Science.gov

Sample records for integrated cost analysis

  1. Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K.

    2011-06-01

    This report examines how wind and solar integration studies have evolved, what analysis techniques work, what common mistakes are still made, what improvements are likely to be made in the near future, and why calculating integration costs is such a difficult problem and should be undertaken carefully, if at all.

  2. Integrated analysis considered mitigation cost, damage cost and adaptation cost in Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, D. K.; Kim, H. G.; Sung, S.; Jung, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Various studies show that raising the temperature as well as storms, cold snap, raining and drought caused by climate change. And variety disasters have had a damage to mankind. The world risk report(2012, The Nature Conservancy) and UNU-EHS (the United Nations University Institute for Environment and Human Security) reported that more and more people are exposed to abnormal weather such as floods, drought, earthquakes, typhoons and hurricanes over the world. In particular, the case of Korea, we influenced by various pollutants which are occurred in Northeast Asian countries, China and Japan, due to geographical meteorological characteristics. These contaminants have had a significant impact on air quality with the pollutants generated in Korea. Recently, around the world continued their effort to reduce greenhouse gas and to improve air quality in conjunction with the national or regional development goals priority. China is also working on various efforts in accordance with the international flows to cope with climate change and air pollution. In the future, effect of climate change and air quality in Korea and Northeast Asia will be change greatly according to China's growth and mitigation policies. The purpose of this study is to minimize the damage caused by climate change on the Korean peninsula through an integrated approach taking into account the mitigation and adaptation plan. This study will suggest a climate change strategy at the national level by means of a comprehensive economic analysis of the impacts and mitigation of climate change. In order to quantify the impact and damage cost caused by climate change scenarios in a regional scale, it should be priority variables selected in accordance with impact assessment of climate change. The sectoral impact assessment was carried out on the basis of selected variables and through this, to derive the methodology how to estimate damage cost and adaptation cost. And then, the methodology was applied in Korea

  3. Systems engineering and integration: Cost estimation and benefits analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, ED; Fridge, Ernie; Hamaker, Joe

    1990-01-01

    Space Transportation Avionics hardware and software cost has traditionally been estimated in Phase A and B using cost techniques which predict cost as a function of various cost predictive variables such as weight, lines of code, functions to be performed, quantities of test hardware, quantities of flight hardware, design and development heritage, complexity, etc. The output of such analyses has been life cycle costs, economic benefits and related data. The major objectives of Cost Estimation and Benefits analysis are twofold: (1) to play a role in the evaluation of potential new space transportation avionics technologies, and (2) to benefit from emerging technological innovations. Both aspects of cost estimation and technology are discussed here. The role of cost analysis in the evaluation of potential technologies should be one of offering additional quantitative and qualitative information to aid decision-making. The cost analyses process needs to be fully integrated into the design process in such a way that cost trades, optimizations and sensitivities are understood. Current hardware cost models tend to primarily use weights, functional specifications, quantities, design heritage and complexity as metrics to predict cost. Software models mostly use functionality, volume of code, heritage and complexity as cost descriptive variables. Basic research needs to be initiated to develop metrics more responsive to the trades which are required for future launch vehicle avionics systems. These would include cost estimating capabilities that are sensitive to technological innovations such as improved materials and fabrication processes, computer aided design and manufacturing, self checkout and many others. In addition to basic cost estimating improvements, the process must be sensitive to the fact that no cost estimate can be quoted without also quoting a confidence associated with the estimate. In order to achieve this, better cost risk evaluation techniques are

  4. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the City of Houston's 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA's Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  5. Integrated Undergraduate Management Education: An Informal Benefit/Cost Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, William L., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the literature of management education by evaluating assessment data on Babson College's integrated undergraduate management core program (IMC). Transitions from functionally isolated curricula to more integrated alternatives involve both benefits and costs, accruing to faculty, students and sponsoring…

  6. Integrated cost-effectiveness analysis of agri-environmental measures for water quality.

    PubMed

    Balana, Bedru B; Jackson-Blake, Leah; Martin-Ortega, Julia; Dunn, Sarah

    2015-09-15

    This paper presents an application of integrated methodological approach for identifying cost-effective combinations of agri-environmental measures to achieve water quality targets. The methodological approach involves linking hydro-chemical modelling with economic costs of mitigation measures. The utility of the approach was explored for the River Dee catchment in North East Scotland, examining the cost-effectiveness of mitigation measures for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants. In-stream nitrate concentration was modelled using the STREAM-N and phosphorus using INCA-P model. Both models were first run for baseline conditions and then their effectiveness for changes in land management was simulated. Costs were based on farm income foregone, capital and operational expenditures. The costs and effects data were integrated using 'Risk Solver Platform' optimization in excel to produce the most cost-effective combination of measures by which target nutrient reductions could be attained at a minimum economic cost. The analysis identified different combination of measures as most cost-effective for the two pollutants. An important aspect of this paper is integration of model-based effectiveness estimates with economic cost of measures for cost-effectiveness analysis of land and water management options. The methodological approach developed is not limited to the two pollutants and the selected agri-environmental measures considered in the paper; the approach can be adapted to the cost-effectiveness analysis of any catchment-scale environmental management options. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems` (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems` (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle.

  8. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 3: System costs. Appendix A: Program direct costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Individualized program direct costs for each satellite program are presented. This breakdown provides the activity level dependent costs for each satellite program. The activity level dependent costs, or, more simply, program direct costs, are comprised of the total payload costs (as these costs are strictly program dependent) and the direct launch vehicle costs. Only those incremental launch vehicle costs associated directly with the satellite program are considered. For expendable launch vehicles the direct costs include the vehicle investment hardware costs and the launch operations costs. For the reusable STS vehicles the direct costs include only the launch operations, recovery operations, command and control, vehicle maintenance, and propellant support. The costs associated with amortization of reusable vehicle investment, RDT&E range support, etc., are not included.

  9. Comparative cost analysis of inpatient integrative medicine-Results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Thomas; Lauche, Romy; Cramer, Holger; Dobos, Gustav

    2017-06-01

    Costs of integrative treatment alone and in comparison with other treatment approaches have scarcely been reported in the past. This study presents results of a comparative cost analysis of an inpatient integrative medicine treatment costs. Data from 2006 for inpatients referred to a Department of Integrative Medicine in Germany were used. Case-related treatment costs were calculated, and transformed into Casemix-Indices and revenues per DRG. Costs were compared between departments at the same hospital and between different hospitals using univariate statistics and Chi-Square tests. In total 1253 inpatients (81.4% female, 61.1±14.4years) were included in the current analysis. Most patients were treated for diseases of the musculoskeletal system (57.2%), followed by diseases of the digestive system (11.4%), and diseases of the nervous system (10.4%). The department received an additional payment for most of the patients (88.0%), which led to an effective appreciation of 10.8% per case compared to the standardized Casemix-Index. In-house comparisons with other departments found the department in close vicinity to the departments of Internal medicine with regards to CMI and mean revenue, however the Patient Clinical Complexity Level was significantly lower in the Integrative medicine department. The interhospital comparison revealed comparable Casemix-Index and DRG-revenue, however the additional payment increased the mean revenue significantly. Modern integrative in-patient treatment is mostly cost-equivalent to conventional treatment. Cost effectiveness studies should be considered to further investigate the potential of integrative in patient treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid waste integrated cost analysis model: 1991 project year report. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the City of Houston`s 1991 Solid Waste Integrated Cost Analysis Model (SWICAM) project was to continue the development of a computerized cost analysis model. This model is to provide solid waste managers with tool to evaluate the dollar cost of real or hypothetical solid waste management choices. Those choices have become complicated by the implementation of Subtitle D of the Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the EPA`s Integrated Approach to managing municipal solid waste;. that is, minimize generation, maximize recycling, reduce volume (incinerate), and then bury (landfill) only the remainder. Implementation of an integrated solid waste management system involving all or some of the options of recycling, waste to energy, composting, and landfilling is extremely complicated. Factors such as hauling distances, markets, and prices for recyclable, costs and benefits of transfer stations, and material recovery facilities must all be considered. A jurisdiction must determine the cost impacts of implementing a number of various possibilities for managing, handling, processing, and disposing of waste. SWICAM employs a single Lotus 123 spreadsheet to enable a jurisdiction to predict or assess the costs of its waste management system. It allows the user to select his own process flow for waste material and to manipulate the model to include as few or as many options as he or she chooses. The model will calculate the estimated cost for those choices selected. The user can then change the model to include or exclude waste stream components, until the mix of choices suits the user. Graphs can be produced as a visual communication aid in presenting the results of the cost analysis. SWICAM also allows future cost projections to be made.

  11. Integrated orbital servicing study for low-cost payload programs. Volume 2: Technical and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, E. R.; Deats, C. L.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.; Kyrias, G. M.; Snodgrass, M. R.; Sosnay, R. D.; Spencer, R. A.; Wudell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Orbital maintenance concepts were examined in an effort to determine a cost effective orbital maintenance system compatible with the space transportation system. An on-orbit servicer maintenance system is recommended as the most cost effective system. A pivoting arm on-orbit servicer was selected and a preliminary design was prepared. It is indicated that orbital maintenance does not have any significant impact on the space transportation system.

  12. [Assessment of cost-benefit analysis in integration projects on drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Ates, T; Langer, B; Erbas, B; Tretter, F; Wehner, B

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to make a cost-benefit-analysis for integration projects helping drug addicts and substitutes to reintegrate into society. The study is intended to contribute to a better allocation of resources under the trade-off-situation that only a limited number of integration projects can be realized due to budget limitations. This pilot study represents an economic evaluation of health activities on integration based on the example of study projects offered by Mudra e. V. As a result the study showed that the evaluated projects are economically advantageous during the investigated research period. Furthermore, the study contains a non-monetary analysis of intangible effects which shows significant improvements in quality of life. Although the results are substantial, further research is mandatory focussing on the economic benefits of integration projects.

  13. Cost Analysis of Integrative Inpatient Treatment Based on DRG Data: The Example of Anthroposophic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Jürgen; Fiori, Wolfgang; Heusser, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background. Much work has been done to evaluate the outcome of integrative inpatient treatment but scarcely the costs. This paper evaluates the costs for inpatient treatment in three anthroposophic hospitals (AHs). Material and Methods. Cost and performance data from a total of 23,180 cases were analyzed and compared to national reference data. Subgroup analysis was performed between the cases with and without anthroposophic medical complex (AMC) treatment. Results. Costs and length of stay in the cases without AMC displayed no relevant differences compared to the national reference data. In contrast the inlier cases with AMC caused an average of € 1,394 more costs. However costs per diem were not higher than those in the national reference data. Hence, the delivery of AMC was associated with a prolonged length of stay. 46.6% of the cases with AMC were high outliers. Only 10.6% of the inlier cases with AMC were discharged before reaching the mean length of stay of each DRG. Discussion. Treatment in an AH is not generally associated with an increased use of resources. However, the provision of AMC leads to a prolonged length of stay and cannot be adequately reimbursed by the current G-DRG system. Due to the heterogeneity of the patient population, an additional payment should be negotiated individually. PMID:23431346

  14. The costs of integrated community case management (iCCM) programs: A multi–country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Collins, David; Jarrah, Zina; Gilmartin, Colin; Saya, Uzaib

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrated community case management (iCCM) can be an effective strategy for expanding the provision of diarrhea, pneumonia, and malaria services to children under 5 years old but there are concerns in some countries about the corresponding cost and impact. This paper presents and compares findings from a multi–country analysis of iCCM program costs. Methods Data on coverage, utilization, and costs were collected as part of two sets of studies conducted between 2011 and 2013 for iCCM programs in seven sub–Saharan African countries: Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan and Zambia. The data were used to compare some elements of program performance as well as costs per capita and costs per service (which are key indicators of resource allocation and efficiency). Results Among the seven countries, iCCM utilization ranged from a total of 0.26 to 3.05 contacts per capita (children 2–59 months) per year for the diseases treated, representing a range of 2.7% to 36.7% of the expected numbers of cases. The total recurrent cost per treatment ranged from US$ 2.44 to US$ 13.71 for diarrhea; from US$ 2.17 to US$ 17.54 for malaria (excluding rapid diagnostic testing); and from US$ 1.70 to US$ 12.94 for pneumonia. In some of the country programs, the utilization of iCCM services was quite low and this, together with significant fixed costs, particularly for management and supervision, resulted in services being quite costly. Given the differences across the countries and programs, however, these results should be treated as indicative and not definitive. Conclusion A comprehensive understanding of iCCM program costs and results can help countries obtain resources and use them efficiently. To be cost–effective and affordable, iCCM programs must be well–utilized while program management and supervision should be organized to minimize costs and ensure quality of care. iCCM programs will not always be low–cost

  15. Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ An executive summary. II. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.; Hansen, S. D.; Redhed, D. D.; Southall, J. W.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the ingredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD-supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems /IPAD/ An executive summary. II. [for aerospace vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. E., Jr.; Hansen, S. D.; Redhed, D. D.; Southall, J. W.; Kawaguchi, A. S.

    1974-01-01

    Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of integrated analysis/design systems with particular attention to Integrated Program for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) project. An analysis of all the ingredients of IPAD indicates the feasibility of a significant cost and flowtime reduction in the product design process involved. It is also concluded that an IPAD-supported design process will provide a framework for configuration control, whereby the engineering costs for design, analysis and testing can be controlled during the air vehicle development cycle.

  17. A strategic plan for integrating cost-effectiveness analysis into the US healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Peter J; Palmer, Jennifer A; Daniels, Norman; Quigley, Karen; Gold, Marthe R; Chao, Schumarry

    2008-04-01

    The Panel on Integrating Cost-Effectiveness Considerations into Health Policy Decisions, composed of medical and pharmacy directors at public and private health plans, was convened to (1) explore the views of health plan purchasers about cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) and (2) to develop a strategic plan for policymakers to address obstacles and to integrate CEA into health policy decisions, drawing on stakeholders as part of the solution. Panelists expressed strong support for a greater role for CEA in US health policy decisions, although they also highlighted barriers in the current system and challenges involved in moving forward. The strategic plan involves a series of activities to advance the use of CEA in the United States, including research and demonstration projects to illustrate potential gains from using the technique and ongoing consensus- building steps (eg, workshops, conferences, town meetings) involving a broad coalition of stakeholders. Funding and leadership from policymakers and nonprofit foundations will be needed, as well as the active engagement of legislators and business and consumer groups. Panelists emphasized the importance of the Medicare program taking a lead role, and the need for new "infrastructure," in the form of either a new institute for conducting research or increased funding for existing institutions.

  18. Clonal integration of Fragaria orientalis in reciprocal and coincident patchiness resources: cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunchun; Zhang, Qiaoying

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth allows plants to spread horizontally and to experience different levels of resources. If ramets remain physiologically integrated, clonal plants can reciprocally translocate resources between ramets in heterogeneous environments. But little is known about the interaction between benefits of clonal integration and patterns of resource heterogeneity in different patches, i.e., coincident patchiness or reciprocal patchiness. We hypothesized that clonal integration will show different effects on ramets in different patches and more benefit to ramets under reciprocal patchiness than to those under coincident patchiness, as well as that the benefit from clonal integration is affected by the position of proximal and distal ramets under reciprocal or coincident patchiness. A pot experiment was conducted with clonal fragments consisting of two interconnected ramets (proximal and distal ramet) of Fragaria orientalis. In the experiment, proximal and distal ramets were grown in high or low availability of resources, i.e., light and water. Resource limitation was applied either simultaneously to both ramets of a clonal fragment (coincident resource limitation) or separately to different ramets of the same clonal fragment (reciprocal resource limitation). Half of the clonal fragments were connected while the other half were severed. From the experiment, clonal fragments growing under coincident resource limitation accumulated more biomass than those under reciprocal resource limitation. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, the support from proximal ramets to distal ramets was stronger than that from distal ramets to proximal ramets. Through division of labour, clonal fragments of F. orientalis benefited more in reciprocal patchiness than in coincident patchiness. While considering biomass accumulation and ramets production, coincident patchiness were more favourable to clonal plant F. orientalis.

  19. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica✩

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, C.M.; Vijayaraghavan, M.; Salazar-Bolaños, H.M.; Bolaños-Acuña, H.M.; Ruiz-González, A.I.; Barrantes-Solis, T.; Fernández-Vargas, I.; Panero, M.S.; de Oliveira, L.H.; Hyde, T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. Objectives We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. Methods We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. Results During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Conclusions Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and

  20. Cost analysis of an integrated vaccine-preventable disease surveillance system in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Toscano, C M; Vijayaraghavan, M; Salazar-Bolaños, H M; Bolaños-Acuña, H M; Ruiz-González, A I; Barrantes-Solis, T; Fernández-Vargas, I; Panero, M S; de Oliveira, L H; Hyde, T B

    2013-07-02

    Following World Health Organization recommendations set forth in the Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance, Costa Rica in 2009 became the first country to implement integrated vaccine-preventable disease (iVPD) surveillance, with support from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). As surveillance for diseases prevented by new vaccines is integrated into existing surveillance systems, these systems could cost more than routine surveillance for VPDs targeted by the Expanded Program on Immunization. We estimate the costs associated with establishing and subsequently operating the iVPD surveillance system at a pilot site in Costa Rica. We retrospectively collected data on costs incurred by the institutions supporting iVPD surveillance during the preparatory (January 2007 through August 2009) and implementation (September 2009 through August 2010) phases of the iVPD surveillance project in Costa Rica. These data were used to estimate costs for personnel, meetings, infrastructure, office equipment and supplies, transportation, and laboratory facilities. Costs incurred by each of the collaborating institutions were also estimated. During the preparatory phase, the estimated total cost was 128,000 U.S. dollars (US$), including 64% for personnel costs. The preparatory phase was supported by CDC and PAHO. The estimated cost for 1 year of implementation was US$ 420,000, including 58% for personnel costs, 28% for laboratory costs, and 14% for meeting, infrastructure, office, and transportation costs combined. The national reference laboratory and the PAHO Costa Rica office incurred 64% of total costs, and other local institutions supporting iVPD surveillance incurred the remaining 36%. Countries planning to implement iVPD surveillance will require adequate investments in human resources, laboratories, data management, reporting, and investigation. Our findings will be valuable for

  1. Managing your investment in environmental compliance with integrated cost and benefit tracking analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Easter, C.D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is designed to assist environmental managers in establishing an integrated approach to tracking the economic cost and benefit of compliance with environmental regulations. The Integrated Environmental Management System (IEMS) consists of a program which outlines reports, permits, data analysis and construction related projects that are necessary for compliance with federal, state and local requirements and establishes a dollar value in terms of both labor hours and capital expenditures for a given facility. This dollar value is cross-referenced with an Environmental Benefit Score (EBS) which is a ``weighted`` function of the following factors: pollution reduction, employee health and safety protection, community/public relations benefits and program/equipment durability. This system will improve the environmental budget managers` ability to efficiently apply resources to the proper project areas for maximum benefit. The data for this paper was compiled by reviewing environmental expenditure data for facilities over the previous decade and analyzing the impact in terms of the heretofore mentioned factors included in the Environmental Benefit Score (EBS). Through this process, a model program was designed which can be applied, with adjustments, to either public or private organizations. It is clear that a well managed and carefully chosen program of resource allocation is more efficient than a blanket program that attempts to broadly comply with all regulatory challenges concurrently.

  2. Insights into bedrock surface morphology using low-cost passive seismic surveys and integrated geostatistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Trevisani, S; Boaga, J; Agostini, L; Galgaro, A

    2017-02-01

    The HVSR (Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio) technique is very popular in the context of seismic microzonation and for the mapping of shallow seismic reflectors, such as the sediment/bedrock transition surface. This easy-to-deploy single station passive seismic technique permits the collection of a considerable amount of HVSR data in a cost-effective way. It is not surprising that some recent studies have adopted single station micro-tremor analyses in order to retrieve information on geological structures in 1D, 2D or even 3D reconstructions. However, the interpolation approaches followed in these studies for extending the punctual HVSR data spatially are not supported by a detailed spatial statistical analysis. Conversely, in order to exploit the informative content and quantify the related uncertainty of HVSR data it is necessary to utilize a deep spatial statistical analysis and objective interpolation approaches. Moreover, the interpolation approach should make it possible to use expert knowledge and auxiliary information. Accordingly, we present an integrated geostatistical approach applied to HVSR data, collected for retrieving information on the morphology of a buried bedrock surface. The geostatistical study is conducted on an experimental dataset of 116 HVSR data collected in a small thermal basin located in the Venetian Plain (Caldiero Basin, N-E Italy). The explorative geostatistical analysis of the data coupled with the use of interpolation kriging techniques permit the extraction of relevant information on the resonance properties of the subsoil. The utilized approach, based on kriging with external drift (or its extension, i.e. regression kriging), permits the researcher to take into account auxiliary information, evaluate the related prediction uncertainty, and highlight abrupt variations in subsoil resonance frequencies. The results of the analysis are discussed, also with reflections pertaining to the geo-engineering and geo

  3. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: an integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-01

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O&M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  4. Examining the effectiveness of municipal solid waste management systems: An integrated cost-benefit analysis perspective with a financial cost modeling in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Yu-Chi; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-06-15

    In order to develop a sound material-cycle society, cost-effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems are required for the municipalities in the context of the integrated accounting system for MSW management. Firstly, this paper attempts to establish an integrated cost-benefit analysis (CBA) framework for evaluating the effectiveness of MSW management systems. In this paper, detailed cost/benefit items due to waste problems are particularly clarified. The stakeholders of MSW management systems, including the decision-makers of the municipalities and the citizens, are expected to reconsider the waste problems in depth and thus take wise actions with the aid of the proposed CBA framework. Secondly, focusing on the financial cost, this study develops a generalized methodology to evaluate the financial cost-effectiveness of MSW management systems, simultaneously considering the treatment technological levels and policy effects. The impacts of the influencing factors on the annual total and average financial MSW operation and maintenance (O and M) costs are analyzed in the Taiwanese case study with a demonstrative short-term future projection of the financial costs under scenario analysis. The established methodology would contribute to the evaluation of the current policy measures and to the modification of the policy design for the municipalities.

  5. Adaption to extreme rainfall with open urban drainage system: an integrated hydrological cost-benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qianqian; Panduro, Toke Emil; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a cross-disciplinary framework for assessment of climate change adaptation to increased precipitation extremes considering pluvial flood risk as well as additional environmental services provided by some of the adaptation options. The ability of adaptation alternatives to cope with extreme rainfalls is evaluated using a quantitative flood risk approach based on urban inundation modeling and socio-economic analysis of corresponding costs and benefits. A hedonic valuation model is applied to capture the local economic gains or losses from more water bodies in green areas. The framework was applied to the northern part of the city of Aarhus, Denmark. We investigated four adaptation strategies that encompassed laissez-faire, larger sewer pipes, local infiltration units, and open drainage system in the urban green structure. We found that when taking into account environmental amenity effects, an integration of open drainage basins in urban recreational areas is likely the best adaptation strategy, followed by pipe enlargement and local infiltration strategies. All three were improvements compared to the fourth strategy of no measures taken.

  6. Mirabel: an integrated project for risk and cost/benefit analysis of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Crépet, A; Papadopoulos, A; Elegbede, C F; Ait-Dahmane, S; Loynet, C; Millet, G; Van Der Brempt, X; Bruyère, O; Marette, S; Moneret-Vautrin, D A

    2015-03-01

    Food allergy is a major public health issue. However, no regulatory measures exist when allergens are present at trace levels and the different risk components are poorly described. Thus, knowledge on exposure components such as the allergens present in foods and the consumption behaviour of allergic consumers and models to estimate the related risk need to be enriched. Mirabel proposes for the first time studying each risk component using an integrated approach in order to improve the quality of life of the allergic population. Field surveys were conducted in order to fill in the current gaps in unintentional allergen traces in food, allergic consumers' food behaviour, threshold doses of allergic reaction, allergy symptoms and severity. The aim is also to propose methodological and operational tools to quantify allergic risk, to test management scenarios and to produce a cost/benefit analysis. Medical data on the peanut allergies of 785 patients were collected in the MIRABEL survey and 443 patients answered the food consumption questionnaire. The population surveyed was mostly paediatric - 86% were children under 16 years of age, with a high percentage of males (60%). This project will generate tangible results on peanut allergen exposure and risk which could be used in future risk assessment work and particularly to provide science-based guidance to set up concentration limits for peanut traces on packages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated analysis of water quality parameters for cost-effective faecal pollution management in river catchments.

    PubMed

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane; Ebdon, James Edward; Taylor, Huw David

    2011-03-01

    In many parts of the world, microbial contamination of surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and shellfishery remains a pervasive risk to human health, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC). However, the capacity to provide effective management strategies to break the waterborne route to human infection is often thwarted by our inability to identify the source of microbial contamination. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) has potential to improve water quality management in complex river catchments that are either routinely, or intermittently contaminated by faecal material from one or more sources, by attributing faecal loads to their human or non-human sources, and thereby supporting more rational approaches to microbial risk assessment. The River Ouse catchment in southeast England (U.K.) was used as a model with which to investigate the integration and application of a novel and simple MST approach to monitor microbial water quality over one calendar year, thereby encompassing a range of meteorological conditions. A key objective of the work was to develop simple low-cost protocols that could be easily replicated. Bacteriophages (viruses) capable of infecting a human specific strain of Bacteroides GB-124, and their correlation with presumptive Escherichia coli, were used to distinguish sources of faecal pollution. The results reported here suggest that in this river catchment the principal source of faecal pollution in most instances was non-human in origin. During storm events, presumptive E. coli and presumptive intestinal enterococci levels were 1.1-1.2 logs higher than during dry weather conditions, and levels of the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) were closely associated with increased turbidity levels (presumptive E. coli and turbidity, r = 0.43). Spatio-temporal variation in microbial water quality parameters was accounted for by three principal components (67.6%). Cluster Analysis, reduced the fourteen monitoring sites to six

  8. Development of a Cost Estimation Process for Human Systems Integration Practitioners During the Analysis of Alternatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Canadian Defense Technology Center (DTC) (2006); Brooks, Greenley , Dyck, Salwaycott, Scipione and Shaw (2008); and Liu (2009) provide guidance for...effective operations ( Greenley & Associates, 2008). However, these costs were not used in a total cost-benefit analysis because of their multi...December 6, 2010, from http://www.hfidtc.com/ Brooks, J., Greenley , M., Salwaycott, A., & Scipione, A. (2008). The development and validation of a

  9. A framework and review of customer outage costs: Integration and analysis of electric utility outage cost surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, Leora; Sullivan, Michael; Van Liere, Kent; Katz, Aaron; Eto, Joseph

    2003-11-01

    A clear understanding of the monetary value that customers place on reliability and the factors that give rise to higher and lower values is an essential tool in determining investment in the grid. The recent National Transmission Grid Study recognizes the need for this information as one of growing importance for both public and private decision makers. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy has undertaken this study, as a first step toward addressing the current absence of consistent data needed to support better estimates of the economic value of electricity reliability. Twenty-four studies, conducted by eight electric utilities between 1989 and 2002 representing residential and commercial/industrial (small, medium and large) customer groups, were chosen for analysis. The studies cover virtually all of the Southeast, most of the western United States, including California, rural Washington and Oregon, and the Midwest south and east of Chicago. All variables were standardized to a consistent metric and dollar amounts were adjusted to the 2002 CPI. The data were then incorporated into a meta-database in which each outage scenario (e.g., the lost of electric service for one hour on a weekday summer afternoon) is treated as an independent case or record both to permit comparisons between outage characteristics and to increase the statistical power of analysis results. Unadjusted average outage costs and Tobit models that estimate customer damage functions are presented. The customer damage functions express customer outage costs for a given outage scenario and customer class as a function of location, time of day, consumption, and business type. One can use the damage functions to calculate outage costs for specific customer types. For example, using the customer damage functions, the cost experienced by an ''average'' customer resulting from a 1 hour summer afternoon outage is estimated to be approximately $3 for a residential customer, $1,200 for small

  10. Cost analysis of integrated renal replacement therapy program in the province of Toledo (2012-2013).

    PubMed

    Conde Olasagasti, José L; Garcia Diaz, José Eugenio; Carrasco Benitez, Pilar; Mareque Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; Parras Partido, María Pilar; Moreno Alia, Inmaculada; Jimenez Lopez, Laura; Cia Lecumberri, Juan José; Araque, Pilar; Fernandez, María Luisa

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is the object of constant analysis in the search for efficiency and sustainability. To calculate the direct cost of healthcare for the prevalent RRT population in the province of Toledo (2012/2013). a) Population: All prevalent patients at some point in RRT in 2012 (669) and in 2013 (682). b) Costs included (€): 1) dialysis procedure; 2) inpatient, outpatient and emergency care, dialysis and non-dialysis related; 3) drug consumption; 4) medical transport. c) Calculation and analysis: The aggregate localized or reconstructed cost of each item was calculated from the individual cost of each patient. Annual cost and cost per patient/year was calculated for the whole RRT and for its subprograms (€). a) Aggregate costs: The total cost of RRT amounted to 15.84 and 15.77 million euros (2012/2013). Dialysis procedures account for 40.2% of the total while the sum of hospital care and drug consumption represents 41.5%. Healthcare for patients on hospital haemodialysis (HHD) and combined haemodialysis (CHD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and transplant (Tx) accounts for 70.0, 5.0 and 25.0% of the total respectively. b) Patient/year cost: From the number of patients/year provided by each subprogramme, the following values were obtained in 2012/2013: All RRT 26,130/25,379; HHD 49,167/53,289; CHD 44,657/44,971; PD 45,538/51,869 and Tx 10,909/10,984. Our results are consistent with others published, although our patient/year values are slightly higher, probably because they include elements such as outpatient pharmacy, hospital and medical transport cargo. The growing contribution of Tx to the survival of the whole RRT population contains the overall costs and reduces the patient/year cost, making RRT sustainable. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated Cost Accounting System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-27

    few other companies. Harvard Business Review contained articles explaining the ideas behind the new costing methods and examples of applications...technical report. Peter Drucker in an article in Harvard Business Review ’carefully explains that accounting must change in response to the changes in...Kaplan in a Harvard Business Review article develop the idea of four levels of activities: facility sustaining activities; product-sustaining activities

  12. Specialist integrated haematological malignancy diagnostic services: an Activity Based Cost (ABC) analysis of a networked laboratory service model.

    PubMed

    Dalley, C; Basarir, H; Wright, J G; Fernando, M; Pearson, D; Ward, S E; Thokula, P; Krishnankutty, A; Wilson, G; Dalton, A; Talley, P; Barnett, D; Hughes, D; Porter, N R; Reilly, J T; Snowden, J A

    2015-04-01

    Specialist Integrated Haematological Malignancy Diagnostic Services (SIHMDS) were introduced as a standard of care within the UK National Health Service to reduce diagnostic error and improve clinical outcomes. Two broad models of service delivery have become established: 'co-located' services operating from a single-site and 'networked' services, with geographically separated laboratories linked by common management and information systems. Detailed systematic cost analysis has never been published on any established SIHMDS model. We used Activity Based Costing (ABC) to construct a cost model for our regional 'networked' SIHMDS covering a two-million population based on activity in 2011. Overall estimated annual running costs were £1 056 260 per annum (£733 400 excluding consultant costs), with individual running costs for diagnosis, staging, disease monitoring and end of treatment assessment components of £723 138, £55 302, £184 152 and £94 134 per annum, respectively. The cost distribution by department was 28.5% for haematology, 29.5% for histopathology and 42% for genetics laboratories. Costs of the diagnostic pathways varied considerably; pathways for myelodysplastic syndromes and lymphoma were the most expensive and the pathways for essential thrombocythaemia and polycythaemia vera being the least. ABC analysis enables estimation of running costs of a SIHMDS model comprised of 'networked' laboratories. Similar cost analyses for other SIHMDS models covering varying populations are warranted to optimise quality and cost-effectiveness in delivery of modern haemato-oncology diagnostic services in the UK as well as internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Cost-utility analysis of an integrated care model for multimorbid patients based on a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Lanzeta, Itziar; Mar, Javier; Arrospide, Arantzazu

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a cost-utility analysis on an integrated healthcare model comprising an assigned internist and a hospital liaison nurse for patients with multimorbidity, compared to a conventional reactive healthcare system. A cluster randomised clinical trial was conducted. The model consisted of a reference internist and a liaison nurse, who aimed to improve coordination and communication between levels and to enhance continuity of care after hospitalisation. We recorded sociodemographic data, diagnoses and corresponding clinical categories, functional status, use of healthcare resources and quality of life. Data were collected by reviewing electronic medical records and administering questionnaires. We performed univariate and multivariate analyses both for utilities and total costs. Bootstrapping methods were applied to calculate the confidence ellipses of incremental costs and efficiency. We recruited a total of 140 patients. The model assessed was not found to be efficient in general. We found an incremental cost of €1,035.90 and an incremental benefit of -0.0762 QALYs for the initiative compared to standard care after adjusting for the main variables. However, the subgroup of patients under 80 years of age with three or more clinical categories resulted in an 89% cost saving in the simulations. The integrated model was not suitable for all study patients. However, the subgroup analysis identified a narrow target population that should be analysed in future studies. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) Cost-Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) are designed to prevent space launch vehicles from flight through environments conducive to natural or triggered lightning and are used for all U.S. government and commercial launches at government and civilian ranges. They are maintained by a committee known as the NASA/USAF Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP). The previous LLCC for anvil cloud, meant to avoid triggered lightning, have been shown to be overly restrictive. Some of these rules have had such high safety margins that they prohibited flight under conditions that are now thought to be safe 90% of the time, leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. The LLCC for anvil clouds was upgraded in the summer of 2005 to incorporate results from the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) experiment at the Eastern Range (ER). Numerous combinations of parameters were considered to develop the best correlation of operational weather observations to in-cloud electric fields capable of rocket triggered lightning in anvil clouds. The Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) was the best metric found. Dr. Harry Koons of Aerospace Corporation conducted a risk analysis of the VAHIRR product. The results indicated that the LLCC based on the VAHIRR product would pose a negligible risk of flying through hazardous electric fields. Based on these findings, the Kennedy Space Center Weather Office is considering seeking funding for development of an automated VAHIRR algorithm for the new ER 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) RadTec 431250 weather radar and Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars. Before developing an automated algorithm, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to determine the frequency with which VAHIRR would have allowed a launch to safely proceed during weather conditions otherwise deemed "red" by the Launch Weather Officer. To do this, the AMU manually calculated VAHIRR values based on candidate cases from past launches with known anvil cloud

  15. Multi-Year Analysis of Renewable Energy Impacts in California: Results from the Renewable Portfolio Standards Integration Cost Analysis; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Shiu, H.; Kirby, B.; Jackson, K.

    2006-08-01

    California's Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS, Senate Bill 1078) requires the state's investor-owned utilities to obtain 20% of their energy mix from renewable generation sources. To facilitate the imminent increase in the penetration of renewables, the California Energy Commission (CEC), in support of the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC), initiated a study of integration costs in the context of RPS implementation. This effort estimated the impact of renewable generation in the regulation and load-following time scales and calculated the capacity value of renewable energy sources using a reliability model. The analysis team, consisting of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the California Wind Energy Collaborative (CWEC), performed the study in cooperation with the California Independent System Operator (CaISO), the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E), and Southern California Edison (SCE). The study was conducted over three phases and was followed by an analysis of a multi-year period. This paper presents results from the multi-year analysis and the Phase III recommendations.

  16. Domain Analysis of Integrated Data to Reduce Cost Associated with Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Motiwala, Tasneem; Kite, Bobbie; Regan, Kelly; Gascon, Gregg M; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer, the fifth most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death among men worldwide, is plagued by not only lack of clinical research, but informatics tools for early detection. Consequently, it presents a major health and cost burden. Among the different types of liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common and deadly form, arising from underlying liver disease. Current models for predicting risk of HCC and liver disease are limited to clinical data. A domain analysis of existing research related to screening for HCC and liver disease suggests that metabolic syndrome (MetS) may present oppportunites to detect early signs of liver disease. The purpose of this paper is to (i) provide a domain analysis of the relationship between HCC, liver disease, and metabolic syndrome, (ii) a review of the current disparate sources of data available for MetS diagnosis, and (iii) recommend informatics solutions for the diagnosis of MetS from available administrative (Biometrics, PHA, claims) and laboratory data, towards early prediction of liver disease. Our domain analysis and recommendations incorporate best practices to make meaningful use of available data with the goal of reducing cost associated with liver disease.

  17. Analysis of Modeling Assumptions used in Production Cost Models for Renewable Integration Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Stoll, Brady; Brinkman, Gregory; Townsend, Aaron; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy integration studies have been published for many different regions exploring the question of how higher penetration of renewable energy will impact the electric grid. These studies each make assumptions about the systems they are analyzing; however the effect of many of these assumptions has not been yet been examined and published. In this paper we analyze the impact of modeling assumptions in renewable integration studies, including the optimization method used (linear or mixed-integer programming) and the temporal resolution of the dispatch stage (hourly or sub-hourly). We analyze each of these assumptions on a large and a small system and determine the impact of each assumption on key metrics including the total production cost, curtailment of renewables, CO2 emissions, and generator starts and ramps. Additionally, we identified the impact on these metrics if a four-hour ahead commitment step is included before the dispatch step and the impact of retiring generators to reduce the degree to which the system is overbuilt. We find that the largest effect of these assumptions is at the unit level on starts and ramps, particularly for the temporal resolution, and saw a smaller impact at the aggregate level on system costs and emissions. For each fossil fuel generator type we measured the average capacity started, average run-time per start, and average number of ramps. Linear programming results saw up to a 20% difference in number of starts and average run time of traditional generators, and up to a 4% difference in the number of ramps, when compared to mixed-integer programming. Utilizing hourly dispatch instead of sub-hourly dispatch saw no difference in coal or gas CC units for either start metric, while gas CT units had a 5% increase in the number of starts and 2% increase in the average on-time per start. The number of ramps decreased up to 44%. The smallest effect seen was on the CO2 emissions and total production cost, with a 0.8% and 0

  18. NREL Analysis: Cost-Effective and Reliable Integration of High-Penetration Solar in the Western United States (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Hodge, B.; Lefton, S.; Kumar, N.; Agan, D.; Jordan, G.; Venkatataman, S.

    2012-07-01

    SunShot Initiative awardee posters describing the different technologies within the four subprograms of the DOE Solar Program (Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar Power, Soft Costs, and Systems Integration).

  19. Integration of Socio-Economic Measures in Benefit-Cost Analysis for Groundwater Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaqadan, A. A.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.; Khalil, Y. H.

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater quality is a major concern since sources of contamination are common and degraded water quality has severe economic and health impacts to the society. Management of contaminated groundwater resources has been a challenge due to limited resources committed to monitor and remediate a large number of contaminated sites. Therefore, there is a prominent question on the optimal allocation of resources for additional data collection and actual remedial measures. In this work, we extended the risk assessment methodology under subsurface heterogeneity and population variability proposed by others to estimate individuals' willingness-to-pay(WTP) for a proposed risk reduction by adding socio-economic measures. We introduced one of the early applications of welfare measures namely, health state, utility, and WTP concepts to study the benefits and costs of collecting additional data to reduce uncertainty for groundwater remediation. The proposed framework considered uncertainty due to subsurface heterogeneity and public health risk through a utility theory based approach that can be used in decision-making. Our framework replaced costly contingent valuation approaches and used a meta analysis which considered a theoretical structure on population age, income, and health state and used empirical estimates from previous contingent valuation methods. We also performed sensitivity analysis on important variables such as WTP and utility levels. Our findings showed that health state and age have vital impacts on WTP. The predictions of WTP trends are consistent with patterns expected in economic theory. We illustrated the proposed framework by evaluating two scenarios of gathering additional information to better describe subsurface heterogeneity. In this example we considered a small addition of data at a correlation scale of 112 m versus a large addition of data at a correlation scale of 22 m. The results showed the two scenarios have annual individuals' WTP of 258 and

  20. Cost Benefit Analysis vs Cost Consequences Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, David

    1999-01-01

    Describes cost consequences analysis as a means to estimate whether the value of results obtained is worth the investment. Discusses how CCA differs from other evaluation tools, return on investment, and theoretical underpinnings of cost benefit analysis (CBA), and contends that there is no substantive difference between CCA and CBA. (Author/LRW)

  1. Development of Soil Compaction Analysis Software (SCAN) Integrating a Low Cost GPS Receiver and Compactometer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jinsang; Yun, Hongsik; Kim, Juhyong; Suh, Yongcheol; Hong, Sungnam; Lee, Dongha

    2012-01-01

    A software for soil compaction analysis (SCAN) has been developed for evaluating the compaction states using the data from the GPS as well as a compactometer attached on the roller. The SCAN is distinguished from other previous software for intelligent compaction (IC) in that it can use the results from various types of GPS positioning methods, and it also has an optimal structure for remotely managing the large amounts of data gathered from numerous rollers. For this, several methods were developed: (1) improving the accuracy of low cost GPS receiver’s positioning results; (2) modeling the trajectory of a moving roller using a GPS receiver’s results and linking it with the data from the compactometer; and (3) extracting the information regarding the compaction states of the ground from the modeled trajectory, using spatial analysis methods. The SCAN was verified throughout various field compaction tests, and it has been confirmed that it can be a very effective tool in evaluating field compaction states. PMID:22736955

  2. Costing for Policy Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Cost behavior analysis, a costing process that can assist managers in estimating how certain institutional costs change in response to volume, policy, and environmental factors, is described. The five steps of this approach are examined, and the application of cost behavior analysis at four college-level settings is documented. The institutions…

  3. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-01

    This research presents a systematic approach to evaluating the costs of integrating new generation and operational procedures into an existing power system, and the methodology is independent of the type of change or nature of the generation. The work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy and performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to investigate three integration cost-related questions: (1) How does the addition of new generation affect a system's operational costs, (2) How do generation mix and operating parameters and procedures affect costs, and (3) How does the amount of variable generation (non-dispatchable wind and solar) impact the accuracy of natural gas orders? A detailed operational analysis was performed for seven sets of experiments: variable generation, large conventional generation, generation mix, gas prices, fast-start generation, self-scheduling, and gas supply constraints. For each experiment, four components of integration costs were examined: cycling costs, non-cycling VO&M costs, fuel costs, and reserves provisioning costs. The investigation was conducted with PLEXOS production cost modeling software utilizing an updated version of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 118-bus test system overlaid with projected operating loads from the Western Electricity Coordinating Council for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Puget Sound Energy, and Public Service Colorado in the year 2020. The test system was selected in consultation with an industry-based technical review committee to be a reasonable approximation of an interconnection yet small enough to allow the research team to investigate a large number of scenarios and sensitivity combinations. The research should prove useful to market designers, regulators, utilities, and others who want to better understand how system changes can affect production costs.

  4. Integrated orbital servicing and payloads study. Volume 2: Technical and cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The details and background used in the investigation of orbital servicing and payloads are presented. Topics discussed include review of previous models, application of servicing to communications satellites, assessment of spacecraft servicing, cost of servicing, and launch vehicle effects on spacecraft.

  5. Educational Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Donald L.

    Traditional approaches to the cost analysis of educational programs involve examining annual budgets. Such approaches do not properly consider the cost of either new capital expenditures or the current value of previously purchased items. This paper presents the methodology for a new approach to educational cost analysis that identifies the actual…

  6. Integrating Cost as an Independent Variable Analysis with Evolutionary Acquisition - A Multiattribute Design Evaluation Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    Commission hearing the previous November, Aldridge provided additional detail on this goal: • Too many cost overruns, schedule delays, and performance...budget requests and we simply must do a better job of being more realistic in our estimates, even if that means we cannot start as many programs; and...concepts to occur simultaneously and continuously at many levels and across all functional lines. The result is operational requirements evolving in

  7. Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C.

    2013-10-01

    The question of wind integration cost has received much attention in the past several years. The methodological challenges to calculating integration costs are discussed in this paper. There are other sources of integration cost unrelated to wind energy. A performance-based approach would be technology neutral, and would provide price signals for all technology types. However, it is difficult to correctly formulate such an approach. Determining what is and is not an integration cost is challenging. Another problem is the allocation of system costs to one source. Because of significant nonlinearities, this can prove to be impossible to determine in an accurate and objective way.

  8. Total educational costs of an integrated nursing curriculum.

    PubMed

    Bobroff, Maria Cristina Cescatto; Gordan, Pedro A; Garanhani, Mara Lúcia

    2009-01-01

    Innovative changes in undergraduate Nursing programs have brought about new methodologies and the need for cost evaluation. This study aims to develop a model for cost estimation, and to estimate educational costs of an integrated Nursing curriculum at a public university. This is a case study conducted in stages: model development, data collection, analysis and interpretation. The cost-construction model consisted of six steps: data collection; educational and support activity costs; four-year course educational costs; educational support costs; joint product costs and total educational costs. Findings showed a total educational cost per student/year US$ 3,788.82. Course team faculty included 97 members. The cost analysis in faculty contact hours is the most appropriate cost unit as it most consistently reflects faculty time devoted to teaching. The knowledge about educational costs provided information that may be useful for a different approach to the integrated curriculum management, with a view to putting its educational objectives in practice.

  9. Department of the Army Cost Analysis Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    TOOLS ( ACEIT ) ........................................................171 SECTION II - AUTOMATED COST DATA BASE (ACDB...responsibility cost to name a few. Though there are many examples of cost measurement each demands cost analysis support to make information...Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) model and since it is widely used to prepare POEs, CCAs and ICEs, it would expedite the comparative analysis of the submission if

  10. Clinical process cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Marrin, C A; Johnson, L C; Beggs, V L; Batalden, P B

    1997-09-01

    New systems of reimbursement are exerting enormous pressure on clinicians and hospitals to reduce costs. Using cheaper supplies or reducing the length of stay may be a satisfactory short-term solution, but the best strategy for long-term success is radical reduction of costs by reengineering the processes of care. However, few clinicians or institutions know the actual costs of medical care; nor do they understand, in detail, the activities involved in the delivery of care. Finally, there is no accepted method for linking the two. Clinical process cost analysis begins with the construction of a detailed flow diagram incorporating each activity in the process of care. The cost of each activity is then calculated, and the two are linked. This technique was applied to Diagnosis Related Group 75 to analyze the real costs of the operative treatment of lung cancer at one institution. Total costs varied between $6,400 and $7,700. The major driver of costs was personnel time, which accounted for 55% of the total. Forty percent of the total cost was incurred in the operating room. The cost of care decreased progressively during hospitalization. Clinical process cost analysis provides detailed information about the costs and processes of care. The insights thus obtained may be used to reduce costs by reengineering the process.

  11. Integrating Efficiency of Industry Processes and Practices Alongside Technology Effectiveness in Space Transportation Cost Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents past and current work in dealing with indirect industry and NASA costs when providing cost estimation or analysis for NASA projects and programs. Indirect costs, when defined as those costs in a project removed from the actual hardware or software hands-on labor; makes up most of the costs of today's complex large scale NASA space/industry projects. This appears to be the case across phases from research into development into production and into the operation of the system. Space transportation is the case of interest here. Modeling and cost estimation as a process rather than a product will be emphasized. Analysis as a series of belief systems in play among decision makers and decision factors will also be emphasized to provide context.

  12. Costs of Physician-Hospital Integration

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Na-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given that the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is expected to generate forces toward physician-hospital integration, this study examined an understudied, albeit important, area of costs incurred in physician-hospital integration. Such costs were analyzed through 24 semi-structured interviews with physicians and hospital administrators in a multiple-case, inductive study. Two extreme types of physician-hospital arrangements were examined: an employed model (ie, integrated salary model, a group of physicians integrated by a hospital system) and a private practice (ie, a physician or group of physicians who are independent of economic or policy control). Interviews noted that integration leads to 3 evident costs, namely, monitoring, coordination, and cooperation costs. Improving our understanding of the kinds of costs that are incurred after physician-hospital integration will help hospitals and physicians to avoid common failures after integration. PMID:26496300

  13. Costs of Physician-Hospital Integration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Na-Eun

    2015-10-01

    Given that the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is expected to generate forces toward physician-hospital integration, this study examined an understudied, albeit important, area of costs incurred in physician-hospital integration. Such costs were analyzed through 24 semi-structured interviews with physicians and hospital administrators in a multiple-case, inductive study. Two extreme types of physician-hospital arrangements were examined: an employed model (ie, integrated salary model, a group of physicians integrated by a hospital system) and a private practice (ie, a physician or group of physicians who are independent of economic or policy control). Interviews noted that integration leads to 3 evident costs, namely, monitoring, coordination, and cooperation costs. Improving our understanding of the kinds of costs that are incurred after physician-hospital integration will help hospitals and physicians to avoid common failures after integration.

  14. Wakeflow analysis by cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmo, V. J.

    1981-01-01

    COST (Computerized Optical Scanning Tomography) is proposed for visualizing wakeflows of aircraft and wind-tunnel models. Operating very close to real time, COST hardware could be installed at airports to monitor turbulent flow trailing large aircraft, so that smaller aircraft could be directed to avoid turbulence. Real-time analysis of jet-engine exhaust plumes, to reduce pollution and optimize performance, is also possible.

  15. Development of an integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for task No. 5: Cost analysis, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Quinton, G.; Schultz, D.; Landis, R.

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivering treatment reagents have rendered existing in situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. The Lasagna{trademark} technology is an integrated in situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly into the contaminated soil and electro-osmosis if utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report presents the results of an engineering evaluation and cost analysis of the vertically configured treatment process completed by the DuPont Company. The cost evaluation was prepared by developing a cost optimization model of the overall treatment process. This model considers various input parameters such as soil properties, depth of contamination, cost for emplacing electrodes and treatment zones, required purge water volume, time constraints to achieve cleanup, and cost of power. Several example cases were run using the cost model to provide representative cost ranges for applying the technology to clean up trichloroethene contamination in clay. These costs are estimated to range from $40 to $95 per cubic yard of soil for a 1-acre site, with cost depending on depth of contamination (cost range valid from 15 to 45 ft), method of electrode/treatment zone emplacement (cost range valid from 15 to 45 ft), method of electrode/treatment zone emplacement (cost range valid for Lasagna{trademark} Phase I emplacement and optimized emplacement techniques), and time available to complete remediation (cost range valid for one- and three-year timeframe).

  16. Integrated Design Tools Reduce Risk, Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Thanks in part to a SBIR award with Langley Research Center, Phoenix Integration Inc., based in Wayne, Pennsylvania, modified and advanced software for process integration and design automation. For NASA, the tool has resulted in lower project costs and reductions in design time; clients of Phoenix Integration are experiencing the same rewards.

  17. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services.

    PubMed

    Shade, Starley B; Kevany, Sebastian; Onono, Maricianah; Ochieng, George; Steinfeld, Rachel L; Grossman, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J; Blat, Cinthia; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate costs, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integration of family planning into HIV services. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment clinics. A cluster-randomized trial. Twelve health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya were randomized to integrate family planning into HIV care and treatment; six health facilities were randomized to (nonintegrated) standard-of-care with separately delivered family planning and HIV services. We assessed costs, cost-efficiency (cost per additional use of more effective family planning), and cost-effectiveness (cost per pregnancy averted) associated with the first year of integration of family planning into HIV care. More effective family planning methods included oral and injectable contraceptives, subdermal implants, intrauterine device, and female and male sterilization. We collected cost data through interviews with study staff and review of financial records to determine costs of service integration. Integration of services was associated with an average marginal cost of $841 per site and $48 per female patient. Average overall and marginal costs of integration were associated with personnel costs [initial ($1003 vs. $872) and refresher ($498 vs. $330) training, mentoring ($1175 vs. $902) and supervision ($1694 vs. $1636)], with fewer resources required for other fixed ($18 vs. $0) and recurring expenses ($471 vs. $287). Integration was associated with a marginal cost of $65 for each additional use of more effective family planning and $1368 for each pregnancy averted. Integration of family planning and HIV services is feasible, inexpensive to implement, and cost-efficient in the Kenyan setting, and thus supports current Kenyan integration policy.

  18. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. Methods We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. Findings The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. Conclusions The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. Trial registration number NCT01694862. PMID:26438349

  19. Does integration of HIV and SRH services achieve economies of scale and scope in practice? A cost function analysis of the Integra Initiative.

    PubMed

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Guinness, Lorna; Sweeney, Sedona; Initiative, Integra; Vassall, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Policy-makers have long argued about the potential efficiency gains and cost savings from integrating HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) services, particularly in resource-constrained settings with generalised HIV epidemics. However, until now, little empirical evidence exists on whether the hypothesised efficiency gains associated with such integration can be achieved in practice. We estimated a quadratic cost function using data obtained from 40 health facilities, over a 2-year-period, in Kenya and Swaziland. The quadratic specification enables us to determine the existence of economies of scale and scope. The empirical results reveal that at the current output levels, only HIV counselling and testing services are characterised by service-specific economies of scale. However, no overall economies of scale exist as all outputs are increased. The results also indicate cost complementarities between cervical cancer screening and HIV care; post-natal care and HIV care and family planning and sexually transmitted infection treatment combinations only. The results from this analysis reveal that contrary to expectation, efficiency gains from the integration of HIV and SRH services, if any, are likely to be modest. Efficiency gains are likely to be most achievable in settings that are currently delivering HIV and SRH services at a low scale with high levels of fixed costs. The presence of cost complementarities for only three service combinations implies that careful consideration of setting-specific clinical practices and the extent to which they can be combined should be made when deciding which services to integrate. NCT01694862. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Cost analysis of magnetically controlled growing rods compared with traditional growing rods for early-onset scoliosis in the US: an integrated health care delivery system perspective

    PubMed Central

    Polly, David W; Ackerman, Stacey J; Schneider, Karen; Pawelek, Jeff B; Akbarnia, Behrooz A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Traditional growing rod (TGR) for early-onset scoliosis (EOS) is effective but requires repeated invasive surgical lengthenings under general anesthesia. Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) is lengthened noninvasively using a hand-held magnetic external remote controller in a physician office; however, the MCGR implant is expensive, and the cumulative cost savings have not been well studied. We compared direct medical costs of MCGR and TGR for EOS from the US integrated health care delivery system perspective. We hypothesized that over time, the MCGR implant cost will be offset by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. Methods For both TGR and MCGR, the economic model estimated the cumulative costs for initial implantation, lengthenings, revisions due to device failure, surgical-site infections, device exchanges (at 3.8 years), and final fusion, over a 6-year episode of care. Model parameters were estimated from published literature, a multicenter EOS database of US institutions, and interviews. Costs were discounted at 3.0% annually and represent 2015 US dollars. Results Of 1,000 simulated patients over 6 years, MCGR was associated with an estimated 270 fewer deep surgical-site infections and 197 fewer revisions due to device failure compared with TGR. MCGR was projected to cost an additional $61 per patient over the 6-year episode of care compared with TGR. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were sensitive to changes in the percentage of MCGR dual rod use, months between TGR lengthenings, percentage of hospital inpatient (vs outpatient) TGR lengthenings, and MCGR implant cost. Conclusion Cost neutrality of MCGR to TGR was achieved over the 6-year episode of care by eliminating repeated TGR surgical lengthenings. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis comparing MCGR to TGR – from the US provider perspective – which demonstrates the efficient provision of care with MCGR. PMID:27695352

  1. Cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, R

    1993-01-01

    Decisions have to be made about allocating health resources. Currently the best economic evaluation method for doing this is cost-utility analysis. This compares the costs of different procedures with their outcomes measured in "utility based" units--that is, units that relate to a person's level of wellbeing. The most commonly used unit is the quality adjusted life year (QALY). QALYs are calculated by estimating the total life years gained from a procedure and weighting each year to reflect the quality of life in that year. To compare outcomes of different programmes the Rosser index is one measure that is widely used to assign quality of life scores to patients. Combined with a measure of life years gained from a procedure, this enables QALYs to be calculated and procedures ranked according to cost per QALY gained. In this article Ray Robinson explains the measures used and discusses how QALY league tables can be used to guide decisions on resource allocation. Images p862-a PMID:8401133

  2. Hospital integrated parallel cluster for fast and cost-efficient image analysis: clinical experience and research evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erberich, Stephan G.; Hoppe, Martin; Jansen, Christian; Schmidt, Thomas; Thron, Armin; Oberschelp, Walter

    2001-08-01

    In the last few years more and more University Hospitals as well as private hospitals changed to digital information systems for patient record, diagnostic files and digital images. Not only that patient management becomes easier, it is also very remarkable how clinical research can profit from Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) and diagnostic databases, especially from image databases. Since images are available on the finger tip, difficulties arise when image data needs to be processed, e.g. segmented, classified or co-registered, which usually demands a lot computational power. Today's clinical environment does support PACS very well, but real image processing is still under-developed. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a parallel cluster of standard distributed systems and its software components and how such a system can be integrated into a hospital environment. To demonstrate the cluster technique we present our clinical experience with the crucial but cost-intensive motion correction of clinical routine and research functional MRI (fMRI) data, as it is processed in our Lab on a daily basis.

  3. Concepts of Cost and Cost Analysis for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinkman, Paul T.; Allen, Richard H.

    1986-01-01

    Concepts of costs and cost analysis in higher education are examined, along with how to prepare for a cost study. Specific cost analysis techniques are identified, along with types of data generated and potential problems. In preparing for cost studies, it is important to consider: purpose, types of cost analysis, types of cost, common…

  4. Estimating 'costs' for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Miners, Alec

    2008-01-01

    Since 1999, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Technology Appraisal Programme has been charged with producing guidance for the NHS in England and Wales on the appropriate use of new and existing healthcare programmes. Guidance is based on an assessment of a number of factors, including cost effectiveness. The identification, measurement and valuation of costs are important components of any cost-effectiveness analysis. However, working through these steps raises a number of important methodological questions. For example, how should 'future' resource use be estimated, and is there a need to consider all 'future' costs? Given that NICE produces national guidance, should national unit cost data be used to value resources or should local variations in negotiated prices be taken into account? This paper was initially prepared as a briefing paper as part of the process of updating NICE's 2004 Guide to the Methods of Technology Appraisal for a workshop on 'costs'. It outlines the issues that were raised in the original briefing paper and the subsequent questions that were discussed at the workshop.

  5. Cost advantages of an integrated documentation approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felsman, W. O.

    1970-01-01

    Interactive use of on-line computing terminals for updating programs is discussed. An integrated documentation approach using predocumented subroutines and metaprogram techniques is found to be an efficient means of generating the relevant documentation and of reducing program development costs.

  6. Cost Analysis of Integrating the PrePex Medical Device into a Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Program in Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Hatzold, Karin; Reed, Jason; Edgil, Dianna; Jaramillo, Juan; Castor, Delivette; Forsythe, Steven; Xaba, Sinokuthemba; Mugurungi, Owen

    2014-01-01

    Background Fourteen African countries are scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) for HIV prevention. Several devices that might offer alternatives to the three WHO-approved surgical VMMC procedures have been evaluated for use in adults. One such device is PrePex, which was prequalified by the WHO in May 2013. We utilized data from one of the PrePex field studies undertaken in Zimbabwe to identify cost considerations for introducing PrePex into the existing surgical circumcision program. Methods and Findings We evaluated the cost drivers and overall unit cost of VMMC at a site providing surgical VMMC as a routine service (“routine surgery site”) and at a site that had added PrePex VMMC procedures to routine surgical VMMC as part of a research study (“mixed study site”). We examined the main cost drivers and modeled hypothetical scenarios with varying ratios of surgical to PrePex circumcisions, different levels of site utilization, and a range of device prices. The unit costs per VMMC for the routine surgery and mixed study sites were $56 and $61, respectively. The two greatest contributors to unit price at both sites were consumables and staff. In the hypothetical scenarios, the unit cost increased as site utilization decreased, as the ratio of PrePex to surgical VMMC increased, and as device price increased. Conclusions VMMC unit costs for routine surgery and mixed study sites were similar. Low service utilization was projected to result in the greatest increases in unit price. Countries that wish to incorporate PrePex into their circumcision programs should plan to maximize staff utilization and ensure that sites function at maximum capacity to achieve the lowest unit cost. Further costing studies will be necessary once routine implementation of PrePex-based circumcision is established. PMID:24801515

  7. Low Cost, Advanced, Integrated Microcontroller Training Kit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somantri, Y.; Fushshilat, I.

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the design of an AVR microcontroller training kit with a low cost and the additional feature of an integrated downloader. The main components of this device include: Microcontroller, terminal, I/O keypad, push button, LED, seven segment display, LCD, motor stepper, and sensors. The device configuration results in low cost and ease of use; this device is suitable for laboratories with limited funding. The device can also be used as a training kit for the teaching and learning of microcontrollers.

  8. [Operating cost analysis of anaesthesia: activity based costing (ABC analysis)].

    PubMed

    Majstorović, Branislava M; Kastratović, Dragana A; Vučović, Dragan S; Milaković, Branko D; Miličić, Biljana R

    2011-01-01

    Cost of anaesthesiology represent defined measures to determine a precise profile of expenditure estimation of surgical treatment, which is important regarding planning of healthcare activities, prices and budget. In order to determine the actual value of anaestesiological services, we started with the analysis of activity based costing (ABC) analysis. Retrospectively, in 2005 and 2006, we estimated the direct costs of anestesiological services (salaries, drugs, supplying materials and other: analyses and equipment.) of the Institute of Anaesthesia and Resuscitation of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. The group included all anesthetized patients of both sexes and all ages. We compared direct costs with direct expenditure, "each cost object (service or unit)" of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. The Summary data of the Departments of Anaesthesia documented in the database of the Clinical Centre of Serbia. Numerical data were utilized and the numerical data were estimated and analyzed by computer programs Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and SPSS for Windows. We compared using the linear model of direct costs and unit costs of anaesthesiological services from the Costs List of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. Direct costs showed 40% of costs were spent on salaries, (32% on drugs and supplies, and 28% on other costs, such as analyses and equipment. The correlation of the direct costs of anaestesiological services showed a linear correlation with the unit costs of the Republican Healthcare Insurance. During surgery, costs of anaesthesia would increase by 10% the surgical treatment cost of patients. Regarding the actual costs of drugs and supplies, we do not see any possibility of costs reduction. Fixed elements of direct costs provide the possibility of rationalization of resources in anaesthesia.

  9. An introduction to cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Camponovo, Ernest

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basics of cost accounting for healthcare providers and how these concepts relate to decision making in medical practice. By understanding cost accounting and cost analysis, providers can be better prepared to compete and survive in a changing healthcare environment.

  10. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  11. Cost-benefit analysis potential in feeding behavior of a predatory snail by integration of hunger, taste, and pain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, Rhanor; Huang, Rong-Chi; Hatcher, Nathan; Moroz, Leonid L.

    2000-03-01

    Hunger/satiation state interacts with appetitive and noxious stimuli to determine feeding and avoidance responses. In the predatory marine snail Pleurobranchaea californica, food chemostimuli induced proboscis extension and biting at concentration thresholds that varied directly with satiation state. However, food stimuli also tended to elicit avoidance behavior (withdrawal and avoidance turns) at concentration thresholds that were relatively low and fixed. When the feeding threshold for active feeding (proboscis extension with biting) was exceeded, ongoing avoidance and locomotion were interrupted and suppressed. Noxious chemostimuli usually stimulated avoidance, but, in animals with lower feeding thresholds for food stimuli, they often elicited feeding behavior. Thus, sensory pathways mediating appetitive and noxious stimuli may have dual access to neural networks of feeding and avoidance behavior, but their final effects are regulated by satiation state. These observations suggest that a simple cost-benefit computation regulates behavioral switching in the animal's foraging behavior, where food stimuli above or below the incentive level for feeding tend to induce feeding or avoidance, respectively. This decision mechanism can weigh the animal's need for nutrients against the potential risk from other predators and the cost of relative energy outlay in an attack on prey. Stimulation of orienting and attack by low-level noxious stimuli in the hungriest animals may reflect risk-taking that can enhance prey capture success. A simple, hedonically structured neural network model captures this computation.

  12. Costs and cost-minimisation analysis.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1993-09-18

    Whatever kind of economic evaluation you plan to undertake, the costs must be assessed. In health care these are first of all divided into costs borne by the NHS (like drugs), by patients and their families (like travel), and by the rest of society (like health education). Next the costs have to be valued in monetary terms; direct costs, like wages, pose little problem, but indirect costs (like time spent in hospital) have to have values imputed to them. And that is not all: costs must be further subdivided into average, marginal, and joint costs, which help decisions on how much of a service should be provided. Capital costs (investments in plant, buildings, and machinery) are also important, as are discounting and inflation. In this second article in the series Ray Robinson defines the types of costs, their measurement, and how they should be valued in monetary terms.

  13. Costs and cost-minimisation analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, R

    1993-01-01

    Whatever kind of economic evaluation you plan to undertake, the costs must be assessed. In health care these are first of all divided into costs borne by the NHS (like drugs), by patients and their families (like travel), and by the rest of society (like health education). Next the costs have to be valued in monetary terms; direct costs, like wages, pose little problem, but indirect costs (like time spent in hospital) have to have values imputed to them. And that is not all: costs must be further subdivided into average, marginal, and joint costs, which help decisions on how much of a service should be provided. Capital costs (investments in plant, buildings, and machinery) are also important, as are discounting and inflation. In this second article in the series Ray Robinson defines the types of costs, their measurement, and how they should be valued in monetary terms. Images p727-a PMID:8401098

  14. Reliability and cost analysis methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suich, Ronald C.

    1991-01-01

    In the design phase of a system, how does a design engineer or manager choose between a subsystem with .990 reliability and a more costly subsystem with .995 reliability? When is the increased cost justified? High reliability is not necessarily an end in itself but may be desirable in order to reduce the expected cost due to subsystem failure. However, this may not be the wisest use of funds since the expected cost due to subsystem failure is not the only cost involved. The subsystem itself may be very costly. We should not consider either the cost of the subsystem or the expected cost due to subsystem failure separately but should minimize the total of the two costs, i.e., the total of the cost of the subsystem plus the expected cost due to subsystem failure. This final report discusses the Combined Analysis of Reliability, Redundancy, and Cost (CARRAC) methods which were developed under Grant Number NAG 3-1100 from the NASA Lewis Research Center. CARRAC methods and a CARRAC computer program employ five models which can be used to cover a wide range of problems. The models contain an option which can include repair of failed modules.

  15. Ultrafast real-time PCR with integrated melting curve analysis and duplex capacities using a low-cost polymer lab-on-a-chip system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gransee, Rainer; Schneider, Tristan; Elyorgun, Deniz; Strobach, Xenia; Schunck, Tobias; Gatscha, Theresia; Winkler, Christian; Höth, Julian

    2015-05-01

    Nucleic amplification using quantitative polymeric chain reaction (qPCR) has become the gold standard of molecular testing. These systems offer both amplification and simultaneous fluorescence detection. An ultrafast microfluidic module (allowing 30 PCR cycles in 6 minutes) based on the oscillating fluid plug concept was previously developed [1,2] allowing the amplification of native genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. This abstract presents the actual status of the advanced system. The upgraded system generates high quality qPCR amplification plots and additional sensitive melting point analysis comparable to data obtained from commercial real-time cyclers. These features provide the user with all information needed to analyze PCR products. The system uses light emitting diodes (LED) for illumination and a low cost Charge-coupled Device (CCD) camera for optical detection. Image data processing allows the automated process control of the overall system components. The system enables the performance of rapid and robust nucleic acid amplifications together with the integration of real time measurement technology. This allows the amplification and simultaneous quantification of the targeted pathogens. The integration of duplex amplification performance allows the incorporation of the necessary controls into the device to validate the PCR performance. This demonstrator can be run either as fully autonomously working device or as OEM part of a sample-to-answer platform.

  16. Cost Improvement Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    aaencies to aid in estimating the cost of selected Government hardware items. Its application has been quite conspicuous ir airframe production where...O r.0 OCCO I0 C COO.. - - . g ** *.~~~~. . .* . . .a .a e . . r . . C.Ot . .~C -0~O0 ag g 88-etc tea -c- ss..-e r este ~¶¶~ n:s a::: 9--t Tie~ c. a...qudntLt,-i Oil the fol lowing: LUT TOTAL LAuOR HIOURS AVLRAGL LABUR HOURS LOT SIZE PER LOT FOR LUT 1 8 2312 289 2 16 2672 167 3 26 3120 120 4 32 3040 95 5

  17. Integrated Sensitivity Analysis Workflow

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman-Hill, Ernest J.; Hoffman, Edward L.; Gibson, Marcus J.; Clay, Robert L.

    2014-08-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a crucial element of rigorous engineering analysis, but performing such an analysis on a complex model is difficult and time consuming. The mission of the DART Workbench team at Sandia National Laboratories is to lower the barriers to adoption of advanced analysis tools through software integration. The integrated environment guides the engineer in the use of these integrated tools and greatly reduces the cycle time for engineering analysis.

  18. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    To assure the river water quality, the Taiwan government establishes many pollution control strategies and expends huge monetary investment. Despite all these efforts, many rivers still suffer from severe pollution because of massive discharges of domestic and industrial wastewater without proper treatment. A comprehensive evaluation tool seems required to assess the suitability of water pollution control strategies. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to quantify the potential strategic benefits by applying the water quality modelling integrated with cost-benefit analysis to simulating scenarios based on regional development planning. The Erhjen Creek is selected as the study example because it is a major river in southern Taiwan, and its riverine environment impacts a great deal to the neighboring people. For strategy assessment, we established QUAL2k model of Erhjen Creek and conducted the cost-benefit analyses according the proposed strategies. In the water quality simulation, HEC-RAS was employed to calculate the hydraulic parameters and dilution impact of tidal effect in the downstream section. Daily pollution loadings were obtained from the Water Pollution Control Information System maintained by Taiwan EPA, and the wastewater delivery ratios were calculated by comparing the occurrence of pollution loadings with the monitoring data. In the cost-benefit analysis, we adopted the market valuation method, setting a period of 65 years for analysis and discount rate at 2.59%. Capital investments were the costs of design, construction, operation and maintenance for each project in Erhjen Creek catchment. In model calibration and model verification, the mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were calculated to be 21.4% and 25.5%, respectively, which met the prescribed acceptable criteria of 50%. This model was applied to simulating water quality based on implementing various pollution control policies and engineering projects in the Erhjen Creek. The overall

  19. Project analysis and integration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the Project Analysis and Integration Area (PA&I) is to support the planning, analysis, integration, and decision making activities of the Flat-plate Solar Array FSA) Project. Accordingly, PA&I supports the Project by developing and documenting Project plans based, in part, on the technical and economic assessments performed by PA&I of the various technical options. Goals for module technical performance and costs, derived from National Photovoltaics Program goals, are established by PA&I for each of the major technical activities in the Project. Assessments of progress toward achievement of goals are made to guide decision making within the Project.

  20. Cost analysis in the toxicology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Travers, E M

    1990-09-01

    The process of determining laboratory sectional and departmental costs and test costs for instrument-generated and manually generated reportable results for toxicology laboratories has been outlined in this article. It is hoped that the basic principles outlined in the preceding text will clarify and elucidate one of the most important areas needed for laboratory fiscal integrity and its survival in these difficult times for health care providers. The following general principles derived from this article are helpful aids for managers of toxicology laboratories. 1. To manage a cost-effective, efficient toxicology laboratory, several factors must be considered: the laboratory's instrument configuration, test turnaround time needs, the test menu offered, the analytic methods used, the cost of labor based on time expended and the experience and educational level of the staff, and logistics that determine specimen delivery time and costs. 2. There is a wide variation in costs for toxicologic methods, which requires that an analysis of capital (equipment) purchase and operational (test performance) costs be performed to avoid waste, purchase wisely, and determine which tests consume the majority of the laboratory's resources. 3. Toxicologic analysis is composed of many complex steps. Each step must be individually cost-accounted. Screening test results must be confirmed, and the cost for both steps must be included in the cost per reportable result. 4. Total costs will vary in the same laboratory and between laboratories based on differences in salaries paid to technical staff, differences in reagent/supply costs, the number of technical staff needed to operate the analyzer or perform the method, and the inefficient use of highly paid staff to operate the analyzer or perform the method. 5. Since direct test costs vary directly with the type and number of analyzers or methods and are dependent on the operational mode designed by the manufacturer, laboratory managers

  1. Cost analysis of emergency department.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, P; Di Bella, E; Montefiori, M

    2010-12-01

    This paper is intended to examine both clinical and economic data concerning the activity of an emergency department of an Italian primary Hospital. Real data referring to arrivals, waiting times, service times, severity (according to triage classification) of patients' condition collected along the whole 2009 are matched up with the relevant accounting and economic information concerning the costs faced. A new methodological approach is implemented in order to identify a "standard production cost" and its variability. We believe that this kind of analysis well fits the federalizing process that Italy is experiencing. In fact the federal reform is driving our Country toward a decentralized provision and funding of local public services. The health care services are "fundamental" under the provisions of the law that in turn implies that a standard cost has to be defined for its funding. The standard cost (as it is defined by the law) relies on the concepts of appropriateness and efficiency in the production of the health care service, assuming a standard quality level as target. The identification and measurement of health care costs is therefore a crucial task propaedeutic to health services economic evaluation. Various guidelines with different amount of details have been set up for costing methods which, however, are defined in simplified frameworks and using fictious data. This study is a first attempt to proceed in the direction of a precise definition of the costs inherent to the emergency department activity.

  2. The life cycle cost of integrated logistic support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florio, U. G.

    Scheduling of preventive maintenance within the general context of the life cycle cost of integrated logistic support is discussed. The principal categories of support cost are considered and a procedure of optimizing the total cost for the evaluation of a fundamental logistic parameters is developed using Markov models. The Markov approach allows the examination of the functional relationships between system reliability, maintenance policies and the costs of integrated logistic support. The life cycle cost of the logistic support is optimized, and the results permit a correct cost/efficiency scaling of the support.

  3. Low cost integrating cavity for monitoring of environmental toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixler, Joel N.; Winkler, Chase A.; Mason, John D.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-03-01

    Contamination of the water source and air pollution are two major problems that must be faced in the coming years. The increasing worldwide contamination of freshwater systems with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental problems facing humanity today. It is estimated that pathogens in water cause more than 2 million deaths annually. Additionally, traditional water quality assessment methods, such as liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy, are expensive and time consuming from sample collection to analysis. Low cost tools are needed which can provide high sensitivity in sensing, while remaining portable and providing near real time analysis. Here, we present a low cost integrating cavity that can be used for highly sensitive environmental sensing.

  4. General methodology: Costing, budgeting, and techniques for benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stretchberry, D. M.; Hein, G. F.

    1972-01-01

    The general concepts of costing, budgeting, and benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis are discussed. The three common methods of costing are presented. Budgeting distributions are discussed. The use of discounting procedures is outlined. The benefit-cost ratio and cost-effectiveness analysis is defined and their current application to NASA planning is pointed out. Specific practices and techniques are discussed, and actual costing and budgeting procedures are outlined. The recommended method of calculating benefit-cost ratios is described. A standardized method of cost-effectiveness analysis and long-range planning are also discussed.

  5. Integrating Cost Models with Systems Engineering Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-20

    expert judgment, bottom up (Industrial Engineering), and top down or parametric estimation . Table IV presents a Production Program Training...Bottom Up approach. life cycle cost. These costs are generally computed by Top Down or Parametric Estimation is the most analogy, expert opinion or by

  6. Accounting for future costs in medical cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, D

    1997-02-01

    Most medical cost-effectiveness analyses include future costs only for related illnesses, but this approach is controversial. This paper demonstrates that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with lifetime utility maximization only if it includes all future medical and non-medical expenditures. Estimates of the magnitude of these future costs suggest that they may substantially alter both the absolute and relative cost-effectiveness of medical interventions, particularly when an intervention increases length of life more than quality of life. In older populations, current methods overstate the cost-effectiveness of interventions which extend life compared to interventions which improve the quality of life.

  7. Costing and cost analysis in randomized controlled trials: caveat emptor.

    PubMed

    Polsky, Daniel; Glick, Henry

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the central issues regarding cost valuation and analysis for a decision maker's evaluation of costing performed within randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Costing involves specific choices for valuation and analysis that involve trade-offs. Understanding these choices and their implications is necessary for proper evaluation of how costs are valued and analyzed within an RCT and cannot be assessed through a checklist of adherence to general principles. Resource costing, the most common method of costing, involves measuring medical service use in study case report forms and translating this use into a cost by multiplying the number of units of each medical service by price weights for those services. A choice must be made as to how detailed the measurement of resources will be. Micro-costing improves the specificity of the cost estimate, but it is often impractical to precisely measure resources at this level and the price weights for these micro-units may not be available. Gross-costing may be more practical, and price weights are often easier to find and are more reliable, but important resource differences between treatment groups may be lost in the bundling of resources. Price weights can either be nationally determined or centre specific, but the appropriate price weight will depend on perspective, convenience, completeness and accuracy. Identifying the resource types and the appropriate price weights for these resources are the essential elements to an accurate valuation of costs. Once medical services are valued, the resulting individual patient cost estimates must be analysed. The difference in the mean cost between treatment groups is the important summary statistic for cost-effectiveness analysis from both the budgetary and the social perspectives. The statistical challenges with cost data typically stem from its skewed distribution and the resulting possibility that the sample mean may be inefficient and possibly

  8. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  9. Costs in Perspective: Understanding Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Detsky

    1996-01-01

    This paper covers five questions: (1) What is cost-effectiveness analysis;quest; (2) How can cost-effectiveness analysis help policymakers allocate scarce resources;quest; (3) What are misconceptions about the cost effectiveness of health care interventions;quest; (4) What is an attractive cost-effectiveness ratio;quest; (5) What is the relevance of cost effectiveness to clinicians? The cost side of the equation includes more than simply the cost of the intervention, but rather the cost of all of the downstream clinical events that occur with either therapeutic alternative. Cost-effectiveness analyses are used to help decisionmakers rank programs competing for scarce resources in order to achieve the following objective: to maximize the net health benefits derived from a fixed budget for a target population. A simple example is shown. Measured cost-effectiveness ratios for selected cardiovascular interventions are displayed. The systematic use of information on effectiveness and cost effectiveness should help those involved in setting policies to have a more rational basis for funding of new programs and discontinuation of funding for old programs. In Canadian health care it is important that we use this information to make room for innovations that are effective and efficient, and to remove funding from programs that are either known to be ineffective and costly or inefficient use of resources. More energy should be put toward generating the information necessary to make these kinds of decisions.

  10. Systematic Approach to Better Understanding Integration Costs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Gregory B.

    2015-09-28

    When someone mentions integration costs, thoughts of the costs of integrating renewable generation into an existing system come to mind. We think about how variability and uncertainty can increase power system cycling costs as increasing amounts of wind or solar generation are incorporated into the generation mix. However, seldom do we think about what happens to system costs when new baseload generation is added to an existing system or when generation self-schedules. What happens when a highly flexible combined-cycle plant is added? Do system costs go up, or do they go down? Are other, non-cycling, maintenance costs impacted? In this paper we investigate six technologies and operating practices--including VG, baseload generation, generation mix, gas prices, self-scheduling, and fast-start generation--and how changes in these areas can impact a system's operating costs. This paper provides a working definition of integration costs and four components of variable costs. It describes the study approach and how a production cost modeling-based method was used to determine the cost effects, and, as a part of the study approach section, it describes the test system and data used for the comparisons. Finally, it presents the research findings, and, in closing, suggests three areas for future work.

  11. Instructional Cost Analysis: History and Present Inadequacies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, David A.

    The cost analysis of instruction is conducted according to principles of teaching and learning that have often become historically dated. Using today's costing systems prevents determination of whether cost effectiveness actually exists. The patterns of instruction in higher education and the systems employed for instructional cost analysis are…

  12. Variable cost of ICU care, a micro-costing analysis.

    PubMed

    Karabatsou, Dimitra; Tsironi, Maria; Tsigou, Evdoxia; Boutzouka, Eleni; Katsoulas, Theodoros; Baltopoulos, George

    2016-08-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) costs account for a great part of a hospital's expenses. The objective of the present study was to measure the patient-specific cost of ICU treatment, to identify the most important cost drivers in ICU and to examine the role of various contributing factors in cost configuration. A retrospective cost analysis of all ICU patients who were admitted during 2011 in a Greek General, seven-bed ICU and stayed for at least 24hours was performed, by applying bottom-up analysis. Data collected included demographics and the exact cost of every single material used for patients' care. Prices were yielded from the hospital's purchasing costs and from the national price list of the imaging and laboratory tests, which was provided by the Ministry of Health. A total of 138 patients were included. Variable cost per ICU day was €573.18. A substantial cost variation was found in the total costs obtained for individual patients (median: €3443, range: €243.70-€116,355). Medicines were responsible for more than half of the cost and antibiotics accounted for the largest part of it, followed by blood products and cardiovascular drugs. Medical cause of admission, severe illness and increased length of stay, mechanical ventilation and dialysis were the factors associated with cost escalation. ICU variable cost is patient-specific, varies according to each patient's needs and is influenced by several factors. The exact estimation of variable cost is a pre-requisite in order to control ICU expenses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs: Cost Assessment of Manufacturing/Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program was to demonstrate, for an integrally stiffened structural concept, performance and weight equal to "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. This report presents results of the cost assessment for several design configuration/manufacturing method combinations. The attributes of various cost analysis models were evaluated and COSTRAN selected for this study. A process/design cost evaluation matrix was developed based on material, forming, machining, and assembly of structural sub-elements and assembled structure. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current built-up technology baseline. This would correspond to a total cost reduction of $1.7 million per ship set for a 777-sized airplane. However, there are important outstanding issues with regard to the cost of capacity of high technology machinery, and the ability to cost-effectively provide surface finish acceptable to the commercial aircraft industry. The projected high raw material cost of large extrusions also played an important role in the trade-off between plate and extruded concepts.

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of the national implementation of integrated community case management and community-based health planning and services in Ghana for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Escribano Ferrer, Blanca; Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Gyapong, Margaret; Bruce, Jane; Narh Bana, Solomon A; Narh, Clement T; Allotey, Naa-Korkor; Glover, Roland; Azantilow, Naa-Charity; Bart-Plange, Constance; Sagoe-Moses, Isabella; Webster, Jayne

    2017-07-05

    Ghana has developed two main community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia: the integrated community case management (iCCM) and the community-based health planning and services (CHPS). The aim of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of these strategies under programme conditions. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment given was the effectiveness measure used. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment data was obtained from a household survey conducted 2 and 8 years after implementation of iCCM in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana, respectively. The study population was carers of children under-5 years who had fever, diarrhoea and/or cough in the last 2 weeks prior to the interview. Costs data was obtained mainly from the National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP), the Ministry of Health, CHPS compounds and from a household survey. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia was more cost-effective under the iCCM than under CHPS in the Volta Region, even after adjusting for different discount rates, facility costs and iCCM and CHPS utilization, but not when iCCM appropriate treatment was reduced by 50%. Due to low numbers of carers visiting a CBA in the Northern Region it was not possible to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis in this region. However, the cost analysis showed that iCCM in the Northern Region had higher cost per malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia case diagnosed and treated when compared to the Volta Region and to the CHPS strategy in the Northern Region. Integrated community case management was more cost-effective than CHPS for the treatment of malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia when utilized by carers of children under-5 years in the Volta Region. A revision of the iCCM strategy in the Northern Region is needed to improve its cost-effectiveness. Long-term financing

  15. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.

    1997-06-01

    CPA - Cost and Performance Analysis - is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance analysis tools: ACEIT (Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools) and ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Safeguards and Security). ACE is an existing DOD PC-based tool that supports cost analysis over the full life cycle of a system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. Through CPA, the cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making the data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and subsystem levels. The structure of the cost spreadsheets incorporates an activity-based approach to cost estimation. Activity-based costing (ABC) is an accounting philosophy used by industry to trace direct and indirect costs to the products or services of a business unit. By tracing costs through security sensors and procedures and then mapping the contributions of the various sensors and procedures to system effectiveness, the CPA architecture can provide security managers with information critical for both operational and strategic decisions. The architecture, features and applications of the CPA prototype are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Effects of treatment-integrity failures on a response-cost procedure.

    PubMed

    St Peter, Claire C; Byrd, Jeffrey D; Pence, Sacha T; Foreman, Apral P

    2016-06-01

    Effects of incorrect or partial implementation (poor treatment integrity) on response cost are largely unknown. We evaluated reduced treatment integrity during response cost on rates of 2 concurrently available responses. College students earned points by clicking on either a black circle or a red circle on a computer screen. Experiment 1 compared 2 types of treatment-integrity failures (omission and commission errors) across 2 levels of integrity (20% and 50%). Compared to 100% integrity conditions, omission errors did not suppress responding to the same extent, and commission errors reduced target responding but also decreased rates of alternative behavior. Experiment 2 compared the effects of 20% and 50% omission errors within subjects. Implementation at 50% integrity adequately suppressed responding, but treatment effects were lost at 20% integrity. There may be a critical level at which response cost must be implemented to suppress responding, which has important implications for application. © 2016 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  17. Shelterwood-planted northern red oaks: integrated costs and options

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel Dey; Paul. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Tree biology, environmental site conditions, relative monetary costs, management options, and the competitive struggle between planted trees and other vegetation were integrated when underplanting northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in Boston Mountain shelterwoods. This approach provides insight into the collective costs (...

  18. Cost-effectiveness analysis in markets with high fixed costs.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Ericson, Keith M Marzilli

    2010-01-01

    We consider how to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis when the social cost of a resource differs from the posted price. From the social perspective, the true cost of a medical intervention is the marginal cost of delivering another unit of a treatment, plus the social cost (deadweight loss) of raising the revenue to fund the treatment. We focus on pharmaceutical prices, which have high markups over marginal cost due to the monopoly power granted to pharmaceutical companies when drugs are under patent. We find that the social cost of a branded drug is approximately one-half the market price when the treatment is paid for by a public insurance plan and one-third the market price for mandated coverage by private insurance. We illustrate the importance of correctly accounting for social costs using two examples: coverage for statin drugs and approval for a drug to treat kidney cancer (sorafenib). In each case, we show that the correct social perspective for cost-effectiveness analysis would be more lenient than researcher recommendations.

  19. Component Cost Analysis of Large Scale Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelton, R. E.; Yousuff, A.

    1982-01-01

    The ideas of cost decomposition is summarized to aid in the determination of the relative cost (or 'price') of each component of a linear dynamic system using quadratic performance criteria. In addition to the insights into system behavior that are afforded by such a component cost analysis CCA, these CCA ideas naturally lead to a theory for cost-equivalent realizations.

  20. Integrated Safety Analysis Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

  1. 34-in. onshore gasline: Integrity assessment and rehabilitation costs

    SciTech Connect

    Amorelli, A.; Fassina, P.; Abougfeefa, M.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes all the activities carried out to evaluate the integrity of a 34-in. onshore gasline, in order to establish the best strategies to manage the gasline for the next 20 years, taking into account the future operating conditions. Three different alternatives have been considered: the first one was a new pipeline laying, the second the replacement of all damaged stroke line, more or less half of the line, and the last one was a refurbishment of the line by the removal of just the most significant defects. A cost analysis has been performed for all these alternatives. The third one has been selected on the basis of technical and economical evaluations.

  2. Constellation Program Life-cycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Andy; Rose, Heidi; Wood, James

    2008-01-01

    The Constellation Program (CxP) is NASA's effort to replace the Space Shuttle, return humans to the moon, and prepare for a human mission to Mars. The major elements of the Constellation Lunar sortie design reference mission architecture are shown. Unlike the Apollo Program of the 1960's, affordability is a major concern of United States policy makers and NASA management. To measure Constellation affordability, a total ownership cost life-cycle parametric cost estimating capability is required. This capability is being developed by the Constellation Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Directorate, and is called the Lifecycle Cost Analysis Model (LCAM). The requirements for LCAM are based on the need to have a parametric estimating capability in order to do top-level program analysis, evaluate design alternatives, and explore options for future systems. By estimating the total cost of ownership within the context of the planned Constellation budget, LCAM can provide Program and NASA management with the cost data necessary to identify the most affordable alternatives. LCAM is also a key component of the Integrated Program Model (IPM), an SE&I developed capability that combines parametric sizing tools with cost, schedule, and risk models to perform program analysis. LCAM is used in the generation of cost estimates for system level trades and analyses. It draws upon the legacy of previous architecture level cost models, such as the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Architecture Cost Model (ARCOM) developed for Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), and ATLAS. LCAM is used to support requirements and design trade studies by calculating changes in cost relative to a baseline option cost. Estimated costs are generally low fidelity to accommodate available input data and available cost estimating relationships (CERs). LCAM is capable of interfacing with the Integrated Program Model to provide the cost estimating capability for that suite of tools.

  3. Cost analysis for procedure comparisons.

    PubMed

    Trowers, E A; Batra, S C; Buessler, J; Anderson, L K

    1995-01-01

    Using the methodology of activity-based costing as a conceptual framework, the authors present the potential cost reduction of a new office routine and a medical procedure. The costs of a new instrument for colorectal cancer screening and a new surveying and follow-up of at-risk patients show that time and relevant costs in the G.I Clinic and G.I Endoscopy Lab were significantly reduced.

  4. Descriptive Cost Analysis of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobojan, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Presents a study of cost analysis of the Frederick County Public Schools (Maryland) special education programs and services. The Larson IPSEC Model was used as the basis for the cost analysis. The modified Larson model provides a valuable tool to determine the per pupil cost of special education. (Author/MD)

  5. Descriptive Cost Analysis of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobojan, Alan

    1987-01-01

    Presents a study of cost analysis of the Frederick County Public Schools (Maryland) special education programs and services. The Larson IPSEC Model was used as the basis for the cost analysis. The modified Larson model provides a valuable tool to determine the per pupil cost of special education. (Author/MD)

  6. HIV, tuberculosis, and noncommunicable diseases: what is known about the costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of integrated care?

    PubMed

    Hyle, Emily P; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Su, Amanda E; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Freedberg, Kenneth A

    2014-09-01

    Unprecedented investments in health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have resulted in more than 8 million individuals on antiretroviral therapy. Such individuals experience dramatically increased survival but are increasingly at risk of developing common noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Integrating clinical care for HIV, other infectious diseases, and NCDs could make health services more effective and provide greater value. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a method to evaluate the clinical benefits and costs associated with different health care interventions and offers guidance for prioritization of investments and scale-up, especially as resources are increasingly constrained. We first examine tuberculosis and HIV as 1 example of integrated care already successfully implemented in several LMICs; we then review the published literature regarding cervical cancer and depression as 2 examples of NCDs for which integrating care with HIV services could offer excellent value. Direct evidence of the benefits of integrated services generally remains scarce; however, data suggest that improved effectiveness and reduced costs may be attained by integrating additional services with existing HIV clinical care. Further investigation into clinical outcomes and costs of care for NCDs among people living with HIV in LMICs will help to prioritize specific health care services by contributing to an understanding of the affordability and implementation of an integrated approach.

  7. The Costs of Delivering Integrated HIV and Sexual Reproductive Health Services in Limited Resource Settings.

    PubMed

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Sweeney, Sedona; Darsamo, Vanessa; Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Guinness, Lorna; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Muketo, Esther; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Warren, Charlotte E; Mayhew, Susannah; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2015-01-01

    To present evidence on the total costs and unit costs of delivering six integrated sexual reproductive health and HIV services in a high and medium HIV prevalence setting, in order to support policy makers and planners scaling up these essential services. A retrospective facility based costing study conducted in 40 non-government organization and public health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland. Economic and financial costs were collected retrospectively for the year 2010/11, from each study site with an aim to estimate the cost per visit of six integrated HIV and SRH services. A full cost analysis using a combination of bottom-up and step-down costing methods was conducted from the health provider's perspective. The main unit of analysis is the economic unit cost per visit for each service. Costs are converted to 2013 International dollars. The mean cost per visit for the HIV/SRH services ranged from $Int 14.23 (PNC visit) to $Int 74.21 (HIV treatment visit). We found considerable variation in the unit costs per visit across settings with family planning services exhibiting the least variation ($Int 6.71-52.24) and STI treatment and HIV treatment visits exhibiting the highest variation in unit cost ranging from ($Int 5.44-281.85) and ($Int 0.83-314.95), respectively. Unit costs of visits were driven by fixed costs while variability in visit costs across facilities was explained mainly by technology used and service maturity. For all services, variability in unit costs and cost components suggest that potential exists to reduce costs through better use of both human and capital resources, despite the high proportion of expenditure on drugs and medical supplies. Further work is required to explore the key drivers of efficiency and interventions that may facilitate efficiency improvements.

  8. The Costs of Delivering Integrated HIV and Sexual Reproductive Health Services in Limited Resource Settings

    PubMed Central

    Obure, Carol Dayo; Sweeney, Sedona; Darsamo, Vanessa; Michaels-Igbokwe, Christine; Guinness, Lorna; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Muketo, Esther; Nhlabatsi, Zelda; Warren, Charlotte E.; Mayhew, Susannah; Watts, Charlotte; Vassall, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present evidence on the total costs and unit costs of delivering six integrated sexual reproductive health and HIV services in a high and medium HIV prevalence setting, in order to support policy makers and planners scaling up these essential services. Design A retrospective facility based costing study conducted in 40 non-government organization and public health facilities in Kenya and Swaziland. Methods Economic and financial costs were collected retrospectively for the year 2010/11, from each study site with an aim to estimate the cost per visit of six integrated HIV and SRH services. A full cost analysis using a combination of bottom-up and step-down costing methods was conducted from the health provider’s perspective. The main unit of analysis is the economic unit cost per visit for each service. Costs are converted to 2013 International dollars. Results The mean cost per visit for the HIV/SRH services ranged from $Int 14.23 (PNC visit) to $Int 74.21 (HIV treatment visit). We found considerable variation in the unit costs per visit across settings with family planning services exhibiting the least variation ($Int 6.71-52.24) and STI treatment and HIV treatment visits exhibiting the highest variation in unit cost ranging from ($Int 5.44-281.85) and ($Int 0.83-314.95), respectively. Unit costs of visits were driven by fixed costs while variability in visit costs across facilities was explained mainly by technology used and service maturity. Conclusion For all services, variability in unit costs and cost components suggest that potential exists to reduce costs through better use of both human and capital resources, despite the high proportion of expenditure on drugs and medical supplies. Further work is required to explore the key drivers of efficiency and interventions that may facilitate efficiency improvements. PMID:25933414

  9. Department of the Army Cost Analysis Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-01

    product cost , and responsibility cost to name a few. Though there are many examples of cost measurement each demands cost analysis support to make ...political impacts. (4) Substitute for sound judgment, management, or control. (5) Make the final decisions. g. Despite these limitations, cost ...annual buys . Full-Rate Production Decision Review Before making the full-rate production and deployment decision, the MDA shall consider: • The

  10. Treatment of an actual slaughterhouse wastewater by integration of biological and advanced oxidation processes: Modeling, optimization, and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bustillo-Lecompte, Ciro Fernando; Mehrvar, Mehrab

    2016-11-01

    Biological and advanced oxidation processes are combined to treat an actual slaughterhouse wastewater (SWW) by a sequence of an anaerobic baffled reactor, an aerobic activated sludge reactor, and a UV/H2O2 photoreactor with recycle in continuous mode at laboratory scale. In the first part of this study, quadratic modeling along with response surface methodology are used for the statistical analysis and optimization of the combined process. The effects of the influent total organic carbon (TOC) concentration, the flow rate, the pH, the inlet H2O2 concentration, and their interaction on the overall treatment efficiency, CH4 yield, and H2O2 residual in the effluent of the photoreactor are investigated. The models are validated at different operating conditions using experimental data. Maximum TOC and total nitrogen (TN) removals of 91.29 and 86.05%, respectively, maximum CH4 yield of 55.72%, and minimum H2O2 residual of 1.45% in the photoreactor effluent were found at optimal operating conditions. In the second part of this study, continuous distribution kinetics is applied to establish a mathematical model for the degradation of SWW as a function of time. The agreement between model predictions and experimental values indicates that the proposed model could describe the performance of the combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes for the treatment of SWW. In the final part of the study, the optimized combined anaerobic-aerobic-UV/H2O2 processes with recycle were evaluated using a cost-effectiveness analysis to minimize the retention time, the electrical energy consumption, and the overall incurred treatment costs required for the efficient treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater effluents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incorporating psychological influences in probabilistic cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kujawski, Edouard; Alvaro, Mariana; Edwards, William

    2004-01-08

    Today's typical probabilistic cost analysis assumes an ''ideal'' project that is devoid of the human and organizational considerations that heavily influence the success and cost of real-world projects. In the real world ''Money Allocated Is Money Spent'' (MAIMS principle); cost underruns are rarely available to protect against cost overruns while task overruns are passed on to the total project cost. Realistic cost estimates therefore require a modified probabilistic cost analysis that simultaneously models the cost management strategy including budget allocation. Psychological influences such as overconfidence in assessing uncertainties and dependencies among cost elements and risks are other important considerations that are generally not addressed. It should then be no surprise that actual project costs often exceed the initial estimates and are delivered late and/or with a reduced scope. This paper presents a practical probabilistic cost analysis model that incorporates recent findings in human behavior and judgment under uncertainty, dependencies among cost elements, the MAIMS principle, and project management practices. Uncertain cost elements are elicited from experts using the direct fractile assessment method and fitted with three-parameter Weibull distributions. The full correlation matrix is specified in terms of two parameters that characterize correlations among cost elements in the same and in different subsystems. The analysis is readily implemented using standard Monte Carlo simulation tools such as {at}Risk and Crystal Ball{reg_sign}. The analysis of a representative design and engineering project substantiates that today's typical probabilistic cost analysis is likely to severely underestimate project cost for probability of success values of importance to contractors and procuring activities. The proposed approach provides a framework for developing a viable cost management strategy for allocating baseline budgets and contingencies. Given the

  12. The increased cost of ventral hernia recurrence: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Davila, D G; Parikh, N; Frelich, M J; Goldblatt, M I

    2016-12-01

    Over 300,000 ventral hernia repairs (VHRs) are performed each year in the US. We sought to assess the economic burden related to ventral hernia recurrences with a focused comparison of those with the initial open versus laparoscopic surgery. The Premier Alliance database from 2009 to 2014 was utilized to obtain patient demographics and comorbid indices, including the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Total hospital cost and resource expenses during index laparoscopic and open VHRs and subsequent recurrent repairs were also obtained. The sample was separated into laparoscopic and open repair groups from the initial operation. Adjusted and propensity score matched cost outcome data were then compared amongst groups. One thousand and seventy-seven patients were used for the analysis with a recurrence rate of 3.78 %. For the combined sample, costs were significantly higher during recurrent hernia repair hospitalization ($21,726 versus $19,484, p < 0.0001). However, for index laparoscopic repairs, both the adjusted total hospital cost and department level costs were similar during the index and the recurrent visit. The costs and resource utilization did not go up due to recurrence, even though these patients had greater severity during the recurrent visit (CCI score 0.92 versus 1.06; p = 0.0092). Using a matched sample, the total hospital recurrence cost was higher for the initial open group compared to laparoscopic group ($14,520 versus $12,649; p = 0.0454). Based on our analysis, need for recurrent VHR adds substantially to total hospital costs and resource utilization. Following initial laparoscopic repair, however, the total cost of recurrent repair is not significantly increased, as it is following initial open repair. When comparing the initial laparoscopic repair versus open, the cost of recurrence was higher for the prior open repair group.

  13. Cost analysis of atmosphere monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict realistic relative cost of life support systems and to define areas of major cost impacts in the development cycle. Emphasis was given to tailoring the cost data for usage by program planners and designers. Cost estimates can be completed using the developed equations for varying degrees of equipment refinement, as well as comparative costs between different functional methods. Cost analysis of two leading atmosphere monitoring systems, namely the mass spectrometer and the gas chromatograph, is discussed. A summary of the approach used in developing the cost estimating techniques is presented. Included are the cost estimating techniques, the development of cost estimating relationships, and the atmosphere monitoring system cost estimates.

  14. Computer assisted yarding cost analysis.

    Treesearch

    Ronald W. Mifflin

    1980-01-01

    Programs for a programable calculator and a desk-top computer are provided for quickly determining yarding cost and comparing the economics of alternative yarding systems. The programs emphasize the importance of the relationship between production rate and machine rate, which is the hourly cost of owning and operating yarding equipment. In addition to generating the...

  15. Distance Education: A Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Judy I.; Simonson, Michael

    The costs of three types of transmission technology in distance education are compared, and the costs for equipping and installing a distance education classroom are estimated. Two of the technologies--fiber optics and microwave--deliver two-way, full motion video and two-way audio. The third technology, compressed video, also delivers two-way…

  16. Construction CAE; Integration of CAD, simulation, planning and cost control

    SciTech Connect

    Wickard, D.A. ); Bill, R.D.; Gates, K.H.; Yoshinaga, T.; Ohcoshi, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Construction CAE is a simulation, planning, scheduling, and cost control tool that is integrated with a computer aided design (CAD) system. The system uses a CAD model and allows the user to perform construction simulation on objects defined within the model. Initial cost/schedule reports as well as those required for project chronicling are supported through an interface to a work breakdown structure (WBS) and a client's existing schedule reporting system. By integrating currently available project control tools with a simulation system, Construction CAE is more effective than its individual components.

  17. Cost analysis in a clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Brezmes, M F; Ochoa, C; Eiros, J M

    2002-08-01

    The use of models for business management and cost control in public hospitals has led to a need for microbiology laboratories to know the real cost of the different products they offer. For this reason, a catalogue of microbiological products was prepared, and the costs (direct and indirect) for each product were analysed, along with estimated profitability. All tests performed in the microbiology laboratory of the "Virgen de la Concha" Hospital in Zamora over a 2-year period (73192 tests) were studied. The microbiological product catalogue was designed using homogeneity criteria with respect to procedures used, workloads and costs. For each product, the direct personnel costs (estimated from workloads following the method of the College of American Pathologists, 1992 version), the indirect personnel costs, the direct and indirect material costs and the portion of costs corresponding to the remaining laboratory costs (capital and structural costs) were calculated. The average product cost was 16.05 euros. The average cost of a urine culture (considered, for purposes of this study, as a relative value unit) reached 13.59 euros, with a significant difference observed between positive and negative cultures (negative urine culture, 10.72 euros; positive culture, 29.65 euros). Significant heterogeneity exists, both in the costs of different products and especially in the cost per positive test. The application of a detailed methodology of cost analysis facilitates the calculation of the real cost of microbiological products. This information provides a basic tool for establishing clinical management strategies.

  18. Integration of Variable Generation and Cost-Causation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-09-01

    Variable renewable energy generation sources, such as wind and solar energy, provide benefits such as reduced environmental impact, zero fuel consumption, and low and stable costs. Advances in both technologies can reduce capital costs and provide significant control capabilities. However, their variability and uncertainty - which change with weather conditions, time of day, and season - can cause an increase in power system operating costs compared to a fully controllable power plant. Although a number of studies have assessed integration costs, calculating them correctly is challenging because it is difficult to accurately develop a baseline scenario without variable generation that properly accounts for the energy value. It is also difficult to appropriately allocate costs given the complex, nonlinear interactions between resources and loads.

  19. Discipline Cost Analysis Manual. Maryland Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Board for Community Colleges, Annapolis.

    As an aid to Maryland community colleges, procedures are outlined for approximating and reporting discipline cost data required for internal decision-making and for the statewide coordination of community college planning. A discussion of the development of costing standards, which are based on a cost analysis model developed by the National…

  20. Laboratory cost analysis: a practical approach.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, R B

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a practical method for performing a cost analysis for the smaller laboratory for which computerized methods may be unavailable or unappealing. An overview of cost accounting as it fits into planning functions is presented, and three common methods for performing such analyses and appropriate applications are described. The concept of breakeven analysis and its uses are presented. Finally, a worksheet approach to cost analysis is presented, including examples that demonstrate proper use. The worksheets, although not universally applicable without modifications, use a stepwise process to achieve a simplistic but useful cost analysis. Readers are encouraged to adapt these worksheets to their own operations.

  1. National Variation in Urethroplasty Cost and Predictors of Extreme Cost: A Cost Analysis with Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Catherine R.; Osterberg, E. Charles; Sanford, Thomas; Alwaal, Amjad; Gaither, Thomas W.; McAninch, Jack W.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine which factors are associated with higher urethroplasty procedural costs and whether they have been increasing or decreasing over time. Identification of determinants of extreme costs may help reduce cost while maintaining quality. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis using the 2001–2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The HCUP-NIS captures hospital charges which we converted to cost using the HCUP Cost-to-Charge Ratio. Log cost linear regression with sensitivity analysis was used to determine variables associated with increased costs. Extreme cost was defined as the top 20th percentile of expenditure, analyzed with logistic regression and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR). Results A total of 2298 urethroplasties were recorded in NIS over the study period. The median (interquartile range) calculated costs was $7321 ($5677–$10000). Patients with multiple comorbid conditions were associated with extreme costs (OR 1.56 95% CI 1.19–2.04, p=0.02) compared to patients with no comorbid disease. Inpatient complications raised the odds of extreme costs OR 3.2 CI 2.14–4.75, p<0.001). Graft urethroplasties were associated with extreme costs (OR 1.78 95% CI 1.2–2.64, p=0.005). Variation in patient age, race, hospital region, bed size, teaching status, payer type, and volume of urethroplasty cases were not associated with extremes of cost. Conclusion Cost variation for perioperative inpatient urethroplasty procedures is dependent on preoperative patient comorbidities, postoperative complications and surgical complexity related to graft usage. Procedural cost and cost variation are critical for understanding which aspects of care have the greatest impact on cost. PMID:27107626

  2. National Variation in Urethroplasty Cost and Predictors of Extreme Cost: A Cost Analysis With Policy Implications.

    PubMed

    Harris, Catherine R; Osterberg, E Charles; Sanford, Thomas; Alwaal, Amjad; Gaither, Thomas W; McAninch, Jack W; McCulloch, Charles E; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2016-08-01

    To determine which factors are associated with higher costs of urethroplasty procedure and whether these factors have been increasing over time. Identification of determinants of extreme costs may help reduce cost while maintaining quality. We conducted a retrospective analysis using the 2001-2010 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). The HCUP-NIS captures hospital charges which we converted to cost using the HCUP cost-to-charge ratio. Log cost linear regression with sensitivity analysis was used to determine variables associated with increased costs. Extreme cost was defined as the top 20th percentile of expenditure, analyzed with logistic regression, and expressed as odds ratios (OR). A total of 2298 urethroplasties were recorded in NIS over the study period. The median (interquartile range) calculated cost was $7321 ($5677-$10,000). Patients with multiple comorbid conditions were associated with extreme costs [OR 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-2.04, P = .02] compared with patients with no comorbid disease. Inpatient complications raised the odds of extreme costs (OR 3.2, CI 2.14-4.75, P <.001). Graft urethroplasties were associated with extreme costs (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.2-2.64, P = .005). Variations in patient age, race, hospital region, bed size, teaching status, payor type, and volume of urethroplasty cases were not associated with extremes of cost. Cost variation for perioperative inpatient urethroplasty procedures is dependent on preoperative patient comorbidities, postoperative complications, and surgical complexity related to graft usage. Procedural cost and cost variation are critical for understanding which aspects of care have the greatest impact on cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  4. IAC - INTEGRATED ANALYSIS CAPABILITY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, H. P.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) system is to provide a highly effective, interactive analysis tool for the integrated design of large structures. With the goal of supporting the unique needs of engineering analysis groups concerned with interdisciplinary problems, IAC was developed to interface programs from the fields of structures, thermodynamics, controls, and system dynamics with an executive system and database to yield a highly efficient multi-disciplinary system. Special attention is given to user requirements such as data handling and on-line assistance with operational features, and the ability to add new modules of the user's choice at a future date. IAC contains an executive system, a data base, general utilities, interfaces to various engineering programs, and a framework for building interfaces to other programs. IAC has shown itself to be effective in automatic data transfer among analysis programs. IAC 2.5, designed to be compatible as far as possible with Level 1.5, contains a major upgrade in executive and database management system capabilities, and includes interfaces to enable thermal, structures, optics, and control interaction dynamics analysis. The IAC system architecture is modular in design. 1) The executive module contains an input command processor, an extensive data management system, and driver code to execute the application modules. 2) Technical modules provide standalone computational capability as well as support for various solution paths or coupled analyses. 3) Graphics and model generation interfaces are supplied for building and viewing models. Advanced graphics capabilities are provided within particular analysis modules such as INCA and NASTRAN. 4) Interface modules provide for the required data flow between IAC and other modules. 5) User modules can be arbitrary executable programs or JCL procedures with no pre-defined relationship to IAC. 6) Special purpose modules are included, such as MIMIC (Model

  5. Benchmarks for Reducing Emergency Department Visits and Hospitalizations Through Community Health Workers Integrated Into Primary Care: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Jack, Helen E; Arabadjis, Sophia D; Phillips, Russell S

    2017-02-01

    Uncertainty about the financial costs and benefits of community health worker (CHW) programs remains a barrier to their adoption. To determine how much CHWs would need to reduce emergency department (ED) visits and associated hospitalizations among their assigned patients to be cost-neutral from a payer's perspective. Using a microsimulation of patient health care utilization, costs, and revenues, we estimated what portion of ED visits and hospitalizations for different conditions would need to be prevented by a CHW program to fully pay for the program's expenses. The model simulated CHW programs enrolling patients with a history of at least 1 ED visit for a chronic condition in the prior year, utilizing data on utilization and cost from national sources. CHWs assigned to patients with uncontrolled hypertension and congestive heart failure, as compared with other common conditions, achieve cost-neutrality with the lowest number of averted visits to the ED. To achieve cost-neutrality, 4-5 visits to the ED would need to be averted per year by a CHW assigned a panel of 70 patients with uncontrolled hypertension or congestive heart failure-approximately 3%-4% of typical ED visits among such patients, respectively. Most other chronic conditions would require between 7% and 12% of ED visits to be averted to achieve cost-savings. Offsetting costs of a CHW program is theoretically feasible for many common conditions. Yet the benchmark for reducing ED visits and associated hospitalizations varies substantially by a patient's primary diagnosis.

  6. Cost analysis of glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Rylander, Nathan R; Vold, Steven D

    2008-01-01

    To provide patients and health care providers with calculated yearly costs of topical glaucoma medications. Prospective, experimental, laboratory study. Using the average wholesale price and common dosing patterns, we calculated the theoretical yearly cost of glaucoma medications. Calculated yearly cost ranged from $150.81 for generic timolol maleate 0.5% (Falcon Pharmaceuticals, Ltd, Fort Worth, Texas, USA) to $697.42 for Cosopt (Merck & Co, West Point, Pennsylvania, USA), and as high as $873.98 for a three-times-daily dose of Alphagan P 0.15% (Allergan, Inc, Irvine, California, USA). Among brand name beta-blockers, yearly cost ranged between $203.47 for Timoptic 0.5% (Merck & Co) and $657.24 for Betoptic S (Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, Texas, USA). Generic beta-blockers consistently were more economical than their brand-name counterparts. Yearly cost of prostaglandin analogs ranged from $427.69 for Travatan (Alcon) to $577.62 for Lumigan (Allergan). The two carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Azopt (Alcon) and Trusopt (Merck & Co), yielded similar economic profiles. Alphagan P 0.15% had yearly calculated costs of $559.08 for twice daily dosing per eye. The generic selective alpha(2)-agonist brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Bausch & Lomb Pharmaceuticals, Tampa, Florida, USA) costs approximately $352.89 and $529.34 per year for the respective two and three drops daily per eye regimens. Nonselective beta-blockers remain the most inexpensive class of glaucoma medications. Bottle size may impact yearly glaucoma medication expenditures. Costs of glaucoma medications may impact decision making in the medical management of glaucoma.

  7. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced life support subsystems for long range planning in support of earth orbital programs. Cost analysis are presented for five leading water reclamation systems; (1) RITE waste management-water system;(2) reverse osmosis system;(3) multifiltration system;(4) vapor compression system; and(5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  8. A cost analysis: processing maple syrup products

    Treesearch

    Neil K. Huyler; Lawrence D. Garrett

    1979-01-01

    A cost analysis of processing maple sap to syrup for three fuel types, oil-, wood-, and LP gas-fired evaporators, indicates that: (1) fuel, capital, and labor are the major cost components of processing sap to syrup; (2) wood-fired evaporators show a slight cost advantage over oil- and LP gas-fired evaporators; however, as the cost of wood approaches $50 per cord, wood...

  9. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with

  10. Integrated circuits: Resistless processing simplifies production and cuts costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, K.

    1993-03-01

    Reducing the complexity and cost of producing deep-submicrometer integrated circuits (IC's) will soon be possible using a revolutionary approach being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Resistless Projection Doping (RPD) will eliminate the need for photoresist processing during the impurity doping step. This single innovation will reduce the doping sequence from 13 steps to 1 and eliminate the need for five pieces of capital equipment costing more than $5 million. The overall cost of high-volume wafer fabrication will be reduced by more than 10 percent. In addition, the LLNL RPD machine is compact and modular, minimizing facilities costs when compared to today's industry-standard doping equipment. These physical characteristics of the machine also allow the RPD process to be easily incorporated into single-wafer, 'cluster' processing tools. When integrated with existing deposition, etching, and annealing steps and developing lithography techniques, the LLNL doping process completes the technology set required to produce a flexible fabrication facility of the future. At one-fifth the cost of current mega-fabrication facilities, the availability of these compact, low-volume, smart factories will give US manufacturers a substantial competitive advantage in the world-wide marketplace for high-value custom and semi-custom integrated circuits.

  11. The promise--and peril--of integrated cost systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R; Kaplan, R S

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in managerial accounting have helped executives get the information they need to make good strategic decisions. But today's enterprise resource planning systems promise even greater benefits--the chance to integrate activity-based costing, operational-control, and financial reporting systems. But managers need to approach integration very thoughtfully, or they could end up with a system that drives decision making in the wrong direction. Operational-control and ABC systems have fundamentally different purposes. Their requirements for accuracy, timeliness, and aggregation are so different that no single, fully integrated approach can be adequate for both purposes. If an integrated system used real-time cost data instead of standard rates in its ABC subsystem, for example, the result would be dangerously distorted messages about individual product profitability--and that's precisely the problem ABC systems were originally designed to address. Proper linkage and feedback between the two systems is possible, however. Through activity-based budgeting, the ABC system is linked directly to operations control: managers can determine the supply and practical capacity of resources in forthcoming periods. Linking operational control to ABC is also possible. The activity-based portion of an operational control system collects information that, while it mustn't be fed directly into the activity-based strategic cost system, can be extremely useful once it's been properly analyzed. Finally, ABC and operational control can be linked to financial reporting to generate cost of goods sold and inventory valuations--but again, with precautions.

  12. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries.

    PubMed

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-06-26

    This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC can be an important new approach for enhancing global health

  13. Scaling up integrated prevention campaigns for global health: costs and cost-effectiveness in 70 countries

    PubMed Central

    Marseille, Elliot; Jiwani, Aliya; Raut, Abhishek; Verguet, Stéphane; Walson, Judd; Kahn, James G

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study estimated the health impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of an integrated prevention campaign (IPC) focused on diarrhoea, malaria and HIV in 70 countries ranked by per capita disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) burden for the three diseases. Methods We constructed a deterministic cost-effectiveness model portraying an IPC combining counselling and testing, cotrimoxazole prophylaxis, referral to treatment and condom distribution for HIV prevention; bed nets for malaria prevention; and provision of household water filters for diarrhoea prevention. We developed a mix of empirical and modelled cost and health impact estimates applied to all 70 countries. One-way, multiway and scenario sensitivity analyses were conducted to document the strength of our findings. We used a healthcare payer's perspective, discounted costs and DALYs at 3% per year and denominated cost in 2012 US dollars. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was cost-effectiveness expressed as net cost per DALY averted. Other outcomes included cost of the IPC; net IPC costs adjusted for averted and additional medical costs and DALYs averted. Results Implementation of the IPC in the 10 most cost-effective countries at 15% population coverage would cost US$583 million over 3 years (adjusted costs of US$398 million), averting 8.0 million DALYs. Extending IPC programmes to all 70 of the identified high-burden countries at 15% coverage would cost an adjusted US$51.3 billion and avert 78.7 million DALYs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ranged from US$49 per DALY averted for the 10 countries with the most favourable cost-effectiveness to US$119, US$181, US$335, US$1692 and US$8340 per DALY averted as each successive group of 10 countries is added ordered by decreasing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions IPC appears cost-effective in many settings, and has the potential to substantially reduce the burden of disease in resource-poor countries. This study increases confidence that IPC

  14. Integrated fluorescence analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Buican, Tudor N.; Yoshida, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated fluorescence analysis system enables a component part of a sample to be virtually sorted within a sample volume after a spectrum of the component part has been identified from a fluorescence spectrum of the entire sample in a flow cytometer. Birefringent optics enables the entire spectrum to be resolved into a set of numbers representing the intensity of spectral components of the spectrum. One or more spectral components are selected to program a scanning laser microscope, preferably a confocal microscope, whereby the spectrum from individual pixels or voxels in the sample can be compared. Individual pixels or voxels containing the selected spectral components are identified and an image may be formed to show the morphology of the sample with respect to only those components having the selected spectral components. There is no need for any physical sorting of the sample components to obtain the morphological information.

  15. Analysis of costs-benefits tradeoffs of complex security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    Essential to a systems approach to design of security systems is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of alternative designs. While the concept of analysis of costs and benefits is straightforward, implementation can be at the least tedious and, for complex designs and alternatives, can become nearly intractable without the help of structured analysis tools. PACAIT--Performance and Cost Analysis Integrated Tools--is a prototype tool. The performance side of the analysis collates and reduces data from ASSESS, and existing DOE PC-based security systems performance analysis tool. The costs side of the analysis uses ACE, an existing DOD PC-based costs analysis tool. Costs are reported over the full life-cycle of the system, that is, the costs to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. Results are collected in Microsoft{reg_sign} Excel workbooks and are readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and path-element levels.

  16. Life-cycle cost analysis task summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, M.

    1980-01-01

    The DSN life cycle cost (LCC) analysis methodology was completed. The LCC analysis methodology goals and objectives are summarized, as well as the issues covered by the methodology, its expected use, and its long range implications.

  17. [Health technology assessment: II. Cost effectiveness analysis].

    PubMed

    Secoli, Silvia Regina; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Nobre, Moacyr

    2010-01-01

    New health technologies have made an impact in clinical and economic outcomes. Therefore, research methodologies that allow to evaluate the efficiency of these new technologies such as cost-effectiveness analysis are necessary. Cost-effectiveness analysis assess the value of health care interventions or drugs, the technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis is also deemed a determinant of modern health care practice, because the therapeutic options available at public (SUS) or private health care system must go through a formal health technology assessment in Brazil; thus, both the health care system and the health care professionals have to reevaluate the clinical consequences and costs of their actions to assure that the most efficient technologies are the one used in the practice. In this second article about health technology assessment we review the concepts of cost-effectiveness analysis, the steps involved in performing such analysis, and the criteria most frequently used to critically review the results.

  18. Radar altimetry systems cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escoe, D.; Heuring, F. T.; Denman, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses the application and cost of two types of altimeter systems (spaceborne (satellite and shuttle) and airborne) to twelve user requirements. The overall design of the systems defined to meet these requirements is predicated on an unconstrained altimetry technology; that is, any level of altimeter or supporting equipment performance is possible.

  19. Cost analysis of glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Vold, S D; Wiggins, D A; Jackimiec, J

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the yearly cost in 1998 of glaucoma medications to patients and to the Health Plan at a university-affiliated teaching hospital with its own health maintenance organization. Data concerning Health Plan glaucoma-medication prescriptions for 1998 were retrieved from the hospital pharmacy database. The most costly medication per patient per year was latanoprost (Xalatan; Pharmacia & Upjohn, Kalamazoo, MI [$337]), followed by betaxolol hydrochloride (Betoptic-S; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX [$336]), dorzolamide (Trusopt; Merck & Co., West Point, PA [$288]), brimonidine tartrate (Alphagan; Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Irvine, CA [$260]), timolol maleate 0.5% in a gel-forming solution (Timoptic-XE 0.5%; Merck & Co., West Point, PA [$199]), levobunolol hydrochloride (Betagan; Allergan Pharmaceuticals, Irvine, CA [$195]), and generic timolol maleate 0.5% ($132). Cost per unit was greatest for Betoptic-S ($51), exceeding that of Trusopt ($43) and Xalatan ($43), Alphagan ($42), Betagan ($38), Timoptic-XE 0.5% ($32), and timolol maleate 0.5% ($27). Variability in the cost of medications may influence the long-term medical management of glaucoma patients.

  20. A managerial accounting analysis of hospital costs.

    PubMed Central

    Frank, W G

    1976-01-01

    Variance analysis, an accounting technique, is applied to an eight-component model of hospital costs to determine the contribution each component makes to cost increases. The method is illustrated by application to data on total costs from 1950 to 1973 for all U.S. nongovernmental not-for-profit short-term general hospitals. The costs of a single hospital are analyzed and compared to the group costs. The potential uses and limitations of the method as a planning and research tool are discussed. PMID:965233

  1. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  2. Life Cycle Cost Guide for Equipment Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    information. Information pertaining to the inherent design characteristics of the system will be available from the contractor. The ILS Manager and his Logistic ... Logistics (PM(L)) and/or his/her Logistic Managers 3. The Contractor 4. Analyst B-1 Name AD(I) Description Acquisition cost of data during Investment in...services, and overhead associated with cost/schedule control, configuration management, data management, contract management, and ILS (Integrated logistic

  3. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware based on an extrapolation of past hardware development experience. Major items of costs within water recovery systems were identified and related to physical and/or performance criteria. Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced water recovery systems. The results of the study are expected to assist NASA in long-range planning and allocation of resources in a cost effective manner in support of earth orbital programs. This report deals with the cost analysis of the five leading water reclamation systems, namely: (1) RITE waste management-water system, (2) reverse osmosis system, (3) multifiltration system, (4) vapor compression system, and (5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  4. Transfer regulations and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Posner, Eric A

    2003-12-01

    Recent scholarship on regulatory oversight has focused on cost-benefit analysis of prescriptive regulations--regulations that restrict behavior such as pollution--and their use to cure market failures, and has overlooked the vast number of transfer regulations. Transfer regulations are regulations that channel funds to beneficiaries. These regulations are authorized by statutes that establish entitlement programs like Medicare and Social Security, pay one-time distributions to victims of misfortunes such as natural disasters and the 9/11 terrorist attack, and fund pork barrel spending. Cost-benefit analysis cannot be used to evaluate transfer regulations because all transfer regulations fail cost-benefit analysis; cost-effectiveness analysis, however, can be used to evaluate transfer regulations. Although executive orders appear to require agencies to use cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate transfer regulations that have a large economic impact, the agencies' record is dismal. Most agencies fail to perform cost-effectiveness analysis, and other agencies perform cost-effectiveness analysis incorrectly. More vigorous Office of Management and Budget and, possibly, judicial review could improve the quality of distributive regulations.

  5. Integration of safety engineering into a cost optimized development program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A six-segment management model is presented, each segment of which represents a major area in a new product development program. The first segment of the model covers integration of specialist engineers into 'systems requirement definition' or the system engineering documentation process. The second covers preparation of five basic types of 'development program plans.' The third segment covers integration of system requirements, scheduling, and funding of specialist engineering activities into 'work breakdown structures,' 'cost accounts,' and 'work packages.' The fourth covers 'requirement communication' by line organizations. The fifth covers 'performance measurement' based on work package data. The sixth covers 'baseline requirements achievement tracking.'

  6. Integration of safety engineering into a cost optimized development program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A six-segment management model is presented, each segment of which represents a major area in a new product development program. The first segment of the model covers integration of specialist engineers into 'systems requirement definition' or the system engineering documentation process. The second covers preparation of five basic types of 'development program plans.' The third segment covers integration of system requirements, scheduling, and funding of specialist engineering activities into 'work breakdown structures,' 'cost accounts,' and 'work packages.' The fourth covers 'requirement communication' by line organizations. The fifth covers 'performance measurement' based on work package data. The sixth covers 'baseline requirements achievement tracking.'

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Health Coaching: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Hale, Rachel; Giese, Jeannie

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate published literature to distinguish how health coaching influences the cost of chronic disease management in insured adults with chronic conditions. An integrated literature review was conducted. MEDLINE, Business Source Complete, and OneSearch were searched for the years 2001-2016 utilizing the following key words: health coaching, health coaching AND insurance companies, health coaching AND cost, health coaching AND health insurance, and health coaching AND insurance cost. A total of 67 articles met inclusion criteria and were assessed for applicability. Of those, 27 articles were found to be relevant to the research question. The practice settings of these articles are mostly primary care and wellness programs. Throughout the literature, health coaching has been found effective in chronic disease management such as hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Studies evaluating the cost-effectiveness of health coaching are limited. The current literature does not clearly demonstrate that health coaching lowers expenditures and patient copayments in the short term but projects future savings. Health coaching has the potential to improve chronic disease management and lower health care expenditures. Further long-term research is needed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of health coaching. It has been projected that the cost-effectiveness of health coaching will be long-term or over 12 months after initiating the health coaching program.

  8. Cost Analysis for Large Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents cost analysis of purchase price and DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) that supports NASA s study of three advanced rotorcraft concepts that could enter commercial transport service within 10 to 15 years. The components of DOC+I are maintenance, flight crew, fuel, depreciation, insurance, and finance. The cost analysis aims at VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and CTOL (conventional takeoff and landing) aircraft suitable for regional transport service. The resulting spreadsheet-implemented cost models are semi-empirical and based on Department of Transportation and Army data from actual operations of such aircraft. This paper describes a rationale for selecting cost tech factors without which VTOL is more costly than CTOL by a factor of 10 for maintenance cost and a factor of two for purchase price. The three VTOL designs selected for cost comparisons meet the mission requirement to fly 1,200 nautical miles at 350 knots and 30,000 ft carrying 120 passengers. The lowest cost VTOL design is a large civil tilt rotor (LCTR) aircraft. With cost tech factors applied, the LCTR is reasonably competitive with the Boeing 737-700 when operated in economy regional service following the business model of the selected baseline operation, that of Southwest Airlines.

  9. Cost Analysis for Large Civil Transport Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents cost analysis of purchase price and DOC+I (direct operating cost plus interest) that supports NASA s study of three advanced rotorcraft concepts that could enter commercial transport service within 10 to 15 years. The components of DOC+I are maintenance, flight crew, fuel, depreciation, insurance, and finance. The cost analysis aims at VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) and CTOL (conventional takeoff and landing) aircraft suitable for regional transport service. The resulting spreadsheet-implemented cost models are semi-empirical and based on Department of Transportation and Army data from actual operations of such aircraft. This paper describes a rationale for selecting cost tech factors without which VTOL is more costly than CTOL by a factor of 10 for maintenance cost and a factor of two for purchase price. The three VTOL designs selected for cost comparisons meet the mission requirement to fly 1,200 nautical miles at 350 knots and 30,000 ft carrying 120 passengers. The lowest cost VTOL design is a large civil tilt rotor (LCTR) aircraft. With cost tech factors applied, the LCTR is reasonably competitive with the Boeing 737-700 when operated in economy regional service following the business model of the selected baseline operation, that of Southwest Airlines.

  10. Highly integrated image sensors enable low-cost imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, Paul K.; Lake, Don; Chalmers, David; Hurwitz, J. E. D.

    1997-09-01

    The highest barriers to wide scale implementation of vision systems have been cost. This is closely followed by the level of difficulty of putting a complete imaging system together. As anyone who has every been in the position of creating a vision system knows, the various bits and pieces supplied by the many vendors are not under any type of standardization control. In short, unless you are an expert in imaging, electrical interfacing, computers, digital signal processing, and high speed storage techniques, you will likely spend more money trying to do it yourself rather than to buy the exceedingly expensive systems available. Another alternative is making headway into the imaging market however. The growing investment in highly integrated CMOS based imagers is addressing both the cost and the system integration difficulties. This paper discusses the benefits gained from CMOS based imaging, and how these benefits are already being applied.

  11. Activity Analysis and Cost Analysis in Medical Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, John E.; Slighton, Robert L.

    There is no unique answer to the question of what an ongoing program costs in medical schools. The estimates of program costs generated by classical methods of cost accounting are unsatisfactory because such accounting cannot deal with the joint production or joint cost problem. Activity analysis models aim at calculating the impact of alternative…

  12. Methods of Building Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Presentation of symposium papers includes--(1) a study describing techniques for economic analysis of building designs, (2) three case studies of analysis techniques, (3) procedures for measuring the area and volume of buildings, and (4) an open forum discussion. Case studies evaluate--(1) the thermal economics of building enclosures, (2) an…

  13. From Physical Process to Economic Cost - Integrated Approaches of Landslide Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, M.; Damm, B.

    2014-12-01

    The nature of landslides is complex in many respects, with landslide hazard and impact being dependent on a variety of factors. This obviously requires an integrated assessment for fundamental understanding of landslide risk. Integrated risk assessment, according to the approach presented in this contribution, implies combining prediction of future landslide occurrence with analysis of landslide impact in the past. A critical step for assessing landslide risk in integrated perspective is to analyze what types of landslide damage affected people and property in which way and how people contributed and responded to these damage types. In integrated risk assessment, the focus is on systematic identification and monetization of landslide damage, and analytical tools that allow deriving economic costs from physical landslide processes are at the heart of this approach. The broad spectrum of landslide types and process mechanisms as well as nonlinearity between landslide magnitude, damage intensity, and direct costs are some main factors explaining recent challenges in risk assessment. The two prevailing approaches for assessing the impact of landslides in economic terms are cost survey (ex-post) and risk analysis (ex-ante). Both approaches are able to complement each other, but yet a combination of them has not been realized so far. It is common practice today to derive landslide risk without considering landslide process-based cause-effect relationships, since integrated concepts or new modeling tools expanding conventional methods are still widely missing. The approach introduced in this contribution is based on a systematic framework that combines cost survey and GIS-based tools for hazard or cost modeling with methods to assess interactions between land use practices and landslides in historical perspective. Fundamental understanding of landslide risk also requires knowledge about the economic and fiscal relevance of landslide losses, wherefore analysis of their

  14. Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 15th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period December 1979 to April 1980 is described. Project analysis and integration, technology development in silicon material, large area silicon sheet and encapsulation, production process and equipment development, engineering, and operation are included.

  15. Parametric Cost Analysis: A Design Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.

    1989-01-01

    Parametric cost analysis uses equations to map measurable system attributes into cost. The measures of the system attributes are called metrics. The equations are called cost estimating relationships (CER's), and are obtained by the analysis of cost and technical metric data of products analogous to those to be estimated. Examples of system metrics include mass, power, failure_rate, mean_time_to_repair, energy _consumed, payload_to_orbit, pointing_accuracy, manufacturing_complexity, number_of_fasteners, and percent_of_electronics_weight. The basic assumption is that a measurable relationship exists between system attributes and the cost of the system. If a function exists, the attributes are cost drivers. Candidates for metrics include system requirement metrics and engineering process metrics. Requirements are constraints on the engineering process. From optimization theory we know that any active constraint generates cost by not permitting full optimization of the objective. Thus, requirements are cost drivers. Engineering processes reflect a projection of the requirements onto the corporate culture, engineering technology, and system technology. Engineering processes are an indirect measure of the requirements and, hence, are cost drivers.

  16. Cost-Benefit Analysis of a Bridge to Integrate the Management of Technical Information for Producing Technical Manuals and Training Courses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    of specifications for standardizing the packaging of training content—not the content itself—so it can be delivered by any Learning Management System (LMS...that could be used in any Learning Management System (LMS). e. All DMs and LDMs would be described by the S1000D file-naming conven- tion, the Data...ILS Integrated Logistics Support LCS Littoral Combat Ship LDM Learning Data Module LMS Learning Management System G-2 LSAR Logistic Support

  17. Integrative workflows for metagenomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ladoukakis, Efthymios; Kolisis, Fragiskos N.; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis A.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid evolution of all sequencing technologies, described by the term Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), have revolutionized metagenomic analysis. They constitute a combination of high-throughput analytical protocols, coupled to delicate measuring techniques, in order to potentially discover, properly assemble and map allelic sequences to the correct genomes, achieving particularly high yields for only a fraction of the cost of traditional processes (i.e., Sanger). From a bioinformatic perspective, this boils down to many GB of data being generated from each single sequencing experiment, rendering the management or even the storage, critical bottlenecks with respect to the overall analytical endeavor. The enormous complexity is even more aggravated by the versatility of the processing steps available, represented by the numerous bioinformatic tools that are essential, for each analytical task, in order to fully unveil the genetic content of a metagenomic dataset. These disparate tasks range from simple, nonetheless non-trivial, quality control of raw data to exceptionally complex protein annotation procedures, requesting a high level of expertise for their proper application or the neat implementation of the whole workflow. Furthermore, a bioinformatic analysis of such scale, requires grand computational resources, imposing as the sole realistic solution, the utilization of cloud computing infrastructures. In this review article we discuss different, integrative, bioinformatic solutions available, which address the aforementioned issues, by performing a critical assessment of the available automated pipelines for data management, quality control, and annotation of metagenomic data, embracing various, major sequencing technologies and applications. PMID:25478562

  18. Cost analysis of youth violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.

  19. Cost Analysis of Youth Violence Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Lisa A.; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. METHODS: Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71 784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation. PMID:24515518

  20. Arabidopsis plants acclimate to water deficit at low cost through changes of carbon usage: an integrated perspective using growth, metabolite, enzyme, and gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Irène; Pantin, Florent; Sulpice, Ronan; Piques, Maria; Rolland, Gaëlle; Dauzat, Myriam; Christophe, Angélique; Pervent, Marjorie; Bouteillé, Marie; Stitt, Mark; Gibon, Yves; Muller, Bertrand

    2010-09-01

    Growth and carbon (C) fluxes are severely altered in plants exposed to soil water deficit. Correspondingly, it has been suggested that plants under water deficit suffer from C shortage. In this study, we test this hypothesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) by providing an overview of the responses of growth, C balance, metabolites, enzymes of the central metabolism, and a set of sugar-responsive genes to a sustained soil water deficit. The results show that under drought, rosette relative expansion rate is decreased more than photosynthesis, leading to a more positive C balance, while root growth is promoted. Several soluble metabolites accumulate in response to soil water deficit, with K(+) and organic acids as the main contributors to osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment costs only a small percentage of the daily photosynthetic C fixation. All C metabolites measured (not only starch and sugars but also organic acids and amino acids) show a diurnal turnover that often increased under water deficit, suggesting that these metabolites are readily available for being metabolized in situ or exported to roots. On the basis of 30 enzyme activities, no in-depth reprogramming of C metabolism was observed. Water deficit induces a shift of the expression level of a set of sugar-responsive genes that is indicative of increased, rather than decreased, C availability. These results converge to show that the differential impact of soil water deficit on photosynthesis and rosette expansion results in an increased availability of C for the roots, an increased turnover of C metabolites, and a low-cost C-based osmotic adjustment, and these responses are performed without major reformatting of the primary metabolism machinery.

  1. Cost analysis of an Italian ICU.

    PubMed

    Piacentino, V; La Grua, M; Peruzzi, E; Lavacchi, L; Barontini, L; Giani, S; Paolini, P

    2000-11-01

    Cost reduction is an important issue in medicine today, especially when considering ICUs, since they account for a large percentage of all hospital expenditure. Through a retrospective analysis of the data regarding the expenses incurred during the years 1996-97, we have been able to evaluate the total costs of our ICU and the influence that each component had on the final costs, thus gathering the necessary information for the improvement of the unit itself. Retrospective analysis of a 5-bedded multidisciplinary ICU activity over a two-year period (1996-1997). Cost-related data have been supplied by the Hospital Administration as to wages, infrastructures, equipment buying and maintenance; by Hospital Pharmacy as to drugs and devices supplies; and by Laboratory and Radiology as to diagnostic investigations. According to our experience, physicians and non-medical staff account for more than 50% of the total expenditure--the latter slightly prevailing. Furthermore, we have assessed that the cost distribution is hardly comparable to that reported by other authors. It is useful to analyse the total distribution and to evaluate their nature only to gain the necessary data that will lead to a more effective management of the unit. Nevertheless, this methodology is valid within the cost analysis of our ICUs but the ICUs of other countries show great differences in the way they are structured and some of the use more reliable activity-based costing methodology.

  2. Creating standard cost measures across integrated health care delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Ritzwoller, Debra P; Goodman, Michael J; Maciosek, Michael V; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Meenan, Richard; Hornbrook, Mark C; Fishman, Paul A

    2005-01-01

    Economic analyses are increasingly important in medical research. Accuracy often requires that they include large, diverse populations, which requires data from multiple sources. The difficulty is in making the data comparable across different settings. This article focuses on how to create comparable measures of health care resource use and cost using data from seven health plans and delivery systems participating in the Cancer Research Network's HMOs Investigating Tobacco study. We used a data inventory to identify variation in data capture across sites and used data dictionaries to develop algorithms for assigning standardized cost to the three major components of health care use: outpatient, inpatient, and pharmacy. The plans included in this study varied from fully integrated, closed-panel models to plans and delivery systems that include network or independent physician association components. Information derived from the data inventory and data dictionary instruments demonstrated a substantial variation in both the content and capture of data across all sites and across all components of usage. The methods we employed for cost allocation varied by usage component and were based on our ability to leverage the data points available to best reflect actual resource use. The importance of this article is the method of ascertaining, cataloging, and addressing the within- and between-plan differences in health care resource use. Second, the decisions we made to address the differences between health plans provide other researchers a starting point when creating a cost algorithm for multisite retrospective research.

  3. [Cost analysis of telemedical treatment of stroke].

    PubMed

    Schenkel, J; Reitmeir, P; Von Reden, S; Holle, R; Boy, S; Haberl, R; Audebert, H

    2013-07-01

    Telemedicine-enabled stroke networks increase the probability of a good clinical outcome. There is a shortage of evidence about the effects of this new approach on costs for inpatient care and nursing care. We analysed health insurance and nursing care fund data of a statutory health insurance company (AOK Bayern). Data from stroke patients initially treated in a TeleStroke network (TEMPiS - telemedical project for integrative stroke care) between community hospitals and academic stroke centres were compared to data of matched hospitals without specialised stroke care and telemedical support. Costs for nursing care were obtained over a 30-month period after the initial stroke. To rule out pre-existing differences between network and control hospitals, costs of stroke care were also analysed during a time period before network implementation. 1 277 patients (767 in intervention, 510 in control hospitals) were analysed in the post-implementation period. An increased proportion of patients treated in intervention hospitals had a favourable outcome concerning the level of required nursing care. Patients in intervention hospitals had higher costs for acute inpatient care (5 309 € vs. 4 901 €, p=0.04), but lower nursing care fund costs (3 946 € vs. 5 132 €; p=0.04). There was no difference in relation to absolute total costs obtained in the post-implementation period. However, nursing care costs per survived year were significantly lower in intervention hospitals (1 953 € vs. 2 635 €; p=0.005). No significant differences were found in the pre-implementation period. Considering both health insurance and nursing care fund costs, the incremental costs for TeleStroke network care in hospitals are compensated by savings in outpatient care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Low Cost Thin Film Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Subhendu Guha; Dr. Jeff Yang

    2012-05-25

    The goal of the program is to develop 'LOW COST THIN FILM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PV SYSTEMS'. Major focus was on developing low cost solution for the commercial BIPV and rooftop PV market and meet DOE LCOE goal for the commercial market segment of 9-12 cents/kWh for 2010 and 6-8 cents/kWh for 2015. We achieved the 2010 goal and were on track to achieve the 2015 goal. The program consists of five major tasks: (1) modules; (2) inverters and BOS; (3) systems engineering and integration; (4) deployment; and (5) project management and TPP collaborative activities. We successfully crossed all stage gates and surpassed all milestones. We proudly achieved world record stable efficiencies in small area cells (12.56% for 1cm2) and large area encapsulated modules (11.3% for 800 cm2) using a triple-junction amorphous silicon/nanocrystalline silicon/nanocrystalline silicon structure, confirmed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. We collaborated with two inverter companies, Solectria and PV Powered, and significantly reduced inverter cost. We collaborated with three universities (Syracuse University, University of Oregon, and Colorado School of Mines) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and improved understanding on nanocrystalline material properties and light trapping techniques. We jointly published 50 technical papers in peer-reviewed journals and International Conference Proceedings. We installed two 75kW roof-top systems, one in Florida and another in New Jersey demonstrating innovative designs. The systems performed satisfactorily meeting/exceeding estimated kWh/kW performance. The 50/50 cost shared program was a great success and received excellent comments from DOE Manager and Technical Monitor in the Final Review.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of space technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, G. F.; Stevenson, S. M.; Sivo, J. N.

    1976-01-01

    A discussion of the implications and problems associated with the use of cost-benefit techniques is presented. Knowledge of these problems is useful in the structure of a decision making process. A methodology of cost-benefit analysis is presented for the evaluation of space technology. The use of the methodology is demonstrated with an evaluation of ion thrusters for north-south stationkeeping aboard geosynchronous communication satellites. A critique of the concept of consumers surplus for measuring benefits is also presented.

  6. Integral Airframe Structures (IAS): Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munroe, J.; Wilkins, K.; Gruber, M.; Domack, Marcia S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program investigated the feasibility of using "integrally stiffened" construction for commercial transport fuselage structure. The objective of the program was to demonstrate structural performance and weight equal to current "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. Testing evaluated mechanical properties, structural details, joint performance, repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511x extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Structural performance was evaluated with a large 7475-T7351 pressure test that included the arrest of a two-bay longitudinal crack, and a measure of residual strength for a two-bay crack centered on a broken frame. Analysis predictions for the two-bay longitudinal crack panel correlated well with the test results. Analysis activity conducted by the IAS team strongly indicates that current analysis tools predict integral structural behavior as accurately as built-up structure. The cost study results indicated that, compared to built-up fabrication methods, high-speed machining structure from aluminum plate would yield a recurring cost savings of 61%. Part count dropped from 78 individual parts on a baseline panel to just 7 parts for machined IAS structure.

  7. Integrated Surveys of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Southern Sudan: How Much Do They Cost and Can They Be Refined?

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczinski, Jan H.; Hanson, Kara; Robinson, Emily; Picon, Diana; Sabasio, Anthony; Mpakateni, Martin; Lado, Mounir; Moore, Stephen; Petty, Nora; Brooker, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing emphasis on integrated control of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) requires identification of co-endemic areas. Integrated surveys for lymphatic filariasis (LF), schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection have been recommended for this purpose. Integrated survey designs inevitably involve balancing the costs of surveys against accuracy of classifying areas for treatment, so-called implementation units (IUs). This requires an understanding of the main cost drivers and of how operating procedures may affect both cost and accuracy of surveys. Here we report a detailed cost analysis of the first round of integrated NTD surveys in Southern Sudan. Methods and Findings Financial and economic costs were estimated from financial expenditure records and interviews with survey staff using an ingredients approach. The main outcome was cost per IU surveyed. Uncertain variables were subjected to univariate sensitivity analysis and the effects of modifying standard operating procedures were explored. The average economic cost per IU surveyed was USD 40,206 or USD 9,573, depending on the size of the IU. The major cost drivers were two key categories of recurrent costs: i) survey consumables, and ii) personnel. Conclusion The cost of integrated surveys in Southern Sudan could be reduced by surveying larger administrative areas for LF. If this approach was taken, the estimated economic cost of completing LF, schistosomiasis and STH mapping in Southern Sudan would amount to USD 1.6 million. The methodological detail and costing template provided here could be used to generate cost estimates in other settings and readily compare these to the present study, and may help budget for integrated and single NTDs surveys elsewhere. PMID:20644619

  8. Introduction to Cost Analysis in IR: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Bahman; McWilliams, Justin; Bresnahan, Brian; Padia, Siddharth A

    2016-04-01

    Demonstration of value has become increasingly important in the current health care system. This review summarizes four of the most commonly used cost analysis methods relevant to IR that could be adopted to demonstrate the value of IR interventions: the cost minimization study, cost-effectiveness assessment, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. In addition, the issues of true cost versus hospital charges, modeling in cost studies, and sensitivity analysis are discussed.

  9. The cost of integrated HIV care and buprenorphine/naloxone treatment: results of a cross-site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Schackman, Bruce R; Leff, Jared A; Botsko, Michael; Fiellin, David A; Altice, Fredrick L; Korthuis, P Todd; Sohler, Nancy; Weiss, Linda; Egan, James E; Netherland, Julie; Gass, Jonathan; Finkelstein, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    Implementing integrated HIV and buprenorphine/naloxone treatment requires cost estimates to plan and obtain funding. We identified costs incurred at HIV clinical sites participating in a cross-site evaluation of integrated care that followed patients for 1 year. Costs include labor, overhead, and urine toxicology analyses (clinic perspective), buprenorphine/naloxone (payer perspective) and patient time and transportation (patient perspective). Sites provided resource utilization quarterly, and providers estimated time required for each activity. With site as the unit of analysis, results are reported as median (range) of average site costs in 2008 US dollars. The median number of monthly provider encounters for integrated care patients was 3.2 (1.5-13.3) compared with 1.7 (1.1-4.2) for similar patients not in integrated care, but integrated care patients had fewer physician encounters. Median monthly clinic costs per integrated care patient were $136 ($67-$677) for labor and overhead and $8 ($2-$23) for toxicology analyses, $22 higher than clinic costs for patients not in integrated care. Median monthly costs for buprenorphine/naloxone were $209 ($165-$272), and monthly patient costs in integrated care were $11 ($1-$54) higher. Integrated HIV and buprenorphine/naloxone treatment requires different resources, including costs that are not third-party reimbursed. Implementing integrated care will require funding for training and for new staff such as buprenorphine coordinators, in addition to reimbursement for buprenorphine/naloxone. Further research is needed to identify potential cost offsets outside of the clinic setting.

  10. Cost/Effort Drivers and Decision Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Engineering trade study analyses demand consideration of performance, cost and schedule impacts across the spectrum of alternative concepts and in direct reference to product requirements. Prior to detailed design, requirements are too often ill-defined (only goals ) and prone to creep, extending well beyond the Systems Requirements Review. Though lack of engineering design and definitive requirements inhibit the ability to perform detailed cost analyses, affordability trades still comprise the foundation of these future product decisions and must evolve in concert. This presentation excerpts results of the recent NASA subsonic Engine Concept Study for an Advanced Single Aisle Transport to demonstrate an affordability evaluation of performance characteristics and the subsequent impacts on engine architecture decisions. Applying the Process Based Economic Analysis Tool (PBEAT), development cost, production cost, as well as operation and support costs were considered in a traditional weighted ranking of the following system-level figures of merit: mission fuel burn, take-off noise, NOx emissions, and cruise speed. Weighting factors were varied to ascertain the architecture ranking sensitivities to these performance figures of merit with companion cost considerations. A more detailed examination of supersonic variable cycle engine cost is also briefly presented, with observations and recommendations for further refinements.

  11. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Carmen; Rahman, Shamim

    2010-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is commonly characterized as one of two types: production testing for certification and acceptance of engine hardware, and developmental testing for prototype evaluation or research and development (R&D) purposes. For programmatic reasons there is a continuing need to assess and evaluate the test costs for the various types of test campaigns that involve liquid rocket propellant test articles. Presently, in fact, there is a critical need to provide guidance on what represents a best value for testing and provide some key economic insights for decision-makers within NASA and the test customers outside the Agency. Hence, selected rocket propulsion test databases and references have been evaluated and analyzed with the intent to discover correlations of technical information and test costs that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost projections in the future. The process of searching, collecting, and validating propulsion test cost information presented some unique obstacles which then led to a set of recommendations for improvement in order to facilitate future cost information gathering and analysis. In summary, this historical account and evaluation of rocket propulsion test cost information will enhance understanding of the various kinds of project cost information; identify certain trends of interest to the aerospace testing community.

  12. Cost Effective Applications of High Integrity Software Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-18

    Inspections/ peer reviews • Checklists • Programming Languages and Coding Standards • Static Code Analysis C d l it• o e comp ex y • Unit Testing...rom their own perspective © 2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation AER201103026 Inspection/ Peer Reviews • Reduce costly rework − Focus on defect removal... peer reviews ) to remove up to 80 percent of their defects • It doesn’t have to be hard − Reviews can be of many different types (very formal

  13. Cost Differential Analysis: Providing Data for Added Cost Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nystrom, Dennis C.; Hennessy, James V.

    1975-01-01

    A 1972-73 statewide study conducted in Illinois to develop a cost accounting system which facilitates cost differential ratios for secondary vocational education courses indicated that vocational programs are approximately twice as expensive as nonvocational. Specific cost elements identified in the study provided essential information regarding…

  14. Cost of water for peace and the environment in Israel: An integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.; Becker, Nir

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a framework for discovering an economically viable water sharing plan among neighboring communities for promoting peace and environmental protection. Its application is to the Middle East in which Israel may be facing water supply obligations to address environmental requirements and for a possible a peace agreement with its Palestinian neighbors. The framework consists of integrating external factors, constraints, policy instruments, and targets. Our findings from a constrained optimization analysis of Israel's national water system show that the costs of increased deliveries are dependent on two major issues: (1) achieving integrated water resources management (IWRM) in which efficient combinations of expansion from several supply sources and reductions in demands occur over time, and (2) the cost of desalination technologies. We identify a $US 1.46 billion price tag, in present value terms, from using integrated management of demand reduction and supply expansion under current desalination costs. Adjustment costs will decline both with anticipated reductions in desalination costs and with an efficient implementation of IWRM. These adjustments can contribute to moderating regional tensions and protecting key ecological assets while addressing water scarcity in a volatile corner of the world.

  15. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that the cost of debt service (interest and amortization) of the estimated installation costs plus the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine...

  16. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez-Pagan, Carmen P.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is generally performed within two arenas: (1) Production testing for certification and acceptance, and (2) Developmental testing for prototype or experimental purposes. The customer base consists of NASA programs, DOD programs, and commercial programs. Resources in place to perform on-site testing include both civil servants and contractor personnel, hardware and software including data acquisition and control, and 6 test stands with a total of 14 test positions/cells. For several business reasons there is the need to augment understanding of the test costs for all the various types of test campaigns. Historical propulsion test data was evaluated and analyzed in many different ways with the intent to find any correlation or statistics that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost estimates and projections. The analytical efforts included timeline trends, statistical curve fitting, average cost per test, cost per test second, test cost timeline, and test cost envelopes. Further, the analytical effort includes examining the test cost from the perspective of thrust level and test article characteristics. Some of the analytical approaches did not produce evidence strong enough for further analysis. Some other analytical approaches yield promising results and are candidates for further development and focused study. Information was organized for into its elements: a Project Profile, Test Cost Timeline, and Cost Envelope. The Project Profile is a snap shot of the project life cycle on a timeline fashion, which includes various statistical analyses. The Test Cost Timeline shows the cumulative average test cost, for each project, at each month where there was test activity. The Test Cost Envelope shows a range of cost for a given number of test(s). The supporting information upon which this study was performed came from diverse sources and thus it was necessary to

  17. An Analysis of Rocket Propulsion Testing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez-Pagan, Carmen P.; Rahman, Shamim A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary mission at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) is rocket propulsion testing. Such testing is generally performed within two arenas: (1) Production testing for certification and acceptance, and (2) Developmental testing for prototype or experimental purposes. The customer base consists of NASA programs, DOD programs, and commercial programs. Resources in place to perform on-site testing include both civil servants and contractor personnel, hardware and software including data acquisition and control, and 6 test stands with a total of 14 test positions/cells. For several business reasons there is the need to augment understanding of the test costs for all the various types of test campaigns. Historical propulsion test data was evaluated and analyzed in many different ways with the intent to find any correlation or statistics that could help produce more reliable and accurate cost estimates and projections. The analytical efforts included timeline trends, statistical curve fitting, average cost per test, cost per test second, test cost timeline, and test cost envelopes. Further, the analytical effort includes examining the test cost from the perspective of thrust level and test article characteristics. Some of the analytical approaches did not produce evidence strong enough for further analysis. Some other analytical approaches yield promising results and are candidates for further development and focused study. Information was organized for into its elements: a Project Profile, Test Cost Timeline, and Cost Envelope. The Project Profile is a snap shot of the project life cycle on a timeline fashion, which includes various statistical analyses. The Test Cost Timeline shows the cumulative average test cost, for each project, at each month where there was test activity. The Test Cost Envelope shows a range of cost for a given number of test(s). The supporting information upon which this study was performed came from diverse sources and thus it was necessary to

  18. Cost Analysis, Evaluation and Feedback. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on cost analysis, evaluation, and feedback in human resource development. "Training Evaluation with 360-Degree Feedback" (Froukje A. Jellema) reports on a quasi-experimental study that examined the effectiveness of 360-degree feedback in evaluating the training received by nurses in a…

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis and innovation.

    PubMed

    Jena, Anupam B; Philipson, Tomas J

    2008-09-01

    While cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis has provided a guide to allocating often scarce resources spent on medical technologies, less emphasis has been placed on the effect of such criteria on the behavior of innovators who make health care technologies available in the first place. A better understanding of the link between innovation and cost-effectiveness analysis is particularly important given the large role of technological change in the growth in health care spending and the growing interest of explicit use of CE thresholds in leading technology adoption in several Westernized countries. We analyze CE analysis in a standard market context, and stress that a technology's cost-effectiveness is closely related to the consumer surplus it generates. Improved CE therefore often clashes with interventions to stimulate producer surplus, such as patents. We derive the inconsistency between technology adoption based on CE analysis and economic efficiency. Indeed, static efficiency, dynamic efficiency, and improved patient health may all be induced by the cost-effectiveness of the technology being at its worst level. As producer appropriation of the social surplus of an innovation is central to the dynamic efficiency that should guide CE adoption criteria, we exemplify how appropriation can be inferred from existing CE estimates. For an illustrative sample of technologies considered, we find that the median technology has an appropriation of about 15%. To the extent that such incentives are deemed either too low or too high compared to dynamically efficient levels, CE thresholds may be appropriately raised or lowered to improve dynamic efficiency.

  20. Cost Benefit Analysis: Cost Benefit Analysis for Human Effectiveness Research: Bioacoustic Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-21

    Procurement (Appn 3080) 836 2,469 5,084 Total 836 3,128 6,283 2. Benefits Benefits were assessed in several ways as well. Many benefits were...total cost of the alternative. The excursion from the baseline assumptions concentrated on this alternative. While this was only one of many that...APPENDIX A. ACRONYMS ACCES Attenuating Custom Communication Earpiece System ACEIT Automated Cost estimating Integrated Tools AFSC Air Force

  1. Cost benefit risk--a concept for management of integrated urban wastewater systems?

    PubMed

    Hauger, M B; Rauch, W; Linde, J J; Mikkelsen, P S

    2002-01-01

    Urban wastewater systems should be evaluated and analysed from an integrated point of view, taking all parts of the system, that is sewer system, wastewater treatment plant and receiving waters into consideration. Risk and parameter uncertainties are aspects that hardly ever have been addressed in the evaluation and design of urban wastewater systems. In this paper we present and discuss a probabilistic approach for evaluation of the performance of urban wastewater systems. Risk analysis together with the traditional cost-benefit analysis is a special variant of multi-criteria analysis that seeks to find the most feasible improvement alternative for an urban wastewater system. The most feasible alternative in this context is the alternative that has the best performance, meaning that the alternative has the lowest sum of costs, benefits and risks. The sum is expressed as the Net Present Cost (NPC). To use NPC as a decision variable has the problematic effect, that two alternatives performing completely differently when focusing on environmental cost can have the same NPC. The extreme example is one alternative with high risk and low cost and another with low risk and high cost. In this example it is up to the decision-maker to decide whether she wants to spend the budget on preventive installations or cleaning up after failures in the environment.

  2. An integration of two fertility analysis frameworks.

    PubMed

    Retherford, R D

    1987-01-01

    The family size preference function approach and the indifference map approach are described and compared to demonstrate the complementarity of these 2 formulations for fertility analysis. The original intent of the family size preference function approach was to use utility-cost concepts to analyze both the effects of economic and social development variables on fertility and the related process of birth control innovation and diffusion. The basic conceptual elements of this approach include: completed family size; birth control cost (including psychic costs) of achieving a completed family size of x children; family size preference function; total utility associated with completed family size of x children; demand for children; demand for children with birth control costs compared; and natural family size. The family size preference function formulation of the framework also can be expressed in terms of indifference maps and budget constraints as used by Easterlin, with some refinements. Again, it is assumed at first that birth control is without cost and there are no restrictions on the potential supply of children. Only 2 goods are considered: children (X) and other goods (G). In the indifference map formulation, demand is determined by the elements of tastes, income, and prices. Once an integrated framework is formulated that includes both a family size preference formulation and an indifference map formulation, it can be compared with Easterlin's original framework. Essentially, the indifference map formulation of the integrated framework is the same as Easterlin's framework. The most important difference is that Easterlin specifies the discontinuity in the budget line but does not specify the parallel discontinuity in tastes. It is important to specify the discontinuity in tastes, because it is needed to explain the role of subjective fixed birth control costs in the analysis of rapid diffusion of birth control and sudden rapid fertility decline. The

  3. Cost estimation: An expert-opinion approach. [cost analysis of research projects using the Delphi method (forecasting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffalano, C.; Fogleman, S.; Gielecki, M.

    1976-01-01

    A methodology is outlined which can be used to estimate the costs of research and development projects. The approach uses the Delphi technique a method developed by the Rand Corporation for systematically eliciting and evaluating group judgments in an objective manner. The use of the Delphi allows for the integration of expert opinion into the cost-estimating process in a consistent and rigorous fashion. This approach can also signal potential cost-problem areas. This result can be a useful tool in planning additional cost analysis or in estimating contingency funds. A Monte Carlo approach is also examined.

  4. Development of low-cost integrated zeolite collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernev, D. I.

    1981-07-01

    The optimum zeolite loading and the best zeolite for this purpose were determined by careful mathematical analysis, followed by experimental test, to confirm the theoretical results. The integrated collector design was then completed and the collector was constructed. After sealing and vacuum testing the zeolite panels and heat exchanges, the collector was coated with flat black paint and provided with double glazing, aluminum frame and insulation. Preliminary testing indicates close agreement with theoretical predictions of its performance.

  5. Integrated fire analysis: Application to offshore cases

    SciTech Connect

    Saubestre, V.; Khalfi, J.P.; Paygnard, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    Evaluating thermal loads from different fire scenarios and then response of the structure to these loads covers several fields. It is also difficult and time consuming to implement. Interfaces are necessary between the heat calculation, transient propagation and structural analysis software packages. Nevertheless, it is necessary to design structures to accommodate heat loads in order to meet safety requirements or functional specification. Elf, along with several operators and organizations, have sponsored a research project on this topic. The project, managed by SINTEF NBL (Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory), has delivered an integrated fire analysis software package which can be used to address design-to-fire-related issues in various contexts. The core modules of the integrated package are robust, well validated analysis tools. This paper describes some benefits (technical or cost related) of using an integrated approach to assess the response of a structure to thermal loads. Three examples are described: consequence of an accidental scenario on the living quarters in an offshore complex, necessity for the reinforcement of a flareboom following a change in process, evaluation of the amount of insulation needed for a topside process primary structure. The paper focuses on the importance for the operator to have a practical tool which can lead to substantial cost saving while reducing the uncertainty linked to safety issues.

  6. Integrated Analysis Capability (IAC) development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. P.

    1981-02-01

    The technical and programmatic aspects of the integrated analysis capability (IAC) are described. The (IAC) is an interdisciplinary analysis system containing a wide range of general purpose analysis programs that are interfaced via a common data base and a unified executive. The system is designed with significant interactive capability as well as the capability to support the entire range of design phases from the definition phase to the verification phase. The system functions as a standalone or interfaced with IPAD.

  7. Integrated least-cost lumber grade-mix solver

    Treesearch

    U. Buehlmann; R. Buck; R.E. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Hardwood lumber costs account for up to 70 percent of the total product costs of U.S. secondary wood products producers. Reducing these costs is difficult and often requires substantial capital investments. However, lumber-purchasing costs can be minimized by buying the least-cost lumber grade-mix that satisfies a company's component needs. Price differentials...

  8. Benefits and costs of integrating technology into undergraduate nursing programs.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Cornelius, Frances H

    2005-01-01

    Advances in technology over the last decade have resulted in increased opportunities for educators to become more innovative in classroom and clinical teaching. These innovations have allowed students and faculty to access essential clinical information at the point of care/need. By capitalizing on technologies such as personal digital assistants and course delivery shells, faculty and students have both portable and remote access to information that can guide practice and learning activities in clinical, classroom, and distance settings. For instance, a student can use a personal digital assistant to research a patient's new medication at the bedside, study course information, access references during class in response to a question, or download clinical materials from home. Although the benefits of having ready access to information seem obvious, there are costs and strategic planning activities associated with implementing these projects. Clearly, the objective of any academic nursing program is to develop skills among students so they can efficiently access information and use that information to guide their nursing practice. To do so, academic nursing administrators must have the forethought to envision how new technologies can support achieving this goal as well as the ability to put in place the infrastructure supports needed for success. This article presents a case study of how one institution developed the necessary infrastructure and garnished the appropriate resources to implement an ambitious technology initiative integrated throughout a large undergraduate nursing program. In addition, how the integration of technology, online and mobile, can enhance clinical learning will be discussed.

  9. Life Cycle Cost Model for Very High Speed Integrated Circuits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    literature on ICC modeling and numerous personal interviews with experts in the discipline of LCC modeling and cost analysis revealed that few models... ANALISIS -10%) 179360. 28. 634. 180021. 209 i. , . . - TITL EN~WURfG P1U1’V E PRM CNa TOAL 00g SIGAL P- M ’ASIC C2UP-BIKAR LMLI =MI~D MT2MSIS-10...NO. i. TITLE (Include Security Claseification) See Box 19 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Fnzo A. Lona. B.,S., Captain, USAF 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME

  10. Analysis of cost effective pipe insulation requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Winiarski, D.W.; Somasundaram, S.

    1997-06-01

    The proposed BRS/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1989R contains updated requirements for pipe insulation thicknesses developed on the basis of technical and economic principles. These requirements were determined based on computer simulations of the annual energy flow through the insulation, first cost assumptions for the insulation, and economic assumptions of discount rate and energy escalation rate. In later work, the same tools were used to analyze the sensitivity of the cost-effective insulation level for piping insulation to variations in operating hours, ambient temperature, fluid temperature, and economic assumptions. These analyses were carried out using cost data for pipe insulation averaged across several sources. The results of the sensitivity study showed that system operating hours is a critical parameter in determining the cost-effective pipe insulation thicknesses. Although there is a lack of reliable sources of typical operating hour data for heating systems, anecdotal information suggests that while most smaller, building level systems are operated only during a heating season, many site-wide steam and hot water heating systems are operated year round and insulation levels on these systems should reflect both the pipe size and the different operating schedules. In addition, the analysis showed that because of differences in private and Federal sector economics, the cost-effective pipe insulation levels appropriate for the private sector are often substantially different from those that are appropriate for the Federal sector.

  11. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    James, Brian David; Houchins, Cassidy; Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton; DeSantis, Daniel A.

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  12. TOPICAL REVIEW: Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagally, Eric T.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2004-12-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices.

  13. Cost analysis of new and retrofit hot-air type solar assisted heating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. D.; Hawkins, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed cost analysis/cost improvement study was performed on two Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration operational test sites to determine actual costs and potential cost improvements of new and retrofit hot air type, solar assisted heating and hot water systems for single family sized structures. This analysis concentrated on the first cost of a system which included procurement, installation, and integration of a solar assisted heating and hot water system on a new or retrofit basis; it also provided several cost projections which can be used as inputs to payback analyses, depending upon the degree of optimism or future improvements assumed. Cost definitions were developed for five categories of cost, and preliminary estimates were developed for each. The costing methodology, approach, and results together with several candidate low cost designs are described.

  14. COST Action "EuroTelepath": digital pathology integration in electronic health record, including primary care centres.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Marcial García; Castro, Ana Morillo; Gonçalves, Luis

    2011-03-30

    Digital pathology includes the information technology that allows for the management of information, including data and images, generated in an anatomic pathology department. COST ACTION IC0604: The integration of digital slides in the electronic health record is one of the main objectives of COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH). Fostering use of medical informatics standards and adapting them to current needs is needed to manage efficiently extremely large medical images, like digital slide files. Digital slides can play a role in disease prevention, primary diagnosis, and second opinion. In all these tasks, automated image analysis can also be a most valuable tool. In order to achieve an efficient interoperability between pathology information systems with other clinical information systems, obtaining a seamless integration of pathology images (gross pictures and digital slides) with LIS-Pathology Information system in a web environment is an important task. Primary care information systems should also be included in the integration, since primary care centres play an essential role in the generation of clinical information and specimen collection. A common terminology, based in SNOMED CT is also needed. Main barrier in the integration of digital slides in pathology workflow and eHealth record is the cost of current digital slide scanners. Pathology information system vendors should participate in standardization bodies.

  15. Microfabricated structures for integrated DNA analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, M A; Mastrangelo, C H; Sammarco, T S; Man, F P; Webster, J R; Johnsons, B N; Foerster, B; Jones, D; Fields, Y; Kaiser, A R; Burke, D T

    1996-01-01

    Photolithographic micromachining of silicon is a candidate technology for the construction of high-throughput DNA analysis devices. However, the development of complex silicon microfabricated systems has been hindered in part by the lack of a simple, versatile pumping method for integrating individual components. Here we describe a surface-tension-based pump able to move discrete nanoliter drops through enclosed channels using only local heating. This thermocapillary pump can accurately mix, measure, and divide drops by simple electronic control. In addition, we have constructed thermal-cycling chambers, gel electrophoresis channels, and radiolabeled DNA detectors that are compatible with the fabrication of thermocapillary pump channels. Since all of the components are made by conventional photolithographic techniques, they can be assembled into more complex integrated systems. The combination of pump and components into self-contained miniaturized devices may provide significant improvements in DNA analysis speed, portability, and cost. The potential of microfabricated systems lies in the low unit cost of silicon-based construction and in the efficient sample handling afforded by component integration. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8643614

  16. Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Craft Shallow Water TX Texas Cost Benefit Analysis of Boat Lifts x UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R...example, cleaning the hull by scraping or power washing will lead to pollutants potentially dropping into the water and therefore requires a permit...development of a written Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP), implementation of control measures, and submittal of a request for permit coverage

  17. Integrated Cost and Schedule using Monte Carlo Simulation of a CPM Model - 12419

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, David T.; Nosbisch, Michael R.

    2012-07-01

    This discussion of the recommended practice (RP) 57R-09 of AACE International defines the integrated analysis of schedule and cost risk to estimate the appropriate level of cost and schedule contingency reserve on projects. The main contribution of this RP is to include the impact of schedule risk on cost risk and hence on the need for cost contingency reserves. Additional benefits include the prioritizing of the risks to cost, some of which are risks to schedule, so that risk mitigation may be conducted in a cost-effective way, scatter diagrams of time-cost pairs for developing joint targets of time and cost, and probabilistic cash flow which shows cash flow at different levels of certainty. Integrating cost and schedule risk into one analysis based on the project schedule loaded with costed resources from the cost estimate provides both: (1) more accurate cost estimates than if the schedule risk were ignored or incorporated only partially, and (2) illustrates the importance of schedule risk to cost risk when the durations of activities using labor-type (time-dependent) resources are risky. Many activities such as detailed engineering, construction or software development are mainly conducted by people who need to be paid even if their work takes longer than scheduled. Level-of-effort resources, such as the project management team, are extreme examples of time-dependent resources, since if the project duration exceeds its planned duration the cost of these resources will increase over their budgeted amount. The integrated cost-schedule risk analysis is based on: - A high quality CPM schedule with logic tight enough so that it will provide the correct dates and critical paths during simulation automatically without manual intervention. - A contingency-free estimate of project costs that is loaded on the activities of the schedule. - Resolves inconsistencies between cost estimate and schedule that often creep into those documents as project execution proceeds

  18. An integrable low-cost hardware random number generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Lim, Daihyun; Devadas, Srinivas; Jamali, Behnam; Zhu, Zheng; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-02-01

    A hardware random number generator is different from a pseudo-random number generator; a pseudo-random number generator approximates the assumed behavior of a real hardware random number generator. Simple pseudo random number generators suffices for most applications, however for demanding situations such as the generation of cryptographic keys, requires an efficient and a cost effective source of random numbers. Arbiter-based Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) proposed for physical authentication of ICs exploits statistical delay variation of wires and transistors across integrated circuits, as a result of process variations, to build a secret key unique to each IC. Experimental results and theoretical studies show that a sufficient amount of variation exits across IC"s. This variation enables each IC to be identified securely. It is possible to exploit the unreliability of these PUF responses to build a physical random number generator. There exists measurement noise, which comes from the instability of an arbiter when it is in a racing condition. There exist challenges whose responses are unpredictable. Without environmental variations, the responses of these challenges are random in repeated measurements. Compared to other physical random number generators, the PUF-based random number generators can be a compact and a low-power solution since the generator need only be turned on when required. A 64-stage PUF circuit costs less than 1000 gates and the circuit can be implemented using a standard IC manufacturing processes. In this paper we have presented a fast and an efficient random number generator, and analysed the quality of random numbers produced using an array of tests used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology to evaluate the randomness of random number generators designed for cryptographic applications.

  19. Low cost real time interactive analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetina, F.

    1988-01-01

    Efforts continue to develop a low cost real time interactive analysis system for the reception of satellite data. A multi-purpose ingest hardware software frame formatter was demonstrated for GOES and TIROS data and work is proceeding on extending the capability to receive GMS data. A similar system was proposed as an archival and analysis system for use with INSAT data and studies are underway to modify the system to receive the planned SeaWiFS (ocean color) data. This system was proposed as the core of a number of international programs in support of U.S. AID activities. Systems delivered or nearing final testing are listed.

  20. Cost Effectiveness Analysis for Nursing Research

    PubMed Central

    Bensink, Mark E.; Eaton, Linda H.; Morrison, Megan L.; Cook, Wendy A.; Curtis, R. Randall; Kundu, Anjana; Gordon, Deborah B.; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background With ever increasing pressure to reduce costs and increase quality, nurses are faced with the challenge of producing evidence that their interventions and care provide value. Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a tool that can be used to provide this evidence by comparative evaluation of the costs and consequences of two or more alternatives. Objectives The aim of this article is to introduce the essential components of CEA to nurses and nurse researchers with the protocol of a recently funded cluster randomized controlled trial as an example. Methods This article provides: (a) a description of the main concepts and key steps in CEA, and (b) a summary of the background and objectives of a CEA designed to evaluate a nursing led pain and symptom management intervention in rural communities compared to current usual care. Discussion As the example highlights, incorporating CEA into nursing research studies is feasible. The burden of the additional data collection required is off-set by quantitative evidence of the given intervention's cost and impact using humanistic and economic outcomes. At a time when US health care is moving toward accountable care, the information provided by CEA will be an important additional component of the evidence produced by nursing research. PMID:23817285

  1. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  2. HIV, Tuberculosis, and Non-Communicable Diseases: What is known about the costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of integrated care?

    PubMed Central

    Hyle, Emily P.; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Su, Amanda E.; El-Sadr, Wafaa M.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented investments in health systems low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have resulted in more than eight million individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Such individuals experience dramatically increased survival, but are increasingly at risk of developing common non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Integrating clinical care for HIV, other infectious diseases, and NCDs could make health services more effective and provide greater value. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a method to evaluate the clinical benefits and costs associated with different healthcare interventions and offers guidance for prioritization of investments and scale-up, especially as resources are increasingly constrained. We first examine tuberculosis and HIV as one example of integrated care already successfully implemented in several LMICs; we then review the published literature regarding cervical cancer and depression as two examples of NCDs for which integrating care with HIV services could offer excellent value. Direct evidence of the benefits of integrated services generally remains scarce; however, data suggest that improved effectiveness and reduced costs may be attained by integrating additional services with existing HIV clinical care. Further investigation into clinical outcomes and costs of care for NCDs among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in LMICs will help to prioritize specific healthcare services by contributing to an understanding of the affordability and implementation of an integrated approach. PMID:25117965

  3. Regular design fabrics for low cost scaling of integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhaveri, Tejas

    A method for enabling economical scaling for future ICs by the use of regular design to co-develop process and design is discussed. We have made contributions towards creating the framework required for defining the pattern set used for process optimization, process optimization for regular design fabrics, and the analysis of the economic benefit of the prescribed methodology. We describe the technique used to define a small set of equivalent pattern classes that can be used for process optimization and characterization. We employ a novel methodology for determining a smaller optical interaction range by analyzing the change in aerial image by introducing deviations to the underlying regular fabric. We also introduce the concept of critical patterns based on sensitivity to yield detractors as well as discuss means of classifying patterns into equivalent pattern classes based on printability metrics. We demonstrate process simplification with the use of regular design fabrics. The application of single exposure lithography for the 32nm technology node as well as an simplified OPC solution are both discussed. The economic benefit of such process simplification as well as improved yield is quantified by analyzing the lithography cost per good die metric. The lithography cost per good die metric is then applied to analytically determine the optimum design style for 32nm as well as the optimum lithography solution for the 22nm technology node.

  4. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Report is made of the cost analysis of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystems and two water electrolysis subsystems, namely, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte. The four oxygen recovery systems were quantitatively evaluated. System characteristics, including process flows, performance, and physical characteristics were also analyzed. Additionally, the status of development of each of the systems considered and the required advance technology efforts required to bring conceptual and/or pre-prototype hardware to an operational prototype status were defined. Intimate knowledge of the operations, development status, and capabilities of the systems to meet space mission requirements were found to be essential in establishing the cost estimating relationships for advanced life support systems.

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urueña, Analía; Pippo, Tomás; Betelu, María Sol; Virgilio, Federico; Hernández, Laura; Giglio, Norberto; Gentile, Ángela; Diosque, Máximo; Vizzotti, Carla

    2015-05-07

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe diarrhea in children under 5. In Argentina, the most affected regions are the Northeast and Northwest, where hospitalizations and deaths are more frequent. This study estimated the cost-effectiveness of adding either of the two licensed rotavirus vaccines to the routine immunization schedule. The integrated TRIVAC vaccine cost-effectiveness model from the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative (Version 2.0) was used to assess health benefits, costs savings, life-years gained (LYGs), DALYs averted, and cost/DALY averted of vaccinating 10 successive cohorts, from the health care system and societal perspectives. Two doses of monovalent (RV1) rotavirus vaccine and three doses of pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccine were each compared to a scenario assuming no vaccination. The price/dose was US$ 7.50 and US$ 5.15 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. We ran both a national and sub-national analysis, discounting all costs and benefits 3% annually. Our base case results were compared to a range of alternative univariate and multivariate scenarios. The number of LYGs was 5962 and 6440 for RV1 and RV5, respectively. The cost/DALY averted when compared to no vaccination from the health care system and societal perspective was: US$ 3870 and US$ 1802 for RV1, and US$ 2414 and US$ 358 for RV5, respectively. Equivalent figures for the Northeast were US$ 1470 and US$ 636 for RV1, and US$ 913 and US$ 80 for RV5. Therefore, rotavirus vaccination was more cost-effective in the Northeast compared to the whole country; and, in the Northwest, health service's costs saved outweighed the cost of introducing the vaccine. Vaccination with either vaccine compared to no vaccination was highly cost-effective based on WHO guidelines and Argentina's 2011 per capita GDP of US$ 9090. Key variables influencing results were vaccine efficacy, annual loss of efficacy, relative coverage of deaths, vaccine price, and discount rate. Compared to no

  7. Stochastic modeling of coal gasification combined cycle systems: Cost models for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1990-06-01

    This report documents cost models developed for selected integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. The objective is to obtain a series of capital and operating cost models that can be integrated with an existing set of IGCC process performance models developed at the US Department of Energy Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These models are implemented in ASPEN, a Fortran-based process simulator. Under a separate task, a probabilistic modeling capability has been added to the ASPEN simulator, facilitating analysis of uncertainties in new process performance and cost (Diwekar and Rubin, 1989). One application of the cost models presented here is to explicitly characterize uncertainties in capital and annual costs, supplanting the traditional approach of incorporating uncertainty via a contingency factor. The IGCC systems selected by DOE/METC for cost model development include the following: KRW gasifier with cold gas cleanup; KRW gasifier with hot gas cleanup; and Lurgi gasifier with hot gas cleanup. For each technology, the cost model includes both capital and annual costs. The capital cost models estimate the costs of each major plant section as a function of key performance and design parameters. A standard cost method based on the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Technical Assessment Guide (1986) was adopted. The annual cost models are based on operating and maintenance labor requirements, maintenance material requirements, the costs of utilities and reagent consumption, and credits from byproduct sales. Uncertainties in cost parameters are identified for both capital and operating cost models. Appendices contain cost models for the above three IGCC systems, a number of operating trains subroutines, range checking subroutines, and financial subroutines. 88 refs., 69 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.

    2009-01-01

    The Flightspeed Integral Image Analysis Toolkit (FIIAT) is a C library that provides image analysis functions in a single, portable package. It provides basic low-level filtering, texture analysis, and subwindow descriptor for applications dealing with image interpretation and object recognition. Designed with spaceflight in mind, it addresses: Ease of integration (minimal external dependencies) Fast, real-time operation using integer arithmetic where possible (useful for platforms lacking a dedicated floatingpoint processor) Written entirely in C (easily modified) Mostly static memory allocation 8-bit image data The basic goal of the FIIAT library is to compute meaningful numerical descriptors for images or rectangular image regions. These n-vectors can then be used directly for novelty detection or pattern recognition, or as a feature space for higher-level pattern recognition tasks. The library provides routines for leveraging training data to derive descriptors that are most useful for a specific data set. Its runtime algorithms exploit a structure known as the "integral image." This is a caching method that permits fast summation of values within rectangular regions of an image. This integral frame facilitates a wide range of fast image-processing functions. This toolkit has applicability to a wide range of autonomous image analysis tasks in the space-flight domain, including novelty detection, object and scene classification, target detection for autonomous instrument placement, and science analysis of geomorphology. It makes real-time texture and pattern recognition possible for platforms with severe computational restraints. The software provides an order of magnitude speed increase over alternative software libraries currently in use by the research community. FIIAT can commercially support intelligent video cameras used in intelligent surveillance. It is also useful for object recognition by robots or other autonomous vehicles

  9. Cost analysis of atmosphere monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    The cost analyses of two leading atmospheric monitoring systems, namely the mass spectrometer and the gas chromatograph, are reported. A summary of the approach used in developing the cost estimating techinques is presented; included are the cost estimating techniques, the development of cost estimating relationships and the atmospheric monitoring system cost estimates.

  10. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  11. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  12. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  13. 14 CFR § 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. § 1260.145....145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  14. 34 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45 Education... Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  15. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted...

  16. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished...

  17. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  18. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  19. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished...

  20. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  1. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted...

  2. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  3. 36 CFR 1210.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1210... § 1210.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished...

  4. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  5. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  6. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted...

  7. 22 CFR 145.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 145.45 Section 145.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  8. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.505 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... § 105-72.505 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  10. 43 CFR 12.945 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 12.945 Section 12... Requirements § 12.945 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  11. 7 CFR 3019.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 3019.45 Section 3019.45... Standards § 3019.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  12. 24 CFR 84.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 84.45....45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  13. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office of... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be...

  14. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  15. 22 CFR 518.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 518.45 Section 518.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 518.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  16. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47... Agreements Procurement Standards § 550.47 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall... analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations...

  17. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  18. 29 CFR 95.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 95.45 Section 95.45 Labor Office... Procurement Standards § 95.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may...

  19. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Environmental Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, S. Fred

    1977-01-01

    Discusses how to set the ambient standards for water and air based on cost-benefit analysis. Describes marginal analysis, the basis of cost-benefit analysis and how dynamic cost-benefit analysis is carried out with application to the automobile pollution problem. (HM)

  20. Achieving calibration cost savings through data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, A.H.; Clark, J.P.

    1993-12-31

    Air displacement type pipettes have been used effectively at the Savannah River Site (SRS) since the mid-1980`s when they replaced expensive glass microliter pipettes. A paper presented at the 1987 INMM Annual Meeting by John P. Clark detailed the implementation at SRS. At that time, calibration frequency and required documentation were established according to regulatory and standard practice requirements. Pipettes are still being used at SRS in compliance with NQA-1-12, ``Control of Measuring and Test Equipment (M and TE)`` requirements, which includes defined calibration intervals and 5-year calibration record retention. A recent analysis of the pipette calibration historical data indicated that pipettes were rarely out of calibration when they were checked. In other words, calibration checks were being performed too frequently. As a result, pipette calibration frequencies were decreased, with the potential accompanying annual cost savings of over $30,000 in reduced labor and materials. Concurrently, the number of calibration check replicates was increased to prevent statistical errors in calibration check decision making. The benefits derived in the pipette calibration example are applicable to any M and TE where calibration history data are maintained and where analysis indicates excessive calibration checks. Details of the data analysis and cost savings are presented in the paper.

  1. Echinococcosis in Tunisia: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Majorowski, Meghan M; Carabin, Hélène; Kilani, Mohamed; Bensalah, Afif

    2005-04-01

    Echinococcus granulosus infection is a preventable zoonosis of human and veterinary public health importance in Tunisia. We aimed to comprehensively quantify human and animal echinococcosis losses in Tunisia. Itemized cost menus were developed for the health of both domestic animals and humans, and for productivity monetary losses. The incidence and prevalence of the disease in all species were obtained from national and personal reports. The domestic animal and human costs of echinococcosis in Tunisia were estimated using age-stratified rates and losses, productivity losses (including those not formally employed) and Monte Carlo sampling to represent the uncertainty inherent in some epidemiological and economic values. Echinococcosis in Tunisia causes significant direct and indirect losses in both humans and animals of approximately US dollars 10-19 million annually. These estimates are based on numerous methodological improvements over previous studies and are of considerable consequence relative to Tunisia's US dollars 21.2 billion gross domestic product. A cost-benefit analysis of control programmes using the methodological advances presented here and regional comparison to other endemic diseases is warranted. These may provide information to assist policy decision-makers in prioritizing the allocation of scarce resources.

  2. Cost-benefit considerations in regulatory analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Mubayi, V.; Sailor, V.; Anandalingam, G.

    1995-10-01

    Justification for safety enhancements at nuclear facilities, e.g., a compulsory backfit to nuclear power plants, requires a value-impact analysis of the increase in overall public protection versus the cost of implementation. It has been customary to assess the benefits in terms of radiation dose to the public averted by the introduction of the safety enhancement. Comparison of such benefits with the costs of the enhancement then requires an estimate of the monetary value of averted dose (dollars/person rem). This report reviews available information on a variety of factors that affect this valuation and assesses the continuing validity of the figure of $1000/person-rem averted, which has been widely used as a guideline in performing value-impact analyses. Factors that bear on this valuation include the health risks of radiation doses, especially the higher risk estimates of the BEIR V committee, recent calculations of doses and offsite costs by consequence codes for hypothesized severe accidents at U.S. nuclear power plants under the NUREG-1150 program, and recent information on the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and estimates of risk avoidance based on the willingness-to-pay criterion. The report analyzes these factors and presents results on the dollars/person-rem ratio arising from different assumptions on the values of these factors.

  3. Prosthetic Joint Infections and Cost Analysis?

    PubMed

    Haddad, F S; Ngu, A; Negus, J J

    2017-01-01

    Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication of arthroplasty surgery that can lead to debilitating morbidity for the patient and significant expense for the healthcare system. With the continual rise of arthroplasty cases worldwide every year, the revision load for infection is becoming a greater financial burden on healthcare budgets. Prevention of infection has to be the key to reducing this burden. For treatment, it is critical for us to collect quality data that can guide future management strategies to minimise healthcare costs and morbidity / mortality for patients. There has been a management shift in many countries to a less expensive 1-stage strategy and in selective cases to the use of debridement, antibiotics and implant retention. These appear very attractive options on many levels, not least cost. However, with a consensus on the definition of joint infection only clarified in 2011, there is still the need for high quality cost analysis data to be collected on how the use of these different methods could impact the healthcare expenditure of countries around the world. With a projected spend on revision for infection at US$1.62 billion in the US alone, this data is vital and urgently needed.

  4. Cost and performance analysis of physical security systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, M.J.; Yates, D.; Jago, W.H.; Phillips, A.W.

    1998-04-01

    Analysis of cost and performance of physical security systems can be a complex, multi-dimensional problem. There are a number of point tools that address various aspects of cost and performance analysis. Increased interest in cost tradeoffs of physical security alternatives has motivated development of an architecture called Cost and Performance Analysis (CPA), which takes a top-down approach to aligning cost and performance metrics. CPA incorporates results generated by existing physical security system performance analysis tools, and utilizes an existing cost analysis tool. The objective of this architecture is to offer comprehensive visualization of complex data to security analysts and decision-makers.

  5. Benefit/cost analysis of RDF process in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Chang, Y.H.

    1997-12-01

    Reducing the waste stream through incineration is very important to minimize the use of landfills and to maximize the recovery of energy. The technology of mass burn waterwall incineration was widely used in the past two decades for solving the problems of solid waste disposal. In recent years, the sorting process is considered as an essential pretreatment unit prior to the incineration process. However, many engineering and economic disciplines are involved in the integration of refuse-derived fuel and waste-to-energy processes. This paper illustrates the related benefit/cost analysis issues during selecting an appropriate sorting process for Pa-Li municipal incinerator in Taipei metropolitan region of Taiwan.

  6. SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION. VOLUME I. COST ANALYSIS PROGRAM.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT, *COSTS), (*AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY, INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION ), MANAGEMENT ENGINEERING, AIRFRAMES, ECONOMICS, COMPUTER PROGRAMS, STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, MONEY, AIRCRAFT ENGINES, FEASIBILITY STUDIES

  7. An improved set of standards for finding cost for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Paul G

    2009-07-01

    Guidelines have helped standardize methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, allowing different interventions to be compared and enhancing the generalizability of study findings. There is agreement that all relevant services be valued from the societal perspective using a long-term time horizon and that more exact methods be used to cost services most affected by the study intervention. Guidelines are not specific enough with respect to costing methods, however. The literature was reviewed to identify the problems associated with the 4 principal methods of cost determination. Microcosting requires direct measurement and is ordinarily reserved to cost novel interventions. Analysts should include nonwage labor cost, person-level and institutional overhead, and the cost of development, set-up activities, supplies, space, and screening. Activity-based cost systems have promise of finding accurate costs of all services provided, but are not widely adopted. Quality must be evaluated and the generalizability of cost estimates to other settings must be considered. Administrative cost estimates, chiefly cost-adjusted charges, are widely used, but the analyst must consider items excluded from the available system. Gross costing methods determine quantity of services used and employ a unit cost. If the intervention will affect the characteristics of a service, the method should not assume that the service is homogeneous. Questions are posed for future reviews of the quality of costing methods. The analyst must avoid inappropriate assumptions, especially those that bias the analysis by exclusion of costs that are affected by the intervention under study.

  8. A cost-benefit analysis of The National Map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsing, David L.; Theissen, Kevin; Bernknopf, Richard

    2003-01-01

    The Geography Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted this cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of The National Map. This analysis is an evaluation of the proposed Geography Discipline initiative to provide the Nation with a mechanism to access current and consistent digital geospatial data. This CBA is a supporting document to accompany the Exhibit 300 Capital Asset Plan and Business Case of The National Map Reengineering Program. The framework for estimating the benefits is based on expected improvements in processing information to perform any of the possible applications of spatial data. This analysis does not attempt to determine the benefits and costs of performing geospatial-data applications. Rather, it estimates the change in the differences between those benefits and costs with The National Map and the current situation without it. The estimates of total costs and benefits of The National Map were based on the projected implementation time, development and maintenance costs, rates of data inclusion and integration, expected usage levels over time, and a benefits estimation model. The National Map provides data that are current, integrated, consistent, complete, and more accessible in order to decrease the cost of implementing spatial-data applications and (or) improve the outcome of those applications. The efficiency gains in per-application improvements are greater than the cost to develop and maintain The National Map, meaning that the program would bring a positive net benefit to the Nation. The average improvement in the net benefit of performing a spatial data application was multiplied by a simulated number of application implementations across the country. The numbers of users, existing applications, and rates of application implementation increase over time as The National Map is developed and accessed by spatial data users around the country. Results from the 'most likely' estimates of model parameters and data inputs indicate that

  9. BMP COST ANALYSIS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost equations are developed to estimate capital, and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for commonly used best management practices (BMPs). Total BMP volume and/or surface area is used to predict these costs. Engineering News Record (ENR) construction cost index was used t...

  10. Cost Analysis for Educational Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Emil J.

    Concerned with the problem of determining program costs as part of the evaluation process, this article helps the practitioner arrive at useful conceptions of the term "cost" and procedures for assessing the costs of an educational program. Its purpose is to help design costing procedures for evaluation situations that are commonly encountered. An…

  11. BMP COST ANALYSIS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost equations are developed to estimate capital and operations and maintenance (O&M) for commonly used best management practices (BMPS). Total BMP volume and/or surface area is used to predict these costs. ENR construction cost index was used to adjust cost data to December 2000...

  12. BMP COST ANALYSIS FOR SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cost equations are developed to estimate capital, and operations and maintenance (O&M) costs for commonly used best management practices (BMPs). Total BMP volume and/or surface area is used to predict these costs. Engineering News Record (ENR) construction cost index was used t...

  13. 40 CFR 246.202-6 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.202-6 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been identified (but... residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares the costs of the...

  14. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  15. 2 CFR 215.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 215.45 Section 215... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  16. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  17. 40 CFR 246.202-6 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.202-6 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been identified (but... residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares the costs of the...

  18. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402 Section 965.402 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine...

  19. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  20. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  1. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  2. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  3. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402 Section 965.402 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to determine...

  4. 14 CFR § 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. § 1274.506... AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  5. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  6. 49 CFR 19.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 19.45 Section 19.45... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price...

  7. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.506 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1274.506 Section... WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.506 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every...

  9. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  10. 40 CFR 246.202-6 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.202-6 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been identified (but... residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares the costs of...

  11. 24 CFR 965.402 - Benefit/cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Benefit/cost analysis. 965.402 Section 965.402 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT...-Owned Projects § 965.402 Benefit/cost analysis. (a) A benefit/cost analysis shall be made to...

  12. 45 CFR 2543.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 2543.45 Section 2543.45... ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Property Standards § 2543.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with...

  13. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45...-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  14. 15 CFR 14.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 14.45 Section... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 14.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection...

  15. 28 CFR 70.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 70.45 Section 70... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.45 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in...

  16. Integrating Evaluation into a Program for Increased Utility and Cost-Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    1988-01-01

    An approach toward integrating evaluation into a program at its inception is presented as a way to increase utility and cost-effectiveness. Examples illustrate that such integration, combining internal and external evaluation, is preferable to independent and separate evaluation in terms of the cost to stakeholders. (SLD)

  17. Integrated microfluidic biochips for DNA microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Robin Hui; Dill, Kilian; Fuji, H Sho; McShea, Andy

    2006-03-01

    A fully integrated and self-contained microfluidic biochip device has been developed to automate the fluidic handling steps required to perform a gene expression study of the human leukemia cell line (K-562). The device consists of a DNA microarray semiconductor chip with 12,000 features and a microfluidic cartridge that consists of microfluidic pumps, mixers, valves, fluid channels and reagent storage chambers. Microarray hybridization and subsequent fluidic handling and reactions (including a number of washing and labeling steps) were performed in this fully automated and miniature device before fluorescent image scanning of the microarray chip. Electrochemical micropumps were integrated in the cartridge to provide pumping of liquid solutions. A micromixing technique based on gas bubbling generated by electrochemical micropumps was developed. Low-cost check valves were implemented in the cartridge to prevent cross-talk of the stored reagents. A single-color transcriptional analysis of K-562 cells with a series of calibration controls (spiked-in controls) was performed to characterize this new platform with regard to sensitivity, specificity and dynamic range. The device detected sample RNAs with a concentration as low as 0.375 pM. Detection was quantitative over more than 3 orders of magnitude. Experiments also demonstrated that chip-to-chip variability was low, indicating that the integrated microfluidic devices eliminate manual fluidic handling steps that can be a significant source of variability in genomic analysis.

  18. Cost analysis in injection moulded plastic parts designing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turc, CG; Cărăuşu, C.; Belgiu, G.

    2017-08-01

    One of the major problem in plastic part design consists in the cost optimization. The designer should take into consideration some relevant aspects that are related to the functional role of the part, the mechanical and thermal loads, and the part cost. The part cost depends on three main components: the mould cost, the equipment operation cost and the material cost. The injection cycle time, the part volume and the material nature can estimate the last two components of the part cost. The mould cost is more difficult to estimate, and current CAD software did not integrate such a feature. The paper present a methodology to estimate the mould cost, taking into consideration the part geometry and its dimensional prescriptions. In addition, a spreadsheet is provided in order to estimate the mould cost.

  19. How the brain integrates costs and benefits during decision making.

    PubMed

    Basten, Ulrike; Biele, Guido; Heekeren, Hauke R; Fiebach, Christian J

    2010-12-14

    When we make decisions, the benefits of an option often need to be weighed against accompanying costs. Little is known, however, about the neural systems underlying such cost-benefit computations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and choice modeling, we show that decision making based on cost-benefit comparison can be explained as a stochastic accumulation of cost-benefit difference. Model-driven functional MRI shows that ventromedial and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compare costs and benefits by computing the difference between neural signatures of anticipated benefits and costs from the ventral striatum and amygdala, respectively. Moreover, changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the bilateral middle intraparietal sulcus reflect the accumulation of the difference signal from ventromedial prefrontal cortex. In sum, we show that a neurophysiological mechanism previously established for perceptual decision making, that is, the difference-based accumulation of evidence, is fundamental also in value-based decisions. The brain, thus, weighs costs against benefits by combining neural benefit and cost signals into a single, difference-based neural representation of net value, which is accumulated over time until the individual decides to accept or reject an option.

  20. 38 CFR 1.921 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... effectiveness of alternative collection techniques, establish guidelines with respect to points at which costs... Standards for Collection of Claims § 1.921 Analysis of costs. VA collection procedures should provide for periodic comparison of costs incurred and amounts collected. Data on costs and corresponding recovery rates...

  1. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  2. The JPL Cost Risk Analysis Approach that Incorporates Engineering Realism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, Corey C.; Warfield, Keith R.; Rosenberg, Leigh S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the JPL Cost Engineering Group (CEG) cost risk analysis approach that accounts for all three types of cost risk. It will also describe the evaluation of historical cost data upon which this method is based. This investigation is essential in developing a method that is rooted in engineering realism and produces credible, dependable results to aid decision makers.

  3. Analysis of Costs of Education in India. Occasional Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilak, Jandhyala B. G.

    A paper analyzing the cost of education in India is divided into three major sections. In the first section, the author highlights the importance of cost analysis, describes a taxonomy of costs of education, and discusses alternative concepts of unit costs of education and other conceptual and analytical issues. The nature of official and…

  4. Analysis of satellite servicing cost benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Builteman, H. O.

    1982-01-01

    Under the auspices of NASA/JSC a methodology was developed to estimate the value of satellite servicing to the user community. Time and funding precluded the development of an exhaustive computer model; instead, the concept of Design Reference Missions was involved. In this approach, three space programs were analyzed for various levels of servicing. The programs selected fall into broad categories which include 80 to 90% of the missions planned between now and the end of the century. Of necessity, the extrapolation of the three program analyses to the user community as a whole depends on an average mission model and equivalency projections. The value of the estimated cost benefits based on this approach depends largely on how well the equivalency assumptions and the mission model match the real world. A careful definition of all assumptions permits the analysis to be extended to conditions beyond the scope of this study.

  5. Psychometrics for the Cost Conscious: Using Discriminant Analysis to Refine Estimates of Program Cost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Raymond J.

    This presentation uses data from a long-term juvenile diversion counseling program to illustrate a sample method of estimating program cost. Several problems in using average cost figures are first presented. Then a method is described in which discriminant analysis can be used to refine cost comparisons. This makes it possible to produce…

  6. Learning Costs: Operating Cost Analysis for New Designs for the Comprehensive High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickabaugh, James R.; And Others

    The cost factors involved in the New Designs for the Comprehensive High School project were compared with the traditional operating costs of a comprehensive high school in the United States. The high school cost analysis was based on expenditure profiles developed by the Educational Research Service (ERS). ERS data were manipulated to derive an…

  7. Analysis of cost-benefit trade-offs of complex security systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Mary J.

    1997-01-01

    Essential to a systems approach to design of security systems is an analysis of the cost effectiveness of alternative designs. While the concept of analysis of cost and benefits is straightforward, implementation can be at the least tedious and, for complex designs and alternatives, can become nearly intractable without the help of structured analysis tools. CPA (cost and performance analysis) is a prototype integration of existing PC-based cost and performance tools: ACE and ASSESS. ACE is an existing DOD PC-based cost analysis tool that supports cost analysis over the full life-cycle of the system; that is, the cost to procure, operate, maintain and retire the system and all of its components. ASSESS is an existing DOE PC-based tool for analysis of performance of physical protection systems. These tools are integrated using C++ and Microsoft Excel macros. Cost and performance data are collected into Excel workbooks, making data readily available to analysts and decision makers in both tabular and graphical formats and at both the system and path element levels.

  8. Cost Accounting and Analysis for University Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.; Cooper, Michael D.

    The approach to library planning studied in this report is the use of accounting models to measure library costs and implement program budgets. A cost-flow model for a university library is developed and listed with historical data from the Berkeley General Library. Various comparisons of an exploratory nature are made of the unit costs for…

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Integrating Tobacco Cessation Into Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Treatment.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Paul G; Jeffers, Abra; Smith, Mark W; Chow, Bruce K; McFall, Miles; Saxon, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    We examined the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation integrated with treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Smoking veterans receiving care for PTSD (N = 943) were randomized to care integrated with smoking cessation versus referral to a smoking cessation clinic. Smoking cessation services, health care cost and utilization, quality of life, and biochemically-verified abstinence from cigarettes were assessed over 18-months of follow-up. Clinical outcomes were combined with literature on changes in smoking status and the effect of smoking on health care cost, mortality, and quality of life in a Markov model of cost-effectiveness over a lifetime horizon. We discounted cost and outcomes at 3% per year and report costs in 2010 US dollars. The mean of smoking cessation services cost was $1286 in those randomized to integrated care and $551 in those receiving standard care (P < .001). There were no significant differences in the cost of mental health services or other care. After 12 months, prolonged biochemically verified abstinence was observed in 8.9% of those randomized to integrated care and 4.5% of those randomized to standard care (P = .004). The model projected that Integrated Care added $836 in lifetime cost and generated 0.0259 quality adjusted life years (QALYs), an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $32 257 per QALY. It was 86.0% likely to be cost-effective compared to a threshold of $100 000/QALY. Smoking cessation integrated with treatment for PTSD was cost-effective, within a broad confidence region, but less cost-effective than most other smoking cessation programs reported in the literature. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. 48 CFR 3046.792 - Cost benefit analysis (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost benefit analysis (USCG). 3046.792 Section 3046.792 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Cost benefit analysis (USCG). If a specific warranty is considered not to be cost beneficial by the...

  11. 48 CFR 3046.792 - Cost benefit analysis (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Cost benefit analysis (USCG). 3046.792 Section 3046.792 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Cost benefit analysis (USCG). If a specific warranty is considered not to be cost beneficial by the...

  12. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  13. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  14. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  15. 10 CFR 600.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 600.145 Section 600.145 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE RULES Uniform Administrative... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.145 Cost and price analysis. Some form of cost...

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of School Desegregation Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossell, Christine H.

    Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a useful tool for choosing between alternative desegregation plans or justifying one particular plan. Previous analyses of school desegregation effects on white enrollment, which focus only upon costs, have had limited use for policy. Traditional cost-benefit analysis poses problems because of the difficulty of…

  17. 31 CFR 901.10 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of different types and in various dollar ranges should be used to compare the cost effectiveness of... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 901.10 Section 901... COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 901.10 Analysis of costs. Agency collection procedures should provide for periodic...

  18. 31 CFR 901.10 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of different types and in various dollar ranges should be used to compare the cost effectiveness of... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 901.10 Section 901... COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 901.10 Analysis of costs. Agency collection procedures should provide for periodic...

  19. 38 CFR 1.921 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... effectiveness of alternative collection techniques, establish guidelines with respect to points at which costs... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 1.921... Standards for Collection of Claims § 1.921 Analysis of costs. VA collection procedures should provide for...

  20. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Analysis of costs. 1015.213 Section 1015.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Standards for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.213 Analysis of costs. DOE will prepare periodic comparisons of costs...

  1. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Analysis of costs. 1015.213 Section 1015.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Standards for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.213 Analysis of costs. DOE will prepare periodic comparisons of costs...

  2. Cost Analysis of TEOAE-Based Universal Newborn Hearing Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirather, Yusnita; Korth, Nancy; White, Karl R.; Woods-Kershner, Nancy; Downs, Diane

    1997-01-01

    After reviewing the extant literature, this article describes a cost analysis of the transient evoked otoaoustic emissions (TEOAE)-based universal newborn hearing screening program. Reasons why the cost per baby ($7.42) is lower than in previous reports are explained and the benefits of having accurate cost analysis data are summarized. (Author/CR)

  3. Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    A methodology is developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware and is used to predict the costs of three carbon dioxide concentration systems. The cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other programs are utilized as a basis for establishing the cost estimating relationships. The concentration systems analyzed are the molecular sieves C02 concentrator, the hydrogen-depolarized concentrator, and the regenerable solid desiccant concentrator. Besides the cost estimates for each system, their comparative criteria including relative characteristics, operational differences, and development status are considered.

  4. Cost Effectiveness Analysis, A DTIC Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    34tL INTERSATIC%4L EL SE3 fliDO CA scamH amCaICAXi IL AIRCRAF -, Real Estate Cost Estimating Tecnni;jes for Aircra’t Transarer.cy rai lure ano, LoaI2...Manual. Housing Program. AD-A030 099 AD-AO17 761 AD-A061 421 - Ramjet Cost Estimating Handbook~. Test and Evaluation of the Real Estate cost Estie...Estao! ,sh-:ent and r:scontinuanca Criteria.PWB Production Assemoly Cost Real Estate Cost Estimating AD-A043 836 Guidelines (U). Technigues for PL 91

  5. [Cost Analysis of Cochlear Implantation in Adults].

    PubMed

    Raths, S; Lenarz, T; Lesinski-Schiedat, A; Flessa, S

    2016-04-01

    The number of implantation of cochlear implants has steadily risen in recent years. Reasons for this are an extension of indication criteria, demographic change, increased quality of life needs and greater acceptance. The consequences are rising expenditure for statutory health insurance (SHI) for cochlear implantation. A detailed calculation of lifetime costs from SHI's perspective for postlingually deafened adolescents and adults is essential in estimating future cost developments. Calculations are based on accounting data from the Hannover Medical School. With regard to further life expectancy, average costs of preoperative diagnosis, surgery, rehabilitation, follow-ups, processor upgrades and electrical maintenance were discounted to their present value at age of implantation. There is an inverse relation between cost of unilateral cochlear implantation and age of initial implantation. From SHI's perspective, the intervention costs between 36,001 and 68,970 € ($ 42,504-$ 81,429). The largest cost components are initial implantation and processor upgrades. Compared to the UK the cost of cochlear implantation in Germany seems to be significantly lower. In particular the costs of, rehabilitation and maintenance in Germany cause only a small percentage of total costs. Also, the costs during the first year of treatment seem comparatively low. With regard to future spending of SHI due to implant innovations and associated extension of indication, increasing cost may be suspected. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A probabilistic analysis of silicon cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon materials costs represent both a cost driver and an area where improvement can be made in the manufacture of photovoltaic modules. The cost from three processes for the production of low-cost silicon being developed under the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Photovoltaic Program is analyzed. The approach is based on probabilistic inputs and makes use of two models developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory: SIMRAND (SIMulation of Research ANd Development) and IPEG (Improved Price Estimating Guidelines). The approach, assumptions, and limitations are detailed along with a verification of the cost analyses methodology. Results, presented in the form of cumulative probability distributions for silicon cost, indicate that there is a 55% chance of reaching the DOE target of $16/kg for silicon material. This is a technically achievable cost based on expert forecasts of the results of ongoing research and development and do not imply any market prices for a given year.

  7. Integrated cosmological probes: Extended analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Andrina; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Recent progress in cosmology has relied on combining different cosmological probes. In an earlier work, we implemented an integrated approach to cosmology where the probes are combined into a common framework at the map level. This has the advantage of taking full account of the correlations between the different probes, to provide a stringent test of systematics and of the validity of the cosmological model. We extend this analysis to include not only cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature, galaxy clustering, and weak lensing from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) but also CMB lensing, weak lensing from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data, type Ia supernova, and H0 measurements. This yields 12 auto- and cross-power spectra which include the CMB temperature power spectrum, cosmic shear, galaxy clustering, galaxy-galaxy lensing, CMB lensing cross-correlation along with other cross-correlations, as well as background probes. Furthermore, we extend the treatment of systematic uncertainties by studying the impact of intrinsic alignments, baryonic corrections, residual foregrounds in the CMB temperature, and calibration factors for the different power spectra. For Λ CDM , we find results that are consistent with our earlier work. Given our enlarged data set and systematics treatment, this confirms the robustness of our analysis and results. Furthermore, we find that our best-fit cosmological model gives a good fit to all the data we consider with no signs of tensions within our analysis. We also find our constraints to be consistent with those found by the joint analysis of the WMAP9, SPT, and ACT CMB experiments and the KiDS weak lensing survey. Comparing with the Planck Collaboration results, we see a broad agreement, but there are indications of a tension from the marginalized constraints in most pairs of cosmological parameters. Since our analysis includes CMB temperature Planck data at 10 <ℓ<610 , the tension appears to arise between

  8. TRU Waste Management Program. Cost/schedule optimization analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Detamore, J.A.; Raudenbush, M.H.; Wolaver, R.W.; Hastings, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    This Current Year Work Plan presents in detail a description of the activities to be performed by the Joint Integration Office Rockwell International (JIO/RI) during FY86. It breaks down the activities into two major work areas: Program Management and Program Analysis. Program Management is performed by the JIO/RI by providing technical planning and guidance for the development of advanced TRU waste management capabilities. This includes equipment/facility design, engineering, construction, and operations. These functions are integrated to allow transition from interim storage to final disposition. JIO/RI tasks include program requirements identification, long-range technical planning, budget development, program planning document preparation, task guidance development, task monitoring, task progress information gathering and reporting to DOE, interfacing with other agencies and DOE lead programs, integrating public involvement with program efforts, and preparation of reports for DOE detailing program status. Program Analysis is performed by the JIO/RI to support identification and assessment of alternatives, and development of long-term TRU waste program capabilities. These analyses include short-term analyses in response to DOE information requests, along with performing an RH Cost/Schedule Optimization report. Systems models will be developed, updated, and upgraded as needed to enhance JIO/RI's capability to evaluate the adequacy of program efforts in various fields. A TRU program data base will be maintained and updated to provide DOE with timely responses to inventory related questions.

  9. Evaluation of structural integrity using integrated testing and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppolino, Robert N.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated approach to dynamic testing and mathematical model analysis is described. The overall approach addresses four key tasks, namely, pretest planning and analysis, test data acquisition, data reduction and analysis, and test/analysis correlation and mathematical model updates. Several key software programs are employed to accomplish this task. They are a leading finite element code, a sophisticated data analysis processor and a graphical pre- and post-processor along with an advanced interface utility. Several practical structures are used to illustrate tools and concepts employed in the integrated test analysis process.

  10. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the...

  11. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  12. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the...

  13. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  15. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  16. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways...

  17. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  18. 38 CFR 49.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  19. 14 CFR 1260.145 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 1260.145 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  20. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  1. 40 CFR 30.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 30.45 Section... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  2. 45 CFR 74.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost and price analysis. 74.45 Section 74.45... analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including...

  3. 32 CFR 32.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost and price analysis. 32.45 Section 32.45... price analysis. Some form of cost or price analysis shall be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action. Price analysis may be accomplished in various...

  4. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  5. Workflow and cost analysis on MODULAR ANALYTICS.

    PubMed

    Stolz, Herbert; Dossler, Bettina; Keller, Franz; Steigerwald, Udo

    2003-01-01

    Four stand-alone analyzers in a centralized laboratory were replaced by two modular analytical systems processing 45 methods of the general chemistry and specific protein segment. This consolidation led to a reduction of the daily workflow and operational costs. The cost saving with 1.3 million reported results per year was 53,000 Euro, which can be assessed as an important contribution to cost reduction in the health care system.

  6. [Cost analysis of patient blood management].

    PubMed

    Kleinerüschkamp, A G; Zacharowski, K; Ettwein, C; Müller, M M; Geisen, C; Weber, C F; Meybohm, P

    2016-06-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) is a multidisciplinary approach focusing on the diagnosis and treatment of preoperative anaemia, the minimisation of blood loss, and the optimisation of the patient-specific anaemia reserve to improve clinical outcomes. Economic aspects of PBM have not yet been sufficiently analysed. The aim of this study is to analyse the costs associated with the clinical principles of PBM and the project costs associated with the implementation of a PBM program from an institutional perspective. Patient-related costs of materials and services were analysed at the University Hospital Frankfurt for 2013. Personnel costs of all major processes were quantified based on the time required to perform each step. Furthermore, general project costs of the implementation phase were determined. Direct costs of transfusing a single unit of red blood cells can be calculated to a minimum of €147.43. PBM-associated costs varied depending on individual patient requirements. The following costs per patient were calculated: diagnosis of preoperative anaemia €48.69-123.88; treatment of preoperative anaemia (including iron-deficiency anaemia and megaloblastic anaemia) €12.61-127.99; minimising perioperative blood loss (including point-of-care diagnostics, coagulation management and cell salvage) €3.39-1,901.81; and costs associated with the optimisation of the tolerance to anaemia (including patient monitoring and volume therapy) €28.62. General project costs associated with the implementation of PBM were €24,998.24. PBM combines various alternatives to the transfusion of red blood cells and improves clinical outcome. Costs of PBM vary from institution to institution and depend on the extent to which different aspects of PBM have been implemented. The quantification of costs associated with PBM is essential in order to assess the economic impact of PBM, and thereby, to efficiently re-allocate health care resources. Costs were determined at a single

  7. Cost Sensitivity Analysis for Radiology Department Planning

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William G.; Thuesen, Gerald J.

    1971-01-01

    Two complementary computer programs have been developed for forecasting the demands and evaluating the costs of proposed radiographic facilities. The models are employed here in analyses of the sensitivity of investment and operating costs to selected design variables. The versatility of the evaluation methodology is further illustrated by a comparison of costs for alternative facility arrangements representing various degrees of decentralization. Cost differences arising from the use of conventional or high-speed x-ray equipment and from one-shift or two-shift operation are also explored for the various alternative arrangements. PMID:5133836

  8. Cost Risk Analysis Based on Perception of the Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, Edwin B.; Wood, Darrell A.; Moore, Arlene A.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    In most cost estimating applications at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), it is desirable to present predicted cost as a range of possible costs rather than a single predicted cost. A cost risk analysis generates a range of cost for a project and assigns a probability level to each cost value in the range. Constructing a cost risk curve requires a good estimate of the expected cost of a project. It must also include a good estimate of expected variance of the cost. Many cost risk analyses are based upon an expert's knowledge of the cost of similar projects in the past. In a common scenario, a manager or engineer, asked to estimate the cost of a project in his area of expertise, will gather historical cost data from a similar completed project. The cost of the completed project is adjusted using the perceived technical and economic differences between the two projects. This allows errors from at least three sources. The historical cost data may be in error by some unknown amount. The managers' evaluation of the new project and its similarity to the old project may be in error. The factors used to adjust the cost of the old project may not correctly reflect the differences. Some risk analyses are based on untested hypotheses about the form of the statistical distribution that underlies the distribution of possible cost. The usual problem is not just to come up with an estimate of the cost of a project, but to predict the range of values into which the cost may fall and with what level of confidence the prediction is made. Risk analysis techniques that assume the shape of the underlying cost distribution and derive the risk curve from a single estimate plus and minus some amount usually fail to take into account the actual magnitude of the uncertainty in cost due to technical factors in the project itself. This paper addresses a cost risk method that is based on parametric estimates of the technical factors involved in the project being costed. The engineering

  9. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  10. A single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated inventory model with ordering cost reduction dependent on lead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayashree, M.; Uthayakumar, R.

    2017-03-01

    Lead time is one of the major limits that affect planning at every stage of the supply chain system. In this paper, we study a continuous review inventory model. This paper investigates the ordering cost reductions are dependent on lead time. This study addressed two-echelon supply chain problem consisting of a single vendor and a single buyer. The main contribution of this study is that the integrated total cost of the single vendor and the single buyer integrated system is analyzed by adopting two different (linear and logarithmic) types ordering cost reductions act dependent on lead time. In both cases, we develop effective solution procedures for finding the optimal solution and then illustrative numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The solution procedure is to determine the optimal solutions of order quantity, ordering cost, lead time and the number of deliveries from the single vendor and the single buyer in one production run, so that the integrated total cost incurred has the minimum value. Ordering cost reduction is the main aspect of the proposed model. A numerical example is given to validate the model. Numerical example solved by using Matlab software. The mathematical model is solved analytically by minimizing the integrated total cost. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis is included and the numerical examples are given to illustrate the results. The results obtained in this paper are illustrated with the help of numerical examples. The sensitivity of the proposed model has been checked with respect to the various major parameters of the system. Results reveal that the proposed integrated inventory model is more applicable for the supply chain manufacturing system. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed. Finally, the graphical representation is presented to illustrate the proposed model and also include the computer flowchart in each model.

  11. Sensor integration in a low cost land mobile mapping system.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved.

  12. Sensor Integration in a Low Cost Land Mobile Mapping System

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Sergio; Gonçalves, José A.; Bastos, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Mobile mapping is a multidisciplinary technique which requires several dedicated equipment, calibration procedures that must be as rigorous as possible, time synchronization of all acquired data and software for data processing and extraction of additional information. To decrease the cost and complexity of Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS), the use of less expensive sensors and the simplification of procedures for calibration and data acquisition are mandatory features. This article refers to the use of MMS technology, focusing on the main aspects that need to be addressed to guarantee proper data acquisition and describing the way those aspects were handled in a terrestrial MMS developed at the University of Porto. In this case the main aim was to implement a low cost system while maintaining good quality standards of the acquired georeferenced information. The results discussed here show that this goal has been achieved. PMID:22736985

  13. Fundamental Cost Analysis of Cold Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, O.

    2014-01-01

    The cost structure of the cold spray (CS) process is analyzed using a generic cost model applicable to all present types of CS systems ("high pressure," "low pressure," KM™, "kinetic spraying," etc.) and kinds of application (coating, restoration, additive manufacturing, near-net forming). The cost model has originally been developed at SIEMENS and is easy to use, while being sufficiently accurate to support decisions. The dependence of the process costs on the gas stagnation properties is discussed. It is shown (i) that high pressure is generally favorable, (ii) that He-N2 blends possess economic potential, and (iii) that He recovery saves costs in high volume production, even when He-N2 blends are used. The cost model allows for the determination of the cost-optimal He concentration of the propellant gas for a given application. CS is, among others, suited to spray bond coatings on gas turbine blades and offers cost-saving potential, as shown in a case study.

  14. Cost Accounting and Analysis for University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.; Cooper, Michael D.

    1971-01-01

    The approach to library planning studied in this paper is the use of accounting models to measure library costs and implement program budgets. A cost-flow model for a university library is developed and tested with historical data from the General Library at the University of California, Berkeley. (4 references) (Author)

  15. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  16. Cost Differential Analysis--Phase 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wystrom, Dennis C.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The cost system designed as a sub-system of the Management Information System, to record and report cost data for occupational courses funded by the Illinois Division of Vocational and Technical Education, can stand alone if necessary, providing the flexibility essential to the success of the total system. (Flow chart included.) (Author/SA)

  17. Technical cost analysis for PEM fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-On, Isa; Kirchain, Randy; Roth, Richard

    The present cost of fuel cells estimated at about 200 kW -1 is a major barrier for commercialization and use in automotive applications. In the United States the target costs for fuel cell systems for the year 2004 as formulated by PNGV are 50 kW -1. Lomax et al. have estimated the costs of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells to be as low as 20 kW -1. These estimates are based on careful consideration of high volume manufacturing processes. Recently, Arthur D. Little (ADL) has estimated the cost of a fuel cell system for transportation at 294 kW -1. This estimate considers a fuel processor and directly related balance of plant components. The difference of the cost estimates results from the vastly different design assumptions. Both of these estimates are based on considering a single high volume of production, 500,000 fuel cells per year. This work builds on these earlier estimates by employing the methods of technical cost modeling and thereby including explicit consideration of design specifications, exogenous factor cost and processing and operational details. The bipolar plate is analyzed as a case study. The sensitivity of the costs to uncertainty in process conditions are explored following the ADL design. It is shown that the PNGV targets can only be achieved with design changes that reduce the quantity of material used. This might necessitate a reduction in efficiency from the assumed 80 mpg.

  18. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    The design and development of equipment for flight use in earth-orbital programs, when optimally approached cost effectively, proceed through the following logical progression: (1) bench testing of breadboard designs, (2) the fabrication and evaluation of prototype equipment, (3) redesign to meet flight-imposed requirements, and (4) qualification and testing of a flight-ready system. Each of these steps is intended to produce the basic design information necessary to progress to the next step. The cost of each step is normally substantially less than that of the following step. An evaluation of the cost elements involved in each of the steps and their impact on total program cost are presented. Cost analyses of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, Sabatier and Bosch, and two water electrolysis subsystems, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte are described.

  19. 40 CFR 246.200-8 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.200-8 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been located (but prior... paper and residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares the...

  20. 40 CFR 246.200-8 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.200-8 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been located (but prior... paper and residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares the...

  1. 40 CFR 246.200-8 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recommended procedures: Cost analysis... § 246.200-8 Recommended procedures: Cost analysis. After potential markets have been located (but prior... paper and residual solid waste have been established, an analysis should be conducted which compares...

  2. An Evaluation of the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools (ACEIT) System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    could be collected in one location and yet be usable by numerous organizations. With many organizations using the same ACEIT program, organizations could...C~4p DTIC S ELECTE fl JAN12 19 .1R ~OF S%. B -U AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Caroline L...Ohio go 91 022 AFIT/GCA/LSQ/89S-5 AN EVALUATION OF THE AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) SYSTEM THESIS Caroline L. Hanson Major, USAF

  3. Educational Benefit-Cost Analysis and the Problem of Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Gordon A.

    Benefit-cost analysis consists of establishing ratios of benefits to costs for a set of project variants. The decision rule is to select that project variant where the ratio is a maximum. This paper argues that specification and estimation errors can contribute to findings for large-scale systems of benefit-cost ratios approximating zero. The…

  4. 40 CFR 246.201-7 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES Requirements and Recommended Procedures..., storage and transportation costs have been made, and estimated tonnages of both recoverable materials and... underutilized collection manpower to reduce separate collection costs. This cost analysis should enable the...

  5. 40 CFR 246.201-7 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES Requirements and Recommended Procedures..., storage and transportation costs have been made, and estimated tonnages of both recoverable materials and... underutilized collection manpower to reduce separate collection costs. This cost analysis should enable the...

  6. 40 CFR 246.201-7 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES Requirements and Recommended Procedures..., storage and transportation costs have been made, and estimated tonnages of both recoverable materials and... underutilized collection manpower to reduce separate collection costs. This cost analysis should enable the...

  7. 40 CFR 246.201-7 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES Requirements and Recommended Procedures..., storage and transportation costs have been made, and estimated tonnages of both recoverable materials and... underutilized collection manpower to reduce separate collection costs. This cost analysis should enable the...

  8. 40 CFR 246.201-7 - Recommended procedures: Cost analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES SOURCE SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES Requirements and Recommended Procedures..., storage and transportation costs have been made, and estimated tonnages of both recoverable materials and... underutilized collection manpower to reduce separate collection costs. This cost analysis should enable the...

  9. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... techniques, establish guidelines with respect to points at which costs of further collection efforts are... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Standards for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.213 Analysis of costs. DOE will prepare periodic comparisons of costs...

  10. Consortium Purchases: Case Study for a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library cooperation and academic library consortia and presents a case study of a Canadian consortia that conducted a cost-benefit analysis for purchasing an electronic resource. Reports on member library subscription costs, external economic factors, value of patron time saved, costs and benefits for patrons, and net savings. (LRW)

  11. Application of an Alternative Cost Analysis Model to Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilby, Albert E.

    This paper discusses the development and implementation of a cost analysis model for use by curriculum planners and developers in evaluating educational programs. The paper consists of four major sections that focus in turn on the need to approach educational costs from a nontraditional perspective, development of a cost model, implementation of…

  12. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Employee Training: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Robert

    1989-01-01

    The author reviews current literature related to cost-benefit analysis of employee training programs. After the necessary concepts are defined, methodologies for measuring costs and benefits, and problems related to this process are discussed. Concluding comments focus on the need for practical applications of cost-benefit research. (Author/CH)

  13. Consortium Purchases: Case Study for a Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scigliano, Marisa

    2002-01-01

    Discusses library cooperation and academic library consortia and presents a case study of a Canadian consortia that conducted a cost-benefit analysis for purchasing an electronic resource. Reports on member library subscription costs, external economic factors, value of patron time saved, costs and benefits for patrons, and net savings. (LRW)

  14. Cost analysis of carbon dioxide concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Methodology and cost estimating relationships, for flight-type and prototype CO2 concentrators, have been developed and presented. A validity check was made by comparing the molecular sieves system considered here and that developed for Skylab. The system evaluated here is twice the size of the Skylab system and is also more complex as it desorbs CO2 thermally and stores it in an accumulator. The cost estimates developed were found to be approximately 50 to 70% higher than the actual cost of the Skylab unit.

  15. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  16. Better Informing Decision Making with Multiple Outcomes Cost-Effectiveness Analysis under Uncertainty in Cost-Disutility Space

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Agar, Meera; Harlum, Janeane; Karnon, Jonathon; Currow, David; Eckermann, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Comparing multiple, diverse outcomes with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is important, yet challenging in areas like palliative care where domains are unamenable to integration with survival. Generic multi-attribute utility values exclude important domains and non-health outcomes, while partial analyses—where outcomes are considered separately, with their joint relationship under uncertainty ignored—lead to incorrect inference regarding preferred strategies. Objective The objective of this paper is to consider whether such decision making can be better informed with alternative presentation and summary measures, extending methods previously shown to have advantages in multiple strategy comparison. Methods Multiple outcomes CEA of a home-based palliative care model (PEACH) relative to usual care is undertaken in cost disutility (CDU) space and compared with analysis on the cost-effectiveness plane. Summary measures developed for comparing strategies across potential threshold values for multiple outcomes include: expected net loss (ENL) planes quantifying differences in expected net benefit; the ENL contour identifying preferred strategies minimising ENL and their expected value of perfect information; and cost-effectiveness acceptability planes showing probability of strategies minimising ENL. Results Conventional analysis suggests PEACH is cost-effective when the threshold value per additional day at home (1) exceeds $1,068 or dominated by usual care when only the proportion of home deaths is considered. In contrast, neither alternative dominate in CDU space where cost and outcomes are jointly considered, with the optimal strategy depending on threshold values. For example, PEACH minimises ENL when 1=$2,000 and 2=$2,000 (threshold value for dying at home), with a 51.6% chance of PEACH being cost-effective. Conclusion Comparison in CDU space and associated summary measures have distinct advantages to multiple domain comparisons, aiding

  17. Using the Student Research Project to Integrate Macroeconomics and Statistics in an Advanced Cost Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Mahamood M.; Schwartz, Bill N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses a student research project that is part of an advanced cost accounting class. The project emphasizes active learning, integrates cost accounting with macroeconomics and statistics by "learning by doing" using real world data. Students analyze sales data for a publicly listed company by focusing on the company's…

  18. UPDATING PERFORMANCE AND COST OF NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE INTEGRATED PLANNING MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA uses the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to evaluate the cost and emission impacts of proposed policies. Studies were undertaken recently to update the performance and cost factors contained in this model for various NOx control technologies. The studies showed a sig...

  19. A Beginner's Guide to Integrating Human Resources Faculty Data and Cost Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter serves as a beginner's guide to some essentials of human resource faculty data and cost data and their integration into products to facilitate institutional decision making. It begins with a brief overview of general higher education cost data concepts, followed by a similar synopsis of relevant higher education human resource data.…

  20. A Beginner's Guide to Integrating Human Resources Faculty Data and Cost Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter serves as a beginner's guide to some essentials of human resource faculty data and cost data and their integration into products to facilitate institutional decision making. It begins with a brief overview of general higher education cost data concepts, followed by a similar synopsis of relevant higher education human resource data.…

  1. Cost Analysis in Shoulder Arthroplasty Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Teusink, Matthew J.; Virani, Nazeem A.; Polikandriotis, John A.; Frankle, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Cost in shoulder surgery has taken on a new focus with passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. As part of this law, there is a provision for Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) and the bundled payment initiative. In this model, one entity would receive a single payment for an episode of care and distribute funds to all other parties involved. Given its reproducible nature, shoulder arthroplasty is ideally situated to become a model for an episode of care. Currently, there is little research into cost in shoulder arthroplasty surgery. The current analyses do not provide surgeons with a method for determining the cost and outcomes of their interventions, which is necessary to the success of bundled payment. Surgeons are ideally positioned to become leaders in ACOs, but in order for them to do so a methodology must be developed where accurate costs and outcomes can be determined for the episode of care. PMID:23243515

  2. [Direct cost analysis of hemodialysis units].

    PubMed

    Durán-Arenas, Luis; Avila-Palomares, Paula D; Zendejas-Villanueva, Rodrigo; Vargas-Ruiz, María Magaly; Tirado-Gómez, Laura L; López-Cervantes, Malaquías

    2011-01-01

    To estimate and compare direct costs per hemodialysis session in public and private units in Mexico City. PAATI, a microcosting strategy, was used to determine total costs of four public and two private health hospitals in Mexico City. A "shadow study" approach was employed to collect the needed data. Charts containing the "PAATI" information for each session were developed in Microsoft Excel. The average annual cost per patient undergoing hemodialysis in public units is $158 964.00 MX. The estimated cost for the care of all population estimated in need of renal replacement therapy (via hemodialysis) was estimated to be $10 921 788 072.00 MX. Human resources and infrastructure availability in México are very limited for nephrology, and in consequence for offering hemodialysis services.

  3. Management of End-Stage Ankle Arthritis: Cost-Utility Analysis Using Direct and Indirect Costs.

    PubMed

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McLawhorn, Alexander S; Simon, Matthew S; Hamid, Kamran S; Demetracopoulos, Constantine A; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2015-07-15

    Total ankle replacement and ankle fusion are costly but clinically effective treatments for ankle arthritis. Prior cost-effectiveness analyses for the management of ankle arthritis have been limited by a lack of consideration of indirect costs and nonoperative management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of operative and nonoperative treatments for ankle arthritis with inclusion of direct and indirect costs in the analysis. Markov model analysis was conducted from a health-systems perspective with use of direct costs and from a societal perspective with use of direct and indirect costs. Costs were derived from the 2012 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) and expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars; effectiveness was expressed in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Model transition probabilities were derived from the available literature. The principal outcome measure was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). In the direct-cost analysis for the base case, total ankle replacement was associated with an ICER of $14,500/QALY compared with nonoperative management. When indirect costs were included, total ankle replacement was both more effective and resulted in $5900 and $800 in lifetime cost savings compared with the lifetime costs following nonoperative management and ankle fusion, respectively. At a $100,000/QALY threshold, surgical management of ankle arthritis was preferred for patients younger than ninety-six years and total ankle replacement was increasingly more cost-effective in younger patients. Total ankle replacement, ankle fusion, and nonoperative management were the preferred strategy in 83%, 12%, and 5% of the analyses, respectively; however, our model was sensitive to patient age, the direct costs of total ankle replacement, the failure rate of total ankle replacement, and the probability of arthritis after ankle fusion. Compared with nonoperative treatment for the management of end-stage ankle arthritis, total ankle

  4. Cost and Training Effectiveness Analysis Performance Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-23

    perform cost and training effectiveness analyses (CTEA) during Weapon System Acquisition required by the Life Cycle System Management Model (LCSMM) and...light cf training risk . This would be the case if a training program were estimated to be more effective in training certain high- risk tasks out were...also estimated to be somewhat more costly than the next best program. Possible impacts of training risk may indi- cate that the more effective

  5. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 2: Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The payloads for NASA and non-NASA missions of the integrated fleet are analyzed to generate payload data for the capture and cost analyses for the period 1979 to 1990. Most of the effort is on earth satellites, probes, and planetary missions because of the space shuttle's ability to retrieve payloads for repair, overhaul, and maintenance. Four types of payloads are considered: current expendable payload; current reusable payload; low cost expendable payload, (satellite to be used with expendable launch vehicles); and low cost reusable payload (satellite to be used with the space shuttle/space tug system). Payload weight analysis, structural sizing analysis, and the influence of mean mission duration on program cost are also discussed. The payload data were computerized, and printouts of the data for payloads for each program or mission are included.

  6. Tissue integrity, costs and time associated with different agents for histological bone preparation.

    PubMed

    Abrantes, Adelino António Artur; Rafacho, Alex; Rivero, Elena Riet Correa; Mariano, Fernanda Viviane; Siqueira, Filipe Modolo; Gondak, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    The selection of an appropriate demineralizing solution in pathology laboratories depends on several factors such as the preservation of cellularity, urgency of diagnostic and financial costs. The aim of this study was to test different decalcification bone procedures in order to establish the best value of these in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples. Femurs were removed from 13 adult male Wistar rats to obtain 130 bone disks randomly divided into five groups that were demineralized in different concentrations of nitric acid (Group I); formic acid (Group II); acetic acid (Group III); EDTA, pH7.4 (Group IV) and Morsés solution (Group V). Serial, 3-μm-thick sections were obtained and stained with hematoxylin-eosin to calculate the percentage of osteocyte-occupied lacunae. The sections were also stained with Masson's trichrome in conjunction with picrosirius red under polarized light followed by a semi-quantitative analysis to verify the adjacent muscle-to-bone integrity and preservation of collagen fibres. The highest percentage of osteocyte-occupied lacunae was found with 10% acetic acid solution (95.64 ± 0.95%) and Group I (nitric acid) demanded the shorter time (0.8-5.7days). Of all solutions, 5% nitric acid incurred the lowest cost to achieve complete demineralization compared with other solutions (p < .001). Group IV (EDTA) had the highest integrity of muscle and collagen type I and III (P < 0.01). Demineralization with 10% acetic acid was the most effective at preserving bone tissue, while 5% EDTA was the best at maintaining collagen and adjacent muscle to bone. In conclusion, nitric acid at 5% showed the most efficient result as it balanced both time and cost as a demineralizing solution.

  7. Cost-effectiveness analysis and insurance coverage: solving a puzzle.

    PubMed

    Pauly, Mark

    2015-05-01

    The conventional model for the use of cost-effectiveness analysis for health programs involves determining whether the cost per unit of effectiveness of the program is lower than some socially determined maximum acceptable cost per unit of effectiveness. If a program is better by this criterion, the policy implication is that it should be implemented by full coverage of its cost by insurance; if not, the program should not be implemented. This paper examines the unanswered question of how cost-effectiveness analysis should be performed and interpreted when insurance coverage may involve cost sharing. It explores the question of how cost sharing should be related to the magnitude of a cost-effectiveness ratio. A common view that cost sharing should vary inversely with program cost-effectiveness is shown to be incorrect. A key issue in correct analysis is whether there is heterogeneity in marginal effectiveness of care that cannot be perceived by the social planner but is known by the demander. It is possible that some programs that would fail the social efficiency test at full coverage will be acceptable with positive cost sharing. Combining individual and social preferences affects both the choice of programs and the extent of cost sharing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Cost Analysis In A Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, M.; Felton, L.; Bornas, N.; Botts, D.; Roth, K.; Ijames, G.; Montgomery, P.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single missiontype support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multimission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and the

  9. Cost Analysis in a Multi-Mission Operations Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felton, Larry; Newhouse, Marilyn; Bornas, Nick; Botts, Dennis; Ijames, Gayleen; Montgomery, Patty; Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft control centers have evolved from dedicated, single-mission or single mission-type support to multi-mission, service-oriented support for operating a variety of mission types. At the same time, available money for projects is shrinking and competition for new missions is increasing. These factors drive the need for an accurate and flexible model to support estimating service costs for new or extended missions; the cost model in turn drives the need for an accurate and efficient approach to service cost analysis. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides operations services to a variety of customers around the world. HOSC customers range from launch vehicle test flights; to International Space Station (ISS) payloads; to small, short duration missions; and has included long duration flagship missions. The HOSC recently completed a detailed analysis of service costs as part of the development of a complete service cost model. The cost analysis process required the team to address a number of issues. One of the primary issues involves the difficulty of reverse engineering individual mission costs in a highly efficient multi-mission environment, along with a related issue of the value of detailed metrics or data to the cost model versus the cost of obtaining accurate data. Another concern is the difficulty of balancing costs between missions of different types and size and extrapolating costs to different mission types. The cost analysis also had to address issues relating to providing shared, cloud-like services in a government environment, and then assigning an uncertainty or risk factor to cost estimates that are based on current technology, but will be executed using future technology. Finally the cost analysis needed to consider how to validate the resulting cost models taking into account the non-homogeneous nature of the available cost data and

  10. Cost-identification analysis of total laryngectomy: an itemized approach to hospital costs.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Raj C; Smith, Kenneth J; Weissfeld, Joel L; Saul, Melissa I; Lee, Steve C; Myers, Eugene N; Johnson, Jonas T

    2011-02-01

    To understand the contribution of intraoperative and postoperative hospital costs to total hospital costs, examine the costs associated with specific hospital services in the postoperative period, and recognize the impact of patient factors on hospital costs. Case series with chart review. Large tertiary care teaching hospital system. Using the Pittsburgh Head and Neck Organ-Specific Database, 119 patients were identified as having total laryngectomy with bilateral selective neck dissection and primary closure from 1999 to 2009. Cost data were obtained for 112 patients. Costs include fixed and variable costs, adjusted to 2010 US dollars using the Consumer Price Index. Mean total hospital costs were $29,563 (range, $10,915 to $120,345). Operating room costs averaged 24% of total hospital costs, whereas room charges, respiratory therapy, laboratory, pharmacy, and radiology accounted for 38%, 14%, 8%, 7%, and 3%, respectively. Median length of stay was 9 days (range, 6-43), and median Charlson comorbidity index score was 8 (2-16). Patients with ≥1 day in the intensive care unit had significantly higher hospital costs ($46,831 vs $24,601, P < .01). The authors found no significant cost differences with stratification based on previous radiation therapy ($27,598 vs $29,915 with no prior radiation, P = .62) or hospital readmission within 30 days ($29,483 vs $29,609 without readmission, P = .97). This is one of few studies in surgery and the first in otolaryngology to analyze hospital costs for a relatively standardized procedure. Further work will include cost analysis from multiple centers with investigation of global cost drivers.

  11. Analysis, Classification and Integration of Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    The ultimate development of an integrated curriculum will necessitate the development and refinement of a scheme, testing the scheme on both subject matter and real life experiences, and greater utilization of existing resources in vocational education. The analysis, integration, and classification of objectives leading to an integrated curriculum…

  12. An optimal policy for a single-vendor and a single-buyer integrated system with setup cost reduction and process-quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hui; Zhou, Xideng

    2014-05-01

    The single-vendor single-buyer integrated production inventory system has been an object of study for a long time, but little is known about the effect of investing in reducing setup cost reduction and process-quality improvement for an integrated inventory system in which the products are sold with free minimal repair warranty. The purpose of this article is to minimise the integrated cost by optimising simultaneously the number of shipments and the shipment quantity, the setup cost, and the process quality. An efficient algorithm procedure is proposed for determining the optimal decision variables. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the results of the proposed models graphically. Sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to key parameters of the system is carried out. The paper shows that the proposed integrated model can result in significant savings in the integrated cost.

  13. Costs of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the Government and NGO service delivery systems in Bangladesh: a supply side perspective.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ziaul; Sarker, Abdur Razzaque; Anwar, Shahela; Kabir, Humayun; Gazi, Rukhsana

    2015-01-01

    To estimate additional total cost and average cost of integrating the demand-based reproductive health commodity model into the existing Government and NGO facilities in Bangladesh. Activity based cost analysis was conducted during 2006-2008 in two low performing rural sub-districts (Nabigong and Raipur sub-district) and one urban slum area in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Activity-based cost data were collected using ingredient approach, which comprised of listing all types of inputs by activity, quantities and prices for each input. Total cost was presented according to capital and recurrent items. The supply side perspective was considered for entire analysis. The total cost of integrating demand-based reproductive health commodity (DBRHC) model into the Government and NGO service delivery system was estimated to BDT 18,667,634 (US$274,524). The proportion of capital cost was 59 % and the recurrent cost was 41 % of the total cost. The average cost per beneficiaries was BDT 230 (US$3.38) only for introducing this model into the existing health system. The built-in interventions of DBRHC model were doable at low-cost at the selected Government and NGO settings at the grass-root level. The model has potential of further cost containment during scaling up-if the intervention costs are adjusted with the existing functionaries of the Government and NGOs.

  14. Cost analysis can help a group practice increase revenues.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Sherry

    2002-02-01

    Undertaking a cost analysis to determine the cost of providing specific services can help group practices negotiate increased payment and identify areas for cost reduction. An OB/GYN practice in Pennsylvania undertook a cost analysis using the resource-based relative value system. Using data from the cost analysis, the practice was able to negotiate increased payment for some of its services. The practice also was able to target some of its fixed costs for reduction. Another result of the analysis was that the practice was able to focus marketing efforts on some of its most profitable, elective services, thereby increasing revenues. In addition, the practice was able to reduce the provision of unprofitable services.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Morcellation Hysterectomy for Myomas.

    PubMed

    Bortoletto, Pietro; Einerson, Brett D; Miller, Emily S; Milad, Magdy P

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of eliminating morcellation in the surgical treatment of leiomyomas from a societal perspective. Cost-effectiveness analysis. Not applicable. A theoretical cohort of women undergoing hysterectomy for myoma disease large enough to require morcellation. None. None. A decision analysis model was constructed using probabilities, costs, and utility data from published sources. A cost-effectiveness analysis analyzing both quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cases of disseminated cancer was performed to determine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of eliminating morcellation as a tool in the surgical treatment of leiomyomas. Costs and utilities were discounted using standard methodology. The base case included health care system costs and costs incurred by the patient for surgery-related disability. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of various assumptions. The cost to prevent 1 case of disseminated cancer was $10 540 832. A strategy of nonmorcellation hysterectomy via laparotomy costed more ($30 359.92 vs $20 853.15) and yielded more QALYs (21.284 vs 21.280) relative to morcellation hysterectomy. The ICER for nonmorcellation hysterectomy compared with morcellation hysterectomy was $2 184 172 per QALY. Health care costs (prolonged hospitalizations) and costs to patients of prolonged time away from work were the primary drivers of cost differential between the 2 strategies. Even when the incidence of occult sarcoma in leiomyoma surgery was ranged to twice that reported in the literature (.98%), the ICER for nonmorcellation hysterectomy was $644 393.30. Eliminating morcellation hysterectomy as a treatment for myomas is not cost-effective under a wide variety of probability and cost assumptions. Performing laparotomy for all patients who might otherwise be candidates for morcellation hysterectomy is a costly policy from a societal perspective. Copyright © 2015 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc

  16. Preterm birth: a cost benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Susan; Ment, Laura R

    2004-12-01

    Advances in prenatal and perinatal treatment of preterm and VLBW infants have dramatically increased the survival rate of these infants. Some interventions decrease long term sequelae associated with preterm birth, making them more cost-effective than other treatments. This paper reviews the cost-effectiveness of therapies targeted to protect the preterm brain. Birth in a center with a NICU improves survival and decreases the rate of severe neurologic disability. Administration of antenatal steroids increases survival and decreases rates of periventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, respiratory distress syndrome, and severe disability. Administration of antenatal steroids decreases costs per additional survivor. Addition of surfactant to the treatment of PT infants has also decreased treatment costs. Administration of surfactant is beneficial for symptomatic RDS but recognizes a greater benefit when given to infants younger than 30 weeks gestation prophylactically. Treatment with prophylactic indomethacin decreases the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage and results in cost savings in survivors. Postnatal administration of dexamethasone can lead to severe disability when administered before 7 to 10 days of life. Postnatal dexamethasone does not increase survival or decrease rates of chronic lung disease.

  17. Cost of bariatric surgery and factors associated with increased cost: an analysis of national inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    Khorgami, Zhamak; Aminian, Ali; Shoar, Saeed; Andalib, Amin; Saber, Alan A; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Sclabas, Guido M

    2017-08-01

    In the current healthcare environment, bariatric surgery centers need to be cost-effective while maintaining quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate national cost of bariatric surgery to identify the factors associated with a higher cost. A retrospective analysis of 2012-2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). We included all patients with a diagnosis of morbid obesity (ICD9 278.01) and a Diagnosis Related Group code related to procedures for obesity, who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or adjustable gastric banding (AGB) as their primary procedure. We converted "hospital charges" to "cost," using hospital specific cost-to-charge ratio. Inflation was adjusted using the annual consumer price index. Increased cost was defined as the top 20th percentile of the expenditure and its associated factors were analyzed using the logistic regression multivariate analysis. A total of 45,219 patients (20,966 RYGBs, 22,380 SGs, and 1,873 AGBs) were included. The median (interquartile range) calculated costs for RYGB, SG, and AGB were $12,543 ($9,970-$15,857), $10,531 ($8,248-$13,527), and $9,219 ($7,545-$12,106), respectively (P<.001). Robotic-assisted procedures had the highest impact on the cost (odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 3.2-4). Hospital cost of RYGB and SG increased linearly with the length of hospital stay and almost doubled after 7 days. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that certain co-morbidities and concurrent procedures were associated with an increased cost. Factors contributing to the cost variation of bariatric procedures include co-morbidities, robotic platform, complexity of surgery, and hospital length of stay. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Space construction system analysis. Part 2: Cost and programmatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonflue, F. W.; Cooper, W.

    1980-01-01

    Cost and programmatic elements of the space construction systems analysis study are discussed. The programmatic aspects of the ETVP program define a comprehensive plan for the development of a space platform, the construction system, and the space shuttle operations/logistics requirements. The cost analysis identified significant items of cost on ETVP development, ground, and flight segments, and detailed the items of space construction equipment and operations.

  19. Integrated Campaign Probabilistic Cost, Schedule, Performance, and Value for Program Office Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, David; Sasamoto, Washito; Daugherty, Kevin; Deacon, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated assessment tool developed at NASA Langley Research Center that incorporates probabilistic analysis of life cycle cost, schedule, launch performance, on-orbit performance, and value across a series of planned space-based missions, or campaign. Originally designed as an aid in planning the execution of missions to accomplish the National Research Council 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, it utilizes Monte Carlo simulation of a series of space missions for assessment of resource requirements and expected return on investment. Interactions between simulated missions are incorporated, such as competition for launch site manifest, to capture unexpected and non-linear system behaviors. A novel value model is utilized to provide an assessment of the probabilistic return on investment. A demonstration case is discussed to illustrate the tool utility.

  20. Integrated Campaign Probabilistic Cost, Schedule, Performance, and Value for Program Office Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, David; Sasamoto, Washito; Daugherty, Kevin; Deacon, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated assessment tool developed at NASA Langley Research Center that incorporates probabilistic analysis of life cycle cost, schedule, launch performance, on-orbit performance, and value across a series of planned space-based missions, or campaign. Originally designed as an aid in planning the execution of missions to accomplish the National Research Council 2007 Earth Science Decadal Survey, it utilizes Monte Carlo simulation of a series of space missions for assessment of resource requirements and expected return on investment. Interactions between simulated missions are incorporated, such as competition for launch site manifest, to capture unexpected and non-linear system behaviors. A novel value model is utilized to provide an assessment of the probabilistic return on investment. A demonstration case is discussed to illustrate the tool utility.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Treatment Costs in EUROHOPE.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Tor; Aas, Eline; Rosenqvist, Gunnar; Häkkinen, Unto

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the challenges of estimating risk-adjusted treatment costs in international comparative research, specifically in the European Health Care Outcomes, Performance, and Efficiency (EuroHOPE) project. We describe the diverse format of resource data and challenges of converting these data into resource use indicators that allow meaningful cross-country comparisons. The three cost indicators developed in EuroHOPE are then described, discussed, and applied. We compare the risk-adjusted mean treatment costs of acute myocardial infarction for four of the seven countries in the EuroHOPE project, namely, Finland, Hungary, Norway, and Sweden. The outcome of the comparison depends on the time perspective as well as on the particular resource use indicator. We argue that these complementary indicators add to our understanding of the variation in resource use across countries.

  2. 7 CFR 550.47 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., market prices and similar indicia, together with discounts. Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cost and price analysis. 550.47 Section 550.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE,...

  3. 38 CFR 1.921 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 1.921 Section 1.921 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Standards for Collection of Claims § 1.921 Analysis of costs. VA collection procedures should provide...

  4. 38 CFR 1.921 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 1.921 Section 1.921 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Standards for Collection of Claims § 1.921 Analysis of costs. VA collection procedures should provide...

  5. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Analysis of costs. 1015.213 Section 1015.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Standards for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.213 Analysis of costs. DOE will prepare periodic comparisons of...

  6. 31 CFR 901.10 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 901.10 Section 901.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL CLAIMS... COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 901.10 Analysis of costs. Agency collection procedures should provide for...

  7. 31 CFR 901.10 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 901.10 Section 901.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL CLAIMS... COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 901.10 Analysis of costs. Agency collection procedures should provide for...

  8. 38 CFR 1.921 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 1.921 Section 1.921 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL PROVISIONS Standards for Collection of Claims § 1.921 Analysis of costs. VA collection procedures should provide...

  9. 10 CFR 1015.213 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Analysis of costs. 1015.213 Section 1015.213 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Standards for the Administrative Collection of Claims § 1015.213 Analysis of costs. DOE will prepare periodic comparisons of...

  10. Cost-Benefit Analysis in Adult Literacy Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtmann, A. G.

    The usefulness of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating programs to reduce illiteracy is considered, and the advantages and limitations of this approach are illustrated by citing results from studies concerning the returns to investment in education. The discussion of cost-benefit analysis is based primarily on the assumption that the value of…

  11. Cost-Outcome Analysis: Streamlining Techniques. Evaluation Guide Number 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jana K.

    Streamlining involves the modification of cost-analysis methods to make them more appropriate for the limited time and resources, and immediate information needs, of local-level program evaluations. It can also enhance the reliability and validity of district-level studies. A review of existing texts of cost analysis and of studies of traditional…

  12. The Application of Cost-Benefit Analysis in Manpower Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsby, Steven L.

    The relative efficiency of various manpower programs as seen through cost-benefit analysis is assessed, and the contribution that cost-benefit analysis has made in evaluating manpower programs is discussed, taking into account a variety of methodologies presented in different studies. Vocational rehabilitation appears to yield the highest…

  13. 22 CFR 226.45 - Cost and price analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cost and price analysis. 226.45 Section 226.45 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.45 Cost and price analysis....

  14. The Language Translation Process in Survey Research: A Cost Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantor, Scott B.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Groff, Janet Y.; Reyes, Yesenia; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a cost analysis from an institutional perspective of translating an English-language survey instrument to Spanish. The authors conduct a process flow analysis of the steps required to create and validate a 30-page survey instrument with 211 items. The identified steps in the translation process cost $10,426.…

  15. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  16. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  17. Mechanical System Reliability and Cost Integration Using a Sequential Linear Approximation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, Michael T.

    1997-01-01

    The development of new products is dependent on product designs that incorporate high levels of reliability along with a design that meets predetermined levels of system cost. Additional constraints on the product include explicit and implicit performance requirements. Existing reliability and cost prediction methods result in no direct linkage between variables affecting these two dominant product attributes. A methodology to integrate reliability and cost estimates using a sequential linear approximation method is proposed. The sequential linear approximation method utilizes probability of failure sensitivities determined from probabilistic reliability methods as well a manufacturing cost sensitivities. The application of the sequential linear approximation method to a mechanical system is demonstrated.

  18. Low-cost image analysis system

    SciTech Connect

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    The author has developed an Automatic Target Recognition system based on parallel processing using transputers. This approach gives a powerful, fast image processing system at relatively low cost. This system scans multi-sensor (e.g., several infrared bands) image data to find any identifiable target, such as physical object or a type of vegetation.

  19. Cost Analysis of CATV Components. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Gary

    A research study was conducted for the Office of Telecommunications Policy to determine the capital outlay and operating costs of community antenna television (CATV) systems. Six major tasks were undertaken: 1) the development of a body of technical information about CATV; 2) the production of a complete work breakdown structure; 3) a cost…

  20. Can a costly intervention be cost-effective?: An analysis of violence prevention.

    PubMed

    Foster, E Michael; Jones, Damon

    2006-11-01

    To examine the cost-effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention, a multi-year, multi-component intervention designed to reduce violence among at-risk children. A previous report documented the favorable effect of intervention on the highest-risk group of ninth-graders diagnosed with conduct disorder, as well as self-reported delinquency. The current report addressed the cost-effectiveness of the intervention for these measures of program impact. Costs of the intervention were estimated using program budgets. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were computed to determine the cost per unit of improvement in the 3 outcomes measured in the 10th year of the study. Examination of the total sample showed that the intervention was not cost-effective at likely levels of policymakers' willingness to pay for the key outcomes. Subsequent analysis of those most at risk, however, showed that the intervention likely was cost-effective given specified willingness-to-pay criteria. Results indicate that the intervention is cost-effective for the children at highest risk. From a policy standpoint, this finding is encouraging because such children are likely to generate higher costs for society over their lifetimes. However, substantial barriers to cost-effectiveness remain, such as the ability to effectively identify and recruit such higher-risk children in future implementations.

  1. Processing Cost Analysis for Biomass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Badger, P.C.

    2002-11-20

    The receiving, handling, storing, and processing of woody biomass feedstocks is an overlooked component of biopower systems. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to identify and characterize all the receiving, handling, storing, and processing steps required to make woody biomass feedstocks suitable for use in direct combustion and gasification applications, including small modular biopower (SMB) systems, and (2) to estimate the capital and operating costs at each step. Since biopower applications can be varied, a number of conversion systems and feedstocks required evaluation. In addition to limiting this study to woody biomass feedstocks, the boundaries of this study were from the power plant gate to the feedstock entry point into the conversion device. Although some power plants are sited at a source of wood waste fuel, it was assumed for this study that all wood waste would be brought to the power plant site. This study was also confined to the following three feedstocks (1) forest residues, (2) industrial mill residues, and (3) urban wood residues. Additionally, the study was confined to grate, suspension, and fluidized bed direct combustion systems; gasification systems; and SMB conversion systems. Since scale can play an important role in types of equipment, operational requirements, and capital and operational costs, this study examined these factors for the following direct combustion and gasification system size ranges: 50, 20, 5, and 1 MWe. The scope of the study also included: Specific operational issues associated with specific feedstocks (e.g., bark and problems with bridging); Opportunities for reducing handling, storage, and processing costs; How environmental restrictions can affect handling and processing costs (e.g., noise, commingling of treated wood or non-wood materials, emissions, and runoff); and Feedstock quality issues and/or requirements (e.g., moisture, particle size, presence of non-wood materials). The study found that over the

  2. Renewable Diesel from Algal Lipids: An Integrated Baseline for Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential from a Harmonized Model

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.; Fishman, D.; Frank, E. D.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Aden, A.; Coleman, A. M.; Pienkos, P. T.; Skaggs, R. J.; Venteris, E. R.; Wang, M. Q.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Program has begun an initiative to obtain consistent quantitative metrics for algal biofuel production to establish an 'integrated baseline' by harmonizing and combining the Program's national resource assessment (RA), techno-economic analysis (TEA), and life-cycle analysis (LCA) models. The baseline attempts to represent a plausible near-term production scenario with freshwater microalgae growth, extraction of lipids, and conversion via hydroprocessing to produce a renewable diesel (RD) blendstock. Differences in the prior TEA and LCA models were reconciled (harmonized) and the RA model was used to prioritize and select the most favorable consortium of sites that supports production of 5 billion gallons per year of RD. Aligning the TEA and LCA models produced slightly higher costs and emissions compared to the pre-harmonized results. However, after then applying the productivities predicted by the RA model (13 g/m2/d on annual average vs. 25 g/m2/d in the original models), the integrated baseline resulted in markedly higher costs and emissions. The relationship between performance (cost and emissions) and either productivity or lipid fraction was found to be non-linear, and important implications on the TEA and LCA results were observed after introducing seasonal variability from the RA model. Increasing productivity and lipid fraction alone was insufficient to achieve cost and emission targets; however, combined with lower energy, less expensive alternative technology scenarios, emissions and costs were substantially reduced.

  3. An Integrated Bayesian Model for DIF Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Tufi M.; Goncalves, Flavio B.; Gamerman, Dani

    2009-01-01

    In this article, an integrated Bayesian model for differential item functioning (DIF) analysis is proposed. The model is integrated in the sense of modeling the responses along with the DIF analysis. This approach allows DIF detection and explanation in a simultaneous setup. Previous empirical studies and/or subjective beliefs about the item…

  4. [Cost evaluation of a model for integrated care of seriously mentally ill patients].

    PubMed

    Fischer, F; Hoffmann, K; Mönter, N; Walle, M; Beneke, R; Negenborn, S; Weinmann, S; Willich, S N; Berghöfer, A

    2014-02-01

    The model for integrated care (IC) of those seriously mentally ill patients insured with the DAK-Gesundheit health insurance and various Betriebskrankenkassen (members of the VAG Mitte) from the regions Berlin, Brandenburg, Lower Saxony and Bremen allows a complex treatment in the outpatient setting which consists of psychiatrists, general practitioners and clinicians, psychiatric nursing, sociotherapy (only in Berlin), internal medicine quality circles, orientation on treatment guidelines and conceptual consensus with the relevant care clinics. The aim of the evaluation is to illustrate the health economic effects of IC. In the period from 2006 to 2010 insured members of the DAK-Gesundheit and other involved health insurance companies with a serious mental illness, a significant impairment of social functioning and the need to be treated to avoid or substitute an in-hospital stay were included in the integrated care. The cost perspective was that of the statutory health insurance companies. For the health economic evaluation, the utilisation of continuous IC over 18 months was compared to the last 18 months prior to the inclusion in IC. The clinical findings were gathered quarterly during the IC using CGI (Clinical Global Impressions) and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning Scale). A total of 1 364 patients receiving IC in 66 doctor's practices were documented (of those, 286 had diagnoses of ICD-10 F2, 724 ICD-10 F32-F39). The median age was 48.8 years, 69% were female. 24% had their own source of income, 40% were on the pension, and the rest of the patients were receiving transfer benefits in some form. In 54% of the cases IC was used to avoid an in-hospital stay, in 46% of the cases to substitute an in-hospital stay. The degree of the CGI was 5.5 on average at the time of inclusion and the GAF score was 36.5 on average. The 226 patients with continuous documentation over 18 months were included in the health economic analysis. The number of days spent in

  5. Integrated analysis environment for high impact systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Davis, J.; Scott, J.; Sztipanovits, J.; Karsai, G.

    1998-02-01

    Modeling and analysis of high consequence, high assurance systems requires special modeling considerations. System safety and reliability information must be captured in the models. Previously, high consequence systems were modeled using separate, disjoint models for safety, reliability, and security. The MultiGraph Architecture facilitates the implementation of a model integrated system for modeling and analysis of high assurance systems. Model integrated computing allows an integrated modeling technique to be applied to high consequence systems. Among the tools used for analyzing safety and reliability are a behavioral simulator and an automatic fault tree generation and analysis tool. Symbolic model checking techniques are used to efficiently investigate the system models. A method for converting finite state machine models to ordered binary decision diagrams allows the application of symbolic model checking routines to the integrated system models. This integrated approach to modeling and analysis of high consequence systems ensures consistency between the models and the different analysis tools.

  6. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  7. Integrated Evaluation of Cost, Emissions, and Resource Potential for Algal Biofuels at the National Scale

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan; Fishman, Daniel; Frank, Edward D.; Johnson, Michael C.; Jones, Susanne B.; Kinchin, Christopher; Skaggs, Richard; Venteris, Erik R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2014-04-21

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr-1 (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and inter-annual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, and economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  8. Integrated evaluation of cost, emissions, and resource potential for algal biofuels at the national scale.

    PubMed

    Davis, Ryan E; Fishman, Daniel B; Frank, Edward D; Johnson, Michael C; Jones, Susanne B; Kinchin, Christopher M; Skaggs, Richard L; Venteris, Erik R; Wigmosta, Mark S

    2014-05-20

    Costs, emissions, and resource availability were modeled for the production of 5 billion gallons yr(-1) (5 BGY) of renewable diesel in the United States from Chlorella biomass by hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). The HTL model utilized data from a continuous 1-L reactor including catalytic hydrothermal gasification of the aqueous phase, and catalytic hydrotreatment of the HTL oil. A biophysical algae growth model coupled with weather and pond simulations predicted biomass productivity from experimental growth parameters, allowing site-by-site and temporal prediction of biomass production. The 5 BGY scale required geographically and climatically distributed sites. Even though screening down to 5 BGY significantly reduced spatial and temporal variability, site-to-site, season-to-season, and interannual variations in productivity affected economic and environmental performance. Performance metrics based on annual average or peak productivity were inadequate; temporally and spatially explicit computations allowed more rigorous analysis of these dynamic systems. For example, 3-season operation with a winter shutdown was favored to avoid high greenhouse gas emissions, but economic performance was harmed by underutilized equipment during slow-growth periods. Thus, analysis of algal biofuel pathways must combine spatiotemporal resource assessment, economic analysis, and environmental analysis integrated over many sites when assessing national scale performance.

  9. Automated cost of ownership analysis for process development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Vidar K.; Walton, Anthony J.

    1999-04-01

    This paper describes how costings analysis can be incorporated into a framework for process development. It describes how Cost of Ownership can be calculated from the information stored within existing process development tools through the use of CASTT (Cost Analysis in Total TCAD). It provides a method by which manufacturing costs can be forecast and alternative processing options can be compared. The existing elements of Total TCAD framework are described, an outline of the CASTT software is then given and examples are used to illustrate its potential.

  10. One-pot integrated biofuel production using low-cost biocompatible protic ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian; Konda, N. V. S. N. Murthy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Dutta, Tanmoy; Valiev, Marat; Xu, Feng; Simmons, Blake A.; Singh, Seema

    2017-01-01

    The transformation of biomass into liquid fuels is of great importance. Previous work has demonstrated the capability of specific ionic liquids (ILs), such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C(2)C(1)Im][OAc]) and cholinium lysinate ([Ch][Lys]), to be effective biomass pretreatment solvents. Using these ILs for an integrated biomass-to-biofuel configuration is still challenging due to a significant water-wash related to the high toxicity of [C(2)C(1)Im][OAc] and pH adjustment prior to saccharification for the highly basic [Ch][Lys]. In this work, we demonstrate, for the first time, that a one-pot integrated biofuel production is enabled by a low cost (similar to$1 per kg) and biocompatible protic IL (PIL), ethanolamine acetate, without pH adjustments, water-wash and solid-liquid separations. After pretreatment, the whole slurry is directly used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with commercial enzyme cocktails and wild type yeast strains, generating 70% of the theoretical ethanol yield (based on switchgrass). The structure-performance relationships of PILs in terms of lignin removal, net basicity, and pH value are systematically studied. A technoeconomic analysis (TEA) revealed that an integrated biorefinery concept based on this PIL process could potentially reduce the minimum ethanol selling price by more than 40% compared to scenarios that require pH adjustment prior to SSF. Improvement of the economic performance will be made by reducing the dilution and enzyme loading during SSF as identified by TEA. This study demonstrates the impact of a biocompatible IL in terms of process optimization and conversion efficiency, and opens up avenues for realizing an IL based efficiently integrated biomass conversion technology.

  11. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  12. Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Cost Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chin, Garwin; Wright, David J; Snir, Nimrod; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-02-01

    Increasing hip fracture incidence in the United States is leading to higher occurrences of conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) for failed surgical treatment of the hip. In spite of studies showing higher complication rates in conversion THA, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid services currently bundles conversion and primary THA under the same diagnosis-related group. We examined the cost of treatment of conversion THA compared with primary THA. Our hypothesis is that conversion THA will have higher cost and resource use than primary THA. Fifty-one consecutive conversion THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27132) and 105 matched primary THA patients (Current Procedure Terminology code 27130) were included in this study. The natural log-transformed costs for conversion and primary THA were compared using regression analysis. Age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologist, Charlson comorbidity score, and smoker status were controlled in the analysis. Conversion THA subgroups formed based on etiology were compared using analysis of variance analysis. Conversion and primary THAs were determined to be significantly different (P<.05) and greater in the following costs: hospital operating direct cost (29.2% greater), hospital operating total cost (28.8% greater), direct hospital cost (24.7% greater), and total hospital cost (26.4% greater). Based on greater hospital operating direct cost, hospital operating total cost, direct hospital cost, and total hospital cost, conversion THA has significantly greater cost and resource use than primary THA. In order to prevent disincentives for treating these complex surgical patients, reclassification of conversion THA is needed, as they do not fit together with primary THA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Minuteman III Cost Per Alert Hour Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    directly contribute to war fighting capabilities; rather they are more a function of our foreign policy. The Marines implemented many ABC...leWirc 11,314,000 S4,7SO 3,942,000 164.250 Sponsor: AFNWC/LG AFC AIG C PAH Model DLR:; + Cun~·unwbles + Per:;unm:l A/ert HQUTS Cost Per Alert Hou r...t.Jll! l5,7at_.tl l I C!,IIU l ! OSD C AIG C PAH Model Bas@:donOffic@: ofSf:cr@:t aryofO@:f @:ns@: Cost A nalysis lmp rov@:mol’:nt Gro u p f l

  14. Cost analysis of German waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, H.P.; Debski, H.J.

    1993-12-31

    In forecasting costs of final disposal for radioactive waste, the determined disposal concept and operational aspects such as the necessary amount for personnel to operate the repository are important. Even for the German deep geological concept, there are large differences resulting from the assessment to select an already existing mine or a completely new formation as a disposal site. Based on actual planning, the expected total costs of the running waste repository projects in the Federal Republic of Germany are presented including their distribution to single aspects like project management, underground investigation, licensing work and construction. Moreover, the actual expenditures for the different waste repositories are given and as far as possible the prices per m{sup 3}.

  15. Cost Analysis for Dual Source Weapon Procurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    in the early stages of the development of a new sys- tam, the cost depends on so many variables that the estimating prccess necessarily requires...proptotyp-, hard- ware development leading to a "fly-off". 2. Obtaining an item from a new source subsequent to a default termination. 3. Component...Raised 2. 1 PRODCTION RITES =Aquisition experience in the DOD has shown that production rates for new military weapon systems are subject :o fre

  16. An Analysis of Weapon System Cost Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    this time period. Of interest is that this result is somewhat better than the cost performance in many large civilian projects, such as energy and...to and interpretation of historical SAR files. At RAND, Donna Hoffman coordinated cullection and maintanance of our in-house SAR database. Errors of...projects, including weapon systems, energy and chemical processing plants, and large construction projects.’ The explanation for this difficulty lies

  17. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Urban Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    1997-09-01

    Urban shade trees offer significant benefits in reducing building air- conditioning and improving urban air quality by reducing smog. The savings associated with these benefits varies by climate regions and can be up to $200 per tree. The cost of planting trees and maintaining them can vary from $10 to $500 per tree. Tree planting programs can be designed offer savings to communities that plant trees.

  18. International lessons in new methods for grading and integrating cost effectiveness evidence into clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Antioch, Kathryn M; Drummond, Michael F; Niessen, Louis W; Vondeling, Hindrik

    2017-01-01

    Economic evidence is influential in health technology assessment world-wide. Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) can enable economists to include economic information on health care provision. Application of economic evidence in CPGs, and its integration into clinical practice and national decision making is hampered by objections from professions, paucity of economic evidence or lack of policy commitment. The use of state-of-art economic methodologies will improve this. Economic evidence can be graded by 'checklists' to establish the best evidence for decision making given methodological rigor. New economic evaluation checklists, Multi-Criteria Decision Analyses (MCDA) and other decision criteria enable health economists to impact on decision making world-wide. We analyse the methodologies for integrating economic evidence into CPG agencies globally, including the Agency of Health Research and Quality (AHRQ) in the USA, National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) and Australian political reforms. The Guidelines and Economists Network International (GENI) Board members from Australia, UK, Canada and Denmark presented the findings at the conference of the International Health Economists Association (IHEA) and we report conclusions and developments since. The Consolidated Guidelines for the Reporting of Economic Evaluations (CHEERS) 24 item check list can be used by AHRQ, NHMRC, other CPG and health organisations, in conjunction with the Drummond ten-point check list and a questionnaire that scores that checklist for grading studies, when assessing economic evidence. Cost-effectiveness Analysis (CEA) thresholds, opportunity cost and willingness-to-pay (WTP) are crucial issues for decision rules in CEA generally, including end-of-life therapies. Limitations of inter-rater reliability in checklists can be addressed by including more than one assessor to reach a consensus, especially when impacting on treatment decisions. We identify priority areas to generate

  19. Examining CCS deployment potential in China via application of an integrated CCS cost curve

    SciTech Connect

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.; Li, Xiaochun; Wei, Ning

    2013-06-01

    Cost curves focusing on CO2 transport and storage have been previously published and used to help establish the large potential for CCS technologies to deploy in China. This paper examines the results from recent work to incorporate the costs of CO2 capture and compression within integrated cost curves that better reflect the complete costs and therefore possible value of CCS. Results show that significant potential exists for large-scale deployment of CCS at costs less than $70/tCO2. Mapping of the cost curve results confirms that the majority of existing CO2 point sources may be able to utilize CCS technologies, and that - except for many sources in southern China - onshore storage capacity appears accessible and sufficient for decades of large-scale deployment.

  20. Social costs of road crashes: An international analysis.

    PubMed

    Wijnen, Wim; Stipdonk, Henk

    2016-09-01

    This paper provides an international overview of the most recent estimates of the social costs of road crashes: total costs, value per casualty and breakdown in cost components. The analysis is based on publications about the national costs of road crashes of 17 countries, of which ten high income countries (HICs) and seven low and middle income countries (LMICs). Costs are expressed as a proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP). Differences between countries are described and explained. These are partly a consequence of differences in the road safety level, but there are also methodological explanations. Countries may or may not correct for underreporting of road crashes, they may or may not use the internationally recommended willingness to pay (WTP)-method for estimating human costs, and there are methodological differences regarding the calculation of some other cost components. The analysis shows that the social costs of road crashes in HICs range from 0.5% to 6.0% of the GDP with an average of 2.7%. Excluding countries that do not use a WTP- method for estimating human costs and countries that do not correct for underreporting, results in average costs of 3.3% of GDP. For LMICs that do correct for underreporting the share in GDP ranges from 1.1% to 2.9%. However, none of the LMICs included has performed a WTP study of the human costs. A major part of the costs is related to injuries: an average share of 50% for both HICs and LMICs. The average share of fatalities in the costs is 23% and 30% respectively. Prevention of injuries is thus important to bring down the socio-economic burden of road crashes. The paper shows that there are methodological differences between countries regarding cost components that are taken into account and regarding the methods used to estimate specific cost components. In order to be able to make sound comparisons of the costs of road crashes across countries, (further) harmonization of cost studies is recommended. This can be

  1. Terminal patients in Belgian nursing homes: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Steven; Kutten, Betty; Keirse, Emmanuel; Vanden Berghe, Paul; Beguin, Claire; Desmedt, Marianne; Deveugele, Myriam; Léonard, Christian; Paulus, Dominique; Menten, Johan

    2013-06-01

    Policy makers and health care payers are concerned about the costs of treating terminal patients. This study was done to measure the costs of treating terminal patients during the final month of life in a sample of Belgian nursing homes from the health care payer perspective. Also, this study compares the costs of palliative care with those of usual care. This multicenter, retrospective cohort study enrolled terminal patients from a representative sample of nursing homes. Health care costs included fixed nursing home costs, medical fees, pharmacy charges, other charges, and eventual hospitalization costs. Data sources consisted of accountancy and invoice data. The analysis calculated costs per patient during the final month of life at 2007/2008 prices. Nineteen nursing homes participated in the study, generating a total of 181 patients. Total mean nursing home costs amounted to 3,243 € per patient during the final month of life. Total mean nursing home costs per patient of 3,822 € for patients receiving usual care were higher than costs of 2,456 € for patients receiving palliative care (p = 0.068). Higher costs of usual care were driven by higher hospitalization costs (p < 0.001). This study suggests that palliative care models in nursing homes need to be supported because such care models appear to be less expensive than usual care and because such care models are likely to better reflect the needs of terminal patients.

  2. Cost analysis of abdominal, laparoscopic, and robotic-assisted myomectomies.

    PubMed

    Behera, Millie A; Likes, Creighton E; Judd, John P; Barnett, Jason C; Havrilesky, Laura J; Wu, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    To perform a cost-minimization analysis of abdominal, traditional laparoscopic and robotic-assisted myomectomy. Cost analysis (Canadian Task Force Classification III). Academic medical center. Women undergoing myomectomy by various surgical approaches. We developed a decision model to compare the costs ($2009) of different approaches to myomectomy from a healthcare system perspective. The model included operative time, conversion risk, transfusion risk, and length of stay (LOS) for each modality. Baseline estimates and ranges were based on reported values extracted from existing literature. We analyzed two different models: #1) Existing Robot model and #2) Robot Purchase model. In the baseline analysis for the Existing Robot model, abdominal myomectomy (AM) was the least expensive at $4937 compared with laparoscopic myomectomy (LM) at $6219 and robotic-assisted laparoscopic myomectomy (RM) at $7299. The abdominal route remained the least expensive when varying all parameters and costs except for two cases in which LM became least expensive: 1) If AM length of stay was greater than 4.6 days, and 2) If the surgeon's fee for AM was greater than $2410. When comparing LM to RM, the cost of RM was consistently higher unless the robotic disposable equipment costs were less than $1400. In the Robot Purchase model, only the RM costs increased while AM and LM costs remained the same. In this cost-minimization analysis, abdominal myomectomy is the least expensive approach when compared to laparoscopy and robotic-assisted laparoscopy. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis Experience: Reconnecting With Technical Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    Very early in the Space Launch Initiative program, a small team of engineers at MSFC proposed a process for performing system-level assessments of a launch vehicle. Aimed primarily at providing insight and making NASA a smart buyer, the Vehicle Integrated Performance Analysis (VIPA) team was created. The difference between the VIPA effort and previous integration attempts is that VIPA a process using experienced people from various disciplines, which focuses them on a technically integrated assessment. The foundations of VIPA s process are described. The VIPA team also recognized the need to target early detailed analysis toward identifying significant systems issues. This process is driven by the T-model for technical integration. VIPA s approach to performing system-level technical integration is discussed in detail. The VIPA process significantly enhances the development and monitoring of realizable project requirements. VIPA s assessment validates the concept s stated performance, identifies significant issues either with the concept or the requirements, and then reintegrates these issues to determine impacts. This process is discussed along with a description of how it may be integrated into a program s insight and review process. The VIPA process has gained favor with both engineering and project organizations for being responsive and insightful

  4. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Julia K; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14-7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98-6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48-3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31-3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90-1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52-882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system.

  5. [Costs of clinical ultrasound examinations - an economical cost calculation and analysis].

    PubMed

    Schuler, A; Reuss, J; Delorme, S; Hagendorff, A; Giesel, F

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to calculate the costs for clinical ultrasound examinations in Germany under defined economical aspects in a multicenter setting. There are fixed and variable costs for all common ultrasound examinations calculated under distinct scenarios for utilization and equipment quality (ultrasound systems classification concerning to DEGUM, German Ultrasound Society). Over 5 years (on average 2007 - 2011) depending on utilization and quality, the basic sonography costs were 131.30 - 171.39 Euros for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and 57.06 - 77.10 Euros for ultrasound guided biopsy per examination. The costs were calculated at 54.84 - 74.88 Euros for endosonography of the lower GI tract, at 79.20 - 109.27 Euros for the upper GI tract without biopsy and at 226.18 - 367.97 Euros with biopsy depending on the needle used. The costs were 34.58 - 47.01 Euros for basic transthoracic echocardiography, 100.04 - 112.20 Euros for CEUS, and 106.15 - 134.29 Euros for the transesophageal approach. Cost calculation under defined economical aspects leads to cost transparency for clinical ultrasound examinations. Echocardiography costs were calculated like this for the first time in Germany. Calculation based on fixed and variable cost aspects as well as using distinct scenarios enables prospective planning of resources and investment. The analysis points out deficits in the reimbursement of ultrasound examinations in Germany. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  6. Improving The Discipline of Cost Estimation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.; Pine, David J.; Wilson, Delano M.

    2000-01-01

    The need to improve the quality and accuracy of cost estimates of proposed new aerospace systems has been widely recognized. The industry has done the best job of maintaining related capability with improvements in estimation methods and giving appropriate priority to the hiring and training of qualified analysts. Some parts of Government, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in particular, continue to need major improvements in this area. Recently, NASA recognized that its cost estimation and analysis capabilities had eroded to the point that the ability to provide timely, reliable estimates was impacting the confidence in planning many program activities. As a result, this year the Agency established a lead role for cost estimation and analysis. The Independent Program Assessment Office located at the Langley Research Center was given this responsibility. This paper presents the plans for the newly established role. Described is how the Independent Program Assessment Office, working with all NASA Centers, NASA Headquarters, other Government agencies, and industry, is focused on creating cost estimation and analysis as a professional discipline that will be recognized equally with the technical disciplines needed to design new space and aeronautics activities. Investments in selected, new analysis tools, creating advanced training opportunities for analysts, and developing career paths for future analysts engaged in the discipline are all elements of the plan. Plans also include increasing the human resources available to conduct independent cost analysis of Agency programs during their formulation, to improve near-term capability to conduct economic cost-benefit assessments, to support NASA management's decision process, and to provide cost analysis results emphasizing "full-cost" and "full-life cycle" considerations. The Agency cost analysis improvement plan has been approved for implementation starting this calendar year. Adequate financial

  7. Improving The Discipline of Cost Estimation and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.; Pine, David J.; Wilson, Delano M.

    2000-01-01

    The need to improve the quality and accuracy of cost estimates of proposed new aerospace systems has been widely recognized. The industry has done the best job of maintaining related capability with improvements in estimation methods and giving appropriate priority to the hiring and training of qualified analysts. Some parts of Government, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in particular, continue to need major improvements in this area. Recently, NASA recognized that its cost estimation and analysis capabilities had eroded to the point that the ability to provide timely, reliable estimates was impacting the confidence in planning many program activities. As a result, this year the Agency established a lead role for cost estimation and analysis. The Independent Program Assessment Office located at the Langley Research Center was given this responsibility. This paper presents the plans for the newly established role. Described is how the Independent Program Assessment Office, working with all NASA Centers, NASA Headquarters, other Government agencies, and industry, is focused on creating cost estimation and analysis as a professional discipline that will be recognized equally with the technical disciplines needed to design new space and aeronautics activities. Investments in selected, new analysis tools, creating advanced training opportunities for analysts, and developing career paths for future analysts engaged in the discipline are all elements of the plan. Plans also include increasing the human resources available to conduct independent cost analysis of Agency programs during their formulation, to improve near-term capability to conduct economic cost-benefit assessments, to support NASA management's decision process, and to provide cost analysis results emphasizing "full-cost" and "full-life cycle" considerations. The Agency cost analysis improvement plan has been approved for implementation starting this calendar year. Adequate financial

  8. Concentrated photovoltaics system costs and learning curve analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haysom, Joan E.; Jafarieh, Omid; Anis, Hanan; Hinzer, Karin

    2013-09-01

    An extensive set of costs in /W for the installed costs of CPV systems has been amassed from a range of public sources, including both individual company prices and market reports. Cost reductions over time are very evident, with current prices for 2012 in the range of 3.0 ± 0.7 /W and a predicted cost of 1.5 /W for 2020. Cost data is combined with deployment volumes in a learning curve analysis, providing a fitted learning rate of either 18.5% or 22.3% depending on the methodology. This learning rate is compared to that of PV modules and PV installed systems, and the influence of soft costs is discussed. Finally, if an annual growth rate of 39% is assumed for deployed volumes, then, using the learning rate of 20%, this would predict the achievement of a cost point of 1.5 /W by 2016.

  9. Impact of actuarial assumptions on pension costs: A simulation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Shaira; Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of pension costs to changes in the underlying assumptions of a hypothetical pension plan in order to gain a perspective on the relative importance of the various actuarial assumptions via a simulation analysis. Simulation analyses are used to examine the impact of actuarial assumptions on pension costs. There are two actuarial assumptions will be considered in this study which are mortality rates and interest rates. To calculate pension costs, Accrued Benefit Cost Method, constant amount (CA) modification, constant percentage of salary (CS) modification are used in the study. The mortality assumptions and the implied mortality experience of the plan can potentially have a significant impact on pension costs. While for interest rate assumptions, it is inversely related to the pension costs. Results of the study have important implications for analyst of pension costs.

  10. Early Life Cycle Cost Trade Study By Parametric Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehm, Roy; Patrakis, Stan

    1982-06-01

    Unit production cost and life cycle cost tradestudy considerations are basic to the affordability of a new product. A major portion of the life cycle cost of a product, including production cost, are found to result from decisions made early in the planning phases of a program. Computerized parametric cost modeling generates cost estimates using the information that is available before the developing of engineering detail. The RCA PRICE program, available to all potential users, is used to illustrate the input requirements and steps necessary for parametric estimating of costs for development, production and support in the life cycle of a product. A laser rangefinder equipment is used as a product example to show the utility of this analysis.

  11. Cost-Performance Analysis of Perovskite Solar Modules.

    PubMed

    Cai, Molang; Wu, Yongzhen; Chen, Han; Yang, Xudong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Han, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are promising candidates for the next generation of solar cells because they are easy to fabricate and have high power conversion efficiencies. However, there has been no detailed analysis of the cost of PSC modules. We selected two representative examples of PSCs and performed a cost analysis of their productions: one was a moderate-efficiency module produced from cheap materials, and the other was a high-efficiency module produced from expensive materials. The costs of both modules were found to be lower than those of other photovoltaic technologies. We used the calculated module costs to estimate the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) of PSCs. The LCOE was calculated to be 3.5-4.9 US cents/kWh with an efficiency and lifetime of greater than 12% and 15 years respectively, below the cost of traditional energy sources.

  12. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. ); Korkmaz, M. )

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  13. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T.; Korkmaz, M.

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  14. Human System Integration: Regulatory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was intended as an input to the Access 5 Policy Integrated Product team. Using a Human System Integration (HIS) perspective, a regulatory analyses of the FARS (specifically Part 91), the Airman s Information Manual (AIM) and the FAA Controllers Handbook (7110.65) was conducted as part of a front-end approach needed to derive HSI requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System above FL430. The review of the above aviation reference materials yielded eighty-four functions determined to be necessary or highly desirable for flight within the Air Traffic Management System. They include categories for Flight, Communications, Navigation, Surveillance, and Hazard Avoidance.

  15. Primary prevention of pediatric abusive head trauma: a cost audit and cost-utility analysis.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Joshua; Reed, Peter; Sharplin, Peter; Kelly, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    To obtain comprehensive, reliable data on the direct cost of pediatric abusive head trauma in New Zealand, and to use this data to evaluate the possible cost-benefit of a national primary prevention program. A 5 year cohort of infants with abusive head trauma admitted to hospital in Auckland, New Zealand was reviewed. We determined the direct costs of hospital care (from hospital and Ministry of Health financial records), community rehabilitation (from the Accident Compensation Corporation), special education (from the Ministry of Education), investigation and child protection (from the Police and Child Protective Services), criminal trials (from the Police, prosecution and defence), punishment of offenders (from the Department of Corrections) and life-time care for moderate or severe disability (from the Accident Compensation Corporation). Analysis of the possible cost-utility of a national primary prevention program was undertaken, using the costs established in our cohort, recent New Zealand national data on the incidence of pediatric abusive head trauma, international data on quality of life after head trauma, and published international literature on prevention programs. There were 52 cases of abusive head trauma in the sample. Hospital costs totaled $NZ2,433,340, child protection $NZ1,560,123, police investigation $NZ1,842,237, criminal trials $NZ3,214,020, punishment of offenders $NZ4,411,852 and community rehabilitation $NZ2,895,848. Projected education costs for disabled survivors were $NZ2,452,148, and the cost of projected lifetime care was $NZ33,624,297. Total costs were $NZ52,433,864, averaging $NZ1,008,344 per child. Cost-utility analysis resulted in a strongly positive economic argument for primary prevention, with expected case scenarios showing lowered net costs with improved health outcomes. Pediatric abusive head trauma is very expensive, and on a conservative estimate the costs of acute hospitalization represent no more than 4% of lifetime

  16. A Cost Analysis of Day Care in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Marsden G.

    A cost analysis of day care in Denmark was initiated to determine what day care services cost, who pays for them, and how these costs relate to the quality of day care services. Some of the findings are: (1) group day care is considerably more expensive for children 0-3 years of age than for children 3-7 years of age; (2) group day care centers…

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of sandhill crane habitat management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kessler, Andrew C.; Merchant, James W.; Shultz, Steven D.; Allen, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species often threaten native wildlife populations and strain the budgets of agencies charged with wildlife management. We demonstrate the potential of cost-effectiveness analysis to improve the efficiency and value of efforts to enhance sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) roosting habitat. We focus on the central Platte River in Nebraska (USA), a region of international ecological importance for migrating avian species including sandhill cranes. Cost-effectiveness analysis is a valuation process designed to compare alternative actions based on the cost of achieving a pre-determined objective. We estimated costs for removal of invasive vegetation using geographic information system simulations and calculated benefits as the increase in area of sandhill crane roosting habitat. We generated cost effectiveness values for removing invasive vegetation on 7 land parcels and for the entire central Platte River to compare the cost-effectiveness of management at specific sites and for the central Platte River landscape. Median cost effectiveness values for the 7 land parcels evaluated suggest that costs for creating 1 additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat totaled US $1,595. By contrast, we found that creating an additional hectare of sandhill crane roosting habitat could cost as much as US $12,010 for some areas in the central Platte River, indicating substantial cost savings can be achieved by using a cost effectiveness analysis to target specific land parcels for management. Cost-effectiveness analysis, used in conjunction with geographic information systems, can provide decision-makers with a new tool for identifying the most economically efficient allocation of resources to achieve habitat management goals.

  18. The evolution of honest communication: integrating social and physiological costs of ornamentation.

    PubMed

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-01

    Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs such as social costs or physiological costs favor the accuracy of signals. Previous work has largely considered these costs separately, but we may be missing essential connections by studying costs in isolation. After all, social interactions produce rapid changes in hormone titers which can then affect individual behavior and physiology. As a result, social costs are likely to have widespread physiological consequences. Here, I present a new perspective on the factors that maintain honest signals by describing how the interplay between social costs and physiological costs may maintain an accurate link between an animal's abilities and ornament elaboration. I outline three specific mechanisms by which the interaction between social behavior and hormones could favor honest signals and present specific predictions for each of the three models. Then, I review how ornaments alter agonistic behavior, agonistic behavior influences hormones, and how these hormonal effects influence fitness. I also describe the few previous studies that have directly tested how ornaments influence hormones. Finally, opportunities for future work are discussed. Considering the interaction between social behavior and physiology may address some challenges associated with both social and physiological models of costs. Understanding the dynamic feedbacks between physiology and social costs has potential to transform our understanding of the stability of animals' communication systems. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Development of hospital data warehouse for cost analysis of DPC based on medical costs.

    PubMed

    Muranaga, F; Kumamoto, I; Uto, Y

    2007-01-01

    To develop a data warehouse system for cost analysis, based on the categories of the diagnosis procedure combination (DPC) system, in which medical costs were estimated by DPC category and factors influencing the balance between costs and fees. We developed a data warehouse system for cost analysis using data from the hospital central data warehouse system. The balance data of patients who were discharged from Kagoshima University Hospital from April 2003 to March 2005 were determined in terms of medical procedure, cost per day and patient admission in order to conduct a drill-down analysis. To evaluate this system, we analyzed cash flow by DPC category of patients who were categorized as having malignant tumors and whose DPC category was reevaluated in 2004. The percentages of medical expenses were highest in patients with acute leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and particularly in patients with malignant tumors of the liver and intrahepatic bile duct. Imaging tests degraded the percentages of medical expenses in Kagoshima University Hospital. These results suggested that cost analysis by patient is important for hospital administration in the inclusive evaluation system using a case-mix index such as DPC.

  20. Cost-effectiveness and cost utility analysis of three pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in children of Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical and economic burden associated with invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) diseases is substantial in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where pneumococcal vaccines have only been introduced to a few countries. This study analyzed the cost-effectiveness and cost utility of three different pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) for Peru. Methods A Markov model that simulated the disease processes in a birth cohort over a lifetime, within 1,128 month cycles was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of 10-valent pneumococcal NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) and 7- and 13-valent PCVs (PCV-7 and PCV-13). Expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost-savings and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. Results Without vaccination, pneumonia was associated with the greatest health economic burden (90% of QALYs lost and 63% of lifetime direct medical costs); while acute otitis media (AOM) was responsible for 1% of QALYs lost and 25% of direct medical costs. All vaccines were predicted to be cost-effective for Peru, with PHiD-CV being most cost-effective. PHiD-CV was predicted to generate 50 more QALYs gained and required a reduced investment (−US$ 3.4 million) versus PCV-13 (discounted data), and was therefore dominant and cost saving. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that PHiD-CV generated more QALYs gained at a reduced cost than PCV-13 in 84% of the simulations and less QALYs gains at a reduced cost in 16%. Additional scenarios using different assumptions on vaccine efficacies based on previous evidence were explored, but no significant change in the overall cost-effective results were observed. Conclusions The results of this modeling study predict that PCVs are likely to be a cost-effective strategy to help relieve the epidemiological and economic burden associated with pediatric pneumococcal and NTHi diseases for Peru. PHiD-CV is likely

  1. Cost analysis of whole genome sequencing in German clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Plöthner, Marika; Frank, Martin; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias Graf

    2017-06-01

    Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is an emerging tool in clinical diagnostics. However, little has been said about its procedure costs, owing to a dearth of related cost studies. This study helps fill this research gap by analyzing the execution costs of WGS within the setting of German clinical practice. First, to estimate costs, a sequencing process related to clinical practice was undertaken. Once relevant resources were identified, a quantification and monetary evaluation was conducted using data and information from expert interviews with clinical geneticists, and personnel at private enterprises and hospitals. This study focuses on identifying the costs associated with the standard sequencing process, and the procedure costs for a single WGS were analyzed on the basis of two sequencing platforms-namely, HiSeq 2500 and HiSeq Xten, both by Illumina, Inc. In addition, sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of various uses of sequencing platforms and various coverage values on a fixed-cost degression. In the base case scenario-which features 80 % utilization and 30-times coverage-the cost of a single WGS analysis with the HiSeq 2500 was estimated at €3858.06. The cost of sequencing materials was estimated at €2848.08; related personnel costs of €396.94 and acquisition/maintenance costs (€607.39) were also found. In comparison, the cost of sequencing that uses the latest technology (i.e., HiSeq Xten) was approximately 63 % cheaper, at €1411.20. The estimated costs of WGS currently exceed the prediction of a 'US$1000 per genome', by more than a factor of 3.8. In particular, the material costs in themselves exceed this predicted cost.

  2. Inappropriateness of breast imaging: cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Pistolese, Chiara Adriana; Ciarrapico, Anna Micaela; della Gatta, Francesca; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how an incorrect indication for an examination may affect the diagnostic workup and diagnosis as well as healthcare expenditure. We considered all the requests for breast imaging (mammography, ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging) received by our radiology department between October 2010 and December 2010, and assessed their appropriateness based on the patient's age and the clinical question, if present. We then analysed the unnecessary costs resulting from inappropriate requests. Out of a total of 1500 requests for ultrasound examination, the request was appropriate in 855 (57%) cases; out of a total of 2350 requests for mammography, the request was appropriate in 493 (21%) cases; out of a total of 100 requests for magnetic resonance imaging, the request was appropriate in 83 (83%) cases. The cost deriving from inappropriate requests was 51,235.04 Euros. Improving the timeliness of diagnosis is an important goal to be pursued by enhancing the available health services, improving communication and coordination of the different professionals involved and optimising diagnostic pathways in order to reduce healthcare spending.

  3. Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    confidential  information and then shared with USMA  and CSUSB.                  Appendix 3  Integrated Information  Technology  Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB  22...E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 12-10-2010 Annual / Final July 1, 2009 – June 30, 2010 Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis...Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Attn: Mr

  4. The impact of complications on costs of major surgical procedures: a cost analysis of 1200 patients.

    PubMed

    Vonlanthen, René; Slankamenac, Ksenija; Breitenstein, Stefan; Puhan, Milo A; Muller, Markus K; Hahnloser, Dieter; Hauri, Dimitri; Graf, Rolf; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2011-12-01

    To assess the impact of postoperative complications on full in-hospital costs per case. Rising expenses for complex medical procedures combined with constrained resources represent a major challenge. The severity of postoperative complications reflects surgical outcomes. The magnitude of the cost created by negative outcomes is unclear. Morbidity of 1200 consecutive patients undergoing major surgery from 2005 to 2008 in a tertiary, high-volume center was assessed by a validated, complication score system. Full in-hospital costs were collected for each patient. Statistical analysis was performed using a multivariate linear regression model adjusted for potential confounders. This study population included 393 complex liver/bile duct surgeries, 110 major pancreas operations, 389 colon resections, and 308 Roux-en-Y gastric bypasses. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 1.8%, whereas morbidity was 53.8%. Patients with an uneventful course had mean costs per case of US$ 27,946 (SD US$ 15,106). Costs increased dramatically with the severity of postoperative complications and reached the mean costs of US$ 159,345 (SD US$ 151,191) for grade IV complications. This increase in costs, up to 5 times the cost of a similar operation without complications, was observed for all types of investigated procedures, although the magnitude of the increase varied, with the highest costs in patients undergoing pancreas surgery. This study demonstrates the dramatic impact of postoperative complications on full in-hospital costs per case and that complications are the strongest indicator of costs. Furthermore, the study highlights a relevant savings capacity for major surgical procedures, and supports all efforts to lower negative events in the postoperative course.

  5. Cost analysis and environmental impact of nonthermal technologies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cost of high pressure processing (HPP) orange juice and its environmental impact were estimated. In addition, the environmental impact of pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal pasteurization were assessed for comparison. The cost analysis was based on commercial processing conditions that wer...

  6. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  7. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  8. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  9. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  10. 10 CFR 434.607 - Life cycle cost analysis criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Life cycle cost analysis criteria. 434.607 Section 434.607 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.607 Life cycle cost...

  11. Cost Analysis of Training and Employment Services in Methadone Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Michael T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A cost analysis is presented for developing a training and employment (TEP) program at four methadone treatment centers in a quasi-experimental pilot study. Average annual costs for TEP per client were derived. The methodology can be used in other projects to compare standard and TEP-enhanced substance-abuse treatment. (SLD)

  12. Cost Analysis in Day Care and Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedger, Jean E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of precise and usable information on the financial operations of day care centers has been hampered by a lack of definition of types of programs and units of service, and confusion in comparing prices and costs. This article reports on the testing of a system of financial reporting and cost analysis, applied to 29 day care centers and…

  13. 31 CFR 901.10 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative collection techniques, establish guidelines with respect to points at which costs of further... COLLECTION STANDARDS (DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY-DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE) STANDARDS FOR THE ADMINISTRATIVE COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 901.10 Analysis of costs. Agency collection procedures should provide for periodic...

  14. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Competing Patient Education Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-28

    The purpose of this study was to determine the best of three methods of administering patient education based on both cost and benefits. The two...objectives were to perform a cost/benefit analysis (CBA) on the various approaches to administering patient education , and to make a recommendation based

  15. Considering a Cost Analysis Project? A Planned Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Mina; Teetor, Travis

    2006-01-01

    As resources become more constrained in the library community, many organizations are finding that they need to have a better understanding of their costs. To this end, this article will present one approach to conducting a cost analysis (including questions to ask yourself, project team makeup, organizational support, and data organization). We…

  16. Cost Analysis in Day Care and Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedger, Jean E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of precise and usable information on the financial operations of day care centers has been hampered by a lack of definition of types of programs and units of service, and confusion in comparing prices and costs. This article reports on the testing of a system of financial reporting and cost analysis, applied to 29 day care centers and…

  17. Cost Benefit Analysis and Other Fun and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Herbert S.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of application of cost benefit analysis (CBA) accounting techniques to libraries highlights user willingness to be charged for services provided, reasons why CBA will not work in library settings, libraries and budgets, cost distribution on basis of presumed or expected use, implementation of information-seeking behavior control, and…

  18. Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

  19. Can delivery systems use cost-effectiveness analysis to reduce healthcare costs and improve value?

    PubMed Central

    Savitz, Lucy A.; Savitz, Samuel T.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding costs and ensuring that we demonstrate value in healthcare is a foundational presumption as we transform the way we deliver and pay for healthcare in the U.S. With a focus on population health and payment reforms underway, there is increased pressure to examine cost-effectiveness in healthcare delivery. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a type of economic analysis comparing the costs and effects (i.e. health outcomes) of two or more treatment options. The result is expressed as a ratio where the denominator is the gain in health from a measure (e.g. years of life or quality-adjusted years of life) and the numerator is the incremental cost associated with that health gain. For higher cost interventions, the lower the ratio of costs to effects, the higher the value. While CEA is not new, the approach continues to be refined with enhanced statistical techniques and standardized methods. This article describes the CEA approach and also contrasts it to optional approaches, in order for readers to fully appreciate caveats and concerns. CEA as an economic evaluation tool can be easily misused owing to inappropriate assumptions, over reliance, and misapplication. Twelve issues to be considered in using CEA results to drive healthcare delivery decision-making are summarized. Appropriately recognizing both the strengths and the limitations of CEA is necessary for informed resource allocation in achieving the maximum value for healthcare services provided. PMID:27830055

  20. Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Progress report 14, August 1979-December 1979 and proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress made by the Low-Cost Solar Array Project during the period August through November 1979, is described. Progress on project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large-area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; engineering, and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts are detailed. A report on the Project Integration Meeting held December 5-6, 1979, including copies of the visual materials used, is presented.

  1. Integration of Research Studies: Meta-Analysis of Research. Methods of Integrative Analysis; Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.; And Others

    Integrative analysis, or what is coming to be known as meta-analysis, is the integration of the findings of many empirical research studies of a topic. Meta-analysis differs from traditional narrative forms of research reviewing in that it is more quantitative and statistical. Thus, the methods of meta-analysis are merely statistical methods,…

  2. Low-cost solar array project and Proceedings of the 14th Project Integration Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, R. R.

    1980-01-01

    Activities are reported on the following areas: project analysis and integration; technology development in silicon material, large area sheet silicon, and encapsulation; production process and equipment development; and engineering and operations, and the steps taken to integrate these efforts. Visual materials presented at the project Integration Meeting are included.

  3. Cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis of drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Dao, T D

    1985-04-01

    A model for cost-benefit analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis (CBA-CEA) of pharmaceutical intervention is presented, and CBA-CEA research methods reported in the literature are reviewed. The cost versus benefit and the cost effectiveness of drug therapy can be analyzed in societal as well as private terms. Since CBA measures costs and outcomes in monetary terms, it can be used to compare net benefits of all types of interventions. CEA, however, can be used only in comparing alternative interventions that can produce a similar health outcome. Research activities needed for identification of treatment protocols, alternative therapies and their respective outcomes, and resource use are described. Quantification of benefits and costs is discussed and inherent strengths and weaknesses of CBA-CEA are summarized. For the wide variety of research activities involved in CBA-CEA, the expertise of economists, physicians, clinical pharmacists and pharmacologists, epidemiologists, sociologists, and psychologists is needed. Inherent in CBA-CEA for drug therapy are judgments, either by analysts or by policy decision makers, about how to value life, pain, anxiety, and happiness and how to distribute health-care resources. When results of CBA-CEA are presented and interpreted with care, this analysis can be an important tool for policy decision makers.

  4. Cost analysis of post-polio certification immunization policies.

    PubMed Central

    Sangrujee, Nalinee; Cáceres, Victor M.; Cochi, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: An analysis was conducted to estimate the costs of different potential post-polio certification immunization policies currently under consideration, with the objective of providing this information to policy-makers. METHODS: We analyzed three global policy options: continued use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV); OPV cessation with optional inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV); and OPV cessation with universal IPV. Assumptions were made on future immunization policy decisions taken by low-, middle-, and high-income countries. We estimated the financial costs of each immunization policy, the number of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) cases, and the global costs of maintaining an outbreak response capacity. The financial costs of each immunization policy were based on estimates of the cost of polio vaccine, its administration, and coverage projections. The costs of maintaining outbreak response capacity include those associated with developing and maintaining a vaccine stockpile in addition to laboratory and epidemiological surveillance. We used the period 2005-20 as the time frame for the analysis. FINDINGS: OPV cessation with optional IPV, at an estimated cost of US$ 20,412 million, was the least costly option. The global cost of outbreak response capacity was estimated to be US$ 1320 million during 2005-20. The policy option continued use of OPV resulted in the highest number of VAPP cases. OPV cessation with universal IPV had the highest financial costs, but it also had the least number of VAPP cases. Sensitivity analyses showed that global costs were sensitive to assumptions on the cost of the vaccine. Analysis also showed that if the price per dose of IPV was reduced to US$ 0.50 for low-income countries, the cost of OPV cessation with universal IPV would be the same as the costs of continued use of OPV. CONCLUSION: Projections on the vaccine price per dose and future coverage rates were major drivers of the global costs of post

  5. Integrative Biological Analysis For Neuropsychopharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Mark R; Kroes, Roger A; Moskal, Joseph R; Conrad, Charles A; Priebe, Waldemar; Laezza, Fernanda; Meyer-Baese, Anke; Nilsson, Carol L

    2014-01-01

    Although advances in psychotherapy have been made in recent years, drug discovery for brain diseases such as schizophrenia and mood disorders has stagnated. The need for new biomarkers and validated therapeutic targets in the field of neuropsychopharmacology is widely unmet. The brain is the most complex part of human anatomy from the standpoint of number and types of cells, their interconnections, and circuitry. To better meet patient needs, improved methods to approach brain studies by understanding functional networks that interact with the genome are being developed. The integrated biological approaches—proteomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and glycomics—have a strong record in several areas of biomedicine, including neurochemistry and neuro-oncology. Published applications of an integrated approach to projects of neurological, psychiatric, and pharmacological natures are still few but show promise to provide deep biological knowledge derived from cells, animal models, and clinical materials. Future studes that yield insights based on integrated analyses promise to deliver new therapeutic targets and biomarkers for personalized medicine. PMID:23800968

  6. A response time cost when different representations of an attended object are integrated.

    PubMed

    Hon, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    When selected, attention is thought to spread across the whole of an object. Such spreading is thought to occur via the integration and mutual enhancement of the different mental representations of said object. Neurophysiological studies have demonstrated that such integration is not instantaneous with selection, but rather occurs after some delay. It is currently unclear whether the time needed for integration to be established has a behavioural consequence. Here, it was found that trials that required integration were responded to more slowly than those that did not, even though correct responses in both could be determined by the same information. These data thus suggest that the time taken for integration between representations to be established has a consequence on behaviour, one that can be observed as a response time cost. Furthermore, these findings enlighten the time-course of integration vis-a-vis the processing of information at different levels of the processing stream.

  7. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  8. Motion estimation by integrated low cost system (vision and MEMS) for positioning of a scooter "Vespa"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, A.; Milan, N.; Pirotti, F.; Vettore, A.

    2011-12-01

    In the automotive sector, especially in these last decade, a growing number of investigations have taken into account electronic systems to check and correct the behavior of drivers, increasing road safety. The possibility to identify with high accuracy the vehicle position in a mapping reference frame for driving directions and best-route analysis is also another topic which attracts lot of interest from the research and development sector. To reach the objective of accurate vehicle positioning and integrate response events, it is necessary to estimate time by time the position, orientation and velocity of the system. To this aim low cost GPS and MEMS (sensors can be used. In comparison to a four wheel vehicle, the dynamics of a two wheel vehicle (e.g. a scooter) feature a higher level of complexity. Indeed more degrees of freedom must be taken into account to describe the motion of the latter. For example a scooter can twist sideways, thus generating a roll angle. A slight pitch angle has to be considered as well, since wheel suspensions have a higher degree of motion with respect to four wheel vehicles. In this paper we present a method for the accurate reconstruction of the trajectory of a motorcycle ("Vespa" scooter), which can be used as alternative to the "classical" approach based on the integration of GPS and INS sensors. Position and orientation of the scooter are derived from MEMS data and images acquired by on-board digital camera. A Bayesian filter provides the means for integrating the data from MEMS-based orientation sensor and the GPS receiver.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of integrated care for elderly depressed patients in the PRISM-E study.

    PubMed

    Wiley-Exley, Elizabeth; Domino, Marisa Elena; Maxwell, James; Levkoff, Sue Ellen

    2009-12-01

    One proposed strategy to improve outcomes associated with depression and other behavioral health disorders in primary care settings is to strengthen collaboration between primary care and specialty mental health care through integrated care (IC). We compare the cost-effectiveness of IC in primary care to enhanced specialty referral (ESR) for elders with behavioral health disorders from the Primary Care Research in Substance Abuse and Mental Health study, which was a randomized trial conducted between 2000 and 2002, using a societal perspective. The IC model had a behavioral health professional co-located in the primary care setting, and the primary care provider continued involvement in the mental health/substance abuse care of the patient. The comparison model, enhanced specialty referral (ESR), required referral to a behavioral health provider outside the primary care setting, and the behavioral health provider had primary responsibility for the mental health/substance abuse needs of the patient. Costs and clinical outcomes for 840 elders with depression were analyzed using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, the net benefits framework, cost-effectiveness planes, and acceptability curves. Outcomes were measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and converted to depression-free days and Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALY). A variation on depression free days was proposed as an improvement on current methods. Separate analyses were conducted for Veteran's Affairs (n=365; n=175 in IC and n=190 in ESR) and non-Veteran's Affairs (n=475; n=242 in IC and n=233 in ESR) settings. ESR participants in the non-VA sample exhibited lower average CES-D scores (i.e., an improvement in depressive symptoms) than did IC participants (beta = 2.8, p < 0.01), no such difference was noted in the VA sample (p > 0.05). Mean costs were $D6,338 for VA IC participants; $7,007 for VA ESR participants; $3,657 for non-VA IC participants; and $3,673 for non

  10. Cost-benefit analysis in decision making for diagnostic radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Hilberg, A.W.

    1982-02-01

    This paper reviews certain current concepts and methods relating to benefit-risk analysis, in terms of economic costs and raidation risks to health, in relation to the benefits from diagnostic radiology in clinical medicine.

  11. Cost analysis of objective resident cataract surgery assessments.

    PubMed

    Nandigam, Kiran; Soh, Jonathan; Gensheimer, William G; Ghazi, Ahmed; Khalifa, Yousuf M

    2015-05-01

    To compare 8 ophthalmology resident surgical training tools to determine which is most cost effective. University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA. Retrospective evaluation of technology. A cost-analysis model was created to compile all relevant costs in running each tool in a medium-sized ophthalmology program. Quantitative cost estimates were obtained based on cost of tools, cost of time in evaluations, and supply and maintenance costs. For wet laboratory simulation, Eyesi was the least expensive cataract surgery simulation method; however, it is only capable of evaluating simulated cataract surgery rehearsal and requires supplementation with other evaluative methods for operating room performance and for noncataract wet lab training and evaluation. The most expensive training tool was the Eye Surgical Skills Assessment Test (ESSAT). The 2 most affordable methods for resident evaluation in operating room performance were the Objective Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (OASIS) and Global Rating Assessment of Skills in Intraocular Surgery (GRASIS). Cost-based analysis of ophthalmology resident surgical training tools are needed so residency programs can implement tools that are valid, reliable, objective, and cost effective. There is no perfect training system at this time. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Uncertainty Assessment in Life Cycle Cost Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    of this report) Unclassified 15. DECL ASSI FICATION/ DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 1S. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) Approved for public release...data base oriented. 7. Risk Analysis and Decision Models in the Planning of Housing Projects, by Jorge A. Machado , Report No. R72-44, Structures...1979). Lewis, L., "Range Estimating -- Managing Uncertainty," AACE Bulletin, Vol. 19, No. 6, Nov/Dec 1977. Machado , J. A., "Risk Analysis and Decision

  13. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmuson, D. M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems.

  14. A cost-effectiveness analysis of interactive paediatric telecardiology.

    PubMed

    Sicotte, Claude; Lehoux, Pascale; Van Doesburg, Nicolaas; Cardinal, Godefroy; Leblanc, Yves

    2004-01-01

    We analysed the cost-effectiveness of a teleconsultation service after five years of operation. The service provides diagnostic consultation at a distance for children suffering from cardiac pathologies. A retrospective study was performed with all 78 infants who had received a paediatric cardiology teleconsultation over a four-year period from January 1998. The cost-effectiveness of telecardiology was compared with that of the conventional means of providing services. Teleconsultation proved to be an effective and reliable method of enhancing access to tertiary care. The number of patient journeys (both emergency transfers and semi-urgent or elective visits to the tertiary care centre) was reduced by 42%. However, the cost analysis demonstrated that teleconsultation did not result in overall cost savings: the total cost of telecardiology was C dollars 272,327 and the total cost of conventional care would have been C dollars 157,212. There were direct savings for patients but not for the health-care system, because of the high cost of the equipment and telecommunication fees. Telemedicine therefore represented a supplementary cost of C dollars 1500 per patient. In summary, telemedicine added to cost but increased effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of teleconsultation was estimated to C dollars 3488 per patient journey avoided.

  15. Backup Power Cost of Ownership Analysis and Incumbent Technology Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, J.; Saur, G.; Sprik, S.; Ainscough, C.

    2014-09-01

    This cost of ownership analysis identifies the factors impacting the value proposition for fuel cell backup power and presents the estimated annualized cost of ownership for fuel cell backup power systems compared with the incumbent technologies of battery and diesel generator systems. The analysis compares three different backup power technologies (diesel, battery, and fuel cell) operating in similar circumstances in four run time scenarios (8, 52, 72, and 176 hours).

  16. Cost Benefit and Capability Analysis of Sea-Base Connectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    resulting in the value seen in Table 9. 64 Dana S. Partos and James S. Kurtz, Center for Naval...Analyses of Alternatives,” Center for Naval Analysis (CNA), CRM D0005604.A4/1Rev, August 2002 . 66 Partos , et al., “Cost-Benefit Methodology.” 67 Navy...accessed April 2009). Partos , Dana S. and Kurtz, James S., Center for Naval Analysis, “Cost-Benefit Methodology for Seabasing and Expeditionary

  17. Space system operations and support cost analysis using Markov chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Resit; Dean, Edwin B.; Moore, Arlene A.; Fairbairn, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of Markov chain process in probabilistic life cycle cost analysis and suggests further uses of the process as a design aid tool. A methodology is developed for estimating operations and support cost and expected life for reusable space transportation systems. Application of the methodology is demonstrated for the case of a hypothetical space transportation vehicle. A sensitivity analysis is carried out to explore the effects of uncertainty in key model inputs.

  18. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  19. Dynamic integrated cost and engineering (DICE) model and its applicability to ATP systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMont, Douglas V.; Benjamin, Brian J.

    1995-05-01

    As the system engineering process flows down constellation coverage specifications to the Spacecraft level in terms of agility requirements it's critical that the relationships between manueverability and cost are clearly understood. The probability of optimizing the cost of typical ATP system would be greatly enhanced if a realistic integrated cost/engineering model were available during the initial phase of a program (e.g. Conceptual Design Phase). Most Cost Engineering work performed to date has been done by Cost and/or Systems Engineers which has typically lead to models with a cost emphasis. This work tends to be parametric in nature and hence the models have has little 'buy-in' from the design engineering side of the house. A better approach is to take existing credible engineering models for the key Spacecraft subsystems (Attitude Control, Thermal, Power, etc.) and to append these models to include the appropriate hardware databases. This would allow the models to output cost, power and weight, besides analytical engineering parameters like torque, momentum, etc.. For sound engineering reasons some, but not all, subsystem models should be time-domain based (dynamic) simulations--a clear diverges from the typical Systems Engineering approach. A modular spacecraft model like the one created at Lockheed for the FEWS/ALARM programs provides an ideal basis for developing a Dynamic Integrated Cost & Engineering (DICE) Model. This paper provides a 'snapshot' of the initial development of Attitude Determination and Control portion of the DICE Model. These subsystems were modeled first since maneuverability has such a large cost impact on them. A multiple body dynamics package, High TEC1, provides the core of this DICE module. This package has been integrated into several simulation packages as described in previous works. Having access to this detailed 3-axis simulation model allows one to properly size spacecraft attitude systems (especially sensors and actuators

  20. Low-Cost Navigation Sensors and Integration Technology (Capteurs de navigation a faible cout et technologie d’integration)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    auditeurs soient informés sur les pratiques actuelles mais aussi sur les capteurs et leurs applications . Des orientations technologiques ont été...Mar 2010 Low-Cost Navigation Sensors and Integration Technology ( Capteurs de navigation à faible coût et technologie d’intégration) Research and...to-date with current practices, as well as, information on sensors, algorithms, and applications . Applications were described for navigating in

  1. An empirical analysis of IOPCF oil spill cost data.

    PubMed

    Kontovas, Christos A; Psaraftis, Harilaos N; Ventikos, Nikolaos P

    2010-09-01

    This paper reports on recent analysis of oil spill cost data assembled by the International Oil Pollution Compensation Fund (IOPCF). Regression analyses of clean-up costs and total costs have been carried out, after taking care to convert to current prices and remove outliers. In the first place, the results of this analysis have been useful in the context of the ongoing discussion within the International Maritime Organization (IMO) on environmental risk evaluation criteria. Furthermore, these results can be useful in estimating the benefit of regulations that deal with the protection of marine environment and oil pollution prevention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost/Benefit Analysis of Marine Corps Range Scheduling Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    commer- cial vendors and through a bulk buy for the entire six-site range installation requirements. RFMSS costs are shown in Table 2. The RFMSS...Navy Personnel Research and Development Center San Diego, California 92152-6800 TN-91-14 May 1991 AD-A236 647 Cost /Benefit Analysis of Marine Corps...liiiii III1I1I111111E i N NPRDC-TN-91-14 May 1991 Cost /Benefit Analysis of Marine Corps Range Scheduling Systems Gerald L. Jenkins George M. Anastasi

  3. Passive versus active mitigation cost analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Parazin, R.J.; Galbraith, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The scope of this task is to assess the impact of mitigation alternatives for Tanks 241-SY-101 and 241-SY-103 on the Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. This assessment and other related tasks are part of an Action Plan Path Forward prepared by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Life Extension and Transition Program. Task 3.7 of the Action Plan for Project W-236A MWTF analyzed the comparative cost/risk of two hydrogen gas mitigation alternatives (active versus passive) to recommend the most appropriate course of action to resolve the hydrogen gas safety issue. The qualitative success of active mitigation has been demonstrated through Tank 241-SY-101 testing. Passive mitigation has not been demonstrated but will be validated by laboratory test work performed under Task 3.1 of the Action Plan. It is assumed for this assessment that the uncertainties associated with the performance of either alternative is comparable. Determining alternative specific performance measures beyond those noted are not in the scope of this effort.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  5. Modeling the Cost-Effectiveness of the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) System: Meningitis in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somda, Zana C.; Perry, Helen N.; Messonnier, Nancy R.; Djingarey, Mamadou H.; Ki, Salimata Ouedraogo; Meltzer, Martin I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective surveillance for infectious diseases is an essential component of public health. There are few studies estimating the cost-effectiveness of starting or improving disease surveillance. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in Africa. Methodology/Principal Findings To assess the impact of the IDSR in Africa, we used pre- and post- IDSR meningococcal meningitis surveillance data from Burkina Faso (1996–2002 and 2003–2007). IDSR implementation was correlated with a median reduction of 2 weeks to peak of outbreaks (25th percentile 1 week; 75th percentile 4 weeks). IDSR was also correlated with a reduction of 43 meningitis cases per 100,000 (25th–40: 75th-129). Assuming the correlations between reductions in time to peak of outbreaks and cases are related, the cost-effectiveness of IDSR was $23 per case averted (25th-$30; 75th - cost saving), and $98 per meningitis-related death averted (25th-$140: 75th – cost saving). Conclusions/Significance We cannot absolutely claim that the measured differences were due to IDSR. We believe, however, that it is reasonable to claim that IDSR can improve the cost-effectiveness of public health surveillance. PMID:20927386

  6. Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) for estimating costs of outpatient treatment services.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Patrick M; Broome, Kirk M; Beaston-Blaakman, Aaron; Knight, Danica K; Horgan, Constance M; Shepard, Donald S

    2009-02-01

    A Microsoft Excel-based workbook designed for research analysts to use in a national study was retooled for treatment program directors and financial officers to allocate, analyze, and estimate outpatient treatment costs in the U.S. This instrument can also be used as a planning and management tool to optimize resources and forecast the impact of future changes in staffing, client flow, program design, and other resources. The Treatment Cost Analysis Tool (TCAT) automatically provides feedback and generates summaries and charts using comparative data from a national sample of non-methadone outpatient providers. TCAT is being used by program staff to capture and allocate both economic and accounting costs, and outpatient service costs are reported for a sample of 70 programs. Costs for an episode of treatment in regular, intensive, and mixed types of outpatient treatment were $882, $1310, and $1381 respectively (based on 20% trimmed means and 2006 dollars). An hour of counseling cost $64 in regular, $85 intensive, and $86 mixed. Group counseling hourly costs per client were $8, $11, and $10 respectively for regular, intensive, and mixed. Future directions include use of a web-based interview version, much like some of the commercially available tax preparation software tools, and extensions for use in other modalities of treatment.

  7. Sensor Technology Integration for Efficient and Cost-Effective D&D

    SciTech Connect

    Varona, J. M.; Lagos, L. E.

    2002-02-25

    The deactivation and decommissioning of radiologically contaminated facilities require the use of a multitude of technologies to perform characterization, decontamination, dismantlement, and waste management. Current baseline technologies do not provide adequate tools to perform this work in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of such tasks that can be modified to enhance the D&D work include: floor and wall decontamination, pipe decontamination, and surveillance and monitoring. FIU-HCET's Technology Development, Integration and Deployment (TDID) group aims to enhance the D&D process by integrating sensor technology to existing decontamination and remote surveillance tools. These integrated systems have been demonstrated throughout the DOE Complex and commercial nuclear facilities undergoing decommissioning. Finding new ways of integrating technologies utilized in the decommissioning and surveillance & monitoring process has been a goal of this group during the past several years. Current and previous integration projects include: Mobile Integrated Piping Decontamination and Characterization System, On-Line Decontamination and Characterization System, In-Situ Pipe Decontamination and Unplugging System, Remote Hazardous Environment Surveyor (RHES), and the Online Handheld grit blasting decontamination system As a result of integrating sensors with D&D tools, the resulting technologies have removed the downtime currently found in baseline processes by allowing operators and project managers to have real-time contamination data during the specified D&D process. This added component allows project managers to verify that full decontamination and surveillance has been conducted. Through successful demonstration and deployments of the TDID-developed technologies, FIU-HCET has provided tools that can impact the cost, schedule and health and safety of D&D operations in a positive way, leading to shorter downtimes and significant cost-savings. This paper will

  8. An Integrated Analysis-Test Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of a project to develop a computer program which integrates data analysis and test procedures. The software application aims to propose a new perspective to traditional mechanical analysis and test procedures and to integrate pre-test and test analysis calculation methods. The program also should also be able to be used in portable devices and allows for the 'quasi-real time' analysis of data sent by electronic means. Test methods reviewed during this presentation include: shaker swept sine and random tests, shaker shock mode tests, shaker base driven model survey tests and acoustic tests.

  9. Information Acquisition, Analysis and Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-03

    of sensing and processing, theory, applications, signal processing, image and video processing, machine learning, technology transfer. 16. SECURITY...Sapiro, and S. Sastry, “Dissimilarity-based sparse subset selection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence, 2015, to appear. 4. A...IEEE Trans. Pattern Analysis Machine Intelligence 38:1, pp. 60-73, 2015. 4 DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 10. P

  10. Life-cycle cost analysis for radioactive waste remediation alternatives. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.P.; Toland, R.J.; Buitrago, D.Y.

    1995-03-01

    This research has two primary objectives. The first is to develop a generic, interactive, spreadsheet-based life-cycle cost model that uses net present value and risk analysis techniques for cost comparison. The second is to apply the model specifically to the vitrification and cementation methods of waste remediation. By using spreadsheet analysis and graphics capabilities, the model will provide direct and objective comparisons of remediation alternatives. Since vitrification is a new technology, the plant design and operations are conceptual. Therefore, computer simulation and engineering judgement are integral to the vitrification LCC estimate. (AN) (Abstract from report page 2, scope and objectives).

  11. Life-cycle preferences over consumption and health: when is cost-effectiveness analysis equivalent to cost-benefit analysis?

    PubMed

    Bleichrodt, H; Quiggin, J

    1999-12-01

    This paper studies life-cycle preferences over consumption and health status. We show that cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis if the lifetime utility function is additive over time, multiplicative in the utility of consumption and the utility of health status, and if the utility of consumption is constant over time. We derive the conditions under which the lifetime utility function takes this form, both under expected utility theory and under rank-dependent utility theory, which is currently the most important nonexpected utility theory. If cost-effectiveness analysis is consistent with cost-benefit analysis, it is possible to derive tractable expressions for the willingness to pay for quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The willingness to pay for QALYs depends on wealth, remaining life expectancy, health status, and the possibilities for intertemporal substitution of consumption.

  12. Whatever the cost? Information integration in memory-based inferences depends on cognitive effort.

    PubMed

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Michalkiewicz, Martha; Castela, Marta; Pohl, Rüdiger F; Erdfelder, Edgar

    2015-05-01

    One of the most prominent models of probabilistic inferences from memory is the simple recognition heuristic (RH). The RH theory assumes that judgments are based on recognition in isolation, such that other information is ignored. However, some prior research has shown that available knowledge is not generally ignored. In line with the notion of adaptive strategy selection--and, thus, a trade-off between accuracy and effort--we hypothesized that information integration crucially depends on how easily accessible information beyond recognition is, how much confidence decision makers have in this information, and how (cognitively) costly it is to acquire it. In three experiments, we thus manipulated (a) the availability of information beyond recognition, (b) the subjective usefulness of this information, and (c) the cognitive costs associated with acquiring this information. In line with the predictions, we found that RH use decreased substantially, the more easily and confidently information beyond recognition could be integrated, and increased substantially with increasing cognitive costs.

  13. On the relationship between hurricane cost and the integrated wind profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Toumi, R.

    2016-11-01

    It is challenging to identify metrics that best capture hurricane destructive potential and costs. Although it has been found that the sea surface temperature and vertical wind shear can both make considerable changes to the hurricane destructive potential metrics, it is still unknown which plays a more important role. Here we present a new method to reconstruct the historical wind structure of hurricanes that allows us, for the first time, to calculate the correlation of damage with integrated power dissipation and integrated kinetic energy of all hurricanes at landfall since 1988. We find that those metrics, which include the horizontal wind structure, rather than just maximum intensity, are much better correlated with the hurricane cost. The vertical wind shear over the main development region of hurricanes plays a more dominant role than the sea surface temperature in controlling these metrics and therefore also ultimately the cost of hurricanes.

  14. Cost analysis of pediatric robot-assisted and laparoscopic pyeloplasty.

    PubMed

    Casella, Daniel P; Fox, Janelle A; Schneck, Francis X; Cannon, Glenn M; Ost, Michael C

    2013-03-01

    An increasing percentage of pediatric pyeloplasties are being performed with assistance of the da Vinci® Surgical System. A review of the recent literature shows decreased operative times and length of hospital stays when robotic procedures are performed, although there are few published data comparing the cost of pediatric robotic and pure laparoscopic pyeloplasty. We reviewed a representative sample of pyeloplasties performed at our institution and performed a cost analysis. We retrospectively identified 23 robot-assisted and 23 laparoscopic pyeloplasties performed at our institution between August 2008 and April 2012. Total cost was calculated from direct and indirect costs provided by our billing department. Robotic procedures were shorter than pure laparoscopic procedures (200 vs 265 minutes, p <0.001) but there was no significant difference in the total cost of the 2 procedures ($15,337 vs $16,067, p <0.46). When compared to laparoscopic cases, subgroup analysis demonstrated decreased operative times (140 vs 265 minutes, p <0.00001) and total cost ($11,949 vs $16,067, p <0.0001) in robotic cases where stents were placed in an antegrade fashion. With widespread use the cost of robotic instrumentation may decrease, and experience may further shorten operative times. However, it currently remains to be seen whether robotic technology will become a cost-effective replacement for pure laparoscopy in the management of pediatric ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Integral data analysis for resonance parameters determination

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.

    1997-09-01

    Neutron time-of-flight experiments have long been used to determine resonance parameters. Those resonance parameters have then been used in calculations of integral quantities such as Maxwellian averages or resonance integrals, and results of those calculations in turn have been used as a criterion for acceptability of the resonance analysis. However, the calculations were inadequate because covariances on the parameter values were not included in the calculations. In this report an effort to correct for that deficiency is documented: (1) the R-matrix analysis code SAMMY has been modified to include integral quantities of importance, (2) directly within the resonance parameter analysis, and (3) to determine the best fit to both differential (microscopic) and integral (macroscopic) data simultaneously. This modification was implemented because it is expected to have an impact on the intermediate-energy range that is important for criticality safety applications.

  16. Analysing the Costs of Integrated Care: A Case on Model Selection for Chronic Care Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Inma; Ibern, Pere; Coderch, Jordi; Inoriza, José María

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to investigate whether the algorithm proposed by Manning and Mullahy, a consolidated health economics procedure, can also be used to estimate individual costs for different groups of healthcare services in the context of integrated care. Methods: A cross-sectional study focused on the population of the Baix Empordà (Catalonia-Spain) for the year 2012 (N = 92,498 individuals). A set of individual cost models as a function of sex, age and morbidity burden were adjusted and individual healthcare costs were calculated using a retrospective full-costing system. The individual morbidity burden was inferred using the Clinical Risk Groups (CRG) patient classification system. Results: Depending on the characteristics of the data, and according to the algorithm criteria, the choice of model was a linear model on the log of costs or a generalized linear model with a log link. We checked for goodness of fit, accuracy, linear structure and heteroscedasticity for the models obtained. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm identified a set of suitable cost models for the distinct groups of services integrated care entails. The individual morbidity burden was found to be indispensable when allocating appropriate resources to targeted individuals. PMID:28316542

  17. Cost analysis of paediatric tuberculosis treatment in Japan.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M; Takahashi, O; Takamatsu, I; Sekimoto, M; Hira, K; Fukui, T

    2003-03-01

    To estimate the cost of treating a tuberculosis (TB) case and to analyse TB-related medical service utilisation, a cost-of-illness study was conducted for all patients with a primary diagnosis of TB admitted to a public hospital in Japan. Retrospective analysis by abstracting in- and out-patient medical records of 57 paediatric patients diagnosed with TB during 1993-1998 at a public hospital in Osaka prefecture. Costs were estimated based on third party's payer perspectives according to the service utilisation pattern. In addition to cost data, sociodemographic information and service utilisation pattern were also extracted from the medical records. Cost of preventing a case of TB was abstracted from the published literature. The average cost of treatment was 8384 US dollars (95%CI 5667-11,099), while the average length of hospitalisation was 63 days (95%CI 43-84). Based on 20-80% vaccine efficacy, the cost of preventing a case of TB was 35,950-175,862 US dollars. In univariate analysis, site of TB (P = 0.04) was significantly associated with TB treatment cost, while case-finding method (contact tracing, symptoms, etc.) was associated with length of hospitalisation (P = 0.03). Multivariate regression analysis, however, showed none of the factors to be significant predictors of TB treatment cost and length of hospital stay. The cost of treating a case of paediatric TB is much lower than that of preventing one. Japan's universal BCG vaccination policy should be re-examined in the light of economic, social and political issues.

  18. Cost comparison analysis of open versus laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rutz, Daniel R; Squires, Malcolm H; Maithel, Shishir K; Sarmiento, Juan M; Etra, Joanna W; Perez, Sebastian D; Knechtle, William; Cardona, Kenneth; Russell, Maria C; Staley, Charles A; Sweeney, John F; Kooby, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background In comparison with open distal pancreatectomy (ODP), laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (LDP) is associated with fewer complications and shorter hospital stays, but comparative cost data for the two approaches are limited. Methods Records of all distal pancreatectomies carried out from January 2009 to June 2013 were reviewed and stratified according to operative complexity. Patient factors and outcomes were recorded. Total variable costs (TVCs) were tabulated for each patient, and stratified by category [e.g. ‘floor’, ‘operating room’ (OR), ‘radiology’]. Costs for index admissions and 30-day readmissions were compared between LDP and ODP groups. Results Of 153 procedures, 115 (70 LDP, 45 ODP) were selected for analysis. The TVC of the index admission was US$3420 less per patient in the LDP group (US$10 480 versus US$13 900; P = 0.06). Although OR costs were significantly greater in the LDP cohort (US$5756 versus US$4900; P = 0.02), the shorter average hospitalization in the LDP group (5.2 days versus 7.7 days; P = 0.01) resulted in a lower overall cost. The total cost of index hospitalization combined with readmission was significantly lower in the LDP cohort (US$11 106 versus US$14 803; P = 0.05). Conclusions In appropriately selected patients, LDP is more cost-effective than ODP. The increased OR cost associated with LDP is offset by the shorter hospitalization. These data clarify targets for further cost reductions. PMID:24931314

  19. Cost-effective monolithic and hybrid integration for metro and long-haul applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Rick; Carter, Andy; Betty, Ian; Simmons, Timothy

    2003-12-01

    Today's telecommunication market is characterized by conservative business practices: tight management of costs, low risk investing and incremental upgrades, rather than the more freewheeling approach taken a few years ago. Optimizing optical components for the current and near term market involves substantial integration, but within particular bounds. The emphasis on evolution, in particular, has led to increased standardization of functions and so created extensive opportunities for integrated product offerings. The same standardization that enables commercially successful integrated functions also changes the competitive environment, and changes the emphasis for component development; shifting the innovation priority from raw performance to delivering the most effective integrated products. This paper will discuss, with specific examples from our transmitter, receiver and passives product families, our understanding of the issues based on extensive experience in delivering high end integrated products to the market, and the direction it drives optical components.

  20. NPSS Multidisciplinary Integration and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Edward J.; Rasche, Joseph; Simons, Todd A.; Hoyniak, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this task was to enhance the capability of the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) by expanding its reach into the high-fidelity multidisciplinary analysis area. This task investigated numerical techniques to convert between cold static to hot running geometry of compressor blades. Numerical calculations of blade deformations were iteratively done with high fidelity flow simulations together with high fidelity structural analysis of the compressor blade. The flow simulations were performed with the Advanced Ducted Propfan Analysis (ADPAC) code, while structural analyses were performed with the ANSYS code. High fidelity analyses were used to evaluate the effects on performance of: variations in tip clearance, uncertainty in manufacturing tolerance, variable inlet guide vane scheduling, and the effects of rotational speed on the hot running geometry of the compressor blades.