidable plate to each functional unit. Thus, the combination of the direct isothermal amplification without any sample preparation and thermal cycling steps, the ICS based amplicon detection by naked eyes, and the slidable plate to eliminate the microvalves in the integrated microdevice would be an ideal platform for point-of-care DNA diaganotics. On the integrated Direct LAMP-ICS microdevice, we could analyze Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) contaminated in human whole blood or milk at a single-cell level within 1h.

  10. Human Milk Banking.

    PubMed

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula.

  11. Chronic type 2 diabetes reduces the integrity of the blood-brain barrier by reducing tight junction proteins in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    YOO, Dae Young; YIM, Hee Sun; JUNG, Hyo Young; NAM, Sung Min; KIM, Jong Whi; CHOI, Jung Hoon; SEONG, Je Kyung; YOON, Yeo Sung; KIM, Dae Won; HWANG, In Koo

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes-induced hyperglycemia on the integrity of the blood–brain barrier and tight junction markers in the rat hippocampus. Forty-week-old diabetic (Zucker diabetic fatty, ZDF) rats and littermate control (Zucker lean control, ZLC) rats were used in this study. We evaluated the integrity of the blood–brain barrier by measuring sodium fluorescein extravasation and blood vessel ultrastructure. In addition, tight junction markers, such as zona occludens-1, occludin and claudin-5, were quantified by western blot analysis. ZDF rats showed significantly increased sodium fluorescein leakage in the hippocampus. Tight junction markers, such as occludin and claudin-5, were significantly decreased in the hippocampi of ZDF rats compared to those of ZLC rats. In addition, ZDF rats showed ultrastructural changes with phagocytic findings in the blood vessels. These results suggest that chronic untreated diabetes impairs the permeability of the hippocampal blood–brain barrier by down-regulating occludin and claudin-5, indicating that chronic untreated diabetes may cause hippocampus-dependent dysfunction. PMID:26876499

  12. 12 CFR 250.200 - Investment in bank premises by holding company banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment in bank premises by holding company banks. 250.200 Section 250.200 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS... bank premises by holding company banks. (a) The Board of Governors has been asked whether,...

  13. Neuropsychiatric disease relevance of circulating anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies depends on blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, C; Stepniak, B; Schneider, A; Papiol, S; Tantra, M; Begemann, M; Sirén, A-L; Pardo, L A; Sperling, S; Mohd Jofrry, S; Gurvich, A; Jensen, N; Ostmeier, K; Lühder, F; Probst, C; Martens, H; Gillis, M; Saher, G; Assogna, F; Spalletta, G; Stöcker, W; Schulz, T F; Nave, K-A; Ehrenreich, H

    2014-10-01

    In 2007, a multifaceted syndrome, associated with anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies (NMDAR-AB) of immunoglobulin-G isotype, has been described, which variably consists of psychosis, epilepsy, cognitive decline and extrapyramidal symptoms. Prevalence and significance of NMDAR-AB in complex neuropsychiatric disease versus health, however, have remained unclear. We tested sera of 2817 subjects (1325 healthy, 1081 schizophrenic, 263 Parkinson and 148 affective-disorder subjects) for presence of NMDAR-AB, conducted a genome-wide genetic association study, comparing AB carriers versus non-carriers, and assessed their influenza AB status. For mechanistic insight and documentation of AB functionality, in vivo experiments involving mice with deficient blood-brain barrier (ApoE(-/-)) and in vitro endocytosis assays in primary cortical neurons were performed. In 10.5% of subjects, NMDAR-AB (NR1 subunit) of any immunoglobulin isotype were detected, with no difference in seroprevalence, titer or in vitro functionality between patients and healthy controls. Administration of extracted human serum to mice influenced basal and MK-801-induced activity in the open field only in ApoE(-/-) mice injected with NMDAR-AB-positive serum but not in respective controls. Seropositive schizophrenic patients with a history of neurotrauma or birth complications, indicating an at least temporarily compromised blood-brain barrier, had more neurological abnormalities than seronegative patients with comparable history. A common genetic variant (rs524991, P=6.15E-08) as well as past influenza A (P=0.024) or B (P=0.006) infection were identified as predisposing factors for NMDAR-AB seropositivity. The >10% overall seroprevalence of NMDAR-AB of both healthy individuals and patients is unexpectedly high. Clinical significance, however, apparently depends on association with past or present perturbations of blood-brain barrier function.

  14. Label-free impedance detection of cancer cells from whole blood on an integrated centrifugal microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Nwankire, Charles E; Venkatanarayanan, Anita; Glennon, Thomas; Keyes, Tia E; Forster, Robert J; Ducrée, Jens

    2015-06-15

    An electrochemical Lab-on-a-Disc (eLoaD) platform for the automated quantification of ovarian cancer cells (SKOV3) from whole blood is reported. This centrifugal microfluidic system combines complex sample handling, i.e., blood separation and cancer cell extraction from plasma, with specific capture and sensitive detection using label-free electrochemical impedance. Flow control is facilitated using rotationally actuated valving strategies including siphoning, capillary and centrifugo-pneumatic dissolvable-film (DF) valves. For the detection systems, the thiol-containing amino acid, L-Cysteine, was self-assembled onto smooth gold electrodes and functionalized with anti-EpCAM. By adjusting the concentration of buffer electrolyte, the thickness of the electrical double layer was extended so the interfacial electric field interacts with the bound cells. Significant impedance changes were recorded at 117.2 Hz and 46.5 Hz upon cell capture. Applying AC amplitude of 50 mV at 117.2 Hz and open circuit potential, a minimum of 214 captured cells/mm(2) and 87% capture efficiency could be recorded. The eLoaD platform can perform five different assays in parallel with linear dynamic range between 16,400 and (2.6±0.0003)×10(6) cancer cells/mL of blood, i.e. covering nearly three orders of magnitude. Using the electrode area of 15.3 mm(2) and an SKOV3 cell radius of 5 µm, the lower detection limit is equivalent to a fractional surface coverage of approximately 2%, thus making eLoaD a highly sensitive and efficient prognostic tool that can be developed for clinical settings where ease of handling and minimal sample preparation are paramount.

  15. 75 FR 20848 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... voting shares of Bank of Anderson, National Association, Anderson, South Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South Carolina. B. Federal Reserve Bank...

  16. DNA Data Bank of Japan.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2017-01-04

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, http://www.insdc.org), in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers. Here, we report our database activities for INSDC and JGA over the past year, and introduce retrieval and analytical services running on our supercomputer system and their recent modifications. Furthermore, with the Database Center for Life Science, the DDBJ Center improves semantic web technologies to integrate and to share biological data, for providing the RDF version of the sequence data.

  17. DNA Data Bank of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Mashima, Jun; Kodama, Yuichi; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Katayama, Toshiaki; Okuda, Yoshihiro; Kaminuma, Eli; Ogasawara, Osamu; Okubo, Kousaku; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Takagi, Toshihisa

    2017-01-01

    The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) (http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp) has been providing public data services for thirty years (since 1987). We are collecting nucleotide sequence data from researchers as a member of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC, http://www.insdc.org), in collaboration with the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI). The DDBJ Center also services Japanese Genotype-phenotype Archive (JGA), with the National Bioscience Database Center to collect human-subjected data from Japanese researchers. Here, we report our database activities for INSDC and JGA over the past year, and introduce retrieval and analytical services running on our supercomputer system and their recent modifications. Furthermore, with the Database Center for Life Science, the DDBJ Center improves semantic web technologies to integrate and to share biological data, for providing the RDF version of the sequence data. PMID:27924010

  18. 76 FR 48167 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... banks, certain transfusion services, other blood product manufacturers, and independent laboratories... Collection; Comment Request; Blood Establishment Registration and Product Listing, Form FDA 2830 AGENCY: Food... blood establishment registration and product listing requirements in the Agency's regulations and...

  19. 78 FR 12062 - Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Blood and Tissue Safety and Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... blood transfusion and tissue transplantation; and (6) identification of infectious disease transmission... knowledgeable in blood banking, transfusion medicine, plasma therapies, transfusion and transplantation safety... HUMAN SERVICES Nominations to the Advisory Committee on Blood and Tissue Safety and Availability...

  20. Banking on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Few organizations have as racially and culturally diverse a work force as the organizations that make up the World Bank Group. Of its 13,000 employees, nearly 60 percent of whom are located in downtown Washington, D.C., and the rest scattered across 160 offices around the globe, nearly every nation in the world is represented in the World Bank…

  1. Bank-a-Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karls, Doris; Jordan, Elaine

    1978-01-01

    The article gives procedures for consumer foods teachers to use to actively involve students in making independent food purchasing decisions according to the school foods lab budget and food buying principles. Included are forms used to keep records for each lab: unit bank account, meat lab evaluation, and market order. (MF)

  2. Banking On People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower, 1970

    1970-01-01

    In July 1968, the First National City Bank in New York (Citibank) received a government contract to train the disadvantaged by providing orientation, counseling, job related education, supervisor training, child care, transportation, and some medical and dental care. The Job Opportunities in the Business Sector Program (JOBS) stipulated pay of $70…

  3. How Banks Create Money.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Lyndi

    This teaching module explains how the U.S. banking system uses excess reserves to create money in the form of new deposits for borrowers. The module is part of a computer-animated series of four-to-five-minute modules illustrating standard concepts in high school economics. Although the module is designed to accompany the video program, it may be…

  4. 77 FR 22786 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  5. 78 FR 5179 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  6. 78 FR 75349 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  7. 75 FR 36089 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank holding company. The factors that...

  8. 77 FR 65689 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  9. 78 FR 16504 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  10. 76 FR 48862 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  11. 77 FR 14015 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The...

  12. During Stably Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy Integrated HIV-1 DNA Load in Peripheral Blood is Associated with the Frequency of CD8 Cells Expressing HLA-DR/DP/DQ

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Alessandra; De Spiegelaere, Ward; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Kiselinova, Maja; Pollakis, Georgios; Beloukas, Apostolos; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Strain, Matthew; Richman, Douglas; Phillips, Andrew; Geretti, Anna Maria; Vitiello, Paola; Mackie, Nicola; Ainsworth, Jonathan; Waters, Anele; Post, Frank; Edwards, Simon; Fox, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Background Characterising the correlates of HIV persistence improves understanding of disease pathogenesis and guides the design of curative strategies. This study investigated factors associated with integrated HIV-1 DNA load during consistently suppressive first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART). Method Total, integrated, and 2-long terminal repeats (LTR) circular HIV-1 DNA, residual plasma HIV-1 RNA, T-cell activation markers, and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were measured in peripheral blood of 50 patients that had received 1–14 years of efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based therapy. Results Integrated HIV-1 DNA load (per 106 peripheral blood mononuclear cells) was median 1.9 log10 copies (interquartile range 1.7–2.2) and showed a mean difference of 0.2 log10 copies per 10 years of suppressive ART (95% confidence interval − 0.2, 0.6; p = 0.28). It was positively correlated with total HIV-1 DNA load and frequency of CD8+HLA-DR/DP/DQ+ cells, and was also higher in subjects with higher sCD14 levels, but showed no correlation with levels of 2-LTR circular HIV-1 DNA and residual plasma HIV-1 RNA, or the frequency of CD4+CD38+ and CD8+CD38+ cells. Adjusting for pre-ART viral load, duration of suppressive ART, CD4 cell counts, residual plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, and sCD14 levels, integrated HIV-1 DNA load was mean 0.5 log10 copies higher for each 50% higher frequency of CD8+HLA-DR/DP/DQ+ cells (95% confidence interval 0.2, 0.9; p = 0.01). Conclusions The observed positive association between integrated HIV-1 DNA load and frequency of CD8+DR/DP/DQ+ cells indicates that a close correlation between HIV persistence and immune activation continues during consistently suppressive therapy. The inducers of the distinct activation profile warrant further investigation. PMID:26498496

  13. Banking on women's spirit.

    PubMed

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  14. Teaching Bank Runs through Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The author advocates the use of films to supplement textbook treatments of bank runs and panics in money and banking or general banking classes. Modern students, particularly those in developed countries, tend to be unfamiliar with potential fragilities of financial systems such as a lack of deposit insurance or other safety net mechanisms. Films…

  15. Identification of neuronal and angiogenic growth factors in an in vitro blood-brain barrier model system: Relevance in barrier integrity and tight junction formation and complexity.

    PubMed

    Freese, Christian; Hanada, Sanshiro; Fallier-Becker, Petra; Kirkpatrick, C James; Unger, Ronald E

    2017-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that the co-cultivation of endothelial cells with neural cells resulted in an improved integrity of the in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB), and that this model could be useful to evaluate the transport properties of potential central nervous system disease drugs through the microvascular brain endothelial. In this study we have used real-time PCR, fluorescent microscopy, protein arrays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to determine which neural- and endothelial cell-derived factors are produced in the co-culture and improve the integrity of the BBB. In addition, a further improvement of the BBB integrity was achieved by adjusting serum concentrations and growth factors or by the addition of brain pericytes. Under specific conditions expression of angiogenic, angiostatic and neurotrophic factors such as endostatin, pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF/serpins-F1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) closely mimicked the in vivo situation. Freeze-fracture analysis of these cultures demonstrated the quality and organization of the endothelial tight junction structures and their association to the two different lipidic leaflets of the membrane. Finally, a multi-cell culture model of the BBB with a transendothelial electrical resistance up to 371 (±15) Ω×cm(2) was developed, which may be useful for preliminary screening of drug transport across the BBB and to evaluate cellular crosstalk of cells involved in the neurovascular unit.

  16. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and... compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or principal... turn over to the bank as compensation all income received from the sale of the credit life insurance...

  17. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and... compensation. (a) Nothing contained in this part prohibits a bank employee, officer, director, or principal... turn over to the bank as compensation all income received from the sale of the credit life insurance...

  18. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... be credited to an affiliate operating under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, 12 U.S.C. 1841 et... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5...

  19. 12 CFR 2.5 - Bank compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be credited to an affiliate operating under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, 12 U.S.C. 1841 et... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bank compensation. 2.5 Section 2.5 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.5...

  20. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility if the... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bankers' banks. 204.121 Section 204.121 Banks... REQUIREMENTS OF DEPOSITORY INSTITUTIONS (REGULATION D) Interpretations § 204.121 Bankers' banks. (a)(1)...

  1. Using a Mixed Model to Explore Evaluation Criteria for Bank Supervision: A Banking Supervision Law Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Zhao, Hongrui; Wei, Yu-Min; Wang, Cheng-Kuang; Zheng, Yuxiang; Chang, Li-Chung; Wang, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Financial supervision means that monetary authorities have the power to supervise and manage financial institutions according to laws. Monetary authorities have this power because of the requirements of improving financial services, protecting the rights of depositors, adapting to industrial development, ensuring financial fair trade, and maintaining stable financial order. To establish evaluation criteria for bank supervision in China, this study integrated fuzzy theory and the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and proposes a fuzzy-DEMATEL model. First, fuzzy theory was applied to examine bank supervision criteria and analyze fuzzy semantics. Second, the fuzzy-DEMATEL model was used to calculate the degree to which financial supervision criteria mutually influenced one another and their causal relationship. Finally, an evaluation criteria model for evaluating bank and financial supervision was established. PMID:27992449

  2. Using a Mixed Model to Explore Evaluation Criteria for Bank Supervision: A Banking Supervision Law Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Zhao, Hongrui; Wei, Yu-Min; Wang, Cheng-Kuang; Zheng, Yuxiang; Chang, Li-Chung; Wang, Jiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Financial supervision means that monetary authorities have the power to supervise and manage financial institutions according to laws. Monetary authorities have this power because of the requirements of improving financial services, protecting the rights of depositors, adapting to industrial development, ensuring financial fair trade, and maintaining stable financial order. To establish evaluation criteria for bank supervision in China, this study integrated fuzzy theory and the decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and proposes a fuzzy-DEMATEL model. First, fuzzy theory was applied to examine bank supervision criteria and analyze fuzzy semantics. Second, the fuzzy-DEMATEL model was used to calculate the degree to which financial supervision criteria mutually influenced one another and their causal relationship. Finally, an evaluation criteria model for evaluating bank and financial supervision was established.

  3. Legal and ethical issues in safe blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekar, Shivaram; Kantharaj, Ambuja

    2014-01-01

    Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS), while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act) is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT) find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre) is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI) requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO) and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC) deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal. PMID:25535417

  4. Simple and robust diagnosis of early, small and AFP-negative primary hepatic carcinomas: an integrative approach of serum fluorescence and conventional blood tests

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun-He; Hu, Piao-Ping; Huang, Zeng-Yong; Zhang, Pan; Wan, Qin-Si; Huang, De-Qiang; Lv, Nong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of early, small and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative primary hepatic carcinomas (PHCs) remains a significant challenge. We developed a simple and robust approach to noninvasively detect these PHCs. A rapid, high-throughput and single-tube method was firstly developed to measure serum autofluorescence and cell-free DNA (cfDNA)-related fluorescence using a real-time PCR system, and both types of serum fluorescence were measured and routine laboratory data were collected in 1229 subjects, including 353 PHC patients, 331 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 213 chronic hepatitis (CH) patients and 332 normal controls (NC). The results showed that fluorescence indicators of PHC differed from those of NC, CH and LC to various extents, and all of them were not associated with age, gender, or AFP level. The logistic regression models established with the fluorescence indicators alone and combined with AFP, hepatic function tests and blood cell analyses were valuable for distinguishing early, small, AFP-negative and all PHC from LC, CH, NC and all non-PHC, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves 0.857–0.993 and diagnostic accuracies 80.2–97.7%. Conclusively, serum autofluorescence and cfDNA-related fluorescence are able to be rapidly and simultaneously measured by our simple method and valuable for diagnosing early, small and AFP-negative PHCs, especially integrating with AFP and conventional blood tests. PMID:27590520

  5. Integrating Cell Phone Imaging with Magnetic Levitation (i-LEV) for Label-Free Blood Analysis at the Point-of-Living.

    PubMed

    Baday, Murat; Calamak, Semih; Durmus, Naside Gozde; Davis, Ronald W; Steinmetz, Lars M; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-03-02

    There is an emerging need for portable, robust, inexpensive, and easy-to-use disease diagnosis and prognosis monitoring platforms to share health information at the point-of-living, including clinical and home settings. Recent advances in digital health technologies have improved early diagnosis, drug treatment, and personalized medicine. Smartphones with high-resolution cameras and high data processing power enable intriguing biomedical applications when integrated with diagnostic devices. Further, these devices have immense potential to contribute to public health in resource-limited settings where there is a particular need for portable, rapid, label-free, easy-to-use, and affordable biomedical devices to diagnose and continuously monitor patients for precision medicine, especially those suffering from rare diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, and chronic fatigue syndrome. Here, a magnetic levitation-based diagnosis system is presented in which different cell types (i.e., white and red blood cells) are levitated in a magnetic gradient and separated due to their unique densities. Moreover, an easy-to-use, smartphone incorporated levitation system for cell analysis is introduced. Using our portable imaging magnetic levitation (i-LEV) system, it is shown that white and red blood cells can be identified and cell numbers can be quantified without using any labels. In addition, cells levitated in i-LEV can be distinguished at single-cell resolution, potentially enabling diagnosis and monitoring, as well as clinical and research applications.

  6. Integrating cell phone imaging with magnetic levitation (i-LEV) for label-free blood analysis at the point-of-living

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Davis, Ronald W.; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Demirci, Utkan

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging need for portable, robust, inexpensive and easy-to-use disease diagnosis and prognosis monitoring platforms to share health information at the point-of-living, including clinical and home settings. Recent advances in digital health technologies have improved early diagnosis, drug treatment, and personalized medicine. Smartphones with high-resolution cameras and high data processing power enable intriguing biomedical applications when integrated with diagnostic devices. Further, these devices have immense potential to contribute to public health in resource-limited settings where there is a particular need for portable, rapid, label-free, easy-to-use and affordable biomedical devices to diagnose and continuously monitor patients for precision medicine, especially those suffering from rare diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Here, we present a magnetic levitation-based diagnosis system in which different cell types (i.e., white and red blood cells) are levitated in a magnetic gradient and separated due to their unique densities. Moreover, we introduce an easy-to-use, smartphone incorporated levitation system for cell analysis. Using our portable imaging magnetic levitation (i-LEV) system, we show that white and red blood cells can be identified and cell numbers can be quantified without using any labels. In addition, cells levitated in i-LEV can be distinguished at single cell resolution, potentially enabling diagnosis and monitoring, as well as clinical and research applications. PMID:26523938

  7. Simple and robust diagnosis of early, small and AFP-negative primary hepatic carcinomas: an integrative approach of serum fluorescence and conventional blood tests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Zhang, Kun-He; Hu, Piao-Ping; Huang, Zeng-Yong; Zhang, Pan; Wan, Qin-Si; Huang, De-Qiang; Lv, Nong-Hua

    2016-09-27

    The diagnosis of early, small and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative primary hepatic carcinomas (PHCs) remains a significant challenge. We developed a simple and robust approach to noninvasively detect these PHCs. A rapid, high-throughput and single-tube method was firstly developed to measure serum autofluorescence and cell-free DNA (cfDNA)-related fluorescence using a real-time PCR system, and both types of serum fluorescence were measured and routine laboratory data were collected in 1229 subjects, including 353 PHC patients, 331 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, 213 chronic hepatitis (CH) patients and 332 normal controls (NC). The results showed that fluorescence indicators of PHC differed from those of NC, CH and LC to various extents, and all of them were not associated with age, gender, or AFP level. The logistic regression models established with the fluorescence indicators alone and combined with AFP, hepatic function tests and blood cell analyses were valuable for distinguishing early, small, AFP-negative and all PHC from LC, CH, NC and all non-PHC, with areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves 0.857-0.993 and diagnostic accuracies 80.2-97.7%. Conclusively, serum autofluorescence and cfDNA-related fluorescence are able to be rapidly and simultaneously measured by our simple method and valuable for diagnosing early, small and AFP-negative PHCs, especially integrating with AFP and conventional blood tests.

  8. Corneal grafting and banking.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Niels; Hjortdal, Jesper; Nielsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Corneal transplantation was conceptualized at the end of the 18th century, but it took more than 100 years before human corneal grafting was introduced. The greatest step forward was the demonstration by Filatov that corneal tissue can be collected and used post mortem. The history of eye banking includes the development of preservation techniques. Storage in cold to minimize microbial growth and tissue disintegration was first choice but during the last 30 years this has been taken over by warm storage (organ culture) where the donor cornea proves its sterility and vitality before being transferred to the recipient. The long-term organ culture storage makes exchange between centres possible and allows for histocompatibility matching. The internationalization led to the establishing of the European Eye Bank Association but also to an increasing number of governmental regulations. Developments in years to come may lead to control of graft biomechanics and optics. This technical development tends to favour a centralization.

  9. The Denver Serum Bank.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Theodore C; Graves, Patricia S

    2015-10-01

    At the University of Colorado, Dr. Gordon Meiklejohn pursed the study of influenza and other respiratory pathogens for an unbroken period of 40 years, under the auspices of the Commission on Influenza of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board through a series of contracts with the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Sera, throat washings, and other specimens for diagnosis were sent to Dr. Meiklejohn's laboratory. After serologic and virologic studies were carried out, aliquots of sera and virus samples were logged in and frozen. Sera were stored at -20°C and virus specimens at -70°C. These specimens became known as the Denver Serum Bank. The Bank supported military research programs and other researchers nationally and internationally until the 1990s when lacking of funding and considerations of administration, space, and cost resulted in the destruction of all specimens.

  10. GenBank

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Christian; Cinkosky, Michael J.; Fischer, William M.; Gilna, Paul; Hayden, Jamie E.-D.; Keen, Gifford M.; Kelly, Michael; Kristofferson, David; Lawrence, Julie

    1992-01-01

    The GenBank nucleotide sequence database now contains sequence data and associated annotation corresponding to 85,000,000 nucleotides in 67,000 entries from a total of 3,000 organisms. The input stream of data coming into the database is primarily as direct submissions from the scientific community on electronic media, with little or no data being keyboarded from the printed page by the databank staff. The data are maintained in a relational database management system and are made available in flatfile form through on-line access, and through various network and off-line computer-readable media. The data are also distributed in relational form through satellite copies at a number of institutions in the U.S. and elsewhere. In addition, GenBank provides the U.S. distribution center for the BIOSCI electronic bulletin board service. PMID:1598235

  11. Jodrell Bank Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Jodrell Bank Observatory is part of the University of Manchester and was founded by Bernard Lovell in December 1945. Its prime instrument, the 76 m, MK1 radio-telescope, was completed in 1957. It was given a major upgrade in 1971 and is now known as the Lovell Telescope. In its early years it pioneered the technique of long baseline interferometry which led to the discovery of quasars. A majo...

  12. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL... Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office of Finance and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a tender,...

  13. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY... of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office of Finance and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a...

  14. 12 CFR 1270.17 - Liability of Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Federal Reserve Banks. 1270.17 Section 1270.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL... Banks, FHFA, Office of Finance and Federal Reserve Banks. The Banks, FHFA, the Director, the Office of Finance and the Federal Reserve Banks may rely on the information provided in a tender,...

  15. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  16. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  17. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  18. 12 CFR 614.4352 - Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Banks and agricultural credit banks. 614.4352 Section 614.4352 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4352 Farm Credit Banks and agricultural...

  19. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System

    PubMed Central

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Methods Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007–2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Results Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Conclusion Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product. PMID

  20. Conditioning out-of-date bank-stored red blood cells using a cell-saver auto-transfusion device: effects on numbers of red cells and quality of suspension fluid.

    PubMed

    Read, M S; Coles, P; Pomeroy, M; Anderson, E; Aziz, M I

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the utility of a cell-saver device for processing out-of-date red blood cells, by washing twenty bags of red blood cells that had been stored for between 36 and 55 days. The volume of recovered cells, and the characteristics of the suspension fluid, were measured before and after treatment. The ratio of free haemoglobin to total haemoglobin was up to 0.02 before processing, and up to 0.011 afterwards, changing by between -0.013 and +0.003. This ratio met the current standard for free haemoglobin (less than 0.008 in more than 75% of samples), both before and after processing. Ninety-three percent of red blood cells survived the process. Potassium ion concentration fell from above 15 mmol.l(-1) in all cases, to a mean of 6.4 mmol.l(-1) (p < 0.001). The pH rose to a mean value of 6.44 (p = 0.001). Lactate ion concentration fell to a mean value of 14 mmol.l(-1) (p < 0.001). Sodium ion concentration rose from a mean value of 93 mmol.l(-1) to a mean value of 140 mmol.l(-1) (p < 0.001). A useful proportion of out-of-date red blood cells remained intact after conditioning using a cell-saver, and the process lowered concentrations of potentially toxic solutes in the fluid in which they were suspended.

  1. The effect of regadenoson on the integrity of the human blood-brain barrier, a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sadhana; George, Richard T; Lodge, Martin A; Piotrowski, Anna; Wahl, Richard L; Gujar, Sachin K; Grossman, Stuart A

    2017-03-17

    Regadenoson is an FDA approved adenosine receptor agonist which increases blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in rodents. Regadenoson is used clinically for pharmacologic cardiac stress testing using SPECT or CT imaging agents that do not cross an intact BBB. This study was conducted to determine if standard doses of regadenoson transiently disrupt the human BBB allowing higher concentrations of systemically administered imaging agents to enter the brain. Patients without known intracranial disease undergoing clinically indicated pharmacologic cardiac stress tests were eligible for this study. They received regadenoson (0.4 mg) followed by brain imaging with either (99m)Tc-sestamibi for SPECT or visipaque for CT imaging. Pre- and post-regadenoson penetration of imaging agents into brain were quantified [SPECT: radioactive counts, CT: Hounsfield units (HU)] and compared using a matched-pairs t-test. Twelve patients (33% male, median 60 yo) were accrued: 7 SPECT and 5 CT. No significant differences were noted in pre- and post-regadenoson values using mean radionuclide counts (726 vs. 757) or HU (29 vs. 30). While animal studies have demonstrated that regadenoson transiently increases the permeability of the BBB to dextran and temozolomide, we were unable to document changes in the penetration of contrast agents in humans with intact BBB using the FDA approved doses of regadenoson for cardiac evaluation. Further studies are needed exploring alternate regadenoson dosing, schedules, and studies in patients with brain tumors; as transiently disrupting the BBB to improve drug entry into the brain is critical to improving the care of patients with CNS malignancies.

  2. A physically-based channel-modeling framework integrating HEC-RAS sediment transport capabilities and the USDA-ARS bank-stability and toe-erosion model (BSTEM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical, one-dimensional, mobile bed, sediment-transport models simulate vertical channel adjustment, raising or lowering cross-section node elevations to simulate erosion or deposition. This approach does not account for bank erosion processes including toe scour and mass failure. In many systems...

  3. Integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiling in blood reveals candidate biomarkers associated with endurance exercise in the horse.

    PubMed

    Mach, Núria; Plancade, Sandra; Pacholewska, Alicja; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Rivière, Julie; Moroldo, Marco; Vaiman, Anne; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Beinat, Marine; Nevot, Alizée; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric

    2016-03-10

    The adaptive response to extreme endurance exercise might involve transcriptional and translational regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to perform an integrated analysis of the blood transcriptome and miRNome (using microarrays) in the horse before and after a 160 km endurance competition. A total of 2,453 differentially expressed genes and 167 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified when comparing pre- and post-ride samples. We used a hypergeometric test and its generalization to gain a better understanding of the biological functions regulated by the differentially expressed microRNA. In particular, 44 differentially expressed microRNAs putatively regulated a total of 351 depleted differentially expressed genes involved variously in glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrion biogenesis, and immune response pathways. In an independent validation set of animals, graphical Gaussian models confirmed that miR-21-5p, miR-181b-5p and miR-505-5p are candidate regulatory molecules for the adaptation to endurance exercise in the horse. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a comprehensive, integrated overview of the microRNA-mRNA co-regulation networks that may have a key role in controlling post-transcriptomic regulation during endurance exercise.

  4. Integrated mRNA and miRNA expression profiling in blood reveals candidate biomarkers associated with endurance exercise in the horse

    PubMed Central

    Mach, Núria; Plancade, Sandra; Pacholewska, Alicja; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Rivière, Julie; Moroldo, Marco; Vaiman, Anne; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Beinat, Marine; Nevot, Alizée; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive response to extreme endurance exercise might involve transcriptional and translational regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs). Therefore, the objective of the present study was to perform an integrated analysis of the blood transcriptome and miRNome (using microarrays) in the horse before and after a 160 km endurance competition. A total of 2,453 differentially expressed genes and 167 differentially expressed microRNAs were identified when comparing pre- and post-ride samples. We used a hypergeometric test and its generalization to gain a better understanding of the biological functions regulated by the differentially expressed microRNA. In particular, 44 differentially expressed microRNAs putatively regulated a total of 351 depleted differentially expressed genes involved variously in glucose metabolism, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrion biogenesis, and immune response pathways. In an independent validation set of animals, graphical Gaussian models confirmed that miR-21-5p, miR-181b-5p and miR-505-5p are candidate regulatory molecules for the adaptation to endurance exercise in the horse. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide a comprehensive, integrated overview of the microRNA-mRNA co-regulation networks that may have a key role in controlling post-transcriptomic regulation during endurance exercise. PMID:26960911

  5. A novel filter bank for biotelemetry.

    PubMed

    Karagözoglu, B

    2001-03-01

    In a multichannel biotelemetry system, signals taken from a patient are distributed along the available frequency range (bandwidth) of the system through frequency-division-multiplexing, and combined into a single composite signal. Biological signals that are limited to low frequencies (below 10 Hz) modulate the frequencies of respective sub-carriers. Other biological signals are carried in amplitude-modulated forms. It is recognized that recovering original signals from a composite signal at the receiver side is a technical challenge when a telemetry system with narrow bandwidth capacity is used, since such a system leaves little frequency spacing between information channels. A filter bank is therefore utilized for recovering biological signals that are transmitted. The filter bank contains filter units comprising switched-capacitor filter integrated circuits. The filters have two distinct and opposing outputs (band-stop (notch) and band-pass). Since most biological signals are at low frequencies, and modulated signals occupy a narrow band around the carrier, notch filters can be used to efficiently stop signals in the narrow frequency range. Once the interim channels are removed, other channels become well separated from each other, and band-pass filters can select them. In the proposed system, efficient filtering of closely packed channels is achieved, with low interference, from neighboring channels. The filter bank is applied to a system that carries four biological signals and a battery status indicator signal. Experimental results reinforce theoretical predictions that the filter bank successfully de-multiplexes closely packed information channels with low crosstalk between them. It is concluded that the proposed filter bank allows utilization of cost-effective multichannel biotelemetry systems that are designed around commercial audio devices, and that it can be readily adapted to a broad range of physiological recording requirements.

  6. Transport of Poly(n-butylcyano-acrylate) nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier in vitro and their influence on barrier integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, Ralf; Cramer, Sandra; Huewel, Sabine; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Poly(n-butylcyano-acrylate) (PBCA) nanoparticles may be promising drug carriers. {yields} Influence of PBCA nanoparticles on the integrity of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. {yields} PBCA nanoparticles lead to a reversible disruption of the BBB in vitro after 4 h. {yields} Potential application as time-dependent and specific opener of the BBB. -- Abstract: In previous studies it was shown that polysorbate 80(PS80)-coated poly(n-butylcyano-acrylate) nanoparticles (PBCA-NP) are able to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro and in vivo. In order to explore and extend the potential applications of PBCA-NP as drug carriers, it is important to ascertain their effect on the BBB. The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of PS80-coated PBCA-NP on the BBB integrity of a porcine in vitro model. This has been investigated by monitoring the development of the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) after the addition of PBCA-NP employing impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, the integrity of the BBB in vitro was verified by measuring the passage of the reference substances {sup 14}C-sucrose and FITC-BSA after addition of PBCA-NP. In this study we will show that the application of PS80-coated PBCA-NP leads to a reversible disruption of the barrier after 4 h. The observed disruption of the barrier could also be confirmed by {sup 14}C-sucrose and FITC-BSA permeability studies. Comparing the TEER and permeability studies the lowest resistances and maximal values for permeabilities were both observed after 4 h. These results indicate that PS80-coated PBCA-NP might be suitable for the use as drug carriers. The reversible disruption also offers the possibility to use these particles as specific opener of the BBB. Instead of incorporating the therapeutic agents into the NP, the drugs may cross the BBB after being applied simultaneously with the PBCA-NP.

  7. Blood pressure

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  8. Bank Powers. Activities of Securities, Subsidiaries of Bank Holding Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    securities subsidiaries of bank holding companies. ,JUL, ?• 199 These subsidiaries, authorized by the Federal Reserve Board, are com- monly called Section 20...members of the Federal Reserve System to be affiliatcd with firms that are not principally engaged in securities activi- ti-e generally forbidden to banks...for certain specified securities, mainly government swcurities. member banks of the Federal Reserve System are prohibited under the 1933 Glass

  9. Resveratrol decreases the insoluble Aβ1-42 level in hippocampus and protects the integrity of the blood-brain barrier in AD rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H F; Li, N; Wang, Q; Cheng, X J; Li, X M; Liu, T T

    2015-12-03

    Our previous studies demonstrated resveratrol (Res) administration protected Alzheimer's disease (AD) rats from developing memory decline by anti-oxidation. Beta-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42) is not only the primary protein component of senile plaques in AD but also is believed to play an important part in its pathology. Increasing evidence has shown neuroinflammation and the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is closely related to the pathogenesis of AD. The aim of the present study is to further elucidate whether Res prevents AD rats from inflammation induced by Aβ1-42 and protects the integrity of BBB. Rats were divided into six groups: (1) ovariectomized (OVX)+D-galactose (D-gal) 100mg/kg group (OVX+D-gal); (2-4) OVX, D-gal and Res 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg treated groups; and (5) OVX, D-gal and estradiol valerate 0.8 mg/kg treated group (ET); (6) Sham control group. 12 weeks later, Res 40 and 80 mg/kg treatment exhibited a significant decrease of Aβ1-42 compared with the OVX+D-gal rats of hippocampus, which was accompanied by decreased expression of advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and the increase of Claudin-5. These results suggest that Res is useful not only in protecting OVX+D-gal rats from neuroinflammation mediated by Aβ1-42 by decreasing the expression of NF-κB but also the integrity of BBB by increasing Claudin-5 and decreasing RAGE, MMP-9.

  10. A thermochemical data bank for cycle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carty, R. H.; Funk, J. E.; Conger, W. L.; Soliman, M. A.; Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    The use of a computer program PAC-2 to produce a thermodynamic data bank for various materials used in water splitting cycles is described. The sources of raw data and a listing of 439 materials for which data are available are presented. The use of the data bank in conjunction with two other programs, CEC-72 and HYDRGN, is also discussed. The integration of these three programs implement an evaluation procedure for thermochemical water splitting cycles. CEC-72 is a program used to predict the equilibrium composition of the various chemical reactions in the cycle. HYDRGN is a program which is used to calculate changes in thermodynamic properties, work of separation, amount of recycle, internal heat regeneration, total thermal energy, and process thermal efficiency for a thermochemical cycle.

  11. Can banks offer digital keys for health care?

    PubMed

    Casillas, John

    2013-01-01

    In the quest to implement electronic health care records, health care stakeholders have uncovered an elephant in the room - how to implement patient identity and integrity solutions. Without this, linking the unique records of an individual is impossible. An inaccurate record can be dangerous for prescribing treatment. Yet many consider a unique patient identifier as an unacceptable privacy risk. Medical banking, or the convergence of banking and heath IT systems, is spawning new ideas that could impact on this difficult area. This article suggests that new forms of efficiency in payment processing may yield a common, cross-industry technology platform for managing digital identity by banks. Redefining a bank based on core competencies, the article looks at three areas: (1) the "identity theft arms race"; (2) innovations in payment processing; and (3) consumer engagement, and suggests that, as banking and health care systems converge, digital identity may become the new money. This realization may find banks fully engaged in helping health care to overcome the challenge of patient identity and integrity.

  12. [Blood donation: a marketing perspective].

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Silvia Terra; Rodrigues, Alziro César de Morais

    2005-01-01

    This paper emphasizes how marketing can make a difference in repeat donations by volunteer blood donors, since the greatest challenge for health institutions is to maintain and increase blood donation. In this context, understanding volunteer donors' motivations is highly important, and the studies reported here demonstrate that several variables are relevant to blood donation. The huge number of patients in need of blood transfusions and the lack of sufficient blood and blood products justify the interest in this study, considering both donors' and blood banks' perspectives. Moreover, recognition of the importance of actions and orientation for donors is fundamental for developing a marketing strategy. It is thus relevant for health institutions to identify donors' actual needs and wishes.

  13. 76 FR 2383 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors...: 1. SG-BBC, LLC, and The Stephens Group, LLC, both of Little Rock, Arkansas; to acquire voting...

  14. 76 FR 75548 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... American Bank & Trust, Wessington Springs, South Dakota. 2. Eugene Joseph Welle Irrevocable HJW Trust, Hugh... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of...

  15. 76 FR 41500 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants... Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank holding company. The factors.... Kirschner Trust A2, acting in concert with The Noble Foundation, Philip and Cheryl Kirschner,...

  16. Integrative Analyses of Hepatic Differentially Expressed Genes and Blood Biomarkers during the Peripartal Period between Dairy Cows Overfed or Restricted-Fed Energy Prepartum

    PubMed Central

    Shahzad, Khuram; Bionaz, Massimo; Trevisi, Erminio; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L.; Loor, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of >4,000 genes was affected by diet × time. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that RE vs. OF cows had a liver with a greater lipid and amino acid catabolic capacity both pre- and post-partum while OF vs. RE cows had a greater activation of pathways/functions related to triglyceride synthesis. Furthermore, RE vs. OF cows had a larger (or higher capacity to cope with) ER stress likely associated with greater protein synthesis/processing, and a higher activation of inflammatory-related functions. Liver in OF vs. RE cows had a larger cell proliferation and cell-to-cell communication likely as a response to the greater lipid accumulation. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated a pivotal role of several lipid-related transcription factors (e.g., PPARs, SREBPs, and NFE2L2) in priming the liver of RE cows to better face the early postpartal metabolic and inflammatory challenges. An all-encompassing dynamic model was proposed based on the findings. PMID:24914544

  17. Integrative analyses of hepatic differentially expressed genes and blood biomarkers during the peripartal period between dairy cows overfed or restricted-fed energy prepartum.

    PubMed

    Shahzad, Khuram; Bionaz, Massimo; Trevisi, Erminio; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    Using published dairy cattle liver transcriptomics dataset along with novel blood biomarkers of liver function, metabolism, and inflammation we have attempted an integrative systems biology approach applying the classical functional enrichment analysis using DAVID, a newly-developed Dynamic Impact Approach (DIA), and an upstream gene network analysis using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Transcriptome data was generated from experiments evaluating the impact of prepartal plane of energy intake [overfed (OF) or restricted (RE)] on liver of dairy cows during the peripartal period. Blood biomarkers uncovered that RE vs. OF led to greater prepartal liver distress accompanied by a low-grade inflammation and larger proteolysis (i.e., higher haptoglobin, bilirubin, and creatinine). Post-partum the greater bilirubinaemia and lipid accumulation in OF vs. RE indicated a large degree of liver distress. The re-analysis of microarray data revealed that expression of >4,000 genes was affected by diet × time. The bioinformatics analysis indicated that RE vs. OF cows had a liver with a greater lipid and amino acid catabolic capacity both pre- and post-partum while OF vs. RE cows had a greater activation of pathways/functions related to triglyceride synthesis. Furthermore, RE vs. OF cows had a larger (or higher capacity to cope with) ER stress likely associated with greater protein synthesis/processing, and a higher activation of inflammatory-related functions. Liver in OF vs. RE cows had a larger cell proliferation and cell-to-cell communication likely as a response to the greater lipid accumulation. Analysis of upstream regulators indicated a pivotal role of several lipid-related transcription factors (e.g., PPARs, SREBPs, and NFE2L2) in priming the liver of RE cows to better face the early postpartal metabolic and inflammatory challenges. An all-encompassing dynamic model was proposed based on the findings.

  18. Development of hyperglycemia and diabetes in captive Polish bank voles.

    PubMed

    Bartelik, Aleksandra; Ciesla, Maciej; Kotlinowski, Jerzy; Bartelik, Stanislaw; Czaplicki, Dominik; Grochot-Przeczek, Anna; Kurowski, Krzysztof; Koteja, Paweł; Dulak, Jozef; Józkowicz, Alicja

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes has been detected in Danish and Swedish bank voles (Myodes glareolus). There are no data, however, concerning the prevalence of diabetes in populations from other geographic regions. We investigated the frequency and physiological effects of glucose metabolism disorders in captive bank voles from Poland. Single measurement of fasting blood glucose concentration performed in the 3-4month old captive-born bank Polish voles without any disease symptoms showed that 8% of individuals (22/284) displayed an impaired fasting glucose (IFG, blood glucose (BG) ≥100mg/dL) and 1% (4/284) showed hyperglycemia (BG ≥126mg/dL) which could suggest diabetes. Next, we analyzed blood glucose in samples taken once a month from an additional cohort of bank voles with (FHD), or without (H), a family history of diabetes. The prevalence of IFG at age six months was 26% (16/62) among bank voles from the H group. In the FHD group the prevalence increased to 49% (43/88), and additional 12% (11/88) became diabetic (DB, BG ≥126mg/dL at two time points). Postnatal stress (three maternal deprivations before weaning) did not affect the risk of developing IFG or DB in H voles, but significantly reduced the frequency of glucose metabolism disorders (IFG and DB combined) in FHD voles. IFG was associated with hyperinsulinemia, but not with other biochemical disturbances. Diabetic animals displayed a progressive malformation and vacuolization of β-cells in the pancreas, without visible leukocytic infiltrations. In summary, our results indicate that Polish captive bank voles can develop diabetes, which shows features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes in humans. Risk of diabetes is higher in animal with FHD.

  19. 40 CFR 91.205 - Banking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banking. 91.205 Section 91.205... EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Averaging, Banking, and Trading Provisions § 91.205 Banking. (a... banking. (i) For outboard engines in model year (MY) 1997, a manufacturer may bank positive...

  20. [Blood components and good practices in transfusion].

    PubMed

    Andreu, Georges

    2015-02-01

    Each year, more than three millions of blood components are transfused to more than five hundred thousand patients in France. The optimal use of blood components requires that physicians prescribing blood components master the clinical indications of red blood cells concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. In addition, physicians in charge of blood component prescription should provide adequate pre- and post-transfusion information to their patients. Compliance of blood components administration in patients with safety guidelines contributes as well to their optimal use. In addition, for each blood component transfused, a proper evaluation of its safety and its efficacy should be done. Finally, a regular evaluation of transfusion practice in hospital services were blood components are used, through audits made in cooperation with their blood component provider, either blood transfusion centre or the hospital blood bank, enables to appreciate the level of compliance with safety and clinical guidelines, and more globally how the transfusion process is mastered.

  1. Get Checked… Where? The Development of a Comprehensive, Integrated Internet-Based Testing Program for Sexually Transmitted and Blood-Borne Infections in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Haag, Devon; Hottes, Travis Salway; Bondyra, Mark; Elliot, Elizabeth; Chabot, Cathy; Farrell, Janine; Bonnell, Amanda; Kopp, Shannon; Andruschak, John; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Background Testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBI) is an effective public health strategy that can promote personal control of one’s health and prevent the spread of these infections. Multiple barriers deter access to testing including fear of stigmatization, inaccurate health care provider perceptions of risk, and reduced availability of clinic services and infrastructure. Concurrent increases in sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates and demands on existing clinical services make this an even more pressing concern. Web-based testing offers several advantages that may alleviate existing clinical pressures and facilitate appropriate testing access. Objective This paper describes the planning, development, and usability testing of a novel Web-based testing service, GetCheckedOnline (GCO), as a complementary testing option integrated within existing sexual health services within British Columbia (BC). Methods From 2009 to 2014, we engaged a multidisciplinary team in the design and development of GCO. We conducted 3 initial research studies to ascertain the opinions of youth, men who have sex with men (MSM), and STI clinic clients regarding Web-based testing and elicited perspectives of sexual health care providers through focus groups. We developed an informed consent process, risk assessment questions, and test recommendations based on provincial and national guidelines and evaluated these through consultations with clinical and community stakeholders. We also conducted a preliminary health equity impact assessment whose findings also informed the GCO program mode. Finally, from April 2011 to December 2012 we gathered qualitative data from 25 participants on the functionality and usability of a GCO prototype and incorporated their recommendations into a final model. Results GCO launched in the fall of 2014 across 6 pilot sites in Vancouver, BC. The service involves 3 main steps: (1) create an account, complete an assessment, and

  2. National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study Wetland Migitation Banking.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    twist on diversity concerns, the Seaworld Eelgrass Mitigation Bank in Southern California has considered taking genetic diversity into account as a...For example, the Seaworld Eelgrass Mitigation Bank is using the density of eelgrass as a measure of quality. 2. Narrowly Tailored

  3. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, P. R.

    1999-12-01

    The Green Bank Telescope The 100-m NRAO Green Bank Telescope will be completed in early 2000. The GBT has a large number of unique design and performance features that will give it unprecedented scientific capability. This poster display will review those features, which include an offset feed (clear aperture) design, an active surface, a closed-loop laser metrology system for surface figure and pointing control, broad frequency coverage from 100 MHz to 115 GHz, a versatile receiver selection mechanism, and a new multi-input, 256k-channel autocorrelation spectrometer. The status of the project, the commissioning schedule, plans for early operations, the initial instrumentation suite, and plans for future instrumentation will be reviewed. Scientific areas for which the GBT will have a large impact will be discussed, including observations of young galaxies at extreme redshifts, pulsars, HI and molecular spectroscopy, VLBI work, and millimeter-wave spectroscopy and continuum studies. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  4. The poisoned gift: AIDS and blood.

    PubMed

    Murray, Thomas H

    1990-01-01

    The moral and communal ends served by a system of gifts of blood have been threatened by the fear of AIDS transmission. Blood banks and those at risk for HIV infection have made changes in their practices to reduce the risk to recipients, and physicians and patients now understand better that blood carries risks and should never be used unless necessary. The deeper importance of gifts of blood, nevertheless, has not significantly changed; millions still need blood each year, and millions are personally willing to meet that need. Embodied in the system of blood gifts is an affirmation of the value of community with the strangers among whom we live.

  5. Effect of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Cui, Hui Song; Shin, Seo Kyung; Kim, Jeong Min; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Jong Eun; Koo, Bon-Nyeo

    2013-11-01

    Although propofol has been reported to offer neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury, its impact on cerebral edema following ischemia is not clear. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of propofol post-treatment on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia and its mechanism of action, focusing on modulation of aquaporins (AQPs), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 78) by occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery for 1 h. For post-treatment with propofol, 1 mg kg(-1) min(-1) of propofol was administered for 1 h from the start of reperfusion. Nineteen rats undergoing sham surgery were also included in the investigation. Edema and BBB integrity were assessed by quantification of cerebral water content and extravasation of Evans blue, respectively, following 24 h of reperfusion. In addition, the expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 was determined 24 h after reperfusion and the expression of HIF-1α was determined 8 h after reperfusion. Propofol post-treatment significantly reduced cerebral edema (P < 0.05) and BBB disruption (P < 0.05) compared with the saline-treated control. The expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9 at 24 h and of HIF-1α at 8 h following ischemia/reperfusion was significantly suppressed in the propofol post-treatment group (P < 0.05). Propofol post-treatment attenuated cerebral edema after transient cerebral ischemia, in association with reduced expression of AQP-1, AQP-4, MMP-2, and MMP-9. The decreased expression of AQPs and MMPs after propofol post-treatment might result from suppression of HIF-1α expression.

  6. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  7. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5459 - Liability of Farm Credit banks, Funding Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. 615.5459 Section 615.5459 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION... Corporation and Federal Reserve Banks. The Farm Credit banks, the Funding Corporation, and the Federal Reserve... Federal Reserve Banks shall not be liable for any action taken in accordance with the information set...

  11. Conserving plants in gene banks and nature: Investigating complementarity with Trifolium thompsonii Morton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A standard conservation strategy for plant genetic resources integrates in situ (on-farm or wild) and ex situ (gene or field bank) approaches. Gene bank managers collect ex situ accessions that represent a comprehensive snap shot of the genetic diversity of in situ populations at a given time and pl...

  12. Including Ethics in Banking and Finance Programs: Teaching "We Shouldn't Win at Any Cost"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Grainne; Dias, Roshanthi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify whether ethics is incorporated into the curriculum in postgraduate banking and finance programmes. There is growing concern that moral failure preceded the global financial crisis with waves of ethical scandals overwhelming the global banking industry highlighting a lack of integrity. Consequently,…

  13. The American Indian Development Bank?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In 1990, the Indian Finance Corporation Act died in committee for lack of Indian support. A model for an American Indian Development Bank is proposed, based on the International Finance Corporation of the World Bank. Two case studies illustrate how this model can meet Indian economic development needs. (SV)

  14. Communication Skills for Banking Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Public Schools, Falls Church, VA. Office of Adult and Community Education.

    The communications skills course was developed for bank employees who are non-native speakers of English, to assist them in improving their English and knowledge of the American workplace culture and to increase productivity. It consists of three instructional levels. Topics covered in level 1 reflect concerns of bank managers about basic…

  15. Item Banking. Basic Testing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Roy

    This pamphlet describes the exciting potential of item banking--a new approach to testing which combines both comparability of scores with flexibility of test format. Item banks are collections of items where the characteristics of each item is known and these characteristics can be summated to described a test made from such items. The principle…

  16. Inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress by lithium chloride contributes to the integrity of blood-spinal cord barrier and functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    He, Zili; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Jiawei; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress play important roles in the spinal cord injury (SCI), which including blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a clinical drug for bipolar mood disorders and contributes to neuroprotection. This study aims to investigate the effects of LiCl on BSCB disruption and the ER stress pathway induced by spinal cord injury. We examined the integrity of the BSCB with Evans Blue dye and macrophages extravasation, measured the microvessels loss, the junction proteins degeneration, the activation ER stress, and the locomotor function recovery. Our data indicated that LiCl treatment could attenuates BSCB disruption and improved the recovery of functional locomotion in rats SCI model, reduced the structure damage and number loss of microvessels, increased the expressions of junction proteins, including p120, β-catenin, occludin, and claudin-5, via reversed the upregulated ER stress associated proteins. In addition, LiCl significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of junction proteins in thapsigargin (TG)-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). These findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promote the neurological function recovery after SCI, partly through inhibiting the activation of ER stress. PMID:28386329

  17. Storing Blood Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  18. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  19. Blood culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  20. Blood transfusion practice in obstetric and gynecology: impact of educational programs to create awareness for judicious use of blood components.

    PubMed

    Gupte, Snehalata C; Patel, Pratima N

    2014-09-01

    The study presents the data analysis (1) To find out the trend of blood component use during the period 2003-2010 and to determine impact of component awareness programs on reduction in whole blood (WB) and single unit transfusions. (2) To determine Hb trigger. The details about blood units issued were entered in the integrated blood bank management software as well as in Microsoft Excel. The data of 4,838 cases of pregnancy anemia; 2,244 receiving blood for obstetric (Ob) hemorrhage including 270 cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation; 1,413 women having Gynecological (Gy) bleeding; 911 Ob, 2,032 Gy and 740 surgeries for Gy malignancy were analyzed. During the years 2003-2010 there was gradual increase in component utilization for pregnancy anemia, Ob/Gy surgeries and Ob/Gy bleeding and significant reduction in WB transfusions due to component awareness programs. But single unit transfusions showed comparatively lower trend of reduction. The mean Hb was 6.4 g/dL for pregnancy anemia, 8.1 g/dL for surgeries and 7.3 g/dL for Ob/Gy bleeding.