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Sample records for integrated geophysical strategy

  1. A Proposal for an Integrated Geophysical Strategy to "Follow the Water" on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.; Briggs, G.; Beaty, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    In this abstract we propose an integrated strategy for the geophysical exploration of Mars that we believe represents the fastest, most cost-effective, and technically capable approach to identifying the state and distribution of subsurface water. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. An Integrated Geophysical Strategy to "Follow the Water" on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    The abundance and distribution of subsurface water on Mars has important implications for understanding the geologic, hydrologic, and climatic evolution of the planet; the potential origin and continued survival of life; and the accessibility of a critical in situ resource for sustaining future human explorers. For this reason, a principal goal of the international Mars exploration program is to determine the 3-D distribution and state of subsurface H2O, at a resolution sufficient to permit reaching any desired volatile target by drilling. The highest priority targets include: groundwater (both shallow and deep), massive deposits of segregated ground ice (associated with the frozen discharge of the outlfow channels or the relic of a former ocean), and the polar layered deposits. Unfortunately, our ignorance about the heterogeneous nature and thermal evolution of the Martian crust effectively precludes geomorphic or theoretical attempts to quantitatively assess the current geographic and subsurface vertical distribution of ground ice and groundwater. As a result, any exploration activity (such as drilling) whose success is contingent on the presence of subsurface water, must be preceded by a comprehensive high-resolution geophysical survey capable of assessing whether local reservoirs of water and ice actually exist. Terrestrial experience has demonstrated that the accurate identification of such targets is likely to require the application of multiple geophysical techniques. Here we propose a two-phase approach to "following the water" on Mars - the first phase consisting of global reconnaissance missions dedicated to identifying and prioritizing potential volatile targets, followed by a second phase of high-resolution investigations of the most promising sites. Currently, the two missions that appear best suited for conducting a global survey are: (i). a 2nd-Generation Orbital Radar Sounder (optimized to sound both the shallow- and deep-subsurface). The potential

  3. A Proposal for an Integrated Geophysical Strategy to "Follow the Water" on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.; Briggs, G.; Beaty, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    . For this reason, any exploration activity (such as drilling) whose success is contingent on the presence of subsurface water, must be preceded by a comprehensive high-resolution geophysical survey capable of assessing whether local reservoirs of water and ice actually exist. Terrestrial experience has demonstrated that the accurate identification of such targets is likely to require the application of multiple geophysical techniques. In this abstract we propose an integrated strategy for the geophysical exploration of Mars that we believe represents the fastest, most cost-effect, and technically capable approach to identifying the state and distribution of subsurface water. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. A Proposal for an Integrated Geophysical Strategy to "Follow the Water" on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.; George, J. A.; Stoker, C. R.; Briggs, G.; Beaty, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    . For this reason, any exploration activity (such as drilling) whose success is contingent on the presence of subsurface water, must be preceded by a comprehensive high-resolution geophysical survey capable of assessing whether local reservoirs of water and ice actually exist. Terrestrial experience has demonstrated that the accurate identification of such targets is likely to require the application of multiple geophysical techniques. In this abstract we propose an integrated strategy for the geophysical exploration of Mars that we believe represents the fastest, most cost-effect, and technically capable approach to identifying the state and distribution of subsurface water. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Integrated Approaches On Archaeo-Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucukdemirci, M.; Piro, S.; Zamuner, D.; Ozer, E.

    2015-12-01

    Key words: Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Magnetometry, Geophysical Data Integration, Principal Component Analyse (PCA), Aizanoi Archaeological Site An application of geophysical integration methods which often appealed are divided into two classes as qualitative and quantitative approaches. This work focused on the application of quantitative integration approaches, which involve the mathematical and statistical integration techniques, on the archaeo-geophysical data obtained in Aizanoi Archaeological Site,Turkey. Two geophysical methods were applied as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Magnetometry for archaeological prospection on the selected archaeological site. After basic data processing of each geophysical method, the mathematical approaches of Sums and Products and the statistical approach of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) have been applied for the integration. These integration approches were first tested on synthetic digital images before application to field data. Then the same approaches were applied to 2D magnetic maps and 2D GPR time slices which were obtained on the same unit grids in the archaeological site. Initially, the geophysical data were examined individually by referencing with archeological maps and informations obtained from archaeologists and some important structures as possible walls, roads and relics were determined. The results of all integration approaches provided very important and different details about the anomalies related to archaeological features. By using all those applications, integrated images can provide complementary informations as well about the archaeological relics under the ground. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thanks to Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK), Fellowship for Visiting Scientists Programme for their support, Istanbul University Scientific Research Project Fund, (Project.No:12302) and archaeologist team of Aizanoi Archaeological site for their support

  6. Field Geophysics at SAGE: Strategies for Effective Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Jiracek, G. R.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D. K.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) is a unique program of education and research in geophysical field methods for undergraduate and graduate students from any university and for professionals. The core program is held for 4 weeks each summer in New Mexico and for an additional week in the following academic year in San Diego for U.S. undergraduates supported by the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Since SAGE was initiated in 1983, 730 students have participated in the program. NSF REU funding for SAGE began in 1990 and 319 REU students have completed SAGE through 2011. The primary objectives of SAGE are to teach the major geophysical exploration methods (seismic, gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics); apply these methods to the solution of specific problems (environmental, archaeological, hydrologic, geologic structure and stratigraphy); gain experience in processing, modeling and interpretation of geophysical data; and integrate the geophysical models and interpretations with geology. Additional objectives of SAGE include conducting research on the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico, and providing information on geophysics careers and professional development experiences to SAGE participants. Successful education, field and research strategies that we have implemented over the years include: 1. learn by doing; 2. mix lecture/discussion, field work, data processing and analysis, modeling and interpretation, and presentation of results; 3. a two-tier team approach - method/technique oriented teams and interpretation/integration teams (where each team includes persons representing different methods), provides focus, in-depth study, opportunity for innovation, and promotes teamwork and a multi-disciplinary approach; 4. emphasis on presentations/reports - each team (and all team members) make presentation, each student completes a written report; 5. experiment design discussion - students help design field program and consider

  7. Integrated Research and Capacity Building in Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemann, R. J.; Lerner-Lam, A.; Nyblade, A.

    2008-05-01

    There have been special opportunities over the past several years to improve the ways that newly-constructed geophysical observatories in Southeast Asia and the Americas are linked with educational and civil institutions. Because these opportunities have been only partially fulfilled, there remains the possibility that new networks will not fully address desired goals or even lose operational capabilities. In contrast, the AfricaArray project continues to progress towards goals for linkages among education, research, mitigation and observatories. With support from the Office of International Science and Education at the US National Science Foundation, we convened a workshop to explore lessons learned from the AfricaArray experience and their relevance to network development opportunities in other regions. We found closer parallels than we expected between geophysical infrastructure in the predominantly low income countries of Africa with low risk of geophysical disasters and the mostly middle-income countries of Southeast Asia and the Americas with high risk of geophysical disasters. Except in larger countries of South America, workshop participants reported that there are very few geophysicists engaged in research and observatory operations, that geophysical education programs are nearly non-existent even at the undergraduate university level, and that many monitoring agencies continue to focus on limited missions even though closer relationships researchers could facilitate new services that would make important contributions to disaster mitigation and sustainable operations. Workshop participants began discussing plans for international research collaborations that, unlike many projects of even the recent past, would include long-term capacity building and disaster mitigation among their goals. Specific project objectives would include national or regional hazard mapping, development of indigenous education programs, training to address the needs of local

  8. Integrated Software Framework for Geophysical Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubak, G. D.; Morozov, I. B.

    2005-12-01

    An integrated software framework for geophysical data processing was designed by extending a seismic processing system developed previously. Unlike other systems, the new processing monitor is essentially content-agnostic, supports structured multicomponent seismic data streams, multidimensional data objects, and employs a unique backpropagation execution logic. This results in an unusual flexibility of processing, allowing the system to handle nearly any geophysical data. The core package includes nearly 190 tools for seismic, travel-time, and potential-field processing, interfaces to popular graphics and other packages (such as Seismic Unix and GMT). The system also offers an extensive processing environment, including: 1) a modern and feature-rich Graphical User Interface allowing submission of processing jobs and interaction with them during run time, 2) parallel processing capabilities, including load distribution on Beowulf clusters or local area networks; 3) web service operation allowing submission of complex processing jobs to shared remote servers; 4) automated software update service for code distribution to multiple systems, 5) automated online documentation, and 6) software development utilities. The core package was used in several areas of seismology (shallow, reflection, crustal wide-angle, and teleseismic) and in 3D potential-field processing. As a first example of its application, the new web service component (http://seisweb.usask.ca/SIA/ws.php).was used to build a library of processing examples, ranging from simple (UTM coordinate transformations or calculation of great-arc distances) to more complex (such as synthetic seismic modeling).

  9. Strategies for joint geophysical survey design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakas, Alexis; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the use of multiple geophysical techniques to image the subsurface has become a popular option. Joint inversions of geophysical datasets are based on the assumption that the spatial variations of the different physical subsurface parameters exhibit structural similarities. In this work, we combine the benefits of joint inversions of geophysical datasets with recent innovations in optimized experimental design. These techniques maximize the data information content while minimizing the data acquisition costs. Experimental design has been used in geophysics over the last twenty years, but it has never been attempted to combine various geophysical imaging methods. We combine direct current geoelectrics, magnetotellurics and seismic refraction travel time tomography data to resolve synthetic 1D layered Earth models. An initial model for the subsurface structure can be taken from a priori geological information and an optimal joint geophysical survey can be designed around the initial model. Another typical scenario includes an existing data set from a past survey and a subsequent survey that is planned to optimally complement the existing data. Our results demonstrate that the joint design methodology provides optimized combinations of data sets that include only a few data points. Nevertheless, they allow constraining the subsurface models equally well as data from a densely sampled survey. Furthermore, we examine the dependency of optimized survey design on the a priori model assumptions. Finally, we apply the methodology to geoelectric and seismic field data collected along 2D profiles.

  10. Numerical Inversion of Integral Equations for Medical Imaging and Geophysics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-13

    Equations for Medical Imaging and Geophysics (Unclassified) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Frank Stenger 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT...9r~S NUMERICAL INVERSION OF INTEGRAL EQUATIONS FOR MEDICAL IMAGING AND GEOPHYSICS FINAL REPORT AUTHOR OF REPORT: Frank Stenger December 13, 1988

  11. Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Singhroy V.H.Hansen D.T.Pierce R, R

    2002-01-01

    Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

  12. Integrated Pore-Water and Geophysical Investigations ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue of Technology News and Trends highlights strategies and tools for characterizing or monitoring remediation of sites with contaminated sediment. Addressing these sites often relies upon dynamic workplans that involve more efficient, cost-effective, and practical methods for field work. The overall objective of this task is to provide the Agency with improved state-of-the-science guidance, strategies, and techniques to more accurately and effectively collect environmental samples. Under this umbrella objective, research is being conducted to: (a) reduce/minimize the loss of VOCs during sample collection, handling, and preservation, (b) collect undisturbed surface sediments so that the effects of recent depositional events (e.g., flooding or dredging) can clearly be delineated as to their influence on the contamination concentrations present downstream (or where the sediments are deposited), and (c) to determine an effective method to effectively and efficiently separate asbestos in soils from the rest of the soil matrix while maintaining the integrity (i.e, no fiber size reduction) of the asbestos fibers.

  13. Integrating Geophysics, Geology, and Hydrology for Enhanced Hydrogeological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auken, E.

    2012-12-01

    Geophysical measurements are important for providing information on the geological structure to hydrological models. Regional scale surveys, where several watersheds are mapped at the same time using helicopter borne transient electromagnetic, results in a geophysical model with a very high lateral and vertical resolution of the geological layers. However, there is a bottleneck when it comes to integrating the information from the geophysical models into the hydrological model. This transformation is difficult, because there is not a simple relationship between the hydraulic conductivity needed for the hydrological model and the electrical conductivity measured by the geophysics. In 2012 the Danish Council for Strategic Research has funded a large research project focusing on the problem of integrating geophysical models into hydrological models. The project involves a number of Danish research institutions, consulting companies, a water supply company, as well as foreign partners, USGS (USA), TNO (Holland) and CSIRO (Australia). In the project we will: 1. Use statistical methods to describe the spatial correlation between the geophysical and the lithological/hydrological data; 2. Develop semi-automatic or automatic methods for transforming spatially sampled geophysical data into geological- and/or groundwater-model parameter fields; 3. Develop an inversion method for large-scale geophysical surveys in which the model space is concordant with the hydrological model space 4. Demonstrate the benefits of spatially distributed geophysical data for informing and updating groundwater models and increasing the predictive power of management scenarios. 5. Develop a new receiver system for Magnetic Resonance Sounding data and further enhance the resolution capability of data from the SkyTEM system. 6. In test areas in Denmark, Holland, USA and Australia we will use data from existing airborne geophysical data, hydrological and geological data and also collect new airborne

  14. Geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, M. H.; Cassen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Four areas of investigation, each dealing with the measurement of a particular geophysical property, are discussed. These properties are the gravity field, seismicity, magnetism, and heat flow. All are strongly affected by conditions, past or present, in the planetary interior; their measurement is the primary source of information about planetary interiors.

  15. Integrated software framework for processing of geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubak, Glenn; Morozov, Igor

    2006-07-01

    We present an integrated software framework for geophysical data processing, based on an updated seismic data processing program package originally developed at the Program for Crustal Studies at the University of Wyoming. Unlike other systems, this processing monitor supports structured multi-component seismic data streams, multi-dimensional data traces, and employs a unique backpropagation execution logic. This results in an unusual flexibility of processing, allowing the system to handle nearly any geophysical data. A modern and feature-rich graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for the system, allowing editing and submission of processing flows and interaction with running jobs. Multiple jobs can be executed in a distributed multi-processor networks and controlled from the same GUI. Jobs, in their turn, can also be parallelized to take advantage of parallel processing environments, such as local area networks and Beowulf clusters.

  16. Linking Geophysical Networks to International Economic Development Through Integration of Global and National Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner-Lam, A.

    2007-05-01

    there is an attitudinal shift emerging whereby disaster risk management can be "mainstreamed" into the sustainable development programs in many countries. Consequently, it is incumbent to demonstrate that multi-scale geophysical monitoring, comprising integration of global networks with national and sub-national operations, is a foundational component of sustainable development infrastructure. This suggests even greater emphasis on developing dynamic and adaptive multi- hazard risk assessments, encompassing valid estimates of social and physical vulnerabilities; designing multi- scale network integration strategies that consider risk as well as hazard; providing operational and flexible templates for developing national networks in a global context; emphasizing the backbone characteristics of global geophysical monitoring to nations seeking to develop their own monitoring capacity; promoting sustained international research, education and training collaborations coinciding with the development of monitoring capacity; and continuing to promote the free and open exchange of data as a necessary component of sustained intellectual interest in monitoring. A combination of these strategies may counteract the decay of interest in regional geophysical monitoring after a disaster.

  17. Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

    2004-01-01

    Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking.

  18. Integrated Geophysical Analysis at a Legacy Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Mellors, R. J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Sussman, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    We integrate magnetic, electromagnetic (EM), gravity, and seismic data to develop a unified and consistent model of the subsurface at the U20ak site on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada National Nuclear Security Site (NNSS). The 1985 test, conducted in tuff at a depth of approximately 600 m did not collapse to the surface or produce a crater. The purpose of the geophysical measurements is to characterize the subsurface above and around the presumed explosion cavity. The magnetic data are used to locate steel borehole casings and pipes and are correlated with surface observations. The EM data show variation in lithology at depth and clear signatures from borehole casings and surface cables. The gravity survey detects a clear gravity low in the area of the explosion. The seismic data indicates shallow low velocity zone and indications of a deeper low velocity zones. In this study, we conduct 2D inversion of EM data for better characterization of site geology and use a common 3D density model to jointly interpret both the seismic and gravity data along with constraints on lithology boundaries from the EM. The integration of disparate geophysical datasets allows improved understanding of the non-prompt physical signatures of an underground nuclear explosion (UNE). LLNL Release Number: LLNL-ABS-675677. The authors express their gratitude to the National Nuclear Security Administration, Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation Research and Development, and the Comprehensive Inspection Technologies and UNESE working group, a multi-institutional and interdisciplinary group of scientists and engineers. This work was performed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory under award number DE-AC52-06NA25946.

  19. Integration of remote sensing and geophysical techniques for coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoniello, T.; Carone, M. T.; Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Imbrenda, V.; D'Emilio, M.; Guariglia, A.

    2009-04-01

    Coastal areas are of great environmental, economic, social, cultural and recreational relevance; therefore, the implementation of suitable monitoring and protection actions is fundamental for their preservation and for assuring future use of this resource. Such actions have to be based on an ecosystem perspective for preserving coastal environment integrity and functioning and for planning sustainable resource management of both the marine and terrestrial components (ICZM-EU initiative). We implemented an integrated study based on remote sensing and geophysical techniques for monitoring a coastal area located along the Ionian side of Basilicata region (Southern Italy). This area, between the Bradano and Basento river mouths, is mainly characterized by a narrow shore (10-30 m) of fine sandy formations and by a pine forest planted in the first decade of 50's in order to preserve the coast and the inland cultivated areas. Due to drought and fire events and saltwater intrusion phenomena, such a forest is affected by a strong decline with consequent environmental problems. Multispectral satellite data were adopted for evaluating the spatio-temporal features of coastal vegetation and the structure of forested patterns. The increase or decrease in vegetation activity was analyzed from trends estimated on a time series of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps. The fragmentation/connection levels of vegetated patterns was assessed form a set of landscape ecology metrics elaborated at different structure scales (patch, class and landscape) on satellite cover classifications. Information on shoreline changes were derived form a multi-source data set (satellite data, field-GPS surveys and Aerial Laser Scanner acquisitions) by taking also into account tidal effects. Geophysical campaigns were performed for characterizing soil features and limits of salty water infiltrations. Form vertical resistivity soundings (VES), soil resistivity maps at different a deeps (0

  20. Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Kristina; Slater, Lee; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitris; Williams, Kenneth H.

    2015-02-24

    This documents contains the final report for the project "Integrated Geophysical Measurements for Bioremediation Monitoring: Combining Spectral Induced Polarization, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Magnetic Methods" (DE-SC0007049) Executive Summary: Our research aimed to develop borehole measurement techniques capable of monitoring subsurface processes, such as changes in pore geometry and iron/sulfur geochemistry, associated with remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides. Previous work has demonstrated that geophysical method spectral induced polarization (SIP) can be used to assess subsurface contaminant remediation; however, SIP signals can be generated from multiple sources limiting their interpretation value. Integrating multiple geophysical methods, such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic susceptibility (MS), with SIP, could reduce the ambiguity of interpretation that might result from a single method. Our research efforts entails combining measurements from these methods, each sensitive to different mineral forms and/or mineral-fluid interfaces, providing better constraints on changes in subsurface biogeochemical processes and pore geometries significantly improving our understanding of processes impacting contaminant remediation. The Rifle Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site was used as a test location for our measurements. The Rifle IFRC site is located at a former uranium ore-processing facility in Rifle, Colorado. Leachate from spent mill tailings has resulted in residual uranium contamination of both groundwater and sediments within the local aquifer. Studies at the site include an ongoing acetate amendment strategy, native microbial populations are stimulated by introduction of carbon intended to alter redox conditions and immobilize uranium. To test the geophysical methods in the field, NMR and MS logging measurements were collected before, during, and after acetate amendment. Next, laboratory NMR, MS, and SIP measurements

  1. Integrated Geophysical Methods Applied to Geotechnical and Geohazard Engineering: From Qualitative to Quantitative Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Near-Surface is a region of day-to-day human activity on the earth. It is exposed to the natural phenomena which sometimes cause disasters. This presentation covers a broad spectrum of the geotechnical and geohazard ways of mitigating disaster and conserving the natural environment using geophysical methods and emphasizes the contribution of geophysics to such issues. The presentation focusses on the usefulness of geophysical surveys in providing information to mitigate disasters, rather than the theoretical details of a particular technique. Several techniques are introduced at the level of concept and application. Topics include various geohazard and geoenvironmental applications, such as for earthquake disaster mitigation, preventing floods triggered by tremendous rain, for environmental conservation and studying the effect of global warming. Among the geophysical techniques, the active and passive surface wave, refraction and resistivity methods are mainly highlighted. Together with the geophysical techniques, several related issues, such as performance-based design, standardization or regularization, internet access and databases are also discussed. The presentation discusses the application of geophysical methods to engineering investigations from non-uniqueness point of view and introduces the concepts of integrated and quantitative. Most geophysical analyses are essentially non-unique and it is very difficult to obtain unique and reliable engineering solutions from only one geophysical method (Fig. 1). The only practical way to improve the reliability of investigation is the joint use of several geophysical and geotechnical investigation methods, an integrated approach to geophysics. The result of a geophysical method is generally vague, here is a high-velocity layer, it may be bed rock, this low resistivity section may contain clayey soils. Such vague, qualitative and subjective interpretation is not worthwhile on general engineering design works

  2. The MARINER Integrated Seismic and Geophysical Mapping Experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, R. A.; Canales, J.; Sohn, R. A.; Paulatto, M.; Arai, R.; Szitkar, F.

    2013-12-01

    The MARINER (Mid-Atlantic Ridge INtegrated Experiments at Rainbow) seismic and geophysical mapping experiment was designed to examine the relationship between tectonic rifting, heat/melt supply, and oceanic core complex formation at a non-transform offset (NTO) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 36°N, the site of the ultramafic-hosted Rainbow hydrothermal system. We present an overview of the components of the experiment and the various projects stemming from it. The 5-week experiment was carried out aboard the R/V M. G. Langseth in April-May 2013, and consisted of a 3D active-source seismic tomography experiment, 2D multi-channel seismic profiles, an on-going nine month passive micro-seismicity study, dense acoustic mapping of the seafloor (including depth and amplitude information), gravity field mapping, and magnetic field mapping. During the tomography experiment, we deployed 46 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) over a 35 x 80 sq. km area centered on Rainbow. Twenty-six wide-angle seismic lines were carried out using the Langseth's 36-element source, generating ~175,000 seismic records. The MCS experiment, which was also recorded on 20 OBS, consisted of twenty-one densely spaced seismic lines using an 8-km-long hydrophone streamer. Bathymetry, gravity, and magnetic surveys were carried out over a broader, 80x105 sq. km, area centered on Rainbow. Overall, the experiment extends across two segments of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge separated by the Rainbow NTO massif. MARINER multi-beam bathymetry and acoustic imagery provide a broad view of the geologic and geophysical character of the ridge system, emphasizing the strong variability of ridge morphology, tectonics, and lava emplacement. The magnetization map shows a clear central anomaly with normal polarity, flanked by regions of negative polarity, consistent with the Brunhes-Matuyama reversal (~780,000 Ma). Rainbow itself lies in a region of weaker magnetization strength, which could be linked to a decrease in the depth of the

  3. Investigation of subrosion processes using an integrated geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, Marion; Hupfer, Sarah; Kobe, Martin; Schneider-Löbens, Christiane; Wadas, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    Subrosion, i.e., leaching of readily soluble rocks, is usually of natural origin but can be enhanced by anthropogenic interferences. In recent years, public awareness of subrosion processes in terms of the in parts catastrophic implications and incidences increased. Especially the sinkholes in Schmalkalden, Tiefenort and Nordhausen (Germany) are three dramatic examples. They show that the knowledge of those processes and therefore, the predictability of such events is insufficient. The complexity of subrosion processes requires an integrated geophysical approach, which investigates the interlinking of structure, hydraulics, leaching, and mechanics. This contributes to a better understanding of the processes by reliable imaging and characterisation of subrosion structures. At LIAG an inter-sectional group is engaged in geophysical investigation of subrosion processes. The focus is application, enhancement and combination of various geophysical methods both at surface and in boreholes. This includes the monitoring of surface deformation and the application of time-lapse gravity as well as seismic, geoelectric and electromagnetic methods. Petrophysical investigations (with focus on Spectral Induced Polarisation - SIP) are conducted to characterise the processes on pore scale. Numerical studies are applied to advance the understanding of void forming processes and the mechanical consequences in the dynamic interaction. Since March 2014, quarterly campaigns are conducted to monitor changes in gravity acceleration at 15 stations in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen. The standard deviations of the adjusted gravity differences are in the single-digit µGal range. The gravity acceleration changes in the range of 0 to 15 µGal over a timespan of three years and the accompanying levelling locally shows continuous subsidence in the mm/year-range. Sixteen SH-wave and four P-wave reflection seismic profiles together with three VSṔs were surveyed in the city of Bad

  4. Geophysical investigation of subrosion processes - an integrated approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miensopust, Marion; Hupfer, Sarah; Kobe, Martin; Schneider-Löbens, Christiane; Wadas, Sonja; Krawczyk, Charlotte

    2016-04-01

    Subrosion, i.e., leaching of readily soluble rocks mostly due to groundwater, is usually of natural origin but can be enhanced by anthropogenic interferences. In recent years, public awareness of subrosion processes in terms of the in parts catastrophic implications and incidences increased. Especially the sinkholes in Schmalkalden and Tiefenort (Germany) are - based on unforeseen collapse events and associated damage in 2010 - two dramatic examples. They illustrate that to date the knowledge of those processes and therefore the predictability of such events is insufficient. The complexity of the processes requires an integrated geophysical approach which investigates the interlinking of structure, hydraulics, solution processes, and mechanics. This finally contributes to a better understanding of the processes by reliable imaging and characterisation of subrosion structures. At LIAG an inter-sectional group is engaged in geophysical investigation of subrosion processes. The focus is application, enhancement and combination of various geophysical methods both at surface and in boreholes. This includes monitoring of (surface) deformation and variation of gravity as well as seismic, geoelectric and electromagnetic methods. Petrophysical investigations (with focus on spectral induced polarisation - SIP) are conducted to characterise the processes on pore scale. Numerical studies are applied to advance the understanding of void forming processes and the mechanical consequences in the dynamic interaction. Since March 2014, quarterly campaigns are conducted to monitor time-lapse gravity changes at 12 stations in the urban area of Bad Frankenhausen. The standard deviations of the gravity differences between the survey points are low and the accompanying levelling locally shows continuous subsidence in the mm/year-range. Eight shear-wave reflection seismic profiles were surveyed in Bad Frankenhausen using a landstreamer and an electro-dynamic vibrator. This method is

  5. Integrated Geophysical Studies in the East-Indian Geothermal Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, V. C.; Sharma, S. P.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated geophysical surveys using vertical electrical sounding (VES), very low frequency (VLF) EM, radiation counting, total magnetic field and self-potential (SP) measurements are carried out to characterize the geothermal area around a hot spring in the Nayagarh district, Orissa, India that lies in the East Indian geothermal province. The study was performed to delineate the fracture pattern, contaminated groundwater movement and possible heating source. VES interpretations suggest a three- to four-layer structure in the area. Resistivity survey near the hot spring suggests that weathered and fractured formations constitute the main aquifer system and extend to 60 m depth. Current flow measured at various electrode separations normalized by the applied voltage suggests that fractures extend to a greater depth. Detailed VLF study shows that fractures extend beyond 70 m depth. VLF anomaly has also very good correlation with the total magnetic field measured along the same profiles. Study results suggest that a gridded pattern of VLF survey could map the underground conductive fracture zones that can identify the movement of contaminated groundwater flow. Therefore, precautionary measures can be taken to check further contamination by delineating subsurface conducting structures. Self potential (SP) measured over the hot spring does not show a large anomaly in favor of the presence of a sulphide mineral body. A small positive (5 15mV) SP anomaly is measured which may be streaming potential due to subsurface fluid flow. A high radiation is measured about four kilometers from the hot spring, suggesting possible radiogenic heating. However, the exact nature of the heating source and its depth is not known in the area. Deep resistivity followed by a magneto-telluric survey could reveal the deeper structures.

  6. GEOFIM: A WebGIS application for integrated geophysical modeling in active volcanic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Sicali, Antonino; Greco, Filippo; Negro, Ciro Del

    2014-09-01

    We present GEOFIM (GEOphysical Forward/Inverse Modeling), a WebGIS application for integrated interpretation of multiparametric geophysical observations. It has been developed to jointly interpret scalar and vector magnetic data, gravity data, as well as geodetic data, from GPS, tiltmeter, strainmeter and InSAR observations, recorded in active volcanic areas. GEOFIM gathers a library of analytical solutions, which provides an estimate of the geophysical signals due to perturbations in the thermal and stress state of the volcano. The integrated geophysical modeling can be performed by a simple trial and errors forward modeling or by an inversion procedure based on NSGA-II algorithm. The software capability was tested on the multiparametric data set recorded during the 2008-2009 Etna flank eruption onset. The results encourage to exploit this approach to develop a near-real-time warning system for a quantitative model-based assessment of geophysical observations in areas where different parameters are routinely monitored.

  7. An Integral, Multidisciplinary and Global Geophysical Field Experience for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, O.; Carrillo, D. J.; Pérez-Campos, X.

    2007-05-01

    The udergraduate program of Geophysical Engineering at the School of Engineering, of the Univesidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), went through an update process that concluded in 2006. As part of the program, the student takes three geophysical prospecting courses (gravity and magnetics, electric, electromagnetics, and seismic methods). The older program required a three-week field experience for each course in order to gradute. The new program considers only one extended field experience. This work stresses the importance of international academic exchange, where undergraduate students could participate, such as the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE), and interaction with research programs, such as the MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE). Also, we propose a scheeme for this activity based on those examples; both of them have in common real geophysical problems, from which students could benefit. Our proposal covers academic and logistic aspects to be taken into account, enhancing the relevance of interaction between other academic institutions, industry, and UNAM, in order to obtain a broader view of geophysics.

  8. An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, Nicolas O.; Keller, G. Randy

    2007-06-01

    The Kenyan part of the East African rift is among the most studied rift zones in the world. It is characterized by: (1) a classic rift valley, (2) sheer escarpments along the faulted borders of the rift valley, (3) voluminous volcanics that flowed from faults and fissures along the rift, and (4) axial and flank volcanoes where magma flow was most intense. In northern Kenya, the rift faults formed in an area where the lithosphere was weakened and stretched by Cretaceous-Paleogene extension, and in central and southern Kenya, it formed along old zones of weakness at the contact between the Archean Tanzania craton and the Proterozoic Mozambique orogenic belt. Recent geophysical investigations focused on the tectonic evolution of the East African rift and on exploration for geothermal energy in the southern portion of the Kenyan rift provide considerable information and insight on the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. In the north, a variety of other data exist. However, the lack of an integrated regional analysis of these data was the motivation for this study. Our study began with the collection and compilation of gravity data, and then we used the seismic refraction results from the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP), published seismic reflection data, aeromagnetic data, and geologic and drilling data as constraints in the construction of integrated gravity models. These models and gravity anomaly maps provide insight on spatial variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle structure. In addition, they show the distribution of basins and help characterize the distribution of magmatism along the axis of the northern sector of the rift. Our main observations are the following: (1) the region of thinning and anomalous mantle widens northward in agreement with previous studies showing that the crust thins from about 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north; (2) as observed in the south, gravity highs observed along the axis are due to mafic

  9. A new data logger for integrated geophysical monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orazi, Massimo; Peluso, Rosario; Caputo, Antonio; Giudicepietro, Flora; Martini, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    GILDA digital recorder is a data logger developed at Osservatorio Vesuviano (INGV). It provides excellent data quality with low power consumption and low production cost. It is widely used in the multi-parametric monitoring networks of Neapolitan volcanoes and Stromboli volcano. We have improved the characteristics of GILDA recorder to realize a robust user-oriented acquisition system for integrated geophysical monitoring. We have designed and implemented new capabilities concerning the use of the low rate channels to get data of environmental parameters of the station. We also improved the stand-alone version of the data logger. This version can be particularly useful for scientific experiments and to rapidly upgrade permanent monitoring networks. Furthermore, the local storage can be used as back-up for the monitoring systems in continuous transmission, in case of failure of the transmission system. Some firmware changes have been made in order to improve the performance of the instrument. In particular, the low rate acquisition channels were conditioned to acquire internal parameters of the recorder such as the temperature and voltage. A prototype of the new version of the logger is currently installed at Campi Flegrei for a experimental application. Our experiment is aimed at testing the new version of GILDA data logger in multi-board configuration for multiparametric acquisitions. A second objective of the experiment is the comparison of the recorded data with geochemical data acquired by a multiparametric geochemical station to investigate possible correlations between seismic and geochemical parameters. The target site of the experiment is "Bocca Grande" fumarole in Solfatara volcano. By exploiting the modularity of GILDA, for the experiment has been realized an acquisition system based on three dataloggers for a total of 12 available channels. One of GILDA recorders is the Master and the other two are Slaves. The Master is responsible for the initial

  10. Integrated Sampling Strategy (ISS) Guide

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Duncan C. Lutes

    2006-01-01

    What is an Integrated Sampling Strategy? Simply put, it is the strategy that guides how plots are put on the landscape. FIREMON’s Integrated Sampling Strategy assists fire managers as they design their fire monitoring project by answering questions such as: What statistical approach is appropriate for my sample design? How many plots can I afford? How many plots do I...

  11. Integrated geophysical investigations of Main Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saribudak, By Mustafa; Hauwert, Nico M.

    2017-03-01

    Barton Springs is a major discharge site for the Barton Springs Segment of the Edwards Aquifer and is located in Zilker Park, Austin, Texas. Barton Springs actually consists of at least four springs. The Main Barton Springs discharges into the Barton Springs pool from the Barton Springs fault and several outlets along a fault, from a cave, several fissures, and gravel-filled solution cavities on the floor of the pool west of the fault. Surface geophysical surveys [resistivity imaging, induced polarization (IP), self-potential (SP), seismic refraction, and ground penetrating radar (GPR)] were performed across the Barton Springs fault and at the vicinity of the Main Barton Springs in south Zilker Park. The purpose of the surveys was two-fold: 1) locate the precise location of submerged conduits (caves, voids) carrying flow to Main Barton Springs; and 2) characterize the geophysical signatures of the fault crossing Barton Springs pool. Geophysical results indicate significant anomalies to the south of the Barton Springs pool. A majority of these anomalies indicate a fault-like pattern, in front of the south entrance to the swimming pool. In addition, resistivity and SP results, in particular, suggest the presence of a large conduit in the southern part of Barton Springs pool. The groundwater flow-path to the Main Barton Springs could follow the locations of those resistivity and SP anomalies along the newly discovered fault, instead of along the Barton Springs fault, as previously thought.

  12. Gulf Coast Subsidence: Integration of Geodesy, Geophysical Modeling, and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, R. G.; Chapman, B. D.; Deese, R.; Dokka, R. K.; Fielding, E. J.; Hawkins, B.; Hensley, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Jones, C. E.; Kent, J. D.; Liu, Z.; Lohman, R.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The vulnerability of the US Gulf Coast has received increased attention in the years since hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Agencies responsible for the long-term protection of lives and infrastructure require precise estimates of future subsidence and sea level rise. A quantitative, geophysically based methodology can provide such estimates by incorporating geological data, geodetic measurements, geophysical models of non-elastic mechanical behavior at depth, and geographically comprehensive deformation monitoring made possible with measurements from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). To be effective, results must be available to user agencies in a format suitable for integration within existing decision-support processes. Work to date has included analysis of historical and continuing ground-based geodetic measurements. These reveal a surprising degree of complexity, including regions that are subsiding at rates faster than those considered for hurricane protection planning of New Orleans and other coastal communities (http://www.mvn.usace.army.mil/pdf/hps_verticalsettlement.pdf) as well as Louisiana's coastal restoration strategies (http://www.coast2050.gov/2050reports.htm) (Dokka, 2011, J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008). Traditional geodetic measurements provide precise information at single points, while InSAR observations provide geographically comprehensive measurements of surface deformation at lower vertical precision. Available InSAR data sources include X-, C- and L-band satellite, and NASA/JPL airborne UAVSAR L-band data. The Gulf Coast environment is very challenging for InSAR techniques, especially with systems not designed for interferometry. For example, the shorter wavelength C-band data decorrelates over short time periods requiring more elaborate time-series analysis techniques, with which we've had some success. Meanwhile, preliminary analysis of limited L-Band ALOS/PALSAR satellite data show promise

  13. Integrated geophysical surveys for the safety evaluation of a ground subsidence zone in a small city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Yi, Myeong-Jong; Hwang, Se-Ho; Song, Yoonho; Cho, Seong-Jun; Synn, Joong-Ho

    2007-09-01

    Ground subsidence occurred in the centre of a small city in South Korea. In order to investigate the cause of the geological hazards and to estimate the ground safety, we carried out integrated geophysical surveys comprising two-dimensional (2D) resistivity, controlled source magnetotelluric (CSMT), magnetic, ground penetrating radar, geophysical well logging and crosshole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. Since the target area is located in the downtown area, surface geophysical methods could not be applied systematically. To understand regional geology and to facilitate the interpretation of detailed geophysical surveys in the target area, 2D resistivity, CSMT and magnetic surveys were conducted outside the downtown area. From these results, we could define the regional structure and successively infer the geologic condition in the city centre as well. Among the geophysical techniques applied for the detailed investigation in the main target area, crosshole ERT and geophysical well logging played the most important role. For the efficient ERT field work in the busiest quarter of the city, we devised a new electrode array, modified pole-dipole array, and proved that the proposed array is efficient particularly in the area where installing a remote electrode is nearly impossible. The distribution of cavities and weak zones was interpreted by careful examination of the resistivity tomograms and geophysical logging results. Based on the distribution of cavities interpreted in a 3D manner, numerical analyses of rock engineering were further carried out and geologic hazard maps were presented. Through this comprehensive approach comprising geophysics and rock engineering, shallow limestone cavities were found to be the main cause of the ground subsidence and the excessive pumping of groundwater might trigger or accelerate the geological hazard. Reinforcement works have been carried out based on the results of these geophysical and rock engineering

  14. An Integrated Geophysical study of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Doser, D. I.; Keller, R. G.

    2003-12-01

    The tectonic evolution of Libya has yielded a complex crustal structure, which is composed of a series of basins and uplifts. A considerable amount of oil exploration has been undertaken in the area and numerous studies have been published on the shallow (<10km depth) geology and geophysics of the region. In addition, over 6000 gravity measurements are available for the northern Libya region. We are using these data in conjunction with other geologic and geophysical control to construct a 3-D model of density/geology for northern Libya and surrounding regions. Knowing the surface geology and having a digital elevation model and observed gravity value at specified stations, we first calculate the gravity contribution for polygonal areas assuming infinite depth. We then calculate the gravitational contribution for the same polygonal area using the Paleozoic surface as the elevation, assuming uniform density for the volume of rocks below the Paleozoic surface. Subtracting the value calculated at the Paleozoic layer from the gravitational value at the surface yields a gravitational value matching that of the layer between the surface and the top of the Paleozoic layer. The same procedure is then repeated for the top of the Precambrian, the Moho, etc. The 3-D model will then be used to develop a regional velocity model that can be verified/modified by analysis of regional seismic waveform data we are collecting from earthquakes occurring within northern Libya. Northern Libya is the most seismologically active and highly faulted portion of the country. For this reason we have collected thirteen Landsat 5 satellite images covering the most seismically active and structurally significant regions of northeast and northwest Libya. The satellite images have been mosaicked using a seamless mosaicking technology based on ENVI's cutline feathering approached. The resulting mosaicked figures were then overlain with the previously mapped faults analyzed to identify the more recent

  15. Integrating Technology: Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercher, Lydia

    Developed by participants in an inservice workshop at the University of Wyoming, this manual lists 26 educational strategies that make use of current educational technologies, their corresponding skill development, and the content areas involved. For example, one strategy listed is to have students create their own letterhead to be used throughout…

  16. The general indications of an impact crater using integrated geophysical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiu, Y. C.; Rosli, S.; Azwin, I. N.; Mokhtar, S.

    2017-07-01

    The study area located at the tropical region which may induced a deeply eroded structure over a complex subsurface. Therefore, the geophysical methods were applied to estimate crater dimension and study the signature of an impact crater. Commonly, an impact crater is characterized with the aid of potential field method which can cover larger area and cost effective. The application of seismic measurements is to complement the potential fields' method for better data interpretation. This study emphasized on utilizing integrated study of geophysical methods which include potential field method (ground magnetic) and seismic for bedrock delineation on impact crater structure characterization. The results induced a positive signs of impact crater which associate with a few indications on crater type and its structures. The integration of ground magnetic and seismic refraction reveal the Bukit Bunuh impact crater is a complex crater. Both of the geophysical methods agreed with the notable size impact crater of 5 km with central uplift at the Bukit Bunuh area.

  17. Integrating High-Resolution Geophysical Technologies with a GIS-Based Decision Support System into Evaluation and Management of Wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, N. M.

    2004-05-01

    Wetlands perform many ecological functions and provide numerous societal benefits such as providing unique wildlife habitats, natural mechanisms for water purification, flood storage, recreational opportunities and natural resources. Geophysical technologies are increasingly used on land for environmental assessment. However, geophysical evaluation of wetlands has received minimal attention. The problems associated with conventional direct sampling of subsurface properties are exasperated in shallow water wetlands due to the logistical constraints imposed by these environments. Growing interest in wetlands highlights a need for high-resolution, non-invasive methods for evaluating and managing wetland water resources. We have developed an integrated geophysical-GIS approach to investigating shallow water wetlands. Rapid geophysical data acquisition in shallow water (less than 2 ft) is achieved using a plastic paddleboat modified as a "research vessel" for conducting high-resolution geophysical surveys. The vessel is designed for reconnaissance electromagnetic terrain conductivity (TC), reconnaissance gradiometer and 2D/3D continuous electrical resistivity imaging. A buoyant 12-electrode array, using non-polarizing Pb-PbCl2 junctions, is pulled behind the boat with simultaneous measurement of 10 resistances at two-second intervals using a SYSCAL PRO acquisition system. All instrumentation was tested and modified to ensure removal of artifacts caused by the metal steering mechanism. A multi-purpose surface water quality probe simultaneously records water depth, surface water conductivity, salinity, temperature, pH, turbidity, and dissolved oxygen content. All instruments are set to take a multi parameter measurement every two seconds while paddling. Decimeter scale location of all measurements is obtained at the instant of acquisition using precision differential GPS unit. We are typically able to survey an average of 8 km in one day, producing over 6,000 measurements

  18. Integrating Geophysical Data for the Investigation of the Chingshui Geothermal Field in Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, P.; Song, S.; Yeh, E.; Chen, C.

    2010-12-01

    We have reviewed various surface geophysical survey results and the borehole logging data in order to better delineate the geothermal reservoir and its relative geological structures in the Chingshui area. The Chingshui geothermal field has been acknowledged to have a great potential for geothermal production in Northeast Taiwan. A pilot geothermal power plant with 3MW capacity had been built since 1981 in the area and the plant was seized to function in 1992 due to scaling problems and depletion of the steam production. Though a lot of explorations have been done in the past, there are few reservoir models established because (1) geophysical surveys were conducted in different resolutions and scales and difficult to be integrated in the same model, (2) 1-D or 2-D geophysical measurements were not integrated and re-examined in a 3-D framework for delineating the structure relationships in a 3D sense, and (3) relationships between the formation properties, such as porosities and the water saturation, and the geophysical measurements were not yet established due to lack of core samples or detailed well logging data. In this study, we utilized data from magnetotelluric and electrical resistivity surveys, as well as borehole logging measurements for constructing a general reservoir model, and tried to verify it with the borehole geophysical logging data that are collected from an open section in the geothermal test well drilled recently. Currently we have integrated different geophysical data onto the same 3D framework and tried to apply geostatistical analysis for constructing the 3D geophysical picture. Our preliminary results have revealed two low resistivity regions representing the fracture reservoir filled with hot fluids within 2000m from the surface. These regions were limited in a 2-km2 narrow area along the Chingshui river valley. The shallower low-resistivity region, Zone I, is near the surface and its bottom is at about 600-m to 800-m in depth, and it is

  19. Quantitative Integration of Multiple Geophysical Techniques for Reducing Uncertainty in Discrete Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, M. C.; Baker, G. S.; Herrmann, N.; Yerka, S.; Angst, M.

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this project are to (1) utilize quantitative integration of multiple geophysical techniques, (2) determine geophysical anomalies that may indicate locations of various archaeological structures, and (3) develop techniques of quantifying causes of uncertainty. Two sites are used to satisfy these objectives. The first, representing a site with unknown target features, is an archaeological site on the Tennessee River floodplain. The area is divided into 437 (20 x 20 m) plots with 0.5 m spacing where magnetic gradiometry profiles were collected in a zig-zag pattern, resulting in 350 km of line data. Once anomalies are identified in the magnetics data, potential excavation sites for archeological features are determined and other geophysical techniques are utilized to gain confidence in choosing which anomalies to excavate. Several grids are resurveyed using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and EM-31 with a 0.25 m spacing in a grid pattern. A quantitative method of integrating data into one comprehensive set is developed, enhancing interpretation because each geophysical technique utilized within this study produced a unique response to noise and the targets. Spatial visualization software is used to interpolate irregularly spaced XYZ data into a regularly spaced grid and display the geophysical data in 3D representations. Once all data are exported from each individual instrument, grid files are created for quantitative merging of the data and to create grid-based maps including contour, image, shaded relief, and surface maps. Statistics were calculated from anomaly classification in the data and excavated features present. To study this methodology in a more controlled setting, a second site is used. This site is analogous to the first in that it is along the Tennessee River floodplain on the same bedrock units. However, this analog site contains known targets (previously buried and accurately located) including size, shape, and orientation. Four

  20. Integrated geophysical techniques for high resolution archaeological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipan, M.; Forte, E.; Finetti, I.

    2003-04-01

    We exploit the integration of linear multi-fold Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study of archaeological sites. Tests of the proposed integrated procedure are shown from archaeological sites in Italy and Egypt. We perform in particular the integrated subsurface reconstruction of an Iron Age tumulus, the study of high contrast ruins in alluvial sediments, the identification of low contrast remains in a desert area. Multi-fold GPR datasets are processed using pre-stack wave equation based imaging, which effectively tackles the rapid lateral velocity variations that normally characterize archaeological sites. Further image enhancement is achieved by means of proprietary Wavelet Transform based algorithms to compute the instantaneous attributes of the radar trace. The subsurface models are further verified by means of comparison with numerical simulations by FDTD modelling algorithms. Test excavations finally validate all the results. The multi-fold datasets allow image enhancement and characterization of material properties not attainable by conventional GPR methods. In particular, the comparison of conventional and multi-fold data from the desert area gives evidence of the image enhancement attainable in hostile soil conditions. Velocity fields obtained from pre-stack velocity analysis provides further information on material properties. The subsurface model is further constrained by the results of seismic, resistivity and magnetic surveys. Joint interpretation of high resolution multi-fold GPR data, after pre-stack processing and imaging, and seismic tomography allows to constrain the subsurface model and classify the targets of potential archaeological interest in the case of the Iron Age Tumulus. Details of the inner structure are evidenced by the integrated interpretation of seismic and GPR data. In particular, location of the burial chamber and of

  1. Integrating volcanic gas monitoring with other geophysical networks in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeffer, Melissa A.

    2017-04-01

    The Icelandic Meteorological Office/Icelandic Volcano Observatory is rapidly developing and improving the use of gas measurements as a tool for pre- and syn-eruptive monitoring within Iceland. Observations of deformation, seismicity, hydrological properties, and gas emissions, united within an integrated approach, can provide improved understanding of subsurface magma movements. This is critical to evaluate signals prior to and during volcanic eruptions, issue timely eruption warnings, forecast eruption behavior, and assess volcanic hazards. Gas measurements in Iceland need to be processed to account for the high degree of gas composition alteration due to interaction with external water and rocks. Deeply-sourced magmatic gases undergo reactions and modifications as they move to the surface that exercise a strong control on the composition of surface emissions. These modifications are particularly strong at ice-capped volcanoes where most surface gases are dissolved in glacial meltwater. Models are used to project backwards from surface gas measurements to what the magmatic gas composition was prior to upward migration. After the pristine magma gas composition has been determined, it is used together with fluid compositions measured in mineral hosted melt inclusions to calculate magmatic properties to understand magma storage and migration and to discern if there have been changes in the volcanic system. The properties derived from surface gas measurements can be used as input to models interpreting deformation and seismic observations, and can be used as an additional, independent observation when interpreting hydrological and seismic changes. An integrated approach aids with determining whether observed hydro/geological changes can be due to the presence of shallow magma. Constraints on parameters such as magma gas content, viscosity and compressibility can be provided by the approach described above, which can be utilized syn-eruptively to help explain

  2. Creating a Research Experience in an Undergraduate Geophysics Course: Integrated Geophysical Study of the Silver Creek Fault, Santa Clara Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. L.; Williams, R.

    2006-12-01

    An undergraduate geophysics course at the San Jose State University was redesigned to focus on providing students with an integrated research experience that included both formative and summative assessments of learning. To this end, the students carried out four geophysical studies (gravity, magnetic, refraction, and reflection) across the inferred location of the Silver Creek fault, which is buried by the Quaternary alluvium of the Santa Clara Valley within walking distance of the university. The seismic experiments were made possible with equipment loaned by Geometrics Inc. and seismic and borehole data first acquired during a joint study by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Santa Clara Valley Water District. Three field reports, one produced after each of the first three field experiments, provided formative assessment of each student's understanding of the geophysical method, its application to the primary research objective of defining the location and structure of the Silver Creek fault, and their ability to produce a manuscript of professional quality. After each of the field reports, students were required to rewrite the report, based on feedback provided by the instructor, as well as incorporate the analysis and interpretation of the subsequent geophysical study. Students also modified conclusions of the preceding surveys in order to produce an internally consistent interpretation with each new analysis. Regional geologic relations and borehole data provided additional constraints to interpretations based on the geophysical analyses. For summative assessment, students submitted a final manuscript that had undergone three revisions as well as presented an integrated geophysical study of the Silver Creek fault based on the four geophysical experiments. The quality of the field reports showed marked improvement with each successive submission during the semester and were significantly better than in previous versions of the course, which featured various

  3. Analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys in archaeological sites employing different integrated approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Kucukdemirci, Melda; Zamuner, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive ground surface geophysical prospecting methods are frequently used for the investigation of archaeological sites, where a detailed physical and geometrical reconstructions of hidden volumes is required prior to any excavation work. All methods measure the variations of single physical parameters, therefore if these are used singularly, they could not permit a complete location and characterization of anomalous bodies. The probability of a successful result rapidly increases if a multhimethodological approach is adopted, according to the logic of objective complementarity of information and of global convergence toward a high quality multiparametric imaging of the buried structures. The representation of the static configuration of the bodies in the subsoil and of the space-time evolution of the interaction processes between targets and hosting materials have to be actually considered fundamental elements of primary knowledge in archaeological prospecting. The main effort in geophysical prospecting for archaeology is therefore the integration of different, absolutely non-invasive techniques, especially if managed in view of a ultra-high resolution three-dimensional (3D) tomographic representation mode. Following the above outlined approach, we have integrated geophysical methods which measure the variations of potential field (gradiometric methods) with active methods which measure the variations of physical properties due to the body's geometry and volume (GPR and ERT). In this work, the results obtained during the surveys of three archaeological sites, employing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Fluxgate Differential Magnetic (FDM) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies, are presented and discussed. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity

  4. A depth integrated model for dry geophysical granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne

    2017-04-01

    Granular flows are rapid to very rapid flows, made up of dry sediment (rock and snow avalanches) or mixture of water and sediment (debris flows). They are among the most dangerous and destructive natural phenomena and the definition of run-out scenarios for risk assessment has received wide interest in the last decades. Nowadays there are many urbanized mountain areas affected by these phenomena, which cause several properties damages and loss of lives. The numerical simulation is a fundamental step to analyze these phenomena and define the runout scenarios. For this reason, a depth-integrated model is developed to analyze the case of dry granular flows, representative of snow avalanches or rock avalanches. The model consists of a two-phase mathematical description of the flow motion: it is similar to the solid transport equations but substantially different since there is no water in this case. A set of partial differential equations is obtained and written in the form of a hyperbolic system. The numerical solution is computed through a path-conservative SPH (Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics) scheme, in the two dimensional case. Appropriate closure relations are necessary, with respect to the concentration C and the shear stress at the bed τ0. In first approximation, it is possible to derive a formulation for the two closure relations from appropriate rheological models (Bagnold theory and dense gas analogy). The model parameters are determined by means of laboratory tests on dry granular material and the effectiveness of the closure relation verified through a comparison with the experimental results. In particular, the experimental investigation aims to reproduce two case of study for dry granular material: the dam-break test problem and the stationary motion with changes in planimetry. The experiments are carried out in the Hydraulic Laboratory of the University of Trento, by means of channels with variable slope and variable shape. The mathematical model will

  5. An integrated geophysical study of the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quezada, Oscar; Keller, G. Randy; Andronicos, Christopher

    The Sangre de Cristo Mountains in northern New Mexico are the uplifted eastern flank of the Rio Grande rift and expose a number of important geologic features whose origins are of great geologic interest (Figure 1). We have investigated this area, and here we present an integrated analysis of a variety of geophysical data that features almost 100 km of newly released seismic reflection data (Figure 1). The southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains are the site of a pronounced and yet poorly understood gravity minimum. By integrating different geophysical and geological data, we have focused on this gravity anomaly hoping that modeling the major upper crustal structures related to it aid in unraveling the complex tectonic evolution of the southern Rocky Mountains.

  6. Integrated geophysical methods for studying the karst system of Gruta de las Maravillas (Aracena, Southwest Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Pedrera, A.; Teixido, T.; Ruano, P.; Peña, J. A.; González-Castillo, L.; Ruiz-Constán, A.; López-Chicano, M.; Martín-Rosales, W.

    2014-08-01

    In this study we contrast the results of different geophysical methods in order to describe the karst system surrounding of the Gruta de las Maravillas cave (Aracena, Spain). A comprehensive study of the geophysical responses of the known cavity was carried out, after which several sections were studied to detect the karst architecture and cave continuity. To ensure precision, the inner 3D-topography of the cave was determined by classical geodetic techniques and a digital terrain model was performed with differential GPS. The microgravity method was used to obtain the residual gravity map of the entire study zone, whose minima could be related to caves. Then, the negative gravity anomalies were analyzed to plan several lines for implementing further geophysical methods: magnetic profiles (MP), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), induced polarization (IP), 2D seismic prospection (refraction tomography and reflection sections) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The resulting models for each line explored were integrated with detailed geological maps to establish the unknown continuity of the caves. Finally, we discuss the suitability of each geophysical technique for cave detection in marble with sulfur host rock and propose the best procedures to constrain their geometries.

  7. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Giorgi, Lara; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system.

  8. Study of Shallow Low-Enthalpy Geothermal Resources Using Integrated Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Lara De; Leucci, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    The paper is focused on low enthalpy geothermal exploration performed in south Italy and provides an integrated presentation of geological, hydrogeological, and geophysical surveys carried out in the area of municipality of Lecce. Geological and hydrogeological models were performed using the stratigraphical data from 51 wells. A ground-water flow (direction and velocity) model was obtained. Using the same wells data, the ground-water annual temperature was modeled. Furthermore, the ground surface temperature records from ten meteorological stations were studied. This allowed us to obtain a model related to the variations of the temperature at different depths in the subsoil. Integrated geophysical surveys were carried out in order to explore the low-enthalpy geothermal fluids and to evaluate the results of the model. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and self-potential (SP) methods were used. The results obtained upon integrating the geophysical data with the models show a low-enthalpy geothermal resource constituted by a shallow ground-water system

  9. Strategies for Maintaining Community Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Fred

    1986-01-01

    This article outlines strategies of maintaining integration emphasizing: (1) housing offices and counseling; (2) community action to alter real estate policies; (3) school action including public relations and human relations thinking; (4) community organization of commercial and religious institutions; (5) financial incentives for pro-integrative…

  10. Understanding the lithosphere in complex tectonic scenarios by integrating geophysical data: The Pyrenees case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montserrat; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-04-01

    Tectonic processes dominate the development of the outermost layer of the Earth over a timescale of millions of years. The locations where these processes take place provide a great opportunity for Earth scientists to study and understand the dynamics and properties of the lithosphere. The Pyrenees are a particular case of continental collision formed as a result of the collision between the Iberian and European plates, which caused the subduction of the Iberian lower crust below the European crust. Large amounts of geophysical data have been acquired in the area providing spectacular images of lithospheric subduction beneath the Western and Central Pyrenees, confirming the occurrence of this generally well-understood process. The Eastern Pyrenees, however, are a most puzzling part of the orogen and the geodynamical evolution of this area cannot be understood without the influence of the Neogene Mediterranean rifting, following the continental collision. The complexity of this area and the controversy of the geophysical results set in debate concepts well recognized in the other parts of the Pyrenees such as the subduction of the Iberian lower crust and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The aims of this study are to characterise major tectonic and geophysical variations along the Pyrenean mountain range at a lithospheric-scale and constrain the causes of the observed lateral variations. A preliminary model of the lithospheric configuration and dynamics, based on magnetotelluric geophysical results, has been developed and constrained using independent and available geophysical, geological and geochemical data. Computational petrology methods, using Litmod, were used for integrated modelling of all data.

  11. Integrated geophysical investigations in a fault zone located on southwestern part of İzmir city, Western Anatolia, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahor, Mahmut G.; Berge, Meriç A.

    2017-01-01

    Integrated geophysical investigations consisting of joint application of various geophysical techniques have become a major tool of active tectonic investigations. The choice of integrated techniques depends on geological features, tectonic and fault characteristics of the study area, required resolution and penetration depth of used techniques and also financial supports. Therefore, fault geometry and offsets, sediment thickness and properties, features of folded strata and tectonic characteristics of near-surface sections of the subsurface could be thoroughly determined using integrated geophysical approaches. Although Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) methods are commonly used in active tectonic investigations, other geophysical techniques will also contribute in obtaining of different properties in the complex geological environments of tectonically active sites. In this study, six different geophysical methods used to define faulting locations and characterizations around the study area. These are GPR, ERT, SRT, Very Low Frequency electromagnetic (VLF), magnetics and self-potential (SP). Overall integrated geophysical approaches used in this study gave us commonly important results about the near surface geological properties and faulting characteristics in the investigation area. After integrated interpretations of geophysical surveys, we determined an optimal trench location for paleoseismological studies. The main geological properties associated with faulting process obtained after trenching studies. In addition, geophysical results pointed out some indications concerning the active faulting mechanism in the area investigated. Consequently, the trenching studies indicate that the integrated approach of geophysical techniques applied on the fault problem reveals very useful and interpretative results in description of various properties of faulting zone in the investigation site.

  12. Integrated multidisciplinary processing and interpretation of geophysical data acquired on transects in Barents and Kara seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslov, Yu. V.; Sakoulina, T. S.

    2003-04-01

    INTEGRATED MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROCESSING AND INTERPRETATION OF GEOPHYSICAL DATA ACQUIRED ON TRANSECTS IN BARENTS AND KARA SEAS Yu.V. Roslov (1), T.S. Sakoulina (1) (1 - SEVMORGEO State Geophysical Co., 36 Rosenstein St, 198095, St Petersburg, Russia, roslov @sevmorgeo.com) According to Russian arctic offshore transect program State Company Sevmorgeo in cooperation with other Russian state companies carry out multidisciplinary investigations on transects 1-AR and 2-AR in Barents and Kara Seas. Investigations include the following geophysical methods: 4C wide angle refraction/reflection profiling (WARRP), CDP seismic, airborn and/or marine gravity and magnetic. Three levels of the integration has been used on processing and interpretation stage. First, different approaches of kinematic inverse problem and tomographic reconstruction have been applied for kinematic parameters of 4C WARRP data processing. That has allowed extracting of maximum information from the data acquired. As a result stable P and S velocity models have been obtained. Second, dynamic WARRP image focused mainly on Moho boundary has been integrated with CDP image in order to improve the sedimentary layer structure. Third, seismic images have been proven with gravity and magnetic data reaching the model, which fits to observed potential fields. Also gravity and magnetic data successfully fill out information gap in the places where there is a lack of seismic data. Some original technologies of data processing have been developed in the framework of the project. Finally, within the range defined by the data processed the integrated geological-geophysical images the Kara-Barents Shelf Plate structure whole Earth crust thickness along transects 1-AR and 2-AR have been obtained. New geophysical data acquired have forced reviewing of our nderstanding of Barents region geological structure. First of all it concern to south and north Barents depressions. South Barents depression is well known as a geological

  13. Topsoil thickness mapping at watershed scale by integration of field survey, geophysics and remote sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francés, Alain Pascal; Lubczynski, Maciek

    2010-05-01

    The adequate parameterisation of near subsurface is a critical issue due to the large spatial variability of soil properties. Direct observations made by common invasive field sampling procedures through drilling and trench excavations can be complemented in an efficient way by non-invasive geophysical methods, improving spatial data coverage in cost and time efficient way. The geophysical methods measure a physical property of subsurface that is convertible into the parameter or variable of interest. Such conversion requires development of data integration method. In this study, we present a methodology of data integration to assess spatially the topsoil thickness at the watershed scale. To integrate the spatial variability of the soil characteristics, we used a combination of field survey, ground-geophysics, satellite and aerial imagery processing and statistical estimation techniques. The ground-geophysics was used to complement and extend the direct field observations of the topsoil thickness. The conversion of the geophysical data in topsoil thickness and the estimation of the topsoil thickness over the catchment were done through statistical methods that integrated auxiliary variables derived from the remote sensing imagery (soil and geomorphology classifications and terrain attributes). A simple and expedite soil classification based on multi-resolution segmentation of image objects and fuzzy logic was derived from a high-resolution multispectral QuickBird image combined with aerial photograph. Landform classes and terrain attributes were computed from the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) satellite. We applied this methodology to the Pisões catchment (~19 km2, Portugal) where the AB horizon, following the standard pedologic classification, is characterized by its high concentration in swelling clay. In the first step, we elaborated the sampling schema of the geophysical

  14. Geophysics, Remote Sensing, and the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, A. J.; Macleod, G.; Labak, P.; Malich, G.; Rowlands, A. P.; Craven, J.; Sweeney, J. J.; Chiappini, M.; Tuckwell, G.; Sankey, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was an event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of an on-site inspection (OSI) within the CTBT verification regime. During an OSI, up to 40 international inspectors will search an area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of a real OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams (which executed the scenario in which the exercise was played) and those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test and integrate Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, suites of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, in addition to other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection using other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials, and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of the goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  15. Foundation integrity assessment using integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques: case study in crystalline basement complex, southwestern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olayanju, G. M.; Mogaji, K. A.; Lim, H. S.; Ojo, T. S.

    2017-06-01

    The determination of parameters comprising exact depth to bedrock and its lithological type, lateral changes in lithology, and detection of fractures, cracks, or faults are essential to designing formidable foundations and assessing the integrity of civil engineering structures. In this study, soil and site characterization in a typical hard rock geologic terrain in southwestern Nigeria were carried out employing integrated geophysical and geotechnical techniques to address tragedies in civil engineering infrastructural development. The deployed geophysical measurements involved running both very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity methods (dipole-dipole imaging and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques) along the established traverses, while the latter technique entailed conducting geological laboratory sieve analysis and Atterberg limit-index tests upon the collected soil samples in the area. The results of the geophysical measurement, based on the interpreted VLF-EM and dipole-dipole data, revealed conductive zones and linear features interpreted as fractures/faults which endanger the foundations of public infrastructures. The delineation of four distinct geoelectric layers in the area—comprised of topsoil, lateritic/clayey substratum, weathered layer, and bedrock—were based on the VES results. Strong evidence, including high degree of decomposition and fracturing of underlying bedrock revealed by the VES results, confirmed the VLF-EM and dipole-dipole results. Furthermore, values in the range of 74.2%-77.8%, 55%-62.5%, 23.4%-24.5%, 7.7%-8.2%, 19.5%-22.4%, and 31.65%-38.25% were obtained for these geotechnical parameters viz soil percentage passing 0.075 mm sieve size, liquid limit, plasticity index, linear shrinkage, natural moisture content, and plastic limit, respectively, resulting from the geotechnical analysis of the soil samples. The comparatively analyzed geophysical and geotechnical results revealed a high

  16. The SISMA prototype system: integrating Geophysical Modeling and Earth Observation for time dependent seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peresan, A.; Panza, G. F.; Sabadini, R.; Barzaghi, R.; Amodio, A.; Bianco, G.

    2009-12-01

    A new approach to seismic hazard assessment is illustrated that, based on the available knowledge of the physical properties of the Earth structure and of seismic sources, as well as on the geophysical forward modeling, allows for a time dependent definition of the seismic input. According to the proposed approach, a fully formalized system integrating Earth Observation data and new advanced methods in seismological and geophysical data analysis, is currently under development in the framework of the Pilot Project SISMA, funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The synergic use of geodetic Earth Observation data (EO) and Geophysical Forward Modeling (GFM) deformation maps at the national scale complements the space and time dependent information provided by real-time monitoring of seismic flow (performed by means of the earthquake prediction algorithms CN and M8S), so as to permit the identification and routine updating of alerted areas. At the small spatial scale (tens of km) of the seismogenic nodes identified by pattern recognition analysis, both GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) techniques, coupled with expressly developed models for inter-seismic phases, allow us to retrieve the deformation style and stress evolution within the seismogenic areas. The displacements fields obtained from EO data provide the input for the geophysical modeling, which permits to indicate whether a specific fault is in a "critical state". The scenarios of expected ground motion, associated with the alerted areas are then defined by means of full waveforms modeling, based on the possibility to compute synthetic seismograms by the modal summation technique. In this way a set of deterministic scenarios of ground motion, which refers to the time interval when a strong event is likely to occur within the alerted area, can be defined either at national and local scale. The considered integrated approach opens new routes in understanding the

  17. An integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation to characterize a fractured-rock aquifer, Norwalk, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.; Savino, D.M.; Haeni, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation at the Norden Systems, Inc. site in Norwalk, Connecticut, where chlorinated solvents have contaminated a fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole, borehole-to-borehole, surface-geophysical, and hydraulic methods were used to characterize the site bedrock lithology and structure, fractures, and transmissive zone hydraulic properties. The geophysical and hydraulic methods included conventional logs, borehole imagery, borehole radar, flowmeter under ambient and stressed hydraulic conditions, and azimuthal square-array direct-current resistivity soundings. Integrated interpretation of geophysical logs at borehole and borehole-to-borehole scales indicates that the bedrock foliation strikes northwest and dips northeast, and strikes north-northeast to northeast and dips both southeast and northwest. Although steeply dipping fractures that cross-cut foliation are observed, most fractures are parallel or sub-parallel to foliation. Steeply dipping reflectors observed in the radar reflection data from three boreholes near the main building delineate a north-northeast trending feature interpreted as a fracture zone. Results of radar tomography conducted close to a suspected contaminant source area indicate that a zone of low electromagnetic (EM) velocity and high EM attenuation is present above 50 ft in depth - the region containing the highest density of fractures. Flowmeter logging was used to estimate hydraulic properties in the boreholes. Thirty-three transmissive fracture zones were identified in 11 of the boreholes. The vertical separation between transmissive zones typically is 10 to 20 ft. Open-hole and discrete-zone transmissivity was estimated from heat-pulse flowmeter data acquired under ambient and stressed conditions. The open-hole transmissivity ranges from 2 to 86 ft2/d. The estimated transmissivity of individual transmissive zones ranges from 0.4 to 68 ft2/d. Drawdown monitoring

  18. Different integrated geophysical approaches to investigate archaeological sites in urban and suburban area.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Salvatore; Papale, Enrico; Zamuner, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical methods are frequently used in archaeological prospection in order to provide detailed information about the presence of structures in the subsurface as well as their position and their geometrical reconstruction, by measuring variations of some physical properties. Often, due to the limited size and depth of an archaeological structure, it may be rather difficult to single out its position and extent because of the generally low signal-to-noise ratio. This problem can be overcome by improving data acquisition, processing techniques and by integrating different geophysical methods. In this work, two sites of archaeological interest, were investigated employing several methods (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Fluxgate Differential Magnetic) to obtain precise and detailed maps of subsurface bodies. The first site, situated in a suburban area between Itri and Fondi, in the Aurunci Natural Regional Park (Central Italy), is characterized by the presence of remains of past human activity dating from the third century B.C. The second site, is instead situated in an urban area in the city of Rome (Basilica di Santa Balbina), where historical evidence is also present. The methods employed, allowed to determine the position and the geometry of some structures in the subsurface related to this past human activity. To have a better understanding of the subsurface, we then performed a qualitative and quantitative integration of this data, which consists in fusing the data from all the methods used, to have a complete visualization of the investigated area. Qualitative integration consists in graphically overlaying the maps obtained by the single methods; this method yields only images, not new data that may be subsequently analyzed. Quantitative integration is instead performed by mathematical and statistical solutions, which allows to have a more accurate reconstruction of the subsurface and generates new data with high

  19. Integrated Geophysical Tools for Sinkholes Study along the Dead Sea Shoreline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, A.; Akkawwi, E.; Abueadas, A.; Eppelbaum, L.; Keydar, S.; Medvedev, B.; Levi, E.; Ezersky, M.

    2012-04-01

    Identification of cavities, fractures and collapse zones is one of the most difficult subsurface investigations: it's like finding a real needle in the haystack. It is known today that Dead Sea sinkholes at the surface are caused by development of dissolution cavities forming in the salt layers located at a depth of 40-50meters from surface. Development of karstic cavities causes variations in properties and structure of both salt and its overlain sediments: density, porosity, electrical conductivity, seismic velocity etc. Fractures and faults are formed in the shallow subsurface. These variations in properties and structure can be detected by different geophysical instruments such as Seismic Refraction and Reflection methods, Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), Microgravity and Magnitometry etc. That is why variety of geophysical methods, which measured different physical parameter (changes in dielectric constant, Electrical resistivity, variations in bulk Density, and changes in velocity) for shallow and deep investigation nave been applied for sinkholes assessment and delineation. The integration of different geophysical studies has a capability of detecting geologic conditions including the continuity of the deeper strata, lateral variations in an unconformity, discontinuities, cavities, zones of paleo-sinkholes collapse and hydro geological conditions. All geophysical methods address geologic questions. With geophysical applications, a volume of the subsurface is measured. It is necessary to recognize the physical properties of the feature being measured as well as the effective volume of measurement in order to define survey objectives. Data from a wide variety of sources and measurements could be integrated to improve our understanding of site conditions and provide a powerful base of information in which to evaluate subsurface conditions, design and execute a remediation for the site and enable a reasonably accurate risk

  20. Integrated Archaeological and Geophysical Surveys in the Historical Center of Augusta (Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malfitana, Daniele; Leucci, Giovanni; Fragalà, Giovanni; Cacciaguerra, Giuseppe; De Giorgi, Lara

    2013-04-01

    Syracuse (Eastern Sicily, Italy) and its vast hinterland played a crucial role in the economy of ancient Sicily, largely because of the management, exploitation and trade of agricultural supply. Nevertheless, the socio-economic aspects of its territorial management and the relation between the countryside and coastal centres in the complex system of the Mediterranean markets have not yet been analysed in depth by scholars. Despite the historical, monumental and economic importance of the surrounding area of Syracuse in the Antiquity, the knowledge of the roman and medieval landscape and archaeological sites are still limited. The research undertaken by Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali - CNR of Catania (Sicily, Italy) attempted to remedy this omission by outlining a preliminary picture of the rich historical and archaeological heritage of Syracuse and its surrounding territory, which will be analysed using a multidisciplinary approach. Augusta, a town near Syracuse (Sicily), was founded by emperor Frederick of Suavia between 1232 and 1239. In medieval period, the area of Giardini Pubblici was the downtown and untill the XVII Cent. AD it was occupied by two urban blocks of buildings. In 1670 they were demolished to allow free area firing line from the near castle. Integrated archaeological and geophysical investigations allowed a wide range knowledge of the roman and medieval landscapes, archaeological sites and monumental remains. Particularly the geophysical surveys undertaken in the historical center of Augusta, by means Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR), allowed a 3D reconstruction of archaeological structures in the subsoil until the depth of about 4m. The geophysical survey has identified the building of medieval and modern urban settlement of Augusta and has allowed to recreate the urban plan and its transformation.

  1. 3D modeling of a dolerite intrusion from the photogrammetric and geophysical data integration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, João; Machadinho, Ana; Figueiredo, Fernando; Mira, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study is create a methodology based on the integration of data obtained from various available technologies, which allow a credible and complete evaluation of rock masses. In this particular case of a dolerite intrusion, which deployed an exploration of aggregates and belongs to the Jobasaltos - Extracção e Britagem. S.A.. Dolerite intrusion is situated in the volcanic complex of Serra de Todo-o-Mundo, Casais Gaiola, intruded in Jurassic sandstones. The integration of the surface and subsurface mapping, obtained by technology UAVs (Drone) and geophysical surveys (Electromagnetic Method - TEM 48 FAST), allows the construction of 2D and 3D models of the study local. The combination of the 3D point clouds produced from two distinct processes, modeling of photogrammetric and geophysical data, will be the basis for the construction of a single model of set. The rock masses in an integral perspective being visible their development above the surface and subsurface. The presentation of 2D and 3D models will give a perspective of structures, fracturation, lithology and their spatial correlations contributing to a better local knowledge, as well as its potential for the intended purpose. From these local models it will be possible to characterize and quantify the geological structures. These models will have its importance as a tool to assist in the analysis and drafting of regional models. The qualitative improvement in geological/structural modeling, seeks to reduce the value of characterization/cost ratio, in phase of prospecting, improving the investment/benefit ratio. This methodology helps to assess more accurately the economic viability of the projects.

  2. Integrated Geophysical Survey on Deák Ferenc Sluice in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanli, A. I.

    2015-12-01

    ALI ISMET KANLI1*, G. TALLER2, Z. PRONAY2, P. TILDY2, P. NAGY3, E. TOROS2 *1Istanbul University, Turkey, kanli@istanbul.edu.tr, 2Geological and Geophysical Institute of Hungary,3MinGeo, Hungary The Ferenc Channel is one of the main irrigation and ship channel in south of Hungary, existing from 1801. The water level is controlled by the Deák Ferenc Sluice in the channel which was constructed in 1875. At that time, the sluice was unique in Europe with its two channels and brick-walls. The west channel was used for controlling the amount of water and the east channel was used for shipping. In the study, before starting to the restoration and reinforcement plannings at the sluice, non-destructive geophysical investigations were executed. In the first stage, ultra-high frequency seismic (80 kHz) and acoustic (5 kHz) investigations of the floor slab were carried out from a boat on the water level. Due to the water level was approximately 2 m, we could use the advantage of the water ensuring very good coupling with seismic sensors for high frequency seismic and acoustic measurements. In the second stage, resistivity measurements were carried out in the eastern part of the sluice which was used as the shipping channel. Three profiles were measured to map the resistivity distribution of the slab. In the third stage, for better understanding the stability conditions of the walls and easy to compare with the data of GPR measurements, the wall of the sluice were investigated by a simple seismic direct wave method using seismic P-waves for mapping seismic velocities. The last stage of the survey was the GPR measurements that were carried out both on the walls and on the slab of the sluice. During the investigation, the channels were empty and without water. The integrated survey and the interpretation of the results showed us that there were some faults, cracks and voids in the slab existed in the whole grossness of the slab and the brick walls were builded from inhomogenous

  3. Integrated remote sensing, geological and geophysical data processing and analysis for hydrocarbon prospection in the Parana Basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, G.; Filho, A.P.; Crosta, A.P.

    1982-06-01

    The extensive basaltic lava flows of the Serra Geral Formation (Lower Cretaceous), in the upper portions of the Parana sedimentary basin, are a severe obstacle for hydrocarbon prospecting. Its thickness and physical characteristics make difficult the general application of conventional geophysical methods. In order to overcome this problem a research program was developed for PETROBRAS in order to obtain the maximum geological information from remote sensing data and integrate it with field and geophysical data. Automated analysis of LANDSAT data with visual inspection of LANDSAT and SLAR imagery resulted in a large amount of lithological and structural information, which were integrated with geological and geophysical data for the selection of target areas for future investigation.

  4. Definition of a geometric model for landslide numerical modeling from the integration of multi-source geophysical data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gance, Julien; Bernardie, Séverine; Grandjean, Gilles; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Landslide hazard can be assessed through numerical hydro-mechanical models. These methods require different input data such as a geometric model, rheological constitutive laws and associated hydro-mechanical parameters, and boundary conditions. The objective of this study is to fill the gap existing between geophysical and engineering communities. This gap prevents the engineering community to use the full information available in geophysical imagery. A landslide geometrical model contains information on the geometry and extent of the different geotechnical units of the landslide, and describes the layering and the discontinuities. It is generally drawn from punctual geotechnical tests, using interpolation, or better, from the combined use of a geotechnical test and the iso-value of geophysical tomographies. In this context, we propose to use a multi-source geophysical data fusion strategy as an aid for the construction of landslide geometric models. Based on a fuzzy logic data fusion method, we propose to use different geophysical tomographies and their associated uncertainty and sensitivity tomograms to design a "probable" geometric model. This strategy is tested on a profile of the Super-Sauze landslide using P-wave velocity, P-wave attenuation and electrical resistivity tomography. We construct a probable model and a true model for numerical modeling. Using basic elastic constitutive laws, we show that the model geometry is sufficiently detailed to simulate the complex surface displacements pattern.

  5. Integrating multi-scale geophysical and drill-core data to improve hydraulic characterization of continental sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Physical properties of rocks in the uppermost continental crust e.g. sedimentary basins are very heterogeneously distributed and anisotropic making it necessary to perform advanced post processing techniques on geophysical data. Whereas e.g. electrical resistivity or seismic tomography allow only for identifying physical properties' variability on a scale from roughly several tens of metres to several hundred metres, drill cores reveal physical heterogeneity on the cm-scale. To study the impact of small scale acoustic and hydraulic heterogeneity on fluid flow in a sedimentary basin we use combined data sets from the Thuringian Basin in Germany, a small southern extension of the North German Basin characterised by Permian to Triassic sediments. Our data sets consist of three reflection seismic lines acquired within the framework of the multidisciplinary project INFLUINS (INtegrated FLUid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins) and as site survey for deep drilling, geophysical logging data from a 1,179 m deep drill hole in the centre of the Thuringian Basin, and Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data of the cores recovered from this drill hole. Geophysical borehole logging was performed immediate after drilling on the highest vertical resolution (about 10 cm) possible using state of the art commercial logging tools. MSCL-data were acquired at an even higher resolution of about 1 to 2 cm , which enables both, calibrating logging data and zooming in the spatial heterogeneity of physical properties. These measurements are complemented with laboratory measurements of rock physical properties (e.g. thermal conductivity, permeability) using selected core samples. Here, we mainly focus on seismic (sonic velocity, density) and hydraulic (porosity, permeability) parameters. This multi-methodological approach allows us on the one hand to estimate improved local to regional average values for physical parameters but most importantly also to highlight the role of thin layers, the physical

  6. 3D geological model of Bairendaba Ag-Pb-Zn ore field, northeastern China, based on integrated geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Zhang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Bairendaba Ag-Pb-Zn ore field, located in the southwestern part of the Greater Khingan Range, is one of the most representative ore that found by geophysical and geochemical methods in Inner Mongolia, China. Bairendaba ore field has rich mineral reserves, including 8000 tons of Ag, and 3 million tons of Pb and Zn. Since the ore field was discovered in 2001, a large number of ore bodies have been found by IP and other geophysical methods in this area. However, a high-level integrated geophysical interpretation had not been completed. A new study of 3D geology model, based on gravity, magnetic, IP and surface wave method, reveals subtle image of the ore field. A 3D forward modeling was conducted to include faulting and folding systems for the inversion. Moreover, the non-uniqueness of geophysics in interpretation has been constrained by integrated geophysical methods, geology profiles and drilling holes. Such a 3D visualization can illustrate the depth, thickness, attitude and other key properties of strata. Our study provides a subtle approach to delineate complex ore fields, and suggests the unexploited western district has a high resource potential in greater depth.

  7. Geophysical data integration and conditional uncertainty analysis on hydraulic conductivity estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Tsai, F.T.-C.; White, C.D.; Carlson, D.A.; Willson, C.S.

    2007-01-01

    Integration of various geophysical data is essential to better understand aquifer heterogeneity. However, data integration is challenging because there are different levels of support between primary and secondary data needed to be correlated in various ways. This study proposes a geostatistical method to integrate the hydraulic conductivity measurements and electrical resistivity data to better estimate the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. The K measurements are obtained from the pumping tests and represent the primary data (hard data). The borehole electrical resistivity data from electrical logs are regarded as the secondary data (soft data). The electrical resistivity data is used to infer hydraulic conductivity values through the Archie law and Kozeny-Carman equation. A pseudo cross-semivariogram is developed to cope with the resistivity data non-collocation. Uncertainty in the auto-semivariograms and pseudo cross-semivariogram is quantified. The methodology is demonstrated by a real-world case study where the hydraulic conductivity is estimated in the Upper Chicot aquifer of Southwestern Louisiana. The groundwater responses by the cokriging and cosimulation of hydraulic conductivity are compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). ?? 2007 ASCE.

  8. Hydromechanical response characterization by integration of geophysical and hydrological data, San Lorenzo, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneed, M.; Borchers, J. W.; Kayen, R. E.; Carkin, B. A.; Ellett, K. M.; Wheeler, G. A.; Brocher, T. M.

    2007-12-01

    -4 m-1 and from 2.5x10-4 to 2.8x10-3 m-1, respectively. The property-distribution information derived from geophysical and hydrological data is valuable for characterization of the hydromechanical response from both natural and ASR-induced stresses, which will aid in understanding the composite depth-integrated measurements from nearby extensometers.

  9. Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2013-04-01

    An integrated database system was developed to manage and provide marine geological data and marine geophysical data obtained by several Korean institutes. The system consists of two sub systems. One is the archive DB system which manages original data submitted by research scientists, the other is geographic information system which manages GIS data and provides information to the users. We established data management procedure for the data collection, processing, quality control and DB input for continuous data collection. According to the procedure, we collect data from Korean institutes every year and update DB system. Establishment of the archive DB system was accomplished through 7 steps, (1) checking the format of submitted data files (2) grouping data files by data items and research (3) retrieving metadata (position, date and time, etc.) from the submitted data files (4) validation of metadata and observation data (5) making the connection between metadata and observed data (6) rearrange matched metadata and observation data according to the DB structure (7) storing rearranged data into DB system. To make a reliable DB of system, we spent much time to validate submitted marine geological data and geophysical data. In case of marine geological data, we collected size analysis data, columnar section image, photographic data, X-ray data, heavy metal analysis data, organic carbon analysis data obtained from surface sediment samples and core sediment samples. The data formats were image file, ASCII text file and Microsoft Excel file. In case of marine geophysical data, seismic data, magnetic data and gravity data were collected in formats of SEG-Y binary file, image file and ASCII text file. We could retrieve metadata from ASCII files and Excel files directly and specialized software (Seisview2 software or BATHY2000) was used to retrieve metadata from SEG-Y data files. After validation work which checks the observation location and time using the positioning

  10. Pavement testing by integrated geophysical methods: Feasibility, resolution and diagnostic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Luciana; Cardarelli, Ettore; Cercato, Michele; De Donno, Giorgio; Di Giambattista, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the assessment of the diagnostic potential of several geophysical methods when applied to the investigation of a rigid airport pavement. The potential and limit of each technique are evaluated as well as the added value deriving from their integration. Firstly, we reconstruct a high-resolution image of the pavement by a large electromagnetic and georadar screening. An advanced processing of georadar data, implemented through the picking of the arrival times of reflections for each profile, provides a quantitative estimation of the deviation between the design and the as-built thickness of layers. Additionally, electrical tomography has been applied to unequivocally identify the anomalous zones, where higher values of resistivity would be associated to porous zones that are prone to degradation and failure. The seismic tomographic survey had the additional purpose to recover the mechanical properties of the pavement in terms of both P- and S-waves and consequently of elastic constants (Poisson's ratio), whose values were consistent with those recovered in literature. The anomalies detected by each technique are consistent in their indications and they can be correlated to failure phenomena occurring at layer interfaces within the pavement structure or to unexpected variations of the layer thicknesses. The cost-effective geophysical campaign has validated the four-layered system deduced from the original design and has been used to reconstruct a high-resolution map of the pavement in order to discriminate fractures, crack-prone areas or areas where the as-built differs from the original design.

  11. Integrated Geophysical and Archaeological investigations to study the site of Aquinum (Frosinone, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Salvatore; Ceraudo, Giuseppe; Zamuner, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    . This project is still in progress and new surveys, employing integrated geophysical methods, are planned for the next year.

  12. Mapping a near surface variable geologic regime using an integrated geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, N.T.; Sandberg, S.K.; Miller, P.; Powell, G.

    1997-10-01

    An integrated geophysical approach involving seismic, electromagnetic, and electrical methods was employed to map fluvial, colluvial and bedrock geology, to delineate bedrock channels, and to determine fracture and joint orientations that may influence migration of petroleum hydrocarbons at the Glenrock Oil Seep. Both P (primary)-wave and S (shear)-wave seismic refraction techniques were used to map the bedrock surface topography, bedrock minima, stratigraphic boundaries, and possible structure. S-wave data were preferred because of better vertical resolution due to the combination of slower velocities and lower frequency wave train. Azimuthal resistivity/EP (induced polarization) and azimuthal electromagnetics were used to determine fracture orientations and groundwater flow directions. Terrain conductivity was used to map the fluvial sedimentary sequences (e.g., paleochannel and overbank deposits) in the North Platte River floodplain. Conductivity measurements were also used to estimate bedrock depth and to assist in the placement and recording parameters of the azimuthal soundings. The geophysical investigation indicated that groundwater flow pathways were controlled by the fluvial paleochannels and bedrock erosional features. Primary groundwater flow direction in the bedrock and colluvial sediments was determined from the azimuthal measurements and confirmed by drilling to be N20-40W along the measured strike of the bedrock and joint orientations. Joint/fracture orientations were measured at N20-40W and N10-30E from the azimuthal data and confirmed from measurements at a bedrock outcrop south of the site. The bedrock has an apparent N10E anisotropy in the seismic velocity profiles on the old refinery property that closely match that of measured joint/fracture orientations and may have a minor effect on groundwater flow.

  13. Karst system vadose zone hydrodynamics highlighted by an integrative geophysical and hydrogeological monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watlet, A.; Van Camp, M. J.; Francis, O.; Poulain, A.; Hallet, V.; Rochez, G.; Kaufmann, O.

    2015-12-01

    The vadose zone of karst systems plays an important role on the water dynamics. In particular, temporary perched aquifers can appear in the subsurface due to changes of climate conditions, diminished evapotranspiration and differences of porosity relative to deeper layers. It is therefore crucial, but challenging, to separate the hydrological signature of the vadose zone from the one of the saturated zone for understanding hydrological processes that occur in the vadose zone. Although many difficulties are usually encountered when studying karst environments due to their heterogeneities, cave systems offer an outstanding opportunity to investigate vadose zone from the inside with various techniques. We present results covering two years of hydrogeological and geophysical monitoring at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (RCL), located in the Variscan fold-and-thrust belt (Belgium), a region that shows many karstic networks within Devonian limestone units. Hydrogeological data such as flows and levels monitoring or tracer tests performed in both vadose and saturated zones bring valuable information on the hydrological context of the studied area. Combining those results with geophysical measurements allows validating and imaging them with more integrative techniques. A microgravimetric monitoring involves a superconducting gravimeter continuously measuring at the surface of the RCL. Early in 2015, a second relative gravimeter was installed in the underlying cave system located 35 meters below the surface. This set up allows highlighting vadose gravity changes. These relative measurements are calibrated using an absolute gravimeter. 12 additional stations (7 at the surface, 5 in the cave) are monitored on a monthly basis by a spring gravimeter. To complete these gravimetric measurements, the site has been equipped with a permanent Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) monitoring system comprising an uncommon array of surface, borehole and cave electrodes. Although such

  14. Strategies for CO2 Sequestration in Geologic Formations and the Role of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klara, S. M.; Cohen, K.; Byrer, C.; Srivastava, R. D.

    2003-12-01

    Among proposed options for CO2 emissions mitigation, capture and sequestration is a promising solution that has the advantage of being able to cope with the large volume of CO2 involved, which will increase because of a growing energy demand. Consequently, an important component of the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) research and development program is dedicated to reducing CO2 emissions from power plants by developing technologies for capturing CO2 and for subsequent utilization and/or sequestration. Capture technologies target novel, low-cost approaches for separation and capture of CO2 from energy production and conversion facilities. Injection of CO2 into geologic formations is being practiced today by the petroleum industry for enhanced oil recovery, but it is not yet possible to predict with confidence storage volume, formation integrity and storage permanence over long time periods. Many important issues dealing with geologic storage, monitoring, and verification of fluids (including CO2) in underground oil and gas reservoirs, coal beds, and saline formations are now being addressed. Preliminary field tests are being conducted to confirm practical considerations, such as economics, safety, stability, permanence, and public acceptance. This paper presents an overview of DOE's research program in the area of CO2 sequestration and storage in geologic formations and specifically addresses the status of new knowledge, improved tools and enhanced technology for cost optimization, monitoring, modeling and capacity estimation. This paper also highlights those fundamental and applied studies, including field tests, sponsored by DOE that are measuring the degree to which CO2 can be injected and remain safely and permanently sequestered in geologic formations while concurrently assuring no adverse long term ecological impacts. Field geophysical techniques are playing a major role in these demonstrations, such as the Weyburn project in North Dakota and Canada

  15. Environmental Geophysics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Geophysics website features geophysical methods, terms and references; forward and inverse geophysical models for download; and a decision support tool to guide geophysical method selection for a variety of environmental applications.

  16. Integrated near surface geophysics across the active Mount Marzano Fault System (southern Italy): seismogenic hints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P. A. C.; Giocoli, A.; Peronace, E.; Piscitelli, S.; Quadrio, B.; Bellanova, J.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe an original geophysical multi-method approach applied to the Mount Marzano Fault System. This is one of the most hazardous seismogenic faults of the Apennines (Irpinia, southern Italy), and it was responsible for the 1980, Mw 6.9, earthquake, along with many others before. We carried out electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements, and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) microtremor analysis along several common transects designed across the potential and/or certain fault traces. The data obtained from these non-invasive, inexpensive, expeditious methods mutually integrate with and complement each other, providing a valuable subsurface image of the near surface fault architecture. ERT depicts the general shallow image of the fault zone and of the fault-controlled sedimentary basin, with the depth of the buried bedrock cross-correlated through ambient-noise HVSR results. GPR delineates the very shallow geometry of the fault and of the associated deformation. Coupled with previous paleoseismological studies, these data allow the evaluation of some fault parameters and the precise locating of the fault trace, to aid future paleoseismological investigations aimed at seismic risk reduction programs.

  17. Evaluation of road failure vulnerability section through integrated geophysical and geotechnical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adiat, K. A. N.; Akinlalu, A. A.; Adegoroye, A. A.

    2017-06-01

    In order to investigate the competence of the proposed road for pavement stability, geotechnical and geophysical investigations involving Land Magnetic, Very Low Frequency Electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and Electrical Resistivity methods were carried out along Akure-Ipinsa road Southwestern Nigeria. The magnetic profile was qualitatively and quantitatively interpreted to produce geomagnetic section that provides information on the basement topography and structural disposition beneath the proposed road. Similarly, the VLF-EM profile was equally interpreted to provide information on the possible occurrence of linear features beneath the study area. These linear features pose a potential risk to the proposed road as they are capable of undermining the stability of the pavement structure. The geoelectric parameters obtained from the quantitative interpretation of the VES data were used to generate geoelectric section. The geoelectric section generated shows that the study area was underlain by four geoelectric layers namely the topsoil, the weathered layer, the partly weathered/fractured basement and the fresh basement. The major part of the topsoil, which constitutes the subgrade, is characterized by relatively low resistivity values (<100 Ωm) suggestive of weak zones that are capable of undermining the stability of the proposed road. This therefore suggests that the layer is composed of incompetent materials that are unsuitable for engineering structures. Furthermore, fractured basement was also delineated beneath some portion of the proposed road. Since fracture is a weak zone, its presence can facilitate failure of the proposed road especially when it is occurring at shallow depth. The geotechnical results reveal that most of the investigated soil samples are clayey in nature. Integration of the results demonstrates that there is a good correlation between geophysical results and the geotechnical results. Furthermore, a vulnerability section that divided the road

  18. Structure of the Marfa Basin, Trans-Pecos Texas: An Integrated Geophysical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oueity, J.; Keller, G.; Doser, D. I.

    2002-12-01

    The Marfa Basin is the southwesternmost segment of the Permian Basin region that initially formed in the late Paleozoic as a result of the Ouachita orogeny. This area has experienced several major tectonic events, extending from the Precambrian (Grenville orogeny) into the late Cenozoic (Laramide orogeny, and Basin and Range/Rio Grande rift extension). The basins in Trans-Pecos Texas are one important key to understanding these tectonic events and are also important from the standpoint of groundwater resources and petroleum potential. Abundant fault scarps and the Valentine earthquake in 1931 attest to the continuing tectonic activity. We are studying the subsurface structure in this area by integrating gravity, magnetics, remote sensing, GIS technology, and drill hole information. Thus, we are compiling a large database of geological, geophysical, and other geospatial data. The gravity field in this region is a product of both Phanerozoic features and the heterogeneity of the Precambrian basin. We have constructed four integrated cross-sections by modeling gravity profiles. In each case, thickness variations of Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks explain a major portion of the observed gravity anomalies. However, as we proceed southward from the Van Horn, Texas area, the importance of the pre-Cenozoic strata increases. The best example of this phenomenon is the Chalk Draw fault to the south. This fault bounds the Paleozoic Marfa basin and is associated with a steep gravity gradient. In order to model the gravity high south of this fault a mafic body in the upper crust was used. Another mafic body is necessary to produce the gravity high that correlates spatially with the Davis Mountains. We are using the experience our group has gained by studying areas to the north to further investigate basement structures in the area.

  19. Dynamic Coupling of Alaska Based Ecosystem and Geophysical Models into an Integrated Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, A.; Carman, T. B.

    2012-12-01

    As scientific models and the challenges they address have grown in complexity and scope, so has interest in dynamically coupling or integrating these models. Dynamic model coupling presents software engineering challenges stemming from differences in model architectures, differences in development styles between modeling groups, and memory and run time performance concerns. The Alaska Integrated Ecosystem Modeling (AIEM) project aims to dynamically couple three independently developed scientific models so that each model can exchange run-time data with each of the other models. The models being coupled are a stochastic fire dynamics model (ALFRESCO), a permafrost model (GIPL), and a soil and vegetation model (DVM-DOS-TEM). The scientific research objectives of the AIEM project are to: 1) use the coupled models for increasing our understanding of climate change and other stressors on landscape level physical and ecosystem processes, and; 2) provide support for resource conservation planning and decision making. The objectives related to the computer models themselves are modifiability, maintainability, and performance of the coupled and individual models. Modifiability and maintainability are especially important in a research context because source codes must be continually adapted to address new scientific concepts. Performance is crucial to delivering results in a timely manner. To achieve the objectives while addressing the challenges in dynamic model coupling, we have designed an architecture that emphasizes high cohesion for each individual model and loose coupling between the models. Each model will retain the ability to run independently, or to be available as a linked library to the coupled model. Performance is facilitated by parallelism in the spatial dimension. With close collaboration among modeling groups, the methodology described here has demonstrated the feasibility of coupling complex ecological and geophysical models to provide managers with more

  20. Clay content mapping through integration of geophysical proximal and remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garfagnoli, Francesca; André, Frédéric; Grandjean, Gilles; Lambot, Sébastien; Ciampalini, Andrea; Moretti, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Soil sustainable exploitation planning and land resource evaluation require up-to-date and accurate maps of soil properties. In that respect, geophysical techniques present particular interests given their non-invasiveness and their fast data acquisition capacity, which permit to characterize large areas with fine spatial and/or temporal resolutions. We investigated the relevancy of combining data from airborne hyperspectral (Hs), electromagnetic induction (EMI) and far-field ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for mapping soil properties, in particular soil clay content, at the field scale. Data from the three techniques were acquired at a test site in Mugello (Italy) characterized by relatively strong spatial variations of soil texture. Soil samples were collected for determining actual clay contents. For the frequencies used in this study (200-2000 MHz), the GPR surface reflection is mainly determined by soil dielectric permittivity, itself primarily influenced by soil moisture. In contrast, EMI is mostly sensitive to soil electrical conductivity, which integrates several soil properties including in particular soil moisture and clay content. Taking advantage of the complementary information provided by the two instruments, the GPR and EMI data were combined and correlated to local ground-truth measurements of clay content to provide high-resolution clay content maps over the entire field area. Besides, a relationship was also observed between Hs data and clay content measurements, which permitted to produce a Hs-derived clay content map. EMI-GPR and Hs maps showed close spatial patterns and a relatively high correlation was observed between both clay content estimates, as well as between clay content estimates and ground-truth clay content measurements. Future analyses will entail more advanced Bayesian data fusion techniques for combining EMI-GPR and Hs information. These results demonstrated great promise for integrated, digital soil mapping applications.

  1. Integrated geophysical imaging of the Aluto-Langano geothermal field (Ethiopia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzello, Daniele; Armadillo, Egidio; Verdoya, Massimo; Pasqua, Claudio; Kebede, Solomon; Mengiste, Andarge; Hailegiorgis, Getenesh; Abera, Fitsum; Mengesha, Kebede; Meqbel, Naser

    2017-04-01

    The Aluto-Langano geothermal system is located in the central part of the Main Ethiopian Rift, one of the world's most tectonically active areas, where continental rifting has been occurring since several Ma and has yielded widespread volcanism and enhanced geothermal gradient. The geothermal system is associated to the Mt Aluto Volcanic Complex, located along the eastern margin of the rift and related to the Wonji Fault Belt, constituted by Quaternary NNE-SSW en-echelon faults. These structures are younger than the NE-SW border faults of the central Main Ethiopian Rift and were originated by a stress field oblique to the rift direction. This peculiar tectonism yielded local intense rock fracturing that may favour the development of geothermal reservoirs. In this paper, we present the results of an integrated geophysical survey carried out in 2015 over an area of about 200 km2 covering the Mt Aluto Volcanic Complex. The geophysical campaign included 162 coincident magnetotelluric and time domain electromagnetic soundings, and 207 gravity stations, partially located in the sedimentary plain surrounding the volcanic complex. Three-dimensional inversion of the full MT static-corrected tensor and geomagnetic tipper was performed in the 338-0.001 Hz band. Gravity data processing comprised digital enhancement of the residual Bouguer anomaly and 2D-3D inverse modelling. The geophysical results were compared to direct observations of stratigraphy, rock alteration and temperature available from the several deep wells drilled in the area. The magnetotelluric results imaged a low-resistivity layer which appears well correlated with the mixed alteration layer found in the wells and can be interpreted as a low-temperature clay cap. The clay-cap bottom depth is well corresponds to a change of thermal gradient. The clay cap is discontinuous, and in the central area of the volcanic complex is characterised by a dome-shape structure likely related to isotherm rising. The propilitic

  2. Integration and analysis of airborne geophysical data of the Darrehzar area, Kerman Province, Iran, using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar, H.; Hassanzadeh, H.; Torabi, M.; Ilaghi, O.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes a methodology for the integrated interpretation of airborne magnetic and airborne γ-ray spectrometer data. The Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit is situated in the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic assemblage of Central Iran. Phyllic and propylitic alterations are pervasive in the area but potassic and argillic alterations are not readily recognized on the surface. The spatial distributions of geophysical data resemble the lithological and alteration patterns in the area. The Darrehzar porphyry copper deposit is considered as a control site for determination of the degrees that the geophysical data is correlated with the mineralization zone. Airborne magnetic/radiometric, and geochemical/alteration data sets have been integrated and analyzed using principal component analysis. This technique is found to be useful for the delineation of hydrothermally altered areas and data compression.

  3. Preschool Integration: Strategies for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Sarah H.; Green, Virginia P.

    1996-01-01

    Claims that long-term benefits of quality preschool programs include increased IQ scores; decreased time spent in special education classes; reduced education costs, crime and delinquency, and teen pregnancies; and improved socialization. Discusses definitions of integration, inclusion, mainstreaming, and LRE (least restrictive environment) and…

  4. Integrating Computer-Mediated Communication Strategy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Communication strategies (CSs) play important roles in resolving problematic second language interaction and facilitating language learning. While studies in face-to-face contexts demonstrate the benefits of communication strategy instruction (CSI), there have been few attempts to integrate computer-mediated communication and CSI. The study…

  5. Integrating Computer-Mediated Communication Strategy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Levi

    2016-01-01

    Communication strategies (CSs) play important roles in resolving problematic second language interaction and facilitating language learning. While studies in face-to-face contexts demonstrate the benefits of communication strategy instruction (CSI), there have been few attempts to integrate computer-mediated communication and CSI. The study…

  6. Identification and control integration strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark; Mettler, Edward; Bayard, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an autonomous control concept for pointing and articulation of science instruments on the Eos (Earth observing system) NASA/NOAA platforms intended to be operational by the late 1990s. Key features of this concept include advanced control adaptation and tuning strategies which provide performance robustness over a wide range of system uncertainties and mission time criticality. System identification-control modification paradigms are synthesized to form an adaptation continuum over this extended regime of autonomous operations.

  7. Identification and control integration strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milman, Mark; Mettler, Edward; Bayard, David

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an autonomous control concept for pointing and articulation of science instruments on the Eos (Earth observing system) NASA/NOAA platforms intended to be operational by the late 1990s. Key features of this concept include advanced control adaptation and tuning strategies which provide performance robustness over a wide range of system uncertainties and mission time criticality. System identification-control modification paradigms are synthesized to form an adaptation continuum over this extended regime of autonomous operations.

  8. Workshop on New Views of the Moon: Integrated Remotely Sensed, Geophysical, and Sample Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Brad L. (Editor); Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    It has been more than 25 years since Apollo 17 returned the last of the Apollo lunar samples. Since then, a vast amount of data has been obtained from the study of rocks and soils from the Apollo and Luna sample collections and, more recently, on a set of about a dozen lunar meteorites collected on Earth. Based on direct studies of the samples, many constraints have been established for the age, early differentiation, crust and mantle structure, and subsequent impact modification of the Moon. In addition, geophysical experiments at the surface, as well as remote sensing from orbit and Earth-based telescopic studies, have provided additional datasets about the Moon that constrain the nature of its surface and internal structure. Some might be tempted to say that we know all there is to know about the Moon and that it is time to move on from this simple satellite to more complex objects. However, the ongoing Lunar Prospector mission and the highly successful Clementine mission have provided important clues to the real geological complexity of the Moon, and have shown us that we still do not yet adequately understand the geologic history of Earth's companion. These missions, like Galileo during its lunar flyby, are providing global information viewed through new kinds of windows, and providing a fresh context for models of lunar origin, evolution, and resources, and perhaps even some grist for new questions and new hypotheses. The probable detection and characterization of water ice at the poles, the extreme concentration of Th and other radioactive elements in the Procellarum-Imbrium-Frigon's resurfaced areas of the nearside of the Moon, and the high-resolution gravity modeling enabled by these missions are examples of the kinds of exciting new results that must be integrated with the extant body of knowledge based on sample studies, in situ experiments, and remote-sensing missions to bring about the best possible understanding of the Moon and its history.

  9. Integrated Hydrogeochemical and Geophysical Interpretation of Groundwater Salinization in an Uplifted Pleistocene Carbonate Aquifer of Barbados

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayers, B.; Farrell, D.; Coffey, R.; Thompson, G.

    2007-05-01

    Understanding the processes that influence spatial and temporal distributions of aquifer salinity are essential to the development of a groundwater salinity management plan. In this paper, we integrate geophysical, hydrogeochemical and submarine seepage measurements to develop a conceptual hydrogeological model of groundwater salinization of a Pleistocene carbonate aquifer that has experienced Quaternary glacio-eustatic sea- level changes and tectonic uplift. The Pleistocene carbonate rock mantles moderately folded and faulted Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks of early Eocene to middle Miocene age. The main issues to be addressed are (1) an understanding of the hydrogeological regime of the karst aquifer, (2) the origin and extent of aquifer salinization, and (3) groundwater provenance. Non-invasive Time Domain and Resistivity soundings were used to map the subsurface electrical resistivity structure to infer the distribution of aquifer salinity and geologic structure. An analysis of the major and minor ions was used to evaluate groundwater chemistry patterns and the main mineralization processes. Submarine seepage measurements were taken from random locations in the near- shore region including a region of spring discharge. The results suggest (1) a heterogeneous distribution of fresh and saline groundwater that deviates from the idealized freshwater/saltwater transition zone on the decimeter scale, (2) a transition from Ca- HCO3 to Na-Cl type waters towards the coast indicating mixing with saline groundwater, (3) an Mg/Ca ratio that suggest aquitard-influenced saline groundwater (4) seepage of recirculated saline groundwater at locations where seepage springs are absent, and (5) an aquifer that has not been adequately flushed. In order to support these concepts, further work will utilize stable and environmental isotopes to age-date both fresh and saline groundwater and to evaluate the effects of water-rock and aquifer- aquitard interactions on the spatial and

  10. Integrating geophysical, hydrochemical, and hydrologic data to understand the freshwater resources on Nantucket Island, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marksamer, Andee J.; Person, Mark A.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Lane, John W., Jr.; Cohen, Denis; Dugan, Brandon; Kooi, Henk; Willett, Mark

    In this study we integrate geophysical, hydrologic, and salinity data to understand the present-day and paleo-hydrology of the continental shelf near Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. Time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings collected across Nantucket and observed salinity profiles from wells indicate that the saltwater/freshwater interface is at least 120 m below sea-level in the northern and central portions of the island, far deeper than predicted (80 m) by modern sea-level conditions. TDEM soundings also indicate that higher salinity conditions exist on the southern end of the island. These findings suggest a relatively high-permeability environment. Paradoxically, a deep, scientific borehole (USGS 6001) on Nantucket Island, sampling Tertiary and Cretaceous aquifers, is over-pressured by about 0.08 MPa (8 m excess head), which is suggestive of a relatively low-permeability environment. We constructed a series of two-dimensional, cross-sectional models of the paleohydrology of the Atlantic continental shelf near Nantucket to understand the flushing history and source of overpressure within this marine environment. We considered two mechanisms for the emplacement of freshwater: (1) meteoric recharge during sealevel low stands; and (2) sub-ice-sheet and glacial-lake recharge during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Results indicate the sub-ice-sheet recharge from the Laurentide Ice Sheet was needed to account for the observed salinity/resistivity conditions and overpressures. Both TDEM soundings and model results indicate that a lateral transition from fresh to saltwater occurs near the southern terminus of the island due to ice sheet recharge. We also conclude that the overpressure beneath Nantucket represents, in part, "fossil pressure' associated with the LGM.

  11. 3D integrated geophysical modeling for the 2008 magma intrusion at Etna: Constraints on rheology and dike overpressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currenti, Gilda; Napoli, Rosalba; Di Stefano, Agnese; Greco, Filippo; Del Negro, Ciro

    2011-03-01

    We present a 3D numerical model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) to jointly evaluate geophysical changes caused by dislocation and overpressure sources in volcanic areas. A coupled numerical problem was solved to estimate ground deformation, gravity and magnetic changes produced by stress redistribution accompanying magma migration within the volcano edifice. We successfully applied the integrated numerical procedure to image the magmatic intrusion occurring in the northern flank of Etna during the onset of the 2008 eruption. A multi-layered crustal structure of the volcano constrained by geological models and geophysical data was considered. Geodetic and gravity data provide information on the strain field, while piezomagnetic changes give constraints on the stress field. Therefore, the integrated modeling gives insights on Mt Etna rheology and dike overpressure involved in the magma propagation and improves understanding of dike emplacement in the northern sector of the volcano. Our FEM-based approach improves the reliability of model-based inference of geophysical parameters obtained during monitoring of the onset of Etna lateral intrusions that can prelude to an impending eruption.

  12. An integrative geological and geophysical approach to characterize a superficial deltaic aquifer in the Camargue plain, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Rondon, Laura; Carrière, Simon Damien; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Valles, Vincent

    2013-05-01

    Deltaic aquifers are complex due to the important heterogeneity of their structure and their hydrogeological functioning. Auger drilling provides localized, but very robust geological and hydrogeological information, while geophysical surveys can provide integrated subsurface information. An effective, easy-to-use and low-cost methodology combining geological/hydrogeological information from Auger drillings and the results from three geophysical techniques (Electromagnetic mapping, Electrical Sounding and Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is being developed to characterize the structure of a typical Mediterranean deltaic aquifer. A first hypothesis about hydrodynamic properties of the aquifer is also obtained. The study area is located in the Rhone delta (Middle Camargue/southern France). Integration of geophysical and geological techniques allowed identifying the presence and lateral extension of the Saint-Ferréol paleochannel, the vertical contact between lagoonal-fluvial deposits and the marine clayed silt that separate the superficial aquifer from the deeper aquifer. Likewise, high north-south heterogeneity and east-west homogeneity were highlighted in the study area. Presence of clay in sandy deposits in the low areas implies changes in lateral hydraulic permeability. This fact, jointed to the low hydraulic gradient, suggests a slow groundwater flow in the local system. The Rhone delta presents a typical configuration of a Mediterranean deltaic aquifer, thus this methodological approach can be used for similar deltaic Mediterranean systems.

  13. Integration of Geophysical Data into Structural Geological Modelling through Bayesian Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Varga, Miguel; Wellmann, Florian; Murdie, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Structural geological models are widely used to represent the spatial distribution of relevant geological features. Several techniques exist to construct these models on the basis of different assumptions and different types of geological observations (e.g. Jessell et al., 2014). However, two problems are prevalent when constructing models: (i) observations and assumptions, and therefore also the constructed model, are subject to uncertainties, and (ii) additional information, such as geophysical data, is often available, but cannot be considered directly in the geological modelling step. In our work, we propose the integration of all available data into a Bayesian network including the generation of the implicit geological method by means of interpolation functions (Mallet, 1992; Lajaunie et al., 1997; Mallet, 2004; Carr et al., 2001; Hillier et al., 2014). As a result, we are able to increase the certainty of the resultant models as well as potentially learn features of our regional geology through data mining and information theory techniques. MCMC methods are used in order to optimize computational time and assure the validity of the results. Here, we apply the aforementioned concepts in a 3-D model of the Sandstone Greenstone Belt in the Archean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. The example given, defines the uncertainty in the thickness of greenstone as limited by Bouguer anomaly and the internal structure of the greenstone as limited by the magnetic signature of a banded iron formation. The incorporation of the additional data and specially the gravity provides an important reduction of the possible outcomes and therefore the overall uncertainty. References Carr, C. J., K. R. Beatson, B. J. Cherrie, J. T. Mitchell, R. W. Fright, C. B. McCallum, and R. T. Evans, 2001, Reconstruction and representation of 3D objects with radial basis functions: Proceedings of the 28th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, 67-76. Jessell, M

  14. Integrated Interpretation of Geophysical, Geotechnical, and Environmental Monitoring Data to Define Precursors for Landslide Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlemann, S.; Chambers, J.; Merritt, A.; Wilkinson, P.; Meldrum, P.; Gunn, D.; Maurer, H.; Dixon, N.

    2014-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the failure mechanisms leading to first time failure or reactivation of landslides, the British Geological Survey is operating an observatory on an active, shallow landslide in North Yorkshire, UK, which is a typical example of slope failure in Lias Group mudrocks. This group and the Whitby Mudstone Formation in particular, show one of the highest landslide densities in the UK. The observatory comprises geophysical (i.e., ERT and self-potential monitoring, P- and S-wave tomography), geotechnical (i.e. acoustic emission and inclinometer), and hydrological and environmental monitoring (i.e. weather station, water level, soil moisture, soil temperature), in addition to movement monitoring using real-time kinematic GPS. In this study we focus on the reactivation of the landslide at the end of 2012, after an exceptionally wet summer. We present an integrated interpretation of the different data streams. Results show that the two lobes (east and west), which form the main focus of the observatory, behave differently. While water levels, and hence pore pressures, in the eastern lobe are characterised by a continuous increase towards activation resulting in significant movement (i.e. metres), water levels in the western lobe are showing frequent drainage events and thus lower pore pressures and a lower level of movement (i.e. tens of centimetres). This is in agreement with data from the geoelectrical monitoring array. During the summer season, resistivities generally increase due to decreasing moisture levels. However, during the summer of 2012 this seasonal pattern was interrupted, with the reactivated lobe displaying strongly decreasing resistivities (i.e. increasing moisture levels). The self-potential and soil moisture data show clear indications of moisture accumulation prior to the reactivation, followed by continuous discharge towards the base of the slope. Using the different data streams, we present 3D volumetric images of

  15. Integration and Improvement of Geophysical Root Biomass Measurements for Determining Carbon Credits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boitet, J. I.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon trading schemes fundamentally rely on accurate subsurface carbon quantification in order for governing bodies to grant carbon credits inclusive of root biomass (What is Carbon Credit. 2013). Root biomass makes up a large chunk of the subsurface carbon and is difficult, labor intensive, and costly to measure. This paper stitches together the latest geophysical root measurement techniques into site-dependent recommendations for technique combinations and modifications that maximize large-scale root biomass measurement accuracy and efficiency. "Accuracy" is maximized when actual root biomass is closest to measured root biomass. "Efficiency" is maximized when time, labor, and cost of measurement is minimized. Several combinations have emerged which satisfy both criteria under different site conditions. Use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and/or electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) allow for large tracts of land to be surveyed under appropriate conditions. Among other characteristics, GPR does best with detecting coarse roots in dry soil. ERT does best in detecting roots in moist soils, but is especially limited by electrode configuration (Mancuso, S. 2012). Integration of these two technologies into a baseline protocol based on site-specific characteristics, especially soil moisture and plants species heterogeneity, will drastically theoretically increase efficiency and accuracy of root biomass measurements. Modifications of current measurement protocols using these existing techniques will also theoretically lead to drastic improvements in both accuracy and efficiency. These modifications, such as efficient 3D imaging by adding an identical electrode array perpendicular to the first array used in the Pulled Array Continuous Electrical Profiling (PACEP) technique for ERT, should allow for more widespread application of these techniques for understanding root biomass. Where whole-site measurement is not feasible either due to financial, equipment, or

  16. Integration of thermal infrared satellite data with ground-based geophysical data for understanding volcanic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffke, Andrea M.

    This dissertation examines the tools and applications available for investigating volcanic phenomenon using satellite thermal infrared remote sensing data. Various algorithms have been developed to automatically detect volcanic thermal anomalies. A contextual (VAST), fixed threshold (MODVOLC) and temporal (RAT), the three main types of algorithms, are compared to determine how effective they are at detecting thermal anomalies caused by various types of volcanic activity (lava flows, lava domes, strombolian activity, and fumarolic activity). Each of the algorithms operates with the highest accuracy for the types of activity that they were designed to detect and no algorithm is 100 percent accurate. With the current data restrictions no algorithm ever will be, therefore user interaction is key. Results from the automated algorithms are then applied to determine discharge rates and cumulative volumes of erupted lava during the Stromboli 2007 eruption. Blinding applying the result can cause errors up to an order of magnitude with the main cause of errors coming from the inclusion of cloudy data and not identifying the most radiant pixels. From the manual results it was determined the 2007 eruption was a typical Strombolian effusive eruption caused by tapping a pressurized magma source. The satellite derived discharge rates and SO2 flux supply rates are then calculated and compared at Etna from 2002-2006. Differences in the supply rate of magma and erupted volume of lava occur from eruption to eruption and also vary throughout individual eruptions, indicating a complex supply system within Etna. Thermal satellite data is also used to estimate plume heights at Tungurahua volcano from 2006-2008. Heights are compared with acoustic power. Good correlation between plume height and acoustic power was found. By integrating the two data sets it is possible to distinguish between different eruption styles and aids in classification of eruption types. Although satellite data is a

  17. Streamlined Archaeo-Geophysical Data Processing and Integration for Department of Defense Field Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Rediscovering Ohio’s Earthworks Using Geophysical Remote Sensing.” American Antiquity 76(4). Carr, C. 1982. Handbook on Soil Resistivity Surveying. Evanston...4 1.3.2 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) ...................... 5 2 Technology...translucency overlay of ground- penetrating radar (tinted red), soil conductivity (green), and magnetic susceptibility (blue), (f) mathematical

  18. Use of geophysical methods in man-made hazard management strategies. Case study from Ploiesti city, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitea, F.; Anghelache, M. A.; Ioane, D.

    2010-05-01

    fact that affected area is continuously expanding as a consequence of contaminant transport by the underground water. Hydrogeologically the research area is located in the alluvium of one of the main hydrostructures of Romania, which holds important water resources. Preliminary investigations made in the Ploiesti city area, has shown the high vulnerability of the aquifer to pollution and it was detected a highly contaminated area. By detailed investigations made using geophysical investigations in the test-zone, it was possible the detection of the presence of the particular type of pollutants and a map with area zonation has been produced. Appliance of geophysical investigations in environmental strategies concerning underground water pollution should be added to the ones obtained by direct investigations for risk evaluation and remediation strategies in cases of man made hazards. Acknowledgements: The research was performed with financial support from MENER (project nr. 725/ 2006) and CNCSIS-UEFISCU (project nr. 244/2007)

  19. Development of an integrated tobacco endgame strategy.

    PubMed

    van der Eijk, Yvette

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, various tobacco 'endgame' strategies have been suggested as a means to phase out tobacco consumption. Using country examples, this paper discusses three potential strategies: replacing cigarettes with alternative products (harm reduction), denying tobacco sales to people born after a certain year (the tobacco-free generation proposal), and further implementing measures based on the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) treaty. It is argued that all strategies have potential issues that could be avoided by combining them into an integrated, sequential endgame that, first, using measures recommended in the WHO FCTC, creates a climate that facilitates the phasing out of cigarettes; second, implements a generational phase out of cigarette sales; and third, simultaneously permits the regulated use of alternative nicotine products. Thus, integrating ideas from various endgame strategies will result in a more effective, resilient tobacco endgame policy.

  20. Office of Space Science: Integrated technology strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, Wesley T., Jr.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1994-01-01

    This document outlines the strategy by which the Office of Space Science, in collaboration with the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology and the Office of Space Communications, will meet the challenge of the national technology thrust. The document: highlights the legislative framework within which OSS must operate; evaluates the relationship between OSS and its principal stakeholders; outlines a vision of a successful OSS integrated technology strategy; establishes four goals in support of this vision; provides an assessment of how OSS is currently positioned to respond to the goals; formulates strategic objectives to meet the goals; introduces policies for implementing the strategy; and identifies metrics for measuring success. The OSS Integrated Technology Strategy establishes the framework through which OSS will satisfy stakeholder expectations by teaming with partners in NASA and industry to develop the critical technologies required to: enhance space exploration, expand our knowledge of the universe, and ensure continued national scientific, technical and economic leadership.

  1. Integrated geophysical methods for the characterisation of an archaeological site (Massenzio Basilica — Roman forum, Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, Ettore; Di Filippo, Gerardina

    2009-08-01

    A geophysical study that involved different techniques was carried out with the aim to improve the knowledge of the archaeological site where the Basilica of Maxentius was founded and to discern individual covered structures (foundations). Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), seismic refraction and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) studies were performed in the archaeological site. VES and seismic refraction allowed to characterise the main geological formations of the hill where the Basilica was built and to distinguish the concrete floor and backfilling. Electrical data were processed using different algorithms; their results were compared to appraise the inverted models' robustness. ERT inversion algorithms were used to delineate shape and size of a much more complex structure, that were originally expected from archaeological excavation plan. The results of the commercial program were used as a posteriori information to include them in the algorithm proposed by the authors; the sequential use of the programs defined a processing procedure. The integrated use of different geophysical techniques reduced a great deal the intrinsic ambiguities of each method. Direct explorations (boreholes and archaeological excavations) confirmed the geophysical results.

  2. Integrating hydrologic and geophysical data to constrain coastal surficial aquifer processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schultz, Gregory M.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Fulton, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, repeated, coincident geophysical surveys and extensive hydrologic studies in shallow monitoring wells have been used to study static and dynamic processes associated with surface water-groundwater interaction at a range of spatial scales at the estuarine and ocean boundaries of an undeveloped, permeable barrier island in the Georgia part of the U.S. South Atlantic Bight. Because geophysical and hydrologic data measure different parameters, at different resolution and precision, and over vastly different spatial scales, reconciling the coincident data or even combining complementary inversion, hydrogeochemcial analyses and well-based groundwater monitoring, and, in some cases, limited vegetation mapping to demonstrate the utility of an integrative, multidisciplinary approach for elucidating groundwater processes at spatial scales (tens to thousands of meters) that are often difficult to capture with traditional hydrologic approaches. The case studies highlight regional aquifer characteristics, varying degrees of lateral saltwater intrusion at estuarine boundaries, complex subsurface salinity gradients at the ocean boundary, and imaging of submarsh groundwater discharge and possible free convection in the pore waters of a clastic marsh. This study also documents the use of geophysical techniques for detecting temporal changes in groundwater salinity regimes under natural (not forced) gradients at intratidal to interannual (1998-200 Southeastern U.S.A. drought) time scales.

  3. Integration of potential and quasipotential geophysical fields and GPR data for delineation of buried karst terranes in complex environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eppelbaum, L. V.; Alperovich, L. S.; Zheludev, V.; Ezersky, M.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Levi, E.

    2012-04-01

    Karst is found on particularly soluble rocks, especially limestone, marble, and dolomite (carbonate rocks), but is also developed on gypsum and rock salt. Subsurface carbonate rocks involved in karst groundwater circulation considerably extend the active karst realm, to perhaps 14% of the world's land area (Price, 2009). The phenomenon of the solution weathering of limestone is the most widely known in the world. Active sinkholes growth appears under different industrial constructions, roads, railways, bridges, airports, buildings, etc. Regions with arid and semi-arid climate occupy about 30% of the Earth's land. Subsurface in arid regions is characterized by high variability of physical properties both on lateral and vertical that complicates geophysical survey analysis. Therefore for localization and monitoring of karst terranes effective and reliable geophysical methodologies should be applied. Such advanced methods were developed in microgravity (Eppelbaum et al., 2008; Eppelbaum, 2011b), magnetic (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum et al., 2000, 2004; Eppelbaum, 2011a), induced polarization (Khesin et al., 1997; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2002), VLF (Eppelbaum and Khesin, 1992; Eppelbaum and Mishne, 2012), near-surface temperature (Eppelbaum, 2009), self-potential (Khesin et al., 1996; Eppelbaum and Khesin, 2002), and resistivity (Eppelbaum, 1999, 2007a) surveys. Application of some of these methodologies in the western and eastern shores of the Dead Sea area (e.g., Eppelbaum et al., 2008; Ezersky et al., 2010; Al-Zoubi et al., 2011) and in other regions of the world (Eppelbaum, 2007a) has shown their effectiveness. The common procedures for ring structure identification against the noise background and probabilistic-deterministic methods for recognizing the desired targets in complex media are presented in Khesin and Eppelbaum (1997), Eppelbaum et al. (2003), and Eppelbaum (2007b). For integrated analysis of different geophysical fields (including GPR images) intended

  4. Use of Geophysical and Remote Sensing Techniques During the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization's Integrated Field Exercise 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labak, Peter; Sussman, Aviva; Rowlands, Aled; Chiappini, Massimo; Malich, Gregor; MacLeod, Gordon; Sankey, Peter; Sweeney, Jerry; Tuckwell, George

    2016-04-01

    The Integrated Field Exercise of 2014 (IFE14) was a field event held in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (with concurrent activities in Austria) that tested the operational and technical capabilities of a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty's (CTBT) on-site inspection (OSI). During an OSI, up to 40 inspectors search a 1000km2 inspection area for evidence of a nuclear explosion. Over 250 experts from ~50 countries were involved in IFE14 (the largest simulation of an OSI to date) and worked from a number of different directions, such as the Exercise Management and Control Teams to execute the scenario in which the exercise was played, to those participants performing as members of the Inspection Team (IT). One of the main objectives of IFE14 was to test Treaty allowed inspection techniques, including a number of geophysical and remote sensing methods. In order to develop a scenario in which the simulated exercise could be carried out, a number of physical features in the IFE14 inspection area were designed and engineered by the Scenario Task Force Group (STF) that the IT could detect by applying the geophysical and remote sensing inspection technologies, as well as other techniques allowed by the CTBT. For example, in preparation for IFE14, the STF modeled a seismic triggering event that was provided to the IT to prompt them to detect and localize aftershocks in the vicinity of a possible explosion. Similarly, the STF planted shallow targets such as borehole casings and pipes for detection by other geophysical methods. In addition, airborne technologies, which included multi-spectral imaging, were deployed such that the IT could identify freshly exposed surfaces, imported materials and other areas that had been subject to modification. This presentation will introduce the CTBT and OSI, explain the IFE14 in terms of goals specific to geophysical and remote sensing methods, and show how both the preparation for and execution of IFE14 meet those goals.

  5. Hydro-geophysical observations integration in numerical model: case study in Mediterranean karstic unsaturated zone (Larzac, france)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champollion, Cédric; Fores, Benjamin; Le Moigne, Nicolas; Chéry, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Karstic hydro-systems are highly non-linear and heterogeneous but one of the main water resource in the Mediterranean area. Neither local measurements in boreholes or analysis at the spring can take into account the variability of the water storage. Since a few years, ground-based geophysical measurements (such as gravity, electrical resistivity or seismological data) allows following water storage in heterogeneous hydrosystems at an intermediate scale between boreholes and basin. Behind classical rigorous monitoring, the integration of geophysical data in hydrological numerical models in needed for both processes interpretation and quantification. Since a few years, a karstic geophysical observatory (GEK: Géodésie de l'Environnement Karstique, OSU OREME, SNO H+) has been setup in the Mediterranean area in the south of France. The observatory is surrounding more than 250m karstified dolomite, with an unsaturated zone of ~150m thickness. At the observatory water level in boreholes, evapotranspiration and rainfall are classical hydro-meteorological observations completed by continuous gravity, resistivity and seismological measurements. The main objective of the study is the modelling of the whole observation dataset by explicit unsaturated numerical model in one dimension. Hydrus software is used for the explicit modelling of the water storage and transfer and links the different observations (geophysics, water level, evapotranspiration) with the water saturation. Unknown hydrological parameters (permeability, porosity) are retrieved from stochastic inversions. The scale of investigation of the different observations are discussed thank to the modelling results. A sensibility study of the measurements against the model is done and key hydro-geological processes of the site are presented.

  6. Subsurface profiling using integrated geophysical methods for 2D site response analysis in Bangalore city, India: a new approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Deepu; Anbazhagan, P.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, site response analysis has become a mandatory step for the design of important structures. Subsurface investigation is an essential step, from where the input parameters for the site response study like density, shear wave velocity (Vs), thickness and damping characteristics, etc, are obtained. Most site response studies at shallow bedrock sites are one-dimensional (1D) and are usually carried out by using Vs from multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASW) or a standard penetration test (SPT) for N values with assumptions that soil layers are horizontal, uniform and homogeneous. These assumptions are not completely true in shallow bedrock regions as soil deposits are heterogeneous. The objective of this study is to generate the actual subsurface profiles in two-dimensions at shallow bedrock regions using integrated subsurface investigation testing. The study area selected for this work is Bangalore, India. Three survey lines were selected in Bangalore at two different locations; one at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) Campus and the other at Whitefield. Geophysical surveys like ground penetrating radar (GPR) and 2D MASW were carried out at these survey lines. Geophysical test results are compared and validated with a conventional geotechnical SPT. At the IISc site, the soil profile is obtained from a trench excavated for a proposed pipeline used to compare the geophysical test results. Test results show that GPR is very useful to delineate subsurface layers, especially for shallow depths at both sites (IISc Campus and Whitefield). MASW survey results show variation of Vs values and layer thickness comparatively at deeper depths for both sites. They also show higher density soil strata with high Vs value obtained at the IISc Campus site, whereas at the Whitefield site weaker soil with low shear velocity is observed. Combining these two geophysical methods helped to generate representative 2D subsurface profiles. These subsurface profiles can be

  7. TTP AL921102: An integrated geophysics program for non-intrusive characterization of mixed-Waste landfill sites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    This Technical Task conducted for the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development demonstrates the effectiveness of integrating several surface geophysical techniques to nonintrusively characterize mixed-waste landfill sites. An integrated approach enables an area to be characterized faster and cheaper because repeated access is not necessary and offers data and interpretations not attainable by a single technique. Field demonstrations using the complex galvanic resistivity, spontaneous potential (SP), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM), shear-wave (S-wave) seismic and compressional-wave (P-wave) seismic geophysical techniques were conducted at the Mixed-Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) test site at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico in Albuquerque. Data were acquired in two areas that have both known and unknown attributes. Although data from numerous profiles were analyzed, three lines were chosen as representative of the landfill site: Line 20E that crosses both the known Chromic Acid and Organics Pits, Line 60E that transectes an essentially barren area, and Line 125E located in an area with unknown subsurface conditions.

  8. Teaching Strategies for Integrating the Secondary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Lois V.; Jacobs, Natalie

    Nearly 500 teachers in the Sequoia Union High School District (Redwood City, California) were surveyed in order to explore: (1) strategies they used to bring about integration in secondary schools; (2) techniques that discourage resegregation in desegregated high schools; (3) ways that the district's teachers draw out the best in students new to a…

  9. Integrating auxiliary data and geophysical techniques for the estimation of soil clay content using CHAID algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh Afshar, Farideh; Ayoubi, Shamsollah; Besalatpour, Ali Asghar; Khademi, Hossein; Castrignano, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to estimate soil clay content in two depths using geophysical techniques (Ground Penetration Radar-GPR and Electromagnetic Induction-EMI) and ancillary variables (remote sensing and topographic data) in an arid region of the southeastern Iran. GPR measurements were performed throughout ten transects of 100 m length with the line spacing of 10 m, and the EMI measurements were done every 10 m on the same transect in six sites. Ten soil cores were sampled randomly in each site and soil samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 and 20-40 cm, and then the clay fraction of each of sixty soil samples was measured in the laboratory. Clay content was predicted using three different sets of properties including geophysical data, ancillary data, and a combination of both as inputs to multiple linear regressions (MLR) and decision tree-based algorithm of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) models. The results of the CHAID and MLR models with all combined data showed that geophysical data were the most important variables for the prediction of clay content in two depths in the study area. The proposed MLR model, using the combined data, could explain only 0.44 and 0.31% of the total variability of clay content in 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, respectively. Also, the coefficient of determination (R2) values for the clay content prediction, using the constructed CHAID model with the combined data, was 0.82 and 0.76 in 0-20 and 20-40 cm depths, respectively. CHAID models, therefore, showed a greater potential in predicting soil clay content from geophysical and ancillary data, while traditional regression methods (i.e. the MLR models) did not perform as well. Overall, the results may encourage researchers in using georeferenced GPR and EMI data as ancillary variables and CHAID algorithm to improve the estimation of soil clay content.

  10. Integration of Field Geophysics and Geology in an International Setting: Multidisciplinary Geoscience Field Experience at the University of Western Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenders, A. J.; Banerjee, N.; Pratt, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The pedagogical value of the field experience is unequaled: students, teaching assistants, and professors alike return with a renewed sense of purpose, community, and the context in which to place classroom education. It is widely regarded as valuable to personal development, and is required by the Canadian Council of Professional Geoscientists for professional registration. As part of our ongoing International Geoscience Field Experience Initiative, Earth Sciences students at the University of Western Ontario have the opportunity to enhance their education through a study abroad program. The focus is on a residential field experience to world-class localities, offered with the collaboration of internationally recognized academic researchers, government survey personnel, and industry leaders. Recent trips have included the Sn-W mineralization in the Cornwall district of the U.K., the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB) in Portugal and Spain, and the metallogenic belts of Western Turkey. The integration of geological knowledge with geophysical data was one of the key organizing principles of our recent field trips to the IPB and Western Turkey. This integration is a foundation of modern Earth Sciences, and common practice in industry, it is relatively rare in classroom settings. Lectures before departure and evening exercises during the field trip supplemented the core undergraduate curriculum in geophysics, reviewing gravity, DC resistivity, induced polarization (IP), and magnetotelluric methods, focusing on application to mineral exploration. During our trip to the IPB, partnership with industry allowed students the opportunity to work with state of the art geophysical data, acquired on an exploration prospect visited during the field trip. Multi-parameter geophysical inversions of the IP and MT data produced cross-sections in depth - results interpretable by the students in the complex geological environment of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Although the students gained valuable

  11. An integrated surface-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Dawson, C.B.; Belaval, Marcel; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2002-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill area at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut, was conducted in 2000 to supplement the preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of the contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water at the site. A geophysical-toolbox approach was used to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill. Two-dimensional direct-current resistivity, inductive terrain-conductivity, and seismic-refraction surface-geophysical data were collected and interpreted in an iterative manner with exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and hydraulic testing. In this investigation, a geophysical-toolbox approach was used to 1) further define previously identified conductive anomalies and leachate plumes; 2) identify additional leachate plumes, possible fracture zones, and (or) conductive lithologic layers in the bedrock; and 3) delineate bedrock-surface topography in the drainage valleys north and south of the landfill. Resistivity and terrain-conductivity surveys were used to further delineate previously identified geophysical anomalies to the north and southwest of the landfill. A conductive anomaly identified in the terrain-conductivity survey to the north of the landfill in 2000 had a similar location and magnitude as an anomaly identified in terrain-conductivity surveys conducted in 1998 and 1999. Collectively, these surveys indicated that the magnitude of the conductive anomaly decreased with depth and with distance from the landfill. These anomalies indicated landfill leachate in the overburden and shallow bedrock. Results of previous surface-geophysical investigations southwest of the landfill indicated a shallow conductive anomaly in the overburden that extended into the fractured-bedrock aquifer. This conductive anomaly had a sheet-like geometry that had a north-south strike, dipped to the west, and terminated

  12. Integrating geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-log measurements to characterize the Chalk aquifer, Berkshire, United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schürch, Marc; Buckley, David

    2002-09-01

    Geophysical and hydrochemical borehole-logging techniques were integrated to characterize hydraulic and hydrogeochemical properties of the Chalk aquifer at boreholes in Berkshire, UK. The down-hole measurements were made to locate fissures in the chalk, their spatial extent between boreholes, and to determine the groundwater chemical quality of the water-bearing layers. The geophysical borehole logging methods used were caliper, focused resistivity, induction resistivity, gamma ray, fluid temperature, fluid electrical conductivity, impeller and heat-pulse flowmeter, together with borehole wall optical-imaging. A multiparameter data transmitter was used to measure groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and redox potential of the borehole fluid down-hole. High permeability developed at the Chalk Rock by groundwater circulation provides the major flow horizon at the Banterwick Barn study site and represents a conduit system that serves as an effective local hydraulic connection between the boreholes. The Chalk Rock includes several lithified solution-ridden layers, hardgrounds, which imply a gap in sedimentation possibly representing an unconformity. Lower groundwater temperature, high dissolved-oxygen content, and flowmeter evidence of preferential groundwater flow in the Chalk Rock indicated rapid groundwater circulation along this horizon. By repeating the logging at different times of the year under changing hydraulic conditions, other water-inflow horizons within the Chalk aquifer were recognized. Résumé. Des techniques géophysiques et hydrochimiques de diagraphies en forage ont été mises en oeuvre pour caractériser les propriétés hydrauliques et hydrogéochimiques de l'aquifère de la craie dans des forages du Berkshire (Grande-Bretagne). Les mesures en descente ont été faites pour localiser les fissures dans la craie et leur développement spatial entre forages, et pour déterminer la qualité de l'eau souterraine des

  13. Integrating Multiple Geophysical Methods to Quantify Alpine Groundwater- Surface Water Interactions: Cordillera Blanca, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glas, R. L.; Lautz, L.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baker, E. A.; Somers, L. D.; Aubry-Wake, C.; Wigmore, O.; Mark, B. G.; Moucha, R.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater- surface water interactions in alpine catchments are often poorly understood as groundwater and hydrologic data are difficult to acquire in these remote areas. The Cordillera Blanca of Peru is a region where dry-season water supply is increasingly stressed due to the accelerated melting of glaciers throughout the range, affecting millions of people country-wide. The alpine valleys of the Cordillera Blanca have shown potential for significant groundwater storage and discharge to valley streams, which could buffer the dry-season variability of streamflow throughout the watershed as glaciers continue to recede. Known as pampas, the clay-rich, low-relief valley bottoms are interfingered with talus deposits, providing a likely pathway for groundwater recharged at the valley edges to be stored and slowly released to the stream throughout the year by springs. Multiple geophysical methods were used to determine areas of groundwater recharge and discharge as well as aquifer geometry of the pampa system. Seismic refraction tomography, vertical electrical sounding (VES), electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), and horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) seismic methods were used to determine the physical properties of the unconsolidated valley sediments, the depth to saturation, and the depth to bedrock for a representative section of the Quilcayhuanca Valley in the Cordillera Blanca. Depth to saturation and lithological boundaries were constrained by comparing geophysical results to continuous records of water levels and sediment core logs from a network of seven piezometers installed to depths of up to 6 m. Preliminary results show an average depth to bedrock for the study area of 25 m, which varies spatially along with water table depths across the valley. The conceptual model of groundwater flow and storage derived from these geophysical data will be used to inform future groundwater flow models of the area, allowing for the prediction of groundwater

  14. Integration of geological, geochemical, and geophysical spatial data of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Termain, Patricia A.; Donovan, Terrence J.; Chavez, Pat S.; Barringer, Anthony R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement pertaining to geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Cement oil field, Oklahoma, test site were collected employing both airborne sensors and ground-based data collection. The measurements include: (1) airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (supplying bismuth 214, thalium 208, and potassium 40 gamma-ray intensities); (2) aeromagnetic survey data; (3) multi-frequency airborne resistivity survey data (supplying apparent electrical resistivity of near surface materials); (4) gravity data; (5) geological and topographic maps; and (6) image data from Landsat MSS and U-2 photography.

  15. Integrated Geologic, Geochemical, and Geophysical Studies of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Finn, Carol A.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Page, William R.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Texas, covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mi (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States border with Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year project in 2003 with the objective of studying a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP. This fact sheet describes results of some of the research by USGS scientists working in BBNP.

  16. Detection of concrete dam leakage using an integrated geophysical technique based on flow-field fitting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Qianwei; Lin, Fangpeng; Wang, Xiaoping; Feng, Deshan; Bayless, Richard C.

    2017-05-01

    An integrated geophysical investigation was performed at S dam located at Dadu basin in China to assess the condition of the dam curtain. The key methodology of the integrated technique used was flow-field fitting method, which allowed identification of the hydraulic connections between the dam foundation and surface water sources (upstream and downstream), and location of the anomalous leakage outlets in the dam foundation. Limitations of the flow-field fitting method were complemented with resistivity logging to identify the internal erosion which had not yet developed into seepage pathways. The results of the flow-field fitting method and resistivity logging were consistent when compared with data provided by seismic tomography, borehole television, water injection test, and rock quality designation.

  17. Multi-Parameteric Geophysical Observatory: An Integrated Approach to Earthquake Precursory Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, B. K.; Arora, B. R.; Kumar, N.

    2009-12-01

    Laboratory based Dilatancy-diffusion model predicts that crustal rocks when subjected to various degrees of stresses, simulating different phases of earthquake preparatory cycle, undergo opening of minor cracks, in-flux of fluids, material strengthening prior to the rupture. These changes producing small perturbation in physical properties of rocks are manifested in the enhanced micro-seismicity, seismic wave velocity changes, crustal deformation, small-scale changes in gravity, resistivity, magnetic field intensity, electromagnetic and radon gas emission as well as by fluctuations in hydrological parameters. Recognising that simultaneous measurements of inter-disciplinary parameters are key to decipher characteristic space-time variation during the earthquake preparatory cycles, a Multi-Parameteric Geophysical Observatory (MPGO) has been established at Ghuttu, Central Himalaya. Located in a narrow belt of high seismicity, just south of the Main Central Thrust of the Himalaya, has been the seat of recent 1991-Uttarkashi and 1999-Chamoli earthquakes, both M> 6. The MPGO became fully operational in April 2007 and is equipped with super conducting gravimeter, overhauser magnetometer, tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer, ULF band search coil magnetometer, radon data logger, water level recorders and is backed up by the dense network of Broad Band Seismometers (BBS) and GPS. However, the isolation of weak earthquake precursory signal further requires characterization of time variability related to environmental, hydrological, tectonic and even inter planetary processes affecting differently each geophysical time series. Demonstrating the potential of data adoptive techniques like Principal Component Analysis, Wavelet, Singular Spectrum Analysis, Fractal etc in denoising and allowing parameterization of tidal, pressure and hydrological influence on gravity and other time series, the presentation shall present nature of precursory signals in gravity, magnetic, radon and water

  18. Integrating Satellite Gravity Data with Geophysical Data Sets for Crustal Modeling in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meijde, M.; Tedla, G. E.

    2006-12-01

    The African continent is one of the least studied areas in the world. Due to local circumstances but also to restricted financial and technical means that can be devoted to science, it is difficult to obtain detailed information on the Earth's structure underneath Africa and to maintain geophysical networks. The map of the Earth's structure of Africa has many spots where the crustal thickness and structure is unknown or only known with very large uncertainties. This results in a limited knowledge on African tectonic processes and their relation with and influences on crustal structures. Knowledge of the crustal structure is important for understanding the past and present tectonics and geodynamic evolution of a region, issues that are crucial to many Earth science studies. The crustal structure is not only of importance for studies of the Earth's deep interior, but also for the development of countries on the African continent. In many developing countries, the unexplored crust still holds a great economical potential. To prospect for resources, underground and surface dynamics must be studied and models developed. A detailed crustal model would also improve the accuracy of determination of regional and local earthquake locations and therefore has an impact on seismic hazard assessment and urban planning. In this study, satellite gravity data will be inverted for determining the crustal thickness in Africa. Because of the high non-uniqueness of gravity data in general and satellite gravity data specifically, a multi-disciplinary joint inversion will be performed. A method will be developed to invert gravity satellite data for crustal structure, including various a priori crustal thickness constraints obtained using different geophysical and geological techniques. The inferred crustal structure will be related to known tectonic processes and the implications for the wider African tectonic framework will be assessed. A detailed elevation model will be derived from

  19. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  20. Scaling filtering and multiplicative cascade information integration techniques for geological, geophysical and geochemical data processing and geological feature recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces several techniques recently developed based on the concepts of multiplicative cascade processes and multifractals for processing exploration geochemical and geophysical data for recognition of geological features and delineation of target areas for undiscovered mineral deposits. From a nonlinear point of view extreme geo-processes such as cloud formation, rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, landslides, earthquakes, igneous activities, tectonics and mineralization often show singular property that they may result in anomalous amounts of energy release or mass accumulation that generally are confined to narrow intervals in space or time. The end products of these non-linear processes have in common that they can be modeled as fractals or multifractals. Here we show that the three fundamental concepts of scaling in the context of multifractals: singularity, self-similarity and fractal dimension spectrum, make multifractal theory and methods useful for geochemical and geophysical data processing for general purposes of geological features recognition. These methods include: a local singularity analysis based on a area-density (C-A) multifractal model used as a scaling high-pass filtering technique capable of extracting weak signals caused by buried geological features; a suite of multifractal filtering techniques based on spectrum density - area (S-A) multifractal models implemented in various domain including frequency domain can be used for unmixing geochemical or geophysical fields according to distinct generalized self-similarities characterized in certain domain; and multiplicative cascade processes for integration of diverse evidential layers of information for prediction of point events such as location of mineral deposits. It is demonstrated by several case studies involving Fe, Sn, Mo-Ag and Mo-W mineral deposits that singularity method can be utilized to process stream sediment/soil geochemical data and gravity/aeromagnetic data as high

  1. Integration of geophysical and geological data for delimitation of mineralized zones in Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaafar, Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    An integrated approach for geophysical, geological and mineralogical data was followed for Um Naggat area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, in order to delineate its mineralized zones. The albitized granites are well-defined on the Th- and U-channel images, by their anomalous shapes, reaching 150 ppm and 90 ppm respectively, beside low K content. Interpretations of the aeromagnetic maps delineated four regional structural trends oriented due NNW, NW, ENE and E-W directions. They are identified as strike-slip faults, which coincide well with field observations, where NW-trending faults cut and displace right laterally ENE-trending older ones. The interaction between these two strike-slip fault systems confining the albite granite is easily identified on the regional data presenting longer wavelength anomalies, implying deep-seated structures. They could represent potential pathways for migration of enriched mineralized fluids. Geochemically, albite granites of peraluminous characteristics that had suffered extensive post-magmatic metasomatic reworking, resulted into development of (Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta, U, Th, Sn) and albite-enriched and greisenized granite body of about 600 m thick, and more than 3 km in strike length. The albite granite is characterized by sharp increase in average rare metal content: Zr (830 ppm), Hf (51 ppm), Nb (340 ppm), Ta (44 ppm), and U (90 ppm). Thorite, uranothorite, uraninite and zircon are the main uranium-bearing minerals of magmatic origin within the enclosing granite. However, with respect to Zr, Nb, and Ta, the albitized granite can be categorized as rare metal granite. The integration of airborne geophysical (magnetic and γ-ray spectrometric), geological, geochemical and mineralogical data succeeded in assigning the albite granite of Um Naggat pluton as a mineralized zone. This zone is characterized by its high thorium and uranium of hydrothermal origin as indicated by its low Th/U ratio, with rare metals mineralization controlled by two

  2. Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies for sewers.

    PubMed

    Kleidorfer, Manfred; Möderl, Michael; Tscheikner-Gratl, Franz; Hammerer, Max; Kinzel, Heiko; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Building measures in sewer systems are increasingly driven by rehabilitation/retrofitting and adaptation needs. Aging infrastructure together with changing boundary conditions (due to climate change, land-use change, demographic change) and also changing design standards and legislation require a prospective design to preserve the functionality of urban drainage systems not only today, but also in a long-term perspective. To improve a prospective design of urban water infrastructure, the Austrian Research Promotion Agency funded the research project 'REHAB - Integrated planning of rehabilitation strategies of urban infrastructure systems'. Therein a novel strategic planning tool which considers these external drivers of rehabilitation strategies is developed. In this study the scope of the project is described and, as well as first results regarding sewer pipe conditions, future development and vulnerability assessment are also discussed.

  3. Integrated Geophysical Examination of the CRREL Permafrost Tunnel’s Fairbanks Silt Units, Fox, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinwiddie, C. L.; McGinnis, R. N.; Stillman, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Hooper, D. M.; Bjella, K.

    2009-12-01

    We report on a recent geophysical survey of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ Cold Region Research and Engineering Laboratory’s Permafrost Tunnel in Fox, Alaska. The tunnel consists of an adit and winze excavated into late-Pleistocene loess (Fairbanks Silt), segregated lens ice, chaotic reticulated ice, foliated massive wedge ice, clear thermokarst cave ice, and gravel pseudomorphs. From within the tunnel and at land surface above the tunnel, we used ground-penetrating radar reflection and transillumination soundings, multielectrode and capacitively coupled resistivity profiling, and electrical resistivity tomography to identify geophysical signatures of permanently frozen loess and massive wedge ice. We exploited the increasing path length through the septum between the adit and winze in the direction away from their junction to observe how radar signals attenuate in these media. GPR transillumination soundings of this septum at 100, 200, 250, 500, and 1000 MHz clearly demarcated the difference between ray paths transiting relatively conductive permanently frozen loess versus those transiting relatively resistive massive wedge ice. Multielectrode resistivity tomography of the septum also clearly distinguished between massive wedge ice with estimated resistivities >100,000 ohm-m and permanently frozen loess with resistivities ranging from 4000 to 40,000 ohm-m. Capacitively coupled resistivity data gathered at land surface above the distal end of the adit show signatures consistent with its delaminating roof at this location. Analysis of dipole-dipole multielectrode resistivity data gathered at land surface with 48 electrodes and 2-m spacings produced adit-level resistivity estimates in the 10,000 to 26,000 ohm-m range. Both surface resistivity methods revealed the 0.75-1.0-m-thick seasonally frozen active layer above the tunnel to be relatively resistive (>1000 ohm-m) during midwinter. Core samples of foliated wedge ice, clear thermokarst cave ice with bubbles

  4. 3D Integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of the Iranian lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Naeim; Ardestani, Vahid E.; Ebbing, Jörg; Fullea, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The present-day Iranian Plateau is the result of complex tectonic processes associated with the Arabia-Eurasia Plate convergence at a lithospheric scale. In spite of previous mostly 2D geophysical studies, fundamental questions regarding the deep lithospheric and sub-lithospheric structure beneath Iran remain open. A robust 3D model of the thermochemical lithospheric structure in Iran is an important step toward a better understanding of the geological history and tectonic events in the area. Here, we apply a combined geophysical-petrological methodology (LitMod3D) to investigate the present-day thermal and compositional structure in the crust and upper mantle beneath the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone using a comprehensive variety of constraining data: elevation, surface heat flow, gravity potential fields, satellite gravity gradients, xenoliths and seismic tomography. Different mantle compositions were tested in our model based on local xenolith samples and global data base averages for different tectonothermal ages. A uniform mantle composition fails to explain the observed gravity field, gravity gradients and surface topography. A tectonically regionalized lithospheric mantle compositional model is able to explain all data sets including seismic tomography models. Our preliminary thermochemical lithospheric study constrains the depth to Moho discontinuity and intra crustal geometries including depth to sediments. We also determine the depth to Curie isotherm which is known as the base of magnetized crustal/uppermost mantle bodies. Discrepancies with respect to previous studies include mantle composition and the geometry of Moho and Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB). Synthetic seismic Vs and Vp velocities match existing seismic tomography models in the area. In this study, depleted mantle compositions are modelled beneath cold and thick lithosphere in Arabian and Turan platforms. A more fertile mantle composition is found in collision zones. Based on our 3

  5. Beyond PARR - PMEL's Integrated Data Management Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, E. F.; O'Brien, K.; Manke, A. B.; Schweitzer, R.; Smith, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    NOAA's Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) hosts a wide range of scientific projects that span a number of scientific and environmental research disciplines. Each of these 14 research projects have their own data streams that are as diverse as the research. With its requirements for public access to federally funded research results and data, the 2013 White House Office of Science and Technology memo on Public Access to Research Results (PARR) changed the data management landscape for Federal agencies. In 2015, with support from the PMEL Director, Dr. Christopher Sabine, PMEL's Science Data Integration Group (SDIG) initiated a multi-year effort to formulate and implement an integrated data-management strategy for PMEL research efforts. Instead of using external requirements, such as PARR, to define our approach, we focussed on strategies to provide PMEL science projects with a unified framework for data submission, interoperable data access, data storage, and easier data archival to National Data Centers. This improves data access to PMEL scientists, their collaborators, and the public, and also provides a unified lab framework that allows our projects to meet their data management objectives, as well as those required by the PARR. We are implementing this solution in stages that allows us to test technology and architecture choices before comitting to a large scale implementation. SDIG developers have completed the first year of development where our approach is to reuse and leverage existing frameworks and standards. This presentation will describe our data management strategy, explain our phased implementation approach, the software and framework choices, and how these elements help us meet the objectives of this strategy. We will share the lessons learned in dealing with diverse and complex datasets in this first year of implementation and how these outcomes will shape our decisions for this ongoing effort. The data management capabilities now

  6. Integrated geophysical surveys for mapping lati-andesite intrusive bodies, Chino Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    El-Kaliouby, Hesham; Sternberg, Ben K.; Hoffmann, John P.; Langenheim, V.E.

    2012-01-01

    Three different geophysical methods (magnetic, transient electromagnetic (TEM) and gravity) were used near Chino Valley, Arizona, USA in order to map a suspected lati-andesite intrusive body (plug) previously located by interpretation of aeromagnetic data. The magnetic and TEM surveys provided the best indication of the location and depth of the plug. The north-south spatial extent of this plug was estimated to be approximately 600 meters. The depth to the top of the plug was found from the TEM survey to be approximately 350 meters near the center of the survey. The location of the plug defined by the ground magnetic data is consistent with that from the TEM data. Gravity data mostly image the basin-basement interface with a small contribution from the plug of about 0.5 mGal. Results from this investigation can be used to help define the irregular subsurface topography caused by several intrusive lati-andesite plugs that could influence groundwater flow in the area.

  7. Integrated geophysical survey in defining subsidence features on a golf course

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Subsidence was observed at several places on the Salina Municipal Golf Course in areas known to be built over a landfill in Salina, Kansas. High-resolution magnetic survey (???5400 m2), multi-channel electrical resistivity profiling (three 154 m lines) and microgravity profiling (23 gravity-station values) were performed on a subsidence site (Green 16) to aid in determining boundaries and density deficiency of the landfill in the vicinity of the subsidence. Horizontal boundaries of the landfill were confidently defined by both magnetic anomalies and the pseudo-vertical gradient of total field magnetic anomalies. Furthermore, the pseudo-vertical gradient of magnetic anomalies presented a unique anomaly at Green 16, which provided a criterion for predicting other spots with subsidence potential using the same gradient property. Results of multi-channel electrical resistivity profiling (ERP) suggested the bottom limit of the landfill at Green 16 was around 21 m below the ground surface based on the vertical gradient of electric resistivity and a priori information on the depth of the landfill. ERP results also outlined several possible landfill bodies based on their low resistivity values. Microgravity results suggested a -0.14 g cm-3 density deficiency at Green 16 that could equate to future surface subsidence of as much as 1.5 m due to gradual compaction. ?? 2007 Nanjing Institute of Geophysical Prospecting.

  8. Integrated geophysical study to delineate the subsurface structures in Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Ahmed; Abd El All, Esmat; Rabeh, Taha; Osman, Salah

    2015-04-01

    Siwa Oasis is located within the Western Desert of Egypt and is a potential candidate for the development. It represents one of the most interesting and distinct region of Egypt. The main goal of the present work is to study the subsurface structures in Siwa Oasis area, Western Desert, Egypt and to determine their effects on surface geologic structures. To achieve this, two geophysical methods (magnetic and geothermal) have been used in this study. A detailed land magnetic survey was performed. The necessary reduction concerning daily variation, the regional gradient and time variation observation were applied. The measured total magnetic field was corrected and reduced to the north magnetic pole. Data analysis was performed using trend analysis, Euler deconvolution, high pass filter, analytical signal. The results indicate that the area is affected by tectonic forces in the NE-SW, NW- SE and E-W directions. Geothermal studies in some places in Siwa Oasis were carried out using the device of thermo-physical properties (Isomet-104) for measuring the subsurface temperature contour map (30 meters below the earth's surface). This map illustrates that there are good geothermal regions have hot groundwater reservoir. The measurements of geothermal properties of some rock samples such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, volume capacity and thermal values gave us an indication about the geothermal of rocks in the subsurface. Also, geothermal studies gave us an idea about the heat flow and the increasing of the energy and chemical of properties of the predominant subsurface rocks in the study area.

  9. Integration of remote sensing and surface geophysics in the detection of faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, P. L.; Shuchman, R. A.; Wagner, H.; Ruskey, F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing was included in a comprehensive investigation of the use of geophysical techniques to aid in underground mine placement. The primary objective was to detect faults and slumping, features which, due to structural weakness and excess water, cause construction difficulties and safety hazards in mine construction. Preliminary geologic reconnaissance was performed on a potential site for an underground oil shale mine in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. LANDSAT data, black and white aerial photography and 3 cm radar imagery were obtained. LANDSAT data were primarily used in optical imagery and digital tape forms, both of which were analyzed and enhanced by computer techniques. The aerial photography and radar data offered supplemental information. Surface linears in the test area were located and mapped principally from LANDSAT data. A specific, relatively wide, linear pointed directly toward the test site, but did not extend into it. Density slicing, ratioing, and edge enhancement of the LANDSAT data all indicated the existence of this linear. Radar imagery marginally confirmed the linear, while aerial photography did not confirm it.

  10. Integrated geophysical and LIDAR surveys at the archaeological site of Ancient Epomanduodurum, Mandeure-Mathay (Doubs, Eastern France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thivet, M.; Bossuet, G.; Laplaige, C.

    2009-04-01

    For several years, some integrated geophysical studies were carried out at Mandeure-Mathay (Franche-Comté Region, Eastern France) for the archaeological evaluation of ancient Epomanduodurum. It's a site of a major scientific interest for understanding the territorial structure of earliest agglomerations in the Eastern Gaul at the end of the Iron Age and during the Roman period. As regards its size, urban equipment, monuments and function, the ancient town is considered as the second behind the civitas capital of Sequani, Besançon-Vesontio. It is located in the Doubs valley, where the plain of Alsace opens into the marches of Burgundy, in a traffic zone between the Vosges and the Jura. This location allows transit between the Rhône valley and the Rhein plain, through Saône and Doubs valleys. This geographical situation was a significant factor in the creation of the late Iron Age settlement, later to turn into a major Gallo-roman town. The whole site includes urban centre and two artisan suburbs. The buried ruins are extended moreover 500 hectares outside and inside a meander of the river. The first "well-organized" research done on the site goes back as far as the end of the 18th Century. However, it is only round the beginning of the 19th century that major constructions such as the theatre (1820) and the sanctuary (1880) were uncovered. The status and the influence of Latenian sanctuary, located in the centre part of a great monumental complex of Early Augustan period, played probably an important role in the emergence of this foreground agglomeration. From the beginning of the survey, in 2001, high resolution and no invasive geophysical methods have been performed on large scale both on the terrace and in the floodplain. Automatic Resistivity Profiling (ARP) and magnetic mapping were taken in grids covering respective areas of 60 and 40 hectares. Ground penetrating radar was occasionally used to confirm the detection of specific anthropogenic anomalies

  11. Integration of geophysics within the Argonne expedited site characterization Program at a site in the southern High Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Hastings, B.; Hildebrandt, G.; Meyer, T.; Saunders, W.; Burton, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    An Argonne National Laboratory Expedited Site Characterization (ESC) program was carried out at a site in the central United States. The Argonne ESC process emphasizes an interdisciplinary approach in which all available information is integrated to produce as complete a picture as possible of the geologic and hydrologic controls on contaminant distribution and transport. As part of this process, all pertinent data that have been collected from previous investigations are thoroughly analyzed before a decision is made to collect additional information. A seismic reflection program recently concluded at the site had produced inconclusive results. Before we decided whether another acquisition program was warranted, we examined the existing data set to evaluate the quality of the raw data, the appropriateness of the processing sequence, and the integrity of the interpretation. We decided that the field data were of sufficient quality to warrant reprocessing and reinterpretation. The main thrust of the reprocessing effort was to enhance the continuity of a shallow, low-frequency reflection identified as a perching horizon within the Ogallala formation. The reinterpreted seismic data were used to locate the boundaries of the perched aquifer, which helped to guide the Argonne ESC drilling and sampling program. In addition, digitized geophysical well log data from previous drilling programs were reinterpreted and integrated into the geologic and hydrogeologic model.

  12. An integrated geological and geophysical study of the Uinta Mountains, Utah, Colorado and a geophysical study on Tamarix in the Rio Grande River basin, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatun, Salma

    2008-07-01

    This research consists of two parts. One part deals with an integrated analysis of the structural anomaly associated with the Uinta Mountains, Utah. The other part deals with a study on the effect of Tamarix on soil and water quality. The Uinta Mountains are an anomalous east-west trending range of the Central Rocky Mountains and are located in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado. They have long been recognized as a structural anomaly that is surrounded by other Laramide structures that trend N-S or northwest. The study area extends from -112 to -108 degrees longitude and 41.5 to 39 degrees latitude and consists of three major geologic features: The Green River basin, Uinta Mountains, and the Uinta basin. This study investigates the tectonic evolution and the structural development of the Uinta aulacogen. There is a growing interest in exploration for petroleum and other hydrocarbons in the area of this study. Oil companies have been drilling wells in this area since the 1950's. The results of this study will enhance the existing knowledge of this region, and thus will help in the pursuit of hydrocarbons. A highly integrated approach was followed for this investigation. Gravity, magnetic, drill hole, seismic and receiver function data were used in the analysis. Gravity and magnetic data were analyzed using software tools available in the Department of Geological Sciences such as Oasis Montaj and GIS. Filtered gravity maps show that the Uinta Mountains and the surrounding basins and uplifts are deep seated features. These maps also reveal a correlation between the Uinta Mountains and the regional tectonic structures. This correlation helps in understanding how the different tectonic events that this region went through contributed to the different phases of development of the Uinta aulacogen. Four gravity models were generated along four north-south trending profile lines covering the target area from east to west. Interpretations of these models give a

  13. Ignimbrites to batholiths: integrating perspectives from geological, geophysical, and geochronological data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, Peter W.; Bachmann, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Multistage histories of incremental accumulation, fractionation, and solidification during construction of large subvolcanic magma bodies that remained sufficiently liquid to erupt are recorded by Tertiary ignimbrites, source calderas, and granitoid intrusions associated with large gravity lows at the Southern Rocky Mountain volcanic field (SRMVF). Geophysical data combined with geological constraints and comparisons with tilted plutons and magmatic-arc sections elsewhere are consistent with the presence of vertically extensive (>20 km) intermediate to silicic batholiths (with intrusive:extrusive ratios of 10:1 or greater) beneath the major SRMVF volcanic loci (Sawatch, San Juan, Questa-Latir). Isotopic data require involvement of voluminous mantle-derived mafic magmas on a scale equal to or greater than that of the intermediate to silicic volcanic and plutonic rocks. Early waxing-stage intrusions (35–30 Ma) that fed intermediate-composition central volcanoes of the San Juan locus are more widespread than the geophysically defined batholith; these likely heated and processed the crust, preparatory for ignimbrite volcanism (32–27 Ma) and large-scale upper-crustal batholith growth. Age and compositional similarities indicate that SRMVF ignimbrites and granitic intrusions are closely related, but the extent to which the plutons record remnants of former magma reservoirs that lost melt to volcanic eruptions has been controversial. Published Ar/Ar-feldspar and U-Pb-zircon ages for plutons spatially associated with ignimbrite calderas document final crystallization of granitoid intrusions at times indistinguishable from the tuff to ages several million years younger. These ages also show that SRMVF caldera-related intrusions cooled and solidified soon after zircon crystallization, as magma supply waned. Some researchers interpret these results as recording pluton assembly in small increments that crystallized rapidly, leading to temporal disconnects between

  14. Integrated geologic and geophysical studies of North American continental intraplate seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Lanen, X.; Mooney, W.D.

    2007-01-01

    The origin of earthquakes within stable continental regions has been the subject of debate over the past thirty years. Here, we examine the correlation of North American stable continental region earthquakes using five geologic and geophysical data sets: (1) a newly compiled age-province map; (2) Bouguer gravity data; (3) aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) the tectonic stress field; and (5) crustal structure as revealed by deep seismic-reflection profiles. We find that: (1) Archean-age (3.8-2.5 Ga) North American crust is essentially aseismic, whereas post-Archean (less than 2.5 Ga) crust shows no clear correlation of crustal age and earthquake frequency or moment release; (2) seismicity is correlated with continental paleorifts; and (3) seismicity is correlated with the NE-SW structural grain of the crust of eastern North America, which in turn reflects the opening and closing of the proto- and modern Atlantic Ocean. This structural grain can be discerned as clear NE-SW lineaments in the Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly maps. Stable continental region seismicity either: (1) follows the NE-SW lineaments; (2) is aligned at right angles to these lineaments; or (3) forms clusters at what have been termed stress concentrators (e.g., igneous intrusions and intersecting faults). Seismicity levels are very low to the west of the Grenville Front (i.e., in the Archean Superior craton). The correlation of seismicity with NE-SW-oriented lineaments implies that some stable continental region seismicity is related to the accretion and rifting processes that have formed the North American continental crust during the past 2 b.y. We further evaluate this hypothesis by correlating stable continental region seismicity with recently obtained deep seismic-reflection images of the Appalachian and Grenville crust of southern Canada. These images show numerous faults that penetrate deep (40 km) into the crust. An analysis of hypocentral depths for stable continental region earthquakes

  15. Integration of soil moisture and geophysical datasets for improved water resource management in irrigated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbiner, Catherine; Franz, Trenton E.; Avery, William Alexander; Heeren, Derek M.

    2016-04-01

    Global trends in consumptive water use indicate a growing and unsustainable reliance on water resources. Approximately 40% of total food production originates from irrigated agriculture. With increasing crop yield demands, water use efficiency must increase to maintain a stable food and water trade. This work aims to increase our understanding of soil hydrologic fluxes at intermediate spatial scales. Fixed and roving cosmic-ray neutron probes were combined in order to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at three study sites across an East-West precipitation gradient in the state of Nebraska, USA. A coarse scale map was generated for the entire domain (122 km2) at each study site. We used a simplistic data merging technique to produce a statistical daily soil moisture product at a range of key spatial scales in support of current irrigation technologies: the individual sprinkler (˜102m2) for variable rate irrigation, the individual wedge (˜103m2) for variable speed irrigation, and the quarter section (0.82 km2) for uniform rate irrigation. Additionally, we were able to generate a daily soil moisture product over the entire study area at various key modeling and remote sensing scales 12, 32, and 122 km2. Our soil moisture products and derived soil properties were then compared against spatial datasets (i.e. field capacity and wilting point) from the US Department of Agriculture Web Soil Survey. The results show that our "observed" field capacity was higher compared to the Web Soil Survey products. We hypothesize that our results, when provided to irrigators, will decrease water losses due to runoff and deep percolation as sprinkler managers can better estimate irrigation application depth and times in relation to soil moisture depletion below field capacity and above maximum allowable depletion. The incorporation of this non-contact and pragmatic geophysical method into current irrigation practices across the state and globe has the

  16. Integrated decision strategies for skin sensitization hazard.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Judy; Zang, Qingda; Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Paris, Michael; Lehmann, David M; Choksi, Neepa; Matheson, Joanna; Jacobs, Abigail; Lowit, Anna; Allen, David; Casey, Warren

    2016-09-01

    One of the top priorities of the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) is the identification and evaluation of non-animal alternatives for skin sensitization testing. Although skin sensitization is a complex process, the key biological events of the process have been well characterized in an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) proposed by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Accordingly, ICCVAM is working to develop integrated decision strategies based on the AOP using in vitro, in chemico and in silico information. Data were compiled for 120 substances tested in the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA), direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), human cell line activation test (h-CLAT) and KeratinoSens assay. Data for six physicochemical properties, which may affect skin penetration, were also collected, and skin sensitization read-across predictions were performed using OECD QSAR Toolbox. All data were combined into a variety of potential integrated decision strategies to predict LLNA outcomes using a training set of 94 substances and an external test set of 26 substances. Fifty-four models were built using multiple combinations of machine learning approaches and predictor variables. The seven models with the highest accuracy (89-96% for the test set and 96-99% for the training set) for predicting LLNA outcomes used a support vector machine (SVM) approach with different combinations of predictor variables. The performance statistics of the SVM models were higher than any of the non-animal tests alone and higher than simple test battery approaches using these methods. These data suggest that computational approaches are promising tools to effectively integrate data sources to identify potential skin sensitizers without animal testing. Published 2016. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2016. This article has

  17. Automatic 1D integrated geophysical modelling of lithospheric discontinuities: a case study from Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinč, Michal; Zeyen, Hermann; Bielik, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Using a very fast 1D method of integrated geophysical modelling, we calculated models of the Moho discontinuity and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary in the Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region and its surrounding tectonic units. This method is capable to constrain complicated lithospheric structures by using joint interpretation of different geophysical data sets (geoid and topography) at the same time. The Moho depth map shows significant crustal thickness variations. The thickest crust is found underneath the Carpathian arc and its immediate Foredeep. High values are found in the Eastern Carpathians and Vrancea area (44 km). The thickest crust modelled in the Southern Carpathians is 42 km. The Dinarides crust is characterized by thicknesses more than 40 km. In the East European Platform, crust has a thickness of about 34 km. In the Apuseni Mountains, the depth of the Moho is about 36 km. The Pannonian Basin and the Moesian Platform have thinner crust than the surrounding areas. Here the crustal thicknesses are less than 30 km on average. The thinnest crust can be found in the SE part of the Pannonian Basin near the contact with the Southern Carpathians where it is only 26 km. The thickest lithosphere is placed in the East European Platform, Eastern Carpathians and Southern Carpathians. The East European Platform lithosphere thickness is on average more than 120 km. A strip of thicker lithosphere follows the Eastern Carpathians and its Foredeep, where the values reach in average 160 km. A lithosphere thickness minimum can be observed at the southern border of the Southern Carpathians and in the SE part of the Pannonian Basin. Here, it is only 60 km. The extremely low values of lithospheric thickness in this area were not shown before. The Moesian Platform is characterized by an E-W trend of lithospheric thickness decrease. In the East, the thickness is about 110 km and in the west it is only 80 km. The Pannonian Basin lithospheric thickness ranges from 80 to

  18. Integrated Geophysical Studies to Image the Remains of Amenemeht II Pyramid's Complex in Dahshour Necropolis, Giza, Egypt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Abbas Mohamed; Atya, Magdy; El-Emam, Ahmed; Ghazala, Hosny, ,, Prof.; Shaaban, Fathy, ,, Dr; Odah, Hatem, ,, Prof; Ibrahim, El-Khedr, ,, Prof; Lethy, Ahmed, ,, Dr

    2009-04-01

    Dahshour archaeological site is located adjacent to Giza necropolis at about 25 km south of Cairo. The site itself is an imperative necropolis that attracts the attention of the archaeologists. This location is a spectator of several historical episodes that start with the pyramidal complexes from the early dynasties (the mud brick tombs, the mastabas, and the Bent Pyramid) passing through the phase of the Step Pyramid of Zoser at Saqqara to the first complete pyramid in the history (the Red pyramid of Senefro "Khofo's father"). In 2002, the local archaeological supervisors suggested an area around the debris of the White pyramid (of Amenemeht II) for reconnaissance magnetic survey. The survey had been completed using the gradiometer FM36. More than 98 survey grids (20 x 20 m) of a surface area of 39200 m2 have been measured. The results reported the recognition of some parts of the mortuary temple, the causeway, and some other anomalies that could not be attributed to specific archaeological aspect. Therefore, an integrated geophysical survey was proposed, in the present work, to get more details help to identify these objects. The ground penetrating radar (GPR, SIR2000), the electrical resistance meter (Geoscan RM15), and the electromagnetic profiler (GEM300) have been utilized to acquire the data. They have been applied to selected zones to investigate specific objects and oriented to solve the problems questioned by the local archaeological inspectors. The study conveyed an superior image of the whole measured site and helped to identify most of the detected artifacts. Furthermore, the margins of the causeway and its infrastructure have been perfectly delineated. However, the possible place of the eastern entrance and the Valley temple have been tentatively located. Keywords: Archaeo-geophysics, Dahshour, White Pyramid

  19. Integrated geophysical investigation to assess seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer in the southwest of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahal, A. Y.; Alfaifi, H. J.; Ibrahim, E. K. E.; Abdel Rahman, K.; Alhumidan, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    The shallow groundwater aquifer in the coastal zone of western Saudi Arabia has been witnessed quality deterioration due to uncontrolled and unwise domestic and agricultural activities. The aquifer quality deterioration resulted from the seawater intrusion that threatens the groundwater quality in the area. To assess this problem, integrated geophysical tools; electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), seismic refraction tomography (SRT) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques are used. In this study, three ERT and two SRT profiles along with 6 VES stations are measured along a distance of about 20 Km, perpendicular to the Red Sea coast. The resistivity and seismic data are processed and presented along sections to display the changes in the electrical resistivities and seismic velocities along the measured profiles. These sections are interpreted in light of the available geological and hydrological information. The interpretation of the geophysical data indicates the presence of three subsurface layers that capped with a thin, dry and unconsolidated sandy layer. This topmost layer is underlain by a freshwater saturated layer that shows thinning and wedging towards the sea coast. This layer overlies a relatively low resistivity and high velocity layer that is interpreted as moderately compacted sandy layer saturated with saline water. It is observed that the level of the saltwater rise and the freshwater saturated layer thins out towards the sea; indicating seawater intrusion that extents into the shallow coastal aquifer in the investigated area. It is expected that the porous and permeable character of the coastal sediments facilitates the hydraulic contact between the coastal shallow aquifer and sea water. In addition, the unwise domestic use and aggressive pumping of the groundwater aquifer leads to an increase in the salinization of the coastal aquifer.

  20. Mapping Neogene and Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil by integrating geophysics, remote sensing and geological field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrades-Filho, Clódis de Oliveira; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima; Bezerra, Francisco Hilario Rego; Medeiros, Walter Eugênio; Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Cremon, Édipo Henrique; Oliveira, Roberto Gusmão de

    2014-12-01

    Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits corresponding respectively to the Barreiras Formation and Post-Barreiras Sediments are abundant along the Brazilian coast. Such deposits are valuable for reconstructing sea level fluctuations and recording tectonic reactivation along the passive margin of South America. Despite this relevance, much effort remains to be invested in discriminating these units in their various areas of occurrence. The main objective of this work is to develop and test a new methodology for semi-automated mapping of Neogene and late Quaternary sedimentary deposits in northeastern Brazil integrating geophysical and remote sensing data. The central onshore Paraíba Basin was selected due to the recent availability of a detailed map based on the integration of surface and subsurface geological data. We used airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (i.e., potassium-K and thorium-Th concentration) and morphometric data (i.e., relief-dissection, slope and elevation) extracted from the digital elevation model (DEM) generated by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The procedures included: (a) data integration using geographic information systems (GIS); (b) exploratory statistical analyses, including the definition of parameters and thresholds for class discrimination for a set of sample plots; and (c) development and application of a decision-tree classification. Data validation was based on: (i) statistical analysis of geochemical and airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data consisting of K and Th concentrations; and (ii) map validation with the support of a confusion matrix, overall accuracy, as well as quantity disagreement and allocation disagreement for accuracy assessment based on field points. The concentration of K successfully separated the sedimentary units of the basin from Precambrian basement rocks. The relief-dissection morphometric variable allowed the discrimination between the Barreiras Formation and the Post-Barreiras Sediments. In

  1. A Fossil Mantle Plume under the Emeishan Flood Basalts: Integration of Geology, Geophysics and Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; He, B.; Chung, S.

    2004-12-01

    The plume hypothesis is now challenged because some fundamental aspects predicted by the modeling of plumes are found to be lacking in classic regions like Iceland and Yellowstone. Instead of invoking a ¡°bottom-up¡± process, some researchers favor a ¡°top-down¡± hypothesis for the formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs), in which shallow lithospheric processes may fuel melt production. Seismic investigations and tomographic models help trace mantle plumes in modern, active hotspots, but are of limited benefit in identifying ancient plumes, mainly because geophysics provides us with a snapshot of the present-day Earth¡_s structure. Consequently the geological ¡°footprint¡± associated with thermal anomalies are the clues to tracing ancient plumes. According to some theoretical models, pre-volcanic lithospheric uplift is the most important criteria used to identify the presence of plumes. The lack of such evidence, on the other hand, is an argument against the involvement of plumes in the formation of LIPs. Recent examination of the middle-late Permian sedimentology in southwest China reveals kilometer-scale lithospheric doming prior to the Emeishan flood volcanism (He et al., 2003). This, and correlations between diverse, independent parameters involving crustal doming, paleo-geography, sea level change, mantle melting mechanism and crust-mantle structure, provide evidence for a fossil mantle plume under the Emeishan LIP. Specifically, the consequences of plume-lithosphere interaction include: (a) pre-volcanic uplift including thinning of marine carbonates, a marine to sub-aerial transition, local provenance of clastic sediments, and a marked erosional unconformity, evident as palaeokarstic surfaces on the marine carbonates; (b) a domal structure (700 km radius); (c) variations in the thickness of volcanic rocks across the domal structure; (d) variations in flood basalt geochemistry from the center to the edge of the domal structure that are

  2. An integrated geophysical study of north African and Mediterranean lithospheric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dial, Paul Joseph

    1998-07-01

    This dissertation utilizes gravity and seismic waveform modeling techniques to: (1) determine models of lithospheric structure across northern African through gravity modeling and (2) determine lithospheric and crustal structure and seismic wave propagation characteristics across northern Africa and the Mediterranean region. The purpose of the gravity investigation was to construct models of lithospheric structure across northern Africa through the analysis of gravity data constrained by previous geological and geophysical studies. Three lithospheric models were constructed from Bouguer gravity data using computer modeling, and the gravity data was wavelength-filtered to investigate the relative depth and extent of the structures associated with the major anomalies. In the Atlas Mountains area, the resulting earth models showed slightly greater crustal thickness than those of previous studies if a low density mantle region is not included in the models. However, if a low density mantle region (density = 3.25 g/cm3) was included beneath the Atlas, the earth models showed little crustal thickening (38 km), in accord with previous seismic studies. The second portion of the research consisted of seismic waveform modeling of regional and teleseismic events to determine crustal and lithospheric structure across northern Africa and the Mediterranean. A total of 174 seismograms (145 at regional distances (200--1400 km) and 29 with epicentral distances exceeding 1900 km) were modeled using 1-D velocity models and a reflectivity code. At regional distances from four stations surrounding the western Mediterranean basin (MAL, TOL, PTO and AQU) and one station near the Red Sea (HLW), 1-D velocity models can satisfactorily model the relative amplitudes of both the Pnl and surface wave portions of the seismograms. Modeling of propagation paths greater than 1900 km was also conducted across northern Africa and the Mediterranean. The results indicate that the S-wave velocity model

  3. Integration & Co-development of a Geophysical CO2 Monitoring Suite

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2007-07-24

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has emerged as a key technology for dramatic short-term reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in particular from large stationary. A key challenge in this arena is the monitoring and verification (M&V) of CO2 plumes in the deep subsurface. Towards that end, we have developed a tool that can simultaneously invert multiple sub-surface data sets to constrain the location, geometry, and saturation of subsurface CO2 plumes. We have focused on a suite of unconventional geophysical approaches that measure changes in electrical properties (electrical resistance tomography, electromagnetic induction tomography) and bulk crustal deformation (til-meters). We had also used constraints of the geology as rendered in a shared earth model (ShEM) and of the injection (e.g., total injected CO{sub 2}). We describe a stochastic inversion method for mapping subsurface regions where CO{sub 2} saturation is changing. The technique combines prior information with measurements of injected CO{sub 2} volume, reservoir deformation and electrical resistivity. Bayesian inference and a Metropolis simulation algorithm form the basis for this approach. The method can (a) jointly reconstruct disparate data types such as surface or subsurface tilt, electrical resistivity, and injected CO{sub 2} volume measurements, (b) provide quantitative measures of the result uncertainty, (c) identify competing models when the available data are insufficient to definitively identify a single optimal model and (d) rank the alternative models based on how well they fit available data. We present results from general simulations of a hypothetical case derived from a real site. We also apply the technique to a field in Wyoming, where measurements collected during CO{sub 2} injection for enhanced oil recovery serve to illustrate the method's performance. The stochastic inversions provide estimates of the most probable location, shape, volume of the plume and most likely CO{sub 2

  4. Integrating geospatial and ground geophysical information as guidelines for groundwater potential zones in hard rock terrains of south India.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mehnaz; Lone, Mahjoor Ahmad; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2012-08-01

    The increasing demand of water has brought tremendous pressure on groundwater resources in the regions were groundwater is prime source of water. The objective of this study was to explore groundwater potential zones in Maheshwaram watershed of Andhra Pradesh, India with semi-arid climatic condition and hard rock granitic terrain. GIS-based modelling was used to integrate remote sensing and geophysical data to delineate groundwater potential zones. In the present study, Indian Remote Sensing RESOURCESAT-1, Linear Imaging Self-Scanner (LISS-4) digital data, ASTER digital elevation model and vertical electrical sounding data along with other data sets were analysed to generate various thematic maps, viz., geomorphology, land use/land cover, geology, lineament density, soil, drainage density, slope, aquifer resistivity and aquifer thickness. Based on this integrated approach, the groundwater availability in the watershed was classified into four categories, viz. very good, good, moderate and poor. The results reveal that the modelling assessment method proposed in this study is an effective tool for deciphering groundwater potential zones for proper planning and management of groundwater resources in diverse hydrogeological terrains.

  5. A slingram survey on the Nevada Test Site: part of an integrated geologic geophysical study of site evaluation for nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flanigan, Vincent J.

    1979-01-01

    A slingram geophysical survey was made in early 1978 as part of the integrated geologlcal-geophysical study aimed at evaluating the Eleana Formation as a possible repository for nuclear waste. The slingram data were taken over an alluvial fan and pediments along the eastern flank of Syncline Ridge about 45 km north of Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. The data show that the more conductive argillaceous Eleana Formation varies in depth from 40 to 85 m from west to east along traverse lines. Northeast-trending linear anomalies suggest rather abrupt changes in subsurface geology that may be associated with faults and fractures. The results of the slingram survey will, when interpreted in the light of other geologic and geophysical evidence, assist in understanding the shallow parts of the geologic setting of the Eleana Formation.

  6. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology`s threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  7. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  8. New geological and tectonic map of Paleoproterozoic basement in western Burkina Faso: integrated interpretation of airborne geophysical and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metelka, Vaclav; Baratoux, Lenka; Jessell, Mark; Naba, Seta

    2010-05-01

    The recent acquisition of regional scale airborne datasets over most of the West African craton sparked off a number of studies concentrating on their litho-tectonic interpretation. In such polydeformed terrains, where outcrop is very sparse or virtually nonexistent due to the presence of thick lateritic cover, geophysics and specifically geomagnetic surveying provide a wealth of information that facilitates the deciphering of regional litho-structural hierarchies. A revised geological and tectonic map of the Houndé and Boromo greenstone belts was derived by interpretation of aeromagnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric data constrained by field observations where available. Medium resolution geophysical data gridded at 250 meters acquired during the SYSMIN project served as a basis for the interpretation. This dataset was integrated with the SRTM digital elevation model and over 600 field observations. Furthermore, the BRGM/BUMIGEB SYSMIN project outcrops database (Castaing et al., 2003) as well as older outcrop maps, maintained by BUMIGEB, were used. Locally, outcrop maps and high resolution geophysics provided by mining companies (Orezone, SEMAFO, Volta Resources, Wega Mining) were employed. 2-D geophysical inversion modeling in GM-sys software using the ground gravity and airborne magnetic data was applied to three selected E-W profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA) of magnetic and radiometric data was a powerful tool for distinguishing different lithological units, in particular tholeiitic suites of basalts and gabbros and various volcano-sedimentary units. Some of the granite pluton limits can be traced as well using the PCA; however thick lateritic cover substantially hinders precise mapping. Magnetic data used on its own gave better results not only for granite limits but also for determining internal structures such as shear zones and concentric compositional zoning. Several major N-S to NNE-SSW oriented shear zones, representing most probably deep

  9. Integration of borehole geophysical properties into surface multichannel seismic data sets: First results from the SCOPSCO ICDP project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindhorst, Katja; Krastel, Sebastian; Baumgarten, Henrike; Wonik, Thomas; Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Ohrid (Macedonia/Albania), located on the Balkan Peninsula within the Dinaride-Hellenide-Albanide mountain belt is probably the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe (2-5 Ma). Multidisciplinary studies at Lake Ohrid prove that it is an important archive to study the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of a graben system over a long time period. Within the frame of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) a successful deep drilling campaign was carried out in spring 2013 with more than 2000 m of sediment cores at four sites. Downhole logging was realized at each site after coring, enabling us to integrate geophysical and sedimentological data into seismic cross sections in order to get a profound knowledge of climatic and environmental changes in the catchment area. The longest record (~569 m, site DEEP), recovered in the central part of lake Ohrid likely covers the entire lacustrine succession within Lake Ohrid Basin including several Interglacial and Glacial cycles. Sedimentological analyses are still ongoing; however, the upper 260 m of the DEEP reflecting the time period between Mid-Pleistocene Transition to present. An integration of borehole geophysical data into surface seismic lines shows that sediments, within the central part of Lake Ohrid, were deposited in a deep water environment over the last 600 ka. For the uppermost sediment cover, about 50 m of penetration, a very high resolution sediment echosounder data set allows us to identify major tephra layers and track them through the entire deep basin. Furthermore, a vertical seismic profile was carried out at site DEEP resulting in a conversion from two-way-travel-time into sediment depth. One major outcome is a corridor stack of the upgoing wave that clearly shows several reflectors linked to changes of sediment properties of cores and hence environmental and climate changes in the surrounding area of Lake Ohrid Basin. Several changes from Glacial to Interglacial, and vice versa

  10. Numerical estimation of real and apparent integral neutron parameters used in nuclear borehole geophysics.

    PubMed

    Dworak, D; Drabina, A; Woźnicka, U

    2006-07-01

    The semi-empirical method of neutron logging tool calibration developed by Prof. J.A. Czubek uses the real and so-called apparent integral neutron parameters of geological formations. To this end, Czubek proposed a few separated calculation methods commonly based on analytical solutions of the neutron transport problem. A new calculation method for the neutron integral parameters is proposed. Quantities like slowing-down length, diffusion and migration lengths, probability to avoid absorption during slowing down, and thermal neutron absorption cross section can be easily approximated using Monte Carlo simulations. A comparison with the results of the analytical method developed by Czubek has been performed for many cases and the observed differences have been explained.

  11. Geophysical methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Near-surface geophysical methods have become have become important tools for agriculture. Geophysics employed for agriculture tends to be heavily focused on a 2 m zone directly beneath the ground surface, which includes the crop root zone and all, or at least most, of the soil profile. Resistivity...

  12. A review of integrated geophysical investigations from archaeological and cultural sites under encroaching urbanisation in İzmir, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahor, Mahmut Göktuğ

    In the new millennium, globalisation, and with it urbanisation, has been expanding as a consequence of economic development throughout the world. Urbanisation is a major social problem, not only for developing countries but also for developed countries. Urbanisation also has a major impact on archaeological sites and cultural heritages in urbanised zones. Non-destructive investigation techniques, such as geophysics, which uses remote sensing, and is non-invasive, are of great importance in urban areas. We are now capable of solving urbanisation-related problems, and these techniques reduce the cost of projects at urbanised sites. Geophysics has increased the possibilities of new applications in determining intensive urbanisation effects in earth science. Geophysics deals with numerous physical variations such as electricity, electromagnetism, magnetics, acoustics, gravity and radioactivity. There are numerous ways geophysics can be applied in archaeological and cultural heritage studies. In addition the hazard mitigation, infrastructure investigation, waste management, water supply, urban gateways and other factors are documented by geophysics. In recent years, archaeological sites under the encroachment of urbanisation have been investigated on numerous occasions using non-invasive geophysical techniques, allowing parameters such as the depth, dimension and extension of targets to be clearly determined. The term “urban geophysics” has recently been seen in various references related to geophysics and other earth science studies. This study reviews the results of geophysical investigations carried out at important archaeological sites under encroaching urbanisation in the city of İzmir, Turkey.

  13. Inside the polygonal walls of Amelia (Central Italy): A multidisciplinary data integration, encompassing geodetic monitoring and geophysical prospections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercoli, M.; Brigante, R.; Radicioni, F.; Pauselli, C.; Mazzocca, M.; Centi, G.; Stoppini, A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate a portion of the ancient (VI and IV centuries BC) polygonal walls of Amelia, in Central Italy. After the collapse of a portion of the walls which occurred in January 2006, a wide project started in order to monitor their external facade and inspect the characteristics of the internal structure, currently not clearly known. In this specific case, the preservation of such an important cultural heritage was mandatory, therefore invasive methods like drilling or archaeological essays cannot be used. For this purpose, a multidisciplinary approach represents an innovative way to shed light on their inner structure. We combine several non-invasive techniques such as Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), specifically adapted for this study, Laser Scanning and Digital Terrestrial Photogrammetry, integrated with other geomatic measures provided by a Total Station and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). After collecting some historical information, we gather the whole datasets exploring for their integration an interpretation approach borrowed from the reflection seismic (attribute analysis and three dimensional visualization). The results give rise for the first time to the internal imaging of this ancient walls, highlighting features associable to different building styles related to different historical periods. Among the result, we define a max wall thickness of about 3.5 m for the cyclopic sector, we show details of the internal block organization and we detect low resistivity values interpretable with high water content behind the basal part of the walls. Then, quantitative analyses to assess their reliable geotechnical stability are done, integrating new geometrical constrains provided by the geophysics and geo-technical ground parameters available in literature. From this analysis, we highlight how the Amelia walls are interested, in the investigated sector, by a critical pseudo-static equilibrium.

  14. Integrating tropospheric oxidants - A measurement strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prather, M. J.; Holmes, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    The troposphere contains a broad and variegated mix of chemical regimes, in which key processes such as methane loss and ozone production can vary by large factors. Convection and frontal lifting inject hot spots of highly reactive species - HOx and NOx precursors - that can enhance these processes by large factors throughout the troposphere. Lightning and aircraft can create their own hot spots with high NOx. These hot spots are transported at least part way around the globe and eventually diluted through chemical aging and mixing. All of these processes have been observed and modeled, but the challenge of making measurements that define their global integral remains. In terms of chemical regimes, the troposphere is not well mixed, but granular. Integration of methane loss or ozone production over a hemisphere or the globe requires not only chemical characterization (i.e., the covariance of HOx and NOx precursors, photochemical environment) for the mix of hot spots and the less varied background, but also their frequency of occurrence. In an effort to quantify these globally integrated processes using observations, we evaluate a sampling strategy for in situ aircraft measurements using a chemistry-transport model (CTM). We simulate the seasonal Pacific ocean transects of a HIPPO-like mission that includes measurements of the major HOx and NOx precursors. HIPPO conducted pole-to-pole observations with continuous vertical profiling from near the surface to 9 km. Oxidant hot spots occur through convection from the marine boundary layer (e.g., HOOH, CH3OOH) as well as longer-range transport of industrial pollution and biomass burning. Unlike previous missions focused on testing instantaneous photochemical steady-state along the flight path, we are interested in how each measured air parcel will destroy methane or make ozone over the next day or so. Thus, we assume that we can measure or infer all species needed to initiate a 24 hour photochemical box-model integration

  15. Integrated Geophysical Investigation of Preferential Flow Paths at the Former Tyson Valley Powder Farm near Eureka, Missouri, May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Bethany L.; Ball, Lyndsay B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Hobza, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    In May 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, conducted surface and borehole geophysical surveys at the former Tyson Valley Powder Farm near Eureka, Mo., to identify preferential pathways for potential contaminant transport along the bedrock surface and into dissolution-enhanced fractures. The Tyson Valley Powder Farm was formerly used as a munitions storage and disposal facility in the 1940s and 1950s, and the site at which the surveys were performed was a disposal area for munitions and waste solvents such as trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene. Direct-current resistivity and seismic refraction data were acquired on the surface; gamma, electromagnetic induction, and full waveform sonic logs were acquired in accessible boreholes. Through the combined interpretation of the seismic refraction tomographic and resistivity inversion results and borehole logs, inconsistencies in the bedrock surface were identified that may provide horizontal preferential flow paths for dense nonaqueous phase liquid contaminants. These results, interpreted and displayed in georeferenced three-dimensional space, should help to establish more effective monitoring and remediation strategies.

  16. Multi-scale analysis of Proterozoic shear zones: An integrated structural and geophysical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John R.; Betts, Peter G.; Collins, Alan S.; Schaefer, Bruce F.

    2009-11-01

    Structural mapping of poorly exposed shear zone outcrops is integrated with the analysis of aeromagnetic and Bouguer gravity data to develop a multi-scale kinematic and relative overprinting chronology for the Palaeoproterozoic Tallacootra Shear Zone, Australia. D 2 mylonitic fabrics at outcrop record Kimban-aged (ca. 1730-1690 Ma) N-S shortening and correlate with SZ 1 movements. Overprinting D 3 sinistral shear zones record the partitioning of near-ideal simple shear and initiated Riedel to regional-scale SZ 2 strike-slip on the Tallacootra Shear Zone (SZ 2). Previously undocumented NE-SW extension led to the emplacement of aplite dykes into the shear zone and can be correlated to the (ca. 1595-1575 Ma) Hiltaba magmatic event. D 4 dextral transpression during the (ca. 1470-1450 Ma) Coorabie Orogeny reactivated the Tallacootra Shear Zone (SZ 2-R4) exhuming lower crust of the northwestern Fowler Domain within a positive flower structure. This latest shear zone movement is related to a system of west-dipping shear zones that penetrate the crust and sole into a lithospheric detachment indicating wholesale crustal shortening. These methods demonstrate the value of integrating multi-scale structural analyses for the study of shear zones with limited exposure.

  17. An integrated geological and geophysical analysis of thrusting in the Hoback Range, Sublette and Teton Counties, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sterne, E.J.; William, M.C. )

    1991-06-01

    Recent seismic acquisition and drilling in the Hoback Range of the Wyoming thrust belt have focused on the buried Granite Creek thrust sheet. To date, four wells have penetrated the thrust sheet and have yielded some encouraging results without establishing production. Wells, seismic control, and surface geology help define the sourthern extent of the Granite Creek thrust package as well as the lateral and subsurface geometry of other thrust packages in the area. The Hoback Range provides an excellent view of a frontal thrust zone with several unique attributes. In contrast to most parts of the Cordilleran thrust belt, the regional layer dips east, reflecting the convergence of the northern Moxa arch and the thrust belt. Typical eastward younging of thrusting is not followed, and the order of thrusting can be shown to break back to the west. Unlike other parts of the Wyoming thrust belt, a west-vergent thrust bounds the eastern limit of thrusting and forms a possible triangle zone. The Cache Creek fault merges into the northern end of the range and offers an excellent opportunity to study thrust-belt and foreland interactions. This study illustrates many of the problems typically encountered in areas of complex structure and demonstrated how they may be solved using an integrated geological and geophysical approach.

  18. An integrated geophysical study of the southeastern Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico: Summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Veronica J.; Keller, G. Randy

    Southwestern Wyoming is located at the margin of the Archean Wyoming craton but has experienced significant deformation as a result of both the Sevier and Laramide orogenies. This study focuses on the nature and extent of this deformation and its interactions with structures within the Precambrian basement. We used about 350 km of newly released industry seismic reflection data along with gravity data, satellite imagery, and drilling information in an integrated analysis focusing on the north-south trending Rock Springs uplift, the northwest-trending Wind River uplift and the west-east trending Sweetwater uplift. These features form arches that are bounded by the Green River, Wind River, Great Divide, and the Washakie basins (Fig. 1). An example of the seismic data is shown in Figure 2 displays structural complexity at the northeast boundary of the Great Divide basin involving high-angle reverse faults with northeast dips. The fault that lies roughly in the middle of the line is interpreted to be the southeastern extension of the Wind River thrust, and the fault at the northeast end of the line is interpreted to be the Mormon Trail thrust. A gravity profile was modeled as a medium to integrate all of the data. This model of the upper crust indicates the presence of inhomogeneities in the Archean basement that have not been recognized previously. The basement northeast of the Wind River thrust contains considerable reflectivity indicating folding or fabric that either reflects or controls Laramide structures. The interweaving of reflectors in one line resemble imbricate structures shown in the CD-ROM Cheyenne belt deep reflection profile and could be related to an ancient structural boundary within the basement. Our analysis shows that the multiple thrusts bounding the Sweetwater uplift occur near major inhomogeneities in the Precambrian basement. Spatial relations we observe are consistent with the hypothesis that anastomosing arches characterize Laramide foreland

  19. A general framework of TOPSIS method for integration of airborne geophysics, satellite imagery, geochemical and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedi, Maysam; Norouzi, Gholam-Hossain

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the promising application of three variants of TOPSIS method (namely the conventional, adjusted and modified versions) as a straightforward knowledge-driven technique in multi criteria decision making processes for data fusion of a broad exploratory geo-dataset in mineral potential/prospectivity mapping. The method is implemented to airborne geophysical data (e.g. potassium radiometry, aeromagnetic and frequency domain electromagnetic data), surface geological layers (fault and host rock zones), extracted alteration layers from remote sensing satellite imagery data, and five evidential attributes from stream sediment geochemical data. The central Iranian volcanic-sedimentary belt in Kerman province at the SE of Iran that is embedded in the Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Assemblage arc (UDMA) is chosen to integrate broad evidential layers in the region of prospect. The studied area has high potential of ore mineral occurrences especially porphyry copper/molybdenum and the generated mineral potential maps aim to outline new prospect zones for further investigation in future. Two evidential layers of the downward continued aeromagnetic data and its analytic signal filter are prepared to be incorporated in fusion process as geophysical plausible footprints of the porphyry type mineralization. The low values of the apparent resistivity layer calculated from the airborne frequency domain electromagnetic data are also used as an electrical criterion in this investigation. Four remote sensing evidential layers of argillic, phyllic, propylitic and hydroxyl alterations were extracted from ASTER images in order to map the altered areas associated with porphyry type deposits, whilst the ETM+ satellite imagery data were used as well to map iron oxide layer. Since potassium alteration is generally the mainstay of porphyry ore mineralization, the airborne potassium radiometry data was used. The geochemical layers of Cu/B/Pb/Zn elements and the first component of PCA

  20. Integrated 3D modelling, an effective way to improve geophysical data interpretation - the southwestern Barents Shelf as a case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecile, B.; Joerg, E.; Laurent, G.

    2008-12-01

    We will demonstrate how seismic interpretation combined with density and magnetic modelling can help to better constrain the crustal structure below sedimentary basins and increase the accuracy of geophysical data interpretation. On the southwestern Barents Shelf, we applied 3D joint density and magnetic modelling to obtain maps of depth to the top basement and Moho and a basement characterisation in terms of density and magnetic properties of the crust and deep crust. We constrained our model using all available geological and geophysical data. The sedimentary succession is constrained by industrial depth-converted seismic horizons tied at wells. The top basement of our study area is complex and deeply buried under more than 15 km of sedimentary rocks in some areas. For an accurate assessment of the top basement and deep crustal structures we used seismic refraction models and a set of deep reflection profiles as well as 1D velocity laws extracted from the Barents50 model. Furthermore, a database compiling density, magnetic remanence and susceptibility measured on onshore samples from northern Norway was used to constraint the modelling values. The integration of all these data helps to avoid interpretation pitfalls and highlights discrepancies between published data and models. Overcoming these inconsistencies we propose a new 3D structural model. The 3D model contributes to understand the basement lithology distribution and the offshore prolongation of the Caledonian structures, well described onshore. The 3D model allows us also to discuss the tectonic evolution of the SW Barents Sea. A system with a unique Caledonides branch propagating toward the north and Caledonian nappes flowing asymmetrically in the West Barents Sea is confirmed. A unique Caledonian suture is proposed west of the Loppa High then propagating between the Svalbard and Franz Josef Land. The distribution of the Timanides structures possibly explains the limitation of the Caledonian nappes

  1. Integrating Diverse Geophysical and Geological Data to Construct Multi-Dimensional Earth Models: The Open Earth Framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baru, C.; Keller, R.; Wallet, B.; Crosby, C.; Moreland, J.; Nadeau, D.

    2008-12-01

    spatial resolution. Finally, formal quantitative integration would logically begin with employing accepted relationships between physical properties (e.g., there are widely used empirical relationships between Vp and density) and then proceed to producing integrated models that facilitate the search for anomalies. Our workshops and community interactions have shown that both raster (voxels) and vector (surfaces) 3D data structures would be involved if we are to produce integrated models that have all of the properties that the community desires. These interactions also quickly revealed a consensus that building such models can only be achieved through a highly integrated approach that takes advantage of all of the geological and geophysical constraints available. Conceptually, the modeling would begin with a voxel-based approach of building a highly-integrated 3-D model at Time=0 by deriving physical properties such as Vp, Vs, density, magnetic properties, electrical properties, anisotropy, attenuation (Q), temperature, etc. for volume elements that could take on several forms. Then, interfaces that represent features such as the Moho, major faults, crystalline basement surface beneath sedimentary basins, magmatic bodies, etc. would be inserted into the model in order to properly characterize the region geologically.

  2. Geophysical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Geophysical measurements involve no magic or mystery but straightforward applications of physical principles. This book is both a geophysical survey and a reference guide. It explains the physical principles involved in geophysical methods. Over one-third of the text is devoted to seismic methods. Comprehensive topics in the volume include: the measurement of different physical properties and their geological significance; how different kinds of measurements are combined to draw geological conclusions; surface, borehole, airborne, and satellite measurements; computer processing and interactive methods; geodetic, gravity, magnetic, radioactive, heat flow, and electrical methods; interpretation of natural processes such as earthquakes and heat flow; and a summation of present knowledge of the earth.

  3. An integrated geophysical analysis of the upper crust of the southern Kenya rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simiyu, Silas M.; Keller, G. Randy

    2001-12-01

    Previous interpretations of seismic data collected by the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) experiments indicate the presence of crustal thickening within the rift valley area beneath the Kenya dome, an uplift centred on the southern part of the Kenya rift. North of the dome, these interpretations show thinning of the crust and an increase in crustal extension. To the south near the Kenya/Tanzania border, crustal thinning associated with the rift is modest. Our study was aimed at further investigating crustal structure from this dome southwards via a detailed analysis focused on upper crustal structure. We used results from surface geological mapping, drill hole data from water wells and geothermal exploration wells, KRISP 85 seismic data for a profile across the rift, KRISP 85 and 90 seismic data for a profile along the rift axis and KRISP 94 seismic data for a profile crossing southernmost Kenya to constrain gravity modelling and construction of integrated models of crustal structure. Our integrated analysis produced the following results concerning the structure and evolution of the southern Kenya rift: (1) the graben master faults are consistently located along the western margin of the rift valley, and there is no evidence for half-graben polarity reversals for a distance of about 300km (2) there is no axial (north-south) crustal symmetry with respect to the apex of the Kenya dome, and the crustal thickness may be as much related to pre-rift crustal type and thickness as it is to crustal thickening and modification by magmatic processes; (3) the pre-existing lithospheric contrast between the Archaean and Proterozoic basement terranes played a significant role in the location and structural geometry of the rift; (4) south of latitude 1°S, low velocities and densities observed under the western flank of the rift probably represent reworked Archaean Tanzanian craton; (5) magmatic modification of the upper crust is modest except near the major

  4. EPA`s integrated nitrogen oxides strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Grano, D.H.

    1997-12-31

    Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) are highly reactive and play a major role in the formation of various gases and particles in the atmosphere which lead to harmful effects on human health and welfare. This paper briefly describes the multiple impacts on human health and welfare that result from emissions of NO{sub x} and describes EPA`s strategy to integrate NO{sub x} reductions from various mobile and stationary sources in a balanced manner to achieve environmental benefits. Based on modeling information, it is clear that substantial reductions in NO{sub x} emissions over large geographic areas are needed if many densely populated areas of the nation are to attain the national ambient air quality standard for ozone. In addition to attainment of the health standard for ozone, the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions will also likely improve the nation`s environment by reducing adverse impacts of acid deposition, eutrophication of waterbodies, global warming, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, stratospheric ozone depletion, toxics, and visibility.

  5. Integrating social capacity into risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneiderbauer, S.; Pedoth, L.; Zebisch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of risk to impacts from external stresses and shocks is an important task in communities worldwide at all government levels and independent of the development status. The importance of building social capacity as part of risk reduction strategies is increasingly recognized. However, there is space for improvement to incorporate related activities into a holistic risk governance approach. Starting point for such enhancements is to promote and improve assessments of what is called 'sensitivity' or 'adaptive capacity' in the climate change community and what is named 'vulnerability' or 'resilience' in the hazard risk community. Challenging issues that need to be tackled in this context are the integration of concepts and method as well as the fusion of data. Against this background we introduce a method to assess regional adaptive capacity to climate change focusing on mountain areas accounting for sector specific problems. By considering three levels of specificity as base for the selection of most appropriate indicators the study results have the potential to support decision making regarding most appropriate adaptation actions. Advantages and shortcomings of certain aspects of adaptive capacity assessment in general and of the proposed method in particular are presented.

  6. Integration of Kepler with ROADNet: Visual Dataflow Design with Real-time Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, T. T.; Ludaescher, B.; Altintas, I.; Lindquist, K. G.; Hansen, T. S.; Rajasekar, A.; Vernon, F. L.; Orcutt, J.

    2004-12-01

    The ROADNet project concentrates real-time data from a wide variety of signal domains, providing a reliable platform to store and transport these data. Ptolemy is a general purpose visual programming environment in which work flows on data streams can be constructed by connecting general purpose components. The Kepler scientific workflow system extends Ptolemy to approach design and automation of scientific data analysis tasks. In this work we discuss our integration of ROADNet (and the Antelope platform on which ROADNet is based in part) with the Ptolemy environment. We have produced interface components that allow someone using the Kepler scientific workflow system to readily use ROADNet data resources. Presently we have working components to gather real-time waveform and image data from ROADNet object ring buffers, and we are working to provide the ability to perform Datascope database queries from Kepler. The Kepler project, including the Antelope interface, is entirely free and open-source, and will run on any platform where Java is available. We discuss existing applications in addition to possible future directions, such as coherent array processing, event detection, and online stream processing. A major advantage of the Ptolemy environment is the ease with which it may be used for rapid prototyping of analyses by even inexperienced users. For instance, a user can drag-and-drop an Orb Waveform Source component and several general purpose analysis and display components, connect them visually, and immediately perform an analysis on real-time data.

  7. Integrated geophysical application to investigate groundwater potentiality of the shallow Nubian aquifer at northern Kharga, West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younis, Abdellatif; Soliman, Mamdouh; Moussa, Salah; Massoud, Usama; ElNabi, Sami Abd; Attia, Magdy

    2016-06-01

    Continuous evaluation of groundwater aquifers in the basin of Kharga Oasis is very important. Groundwater in Kharga Oasis represents the major factor for the development plans of this area as it is the sole source for water supplies required for drinking and irrigation purposes. This study is concerned by analyzing the groundwater potentiality of the shallow aquifer at the northern part of Kharga basin by integrated application of Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Time domain Electromagnetic (TEM) techniques. The VES data were measured at 28 points arranged along a north-south trending line by applying Schlumberger array with a maximum current-electrode spacing (AB) of 1000 m. The TEM data were measured at 167 points arranged along 11 east-west trending lines by using a single square loop with 50 m loop-side length. The VES and TEM data have been individually inverted, where the VES models were used as initial models for TEM data inversion. The final models were used for construction of 17 geoelectrical sections and 5 contour maps describing subsurface water-bearing layers at the investigated area. Correlation of the obtained models with geologic, hydrogeologic and borehole information indicates that the shallow aquifer comprises two zones (A-up) and (B-down) separated by a highly conductive shale layer. The upper zone (A) is composed of fine to medium sand with thin clay intercalations. It exhibits low to moderate resistivities. This zone was detected at depth values ranging from 10 to 70 m below ground surface (bgs) and shows a thickness of 25-90 m. The lower zone (B) exhibits moderate to high resistivity values with expected good water quality. The upper surface of zone B was detected at 60-165 m depth.

  8. Study on the Integrated Geophysic Methods and Application of Advanced Geological Detection for Complicated Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L.; Xiao, G.

    2014-12-01

    The engineering geological and hydrological conditions of current tunnels are more and more complicated, as the tunnels are elongated with deeper depth. In constructing these complicated tunnels, geological hazards prone to occur as induced by unfavorable geological bodies, such as fault zones, karst or hydrous structures, etc. The working emphasis and difficulty of the advanced geological exploration for complicated tunnels are mainly focused on the structure and water content of these unfavorable geological bodies. The technical aspects of my paper systematically studied the advanced geological exploration theory and application aspects for complicated tunnels, with discussion on the key technical points and useful conclusions. For the all-aroundness and accuracy of advanced geological exploration results, the objective of my paper is targeted on the comprehensive examination on the structure and hydrous characteristic of the unfavorable geological bodies in complicated tunnels. By the multi-component seismic modeling on a more real model containing the air medium, the wave field response characteristics of unfavorable geological bodies can be analyzed, thus providing theoretical foundation for the observation system layout, signal processing and interpretation of seismic methods. Based on the tomographic imaging theory of seismic and electromagnetic method, 2D integrated seismic and electromagnetic tomographic imaging and visualization software was designed and applied in the advanced drilling hole in the tunnel face, after validation of the forward and inverse modeling results on theoretical models. The transmission wave imaging technology introduced in my paper can be served as a new criterion for detection of unfavorable geological bodies. After careful study on the basic theory, data processing and interpretation, practical applications of TSP and ground penetrating radar (GPR) method, as well as serious examination on their application examples, my paper

  9. Agricultural Geophysics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  10. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  11. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  12. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savit, Carl H.

    1978-01-01

    Expansion of activity and confirmation of new technological directions characterized several fields of exploration geophysics in 1977. Advances in seismic-reflection exploration have been especially important. (Author/MA)

  13. Exploration Geophysics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espey, H. R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes geophysical techniques such as seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys of offshare acreage, and land-data gathering from a three-dimensional representation made from closely spaced seismic lines. (MLH)

  14. Integrated interpretation of helicopter and ground-based geophysical data recorded within the Okavango Delta, Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorski, Joel E.; Green, Alan G.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang K. H.; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Maurer, Hansruedi; Rabenstein, Lasse; Doetsch, Joseph; Auken, Esben; Ngwisanyi, Tiyapo; Tshoso, Gomotsang; Jaba, Bashali Charles; Ntibinyane, Onkgopotse; Laletsang, Kebabonye

    2015-03-01

    Integration of information from the following sources has been used to produce a much better constrained and more complete four-unit geological/hydrological model of the Okavango Delta than previously available: (i) a 3D resistivity model determined from helicopter time-domain electromagnetic (HTEM) data recorded across most of the delta, (ii) 2D models and images derived from ground-based electrical resistance tomographic, transient electromagnetic, and high resolution seismic reflection/refraction tomographic data acquired at four selected sites in western and north-central regions of the delta, and (iii) geological details extracted from boreholes in northeastern and southeastern parts of the delta. The upper heterogeneous unit is the modern delta, which comprises extensive dry and freshwater-saturated sand and lesser amounts of clay and salt. It is characterized by moderate to high electrical resistivities and very low to low P-wave velocities. Except for images of several buried abandoned river channels, it is non-reflective. The laterally extensive underlying unit of low resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and subhorizontal reflectors very likely contains saline-water-saturated sands and clays deposited in the huge Paleo Lake Makgadikgadi (PLM), which once covered a 90,000 km2 area that encompassed the delta, Lake Ngami, the Mababe Depression, and the Makgadikgadi Basin. Examples of PLM sediments are intersected in many boreholes. Low permeability clay within the PLM unit seems to be a barrier to the downward flow of the saline water. Below the PLM unit, freshwater-saturated sand of the Paleo Okavango Megafan (POM) unit is distinguished by moderate to high resistivities, low P-wave velocity, and numerous subhorizontal reflectors. The POM unit is interpreted to be the remnants of a megafan based on the arcuate nature of its front and the semi-conical shape of its upper surface in the HTEM resistivity model. Moderate to high resistivity subhorizontal layers are

  15. An Integrated Strategy for Teaching Biochemistry to Biotechnology Specialty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-01-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of…

  16. An Integrated Strategy for Teaching Biochemistry to Biotechnology Specialty Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouyang, Liming; Ou, Ling; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2007-01-01

    The faculty of biochemistry established an integrated teaching strategy for biotechnology specialty students, by intermeshing the case-study method, web-assistant teaching, and improved lecture format with a brief content and multimedia courseware. Teaching practice showed that the integrated teaching strategy could retain the best features of…

  17. On the use of cross-borehole GPR in integrated geophysical-hydrological investigations of the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, L.; Looms, M. C.; Hansen, T. M.; Cordua, K. S.; Jensen, K. H.; Binley, A.

    2006-12-01

    Cross-borehole GPR data are used in integrated geophysical-hydrogeological studies of the upper ca. 10 m of the unsaturated zone in sandy environments. Tomographic algorithms are used for estimating the radar wave velocities between the boreholes, and the estimated velocity values are converted to values of water saturation. The results obtained from the inversion of picked radar wave travel times are strongly influenced by the assumptions that are made regarding model and data error correlation. We analyse and quantify key characteristics of model and data error correlation using different independent sources of information, and we account for these characteristics during inversion. We use normal-incidence reflected radar data sections acquired along profile lines on the surface to constrain dip and spatial correlation lengths of the geological structures. Functions describing the correlation properties of the radar wave velocity fluctuations of the subsurface are estimated based on these observations. These properties are used as a priori information in the tomographic inversion process. Thereby, models capturing realistic heterogeneity of the subsurface are estimated. Good knowledge of fine-scale heterogeneity is critical when estimating water content and flow characteristics. Different sources of correlated data errors exist: Incorrect positioning of the receiver and/or the transmitter antenna during data acquisition; cavities around the borehole walls; unknown anomalies close to the borehole walls; time jumps due to mis-calibration of the transmitted pulse; accidental picking of undesired refracted arrivals which have not followed a straight ray path between the source and the receiver. If not accounted for, such data errors may give rise to significant artefacts in the tomographic images. The correlated data errors are accounted for by specification of data error covariance matrices which are included in the inverse operator used for obtaining the velocity

  18. An integrated assessment of seawater intrusion in a small tropical island using geophysical, geochemical, and geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Kura, Nura Umar; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz; Ibrahim, Shaharin; Sulaiman, Wan Nur Azmin; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, geophysics, geochemistry, and geostatistical techniques were integrated to assess seawater intrusion in Kapas Island due to its geological complexity and multiple contamination sources. Five resistivity profiles were measured using an electric resistivity technique. The results reveal very low resistivity <1 Ωm, suggesting either marine clay deposit or seawater intrusion or both along the majority of the resistivity images. As a result, geochemistry was further employed to verify the resistivity evidence. The Chadha and Stiff diagrams classify the island groundwater into Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, Na-HCO3, and Na-Cl water types, with Ca-HCO3 as the dominant. The Mg(2+)/Mg(2+)+Ca(2+), HCO3 (-)/anion, Cl(-)/HCO3 (-), Na(+)/Cl(-), and SO4 (2-)/Cl(-) ratios show that some sampling sites are affected by seawater intrusion; these sampling sites fall within the same areas that show low-resistivity values. The resulting ratios and resistivity values were then used in the geographical information system (GIS) environment to create the geostatistical map of individual indicators. These maps were then overlaid to create the final map showing seawater-affected areas. The final map successfully delineates the area that is actually undergoing seawater intrusion. The proposed technique is not area specific, and hence, it can work in any place with similar completed characteristics or under the influence of multiple contaminants so as to distinguish the area that is truly affected by any targeted pollutants from the rest. This information would provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge of the current situation and will serve as a guide and standard in water research for sustainable management plan.

  19. Integrated geophysical-petrological modelling of the Trans-European Suture Zone along the TOR-profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappa, Folker; Ebbing, Jörg; Rabbel, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    We apply the integrated geophysical-petrological software package LitMod3D to study the effect of changes in thickness and composition associated with the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist-Zone as part of the Transeuropean Suture Zone (TESZ). Results of the TOR-project (Teleseismic Tomography TORnquist) show a P wave velocity anomaly that indicates an abrupt step in the base lithosphere between southern Sweden and Northern Germany. From a depth of ~300 km beneath the proto-Proterozoic Baltic shield the base lithosphere increases to less than 100 km beneath the Phanerozoic terranes in the southwest. However, this significant change in lithospheric thickness is not expressed by significant changes in the gravity field or topography. Hence, some form of isostatic compensation must be achieved by changes in the composition or thermal structure of the crust or upper mantle. First sensitivity tests were performed to show that the most important parameters to explain seismic upper mantle velocities, gravity and topography. These are, in addition to lithospheric thickness, the densities and thermal conductivity in the crust and the amount of depletion of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM). When applying a simple geometry with steps at the Moho and base lithosphere, the TOR results could be reproduced to a large degree when applying different compositions for the SCLM beneath the Proterozoic and Phanerozoic domains. To address the gravity field and topography as well, we present two alternative models for the TOR-profile. In the first model, the gravity field and topography is explained by dividing the Phanerozoic SCLM in a refertilized upper and more depleted lower part. This model leads to a deeper base lithosphere (130 km), but does not provide a very good fit to the P wave velocities. In the second alternative, the thermal conductivity of the Phanerozoic crust and for the sediments has been increased within reasonable parameters. This leads to a shallower LAB ~100 km and

  20. An integrated geophysical study on the Mesozoic strata distribution and hydrocarbon potential in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weijian; Hao, Tianyao; Jiang, Weiwei; Xu, Ya; Zhao, Baimin; Jiang, Didi

    2015-11-01

    A series of drilling, dredge, and seismic investigations indicate that Mesozoic sediments exist in the South China Sea (SCS) which shows a bright prospect for oil and gas exploration. In order to study the distribution of Mesozoic strata and their residual thicknesses in the SCS, we carried out an integrated geophysical study based mainly on gravity data, gravity basement depth and distribution of residual Mesozoic thickness in the SCS were obtained using gravity inversion constrained with high-precision drilling and seismic data. In addition, the fine deep crustal structures and distribution characteristics of Mesozoic thicknesses of three typical profiles were obtained by gravity fitting inversion. Mesozoic strata in the SCS are mainly distributed in the south and north continental margins, and have been reformed by the later tectonic activities. They extend in NE-trending stripes are macro-controlled by the deep and large NE-trending faults, and cut by the NW-trending faults which were active in later times. The offset in NW direction of Mesozoic strata in Nansha area of the southern margin are more obvious as compared to the north margin. In the Pearl River Mouth Basin and Southwest Taiwan Basin of the north continental margin the Mesozoic sediments are continuously distributed with a relatively large thickness. In the Nansha area of the south margin the Mesozoic strata are discontinuous and their thicknesses vary considerably. According to the characteristics of Mesozoic thickness distribution and hydrocarbon potential analyses from drilling and other data, Dongsha Uplift-Chaoshan Depression, Southwest Taiwan Basin-Peikang Uplift and Liyue Bank have large thickness of the Mesozoic residual strata, have good hydrocarbon genesis capability and complete source-reservoir-cap combinations, show a bright prospect of Mesozoic oil/gas resources.

  1. An integrated geophysical research for Atotsugawa fault system (AF), Central Japan - Relation between fault structure and surrounding crustal inhomogeneity -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, T.; NIIGATA-KOBE Tectonic Zone

    2007-12-01

    An integrated geophysical observations in and around the Atotsugawa fault system (AGF), central Japan, delineated the clear relationship of the fault characteristics and the surrounding inhomogeneous crustal structure. The AGF, located within a zone of high strain rate (the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone) running in the northern part of central Japan with ENE-WSW direction, is one of the prominent active faults in central Japan, and responsible for the 1858 Hietsu earthquake of M7.0. This observation project, which started from 2004, involves dense seismic observation, magnetotelluric survey, GPS measurement and refraction/wide-angle reflection experiment. Major finding so far obtained is a very low velocity anomaly (5 percents) located in the lower crustal part beneath the AGF. The upper crustal structure around the AGF is characterized by high velocity (6-6.3 km/s) patches with less seismic activity. They are 10-20 km in size and correlated with damaged area of the Hietsu event. These results strongly indicate that the high velocity patches represent asperities of this earthquake. Both edges of the AGF are bounded by low velocity areas probably representing the present volcanic activities. Probably, the anelasticity associated with the volcanism may determine the size of this fault. The low velocity body in the lower crust extends upward to a boundary part of the high velocity patches. This upwelling portion shows low resistivity, indicating the existence of fluid. The GPS measurement indicates almost the entire part of the AGF is locked although some ambiguity remains outside of our array. Present results suggest that the prominent lower crustal heterogeneity controls the stress loading process to the AGF and the stress concentration at the boundaries of asperity with aid of fluids.

  2. Time-lapse integrated geophysical imaging of magmatic injections and fluid-induced fracturing causing Campi Flegrei 1983-84 Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Siena, Luca; Crescentini, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical precursors measured during Unrest episodes are a primary source of geophysical information to forecast eruptions at the largest and most potentially destructive volcanic calderas. Despite their importance and uniqueness, these precursors are also considered difficult to interpret and unrepresentative of larger eruptive events. Here, we show how novel geophysical imaging and monitoring techniques are instead able to represent the dynamic evolution of magmatic- and fluid-induced fracturing during the largest period of Unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy (1983-1984). The time-dependent patterns drawn by microseismic locations and deformation, once integrated by 3D attenuation tomography and absorption/scattering mapping, model injections of magma- and fluid-related materials in the form of spatially punctual microseismic bursts at a depth of 3.5 km, west and offshore the city of Pozzuoli. The shallowest four kilometres of the crust work as a deformation-based dipolar system before and after each microseismic shock. Seismicity and deformation contemporaneously focus on the point of injection; patterns then progressively crack the medium directed towards the second focus, a region at depths 1-1.5 km south of Solfatara. A single high-absorption and high-scattering aseismic anomaly marks zones of fluid storage overlying the first dipolar centre. These results provide the first direct geophysical signature of the processes of aseismic fluid release at the top of the basaltic basement, producing pozzolanic activity and recently observed via rock-physics and well-rock experiments. The microseismicity caused by fluids and gasses rises to surface via high-absorption north-east rising paths connecting the two dipolar centres, finally beingq being generally expelled from the maar diatreme Solfatara structure. Geophysical precursors during Unrest depict how volcanic stress was released at the Campi Flegrei caldera during its period of highest recorded seismicity

  3. Selecting the right integration of research into practice strategy.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Glenn M; O'Connell, Bev; Gardner, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare professionals need to be cognizant of integration of research into practice literature to advance clinical practice. This article describes the strengths and limitations associated with 10 currently used integration of research into practice strategies and the issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate strategy. Selecting the right strategy that ensures the uptake of best available evidence is an essential component of developing evidence-based practice and ultimately improving patient care.

  4. Integrating Non-Collocated Well and Geophysical Data to Capture Lithological Heterogeneity at a Managed Aquifer Recharge and Recovery Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, I.; Hermans, T.; Caers, J.; Cameron, D. A.; Knight, R. J.; Regnery, J.; McCray, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    integrate these results. To test the models, we can compare measured breakthrough times of recharged water at the site to groundwater flow simulation results using the lithofacies models created by each method. The methods described here can inform the integration of non-collocated geophysical data into a variety of applications.

  5. Integrated Instruction: A Trio of Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Vasquez, JoAnne

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on three approaches to integrated instruction: (1) literature-based; (2) theme-based; and (3) project-based. Each approach is explained and illustrated through descriptions of successful classroom examples. Literature-based integration utilizes a story to build a unit, thematic units are built around a topic, and project-based integration…

  6. Particle Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Geophysics research has long been dominated by classical mechanics, largely disregarding the potential of particle physics to augment existing techniques. The purpose of this article is to review recent progress in probing Earth's interior with muons and neutrinos. Existing results for various volcanological targets are reviewed. Geoneutrinos are also highlighted as examples in which the neutrino probes elucidate the composition of Earth's deep interior. Particle geophysics has the potential to serve as a useful paradigm to transform our understanding of Earth as dramatically as the X-ray transformed our understanding of medicine and the body.

  7. Cohesive ARMD Full UAS Integration Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackenberg, Davis

    2017-01-01

    Introduction / Background; Current Landscape and Future Vision; UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System) Demand and Key Challenges; UAS Airspace Access Pillars and Enablers; Overarching UAS Community Strategy; Long Term Vision Considerations; Recommendations and Next Steps.

  8. Integrated Geophysical Monitoring Program to Study Flood Performance and Incidental CO2 Storage Associated with a CO2 EOR Project in the Bell Creek Oil Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnison, S. A.; Ditty, P.; Gorecki, C. D.; Hamling, J. A.; Steadman, E. N.; Harju, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    second monitoring well. A pre-injection series of carbon-oxygen logging across the reservoir was acquired in 35 wells. The baseline 3-D surface seismic survey was acquired in September 2012. A 3-D VSP incorporating two wells and 2 square miles of overlapping seismic coverage in the middle of the field was acquired in May 2013. Initial iterations of geologic modeling and reservoir simulation of the field have been completed. Currently, passive seismic monitoring with the permanent borehole array is being conducted during injection. Interpretation results from the baseline surface 3-D survey and preliminary results from the baseline 3-D VSP are being evaluated and integrated into the reservoir model. The PCOR Partnership's philosophy is to combine site characterization, modeling, and monitoring strategies into an iterative process to produce descriptive integrated results. The comprehensive effort at Bell Creek will allow a comparison of the effectiveness of several complementary geophysical and well-based methods in meeting the goals of the deep subsurface monitoring effort.

  9. The tectonic evolution of the Arctic since Pangea breakup: Integrating constraints from surface geology and geophysics with mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Grace E.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Seton, Maria

    2013-09-01

    The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic, including the northern Pacific, Siberian and North American margins, since the Jurassic has been punctuated by the opening and closing of ocean basins, the accretion of autochthonous and allochthonous terranes and associated deformation. This complexity is expressed in the uncertainty of plate tectonic models of the region, with the time-dependent configurations and kinematic history remaining poorly understood. The age, location, geometry and convergence rates of the subduction zones associated with these ancient ocean basins have implications for mantle structure, which can be used as an additional constraint for refining and evaluating plate boundary models. Here we integrate surface geology and geophysics with mantle tomography models to generate a digital set of tectonic blocks and plates as well as topologically closed plate boundaries with time-dependent rotational histories for the circum-Arctic. We find that subducted slabs inferred from seismic velocity anomalies from global P and S wave tomography models can be linked to various episodes of Arctic subduction since the Jurassic, in particular to the destruction of the South Anuyi Ocean. We present a refined model for the opening of the Amerasia Basin incorporating seafloor spreading between at least 142.5 and 120 Ma, a "windshield" rotation for the Canada Basin, and opening orthogonal to the Lomonosov Ridge for the northern Makarov and Podvodnikov basins. We also present a refined pre-accretionary model for the Wrangellia Superterrane, imposing a subduction polarity reversal in the early Jurassic before accretion to North America at 140 Ma. Our model accounts for the late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic opening and closure of the Cache Creek Ocean, reconstructed between the Wrangellia Superterrane and Yukon-Tanana Terrane. We suggest that a triple junction may also explain the Mid-Palaeozoic opening of the Slide Mountain, Oimyakon and South Anuyi oceans. Our

  10. Integrated 3D geophysical and geological modelling of the Hercynian Suture Zone in the Champtoceaux area (south Brittany, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martelet, G.; Calcagno, P.; Gumiaux, C.; Truffert, C.; Bitri, A.; Gapais, D.; Brun, J. P.

    2004-04-01

    This paper combines geological knowledge and geophysical imagery at the crustal scale to model the 3D geometry of a segment of the Hercynian suture zone of western Europe in the Champtoceaux area (Brittany, France). The Champtoceaux complex consists of a stack of metamorphic nappes of gneisses and micaschists, with eclogite-bearing units. The exhumation of the complex, during early Carboniferous times, was accompanied by deformation during regional dextral strike-slip associated with a major Hercynian shear zone (the South Armorican Shear Zone, SASZ). Dextral shearing produced a km-scale antiformal structure with a steeply dipping axial plane and a steeply eastward plunging axis. Armor 2 deep seismic profile shows that the regional structure was cut by a set of faults with northward thrusting components. Based on the seismic constraint, direct 2D crustal-scale modelling was performed throughout the Champtoceaux fold on seven radial gravity profiles, also using geological data, and density measurements from field and drill-hole samples. The 3D integration of the cross-sections, the digitised geological map, and the structural information (foliation dips) insure the geometrical and topological consistency of all sources of data. The 2D information is interpolated to the whole 3D space using a geostatistical analysis. Finally, the 3D gravity contribution of the resulting model is computed taking into account densities for each modelled geological body and compared to the Bouguer anomaly. The final 3D model is thus compatible with the seismic and gravity data, as well as with geological data. Main geological results derived from the modelling are (i) the overall 3D geometry of the south dipping thrust system interpreted on the seismic profile emphasises northward thrusting and folding of the Champtoceaux complex which was coeval with strike-slip along the South Armorican Shear Zone; (ii) the gravity modelling suggests the presence of a relatively dense body below the

  11. Integrated Geophysical and Geological Fault Assessment at a Hazardous-Waste Landfill: Fluorspar Area Fault Complex, Central United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolery, E.; Baldwin, J.; Kelson, K.; Hampson, S.; Givler, R.

    2007-12-01

    Federal and Commonwealth of Kentucky regulations require proposed hazardous waste facilities undergo a surface-fault rupture hazard assessment prior to issuing construction permits. Permanent ground deformation may expose below-ground structures such as landfills and settling ponds, as well as above-ground structures such as tanks and incinerators to rupture and/or topple failure, and thus potential uncontrolled contaminant release. Regulations prohibit placing new hazardous waste facilities within 61 m (200 ft) of a Holocene-active fault. However, identifying and characterizing active faults in areas lacking geomorphic expression is a challenging task, as exemplified in and near the New Madrid seismic zone and Fluorspar Area fault complex (FAFC). In the mid-continent, surface manifestations of active faults are generally impeded by thick sequence of relatively weak, water-saturated Mississippi embayment sediment overlying bedrock. The soft sediment overburden and long recurrence interval between large earthquakes conceal neotectonic structures in bedrock and commonly fail to produce significant or noticeable geomorphic features. A proposed hazardous-waste landfill in western Kentucky is located within the upper Mississippi embayment and above the late Proterozoic-early Cambrian FAFC, an area also coincident with diffuse microseismicity. Integrated geophysical and geological methodologies were essential for a surface-fault rupture assessment. Nearly 1 km of SH-wave seismic reflection data were collected and interpreted for evidence of late Quaternary deformation. Five significant high-angle anomalies were interpreted to extend within approximately 7 m of the ground surface, near the upper limit of the seismic sampling. Eighty-six, densely spaced, continuous cores, each 9.1 m deep, intersected these features. Stratigraphic and chronological analyses were performed on the cores to assess the presence or absence of structure, and to determine the near-surface extent

  12. Physical properties and fluids along the Aleutian Megathrust: Insights from the integration of laboratory experiments and regional geophysical surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffer, D. M.; Li, J.; Shillington, D. J.; Miller, P.; Abers, G. A.; Becel, A.; Keranen, K. M.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying the processes that underlie spatial variations in megathrust slip behavior is fundamental to understanding subduction seismogenesis. Here, we summarize insights about in situ material properties, fluid pressure, and stress state along the Aleutian megathrust, obtained by integration of laboratory experiments with regional geophysical data. In the outermost 30-40 km of the forearc, pre-stack depth migration-derived velocities document anomalously low Vp within underthrusting sediments to 8 km depth. We use empirical transforms relating Vp, porosity, and effective stress to show that pore pressures are 70-80% of lithostatic along and beneath the megathrust. This is consistent with similarly derived estimates of pore pressure at other margins, including Nankai, Costa Rica, Barbados, and Ecuador. The magnitude of the reduction in Vp, the associated high porosity, and pore pressure all decrease westward (along strike) and coincide with thinning of the incoming sediment. This is well explained by a conceptual model in which pore pressure is controlled by a balance between rates of subduction-driven loading and pressure diffusion; for a thinner sediment layer, the shorter drainage path leads to better drainage. At greater depths, both seismic reflection data ( 10-20 km) and analysis of receiver functions from teleseismic events (>25 km) reveal a low-velocity channel along the plate interface. Waveform modeling of the reflection data shows that this is best explained by a 100-250 m-thick low-velocity zone (LVZ) with 1 km s-1 lower Vp than the overlying material, whereas the receiver functions indicate a 1-4 km-thick LVZ characterized by low Vp and Vs, and high Vp/Vs. We investigate the origin of these signals via laboratory measurements of ultrasonic wavespeed on exhumed metasediments from Kodiak Island, which serve as analogs for material entrained at depth along the plate boundary. The Vp and Vs values we measure are consistent with the field observations

  13. Integrated Geologic, Hydrologic, and Geophysical Investigations of the Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia, USA: A Multi-Agency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohn, G. S.; Bruce, T. S.; Catchings, R. D.; Emry, S. R.; Johnson, G. H.; Levine, J. S.; McFarland, E. R.; Poag, C. W.; Powars, D. S.

    2001-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay impact structure is the focus of an ongoing federal-state-local research program. Recent core drilling and geophysical surveys address the formative processes and hydrogeologic properties of this major "wet-target" impact. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Use of integrated geologic and geophysical information for characterizing the structure of fracture systems at the US/BK Site, Grimsel Laboratory, Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, S.J.; Peterson, J.E. Jr. )

    1990-05-01

    Fracture systems form the primary fluid flow paths in a number of rock types, including some of those being considered for high level nuclear waste repositories. In some cases, flow along fractures must be modeled explicitly as part of a site characterization effort. Fractures commonly are concentrated in fracture zones, and even where fractures are seemingly ubiquitous, the hydrology of a site can be dominated by a few discrete fracture zones. We have implemented a site characterization methodology that combines information gained from geophysical and geologic investigations. The general philosophy is to identify and locate the major fracture zones, and then to characterize their systematics. Characterizing the systematics means establishing the essential and recurring patterns in which fractures are organized within the zones. We make a concerted effort to use information on the systematics of the fracture systems to link the site-specific geologic, borehole and geophysical information. This report illustrates how geologic and geophysical information on geologic heterogeneities can be integrated to guide the development of hydrologic models. The report focuses on fractures, a particularly common type of geologic heterogeneity. However, many aspects of the methodology we present can be applied to other geologic heterogeneities as well. 57 refs., 40 figs., 1 tab.

  15. The study of a potential CO2 repository: Integrating laboratory and field geophysical experiments to characterize the upper Muschelkalk aquifer (northern Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B.; Zappone, A. S.; Misra, S.; Diamond, L.

    2011-12-01

    The upper Muschelkalk saline aquifer consists of partly dolomitized to completely dolomitized carbonate rocks of mid Triassic age (~230 Ma). This aquifer is present throughout the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB), north of the Alps. A regional appraisal of the SMB indicates that this Formation is a potential host aquifer for sequestered CO2. However, the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the porosity, permeability and other relevant physical and mechanical properties of the upper Muschelkalk are still poorly known. The uncertainty in this knowledge stems mainly from the weakly developed oil and gas exploration industry in Switzerland. We use an integrated approach to better constrain the aquifer physical properties, which couples field scale geophysical surveys (borehole logging and seismic reflection profiles) with laboratory analytical data. Here we focus on a set of boreholes from northern Switzerland, where geophysical data and drill core useable for laboratory measurements are available. Two sub-units comprise the upper Muschelkalk Formation. The stratigraphically higher part is a fossiliferous dolomite (>90 vol% CaMg(CO3)2; Trigodonusdolomit). The underlying unit, is composed of micritic calcite and dolomite layers interbedded with fossil-rich layers (Hauptmuschelkalk). Although both units are part of the aquifer formation, they appear to have distinctly different physical properties. The transition from Trigodonusdolomit to the Hauptmuschelkalk is marked by an increase in the sonic velocity, density and acoustic impedance. The magnitude of increase in sonic velocity can be up to 500 m/s, accompanied by an increase in acoustic impedance from 8500 to 15500 (m/s*g/cm3), but varies between the different boreholes. Poisson's ratio, determined from a single borehole, show sharp decrease at the transition. The origin of the changes in the geophysical data is likely reflecting differences in porosity and mineral composition in the Trigodonusdolomit and

  16. Enterprise networks. Strategies for integrated delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Siwicki, B

    1997-02-01

    More integrated delivery systems are making progress toward building computer networks that link all their care delivery sites so they can efficiently and economically coordinate care. A growing number of these systems are turning to intranets--private computer networks that use Internet-derived protocols and technologies--to move information that's essential to managing scare health care resources.

  17. Integrating the Language Arts: Alternatives and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Katharine A.

    Motivated by the California English/Language Arts Framework, California teachers are working toward the goal of using the integrated language arts as tools for learning in all content areas. The core of this new curriculum is to help students make sense out of a piece of literature by moving into, through, and beyond a text. For example, a lesson…

  18. Service Learning as an Integrated Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkavy, Ira; Romer, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Raises concerns about effectiveness of service learning efforts to engage students in community problems as part of an integrated curriculum. Suggests the HIV epidemic as a situation requiring the diverse resources of modern colleges and universities and proposes partnerships with local communities to address the problem. Programs at the…

  19. Integrating the Language Arts: Alternatives and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Katharine A.

    Motivated by the California English/Language Arts Framework, California teachers are working toward the goal of using the integrated language arts as tools for learning in all content areas. The core of this new curriculum is to help students make sense out of a piece of literature by moving into, through, and beyond a text. For example, a lesson…

  20. Use of geophysical, geobotanical, and remotely sensed data in a low cost hydrocarbon exploration strategy for the Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated approach is developed at three scales: regional, subregional, and local. The principal problem addressed was that of how to make the transitional effectively from regional anomalies on the scale of tens of kilometers to a specific drilling site defined by an area on the order of tens of meters. The regional scale results, particularly the are magnetic anomalies, indicated several cross-structural lineaments which are indicative of basement discontinuities that were used to define an exploration area. For this subregional area two-dimensional data sets for Landsat MSS and digital terrain data were transformed and used to define the surficial location of the Wheeling-Needmore magnetic lineament within the subregional study area, indicating that a basement fault has influenced sedimentary structure. Two local-scale exploration areas were delineated. The southern area, which is in the vicinity of the NASA/Geosat Lost River, West Virginia test site was chosen for further study. An anomalous distribution of maples (Acer rubrum) was identified at Lost River in a region where chestnut oak (Quercus prinus) predominates. Soil gas measurements in the field and an in vitro study of seedling response to methane gas supported the hypothesis that high soil gas methane content at the surface is responsible for the geobotanical anomaly. Based on the findings of this study, the proposed minimal-cost exploration strategy should be useful in vegetated terrains in which there are surface hydrocarbon seeps.

  1. Integrated study of geophysical and biological anomalies before earthquakes (seismic and non-seismic), in Austria and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Assef, Rizkita; Faber, Robert; Ferasyi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes are commonly seen as unpredictable. Even when scientists believe an earthquake is likely, it is still hard to understand the indications observed, as well as their theoretical and practical implications. There is some controversy surrounding the concept of using animals as a precursor of earthquakes. Nonetheless, several institutes at University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, and Vienna University of Technology, both Vienna, Austria, and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, as well as Terramath Indonesia, Buleleng, both Indonesia, cooperate in a long-term project, funded by Red Bull Media House, Salzburg, Austria, which aims at getting some decisive step forward from anecdotal to scientific evidence of those interdependencies, and show their possible use in forecasting seismic hazard on a short-term basis. Though no conclusive research has yet been published, an idea in this study is that even if animals do not respond to specific geophysical precursors and with enough notice to enable earthquake forecasting on that basis, they may at least enhance, in conjunction with other indications, the degree of certainty we can get of a prediction of an impending earthquake. In Indonesia, indeed, before the great earthquakes of 2004 and 2005, ominous geophysical as well as biological phenomena occurred (but were realized as precursors only in retrospect). Numerous comparable stories can be told from other times and regions. Nearly 2000 perceptible earthquakes (> M3.5) occur each year in Indonesia. Also, in 2007, the government has launched a program, focused on West Sumatra, for investigating earthquake precursors. Therefore, Indonesia is an excellent target area for a study concerning possible interconnections between geophysical and biological earthquake precursors. Geophysical and atmospheric measurements and behavioral observation of several animal species (elephant, domestic cattle, water buffalo, chicken, rat, catfish) are conducted in three areas

  2. Integrated methodology in karst hazard assessments: aerial photography, geophysics and geotechnical approaches (Zaragoza, Central Ebro Basin, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansón López, D.; Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Casas Sainz, A.; Pocovi Juan, A.

    2009-04-01

    Karst hazards are an important subject of research in the surroundings of Zaragoza, with a very clear application to determination of geological risks. The developing of methodological approaches to the urban planning and construction has been one of the main objectives of the Geotransfer Research Group from the University of Zaragoza. In this work, three different approaches were applied to urban planning in a zone in the proximities of Zaragoza. The studied zone covers 10000 square meters where 4 boreholes and 12 penetration tests have been realized. The geophysical approach consisted in magnetometry, GPR and EM radiation surveys. On the other hand, 12 different areal photographies, ranging from the 1950' to present, were analyzed. The availability of a large number of historical data and aerial photographies permitted to determine different karst hazards in the prospected area, in spite of karstic features not being evident at surface. The analysis from only geotechnical data does not show allow to infer karst activity because the geometry of the Quaternary cover-Tertiary substratum cannot clearly be linked to a subsidence doline. Conversely, the results obtained from geophysical techniques show a good coincidence of change of the measured properties with closed envelopes in map view: higher intensity of the magnetic field, higher apparent conductivity (wave in quadrature of EM data) linked to closed envelopes of adaptation features in the GPR profiles and higher attenuation of the waves. The results obtained indicate the presence of a sinkhole, filled with Quaternary gravels, below a flat area. The comparison between aerial photographs and geophysical data shows a direct correlation, whereas the geotechnical data are ambiguous and show contradictory results over the sinkhole, the penetration tests indicating higher strengths related to the historical filling of the subsident zone. The existence of several series of aerial photographs permitted to correlate the

  3. FIVES: An Integrated Strategy for Comprehension and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Mary; Roberts, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a strategy that emphasizes the integration of all language and literacy skills for learning across content areas as well as the importance CCSS place on learners' ability to ask questions about information, phenomena, or ideas encountered (Ciardiello, 2012/2013). FIVES is a strategy that meaningfully integrates…

  4. The Capstone Strategy Course: What Might Real Integration Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachra, Ariff; Schnietz, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The traditional master of business administration (MBA) capstone strategy course is intended to integrate the prior course work of the MBA program but is doing this less and less well in today's high-velocity and complex business environment. The traditional strategy course structures, emphasizing formulation-implementation and the…

  5. The Capstone Strategy Course: What Might Real Integration Look Like?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachra, Ariff; Schnietz, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The traditional master of business administration (MBA) capstone strategy course is intended to integrate the prior course work of the MBA program but is doing this less and less well in today's high-velocity and complex business environment. The traditional strategy course structures, emphasizing formulation-implementation and the…

  6. Formal and Integrated Strategies for Competence Development in SMEs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Henrik; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the relationships among the workplace as a learning environment, strategies for competence development used by SMEs and learning outcomes. Specifically, there is a focus on a distinction between formal and integrated strategies for competence development, the conditions under which…

  7. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  8. Mapping of groundwater prospective zones integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and geophysical techniques in El-Qaà Plain area, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuzied, Sara M.; Alrefaee, Hamed A.

    2017-05-01

    The geospatial mapping of groundwater prospective zones is essential to support the needs of local inhabitants and agricultural activities in arid regions such as El-Qaà area, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The study aims to locate new wells that can serve to cope with water scarcity. The integration of remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS) and geophysical techniques is a breakthrough for groundwater prospecting. Based on these techniques, several factors contributing to groundwater potential in El-Qaà Plain were determined. Geophysical data were supported by information derived from a digital elevation model, and from geologic, geomorphologic and hydrologic data, to reveal the promising sites. All the spatial data that represent the contributing factors were integrated and analyzed in a GIS framework to develop a groundwater prospective model. An appropriate weightage was specified to each factor based on its relative contribution towards groundwater potential, and the resulting map delineates the study area into five classes, from very poor to very good potential. The very good potential zones are located in the Quaternary deposits, with flat to gentle topography, dense lineaments and structurally controlled drainage channels. The groundwater potential map was tested against the distribution of groundwater wells and cultivated land. The integrated methodology provides a powerful tool to design a suitable groundwater management plan in arid regions.

  9. Strategies for Defining and Understanding Critical Technology Integration Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagehi, Ahmed Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Educational technology scholars believe that teachers should understand how to effectively integrate technology in their teaching. This study identified key terms related to integrating technology in education and investigated the effectiveness of three online instructional strategies (Text-only, Text plus Video, and Text plus Video plus Question)…

  10. Adaptive Through-Thickness Integration Strategy for Shell Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchitz, I. A.; Meinders, T.; Huétink, J.

    2007-05-01

    Reliable numerical prediction of springback in sheet metal forming is essential for the automotive industry. There are numerous factors that influence the accuracy of springback prediction by using the finite element method. One of the reasons is the through-thickness numerical integration of shell elements. It is known that even for simple problems the traditional integration schemes may require up to 50 integration points to achieve a high accuracy of springback analysis. An adaptive through-thickness integration strategy can be a good alternative. The strategy defines abscissas and weights depending on the integrand's properties and, thus, can adapt itself to improve the accuracy of integration. A concept of the adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements is presented. It is tested using a simple problem of bending of a beam under tension. Results show that for a similar set of material and process parameters the adaptive Simpson's rule with 7 integration points performs better than the traditional trapezoidal rule with 50 points. The adaptive through-thickness integration strategy for shell elements can improve the accuracy of springback prediction at minimal costs.

  11. Strategies for Defining and Understanding Critical Technology Integration Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagehi, Ahmed Yahya

    2013-01-01

    Educational technology scholars believe that teachers should understand how to effectively integrate technology in their teaching. This study identified key terms related to integrating technology in education and investigated the effectiveness of three online instructional strategies (Text-only, Text plus Video, and Text plus Video plus Question)…

  12. Testing an Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy for Nuclear Waste and Decommissioning Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, V.; Dai, Z.; Heffner, D.; Temples, T. J.; Nicholson, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    This talk discusses a Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research project designed to develop an integrated and systematic strategy for monitoring ground-water flow and transport through the unsaturated zone to the underlying water-table aquifer at waste disposal sites. The goal is to provide scientifically-based guidance for monitoring across a wide range of geologic settings, waste compositions, and site designs. The monitoring will specifically support performance assessment studies and modeling. The research objectives include: (1) the strategy will couple performance confirmation monitoring to site characterization and performance assessment, and will consist of an ordered and logical sequence of procedures; (2) the research will develop the technical bases as citable references, identified guidance and analytical tools, and test case applications of the developed integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for confirming performance of nuclear waste and decommissioning sites; (3) this strategy will focus on identifying and monitoring critical performance indicators (e.g., water contents over time in the unsaturated zone, and ground-water potentials in the saturated zone) of the hydrologic system; and (4) the strategy will demonstrate the connection between performance indicators and site performance. The monitoring strategy has been developed in draft form, and the testing phase of this work is beginning. The test plan includes: 1. develop testing objectives; 2. develop success criteria based on objectives; 3. select test datasets from field sites; 4. apply the draft strategy to field data; 5. feed-back for strategy improvement. Testing objectives will include: 1. develop rules for selection of performance indicators; 2. evaluate efficient methods to develop conceptual site models; 3. develop rules for selection of monitoring points (in the spatial and temporal domain) and rules for identification of monitoring approaches (e.g., geophysical methods) and

  13. An integrated geophysical survey of Kilbourne Hole, southern New Mexico: Implications for near surface exploration of Mars and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksim, Nisa

    Features such as the Home Plate plateau on Mars, a suspected remnant of an ancient phreatomagmatic eruption, can reveal important information about paleohydrologic conditions. The eruption intensity of a phreatomagmatic volcano is controlled mainly by the quantity of water and magma, the internal geometry of the volcano, and the depth of the interaction zone between magma and water. In order to understand the paleohydrologic conditions at the time of eruption, we must understand all the factors that influenced the phreatomagmatic event. I conducted an integrated geophysical survey, which are magnetic and gravity surveys, and a ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys at Kilbourne Hole, a phreatomagmatic crater in southern New Mexico. These investigations serve an analog paleo-hydrogeological study that could be conducted on Mars and the Moon with an implication for planetary exploration. These geophysical surveys are designed to delineate the internal structure of a phreatomagmatic volcano and to define the volumes and masses of volcanic dikes and excavation unit, the depth of feeder dikes, and impacted velocity of the volcanic blocks. For the gravity and magnetic surveys at Kilbourne Hole, I collected data at a total of 171 gravity survey stations and 166 magnetics survey stations. A 2D gravity and magnetic inverse model was developed jointly to map the body of the magma intrusions and the internal structure of Kilbourne Hole. A total of 6 GPR surveys lines were also completed at Kilbourne Hole to image and to define locations of pyroclastic deposits, volcanic sags and blocks, the sizes distribution of volcanic blocks, and the impact velocity of the volcanic blocks. Using the size distribution and impact velocity of volcanic blocks from our GPR data, I derived the initial gas expansion velocity and the time duration of the gas expansion phase of the Kilbourne Hole eruption. These obtained parameters (volumes, masses, and depths of the feeder dikes and the excavation

  14. Applied Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telford, W. M.; Geldart, L. P.; Sheriff, R. E.

    1990-10-01

    Completely revised and updated, this new edition of the popular and highly regarded textbook, Applied Geophysics, describes the physical methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons and minerals. These tools include gravity, magnetic, seismic, electrical, electromagnetic, and radioactivity studies. All aspects of these methods are described, including theoretical considerations, data acquisition, and data processing and interpretation, with the objective of locating concentrations of natural resources and defining their extent. In the past fourteen years or so since the writing of Applied Geophysics, there have been many changes in the field of exploration geophysics. The authors give full treatment to changes in this field, which include improved techniques for calculating gravity fields, the use of proton-precession and optically-pumped magnetometers, improved quality of seismic data, magnetotelluric as a practical exploration method, new electromagnetic exploration methods, the use of gamma-ray spectrometers in radioactive exploration, and improved well-logging techniques. The intent is to be practical, and thus many actual examples and problems are given. Moreover, wherever possible in this edition the authors adopt the use of Système Internationale (SI) units, which were not in standared use at the time of the first edition. The reader needs only a general background knowledge of geology, physics, and mathematics. Most of the math can be skipped by those interested only in the results. Advanced mathematical concepts are explained in the appendix.

  15. An integrated petrophysical-geophysical approach for the characterization of a potential caprock-reservoir system for CO2 storage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fais, Silvana; Ligas, Paola; Cuccuru, Francesco; Casula, Giuseppe; Giovanna Bianchi, Maria; Maggio, Enrico; Plaisant, Alberto; Pettinau, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The selection of a CO2 geologic storage site requires the choice of a study site suitable for the characterization in order to create a robust experimental database especially regarding the spatial petrophysical heterogeneities and elasto-mechanical properties of the rocks that make up a potential caprock-reservoir system. In our study the petrophysical and elasto-mechanical characterization began in a previously well drilled area in the northern part of the Sulcis coal basin (Nuraxi Figus area - SW Sardinia - Italy) where crucial geologic data were recovered from high-quality samples from stratigraphic wells and from mining galleries. The basin represents one of the most important Italian carbon reserves characterized by a great mining potential. In the study area, the Middle Eocene - Lower Oligocene Cixerri Fm. made up of terrigeneous continental rocks and the Upper Thanetian - Lower Ypresian Miliolitico Carbonate Complex in the Sulcis coal basin have been identified respectively as potential caprock and reservoir for CO2 storage. Petrophysical and geophysical investigations were carried out by a great number of laboratory tests on the core samples and in situ measurements on a mining gallery in order to characterize the potential caprock-reservoir system and to substantially reduce geologic uncertainty in the storage site characterization and in the geological and numerical modelling for the evaluation of CO2 storage capacity. In order to better define the spatial distribution of the petrophysical heterogeneity, the seismic responses from the caprock-reservoir system formations were also analysed and correlated with the petrophysical and elasto-mechanical properties In a second step of this work, we also analysed the tectonic stability of the study area by the integrated application of remote-sensing monitoring spatial geodetic techniques. In particular, the global positioning system (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (inSAR) were considered

  16. Reading and Integrated Literacy Strategies (RAILS): An Integrated Approach to Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Robert J.; Van Meter, Peggy N.; Garner, Joanna; Warcholak, Nicholas; Bochna, Cindy; Hall, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a research-based early reading program that provided integrated reading instruction in kindergarten through 2nd grade. The Reading and Integrated Literacy Strategies (RAILS) program provided integrated instruction in word reading, vocabulary development, and comprehension to students…

  17. The Integrated Scorecard in support of corporate sustainability strategies.

    PubMed

    Journeault, Marc

    2016-11-01

    Organizations have increasingly recognized the importance and benefits of developing a sustainability strategy that incorporates environmental and social responsibilities. However, the simultaneous integration of the economic, environmental and social aspects remains a major concern for organizations. The Sustainability Balanced Scorecard (SBSC) represents one of the most promising strategic tools to help organizations face these challenges and support their sustainability strategy. However, past research has provided unclear, incomplete and even contradictory SBSC frameworks while offering little knowledge about how to integrate stakeholder management as well as environmental and social performance within the balanced scorecard to successfully support a corporate sustainability strategy. The aim of this study is to address these issues and limitations by proposing the Integrated Scorecard, a specific SBSC that integrates the three pillars of sustainability performance within four different perspectives, namely environmental, social and economic performance, stakeholder management, internal business processes, and skills and capabilities. This study provides a conceptual approach to the Integrated Scorecard and illustrates, through the use of two practical illustrations, the ability of this framework to support the corporate sustainability strategy by identifying the core sustainability objectives that organizations should achieve when creating value, facilitating the understanding of the contribution of environmental and social initiatives on economic performance, allowing the monitoring and measurement of the strategy's level of achievement, and creating synergy between sustainability performance management and reporting.

  18. Implementation of improvement strategies in palliative care: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    van Riet Paap, Jasper; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra; Sommerbakk, Ragni; Moyle, Wendy; Hjermstad, Marianne J; Leppert, Wojciech; Vissers, Kris; Engels, Yvonne

    2015-07-26

    The European population is ageing, and as a consequence, an increasing number of patients are in need of palliative care, including those with dementia. Although a growing number of new insights and best practices in palliative care have been published, they are often not implemented in daily practice. The aim of this integrative review is to provide an overview of implementation strategies that have been used to improve the organisation of palliative care. Using an integrative literature review, we evaluated publications with strategies to improve the organisation of palliative care. Qualitative analysis of the included studies involved categorisation of the implementation strategies into subgroups, according to the type of implementation strategy. From the 2379 publications identified, 68 studies with an experimental or quasi-experimental design were included. These studies described improvements using educational strategies (n = 14), process mapping (n = 1), feedback (n = 1), multidisciplinary meetings (n = 1) and multi-faceted implementation strategies (n = 51). Fifty-three studies reported positive outcomes, 11 studies reported mixed effects and four studies showed a limited effect (two educational and two multi-faceted strategies). This review is one of the first to provide an overview of the available literature in relation to strategies used to improve the organisation of palliative care. Since most studies reported positive results, further research is needed to identify and improve the effects of strategies aiming to improve the organisation of palliative care.

  19. Integrated Surface Power Strategy for Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    A National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) study team evaluated surface power needs for a conceptual crewed 500-day Mars mission. This study had four goals: 1. Determine estimated surface power needed to support the reference mission; 2. Explore alternatives to minimize landed power system mass; 3. Explore alternatives to minimize Mars Lander power self-sufficiency burden; and 4. Explore alternatives to minimize power system handling and surface transportation mass. The study team concluded that Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV) oxygen propellant production drives the overall surface power needed for the reference mission. Switching to multiple, small Kilopower fission systems can potentially save four to eight metric tons of landed mass, as compared to a single, large Fission Surface Power (FSP) concept. Breaking the power system up into modular packages creates new operational opportunities, with benefits ranging from reduced lander self-sufficiency for power, to extending the exploration distance from a single landing site. Although a large FSP trades well for operational complexity, a modular approach potentially allows Program Managers more flexibility to absorb late mission changes with less schedule or mass risk, better supports small precursor missions, and allows a program to slowly build up mission capability over time. A number of Kilopower disadvantages-and mitigation strategies-were also explored.

  20. Attempted integration of geologic and geophysical data from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory area, Eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Josten, N.E.; Hackett, W.R.; Smith, R.P. . Idaho National Engineering Lab.)

    1993-04-01

    The Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is a late-Cenozoic, bimodal volcanic province that developed synchronously with basin-and-range extension in the surrounding tectonic province. Strong geologic and geophysical contrasts exist between these two provinces. The Basin and Range is composed of northwest-trending, carbonate-bedrock ranges and alluvium-filled valleys. The ESRP is a bimodal volcanic province, with Tertiary silicic-volcanic rocks overlain by Quaternary mafic lavas. Patterns of ESRP volcanism and associated dike-induced surface deformation suggest that Quaternary crustal extension on the ESRP is accommodated by intrusion of basaltic dikes along northwest-trending volcanic-rift zones. This contrasts with recurrent seismogenic slip along northwest-trending, segmented normal faults in the adjacent Basin and Range tectonic province. The authors present new geophysical compilations, and they attempt to correlate these data with the surface distribution of volcanic-rift zones and other mapped geologic features near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Numerous, northwest-trending aeromagnetic anomalies do not always correspond with mapped volcanic-rift zones, which are expected to be underlain by mafic-dike swarms. Northwest-trending gravity anomalies also cross the ESRP, but their widths suggest broadly distributed masses rather than narrow rift zones. The spatial and temporal distribution of volcanic-rift zones on the ESRP has important implications for regional tectonics and seismicity, as well as the assessment of seismic- and volcanic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Discrepancies among the data sets suggest that older, buried volcanic-rift zones may have existed in a different configuration than is currently indicated by surficial geology. Alternatively, the geophysical signatures of non-rift-zone features may be indistinguishable from those of volcanic-rift zones.

  1. Integration of geology, non-seismic geophysics and seismic data in a structurally complex, frontier oil play: Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, T.A.; Belcher, J.S.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    The discovery of live Cretaceous oil in mineral exploration drill holes, followed by the identification of Mesozoic sediments in outcrop and in shallow drill holes, has lead to an integrated approach to exploration of a structurally complex, frontier oil play in south-central Colorado. Gravity, aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric (MT), and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data were acquired and interpreted in the initial stages of the project. Models derived from the geophysical data were augmented with geologic field work to explain specific anomalies. Interpretation of the gravity data was constrained by density measurements on representative rock samples collected in the field. Seismic data, acquired in the most recent exploration stage, provided confirmation and modification of the basin margin geometry. Velocity data from the seismic was integrated with resistivity, density, magnetic and geologic data to predict lithologies on an intermediate fault block located between the Sangre de Cristo Mountains and the San Luis Basin.

  2. The Gars Programme And The Integrated Global Observing Strategy For Geohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S.; Paganini, M.; Missotten, R.; Palazzo, F.

    UNESCO and the IUGS have funded the Geological Applications of Remote Sensing Programme (GARS) since 1984. Its aim is to assess the value and utility of remotely sensed data for geoscience, whilst at the same time building capacity in developing countries. It has run projects in Africa on geological mapping, in Latin America on landslide hazards and in Asia on volcanic hazards. It is a main sponsor of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) for Geohazards. The societal impact of geological and related geophysical hazards is enormous. Every year volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and subsidence claim thousands of lives, injure thousands more, devastate homes and destroy livelihoods. Damaged infrastructure and insurance premiums increase these costs. As population increases, more people live in hazardous areas and the impact grows. The World Summit on Sustainable Development recognised that systematic, joint international observations under initiatives like the Integrated Global Observing Strategy form the basis for an integrated approach to hazard mitigation and preparedness. In this context, the IGOS Partners developed this geohazards theme. Its goal is to integrate disparate, multidisciplinary, applied research into global, operational systems by filling gaps in organisation, observation and knowledge. It has four strategic objectives; building global capacity to mitigate geohazards; improving mapping, monitoring and forecasting, based on satellite and ground-based observations; increasing preparedness, using integrated geohazards information products and improved geohazards models; and promoting global take-up of local best practice in geohazards management. Gaps remain between what is known and the knowledge required to answer citizen's questions, what is observed and what must be observed to provide the necessary information for hazard mitigation and current data integration and the integration needed to make useful geohazard information products. An

  3. Integrated geophysical study to understand the architecture of the deep critical zone in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, X.; Wright, W. J.; Hynek, S. A.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Terry, N.; Whiting, F.; Job, M. J.; Brantley, S. L.; Fletcher, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) in Puerto Rico is characterized by a complex system of heterogeneous fractures that participate in the formation of corestones, and influence the development of a regolith by the alteration of the bedrock at very rapid weathering rates. The spatial distribution of fractures, and its influence on regolith thickness is, however, currently not well understood. In this study, we used an array of near-surface geophysical methods, including ground penetrating radar, terrain conductivity, electrical resistivity imaging and induced polarization, OhmMapper, and shallow seismic, constrained with direct methods from previous studies. These methods were combined with stress modeling to better understand: 1) changes in regolith thickness; and 2) variation of the spatial distribution and density of fractures with topography and proximity to the knickpoint. Our observations show the potential of geophysical methods for imaging variability in regolith thickness, and agree with the result of a stress model showing increased dilation of fractures with proximity to the knickpoint.

  4. Integrating Terrain Maps Into a Reactive Navigation Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Ayanna; Werger, Barry; Seraji, Homayoun

    2006-01-01

    An improved method of processing information for autonomous navigation of a robotic vehicle across rough terrain involves the integration of terrain maps into a reactive navigation strategy. Somewhat more precisely, the method involves the incorporation, into navigation logic, of data equivalent to regional traversability maps. The terrain characteristic is mapped using a fuzzy-logic representation of the difficulty of traversing the terrain. The method is robust in that it integrates a global path-planning strategy with sensor-based regional and local navigation strategies to ensure a high probability of success in reaching a destination and avoiding obstacles along the way. The sensor-based strategies use cameras aboard the vehicle to observe the regional terrain, defined as the area of the terrain that covers the immediate vicinity near the vehicle to a specified distance a few meters away.

  5. Vertical integration strategies: revenue effects in hospital and Medicare markets.

    PubMed

    Cody, M

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the revenue effects of seven vertically integrated strategies on California hospitals. The strategies investigated were managed care contracts, physician affiliations, ambulatory care, ambulatory surgery, home health services, inpatient rehabilitation, and skilled nursing care. The study population included 242 not-for-profit hospitals in continuous operation from 1983 to 1990. Many hospitals developed vertically integrated programs in the 1980s as inpatient utilization fell in response to the Medicare Prospective Payment program. Net revenue rose on average by $2,080 from 1983 to 1990, but fell by $2,421 from the Medicare program. On the whole, the more physicians affiliated with a hospital, the higher the net revenue. However, in the Medicare population, the number of managed care contracts was significant. The pre-hospital strategies generated significant revenue, while the post-hospital strategies did not. In the Medicare program, inpatient rehabilitation significantly reduced revenue.

  6. Integrating geophysical data and upscaling techniques to support regional groundwater flow modelling: A practical example of the Lagan Valley, Northern Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickson, Neil; Comte, Jean-Christophe; McKinley, Jennifer; Ofterdinger, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    When studying heterogeneous aquifer systems, especially at regional scale, a degree of generalization is anticipated. This can be due to sparse sampling regimes, complex depositional environments or lack of accessibility to measure the subsurface. This can lead to an inaccurate conceptualization which can be detrimental when applied to groundwater flow models. It is important that numerical models are based on observed and accurate geological information and do not rely on the distribution of artificial aquifer properties. This can still be problematic as data will be modelled at a different scale to which it was collected. It is proposed here that integrating geophysics and upscaling techniques can assist in a more realistic and deterministic groundwater flow model. In this study, the sedimentary aquifer of the Lagan Valley in Northern Ireland is chosen due to intruding sub-vertical dolerite dykes. These dykes are of a lower permeability than the sandstone aquifer. The use of airborne magnetics allows the delineation of heterogeneities, confirmed by field analysis. Permeability measured at the field scale is then upscaled to different levels using a correlation with the geophysical data, creating equivalent parameters that can be directly imported into numerical groundwater flow models. These parameters include directional equivalent permeabilities and anisotropy. Several stages of upscaling are modelled in finite element. Initial modelling is providing promising results, especially at the intermediate scale, suggesting an accurate distribution of aquifer properties. This deterministic based methodology is being expanded to include stochastic methods of obtaining heterogeneity location based on airborne geophysical data. This is through the Direct Sample method of Multiple-Point Statistics (MPS). This method uses the magnetics as a training image to computationally determine a probabilistic occurrence of heterogeneity. There is also a need to apply the method to

  7. Terrestrial Planet Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Terrestrial planet geophysics beyond our home sphere had its start arguably in the early 1960s, with Keith Runcorn contending that the second-degree shape of the Moon is due to convection and Mariner 2 flying past Venus and detecting no planetary magnetic field. Within a decade, in situ surface geophysical measurements were carried out on the Moon with the Apollo program, portions of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields were mapped, and Jack Lorell and his colleagues at JPL were producing spherical harmonic gravity field models for Mars using tracking data from Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet. Moreover, Mariner 10 discovered a planetary magnetic field at Mercury, and a young Sean Solomon was using geological evidence of surface contraction to constrain the thermal evolution of the innermost planet. In situ geophysical experiments (such as seismic networks) were essentially never carried out after Apollo, although they were sometimes planned just beyond the believability horizon in planetary mission queues. Over the last three decades, the discipline of terrestrial planet geophysics has matured, making the most out of orbital magnetic and gravity field data, altimetric measurements of surface topography, and the integration of geochemical information. Powerful constraints are provided by tectonic and volcanic information gleaned from surface images, and the engagement of geologists in geophysical exercises is actually quite useful. Accompanying these endeavors, modeling techniques, largely adopted from the Earth Science community, have become increasingly sophisticated and have been greatly enhanced by the dramatic increase in computing power over the last two decades. The future looks bright with exciting new data sets emerging from the MESSENGER mission to Mercury, the promise of the GRAIL gravity mission to the Moon, and the re-emergence of Venus as a worthy target for exploration. Who knows? With the unflagging optimism and persistence

  8. EDITORIAL: Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage Integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, N.; Soldovieri, F.

    2011-09-01

    In the last two decades, the use of non-invasive methods for the study and conservation of cultural heritage, from artefacts and historical sites to recent architectural structures, has gained increasing interest. This is due to several reasons: (i) the improvement of performance and information resolution of sensors and devices; (ii) the increasing availability of user-friendly data/image analysis, and processing software and routines; (iii) the ever greater awareness of archaeologists and conservators of the benefits of these technologies, in terms of reduction of costs, time and the risk associated with direct and destructive investigations of archaeological sites (excavation) and monuments (i.e. masonry coring). The choice of diagnostic strategy depends on the spatial and physical characteristics of the cultural objects or sites, the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment, etc). This makes the set up and validation of ad hoc procedures based on data processing and post-processing methods necessary, generally developed to address issues in other fields of application. This methodological perspective based on an integrated and multi-scale approach characterizes the papers of this special issue, which is focused on integrated non-invasive sensing techniques and geophysical methods for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage. In particular, attention is given to the advanced application of the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) from the satellite-based platform for deformation monitoring thanks to the innovative differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) technique; Zeni et al show the significant possibilities of the proposed methodology in achieving a global vision not only of cultural heritage but also of the embedding territory. This collection also deals with the application of non-invasive diagnostics to archaeological prospecting, and

  9. IWRM Policy in Colombia, drawbacks and strategies towards integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Since the establishment of the Integrated Water Resource Management National Policy in Colombia in 2010- IWRMNP, several initiatives has been developed in order to understand and manage water within the integration perspective. However, the Colombian institutional and legal frameworks do not favor the implementation of integrated management exercises, and many efforts have been fruitless in recent years. Additionally, there is an avalanche of techniques and available technologies to develop integrated models, analysis or assessments, which frequently are interpreted as the same tool. An analysis of the Colombian context in regulatory terms and institutions involved is carried out, as a prelude to address the topic of analysis modeling and integrated management. Moreover, in Colombian legislation there exists policies regarding integrated soil management, integrated biodiversity management, as well as several current international trends such as integrated landscape planning, integrated urban areas management etc. Therefore, and in light of the initial analysis, a discussion of redundancy or complementarity of such management it is carried out. Finally, a strategy is proposed for decision makers of local and regional level, trying to overcome technical gaps left by national policy and regulations. This is done from a discussion of the various anthropic damages to water resources systems. Also a classification of integrated models is proposed and a general approach to systems integrated resource management to finally present a state- management matrix methodology applicable to different cases and management requirements. The results of its implementation in a small basin is presented.

  10. Integration Strategies for Efficient Multizone Chemical Kinetics Models

    SciTech Connect

    McNenly, M J; Havstad, M A; Aceves, S M; Pitz, W J

    2009-10-15

    Three integration strategies are developed and tested for the stiff, ordinary differential equation (ODE) integrators used to solve the fully coupled multizone chemical kinetics model. Two of the strategies tested are found to provide more than an order of magnitude of improvement over the original, basic level of usage for the stiff ODE solver. One of the faster strategies uses a decoupled, or segregated, multizone model to generate an approximate Jacobian. This approach yields a 35-fold reduction in the computational cost for a 20 zone model. Using the same approximate Jacobian as a preconditioner for an iterative Krylov-type linear system solver, the second improved strategy achieves a 75-fold reduction in the computational cost for a 20 zone model. The faster strategies achieve their cost savings with no significant loss of accuracy. The pressure, temperature and major species mass fractions agree with the solution from the original integration approach to within six significant digits; and the radical mass fractions agree with the original solution to within four significant digits. The faster strategies effectively change the cost scaling of the multizone model from cubic to quadratic, with respect to the number of zones. As a consequence of the improved scaling, the 40 zone model offers more than a 250-fold cost savings over the basic calculation.

  11. Integrated geophysical and geological studies of selected major tectonic features in south-central U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrefaee, Hamed

    The current dissertation includes three separate chapters, each utilizing the power of the integration of different geophysical datasets with geology to investigate tectonic and structural processes responsible for the geological evolution of selected major tectonic features in south-central U. S. These tectonic features are; the Arkoma basin of Oklahoma and Arkansas, the Llano uplift of central Texas, and the Meers fault of the southwestern Oklahoma. The Arkoma basin is an arcuate structural feature that extends from the Gulf coastal plain in central Arkansas westward 400 km to the Arbuckle Mountains in south-central Oklahoma. The interpretation of the 3-D seismic data reveals an E-W zone of crustal weakness in the northern part of the study area, which could be a Late Paleozoic tectonic inversion of the extension faulting that developed during Cambrian rifting and later foreland basin development. The seismic interpretation reveals a compressive deformation of the Late Paleozoic strata related to the Ouachita orogeny. Magnetic boundaries such as faults andor body edges extending E-W, NE-SW and NW-SE have been delineated using magnetic edge detector techniques in the northern, southeastern, and western parts of the study area, respectively. The Euler magnetic depth estimation method delineated the same faults determined using magnetic edge detector techniques. The maximum depth to faults dominating the basement and/or the intrabasement features determined by the Euler's method is about 3850 m. The fault trends delineated by the seismic interpretation and those determined by the Euler's method and the edge detector techniques show a very clear correlation. The Llano Uplift is a broad structural dome in central Texas with 2 to 3 km of structural relief relative to the subsurface Fort Worth and Kerr basins to the northeast and southwest. The initial uplift due to an arc-continent collision was followed by a continent-continent collision between the Laurentia and a

  12. Rare earth mineral potential in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain from integrated geophysical, geochemical, and geological approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bern, Carleton; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Daniels, David L.; Benzel, William M.; Budahn, James R.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Karst, Adam; Davis, Richard

    2017-01-01

    We combined geophysical, geochemical, mineralogical, and geological data to evaluate the regional presence of rare earth element (REE)−bearing minerals in heavy mineral sand deposits of the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also analyzed regional differences in these data to determine probable sedimentary provenance. Analyses of heavy mineral separates covering the region show strong correlations between thorium, monazite, and xenotime, suggesting that radiometric equivalent thorium (eTh) can be used as a geophysical proxy for those REE-bearing minerals. Airborne radiometric data collected during the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program cover the southeastern United States with line spacing varying from ∼2 to 10 km. These data show eTh highs over Cretaceous and Tertiary Coastal Plain sediments from the Cape Fear arch in North Carolina to eastern Alabama; these highs decrease with distance from the Piedmont. Quaternary sediments along the modern coasts show weaker eTh anomalies, except near coast-parallel ridges from South Carolina to northern Florida. Prominent eTh anomalies are also observed over large riverbeds and their floodplains, even north of the Cape Fear arch where surrounding areas are relatively low. These variations were verified using ground geophysical measurements and sample analyses, indicating that radiometric methods are a useful exploration tool at varying scales. Further analyses of heavy mineral separates showed regional differences, not only in concentrations of monazite, but also of rutile and staurolite, and in magnetic susceptibility. The combined properties suggest the presence of subregions where heavy mineral sediments are primarily sourced from high-grade metamorphic, low-grade metamorphic, or igneous terrains, or where they represent a mixing of these sources. Comparisons between interpreted sources of heavy mineral sands near the Fall Line and igneous and metamorphic Piedmont and Blue Ridge units showed a strong

  13. An overview on integrated data system for archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Lee, SeungHa

    2016-04-01

    We established and have operated an integrated data system for managing, archiving and sharing marine geology and geophysical data around Korea produced from various research projects and programs in Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology (KIOST). First of all, to keep the consistency of data system with continuous data updates, we set up standard operating procedures (SOPs) for data archiving, data processing and converting, data quality controls, and data uploading, DB maintenance, etc. Database of this system comprises two databases, ARCHIVE DB and GIS DB for the purpose of this data system. ARCHIVE DB stores archived data as an original forms and formats from data providers for data archive and GIS DB manages all other compilation, processed and reproduction data and information for data services and GIS application services. Relational data management system, Oracle 11g, adopted for DBMS and open source GIS techniques applied for GIS services such as OpenLayers for user interface, GeoServer for application server, PostGIS and PostgreSQL for GIS database. For the sake of convenient use of geophysical data in a SEG Y format, a viewer program was developed and embedded in this system. Users can search data through GIS user interface and save the results as a report.

  14. Integrating human resources and program-planning strategies.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E

    1989-06-01

    The integration of human resources management (HRM) strategies with long-term program-planning strategies in hospital pharmacy departments is described. HRM is a behaviorally based, comprehensive strategy for the effective management and use of people that seeks to achieve coordination and integration with overall planning strategies and other managerial functions. It encompasses forecasting of staffing requirements; determining work-related factors that are strong "motivators" and thus contribute to employee productivity and job satisfaction; conducting a departmental personnel and skills inventory; employee career planning and development, including training and education programs; strategies for promotion and succession, including routes of advancement that provide alternatives to the managerial route; and recruitment and selection of new personnel to meet changing departmental needs. Increased competitiveness among hospitals and a shortage of pharmacists make it imperative that hospital pharmacy managers create strategies to attract, develop, and retain the right individuals to enable the department--and the hospital as a whole--to grow and change in response to the changing health-care environment in the United States. Pharmacy managers would be greatly aided in this mission by the establishment of a well-defined, national strategic plan for pharmacy programs and services that includes an analysis of what education and training are necessary for their successful accomplishment. Creation of links between overall program objectives and people-planning strategies will aid hospital pharmacy departments in maximizing the long-term effectiveness of their practice.

  15. Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in ground water studies - an example using electromagnetic soundings in south Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick; Hite, Laura; Carlson, Matthew

    1999-01-01

    Time domain surface electromagnetic soundings, borehole induction logs, and other borehole logging techniques are used to construct a realistic model for the shallow subsurface hydraulic properties of unconsolidated sediments in south Florida. Induction logs are used to calibrate surface induction soundings in units of pore water salinity by correlating water sample specific electrical conductivity with the electrical conductivity of the formation over the sampled interval for a two‐layered aquifer model. Geophysical logs are also used to show that a constant conductivity layer model is appropriate for the south Florida study. Several physically independent log measurements are used to quantify the dependence of formation electrical conductivity on such parameters as salinity, permeability, and clay mineral fraction. The combined interpretation of electromagnetic soundings and induction logs was verified by logging three validation boreholes, confirming quantitative estimates of formation conductivity and thickness in the upper model layer, and qualitative estimates of conductivity in the lower model layer.

  16. Using Methods of Dimension Reduction to Expand Data Integration and Reduce Uncertainty in Hydrological and Geophysical Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, A.; Savoy, H.; Heße, F.; Rubin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD), first demonstrated by Rubin et al. in 2010, has been particularly useful in hydrological and geophysical applications. MAD provides a new framework for successfully using diverse data for the characterization of heterogeneous subsurface quantities (eg. hydraulic conductivity). Through Bayesian inverse modeling, MAD is able to take a general, assumption-free approach, incorporating both local data, ie. data that pertains directly to the target quantity, as well as other indirectly related non-local data. The latter are used for the inversion and converted into local data, called 'anchors', therefore improving the overall characterization of the target variable. However, with the use of more and more data, problems arise with the inversion due to the high dimensionality of said data, eg. when using time series. As a result, MAD becomes increasingly difficult, if not impossible, to use for large data sets. The objective of our study is therefore to investigate and demonstrate effective methods of dimension reduction that reduces large data sets to a small set of relevant parameters while still retaining a strong effect on the inversion procedure. The poster will explain the relevant methods and present examples of their effect on different data types, primarily looking at hydrological data (ie. concentration breakthrough curves, drawdown time series or vertical head profiles) then further theorizing its possible application to geophysical information. Ultimately, the broader goal of this study is to propose ways of applying dimension reduction to the realm of hydrogeophysics, which will not only expand the application of MAD, but also improve our ability to reduce uncertainty in the relevant parameters.

  17. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  18. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender…

  19. Towards a Participatory Strategy for Integrated Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowdermilk, Max; Laitos, W. Robert

    1981-01-01

    Details essential elements of any rural development program, describes a seven-stage project development strategy which has proved successful in water management projects in Pakistan and Egypt, delineates the key concepts in each of the seven stages, and recommends integration of the client system into rural development programs. (Author)

  20. Improving the Behavior of Third Graders Using Integrated Teaching Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, Barbara F.

    This report discusses the implementation of integrated intervention strategies to improve the classroom behavior of 30 third-grade students. Students' disruptive behavior was identified from two classroom observations, teacher questionnaires, and interviews with the school counselor. Objectives projected for the intervention were that students…

  1. Integrating Vocabulary Learning Strategy Instruction into EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Ying-Chun

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, explicit vocabulary learning strategy instruction was integrated into an EFL curriculum to investigate its effects on learners' vocabulary acquisition. A total of 180 EFL learners enrolled in the freshmen English program at a university in Taiwan participated in the study. The participants were guided to explore and practice…

  2. China's Demographic Challenge Requires an Integrated Coping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peng, Xizhe

    2013-01-01

    China has entered into a new stage of demographic dynamics whereby population-related challenges are more complicated than ever before. The current one-child policy should be modified. However, the anticipated impacts of such a policy change should not be over-exaggerated. China's demographic challenge requires an integrated coping strategy.…

  3. Organisational Learning through International M&A Integration Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wayne; Salama, Alzira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to explore the learning process associated with international mergers and acquisitions (M&A) integration strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a comparative case study methodology, utilising qualitative data through in-depth interviews with top management responsible for…

  4. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender…

  5. Organisational Learning through International M&A Integration Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Wayne; Salama, Alzira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to explore the learning process associated with international mergers and acquisitions (M&A) integration strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a comparative case study methodology, utilising qualitative data through in-depth interviews with top management responsible for…

  6. Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration of field, textural, geochemical and geophysical data: A textural working group. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gurioli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Relating magma ascent to eruption style using information preserved in pyroclastic deposits is a major challenge in modern volcanology. Because magma ascent and fragmentation are inaccessible to direct observation, one way to obtain quantitative information for conduit dynamics is through textural quantification of the sampled products (i.e., full definition of the rock vesicle and crystal properties). Many workers have shown that quantification of vesicle and crystal size distributions yields valuable insights into the processes that created the pyroclasts. However, the physical characteristics of individual pyroclasts must not be considered in isolation from information regarding: (i) the deposits from which they are taken; (ii) their chemistry; (iii) geophysical signatures of the related explosive events; and (iv) results from petrological and/or analogue experiments. As a result, attempts to understand eruption dynamics have increasingly involved the coupling of traditional field and sample-return analyses with geophysical measurements made synchronous with sample collection. In spite of this progress, we remain far from developing a definitive methods that allows us to sample, correlate and/or compare the multitude of parameters that can be measured at an actively building field deposits. As a result, no study has yet been able to correlate all derivable textural parameters with the full range of available multidisciplinary data. To discuss these issues, a working group met during 6-7 November 2012 at the Maison International of the Université Blaise Pascal (Clermont-Ferrand, France). The workshop was supported by the European Science Foundation and was held under the title: 'Tracking and understanding volcanic emissions through cross-disciplinary integration: A textural working group'. Our main objective was to gather an advisory group to define measurements, methods, formats and standards to be applied to integration of geophysical and physical

  7. An Integrated Geophysical and Tectonic Study of the Structure and Evolution of the Crust in the Snake River Plain Region, Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.; Khatiwada, M.

    2016-12-01

    The Snake River Plain region in the Pacific Northwest of North America has been the target of a number of recent studies that have revealed further complexities in its structure and tectonic evolution. Based on surface morphology and Late Cenozoic volcanic activity, the Snake River Plain consists of an eastern and western arm (ESRP and WSRP) that are similar in many respects but also quite different in other respects. Thus, its origin, evolution, structural complexities, the role of extension and magmatism in its formation, and the tectonic drivers are still subjects of debate. Numerous seismic studies have specifically focused on the structure of the ESRP and Yellowstone area. However, crustal-scale studies of the WSRP are limited. We added new gravity data to the existing coverage in the WSRP region and undertook a regional, integrated analysis approach that included magnetic, seismic reflection and refraction profiling, receiver function results, geological and geospatial data, and interpreted well logs. Our integrated geophysical modeling focused on the structure of the WSRP. We generated two crustal models across it at locations where the most existing geophysical and geological constraints were available. We observed both differences and similarities in the structure of the WSRP and ESRP. Although, the shallow crustal structures are different, a mid-crustal mafic intrusion is a major source of the high gravity anomaly values. Within the context of recent studies in the surrounding region, the intersection of the two arms of the Snake River Plain emerges as a major element of a complex tectonic intersection that includes the High Lava Plains of eastern Oregon, the Northern Nevada Rift, a southwestern extension of the ESRP into northern Nevada, as well as, faulting and volcanism extending northwestward to connect with the Columbia River Basalts region.

  8. Deep Crustal Structure and Tectonic History of the Northern Kapuskasing Uplift of Ontario: AN Integrated Petrological-Geophysical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Percival, J. A.; McGrath, P. H.

    1986-08-01

    The northeast trending Kapuskasing uplift transects the east-west belts of the central Superior Province over a distance of some 500 km. Granulite to upper amphibolite facies rocks of the uplift form three distinct geological-geophysical entities: from south to north, the Chapleau, Groundhog River, and Fraserdale-Moosonee blocks. Uplift of the granulites along a moderately northwest dipping crustal-scale thrust fault is attributed to an early Proterozoic compressional event. Major northeast-striking faults that bound the Kapuskasing zone on the west were examined by modelling of geophysical anomalies to determine dip and by geobarometry of garnet-orthopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz assemblages to determine vertical displacement. Granulites in the Kapuskasing zone have 7- to 9-kbar signatures whereas those in the Quetico belt to the west indicate metamorphic pressure of 4-6 kbar. Individual calibrations of the barometer yield consistent pressure differences of 2-3 kbar, suggesting 7-10 km of west-side-down movement on the faults. Modelling of gravity and aeromagnetic gradients indicates westerly dips of 60°-65°, with west-side-down offset of up to 14 km. These major normal faults probably formed as collapse structures in response to crustal thickening which occurred during the preceding compressional uplift stage. Differences in the configuration of individual blocks of the Kapuskasing zone can be related to variable fault slip and intersection angles between normal and reverse faults. Thus the Groundhog River and southern Fraserdale-Moosonee blocks are perched thrust tips analogous to the Sangre de Cristo Range of the Laramide uplift province, whereas the southern Chapleau block is a tilted slab with similar configuration to the Laramide Wind River Range. Pop-up geometry deduced for the northern Fraserdale-Moosonee block resembles the structure of the Laramide Uinta Mountains. A normal fault crosses the surface trace of the basal thrust fault between the Groundhog

  9. Integrated strategy for mutagenicity prediction applied to food contact chemicals.

    PubMed

    Manganelli, Serena; Schilter, Benoît; Benfenati, Emilio; Manganaro, Alberto; Lo Piparo, Elena

    2017-09-18

    Food contamination due to unintentional leakage of chemicals from food contact materials (FCM) is a source of increasing concern. Since for many of these substances, only limited or no toxicological data are available, the development of alternative methodologies to establish rapidly and cost-efficiently level of safety concern is critical to ensure adequate consumer protection. Computational toxicology methods are considered the most promising solutions to cope with this data gap. In particular, mutagenicity assessment has a particular relevance and is a mandatory requirement for all substances released from plastic FCM, regardless how low migration and exposure are. In the present work, a strategy integrating a number of (Quantitative) Structure Activity Relationship ((Q)SAR) models for Ames mutagenicity predictions is proposed. A list of chemicals representing likely migrating moieties from FCM was selected to test the value of the newly defined strategy and the possibility to combine predictions given by the different algorithms was evaluated. In particular, a scheme to integrate mutagenicity estimations into a single final assessment was developed resulting in an increased domain of applicability. In most cases, a deeper analysis of experimental data, where available, allowed fixing misclassification errors, highlighting the importance of data curation in the development, validation and application of in silico methods. The high accuracy of the strategy provided the rationales for its application for toxicologically uncharacterized chemicals. Finally, the overall strategy of integration will be automated through its implementation into a freely available software application.

  10. [Integrated prevention and control strategy for dengue in Mesoamerica].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; San Martín, José Luis; Danis-Lozano, Rogelio; Manrique-Saide, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Dengue in the Americas is a public health problem in ascent. The control strategies have not been effective when sustained in the intensive use of insecticides and poor community participation. The Mesoamerican Initiative for the Prevention and the Integrated Control of Dengue synthesizes the works generated by the Integrated Strategy of the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO) and the risks stratification strategy designed by the countries of the Mesoamerican region. The objective is to progressively reduce the incidence of dengue cases until a 50% reduction is reached over a five years period. This document describes the elements for the risk stratification, the activities for prevention and control organized by levels of intensity and frequency and the indicators used to pursuit the objectives. To face the dispersion of the problem a concentration of efforts for control in the areas of greater risk is presented; the opportunity in the detection of cases is highlighted to tackle the fast dissemination of the infection; focus on the most productive breeding sites is proposed to battle against the vast dissemination of the breeding sites; and the severity of the infection must be addressed by capable clinical human resources. This strategy was designed along with the national representatives of the control programs to create master plans that provided the basis for the integrated prevention and control of dengue in the Mesoamerican region.

  11. Geophysics benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An agreement signed May 6 between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. creates new opportunities for joint geophysical research programs. Dallas Peck, director of the U.S. Geological Survey, and Erich Bloch, director of the National Science Foundation signed two agreements for basic scientific research with the Soviets to establish links between between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Soviet Ministry of Geology and between the National Science Foundation and the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The USGS agreement also establishes a connection with the Soviet Academy of Sciences.The Memoranda of Understanding are the first to be developed under the Agreement on Cooperation in the Field of Basic Scientific Research signed in January, by then Secretary of State George Shultz and Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze. The agreements address cooperation in basic rather than applied science and establish a formal mechanism for access to research facilities and support involving NSF, universities, the Soviet Academy of Sciences, USGS, and the Soviet Ministry of Geology.

  12. An integrated geophysical study of basin structure in the Van Horn segment of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, T.J.; Whitelaw, J.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Rio Grande Rift is a major late Cenozoic continental rift which trends north-south from Colorado to West Texas where it takes an abrupt south-west turn. A series of basins then follow the Texas-Mexico border passing through the Big Bend Area into Mexico. This rifting zone produced a series of bolsons: Hueco Bolson, Red Light Bolson, Eagle Flat, Green River Bolson, and Ryan Flat being the most predominant of the area. The target of this study was the area southeast of the Hueco Bolson; the Red Light and Green River Bolson is an intermontane basin being bounded on the west by the Eagle Mountains and on the east by the Van Horn Mountains. The Red Light Bolson is nested between the Quitman and Eagle Mountains. Through the use of gravity data, drill hole information and other related geophysical information, the subsurface structure of this region was investigated. A broad gravity low dominates the region, but does not correlate well with late Cenozoic features. Drilling data suggest that this low is due to thick Cretaceous strata. The Green River Bolson is associated with a north-south trending gravity low suggesting it contains considerable Cenozoic fill.

  13. Perspective: deconstructing integration: a framework for the rational application of integration as a guiding curricular strategy.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ellen; Schroth, W Scott

    2012-06-01

    In response to historical criticism, evolving accreditation standards, and recent reports on curricula, medical educators and medical schools have been eagerly pursuing integration as a goal of curricular reform. The general education literature broadly considers integration to be the deliberate unification of separate areas of knowledge, and it provides support for the concept that integration better meets the needs of adult learners in professional education. The use of integration as a curricular goal is not without its critics, however, nor is it free of difficulties in implementation. In this perspective, the authors propose that most of these difficulties arise from a failure to recognize that integration is a strategy for curricular development rather than a goal in itself, and they argue that adopting a systematic approach to integration offers many potential benefits. They articulate the conceptual and practical issues that they believe are critical to consider in order to achieve successful curricular integration, and they suggest that integration should be approached as a subset of broader curriculum development decisions. They propose a three-level framework for applying integration as a guiding curricular strategy, in which decisions about integration must follow curricular decisions made at the program level, the course level, and then the individual session level.

  14. Heterogeneous integration of epitaxial nanostructures: strategies and application drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Chi On; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Kina, Jorge; Shih, Kun-Huan; Narayanan, Pritish; Moritz, C. Andras

    2012-10-01

    In order to sustain the historic progress in information processing, transmission, and storage, concurrent integration of heterogeneous functionality and materials with fine granularity is clearly imperative for the best connectivity, system performance, and density metrics. In this paper, we review recent developments in heterogeneous integration of epitaxial nanostructures for their applications toward our envisioned device-level heterogeneity using computing nanofabrics. We first identify the unmet need for heterogeneous integration in modern nanoelectronics and review state-of-the-art assembly approaches for nanoscale computing fabrics. We also discuss the novel circuit application driver, known as Nanoscale Application Specific Integrated Circuits (NASICs), which promises an overall performance-power-density advantage over CMOS and embeds built-in defect and parameter variation resilience. At the device-level, we propose an innovative cross-nanowire field-effect transistor (xnwFET) structure that simultaneously offers high performance, low parasitics, good electrostatic control, ease-of-manufacturability, and resilience to process variation. In addition, we specify technology requirements for heterogeneous integration and present two wafer-scale strategies. The first strategy is based on ex situ assembly and stamping transfer of pre-synthesized epitaxial nanostructures that allows tight control over key nanofabric parameters. The second strategy is based on lithographic definition of epitaxial nanostructures on native substrates followed by their stamping transfer using VLSI foundry processes. Finally, we demonstrate the successful concurrent heterogeneous co-integration of silicon and III-V compound semiconductor epitaxial nanowire arrays onto the same hosting substrate over large area, at multiple locations, with fine granularity, close proximity and high yield.

  15. [Strategies for cerebrospinal fluid analysis - Integrated results report].

    PubMed

    Uhr, M; Tumani, H; Lange, P

    2016-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis requires a combined assessment of all individual test findings in an integrated total report in order to achieve a reliable and specific diagnostic conclusion. Such a standard assessment strategy allows the identification of disease-typical result patterns and plausibility checks to avoid analytical errors. The integrated total report consists of 1) a basic CSF program with cytological and protein chemical parameters, 2) an expanded CSF program with special parameters for detection of pathogens and markers of neurodegeneration and 3) a final contextual interpretation considering methodological and clinical aspects.

  16. Integrated Pore-Water and Geophysical Investigations StreamlineCharacterization of Ground-Water Discharges to Surface Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue of Technology News and Trends highlights strategies and tools for characterizing or monitoring remediation of sites with contaminated sediment. Addressing these sites often relies upon dynamic workplans that involve more efficient, cost-effective, and practical methods...

  17. Integrated Pore-Water and Geophysical Investigations StreamlineCharacterization of Ground-Water Discharges to Surface Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This issue of Technology News and Trends highlights strategies and tools for characterizing or monitoring remediation of sites with contaminated sediment. Addressing these sites often relies upon dynamic workplans that involve more efficient, cost-effective, and practical methods...

  18. Integration of Geologic and Geophysical Data to Model Hydrostratigraphy Under a Recharge Pond for Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, V.; Pidlisecky, A.; Knight, R. J.; Jenni, S.; Will, R.; Lear, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Harkins Slough Recharge Pond (HSRP) near Watsonville, CA, was developed to lessen the adverse impacts of excessive groundwater pumping in the Pajaro Valley. Storm-flow run-off is filtered and diverted into the pond during the winter, percolates through the base of the pond to the alluvial aquifer, and is recovered in the summer. The pond faces two operational challenges. The first is a decrease in the infiltration rate throughout the winter, reducing the amount of run-off that can percolate into the aquifer. The second is a recovery rate of less than 25%. Operators need a clearer understanding of the hydrologic processes governing the movement and storage of water beneath the pond. Efforts to characterize hydrologic processes at the HSRP have resulted in the acquisition of numerous data sets. Geologic data include lithologic descriptions from shallow cores and drillers’ logs of ten, ~50 m deep wells. An additional nine monitoring wells were used to measure hydraulic head every 15 minutes throughout the year. Geophysical surveys, including shallow shear-wave reflection, ground-penetrating radar, electrical resistivity, and seismic cone penetration testing, were collected along the base of the HSRP in Summer 2007 when the pond was drained. In addition, four probes collected 1D resistivity profiles every 3 minutes throughout an infiltration cycle in the winter of 2007-2008. We combined these data, using PETREL software, into a model describing the hydrostratigraphy beneath the pond, and then used ECLIPSE to simulate the variably-saturated flow behavior. The extent of our model, 380 m by 390 m, roughly matches the size of the pond, and extends to a depth of ~60 m. We input all data using the resolution at which they were acquired; this ranged from 0.2 m resolution for the shallow cores to ~3 m resolution for seismic data. The GPR and electrical data were input as images and used with the seismic data to identify hydrostratigraphic boundaries. We elected to use 12

  19. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical-petrological modeling II: 3D thermal and compositional structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullea, J.; Muller, M. R.; Jones, A. G.; Afonso, J. C.

    2014-02-01

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth represents a fundamental parameter in any quantitative lithospheric model, controlling to a large extent the temperature distribution within the crust and the uppermost mantle. The tectonic history of Ireland includes early Paleozoic closure of the Iapetus Ocean across the Iapetus Suture Zone (ISZ), and in northeastern Ireland late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic crustal extension, during which thick Permo-Triassic sedimentary successions were deposited, followed by early Cenozoic extrusion of large scale flood basalts. Although the crustal structure in Ireland and neighboring offshore areas is fairly well constrained, with the notable exception of the crust beneath Northern Ireland, the Irish uppermost mantle remains to date relatively unknown. In particular, the nature and extent of a hypothetical interaction between a putative proto Icelandic mantle plume and the Irish and Scottish lithosphere during the Tertiary opening of the North Atlantic has long been discussed in the literature with diverging conclusions. In this work, the present-day thermal and compositional structure of the lithosphere in Ireland is modeled based on a geophysical-petrological approach (LitMod3D) that combines comprehensively a large variety of data (namely elevation, surface heat flow, potential fields, xenoliths and seismic tomography models), reducing the inherent uncertainties and trade-offs associated with classical modeling of those individual data sets. The preferred 3D lithospheric models show moderate lateral density variations in Ireland characterized by a slightly thickened lithosphere along the SW-NE trending ISZ, and a progressive lithospheric thinning from southern Ireland towards the north. The mantle composition in the southern half of Ireland (East Avalonia) is relatively and uniformly fertile (i.e., typical Phanerozoic mantle), whereas the lithospheric composition in the northern half of Ireland (Laurentia) seems to vary

  20. Integrating Geologic, Geochemical and Geophysical Data in a Statistical Analysis of Geothermal Resource Probability across the State of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Ito, G.; Thomas, D. M.; Hinz, N.; Frazer, L. N.; Waller, D.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii offers the opportunity to gain knowledge and develop geothermal energy on the only oceanic hotspot in the U.S. As a remote island state, Hawaii is more dependent on imported fossil fuel than any other state in the U.S., and energy prices are 3 to 4 times higher than the national average. The only proven resource, located on Hawaii Island's active Kilauea volcano, is a region of high geologic risk; other regions of probable resource exist but lack adequate assessment. The last comprehensive statewide geothermal assessment occurred in 1983 and found a potential resource on all islands (Hawaii Institute of Geophysics, 1983). Phase 1 of a Department of Energy funded project to assess the probability of geothermal resource potential statewide in Hawaii was recently completed. The execution of this project was divided into three main tasks: (1) compile all historical and current data for Hawaii that is relevant to geothermal resources into a single Geographic Information System (GIS) project; (2) analyze and rank these datasets in terms of their relevance to the three primary properties of a viable geothermal resource: heat (H), fluid (F), and permeability (P); and (3) develop and apply a Bayesian statistical method to incorporate the ranks and produce probability models that map out Hawaii's geothermal resource potential. Here, we summarize the project methodology and present maps that highlight both high prospect areas as well as areas that lack enough data to make an adequate assessment. We suggest a path for future exploration activities in Hawaii, and discuss how this method of analysis can be adapted to other regions and other types of resources. The figure below shows multiple layers of GIS data for Hawaii Island. Color shades indicate crustal density anomalies produced from inversions of gravity (Flinders et al. 2013). Superimposed on this are mapped calderas, rift zones, volcanic cones, and faults (following Sherrod et al., 2007). These features were used

  1. Integrating Equity in a Public Health Funding Strategy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Kristy T; Rice, Ketra; Li, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Equity can be valuable to guide decision makers about where to target funds; however, there are few studies for modeling vertical equity in public health program funding strategies. This case study modeled vertical equity in the funding strategy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Colorectal Cancer Control Program. To integrate vertical equity by using historical funding and health data, we (a) examined the need for colorectal cancer screening, (b) conducted multiple regressions to examine the relationship between factors of need and funding of states, (c) stratified states into similar need groups, (d) estimated vertical equity within groups, and (e) assessed equity in the funding distribution. Certain states with similar needs had high relative funding, whereas other states with similar needs had low relative funding. The methods used to integrate vertical equity in this case study could be applied in publicly funded programs to potentially minimize inequities and improve outcomes.

  2. Bridging the gap: strategies to integrate classroom and clinical learning.

    PubMed

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Robinia, Kristi

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students often feel their classroom (didactic) learning and clinical (practice) experiences are disconnected which can lead to a rejection of academe and dissatisfaction with the profession. This classroom/clinical divide may be exacerbated because of the increased use of part-time clinical faculty, who are often isolated from their didactic peers. If clinical faculty, either novice or experienced, are disconnected from didactic faculty, is it any wonder students feel their learning is fragmented? The purpose of this paper is to discuss strategies to help bridge the gap between didactic and clinical learning. Specific integration strategies for faculty are presented using examples from a baccalaureate adult nursing didactic course and its related clinical course. The role of a clinical coordinator in facilitating course integration and support for part-time clinical faculty is described. Ideas for using technology to enhance learning and suggestions to promote socialization to decrease faculty isolation are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CFD Time-Integration Strategies for Large Chemical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-29

    Final Report: CFD Time-Integration Strategies for Large Chemical Systems F49620-03-1-0208 William M. Eppard Ph.D. AeroSoft , Inc. 1872 Pratt Drive...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Aerosoft , Inc. 1872 Pratt Drive, Suite 1275...Eppard at AeroSoft , Inc. 5 Publications Damkohler Limiting of Chemical Time Scales - Paper Number : AIAA-2005-1400 6 Interactions/Transitions Dr

  4. Integrated geophysics reveals a steep lithologic boundary and Moho offset at the western Idaho shear zone that strongly influenced later tectonic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenport, K. K.; Ghanekar, S.; Stanciu, A. C.; Bremner, P. M.; Hole, J. A.; Tikoff, B.; Russo, R. M.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple geophysical data sets from the EarthScope Idaho-Oregon (IDOR) project were integrated to examine crustal structure and composition across the boundary between accreted terranes and the Precambrian craton in Idaho and Oregon. New results from controlled-source seismic S-wave data and gravity data are incorporated with previous results from controlled-source seismic P-waves, broadband seismic receiver functions, and broadband ambient noise surface waves. The geophysical data constrain the deeper structure of the western Idaho shear zone (WISZ), imaging a near-vertical, through-going structure that juxtaposes different seismic velocities and densities throughout the crust and offsets the Moho by 7-8 km. Previous work suggested that the WISZ, which formed when transpressional deformation overprinted the original terrane-craton suture, was less steep at depth or was offset within the crust. West of the WISZ, the crust of the Blue Mountains Province oceanic accreted terranes is characterized by faster seismic velocities and higher densities, intermediate lithology with a mafic lower crust, and a shallower, 30 km deep Moho. East of the WISZ the crust of the Precambrian craton and the Idaho batholith has slower seismic velocities, lower densities, felsic lithology with an intermediate-composition lower crust, and a deeper 35-40 km Moho. The juxtaposition of crustal blocks with distinctly contrasting lithologies created a fundamental rheologic boundary that strongly influenced the response of the crust to subsequent tectonic events, including emplacement of the Idaho batholith and the Columbia River basalts, and Basin and Range extension. The strong contrast across the WISZ restricted these tectonic events to primarily one side or the other, and has likely contributed to the survival of this steep vertical boundary and Moho offset through the later tectonic and heating events.

  5. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen

    2014-05-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  6. IRETHERM: Developing a Strategic and Holistic Understanding of Ireland's Geothermal Energy Potential through Integrated Modelling of New and Existing Geophysical, Geochemical and Geological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Daly, Stephen; Vozar, Jan; Rath, Volker; Campanya, Joan; Blake, Sarah; Delhaye, Robert; Fritschle, Tobias; Willmot Noller, Nicola; Long, Mike; Waters, Tim

    2015-04-01

    The Science Foundation Ireland funded academia-government-industry collaborative IRETHERM project (www.iretherm.ie), initiated in 2011, is developing a strategic understanding of Ireland's (all-island) deep geothermal energy potential through integrated modelling of new and existing geophysical, geochemical and geological data. Potential applications include both low enthalpy district space heating of large urban centres and electricity generation from intermediate-temperature waters. IRETHERM comprises three broad geothermal target types; 1) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's radiogenic granites (EGS), (2) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of Ireland's deep sedimentary basins (HSA), and, (3) Assessment of the geothermal energy potential of warm springs. The geophysical subsurface imaging techniques of choice are controlled-source (CSEM) and natural-source (magnetotellurics, MT) electromagnetic methods. Electrical conductivity, being a transport property, is a proxy for permeability, and appropriate porosity-permeability relations are being developed. To date, MT measurements have been made at 466 sites over sedimentary basins (190 sites), granites (156 sites) and warm springs (120 sites), with CSEM across one warm spring. An ongoing continuous geochemical (temperature and electrical conductivity every 15 mins) and time-lapse seasonal hydrochemical sampling programmes are in progress at six warm spring sites. A database on heat production in Irish rocks has been compiled, of more than 3,300 geochemical sample measurements, with 3,000 retrieved from various archives and over 300 new analyses. Geochemistry, geochronology and isotopic analyses have been conducted on subsurface granites and exposed analogues astride the Iapetus Suture Zone in order to understand the underlying reasons for their radiogenic heat production. Finally, thermal conductivity measurements have been made on borehole samples from representative lithologies

  7. A review of integration strategies for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiongwen; Chan, S. H.; Li, Guojun; Ho, H. K.; Li, Jun; Feng, Zhenping

    Due to increasing oil and gas demand, the depletion of fossil resources, serious global warming, efficient energy systems and new energy conversion processes are urgently needed. Fuel cells and hybrid systems have emerged as advanced thermodynamic systems with great promise in achieving high energy/power efficiency with reduced environmental loads. In particular, due to the synergistic effect of using integrated solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and classical thermodynamic cycle technologies, the efficiency of the integrated system can be significantly improved. This paper reviews different concepts/strategies for SOFC-based integration systems, which are timely transformational energy-related technologies available to overcome the threats posed by climate change and energy security.

  8. Geophysical Sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, E.

    1998-01-01

    Of the many geophysical remote-sensing techniques available today, a few are suitable for the water ice-rich, layered material expected at the north martian ice cap. Radio echo sounding has been used for several decades to determine ice thickness and internal structure. Selection of operating frequency is a tradeoff between signal attenuation (which typically increases with frequency and ice temperature) and resolution (which is proportional to wavelength). Antenna configuration and size will be additional considerations for a mission to Mars. Several configurations for ice-penetrating radar systems are discussed: these include orbiter-borne sounders, sounding antennas trailed by balloons and penetrators, and lander-borne systems. Lander-borne systems could include short-wave systems capable of resolving fine structure and layering in the upper meters beneath the lander. Spread-spectrum and deconvolution techniques can be used to increase the depth capability of a radar system. If soundings over several locations are available (e.g., with balloons, rovers, or panning short-wave systems), then it will be easier to resolve internal layering, variations in basal reflection coefficient (from which material properties may be inferred), and the geometry of nonhorizontal features. Sonic sounding has a long history in oil and gas exploration. It is, however, unlikely that large explosive charges, or even swept-frequency techniques such as Vibroseis, would be suitable for a Polar lander -- these systems are capable of penetrating several kilometers of material at frequencies of 10-200 Hz, but the energy required to generate the sound waves is large and potentially destructive. The use of audio-frequency and ultrasonic sound generated by piezoelectric crystals is discussed as a possible method to explore layering and fine features in the upper meters of the ice cap. Appropriate choice of transducer(s) will permit operation over a range of fixed or modulated frequencies

  9. Advances in Shallow-Water, High-Resolution Seafloor Mapping: Integrating an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) Into Nearshore Geophysical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, J. F.; O'Brien, T. F.; Bergeron, E.; Twichell, D.; Worley, C. R.; Danforth, W. W.; Andrews, B. A.; Irwin, B.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been heavily involved in geological mapping of the seafloor since the 1970s. Early mapping efforts such as GLORIA provided broad-scale imagery of deep waters (depths > 400 meters) within the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In the early 1990's, the USGS research emphasis shifted from deep- to shallow-water environments (inner continental shelf, nearshore, estuaries) to address pertinent coastal issues such as erosion, sediment availability, sediment transport, vulnerability of coastal areas to natural and anthropogenic hazards, and resource management. Geologic framework mapping in these shallow- water environments has provided valuable data used to 1) define modern sediment distribution and thickness, 2) determine underlying stratigraphic and structural controls on shoreline behavior, and 3) enable onshore-to- offshore geologic mapping within the coastal zone when coupled with subaerial techniques such as GPR and topographic LIDAR. Research in nearshore areas presents technological challenges due to the dynamics of the environment, high volume of data collected, and the geophysical limitations of operating in very shallow water. In 2004, the USGS, in collaboration with NOAA's Coastal Services Center, began a multi-year seafloor mapping effort to better define oyster habitats within Apalachicola Bay, Florida, a shallow water estuary along the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bay poses a technological challenge due to its shallow depths (< 4-m) and high turbidity that prohibits the use of bathymetric LIDAR. To address this extreme shallow water setting, the USGS incorporated an Autonomous Surface Vessel (ASV) into seafloor mapping operations, in June 2006. The ASV is configured with a chirp sub-bottom profiler (4 24 kHz), dual-frequency chirp sidescan-sonar (100/500 kHz), single-beam echosounder (235 kHz), and forward-looking digital camera, and will be used to delineate the distribution and thickness of surficial sediment, presence

  10. Integrative medical education: educational strategies and preliminary evaluation of the Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM).

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Neumann, Melanie; Lutz, Gabriele; Cysarz, Dirk; Heusser, Peter; Edelhäuser, Friedrich

    2012-12-01

    the development and preliminary evaluation of a new medical program aimed at educating students in patient-centered integrative care and developing appropriate educational strategies. The Integrated Curriculum for Anthroposophic Medicine (ICURAM) was developed with modules on anthroposophic medicine integrated into the full 6 years of the regular medical curriculum. The educational strategy is the ESPRI(2)T approach, combining Exploratory learning, Supported participation, Patient-based learning, Reflective practice, Integrated learning, an Integrative approach and Team-based learning. The student participation, assessed based on the number of credit points earned per year (ctp/year) through the ICURAM (1 ctp=30 h workload), served as a preliminary indicator of student interest. Of the 412 55%medical students participated in the program: 16% full participation (≥ 4 ctp/year), 18% partial participation (1-3.99 ctp/year) and 22% occasional participation (0.25-0.99 ctp/year). The amount of additional workload taken on by students was between 7.8h/year for occasional participants, 33 h/year for partial participants and 84 h/year for full participants. More than half of medical students were willing to invest a significant amount of additional time in the optional program. An integrative medical curriculum with a student-centered educational strategy seems to be of interest to most medical students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI): a robust strategy.

    PubMed

    Patwari, A K; Raina, Neena

    2002-01-01

    Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), a strategy fostering holistic approach to child health and development, is built upon successful experiences gained from effective child health interventions like immunization, oral rehydration therapy, management of acute respiratory infections and improved infant feeding. The core intervention of IMCI is integrated management of the five most important causes of childhood deaths-acute respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, measles, malaria and malnutrition. Using a set of interventions for the integrated treatment and prevention of major childhood illnesses, the IMCI strategy aims to reduce death as well as the frequency and severity of illness and disability, thus contributing to improved growth and development. In health facilities, the IMCI strategy promotes the accurate identification of childhood illness (es) in the outpatient settings, ensures appropriate combined treatment of all major illnesses, strengthens the counselling of caretakers and the provision of preventive services, and speeds up the referral of severely ill children. The strategy also aims to improve the quality of care of sick children at the referral level. It also creates a scientifically sound link between the management guidelines at the community level and the management approach in a referral centre. The strategy also envisages actual situations when referral is not possible and offers the best possible options in such circumstances. In the home setting, it promotes appropriate early home care and care-seeking, improved nutrition and prevention, and the correct implementation of prescribed care. In addition to its focus on treatment of illness in the health facility as well as at home, it also provides an opportunity for important preventive interventions such as immunization and improved infant and child nutrition including breastfeeding. The IMCI strategy reduces wastage of resources and avoids duplication of efforts that may

  12. An Integrated Strategy for Promoting Geoscience Education and Research in Developing Countries through International Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswathanarayana, U.

    2007-12-01

    Geoscience education and research in Developing countries should aim at achieving food, water and environmental security, and disaster preparedness, based on the synergetic application of earth (including atmospheric and oceanic realms), space and information sciences through economically-viable, ecologically- sustainable and people-participatory management of natural resources. The proposed strategy involves the integration of the following three principal elements: (i) What needs to be taught: Geoscience needs to be taught as earth system science incorporating geophysical, geochemical and geobiological approaches, with focus (say, 80 % of time) on surficial processes (e.g. dynamics of water, wind and waves, surface and groundwater, soil moisture, geomorphology, landuse, crops), and surficial materials (e.g. soils, water, industrial minerals, sediments, biota). Subjects such as the origin, structure and evolution of the earth, and deep-seated processes (e.g. dynamics of the crust-mantle interaction, plate tectonics) could be taught by way of background knowledge (say, 20 % of the time), (ii) How jobs are to be created: Jobs are to be created by merging geoscience knowledge with economic instruments (say, micro enterprises), and management structures at different levels (Policy level, Technology Transfer level and Implementation level), customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, and (iii) International cooperation: Web-based instruction (e.g. education portals, virtual laboratories) through South - South and North - South cooperation, customized to the local biophysical and socioeconomic situations, with the help of (say) UNDP, UNESCO, World Bank, etc.

  13. A Geophysical Characterization & Monitoring Strategy for Determining Hydrologic Processes in the Hyporheic Corridor at the Hanford 300-Area

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, Lee; Day-Lewis, Frederick; Lane, John; Versteeg, Roelof; Ward, Anderson; Binley, Andrew; Johnson, Timothy; Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios

    2011-08-31

    The primary objective of this research was to advance the prediction of solute transport between the Uranium contaminated Hanford aquifer and the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area by improving understanding of how fluctuations in river stage, combined with subsurface heterogeneity, impart spatiotemporal complexity to solute exchange along the Columbia River corridor. Our work explored the use of continuous waterborne electrical imaging (CWEI), in conjunction with fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (FO-DTS) and time-lapse resistivity monitoring, to improve the conceptual model for how groundwater/surface water exchange regulates uranium transport. We also investigated how resistivity and induced polarization can be used to generate spatially rich estimates of the variation in depth to the Hanford-Ringold (H-R) contact between the river and the 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site. Inversion of the CWEI datasets (a data rich survey containing {approx}60,000 measurements) provided predictions of the distributions of electrical resistivity and polarizability, from which the spatial complexity of the primary hydrogeologic units along the river corridor was reconstructed. Variation in the depth to the interface between the overlying coarse-grained, high permeability Hanford Formation and the underlying finer-grained, less permeable Ringold Formation, an important contact that limits vertical migration of contaminants, has been resolved along {approx}3 km of the river corridor centered on the IFRC site in the Hanford 300 Area. Spatial variability in the thickness of the Hanford Formation captured in the CWEI datasets indicates that previous studies based on borehole projections and drive-point and multi-level sampling likely overestimate the contributing area for uranium exchange within the Columbia River at the Hanford 300 Area. Resistivity and induced polarization imaging between the river and the 300 Area IFRC further imaged spatial

  14. Multi-sourced, 3D geometric characterization of volcanogenic karst features: Integrating lidar, sonar, and geophysical datasets (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. M.; Gary, M. O.; Reyes, R.; Halihan, T.; Fairfield, N.; Stone, W. C.

    2009-12-01

    Karstic aquifers can form very complex hydrogeological systems and 3-D mapping has been difficult, but Lidar, phased array sonar, and improved earth resistivity techniques show promise in this and in linking metadata to models. Zacatón, perhaps the Earth’s deepest cenote, has a sub-aquatic void space exceeding 7.5 x 106 cubic m3. It is the focus of this study which has created detailed 3D maps of the system. These maps include data from above and beneath the the water table and within the rock matrix to document the extent of the immense karst features and to interpret the geologic processes that formed them. Phase 1 used high resolution (20 mm) Lidar scanning of surficial features of four large cenotes. Scan locations, selected to achieve full feature coverage once registered, were established atop surface benchmarks with UTM coordinates established using GPS and Total Stations. The combined datasets form a geo-registered mesh of surface features down to water level in the cenotes. Phase 2 conducted subsurface imaging using Earth Resistivity Imaging (ERI) geophysics. ERI identified void spaces isolated from open flow conduits. A unique travertine morphology exists in which some cenotes are dry or contain shallow lakes with flat travertine floors; some water-filled cenotes have flat floors without the cone of collapse material; and some have collapse cones. We hypothesize that the floors may have large water-filled voids beneath them. Three separate flat travertine caps were imaged: 1) La Pilita, which is partially open, exposing cap structure over a deep water-filled shaft; 2) Poza Seca, which is dry and vegetated; and 3) Tule, which contains a shallow (<1 m) lake. A fourth line was run adjacent to cenote Verde. La Pilita ERI, verified by SCUBA, documented the existence of large water-filled void zones ERI at Poza Seca showed a thin cap overlying a conductive zone extending to at least 25 m depth beneath the cap with no lower boundary of this zone evident

  15. The hydrothermal and structural history of the Cuprite mining district, southwestern Nevada: An integrated geological and geophysical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swayze, Gregg Alan

    alunite-zone rocks cooled below alunite closure temperatures in both centers by 6.9-6.5 Ma with late stage vein alunites forming at 6.2 Ma in the western center. A K-Ar isotopic date from unaltered olivine basalt erupted onto altered conglomerate, between the centers, implies that all hydrothermal activity ceased by 6.2 Ma. Altogether, hydrothermal activity spanned at least 1.4 m.y. in the western center and with a shorter duration in the eastern center. The geologic and geophysical evidence collected during this study is most consistent with the separate development, both temporally and spatially, of the two hydrothermal centers at Cuprite during and subsequent to activity in the nearby Stonewall Mountain volcanic center. Abundant jarosite in the western center marks the location of oxidized pyrite from an initial stage of mineralization, and lack of a later stage of Cu-sulfide mineralization may explain the absence of gold in the western center. Because the eastern center developed independently, it is a likely target for future exploration, especially in the west-dipping hydrothermal conduit below its siliceous cap. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  16. The Effects of Maple Integrated Strategy on Engineering Technology Students' Understanding of Integral Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salleh, Tuan Salwani; Zakaria, Effandi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effectiveness of a learning strategy using Maple in integral calculus. This research was conducted using a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. One hundred engineering technology students at a technical university were chosen at random. The effectiveness of the learning…

  17. TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES an active seismic and passive seismic experiment at Mt. Etna volcano. An integrated marine and onland geophysical survey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Jesus. M.; Patane, Domenico; Puglisi, Guisseppe; Zuccarello, Lucciano; Bianco, Francesca; Luehr, Birger; Diaz-Moreno, Alejandro; Prudencio, Janire; Koulakov, Ivan; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Cocina, Ornella; Coltelli, Mauro; Scarfi, Lucciano; De Gori, Pascuale; Carrion, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    An active seismic experiment to study the internal structure of Etna Volcano is going to carried out on Sicily and Aeolian islands. The main objective of the TOMO-ETNA MED-SUV.ISES experiment, beginning in summer 2014, is to perform a high resolution seismic tomography, in velocity and attenuation, in Southern Italy, by using active and passive seismic data, in an area encompassing outstanding volcanoes as Mt. Etna, and Aeolian volcanoes. The achievement of this objective is based on the integration and sharing of the in-situ marine and land experiments and observations and on the implementation of new instruments and monitoring systems. For the purpose, onshore and offshore seismic stations and passive and active seismic data generated both in marine and terrestrial environment will be used. Additionally, other geophysical data, mainly magnetic and gravimetric data will be considered to obtain a joint Upper Mantle-Crust structure that could permit to make progress in the understanding of the dynamic of the region. This multinational experiment which involves institutions from Spain, Italy, Germany, United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Portugal, Russia, USA and Mexico. During the experiment more than 6.600 air gun shots performed by the Spanish Oceanographic vessel "Sarmiento de Gamboa" will be recorder on a dense local seismic network consisting of 100 on land non-permanent stations, 70 on land permanent stations and 20-25 OBSs. Contemporaneously other marine geophysical measures will be performed using a marine Gravimeter LaCoste&Romberg Air-Sea Gravity System II and a Marine Magnetometer SeaSPY. The experiments will provide a unique data set in terms of data quantity and quality, and it will provide a detailed velocity and attenuation structural image of volcano edifice. The results will be essential in the development and interpretation of future volcanic models. It is noteworthy that this project is fully transversal, multidisciplinary and crosses several

  18. An integrated geological/geophysical study of Upper Pennsylvanian strata in northeast Kansas: Uses of ground-penetrating radar for stratigraphic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alexander

    The goals of this dissertation were to: (1) evaluate the utility of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) for high-resolution imaging of near-surface sandstone and carbonate reservoir analogs; (2) develop GPR data collection, processing, and interpretation methodologies for stratigraphic studies; (3) improve understanding of interrelationships between petrophysical properties and GPR response; and (4) develop methodologies for improved integration of GPR data with stratigraphic and petrophysical data. Near-surface sandstone and limestone deposits of the Upper Pennsylvanian Douglas, Lansing and Kansas City groups in eastern Kansas were the focus for developing collection techniques and improving the utility of GPR methods for stratigraphic studies. Common-offset and common-midpoint GPR data with center-frequencies of 110, 225, 450, and 500 MHz were collected at the study sites. Dielectric constant measurements, petrophysical measurements (e.g., porosity and hydraulic permeability), lithological analysis (X-ray diffraction and petrographic), dielectric constant modeling, finite-difference time-domain waveform modeling, geophysical wireline conductivity and gamma-ray logs, and outcrop photomosaics were used to enhance GPR interpretation. Dielectric constant and hydraulic permeability values are functions of porosity and lithology. Lithologic and dielectric complexity, and petrophysical heterogeneity show a progressive increase from fluvial sandstones, to estuarine sandstones, to massively-bedded carbonates, to argillaceous carbonates. Fluvial sandstones exhibit a bimodal lithologic and dielectric character, with quartz and mica amounts being the main controls. Estuarine sandstones exhibit greater lithologic and dielectric heterogeneity, with quartz, shale, and mica amounts as the main controls. Argillaceous limestones exhibit the greatest lithologic and dielectric heterogeneity, with calcite, shale, and quartz amounts being the main controls. The dielectric constant values

  19. Efficiency of Integrated Geophysical techniques in delineating the extension of Bauxites ore in north Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almutairi, Yasir; Alanazi, Abdulrahman; Almutairi, Muteb; Alsama, Ali; Alhenaki, Bander; Almalki, Awadh

    2014-05-01

    We exploit the integration of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques, magnetic gradiometry, resistivity measurements and seismic tomography for the high-resolution non-invasive study for delineating the subsurface Bauxite layer in Zabira locality, north of Riyadh. Integrated GPR, magnetic gradiometry resistivity and seismic refraction are used in the case of high contrast targets and provide an accurate subsurface reconstruction of foundations in sediments. Resistivity pseudo-sections are in particular useful for the areal identification of contacts between soils and foundations while GPR and magnetic gradiometry provide detailed information about location and depth of the structures. Results obtained by GPR, Magnetics and resistivity shows a very good agreement in mapping the bauxite layer depth at range of 5 m to 10 m while the depth obtained by seismic refraction was 10 m to 15 m due to lack of velocity information.

  20. Integrated Global Observation Strategy - Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Readings, C. J.; Kaye, J.; Mohnen, V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The "Long Term Continuity of Stratospheric Ozone Measurements and Atmospheric Chemistry" project was one of six established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) in response to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) initiative. IGOS links satellite and ground based systems for global environmental observations. The strategy of this project is to develop a consensus of user requirements including the scientific (SPARC, IGAC, WCRP) and the applications community (WMO, UNEP) and to develop a long-term international plan for ozone and atmospheric chemistry measurements. The major components of the observing system include operational and research (meeting certain criteria) satellite platforms planned by the space faring nations which are integrated with a well supported and sustained ground, aircraft, and balloon measurements program for directed observations as well satellite validation. Highly integrated and continuous measurements of ozone, validation, and reanalysis efforts are essential to meet the international scientific and applications goals. In order to understand ozone trends, climate change, and air quality, it is essential to conduct long term measurements of certain other atmospheric species. These species include key source, radical, and reservoir constituents.

  1. Integrated Global Observation Strategy - Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest; Readings, C. J.; Kaye, J.; Mohnen, V.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The "Long Term Continuity of Stratospheric Ozone Measurements and Atmospheric Chemistry" project was one of six established by the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites (CEOS) in response to the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS) initiative. IGOS links satellite and ground based systems for global environmental observations. The strategy of this project is to develop a consensus of user requirements including the scientific (SPARC, IGAC, WCRP) and the applications community (WMO, UNEP) and to develop a long-term international plan for ozone and atmospheric chemistry measurements. The major components of the observing system include operational and research (meeting certain criteria) satellite platforms planned by the space faring nations which are integrated with a well supported and sustained ground, aircraft, and balloon measurements program for directed observations as well satellite validation. Highly integrated and continuous measurements of ozone, validation, and reanalysis efforts are essential to meet the international scientific and applications goals. In order to understand ozone trends, climate change, and air quality, it is essential to conduct long term measurements of certain other atmospheric species. These species include key source, radical, and reservoir constituents.

  2. The process flow and structure of an integrated stroke strategy

    PubMed Central

    van Bussel, Emma F; Jeerakathil, Thomas; Schrijvers, Augustinus J.P

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the Canadian province of Alberta access and quality of stroke care were suboptimal, especially in remote areas. The government introduced the Alberta Provincial Stroke Strategy (APSS) in 2005, an integrated strategy to improve access to stroke care, quality and efficiency which utilizes telehealth. Research question What is the process flow and the structure of the care pathways of the APSS? Methodology Information for this article was obtained using documentation, archival APSS records, interviews with experts, direct observation and participant observation. Results The process flow is described. The APSS integrated evidence-based practice, multidisciplinary communication, and telestroke services. It includes regular quality evaluation and improvement. Conclusion Access, efficiency and quality of care improved since the start of the APSS across many domains, through improvement of expertise and equipment in small hospitals, accessible consultation of stroke specialists using telestroke, enhancing preventive care, enhancing multidisciplinary collaboration, introducing uniform best practice protocols and bypass-protocols for the emergency medical services. Discussion The APSS overcame substantial obstacles to decrease discrepancies and to deliver integrated higher quality care. Telestroke has proven itself to be safe and feasible. The APSS works efficiently, which is in line to other projects worldwide, and is, based on limited results, cost effective. Further research on cost-effectiveness is necessary. PMID:23882172

  3. Integrated hierarchical geo-environmental survey strategy applied to the detection and investigation of an illegal landfill: A case study in the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Vincenzo; Cavuoto, Giuseppe; Punzo, Michele; Tarallo, Daniela; Casazza, Marco; Guarriello, Silvio Marco; Lega, Massimiliano

    2017-10-01

    This paper describes an approach to detect and investigate the main characteristics of a solid waste landfill through the integration of geological, geographical and geophysical methods. In particular, a multi-temporal analysis of the landfill morphological evolution was carried out using aerial and satellite photos, since there were no geological and geophysical data referring to the study area. Subsequently, a surface geophysical prospection was performed through geoelectric and geomagnetic methods. In particular, the combination of electrical resistivity, induced polarization and magnetic measurements removed some of the uncertainties, generally associated with a separate utilization of these techniques. This approach was successfully tested to support the Prosecutor Office of Salerno (S Italy) during a specific investigation about an illegal landfill. All the collected field data supported the reconstruction of the site-specific history, while the real quarry geometry and site geology were defined. Key elements of novelty of this method are the combination and the integration of different methodological approaches, as the parallel and combined use of satellite, aerial and in-situ collected data, that were validated in a real investigation and that revealed the effectiveness of this strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving basic math skills through integrated dynamic representation strategies.

    PubMed

    González-Castro, Paloma; Cueli, Marisol; Cabeza, Lourdes; Álvarez-García, David; Rodríguez, Celestino

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the Integrated Dynamic Representation strategy (IDR) to develop basic math skills. The study involved 72 students, aged between 6 and 8 years. We compared the development of informal basic skills (numbers, comparison, informal calculation, and informal concepts) and formal (conventionalisms, number facts, formal calculus, and formal concepts) in an experimental group (n = 35) where we applied the IDR strategy and in a Control group (n = 37) in order to identify the impact of the procedure. The experimental group improved significantly in all variables except for number facts and formal calculus. It can therefore be concluded that IDR favors the development of the skills more closely related to applied mathematics than those related to automatic mathematics and mental arithmetic.

  5. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  6. Continental crust: a geophysical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Meissner, R.

    1986-01-01

    This book develops an integrated and balanced picture of present knowledge of the continental crust. Crust and lithosphere are first defined, and the formation of crusts as a general planetary phenomenon is described. The background and methods of geophysical studies of the earth's crust and the collection of related geophysical parameters are examined. Creep and friction experiments and the various methods of radiometric age dating are addressed, and geophysical and geological investigations of the crustal structure in various age provinces of the continents are studied. Specific tectonic structures such as rifts, continental margins, and geothermal areas are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to give a comprehensive view of the evolution of the continental crust and to collect and develop arguments for crustal accretion and recycling. 647 references.

  7. Strategies for optical integration of single-photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Oliver; Schell, Andreas W.; Neumer, Tanja; Shi, Qiang; Kaschke, Johannes; Fischer, Joachim; Wegener, Martin

    2015-02-01

    Single-photon sources based on solid-state emitters, like quantum dots, molecules or defect centers in diamond, are one of the key components for an integrated quantum technology. Here, we will show different strategies used in order to integrate single-photon emitters. Among others, we introduce an hybrid approach using photon emission from defect centers in diamond and laser-written photonic structures. Waveguides, microresonators, and optical antennas can be fabricated and oriented with respect to the single emitters. We describe our general approach before we specifically address the problem of efficient single-photon collection through optical antennas. We discuss the limitations of the method, its potential for scalability as well as its extension towards optical sensing applications.

  8. Integration, warehousing, and analysis strategies of Omics data.

    PubMed

    Gedela, Srinubabu

    2011-01-01

    "-Omics" is a current suffix for numerous types of large-scale biological data generation procedures, which naturally demand the development of novel algorithms for data storage and analysis. With next generation genome sequencing burgeoning, it is pivotal to decipher a coding site on the genome, a gene's function, and information on transcripts next to the pure availability of sequence information. To explore a genome and downstream molecular processes, we need umpteen results at the various levels of cellular organization by utilizing different experimental designs, data analysis strategies and methodologies. Here comes the need for controlled vocabularies and data integration to annotate, store, and update the flow of experimental data. This chapter explores key methodologies to merge Omics data by semantic data carriers, discusses controlled vocabularies as eXtensible Markup Languages (XML), and provides practical guidance, databases, and software links supporting the integration of Omics data.

  9. Geophysical data integration, stochastic simulation and significance analysis of groundwater responses using ANOVA in the Chicot Aquifer system, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahman, A.; Tsai, F.T.-C.; White, C.D.; Carlson, D.A.; Willson, C.S.

    2008-01-01

    Data integration is challenging where there are different levels of support between primary and secondary data that need to be correlated in various ways. A geostatistical method is described, which integrates the hydraulic conductivity (K) measurements and electrical resistivity data to better estimate the K distribution in the Upper Chicot Aquifer of southwestern Louisiana, USA. The K measurements were obtained from pumping tests and represent the primary (hard) data. Borehole electrical resistivity data from electrical logs were regarded as the secondary (soft) data, and were used to infer K values through Archie's law and the Kozeny-Carman equation. A pseudo cross-semivariogram was developed to cope with the resistivity data non-collocation. Uncertainties in the auto-semivariograms and pseudo cross-semivariogram were quantified. The groundwater flow model responses by the regionalized and coregionalized models of K were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results indicate that non-collocated secondary data may improve estimates of K and affect groundwater flow responses of practical interest, including specific capacity and drawdown. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  10. The Relative Effectiveness of Integrated Reading Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslidere, Erdal; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the combined and partial effects of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach on ninth grade private high school students' achievement in and attitudes toward optics. The Integrated Reading/Study Strategy is a new strategy which was developed by integrating previously…

  11. The Relative Effectiveness of Integrated Reading Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taslidere, Erdal; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the combined and partial effects of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach on ninth grade private high school students' achievement in and attitudes toward optics. The Integrated Reading/Study Strategy is a new strategy which was developed by integrating previously…

  12. Non-seismic geophysics compared and integrated with seismic in a frontier oil play: Northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/Northeast San Luis Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Longacre, M.B.; Christopherson, K.R.; Gries, R.

    1995-06-01

    Four non-seismic geophysical tools have made a significant contribution to a new geological interpretation of the northern Sangre de Cristo Mountains/northeast San Luis Basin of south-central Colorado. Gravity, aeromagnetic, magnetotelluric, (MT) and time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) data were acquired and interpreted during the early stages of exploration. Two-dimensional modeling of the gravity and magnetics placed the main, basin-bounding fault three miles southwest of the mountain front, identified an intermediate fault block at the basin margin and identified a thick sequence of non-magnetic, intermediate density rocks on top of this block. A thick section of Mesozoic sediments is interpreted, supported by the discovery of outcrops of Cretaceous sediments and live Cretaceous oil. Magnetotelluric data was acquired to confirm the presence of Mesozoic sediments and depth to basement. Detailed TDEM data has been useful in correlating the MT with surface geology. Integration of the gravity, magnetic and MT data with seismic resulted in minor modifications to the new geological model.

  13. First identification of sub- and supercritical convection patterns from ‘GeoFlow’, the geophysical flow simulation experiment integrated in Fluid Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futterer, B.; Egbers, C.; Dahley, N.; Koch, S.; Jehring, L.

    2010-01-01

    Physical mechanisms of thermally driven rotating fluids are important for a large number of geophysical problems, e.g. to explain the convection of the Earth's liquid outer core. Objective of the 'GeoFlow' experiment is to study stability, pattern formation, and transition to chaos of thermal convection in fluid-filled concentric, co-axially rotating spheres. This experiment is integrated in the Fluid Science Laboratory of the European COLUMBUS module on International Space Station. Fluid dynamics of the experiment was predicted with numerical simulations by means of a spectral code. In the non-rotating case the onset of convection bifurcated into steady fluid flow. Here patterns of convection showed co-existing states with axisymmetric, cubic and pentagonal modes. Transition to chaos was in the form of sudden onset. For the thermal convection in rotating spheres the onset of first instability showed an increase of modes for higher parameter regime. Transition was from steady via periodic to chaotic behaviour. Convection patterns of the experiment are observed with the Wollaston shearing interferometry. Images are in terms of interferograms with fringe patterns corresponding to special convective flows. A first glance at the images showed the classification of sub- and supercritical flow regimes. Aligned with numerical data a shift between experiment and numerical simulation was identified. Identification of convection patterns in interferograms was demonstrated for the example of a supercritical flow.

  14. Geophysical modelling of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary beneath the Atlantic-Mediterranean Transition Region: integrating potential field, surface heat flow, elevation, seismological and petrological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullea, J.; Fernàndez, M.; Afonso, J.; Verges, J.; Zeyen, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In this work we study the present-day thermal and compositional 3D structure of the lithosphere beneath the Atlantic-Mediterranean Transition Region (AMTR) and the lithosphere-asthenosphere interaction from Jurassic times to present. The AMTR comprises the western segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary, encompassing two main large-scale tectonic domains: the Gibraltar Arc System and the Atlas Mountains. We apply an integrated and self-consistent geophysical-petrological methodology (LitMod3D) that combines elevation, gravity, geoid, surface heat flow, and seismic data and allows modelling of compositional heterogeneities within the lithospheric mantle. Our results reveal large variations in the depth of the Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) as well as a lack of spatial correlation between the thicknesses of these two boundaries. The Moho essentially mimics the topography with depths ranging from ~10 km beneath the oceanic domains of the Atlantic abyssal plains and the Algerian Basin to >34 km in the Eastern Betics and Rif, the High Atlas mountains, and the Sahara Platform. In contrast, the LAB is shallower beneath the central and eastern Alboran Basin (~70 km) and all along the High, Middle and Anti Atlas (<100 km) coinciding with the loci of Cenozoic volcanism. Deeper LAB depths are found along the central and western Betics and the Moroccan Atlantic margin (>140 km) with values exceeding 230 km beneath the Rif and the Sahara Platform. We find that the average bulk composition of the lithospheric mantle corresponds to that of a typical Tecton (i.e. Phanerozoic) domain, with the exceptions of the Sahara Platform, the Alboran Basin, and Atlas Mountains. Distinct mantle compositions are required in these areas to make model predictions and geophysical observables compatible. We propose that the highly irregular LAB topography is the result of the superposition of three different geodynamic mechanisms, which include shortening and thickening

  15. Integrated Geologic and Geophysical Approach for Establishing Geothermal Play Fairways and Discovering Blind Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin Region, Western USA: A Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Faulds, James E.; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Shevenell, Lisa A.; Siler, Drew L.; dePolo, Craig M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corne; Oppliger, G.; Wannamaker, P.; Queen, John H.; Visser, Charles

    2015-09-02

    We have undertaken an integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical study of a broad 240-km-wide, 400-km-long transect stretching from west-central to eastern Nevada in the Great Basin region of the western USA. The main goal of this study is to produce a comprehensive geothermal potential map that incorporates up to 11 parameters and identifies geothermal play fairways that represent potential blind or hidden geothermal systems. Our new geothermal potential map incorporates: 1) heat flow; 2) geochemistry from springs and wells; 3) structural setting; 4) recency of faulting; 5) slip rates on Quaternary faults; 6) regional strain rate; 7) slip and dilation tendency on Quaternary faults; 8) seismologic data; 9) gravity data; 10) magnetotelluric data (where available); and 11) seismic reflection data (primarily from the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins). The transect is respectively anchored on its western and eastern ends by regional 3D modeling of the Carson Sink and Steptoe basins, which will provide more detailed geothermal potential maps of these two promising areas. To date, geological, geochemical, and geophysical data sets have been assembled into an ArcGIS platform and combined into a preliminary predictive geothermal play fairway model using various statistical techniques. The fairway model consists of the following components, each of which are represented in grid-cell format in ArcGIS and combined using specified weights and mathematical operators: 1) structural component of permeability; 2) regional-scale component of permeability; 3) combined permeability, and 4) heat source model. The preliminary model demonstrates that the multiple data sets can be successfully combined into a comprehensive favorability map. An initial evaluation using known geothermal systems as benchmarks to test interpretations indicates that the preliminary modeling has done a good job assigning relative ranks of geothermal potential. However, a major challenge is defining

  16. Discrimination between long-range transport and local pollution sources and precise delineation of polluted soil layers using integrated geophysical-geochemical methods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, Tadeusz; Szuszkiewisz, Marcin; Szuszkiewicz, Maria; Żogała, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The primary goal of this work was to distinguish between soil pollution from long-range and local transport of atmospheric pollutants using soil magnetometry in combination with geochemical analyses and precise delineation of polluted soil layers by using integrated magnetic (surface susceptibility, gradiometric measurement) and other geophysical techniques (conductivity and electrical resistivity tomography). The study area was located in the Izery region of Poland (within the "Black Triangle" region, which is the nickname for one of Europe's most polluted areas, where Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic meet). The study area was located in the Forest Glade where the historical local pollution source (glass factory) was active since and of 18th until the end of 19th century. The magnetic signal here was the combination of long-range transport of magnetic particles, local deposition and anthropogenic layers containing ashes and slags and partly comprising the subsoil of modern soil. Application of the set of different geophysical techniques enabled the precise location of these layers. The effect of the long-range pollution transport was observed on a neighboring hill (Granicznik) of which the western, northwestern and southwestern parts of the slope were exposed to the transport of atmospheric pollutants from the Czech Republic and Germany and Poland. Using soil magnetometry, it was possible to discriminate between long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants and anthropogenic pollution related to the former glasswork located in the Forest Glade. The magnetic susceptibility values (κ) as well as the number of "hot-spots" of volume magnetic susceptibility is significantly larger in the Forest Glade than on the Granicznik Hill where the κ is < 20 ×10-5 SI units. Generally, the western part of the Granicznik Hill is characterized by about two times higher k values than the southeastern part. This trend is attributed to the fact that the western part was

  17. Function-based integration strategy for an agile manufacturing testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hisup

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes an integration strategy for plug-and- play software based on functional descriptions of the software modules. The functional descriptions identify explicitly the role of each module with respect to the overall systems. They define the critical dependencies that affect the individual modules and thus affect the behavior of the system. The specified roles, dependencies and behavioral constraints are then incorporated in a group of shared objects that are distributed over a network. These objects may be interchanged with others without disrupting the system so long as the replacements meet the interface and functional requirements. In this paper, we propose a framework for modeling the behavior of plug-and-play software modules that will be used to (1) design and predict the outcome of the integration, (2) generate the interface and functional requirements of individual modules, and (3) form a dynamic foundation for applying interchangeable software modules. I describe this strategy in the context of the development of an agile manufacturing testbed. The testbed represents a collection of production cells for machining operations, supported by a network of software modules or agents for planning, fabrication, and inspection. A process definition layer holds the functional description of the software modules. A network of distributed objects interact with one another over the Internet and comprise the plug-compatible software nodes that execute these functions. This paper will explore the technical and operational ramifications of using the functional description framework to organize and coordinate the distributed object modules.

  18. Integrating geophysical and archaeological data for knowledge and management of the Historical Heritage. The case of the medieval church at Vereto (Apulia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congedo, F.; Pepe, P.; Sammarco, M.; Parise, M.

    2009-04-01

    The native settlement of Vereto lies at the top of a small calcareous hill near the Adriatic coast, in the southernmost part of the Salento Peninsula of Apulia region (southern Italy). Recent topographical and aero-topographical surveys carried out in the ‘urban' area and in a wide sector of the surrounding territory, integrated by a thorough research of the literary and archival sources, allowed to define the long human occupation of the site between Bronze Age and the late Middle Age, and to focus the important role it played for many centuries, due to both vicinity to a commercial port and a coastal sanctuary, and its connection with the ancient road network. Within the framework of a research project by the Department of Cultural Heritage of the Salento University, the regional Archaeological Superintendence and the local Administration, detailed analyses of the ancient settlement and of its most significant structures (city-walls, cisterns, private buildings) have been started. The attention was focused particularly on the 500th century religious building located at the hilltop and dedicated to the eponymous Holy Virgin. Here two different methods of investigation have been used. The first level of knowledge consists in geophysical surveys, that included georadar (GPR) and geoelectrical prospections. Georadar data were acquired using GSSI SIR 20 with 2 antenna simultaneously mounted on the same cart. The choice of array was determined to get a very good resolution (up to 1 meter) using an high frequency antenna (900Mhz) and to increase the investigation depth (up to 3 meters) with the medium frequency antenna (400Mhz). Data were acquired both inside and outside the religious building along two orthogonal direction (lines spaced 0.5 m), processed using Radan 6.5 software, and eventually were represented as georadar profiles and 3D time-slices and 3D volumes in order to show the distribution of anomalies with depth. To get information at higher depth, to

  19. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  20. Integrated geophysical and geological study and petroleum appraisal of Cretaceous plays in the Western Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dkhaili, Noomen; Bey, Saloua; El Abed, Mahmoud; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi

    2015-09-01

    An integrated study of available seismic and calibrated wells has been conducted in order to ascertain the structural development and petroleum potential of the Cretaceous Formations of the Western Gulf of Gabes. This study has resulted in an understanding of the controls of deep seated Tethyan tectonic lineaments by analysis of the Cretaceous deposits distribution. Three main unconformities have been identified in this area, unconformity U1 between the Jurassic and Cretaceous series, unconformity U2 separating Early from Late Cretaceous and known as the Austrian unconformity and the major unconformity U3 separating Cretaceous from Tertiary series. The seismic analysis and interpretation have confirmed the existence of several features dominated by an NE-SW extensive tectonic regime evidenced by deep listric faults, asymmetric horst and graben and tilted blocks structures. Indeed, the structural mapping of these unconformities, displays the presence of dominant NW-SE fault system (N140 to N160) bounding a large number of moderate sized basins. A strong inversion event related to the unconformity U3 can be demonstrated by the mapping of the unconformities consequence of the succession of several tectonic manifestations during the Cretaceous and post-Cretaceous periods. These tectonic events have resulted in the development of structural and stratigraphic traps further to the porosity and permeability enhancement of Cretaceous reservoirs.

  1. Decrypting geophysical signals at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Integration of seismic and Ground-Based InSAR displacement data

    PubMed Central

    Di Traglia, F; Cauchie, L; Casagli, N; Saccorotti, G

    2014-01-01

    We present the integration of seismic and Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar system (GBInSAR) displacement data at Stromboli Volcano. Ground deformation in the area of summit vents is positively correlated with both seismic tremor amplitude and cumulative amplitudes of very long period (VLP) signals associated with Strombolian explosions. Changes in VLP amplitudes precede by a few days the variations in ground deformation and seismic tremor. We propose a model where the arrival of fresh, gas-rich magma from depth enhances gas slug formation, promoting convection and gas transfer throughout the conduit system. At the shallowest portion of the conduit, an increase in volatile content causes a density decrease, expansion of the magmatic column and augmented degassing activity, which respectively induce inflation of the conduit, and increased tremor amplitudes. The temporal delay between increase of VLP and tremor amplitudes/conduit inflation can be interpreted in terms of the different timescales characterizing bulk gas transfer versus slug formation and ascent. PMID:25821278

  2. Decrypting geophysical signals at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Integration of seismic and Ground-Based InSAR displacement data.

    PubMed

    Di Traglia, F; Cauchie, L; Casagli, N; Saccorotti, G

    2014-04-28

    We present the integration of seismic and Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar system (GBInSAR) displacement data at Stromboli Volcano. Ground deformation in the area of summit vents is positively correlated with both seismic tremor amplitude and cumulative amplitudes of very long period (VLP) signals associated with Strombolian explosions. Changes in VLP amplitudes precede by a few days the variations in ground deformation and seismic tremor. We propose a model where the arrival of fresh, gas-rich magma from depth enhances gas slug formation, promoting convection and gas transfer throughout the conduit system. At the shallowest portion of the conduit, an increase in volatile content causes a density decrease, expansion of the magmatic column and augmented degassing activity, which respectively induce inflation of the conduit, and increased tremor amplitudes. The temporal delay between increase of VLP and tremor amplitudes/conduit inflation can be interpreted in terms of the different timescales characterizing bulk gas transfer versus slug formation and ascent.

  3. Decrypting geophysical signals at Stromboli Volcano (Italy): Integration of seismic and Ground-Based InSAR displacement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Traglia, F.; Cauchie, L.; Casagli, N.; Saccorotti, G.

    2014-04-01

    We present the integration of seismic and Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar system (GBInSAR) displacement data at Stromboli Volcano. Ground deformation in the area of summit vents is positively correlated with both seismic tremor amplitude and cumulative amplitudes of very long period (VLP) signals associated with Strombolian explosions. Changes in VLP amplitudes precede by a few days the variations in ground deformation and seismic tremor. We propose a model where the arrival of fresh, gas-rich magma from depth enhances gas slug formation, promoting convection and gas transfer throughout the conduit system. At the shallowest portion of the conduit, an increase in volatile content causes a density decrease, expansion of the magmatic column and augmented degassing activity, which respectively induce inflation of the conduit, and increased tremor amplitudes. The temporal delay between increase of VLP and tremor amplitudes/conduit inflation can be interpreted in terms of the different timescales characterizing bulk gas transfer versus slug formation and ascent.

  4. Integrated testing strategies can be optimal for chemical risk classification.

    PubMed

    Raseta, Marko; Pitchford, Jon; Cussens, James; Doe, John

    2017-08-01

    There is an urgent need to refine strategies for testing the safety of chemical compounds. This need arises both from the financial and ethical costs of animal tests, but also from the opportunities presented by new in-vitro and in-silico alternatives. Here we explore the mathematical theory underpinning the formulation of optimal testing strategies in toxicology. We show how the costs and imprecisions of the various tests, and the variability in exposures and responses of individuals, can be assembled rationally to form a Markov Decision Problem. We compute the corresponding optimal policies using well developed theory based on Dynamic Programming, thereby identifying and overcoming some methodological and logical inconsistencies which may exist in the current toxicological testing. By illustrating our methods for two simple but readily generalisable examples we show how so-called integrated testing strategies, where information of different precisions from different sources is combined and where different initial test outcomes lead to different sets of future tests, can arise naturally as optimal policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Serkan; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2010-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.

  6. The Saguenay Fjord, Quebec, Canada: Integrating marine geotechnical and geophysical data for spatial seismic slope stability and hazard assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Urgeles, R.; Locat, J.; Lee, H.J.; Martin, F.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 a major flood occurred in the Saguenay region, Quebec, Canada, delivering several km3 of sediment to the Saguenay Fjord. Such sediments covered large areas of the, until then, largely contaminated fjord bottom, thus providing a natural capping layer. Recent swath bathymetry data have also shown that sediment landslides are widely present in the upper section of the Saguenay Fjord, and therefore, should a new event occur, it would probably expose the old contaminated sediments. Landslides in the Upper Saguenay Fjord are most probably due to earthquakes given its proximity to the Charlevoix seismic region and to that of the 1988 Saguenay earthquake. In consequence, this study tries to characterize the permanent ground deformations induced by different earthquake scenarios from which shallow sediment landslides could be triggered. The study follows a Newmark analysis in which, firstly, the seismic slope performance is assessed, secondly, the seismic hazard analyzed, and finally an evaluation of the seismic landslide hazard is made. The study is based on slope gradients obtained from EM1000 multibeam bathymetry data as well as water content and undrained shear strength measurements made in box and gravity cores. Ground motions integrating local site conditions were simulated using synthetic time histories. The study assumes the region of the 1988 Saguenay earthquake as the most likely source area for earthquakes capable of inducing large ground motions in the Upper Saguenay region. Accordingly, we have analyzed several shaking intensities to deduce that generalized sediment displacements will begin to occur when moment magnitudes exceed 6. Major displacements, failure, and subsequent landslides could occur only from earthquake moment magnitudes exceeding 6.75. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geophysics, Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of decade-long time series of global surface wind measurements for studies ofseasonal-to-interannual climate variability presents unique challenges for space- borne instrumentationbecause of the necessity to combine data sets of 3- to 5-year lifetimes. Before the first Special SensorMicrowave Imager (SSMI), which was launched on the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F8 spacecraft in July 1987, stopped recording wind speed in December 1991, another SSMIwas launched on DMSP F10 in December 1991. Interpretation of the 1987 - 1993 composite timeseries is dependent upon the space and time characteristics of the differences between concurrent F8and F10 SSMI measurements. This paper emphasizes large geographical regions and 1-month timescale. The F8-F10 area-weighted difference between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees S during 305 daysof 1991 (-0.12 m s^(-1)) was comparable to the year-to-year wind speed variations during 1988-1991. The 10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 difference was negative (positive) forwind speeds less (greater) than 7.9 m s^(-1), reaching - 0.43(0.32) m s^(-1) at 5(10) m s^(-1). The10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 bias had considerable variations throughout the yearand between 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, with the largest temporal variation (1.4 m s^(-1)) in the 50degrees - 60 degrees N region from February to April. The 1991 average value of the monthly meanroot-mean-square (rms) difference between F8 and F10 daily wind speeds in 10 degree-longitudinalbands was 2.0 m s^(-1) over 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, the amplitude of the annual cycle of therms difference was largest in the northern hemisphere middle latitudes, and the rms difference wasrelated to the wind speed (e.g., at 6 and 10 m s^(-1), the rms difference was 1.7 and 2.7 m s^(-1),respectively). The relationship between monthly mean 1/3 degrees x 1/3 degrees F8-F10 SSMI windspeed differences and integrated water vapor and liquid water content in

  8. Geophysics, Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, D.; Wentz, F.

    1993-01-01

    Development of decade-long time series of global surface wind measurements for studies ofseasonal-to-interannual climate variability presents unique challenges for space- borne instrumentationbecause of the necessity to combine data sets of 3- to 5-year lifetimes. Before the first Special SensorMicrowave Imager (SSMI), which was launched on the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F8 spacecraft in July 1987, stopped recording wind speed in December 1991, another SSMIwas launched on DMSP F10 in December 1991. Interpretation of the 1987 - 1993 composite timeseries is dependent upon the space and time characteristics of the differences between concurrent F8and F10 SSMI measurements. This paper emphasizes large geographical regions and 1-month timescale. The F8-F10 area-weighted difference between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees S during 305 daysof 1991 (-0.12 m s^(-1)) was comparable to the year-to-year wind speed variations during 1988-1991. The 10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 difference was negative (positive) forwind speeds less (greater) than 7.9 m s^(-1), reaching - 0.43(0.32) m s^(-1) at 5(10) m s^(-1). The10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 bias had considerable variations throughout the yearand between 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, with the largest temporal variation (1.4 m s^(-1)) in the 50degrees - 60 degrees N region from February to April. The 1991 average value of the monthly meanroot-mean-square (rms) difference between F8 and F10 daily wind speeds in 10 degree-longitudinalbands was 2.0 m s^(-1) over 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, the amplitude of the annual cycle of therms difference was largest in the northern hemisphere middle latitudes, and the rms difference wasrelated to the wind speed (e.g., at 6 and 10 m s^(-1), the rms difference was 1.7 and 2.7 m s^(-1),respectively). The relationship between monthly mean 1/3 degrees x 1/3 degrees F8-F10 SSMI windspeed differences and integrated water vapor and liquid water content in

  9. Ground-Truth On The CSUEB Campus: Results From Integrating Geophysical, Geological And Geospatial Methods And Fault Trench Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abimbola, A.; Strayer, L. M.; McEvilly, A.

    2015-12-01

    integrated into an ongoing effort to create a 3D model of the geologic and tectonic setting of the CSUEB campus.

  10. Active fault segments as potential earthquake sources: Inferences from integrated geophysical mapping of the Magadi fault system, southern Kenya Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuria, Z. N.; Woldai, T.; van der Meer, F. D.; Barongo, J. O.

    2010-06-01

    uplifted, heavily fractured and deformed basin to the north (highly disturbed magnetic signatures) characteristic of on going active rifting; and a refined architecture of the asymmetry graben to the south with an intrarift horst, whose western graben is 4 km deep and eastern graben is much deeper (9 km), with a zone of significant break in magnetic signatures at that depth, interpreted as source of the hot springs south of Lake Magadi (a location confirmed near surface by ground magnetic and resistivity data sets). The magnetic sources to the north are shallow at 15 km depth compared to 22 km to the south. The loss of magnetism to the north is probably due to increased heat as a result of magmatic intrusion supporting active rifting model. Conclusively, the integrated approach employed in this research confirms that fault system delineated to the north is actively deforming under E-W normal extension and is a potential earthquake source probably related to magmatic intrusion, while the presence of fluids within the south fault zone reduce intensity of faulting activity and explains lack of earthquakes in a continental rift setting.

  11. An integrated geophysical study of the northern Kenya rift crustal structure: Implications for geothermal energy prospecting for Menengai area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariita, Nicholas O.

    2003-07-01

    In this study, seismic refraction data gathered and interpreted by the Kenya Rift International Seismic Project (KRISP) group has been used as a constraint for the construction of gravity models for the crustal structure of the northern sector of the Kenya rift valley. The gravity data were obtained from the University of Texas at El Paso's (UTEP) database. Additional data were also obtained for the southern Ethiopia and Turkana areas. The analysis and interpretation presented, therefore, takes advantage of this new compilation which has not been incorporated in earlier studies. The other new data set analyzed was an aeromagnetic survey flown in 1987 for the National Oil Corporation of Kenya (NOCK). Maps prepared from these data have been used to corroborate the gravity interpretation for a qualitative assessment of the shapes and trends of the anomalies, in conjunction with the geologic map of Kenya. Therefore, use of integrated methods incorporating well data, KRISP and published industry seismic lines make the presented models better constrained than previous studies. In this study, variations in crustal thickness and upper-mantle structure have been modeled along with evidence for major magmatic modification of the upper crust along the axis of the northern sector of the rift. Results show the following: (1) a decrease in the crustal thickness from about 35 km in the south to 20 km in the north, due to a northward increase in extension, as noted in earlier studies; (2) the gravity highs observed along the axis have been modeled and interpreted as resulting from main magmatic centers underlain by discrete mafic bodies; (3) the axis of the rift is marked by a series of high amplitude magnetic anomalies whose wavelengths are less than 2.5 km, with the positive anomalies coinciding closely with known Quaternary volcanoes; (4) the character of the magnetic field in the southern section of the Kenya rift is significantly different from that of the northern section as

  12. Strategies to Integrate America’s Local Police Agencies into Domestic Counterterrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT STRATEGIES TO INTEGRATE AMERICA’S LOCAL POLICE AGENCIES INTO DOMESTIC COUNTERTERRORISM by Colonel Blair C. Alexander...Strategies to Integrate America’s Local Police Agencies into Domestic 5b. GRANT NUMBER Counterterrorism 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel Blair C. Alexander TITLE: Strategies to Integrate America’s Local Police Agencies into Domestic Counterterrorism FORMAT

  13. A Strategy for Integrated Water Cycle Observations from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. F.; Houser, P. R.

    2005-12-01

    The coupling of land surface hydrologic processes to atmospheric processes over a range of spatial and temporal scales is needed for understanding how atmosphere-land surface interactions operate and feed back onto the regional and larger scale climate system. An integral component of NASA's Global Water and Energy Cycle (GWEC) program and the World Climate Research is whether knowledge of land surface hydrologic states results in improved weather and short-term climate predictions. The inherent research strategy for NASA/GWEC and WCRP/GEWEX for investigating this is through the merging (assimilation) of remotely sensed observations of the surface hydrospheric state with process-based, terrestrial water and energy balance models. NASA assumes that remote sensing observations using current (TRMM, Terra, and Aqua) and planned (e.g. Global Precipitation Mission, HYDROS for surface soil moisture and freeze-thaw state, and possibly snow and surface water) platforms will provide sufficient estimates of surface hydrologic state variables. The extent to which this assumption can be realized remains an open question. The unmet needs facing the community in fully exploiting space-borne observations include: (i) having sufficiently accurate retrieval of physical surface states, including validation programs that can estimate retrieval error characteristics; (ii) overcoming satellite sensor programs that primarily focus on a single physical parameter; and (iii) having consistency between satellite observations and land surface models in terms of consistency in the retrieved variables as they relate to the spatial and temporal variability of the terrestrial hydrosphere. This presentation will offer a new vision for water cycle observation and modeling that has, at its core, the concept of integrated observations as opposed to isolated observations, and consistency between models and observations. By integrated observations, we mean the simultaneous retrieval of related water

  14. Clinical Strategies for Integrating Medication Interventions Into Behavioral Treatment for Adolescent ADHD: The Medication Integration Protocol.

    PubMed

    Hogue, Aaron; Bobek, Molly; Tau, Gregory Z; Levin, Frances R

    2014-10-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescents enrolled in behavioral health services but remains undertreated in this age group. Also the first-line treatment for adolescent ADHD, stimulant medication, is underutilized in routine practice. This article briefly describes three behavioral interventions designed to promote stronger integration of medication interventions into treatment planning for adolescent ADHD: family ADHD psychoeducation, family-based medication decision-making, and behavior therapist leadership in coordinating medication integration. It then introduces the Medication Integration Protocol (MIP), which incorporates all three interventions into a five-task protocol: ADHD Assessment and Medication Consult; ADHD Psychoeducation and Client Acceptance; ADHD Symptoms and Family Relations; ADHD Medication and Family Decision-Making; and Medication Management and Integration Planning. The article concludes by highlighting what behavior therapists should know about best practices for medication integration across diverse settings and populations: integrating medication interventions into primary care, managing medication priorities and polypharmacy issues for adolescents with multiple diagnoses, providing ADHD medications to adolescent substance users, and the compatibility of MIP intervention strategies with everyday practice conditions.

  15. Clinical Strategies for Integrating Medication Interventions Into Behavioral Treatment for Adolescent ADHD: The Medication Integration Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hogue, Aaron; Bobek, Molly; Tau, Gregory Z.; Levin, Frances R.

    2014-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among adolescents enrolled in behavioral health services but remains undertreated in this age group. Also the first-line treatment for adolescent ADHD, stimulant medication, is underutilized in routine practice. This article briefly describes three behavioral interventions designed to promote stronger integration of medication interventions into treatment planning for adolescent ADHD: family ADHD psychoeducation, family-based medication decision-making, and behavior therapist leadership in coordinating medication integration. It then introduces the Medication Integration Protocol (MIP), which incorporates all three interventions into a five-task protocol: ADHD Assessment and Medication Consult; ADHD Psychoeducation and Client Acceptance; ADHD Symptoms and Family Relations; ADHD Medication and Family Decision-Making; and Medication Management and Integration Planning. The article concludes by highlighting what behavior therapists should know about best practices for medication integration across diverse settings and populations: integrating medication interventions into primary care, managing medication priorities and polypharmacy issues for adolescents with multiple diagnoses, providing ADHD medications to adolescent substance users, and the compatibility of MIP intervention strategies with everyday practice conditions. PMID:25505817

  16. Academic Medical Centers and Community Hospitals Integration: Trends and Strategies.

    PubMed

    Fleishon, Howard B; Itri, Jason N; Boland, Giles W; Duszak, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Academic medical centers are widely recognized as vital components of the American health care system, generally differentiated from their community hospital peers by their tripartite mission of clinical care, education, and research. Community hospitals fill a critical and complementary role, serving as the primary sites for health care in most communities. Health care reform initiatives and economic pressures have created incentives for hospitals and health systems to integrate, resulting in a nationwide trend toward consolidation with academic medical centers leveraging their substantial assets to merge, acquire, or establish partnerships with their community peers. As these alliances accelerate, they have and will continue to affect the radiology groups providing services at these institutions. A deeper understanding of these new marketplace dynamics, changing relationships and potential strategies will help both academic and private practice radiologists adapt to this ongoing change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Integrating simulated teaching/learning strategies in undergraduate nursing education.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Barbara; Ferguson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the results of a mixed-methods study integrating the use of simulations in a nursing theory course in order to assess students' perceptions of self-efficacy for nursing practice are presented. Nursing students in an intervention group were exposed to a combination of lecture and simulation, and then asked to rate their perceptions of self-efficacy, satisfaction and effectiveness of this combined teaching and learning strategy. Based on Bandura's (1977, 1986) theory of self-efficacy, this study provides data to suggest that students' self-confidence for nursing practice may be increased through the use of simulation as a method of teaching and learning. Students also reported higher levels of satisfaction, effectiveness and consistency with their learning style when exposed to the combination of lecture and simulation than the control group, who were exposed to lecture as the only method of teaching and learning.

  18. Crustal structure and tectonic development of Gulf of Guinea Cul-deSac from integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic and existing geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Babalola, O.O.

    1985-02-01

    Data-acquisition difficulties and propriety restrictions on industry data have necessitated liberal extrapolations and generalizations in previous tectono-structural studies of the Gulf of Guinea cul-de-sac. This region is the locus of a postulated Late Cretaceous triple junction whose arms were the transform-dominated Equatorial Atlantic, the northward-propagating South Atlantic, and the Benue Trough aulacogen. Oceanic crust has been inferred to underlie most of the thick sedimentary wedge of the oil-prolific Niger Delta basin. Integrated interpretation of new aeromagnetic data of the Geological Survey of Nigeria and existing geophysical data corroborates previous work on the general structure of the marginal basins. New aeromagnetic data, however, reveal a detail structure more complex than previously known. Low-frequency magnetic anomalies over the Niger delta indicate that oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust extends northward to about Onitsha. From Onitsha, the edge of oceanic crust trends southwestward along the Benin hinge line (an apparent continental continuation of either the Chain fracture zone or a new Okitipupa fracture zone) and also wiggles southeastward (adjoined by a wide margin of transitional crust) toward the shelf break off Cameroon. Linear magnetic anomalies trending northeast indicate about 7 fracture zones beneath the Niger Delta basin. The region of high-frequency magnetic anomalies west of the Niger delta represent the Okitipupa basement ridge complex, which separates the Niger Delta basin from the Dahomey embayment. In this embayment, 2 wide bands of intervening high- and low-frequency aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to represent a basement high or ridge and a fault-bonded trough, respectively.

  19. Integrated geophysical imaging of a concealed mineral deposit: a case study of the world-class Pebble porphyry deposit in southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Anjana K.; Bedrosian, Paul A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Lang, James

    2013-01-01

    We combined aeromagnetic, induced polarization, magnetotelluric, and gravity surveys as well as drillhole geologic, alteration, magnetic susceptibility, and density data for exploration and characterization of the Cu-Au-Mo Pebble porphyry deposit. This undeveloped deposit is almost completely concealed by postmineralization sedimentary and volcanic rocks, presenting an exploration challenge. Individual geophysical methods primarily assist regional characterization. Positive chargeability and conductivity anomalies are observed over a broad region surrounding the deposit, likely representing sulfide minerals that accumulated during multiple stages of hydrothermal alteration. The mineralized area occupies only a small part of the chargeability anomaly because sulfide precipitation was not unique to the deposit, and mafic rocks also exhibit strong chargeability. Conductivity anomalies similarly reflect widespread sulfides as well as water-saturated glacial sediments. Mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility data indicate magnetite destruction primarily within the Cu-Au-Mo mineralized area. The magnetic field does not show a corresponding anomaly low but the analytic signal does in areas where the deposit is not covered by postmineralization igneous rocks. The analytic signal shows similar lows over sedimentary rocks outside of the mineralized area, however, and cannot uniquely distinguish the deposit. We find that the intersection of positive chargeability anomalies with analytic signal lows, indicating elevated sulfide concentrations but low magnetite at shallow depths, roughly delineates the deposit where it is covered only by glacial sediments. Neither chargeability highs nor analytic signal lows are present where the deposit is covered by several hundred meters of sedimentary and volcanic rocks, but a 3D resistivity model derived from magnetotelluric data shows a corresponding zone of higher conductivity. Gravity data highlight geologic features within the

  20. Toward the Development of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    In the current environment of stagnant or shrinking budgets for space research and exploration, nations can no longer afford to develop costly systems in a vacuum. Greater coordination of existing and planned systems, both among space agencies and between the space agencies and user communities, will enable the maximization of global investments in all areas of space-related research. In this manner, a group of space agencies has embarked on an initiative to link their activities in Earth observation with complementary observation programs. The goal of this initiative is to develop a comprehensive strategy for enhanced levels of support to scientific, operational and research communities. The space agencies, through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), have embraced the concept of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), primarily in fulfillment of their own set of objectives and to derive greater benefit from both operating and planned Earth observing systems. Through working together, CEOS agencies are in a position to plan their Earth observation projects with the minimum of unnecessary overlap and to devise joint strategies for addressing serious gaps in their observation capabilities. Ultimately, an IGOS should be the joint product of all groups involved in the collection and analysis of both space-based and in-situ data. CEOS is actively seeking IGOS -related partnerships with the Global Climate, Global Ocean and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems, their intergovernmental Sponsors, the International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research, and other scientific and user organizations including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme.

  1. Toward the Development of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Leslie Bermann

    1998-01-01

    In the current environment of stagnant or shrinking budgets for space research and exploration, nations can no longer afford to develop costly systems in a vacuum. Greater coordination of existing and planned systems, both among space agencies and between the space agencies and user communities, will enable the maximization of global investments in all areas of space-related research. In this manner, a group of space agencies has embarked on an initiative to link their activities in Earth observation with complementary observation programs. The goal of this initiative is to develop a comprehensive strategy for enhanced levels of support to scientific, operational and research communities. The space agencies, through the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), have embraced the concept of an Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), primarily in fulfillment of their own set of objectives and to derive greater benefit from both operating and planned Earth observing systems. Through working together, CEOS agencies are in a position to plan their Earth observation projects with the minimum of unnecessary overlap and to devise joint strategies for addressing serious gaps in their observation capabilities. Ultimately, an IGOS should be the joint product of all groups involved in the collection and analysis of both space-based and in-situ data. CEOS is actively seeking IGOS -related partnerships with the Global Climate, Global Ocean and Global Terrestrial Observing Systems, their intergovernmental Sponsors, the International Group of Funding Agencies for Global Change Research, and other scientific and user organizations including the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme.

  2. Integrated Attitude Control Strategy for the Asteroid Redirect Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Price, Hoppy; San Martin, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon using a robotic vehicle, the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle (ARV). In this orbit, astronauts will rendezvous with the ARV using the Orion spacecraft. The integrated attitude control concept that Orion will use for approach and docking and for mated operations will be described. Details of the ARV's attitude control system and its associated constraints for redirecting the asteroid to the distant retrograde orbit around the moon will be provided. Once Orion is docked to the ARV, an overall description of the mated stack attitude during all phases of the mission will be presented using a coordinate system that was developed for this mission. Next, the thermal and power constraints of both the ARV and Orion will be discussed as well as how they are used to define the optimal integrated stack attitude. Lastly, the lighting and communications constraints necessary for the crew's extravehicular activity planned to retrieve samples from the asteroid will be examined. Similarly, the joint attitude control strategy that employs both the Orion and the ARV attitude control assets prior, during, and after each extravehicular activity will also be thoroughly discussed.

  3. Developing Multipurpose Reproductive Health Technologies: An Integrated Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P. F.; Hemmerling, A.; Romano, J.; Whaley, K. J.; Young Holt, B.

    2013-01-01

    Women worldwide confront two frequently concurrent reproductive health challenges: the need for contraception and for protection from sexually transmitted infections, importantly HIV/AIDS. While conception and infection share the same anatomical site and mode of transmission, there are no reproductive health technologies to date that simultaneously address that reality. Relevant available technologies are either contraceptive or anti-infective, are limited in number, and require different modes of administration and management. These “single-indication” technologies do not therefore fully respond to what is a substantial reproductive health need intimately linked to pivotal events in many women's lives. This paper reviews an integrated attempt to develop multipurpose prevention technologies—“MPTs”—products explicitly designed to simultaneously address the need for both contraception and protection from sexually transmitted infections. It describes an innovative and iterative MPT product development strategy with the following components: identifying different needs for such technologies and global variations in reproductive health priorities, defining “Target Product Profiles” as the framework for a research and development “roadmap,” collating an integrated MPT pipeline and characterizing significant pipeline gaps, exploring anticipated regulatory requirements, prioritizing candidates for problem-solving and resource investments, and implementing an ancillary advocacy agenda to support this breadth of effort. PMID:23533733

  4. Integration and the performance of healthcare networks:do integration strategies enhance efficiency, profitability, and image?

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Thomas T.H.; Ma, Allen; Y.J.Lin, Blossom

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Purpose This study examines the integration effects on efficiency and financial viability of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) in the United States. Theory A contingency- strategic theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. Methods The lists of the top 100 IHNs ranked in two years, 1998 and 1999, by the SMG Marketing Group were merged to create a database for the study. Multiple indicators were used to examine the relationship between IHNs' characteristics and their performance in efficiency and financial viability. A path analytical model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' images, represented by attaining ranking among the top 100 in two consecutive years, were analysed. Results and conclusion No positive associations were found between integration and network performance in efficiency or profits. Longitudinal data are needed to investigate the effect of integration on healthcare networks' financial performance. PMID:16896405

  5. Food for Thought … Integrated Testing Strategies for Safety Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Thomas; Luechtefeld, Tom; Maertens, Alexandra; Kleensang, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite the fact that toxicology uses many stand-alone tests, a systematic combination of several information sources very often is required: Examples include: when not all possible outcomes of interest (e.g., modes of action), classes of test substances (applicability domains), or severity classes of effect are covered in a single test; when the positive test result is rare (low prevalence leading to excessive false-positive results); when the gold standard test is too costly or uses too many animals, creating a need for prioritization by screening. Similarly, tests are combined when the human predictivity of a single test is not satisfactory or when existing data and evidence from various tests will be integrated. Increasingly, kinetic information also will be integrated to make an in vivo extrapolation from in vitro data. Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) offer the solution to these problems. ITS have been discussed for more than a decade, and some attempts have been made in test guidance for regulations. Despite their obvious potential for revamping regulatory toxicology, however, we still have little guidance on the composition, validation, and adaptation of ITS for different purposes. Similarly, Weight of Evidence and Evidence-based Toxicology approaches require different pieces of evidence and test data to be weighed and combined. ITS also represent the logical way of combining pathway-based tests, as suggested in Toxicology for the 21st Century. This paper describes the state of the art of ITS and makes suggestions as to the definition, systematic combination, and quality assurance of ITS. PMID:23338803

  6. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  7. EDITORIAL: The interface between geophysics and engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-03-01

    imaging to reduce uncertainty and associated risk. In the economically dominant area of petroleum exploration and production, the focus has moved dramatically from exploration to production. This shift is leading increasingly to integration between petroleum geoscience and petrophysics on the one hand, and petroleum engineering and rock mechanics on the other. This integration means that petroleum engineers need to be aware of developments in geophysics, and geophysicists need to be aware of the problems and requirements of the reservoir engineer. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering has been established firmly in that context, and we expect this trend to strengthen and extend far into the future. The Editors welcome your submissions, and comments on this first issue of JGE.

  8. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation.

  9. Application of an Integrated Ground Water Monitoring Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, V.; Hodges, R.; Heffner, D.; Nicholson, T. J.; Temples, T.

    2006-05-01

    The ground-water monitoring strategy developed through a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research project was tested using monitoring data from the C-Area at the Savannah River Site. This strategy employs a systematic approach to integrate site characterization, conceptual model development, identification and evaluation of ground-water system performance indicators, site performance assessment, and monitor network design. The strategy provides guidance for monitoring across a wide range of geologic settings, waste compositions, and site designs to support performance assessment analysis. The goal is to provide decision-makers with the necessary information to implement an effective monitoring program at any specific site. The Savannah River Site is situated on multi-layer, interbedded, discontinuous Coastal Plain sediments that regionally dip gently to the south-southeast. The sediments are predominantly sands and clays deposited in fluvial to near-shore marine, environments. The hydrology at C-Area is a classic sequence of unconfined, semi-confined, and confined aquifers with the semi-confined aquifer becoming unconfined as it nears Four Mile Branch. High permeability pathways that affect transport can be present due to channels, gravel layers, and fractures. There are two major contaminant plumes at C Area. The first is a trichloroethene (TCE) plume which migrates to the west from the C-Area burning rubble pit to Four Mile Branch. This plume is delineated by an extensive monitoring network of over 150 wells, though none reach the confined aquifer beneath the plume extent (to avoid downward transport during and after well installation). Transport modeling (using the RT3D code) was performed to simulate the TCE distribution and to determine if TCE could affect the confined aquifer. Modeling results suggest the confined aquifer could be monitored with wells placed west of Four Mile Branch across from the plume. The second is a tritium plume which

  10. Integrated EPA Science for Decision-Making: Lawrence, MA Water Strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation on the Lawrence MA Making a Visible Difference in Communities project’s comprehensive water quality strategy, demonstrating a systems approach applying integrated EPA science

  11. Integrated EPA Science for Decision-Making: Lawrence, MA Water Strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation on the Lawrence MA Making a Visible Difference in Communities project’s comprehensive water quality strategy, demonstrating a systems approach applying integrated EPA science

  12. Subsurface structure and tectonic style of the NE Outer Carpathians (Poland) on the basis of integrated 2D interpretation of geological and geophysical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuśmierek, Jan

    2010-02-01

    Integration of the information from surface and subsurface geological exploration (maps and well sections) and results of geological reinterpretation of more than ten archival seismic sections and several dozen magnetotelluric soundings (MT; published and archival) implies a new structural picture of the Carpathian tectogene, interpreted to depths exceeding 10 km. The tectonics of nappes and their basement is illustrated by four regional cross-sections (derived from geological and petroleum-exploration traverses) and examples of detailed interpretation of zones with complicated structure, as well as results of testing the initial structural models with application of the balanced cross-section method and gravimetric modelling. In the tectonics, a complicated system of overthrusts and detachments of sedimentary covers (from their heterogeneous basement) represents a predominant feature. It induced, within particular nappes and tectonically altered structural-facies units, specific systems of narrow folds with diversified geometries. Broad folds of the intermediate structural stage, which are gently sloping in the hinterland of the nappes, were interpreted on the basis of geophysics as paraautochthonous elements. They cover deep-seated faults with large throws, which obliquely or subvertically dip to the SW and were distinguished in the basement on the grounds of extreme contrasts at the resistivity boundaries. Zones of dramatically low resistivities, which separate blocks of the uplifted basement, were interpreted as tectonic sutures with geometry rebuilt in the stage of the Neogene lithosphere subduction. Therefore, the structural layout of the sedimentary cover is characterized by more gently dipping nappe overthrusts of the sequential type and secondary, out-of-sequence thrust slices, most frequently imbricate ones. The flysch covers resting over the tectonic sutures, particularly in margins of inherited structural depressions, are characterized by more

  13. Integration of satellite gravity data with ground-based geophysical data for a better understanding of the structural control of groundwater flow in the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathy, K.; Sultan, M.; Bettadpur, S. V.; Save, H.; Ahmed, M.; Zahran, K. H.; Emil, M. K.; Helaly, A.; Abotalib, A. Z.; Ismaiel, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) extends beyond Egypt's political boundaries to cover eastern Libya, northern and central Sudan and northeast Chad. The optimum utilization of this resource requires a better understanding of the connectivity of the NSAS sub-basins and the structural control on groundwater flow throughout the system. We provide an integrated (geophysics, remote sensing and field) approach to address these issues. Firstly, we evaluated GOCE-based global Geopotential models (GGMs) compared to the terrestrial gravity anomalies for 21262 sites to select the optimum model for deriving Bouguer gravity datasets. The Eigen-6C4 was found to have the lowest deviation from the terrestrial gravity anomalies. Secondly, structures and uplifts were mapped on the surface and in the sub-surface. Extensive N-S to NW-SE trending grabens were delineated in areas proximal to the Nile Valley using Palsar-derived DEMs, and hill shade maps; these depressions are here interpreted as basement structures that were reactivated during the opening of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez. The sinistral E-W trending faults and shear zones of the Syrian Arc were mapped in northern Egypt from Sinai and across the Eastern and Western Deserts. These structures were mapped on the surface using hill shade images and their extension in the subsurface was successfully detected from Eigen-6C4 model-derived Bouguer and TDR maps. The E-W trending basement uplift (Uweinat-Aswan uplift) was mapped in southern Egypt and the N-S trending Uweinat-Howar uplift was delineated in western Sudan and eastern Chad using TDR maps. Thirdly, hydrological analysis was conducted using GRACE spherical harmonic solutions (RL05), and CSR 0.5° X 0.5°, and JPL Mascon solutions. These showed: (1) pronounced TWS depletion over the Dakhla basin (average of three solutions: -3.03 mm/yr); (2) the south to north groundwater flow from Sudan to Egypt is impeded by the E-W trending Uweinat-Aswan basement uplift

  14. Integrated testing strategy (ITS) for bioaccumulation assessment under REACH.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Anna; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Benfentati, Emilio; Nendza, Monika; Segner, Helmut; Fernández, Alberto; Kühne, Ralph; Franco, Antonio; Pauné, Eduard; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2014-08-01

    REACH (registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals) regulation requires that all the chemicals produced or imported in Europe above 1 tonne/year are registered. To register a chemical, physicochemical, toxicological and ecotoxicological information needs to be reported in a dossier. REACH promotes the use of alternative methods to replace, refine and reduce the use of animal (eco)toxicity testing. Within the EU OSIRIS project, integrated testing strategies (ITSs) have been developed for the rational use of non-animal testing approaches in chemical hazard assessment. Here we present an ITS for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential of organic chemicals. The scheme includes the use of all available data (also the non-optimal ones), waiving schemes, analysis of physicochemical properties related to the end point and alternative methods (both in silico and in vitro). In vivo methods are used only as last resort. Using the ITS, in vivo testing could be waived for about 67% of the examined compounds, but bioaccumulation potential could be estimated on the basis of non-animal methods. The presented ITS is freely available through a web tool. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategy for the engineering integration of the ESS accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazis, Nikolaos; McGinnis, David; Molloy, Stephen; Tanke, Eugene; Hardh, Carl-Johan; Lundgren, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden, will be the world’s most powerful source of neutrons. The goal is to deliver neutrons to users in 2019 and reach full power sometime in the middle of the following decade. One of the key issues for ESS is to develop a strategy, along with the proper innovative tools, to efficiently communicate and smoothly collaborate between divisions and groups inside ESS and with its outside collaborators, so-called In-Kind Contributors (IKC). Technical requirements related to the scope to be delivered are among the most important technical information to be exchanged. This information exchange is facilitated by using a commercial requirements management database that is accessible through the web. The physics multidisciplinary needs are linked with the engineering integration through LinacLego, which is a tool that provides all updated lattice data for the accelerator. The lattice information is then gathered and utilized to control the physical positioning of the mechanical engineering components for the accelerator. The precision for this operation is provided by a dedicated mechanical design skeleton in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) environment. Finally, the realization of all these steps is supervised in detail and continuously evaluated. In this way the required ESS machine design can be delivered, both in terms of the engineering and the physics aspects.

  16. Practical Strategies for Integrating Final Ecosystem Goods and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The concept of Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) explicitly connects ecosystem services to the people that benefit from them. This report presents a number of practical strategies for incorporating FEGS, and more broadly ecosystem services, into the decision-making process. Whether a decision process is in early or late stages, or whether a process includes informal or formal decision analysis, there are multiple points where ecosystem services concepts can be integrated. This report uses Structured Decision Making (SDM) as an organizing framework to illustrate the role ecosystem services can play in a values-focused decision-process, including: • Clarifying the decision context: Ecosystem services can help clarify the potential impacts of an issue on natural resources together with their spatial and temporal extent based on supply and delivery of those services, and help identify beneficiaries for inclusion as stakeholders in the deliberative process. • Defining objectives and performance measures: Ecosystem services may directly represent stakeholder objectives, or may be means toward achieving other objectives. • Creating alternatives: Ecosystem services can bring to light creative alternatives for achieving other social, economic, health, or general well-being objectives. • Estimating consequences: Ecosystem services assessments can implement ecological production functions (EPFs) and ecological benefits functions (EBFs) to link decision alt

  17. Integrated strategy for the production of therapeutic retroviral vectors.

    PubMed

    Carrondo, Manuel; Panet, Amos; Wirth, Dagmar; Coroadinha, Ana Sofia; Cruz, Pedro; Falk, Haya; Schucht, Roland; Dupont, Francis; Geny-Fiamma, Cécile; Merten, Otto-Wilhelm; Hauser, Hansjörg

    2011-03-01

    The broad application of retroviral vectors for gene delivery is still hampered by the difficulty to reproducibly establish high vector producer cell lines generating sufficient amounts of highly concentrated virus vector preparations of high quality. To enhance the process for producing clinically relevant retroviral vector preparations for therapeutic applications, we have integrated novel and state-of-the-art technologies in a process that allows rapid access to high-efficiency vector-producing cells and consistent production, purification, and storage of retroviral vectors. The process has been designed for various types of retroviral vectors for clinical application and to support a high-throughput process. New modular helper cell lines that permit rapid insertion of DNA encoding the therapeutic vector of interest at predetermined, optimal chromosomal loci were developed to facilitate stable and high vector production levels. Packaging cell lines, cultivation methods, and improved medium composition were coupled with vector purification and storage process strategies that yield maximal vector infectivity and stability. To facilitate GMP-grade vector production, standard of operation protocols were established. These processes were validated by production of retroviral vector lots that drive the expression of type VII collagen (Col7) for the treatment of a skin genetic disease, dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. The potential efficacy of the Col7-expressing vectors was finally proven with newly developed systems, in particular in target primary keratinocyte cultures and three-dimensional skin tissues in organ culture.

  18. German Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO): Providing a Globally Covered, Highly Resolved, Integrated, Geological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Data Base of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea

    2008-03-01

    LEO is planned to be launched in 2012 and shall orbit the Moon for about four years at low altitude (<50 km) in order to map the Moon geomorphologically, geochemically, and geophysically with resolutions down to less than 1 m globally.

  19. Motion correction strategies for integrated PET/MR.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Sebastian; Grimm, Robert; Hong, Inki; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Casey, Michael E; Schwaiger, Markus; Nekolla, Stephan G; Ziegler, Sibylle I

    2015-02-01

    Integrated whole-body PET/MR facilitates the implementation of a broad variety of respiratory motion correction strategies, taking advantage of the strengths of both modalities. The goal of this study was the quantitative evaluation with clinical data of different MR- and PET-data-based motion correction strategies for integrated PET/MR. The PET and MR data of 20 patients were simultaneously acquired for 10 min on an integrated PET/MR system after administration of (18)F-FDG or (68)Ga-DOTANOC. Respiratory traces recorded with a bellows were compared against MR self-gating signals and signals extracted from PET raw data with the sensitivity method, by applying principal component analysis (PCA) or Laplacian eigenmaps and by using a novel variation combining the former and either of the latter two. Gated sinograms and MR images were generated accordingly, followed by image registration to derive MR motion models. Corrected PET images were reconstructed by incorporating this information into the reconstruction. An optical flow algorithm was applied for PET-based motion correction. Gating and motion correction were evaluated by quantitative analysis of apparent tracer uptake, lesion volume, displacement, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio. The correlation between bellows- and MR-based signals was 0.63 ± 0.19, and that between MR and the sensitivity method was 0.52 ± 0.26. Depending on the PET raw-data compression, the average correlation between MR and PCA ranged from 0.25 ± 0.30 to 0.58 ± 0.33, and the range was 0.25 ± 0.30 to 0.42 ± 0.34 if Laplacian eigenmaps were applied. By combining the sensitivity method and PCA or Laplacian eigenmaps, the maximum average correlation to MR could be increased to 0.74 ± 0.21 and 0.70 ± 0.19, respectively. The selection of the best PET-based signal for each patient yielded an average correlation of 0.80 ± 0.13 with MR. Using the best PET-based respiratory signal for gating, mean tracer uptake increased by 17 ± 19% for

  20. Scientific Integrity and Professional Ethics at AGU - Strategies and Actions to Impact Sexual Harassment in Science and other Work Climate Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhaden, Michael; Davidson, Eric; McEntee, Christine; Williams, Billy

    2017-04-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), a scientific society of 62,000 members worldwide, has established a set of scientific integrity and professional ethics guidelines for the actions of its members, for the governance of the union in its internal activities, and for the operations and participation in its publications and scientific meetings. More recently AGU has undertaken strategies and actions to help address the issue of harassment in the sciences and other work climate issues. This presentation will provide an overview of the role of scientific societies in helping to address these important issues, as well as specific strategies and actions underway at AGU and other societies. Progress to date and remaining challenges of this effort will be discussed, including AGU's work to provide additional program strength in this area.

  1. Smith heads Reviews of Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    On January 1, Jim Smith began his term as editor-in-chief of Reviews of Geophysics. As editor-in-chief, he leads the board of editors in enhancing the journal's role as an integrating force in the geophysical sciences by providing timely overviews of current research and its trends. Smith is already beginning to fulfill the journal's role of providing review papers on topics of broad interest to Union members as well as the occasional definitive review paper on selected topics of narrower focus. Smith will lead the editorial board until December 31, 2000. Michael Coffey, Tommy Dickey, James Horwitz, Roelof Snieder, and Thomas Torgersen have been appointed as editors to serve with Smith. At least one more editor will be named to round out the disciplinary expertise on the board.

  2. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Prem V.

    1997-12-01

    Geophysical imaging methods provide solutions to a wide variety of environmental and engineering problems: protection of soil and groundwater from contamination; disposal of chemical and nuclear waste; geotechnical site testing; landslide and ground subsidence hazard detection; location of archaeological artifacts. This book comprehensively describes the theory, data acquisition and interpretation of all of the principal techniques of geophysical surveying: gravity, magnetic, seismic, self-potential, resistivity, induced polarization, electromagnetic, ground-probing radar, radioactivity, geothermal, and geophysical borehole logging. Each chapter is supported by a large number of richly illustrated case histories. This book will prove to be a valuable textbook for senior undergraduates and postgraduates in environmental and applied geophysics, a supplementary course book for students of geology, engineering geophysics, civil and mining engineering, and a reference work for professional earth scientists, engineers and town planners.

  3. Integrated geophysical investigations of linkages between Precambrian basement and sedimentary structures in the Ucayali basin, Peru; Fort Worth basin, Texas; and Osage County, Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elebiju, Olubunmi Olumide

    I conducted integrated geophysical studies within the Fort Worth basin, Texas; Osage County, Oklahoma, and the Ucayali basin, Peru. My studies are directed at understanding the relationships or links between Precambrian basement structures and sedimentary structures using these three areas as case studies. Links between basement structure, hydrocarbon reservoirs, and sedimentary sequences are not a new concept. Such relationships have been documented in the Paradox, Hardeman, Anadarko, Arkoma, Ardmore and Williston basins among others. Structures such as fault zones that can influence the formation of sedimentary basins and mineral deposits are often formed by intraplate tectonism. In order to compare the relationship between the Precambrian basement structures and sedimentary structures, I analyzed series of derivative and filtered maps of aeromagnetic and gravity data, which enhance basement structures, that were integrated with seismic data and seismic attribute data that enhance structures within the sedimentary sections. Other information such as well data and geologic information etc were also integrated. This integrated workflow facilitates the comparison of the links or relationships between the two structures. The results of the Fort Worth basin are presented in Chapter 3. The results of this integrated study show that the sedimentary structures within the study area are mainly related to basement structures because these structures are aligned parallel to anomalies identified on the high-resolution aeromagnetic (HRAM) data. The northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast orientations of sedimentary features are consistently parallel with Precambrian structural fabrics that are associated with structures such as the northeast trending Ouachita orogenic belt and the northwest trending Muenster Arch, which reactivated a late Cambrian/Late Precambrian faults. The knowledge gained in this study will impact oil and gas exploration and development within the

  4. Palliative Care Integration Project (PCIP) quality improvement strategy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dudgeon, Deborah J; Knott, Christine; Eichholz, Mary; Gerlach, Jacqueline Lochhaas; Chapman, Cheryl; Viola, Raymond; Van Dijk, Janice; Preston, Sharon; Batchelor, Diane; Bartfay, Emma

    2008-06-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of implementation of common assessment tools, collaborative care plans, and symptom management guidelines for cancer patients as a strategy to improve the quality, coordination, and integration of palliative care service across organizations and health care sectors. A pre-post design to measure the impact on symptom management, caregiver burden and satisfaction with care delivery, and service utilization was used. Two cohorts of eligible patients and caregivers completed Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scales, Caregiver Reaction Assessment and FAMCARE Scales and chart audits were conducted. Administrative data from each participating site were examined for utilization trends. Audits of 53 charts preimplementation and 63 postimplementation showed an increase in documentation of pain from 24.5% to 74.6% (P<0.001) of charts. Administrative data showed a decrease in the percentage of patients with at least one emergency room visit from 94.3% to 84.8% (P<0.001), in the percentage of patients with at least one admission to the acute care hospital (P<0.001), and deaths in acute care 43.1%-35.7% (P=0.133). There was minimal change in the intensity of symptoms (P=0.591), and no change in the burden on the caregiver (P=0.086) or caregiver satisfaction with care (P=0.942). This study showed that implementation of common assessment tools, collaborative care plans, and symptom management guidelines across health sectors can result in some increased documentation of symptoms and efficiencies in care. Future projects should consider imbedding a continuous quality improvement methodology and longer timelines into their projects to improve outcomes.

  5. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  6. Integrative Mixed Methods Data Analytic Strategies in Research on School Success in Challenging Circumstances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia

    2008-01-01

    There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…

  7. Promoting Scientific Integrity in Nursing Research, Part II: Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketefian, Shake; Lenz, Elizabeth R.

    1995-01-01

    Responses from 38 nursing schools suggest that publication and authorship are problematic and complicated by tenure/promotion policies. Professional journals and organizations have important roles in encouraging scientific integrity. Research integrity should be dealt with proactively. (SK)

  8. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsekian, Andy; Singha, Kamini; Minsley, Burke J.; Holbrook, W. Steven; Slater, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  9. Multiscale geophysical imaging of the critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsekian, A. D.; Singha, K.; Minsley, B. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Slater, L.

    2015-03-01

    Details of Earth's shallow subsurface—a key component of the critical zone (CZ)—are largely obscured because making direct observations with sufficient density to capture natural characteristic spatial variability in physical properties is difficult. Yet this inaccessible region of the CZ is fundamental to processes that support ecosystems, society, and the environment. Geophysical methods provide a means for remotely examining CZ form and function over length scales that span centimeters to kilometers. Here we present a review highlighting the application of geophysical methods to CZ science research questions. In particular, we consider the application of geophysical methods to map the geometry of structural features such as regolith thickness, lithological boundaries, permafrost extent, snow thickness, or shallow root zones. Combined with knowledge of structure, we discuss how geophysical observations are used to understand CZ processes. Fluxes between snow, surface water, and groundwater affect weathering, groundwater resources, and chemical and nutrient exports to rivers. The exchange of gas between soil and the atmosphere have been studied using geophysical methods in wetland areas. Indirect geophysical methods are a natural and necessary complement to direct observations obtained by drilling or field mapping. Direct measurements should be used to calibrate geophysical estimates, which can then be used to extrapolate interpretations over larger areas or to monitor changing processes over time. Advances in geophysical instrumentation and computational approaches for integrating different types of data have great potential to fill gaps in our understanding of the shallow subsurface portion of the CZ and should be integrated where possible in future CZ research.

  10. Preliminary analysis of an integrated logistics system for OSSA payloads. Volume 2: OSSA integrated logistics support strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palguta, T.; Bradley, W.; Stockton, T.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose is to outline an Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) integrated logistics support strategy that will ensure effective logistics support of OSSA payloads at an affordable life-cycle cost. Program objectives, organizational relationships, and implementation of the logistics strategy are discussed.

  11. Teaching Research Integrity in Higher Education: Policy and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shephard, Kerry; Trotman, Tiffany; Furnari, Mary; Löfström, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Recently published research suggested that university academics have qualitatively disparate views on some key aspects of teaching research integrity within the broader construct of academic integrity and surprisingly ambiguous views on others. In the light of this variation, we have reviewed the research and academic integrity policies of our…

  12. The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Cook, Samantha M; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A

    2007-01-01

    Push-pull strategies involve the behavioral manipulation of insect pests and their natural enemies via the integration of stimuli that act to make the protected resource unattractive or unsuitable to the pests (push) while luring them toward an attractive source (pull) from where the pests are subsequently removed. The push and pull components are generally nontoxic. Therefore, the strategies are usually integrated with methods for population reduction, preferably biological control. Push-pull strategies maximize efficacy of behavior-manipulating stimuli through the additive and synergistic effects of integrating their use. By orchestrating a predictable distribution of pests, efficiency of population-reducing components can also be increased. The strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management programs reducing pesticide input. We describe the principles of the strategy, list the potential components, and present case studies reviewing work on the development and use of push-pull strategies in each of the major areas of pest control.

  13. Air-depolyable geophysics package

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, S.L.; Harben, P.E.

    1993-11-01

    We are using Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL`s) diverse expertise to develop a geophysical monitoring system that can survive being dropped into place by a helicopter or airplane. Such an air-deployable system could significantly decrease the time and effort needed to set up such instruments in remote locations following a major earthquake or volcanic eruption. Most currently available geophysical monitoring and survey systems, such as seismic monitoring stations, use sensitive, fragile instrumentation that requires personnel trained and experienced in data acquisition and field setup. Rapid deployment of such equipment can be difficult or impossible. Recent developments in low-power electronics, new materials, and sensors that are resistant to severe impacts have made it possible to develop low-cost geophysical monitoring packages for rapid deployment missions. Our strategy was to focus on low-cost battery-powered systems that would have a relatively long (several months) operational lifetime. We concentrated on the conceptual design and engineering of a single-component seismic system that could survive an air-deployment into an earth material, such as alluvium. Actual implementation of such a system is a goal of future work on this concept. For this project, we drew on LLNL`s Earth Sciences Department, Radio Shop, Plastics Shop, and Weapons Program. The military has had several programs to develop air-deployed and cannon-deployed seismometers. Recently, a sonobuoy manufacturer has offered an air-deployable geophone designed to make relatively soft landings.

  14. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  15. High temperature geophysical instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hardee, H.C.

    1988-06-01

    The instrumentation development program was to proceed in parallel with scientific research and was driven by the needs of researchers. The development of these instruments has therefore included numerous geophysical field tests, many of which have resulted in the publication of scientific articles. This paper is a brief summary of some of the major geophysical instruments that have been developed and tested under the High Temperature Geophysics Program. These instruments are briefly described and references are given for further detailed information and for scientific papers that have resulted from the use of these instruments. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  17. Late Cenozoic Magmatic and Tectonic Evolution of the Ancestral Cascade Arc in the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada: Insights from Integrated Geologic, Geophysical, Geochemical and Geochronologic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; du Bray, E. A.; Box, S. E.; Blakely, R. J.; Fleck, R. J.; Vikre, P. G.; Cousens, B.; Moring, B. C.

    2012-12-01

    Geologic mapping integrated with new geophysical, geochemical, and geochronologic data characterize the evolution of Bodie Hills volcanic field (BHVF), a long-lived eruptive center in the southern part of the ancestral Cascade arc. The ~700 km2 field was a locus of magmatic activity from ~15 to 8 Ma. It includes >25 basaltic andesite to trachyandesite stratovolcanoes and silicic trachyandesite to rhyolite dome complexes. The southeastern part of the BHVF is overlain by the ~3.9 to 0.1 Ma, post-arc Aurora Volcanic Field. Long-lived BHVF magmatism was localized by crustal-scale tectonic features, including the Precambrian continental margin, the Walker Lane, the Basin and Range Province, and the Mina deflection. BHVF eruptive activity occurred primarily during 3 stages: 1) dominantly trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~15.0 to 12.9 Ma), 2) coalesced trachydacite and rhyolite lava domes and trachyandesite stratovolcanoes (~11.6 to 9.7 Ma), and 3) dominantly silicic trachyandesite to dacite lava dome complexes (~9.2 to 8.0 Ma). Small rhyolite domes were emplaced at ~6 Ma. Relatively mafic stratovolcanoes surrounded by debris flow aprons lie on the margins of the BHVF, whereas more silicic dome fields occupy its center. Detailed gravity and aeromagnetic data suggest the presence of unexposed cogenetic granitic plutons beneath the center of the BHVF. Isotopic compositions of BHVF rocks are generally more radiogenic with decreasing age (e.g., initial Sr isotope values increase from ~0.7049 to 0.7061), which suggests progressively greater magma contamination by crustal components during evolution of the BHVF. Approximately circular, polygenetic volcanoes and scarcity of dikes suggest a low differential horizontal stress field during BHVF formation. Extensive alluvial gravel deposits that grade laterally into fluvial gravels and finer grained lacustrine sediments and the westerly sourced Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT; ~9.4 Ma) blanket large parts of the BHVF. The earliest sediments

  18. Integrated Approach (Geophysics and Remote Sensing) to identify Water-bearing Dyke Swarms and Fractured Basement in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M. E.; Sauck, W.; Abouelmagd, A. A.; Chouinard, K.

    2012-12-01

    An integrated approach utilizing Very Low Frequency (VLF) and magnetic field surveying and temporal remote sensing data including: (1) Advanced Space Borne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) data, (2) European Remote Sensing (ERS-1 and ERS-2) radar imagery, and (3) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was used to delineate water-bearing sub-vertical shear zones within the basement complex of the Sinai Peninsula. The following steps were undertaken: (1) the shear zones and dyke swarms within the basement complex were delineated using false color ASTER band and band ratio images; (2) the spatial and temporal precipitation events over the basement complex were then identified from TRMM data, and (3) finally, observations extracted from temporal radar and thermal ASTER bands were used to identify the water-bearing shear zones and dyke swarms. A fracture or dyke was deemed to be water bearing if: (1) it witnessed a large increase in its reflectivity and emissivity compared to its surroundings following a precipitation event, and maintained such differences for periods ranging from days to months. Field observations and VLF investigations were then applied to test the validity of our satellite-based methodologies for locating targeted aquifer types and for refining the satellite-based selections. The VLF detects conductive water-saturated subvertical breccia zones in bedrock. Thirty two VLF transects were collected in September of 2011 and July of 2012 along with 10 magnetic profiles at the same VLF locations. Both VLF and magnetic transects were acquired along a traverse perpendicular to the dike orientations with station separations ranging from 10 to 25 m. The VLF receiver (T-VLF) measures the distortion of the normally horizontal electromagnetic flux lines by local electrical conductors. At each VLF station, and for each frequency used, the following were measured: the tilt of the electromagnetic field, from the horizontal (given in percentage), the

  19. Strategies for and Successes with Promoting Social Integration in Primary Schools in Canada and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Lily

    2012-01-01

    This study examined social integration in 11 primary schools in Canada and 19 primary schools in China as reported by teachers in terms of the strategies employed to promote social integration and success in achieving social integration. Structured interviews were conducted with 64 Canadian and 52 Chinese general education teachers. The results…

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF INTEGRATED URBAN WET-WEATHER CONTROL STRATEGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An optimization method for urban wet weather control (WWC) strategies is presented. The developed optimization model can be used to determine the most cost-effective strategies for the combination of centralized storage-release systems and distributed on-site WWC alternatives. T...

  1. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  2. Basic exploration geophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to geophysical methods used to explore for natural resources and to survey earth's geology is presented in this volume. It is suitable for second-and third-year undergraduate students majoring in geology or engineering and for professional engineering and for professional engineers and earth scientists without formal instruction in geophysics. The author assumes the reader is familiar with geometry, algebra, and trigonometry. Geophysical exploration includes seismic refraction and reflection surveying, electrical resistivity and electromagnetic field surveying, and geophysical well logging. Surveying operations are described in step-by-step procedures and are illustrated by practical examples. Computer-based methods of processing and interpreting data as well as geographical methods are introduced.

  3. Terrestrial hydrological Research and Geophysics: Quo Vadis?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Huisman, J. A.; van der Kruk, J.; Bogena, H.; Pohlmeier, A.; Koestel, J.; Lambot, S.; Vanderborght, J.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical methods may play an important role in managing our terrestrial environment and in maintaining ecosystem functioning and services. Especially, the application and further development of hydrogeophysical methods seem very promising to maintain and protect soil and groundwater quality. Hydrogeophysical methods may help to improve our control on storage, filter and buffer functions of soils and groundwater systems. Moreover, methods are needed that will help us to bridge the gap between the scale of measurements and observations and the scale at which management of terrestrial systems takes place. In this presentation several examples will be presented showing how hydrogeophysical research can contribute in meeting these challenges. Recent progress in the field of magnetic resonance imaging, electrical resistivity tomography and spectral induced polarisation to investigate flow and transport processes in soils will be presented. In the field of high frequency hydrogeophysics, advanced full-waveform forward and inverse modelling procedures have been developed for ground penetrating radar technology, which are now routinely used for high-resolution, real-time mapping of surface soil moisture at the field scale. Integrated inversion and data fusion strategies, where both geophysical and hydrological models are coupled, further extend information retrieval capabilities also in real-time, and permits advanced interpretation of time-lapse data for hydrological process identification, water dynamics monitoring and soil hydraulic properties determination. Advances in wireless and sensor technologies are increasing the feasibility of using distributed sensor networks for observing soil water and hydrological processes at the intermediate scale, bridging the gap between ground-based sensors and remote sensing platforms.

  4. Honor Codes: Evidence Based Strategies for Improving Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Holly; Schwartz, Beth M.

    2017-01-01

    Although there is evidence of cheating at all levels of education, institutions often do not implement or design integrity policies, such as honor codes, to prevent and adjudicate academic dishonesty. Further, faculty members rarely discuss academic integrity expectations or policies with their students. When cheating does occur, faculty members…

  5. Self-Authored Graphic Design: A Strategy for Integrative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Steven; De Almeida, Cristina Melibeu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to introduce the concepts of self-authorship in graphic design education as part of an integrative pedagogy. The enhanced potential of harnessing graphic design's dual modalities--the integrative processes inherent in design thinking and doing, and the ability of graphic design to engage other disciplines by giving…

  6. Self-Authored Graphic Design: A Strategy for Integrative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Steven; De Almeida, Cristina Melibeu

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to introduce the concepts of self-authorship in graphic design education as part of an integrative pedagogy. The enhanced potential of harnessing graphic design's dual modalities--the integrative processes inherent in design thinking and doing, and the ability of graphic design to engage other disciplines by giving…

  7. Five Ways to Integrate: Using Strategies from Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This article is for art teachers of all levels who want to teach through art and about art. The purpose of this article is twofold. It provides evidence that integration is a significant, lively and authentic art practice today and, therefore, studying about art and integrating it are compatible. It also offers teachers and students in elementary,…

  8. Integration Strategies for Learners with Severe Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichinger, Joanne; Woltman, Sheila

    1993-01-01

    This article reports the experiences of one school district as it moved from serving students with severe disabilities in segregated programs to a full inclusion model. Year one focused on getting started, planning, and beginning integration efforts and year two on implementation of a structured peer integration program. Applicability of the full…

  9. Strategies to integrate patient and family education into patient care redesign.

    PubMed

    Yingling, L; Trocino, L

    1997-05-01

    This article discusses five strategies to effectively integrate patient and family education into patient care redesign. The strategies include building the plan, building a shared mission and vision, building involvement, building collaboration through initiatives, and building accountability. Each strategy or "building block" is vital to the resulting structure of patient and family education. Effective results of the strategies are discussed as milestones. The process must be ongoing to ensure continuous improvement in quality patient care outcomes, consumer satisfaction and cost-effectiveness.

  10. Phillips Laboratory Geophysics Scholar Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-30

    research at Phillips Laboratory . Research sponsored by Air Force Geophysics Laboratory ...Geophysics Laboratory (now the Phillips Laboratory , Geophysics Directorate), United States Air Force for its sponsorship of this research through the Air ...September 1993 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited PHILLIPS LABORATORY Directorate of Geophysics AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND

  11. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework.

    PubMed

    Fransen, Marieke L; Smit, Edith G; Verlegh, Peeter W J

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment), and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception). We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change.

  12. Strategies and motives for resistance to persuasion: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Marieke L.; Smit, Edith G.; Verlegh, Peeter W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Persuasion is an important element of human communication. But in many situations, we resist rather than embrace persuasive attempts. Resistance to persuasion has been studied in many different disciplines, including communication science, psychology, and marketing. The present paper reviews and connects these diverse literatures, and provides an organizing framework for understanding and studying resistance. Four clusters of resistance strategies are defined (avoidance, contesting, biased processing, and empowerment), and these clusters are related to different motivations for resisting persuasion (threat to freedom, reluctance to change, and concerns of deception). We propose that, while avoidance strategies may be triggered by any of these motivations, contesting strategies are linked primarily to concerns of deception, while empowerment and biased processing strategies are most common when people are reluctant to change. PMID:26322006

  13. Techniques and strategies for data integration in mineral resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trautwein, Charles M.; Dwyer, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The Geologic and the National Mapping divisions of the U.S. Geological Survey have been involved formally in cooperative research and development of computer-based geographic information systems (GISs) applied to mineral-resource assessment objectives since 1982. Experience in the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP) projects including the Rolla, Missouri; Dillon, Montana; Butte, Montana; and Tonopah, Nevada 1?? ?? 2?? quadrangles, has resulted in the definition of processing requirements for geographically and mineral-resource data that are common to these studies. The diverse formats of data sets collected and compiled for regional mineral-resource assessments necessitate capabilities for digitally encoding and entering data into appropriate tabular, vector, and raster subsystems of the GIS. Although many of the required data sets are either available or can be provided in a digital format suitable for direct entry, their utility is largely dependent on the original intent and consequent preprocessing of the data. In this respect, special care must be taken to ensure the digital data type, encoding, and format will meet assessment objectives. Data processing within the GIS is directed primarily toward the development and application of models that can be used to describe spatially geological, geophysical, and geochemical environments either known or inferred to be associated with specific types of mineral deposits. Consequently, capabilities to analyze spatially, aggregate, and display relations between data sets are principal processing requirements. To facilitate the development of these models within the GIS, interfaces must be developed among vector-, raster-, and tabular-based processing subsystems to reformat resident data sets for comparative analyses and multivariate display of relations.

  14. Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

  15. Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

  16. Integrative system biology strategies for disease biomarker discovery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Hu, Hao; Deng, Cao; Chun, Yeona; Zhou, Shengtao; Huang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Qin

    2012-05-01

    Biomarkers are currently widely used to diagnose diseases, monitor treatments, and evaluate potential drug candidates. Research of differential Omics accelerate the advancements of biomarkers' discovery. By extracting biological knowledge from the 'omics' through integration, integrative system biology creates predictive models of cells, organs, biochemical processes and complete organisms, in addition to identifying human disease biomarkers. Recent development in high-throughput methods enables analysis of genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome at an unprecedented scale, thus contributing to the deluge of experimental data in numerous public databases. Several integrative system biology approaches have been developed and applied to the discovery of disease biomarkers from databases. In this review, we highlight several of these approaches and identify future steps in the context of the field of integrative system biology.

  17. New Binary Integration Strategies and Corresponding R90 Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-23

    radar some simple logic criterion i used. This thesis evaluates the performance of a new binary integration technique . This technique requires M hits out...of N looks with x<M hits being consecutive. Closed form expressions for the cumulv~tive probability of detection are derived and Monte Carlo methods ...thesis evaluates the performance of a new binary integration technique . This technique requires M hits out of N looks with x<M hits being consecutive

  18. Strategies for improving the resolution of electrical and electromagnetic geophysical measurements for three-dimensional inverse modeling of CO2 movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Commer, M.; Kowalsky, M. B.; Dafflon, B.; Wu, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is being evaluated as a means to mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. Efforts are underway to identify adequate reservoirs and to evaluate the behavior of injected CO2 over time; time-lapse geophysical methods are considered effective tools for these purposes. Pilot studies have shown that the invasion of CO2 into a background pore fluid can alter the electrical resistivity, with increases from CO2 in the super-critical or gaseous phase, and decreases from CO2 dissolved in groundwater (especially when calcite dissolution is occurring). Because of their sensitivity to resistivity changes, electrical and electromagnetic (EM) methods have been used in such studies for indirectly assessing CO2 saturation changes. While the electrical resistance tomography (ERT) method is a well-established technique for both crosswell and surface applications, its usefulness is limited by the relatively low-resolution information it provides. Controlled-source EM methods, including both frequency-domain and time-domain (transient EM) methods, can offer improved resolution. We report on three studies that aim to maximize the information content of electrical and electromagnetic measurements in inverse modeling applications that target the monitoring of resistivity changes due to CO2 migration and/or leakage. The first study considers a three-dimensional crosswell data set collected at an analogue site used for investigating CO2 distribution and geochemical reactivity within a shallow formation. We invert both resistance and phase data using a gradient-weighting method for descent-based inversion algorithms. This method essentially steers the search direction in the model space using low-cost non-linear conjugate gradient methods towards the more computationally expensive Gauss-Newton direction. The second study involves ERT data that were collected at the SECARB Cranfield site near Natchez, Mississippi, at depths exceeding 3000 m. We employ a

  19. Integration of geotechnical and geophysical techniques for the characterization of a small earth-filled canal dyke and the localization of water leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bièvre, Grégory; Lacroix, Pascal; Oxarango, Laurent; Goutaland, David; Monnot, Guy; Fargier, Yannick

    2017-04-01

    This paper investigates the combined use of extensive geotechnical, hydrogeological and geophysical techniques to assess a small earth dyke with a permanent hydraulic head, namely a canal embankment. The experimental site was chosen because of known issues regarding internal erosion and piping phenomena. Two leakages were visually located following the emptying of the canal prior to remediation works. The results showed a good agreement between the geophysical imaging techniques (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, P- and SH-waves Tomography) and the geotechnical data to detect the depth to the bedrock and its lateral variations. It appeared that surface waves might not be fully adapted for dyke investigation because of the particular geometry of the studied dyke, non-respectful of the 1D assumption, and which induced depth and velocity discrepancies retrieved from Rayleigh and Love waves inversion. The use of these classical prospecting techniques however did not allow to directly locate the two leakages within the studied earth dyke. The analysis of ambient vibration time series with a modified beam-forming algorithm allowed to localize the most energetic water flow prior to remediation works. It was not possible to detect the leakage after remediation works, suggesting that they efficiently contributed to significantly reduce the water flow. The second leakage was not detected probably because of a non-turbulent water flow, generating few energetic vibrations.

  20. HCPCS Coding: An Integral Part of Your Reimbursement Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Nusgart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The first step to a successful reimbursement strategy is to ensure that your wound care product has the most appropriate Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code (or billing) for your product. The correct HCPCS code plays an essential role in patient access to new and existing technologies. When devising a strategy to obtain a HCPCS code for its product, companies must consider a number of factors as follows: (1) Has the product gone through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory process or does it need to do so? Will the FDA code designation impact which HCPCS code will be assigned to your product? (2) In what “site of service” do you intend to market your product? Where will your customers use the product? Which coding system (CPT® or HCPCS) applies to your product? (3) Does a HCPCS code for a similar product already exist? Does your product fit under the existing HCPCS code? (4) Does your product need a new HCPCS code? What is the linkage, if any, between coding, payment, and coverage for the product? Researchers and companies need to start early and place the same emphasis on a reimbursement strategy as it does on a regulatory strategy. Your reimbursement strategy staff should be involved early in the process, preferably during product research and development and clinical trial discussions. PMID:24761331

  1. HCPCS Coding: An Integral Part of Your Reimbursement Strategy.

    PubMed

    Nusgart, Marcia

    2013-12-01

    The first step to a successful reimbursement strategy is to ensure that your wound care product has the most appropriate Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code (or billing) for your product. The correct HCPCS code plays an essential role in patient access to new and existing technologies. When devising a strategy to obtain a HCPCS code for its product, companies must consider a number of factors as follows: (1) Has the product gone through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory process or does it need to do so? Will the FDA code designation impact which HCPCS code will be assigned to your product? (2) In what "site of service" do you intend to market your product? Where will your customers use the product? Which coding system (CPT(®) or HCPCS) applies to your product? (3) Does a HCPCS code for a similar product already exist? Does your product fit under the existing HCPCS code? (4) Does your product need a new HCPCS code? What is the linkage, if any, between coding, payment, and coverage for the product? Researchers and companies need to start early and place the same emphasis on a reimbursement strategy as it does on a regulatory strategy. Your reimbursement strategy staff should be involved early in the process, preferably during product research and development and clinical trial discussions.

  2. Geophysical investigation at Fort Detrick Maryland. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Llopis, J.L.; Simms, J.E.

    1993-07-01

    Results of a comprehensive, integrated geophysical investigation of 15 suspected disposal areas at Area B, Fort Detrick, Maryland, are presented. Between 1943 and 1969, Fort Detrick served as the nation's center for military offensive and defensive biological research. As a result of this activity, chemically and biologically contaminated materials were generated and disposed in burial pits at Site B. Based on historical and visual information, 15 sites suspected of containing burial pits were selected to be examined in greater detail using geophysical methods. The geophysical investigations were designed to detect anomalous conditions indicative of past disposal activities. The geophysical program included electromagnetic (EM), magnetic, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and seismic refraction methods. Anomalous conditions were found at several of the sites tested and noted. The anomalous conditions may have resulted from the presence of buried material or from physical and/or chemical soil changes caused by disposal activities.... Geophysics, Electromagnetics ground penetrating radar, Geophysical surveys, Magnetics, Seismic refraction.

  3. Final Scientific/Technical Report – DE-EE0002960 Recovery Act. Detachment faulting and Geothermal Resources - An Innovative Integrated Geological and Geophysical Investigation of Pearl Hot Spring, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Stockli, Daniel F.

    2015-11-30

    The Pearl Host Spring Geothermal Project funded by the DoE Geothermal Program was a joint academic (KU/UT & OU) and industry collaboration (Sierra and Ram Power) to investigate structural controls and the importance of low-angle normal faults on geothermal fluid flow through a multifaceted geological, geophysical, and geochemical investigation in west-central Nevada. The study clearly showed that the geothermal resources in Clayton Valley are controlled by the interplay between low-angle normal faults and active deformation related to the Walker Lane. The study not only identified potentially feasible blind geothermal resource plays in eastern Clayton Valley, but also provide a transportable template for exploration in the area of west-central Nevada and other regional and actively-deforming releasing fault bends. The study showed that deep-seated low-angle normal faults likely act as crustal scale permeability boundaries and could play an important role in geothermal circulation and funneling geothermal fluid into active fault zones. Not unique to this study, active deformation is viewed as an important gradient to rejuvenated fracture permeability aiding the long-term viability of blind geothermal resources. The technical approach for Phase I included the following components, (1) Structural and geological analysis of Pearl Hot Spring Resource, (2) (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and geothermometry, (3) detailed gravity data and modeling (plus some magnetic and resistivity), (4) Reflection and Refraction Seismic (Active Source), (5) Integration with existing and new geological/geophysical data, and (6) 3-D Earth Model, combining all data in an innovative approach combining classic work with new geochemical and geophysical methodology to detect blind geothermal resources in a cost-effective fashion.

  4. Teaching Strategies from the Arizona Comprehensive/Integrated Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    These 28 interdisciplinary learning activities for elementary children are designed to provide perceptual, cognitive, and personal-social growth experiences. Subject areas included are art, dance, language arts, math, music, science, career education, health, physical education, reading, and social studies. The teaching strategies, which provide…

  5. Success in Investing: Integrating Spending Policy into Asset Allocation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful college and university investments hinge on an asset allocation strategy capable of meeting the institution's needs for income and growth in principal at the lowest possible risk. Periodic adjustments must be made when there is a shift in the institution's risk tolerance, modification in need for income distribution, and changes in…

  6. Risk Assessment and Integration Team (RAIT) Portfolio Risk Analysis Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Impact at management level: Qualitative assessment of risk criticality in conjunction with risk consequence, likelihood, and severity enable development of an "investment policy" towards managing a portfolio of risks. Impact at research level: Quantitative risk assessments enable researchers to develop risk mitigation strategies with meaningful risk reduction results. Quantitative assessment approach provides useful risk mitigation information.

  7. Vertical Integration: Corporate Strategy in the Information Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1986-01-01

    Profiles the corporate strategies of three sectors of the information industry and the trend toward consolidation in electronic publishing. Three companies' acquisitions are examined in detail using qualitative data from information industry columns and interpreting it on the basis of game theory. (EM)

  8. Learning Strategies and Performance in a Technology Integrated Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debevec, Kathleen; Shih, Mei-Yau; Kashyap, Vishal

    2006-01-01

    This study examines students' use of technology for learning (accessing the course Web site to download PowerPoint slides for note taking and exam preparation) relative to more traditional learning methods (reading the textbook and taking notes in class and from the textbook) and the effect of their learning strategies on exam performance and…

  9. Vertical Integration: Corporate Strategy in the Information Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Lizzie; Cronin, Blaise

    1986-01-01

    Profiles the corporate strategies of three sectors of the information industry and the trend toward consolidation in electronic publishing. Three companies' acquisitions are examined in detail using qualitative data from information industry columns and interpreting it on the basis of game theory. (EM)

  10. Integrating the Religious Dimension into U.S. Military Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    strategy. The Real Challenge Bin Laden’s second in command is his Egyptian born spiritual advisor and doctor, Ayman al Zawahiri. Al Zawahiri was a planner...According to prominent political science professor Ernest Evans, terrorists are not amoral sociopaths in their environment. Indeed they have a coherent

  11. Teaching Strategies from the Arizona Comprehensive/Integrated Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    These 28 interdisciplinary learning activities for elementary children are designed to provide perceptual, cognitive, and personal-social growth experiences. Subject areas included are art, dance, language arts, math, music, science, career education, health, physical education, reading, and social studies. The teaching strategies, which provide…

  12. Success in Investing: Integrating Spending Policy into Asset Allocation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful college and university investments hinge on an asset allocation strategy capable of meeting the institution's needs for income and growth in principal at the lowest possible risk. Periodic adjustments must be made when there is a shift in the institution's risk tolerance, modification in need for income distribution, and changes in…

  13. Online Strategy Instruction for Integrating Dictionary Skills and Language Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranalli, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the feasibility of an automated, online form of L2 strategy instruction (SI) as an alternative to conventional, classroom-based forms that rely primarily on teachers. Feasibility was evaluated by studying the effectiveness, both actual and perceived, of a five-week, online SI course designed to teach web-based dictionary skills…

  14. A comparison of teaching strategies for integrating information technology into clinical nursing education.

    PubMed

    Elfrink, V L; Davis, L S; Fitzwater, E; Castleman, J; Burley, J; Gorney-Moreno, M J; Sullivan, J; Nichols, B; Hall, D; Queen, K; Johnson, S; Martin, A

    2000-01-01

    As health care becomes more information-intensive and diverse, there is a need to integrate information technology (IT) into clinical education. Little is known, however, about how to design instructional strategies for integrating information technology into clinical nursing education. This article outlines the instructional strategies used by faculty in five nursing programs who taught students to use a point-of-care information technology system. The article also reports students' computer acceptance and summarizes IT clinical teaching recommendations.

  15. Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Counselor Education: Barriers and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence

    2015-01-01

    Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…

  16. Strategies of Successful Technology Integrators. Part I: Streamlining Classroom Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Lynn; Etchison, Cindy

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of how to develop curriculum that successfully integrates technology into elementary and secondary school classrooms focuses on solutions for school and classroom management tasks. Highlights include Web-based solutions; student activities; word processing; desktop publishing; draw and paint programs; spreadsheets; and database…

  17. Integrating Religion and Spirituality into Counselor Education: Barriers and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Christopher M.; Puig, Ana; Baggs, Adrienne; Wolf, Cheryl Pence

    2015-01-01

    Despite a professionally recognized need for training in religion/spirituality, literature indicates that religious and spirituality issues continue to be inconsistently addressed in counselor education. Ten experts were asked to identify potential barriers to integrating religion and spirituality into counselor education and indicate strategies…

  18. Integration Defended: Berkeley Unified's Strategy to Maintain School Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Lisa; Frankenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the Supreme Court limited the tools that school districts could use to voluntarily integrate schools. In the aftermath of the decision, educators around the country have sought models of successful plans that would also be legal. One such model may be Berkeley Unified School District's (BUSD) plan. Earlier this year, the California…

  19. An Integrated Strategy for an Apparel Design Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bye, Elizabeth; Labat, Karen L.

    2005-01-01

    The core of apparel design education is the studio experience. This article discusses an Integrated Apparel Design Curriculum model built on a foundation of creative and technical experimentation and learning which contributes to developing abstract thinking skills. Various learning styles are supported as students work through the design process…

  20. Global Design as the Integral Person Formation Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Vladimir A.; Vorobyeva, Julia A.; Marakulina, Ulyana ?.; Ovchinnikov, Vladislav I.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the society's need for educating an integral person who is able to solve ecumenical project tasks. Currently this problem (as natural order from the society) is emerging in the educational system and social practices but has yet to obtain substantial scientific and theoretical justification. The…

  1. Geophysical Methods: an Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  2. Quantitative Geophysics and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Clark R.

    Most college instructors of geophysics are on the lookout for new textbooks. This is especially the case for instructors of survey courses at the upper division or graduate level, where choices are limited and opinions differ as to what ought be included and the level of detail. As one of those instructors, I was eager to review Quantitative Geophysics and Geology. Its title seemed to fit several courses taught at my institution. But upon reading the book, I found it was not useful for most of our courses.The variety of geophysical topics is so vast that an orderly exposition simply is not possible for all. The book's strong point is that a number of chapters provide succinct and readable reviews of traditional topics, which makes it well suited for an introduction or review at the graduate level.

  3. Geophysical methods: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, A.; Goldstein, N. E.; Lee, K. H.; Majer, E. L.; Morrison, H. F.; Myer, L.

    Geophysics is expected to have a major role in lunar resource assessment when manned systems return to the Moon. Geophysical measurements made from a lunar rover will contribute to a number of key studies: estimating regolith thickness, detection of possible large-diameter lava tubes within maria basalts, detection of possible subsurface ice in polar regions, detection of conductive minerals that formed directly from a melt (orthomagmatic sulfides of Cu, Ni, Co), and mapping lunar geology beneath the regolith. The techniques that can be used are dictated both by objectives and by our abilities to adapt current technology to lunar conditions. Instrument size, weight, power requirements, and freedom from orientation errors are factors we have considered. Among the geophysical methods we believe to be appropriate for a lunar resource assessment are magnetics, including gradiometry, time-domain magnetic induction, ground-penetrating radar, seismic reflection, and gravimetry.

  4. Implementing Key Strategies for Successful Network Integration in the Quebec Substance-Use Disorders Programme

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Michel; Grenier, Guy; Imboua, Armelle; Brochu, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fragmentation and lack of coordination often occur among organisations offering treatment for individuals with substance-use disorders. Better integration from a system perspective within a network of organisations offering substance-use disorder services can be developed using various integration strategies at the administrative and clinical levels. This study aims to identify integration strategies implemented in Quebec substance-use disorder networks and to assess their strengths and limitations. Methods: A total of 105 stakeholders representing two regions and four local substance-use disorder networks participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Thematic qualitative and descriptive quantitative analyses were conducted. Results: Six types of service integration strategies have been implemented to varying degrees in substance-use disorder networks. They are: 1) coordination activities-governance, 2) primary-care consolidation models, 3) information and monitoring management tools, 4) service coordination strategies, 5) clinical evaluation tools and 6) training activities. Conclusion: Important investments have been made in Quebec for the training and assessment of individuals with substance-use disorders, particularly in terms of support for emergency room liaison teams and the introduction of standardised clinical evaluation tools. However, the development of integration strategies was insufficient to ensure the implementation of successful networks. Planning, consolidation of primary care for substance-use disorders and systematic implementation of various clinical and administrative integration strategies are needed in order to ensure a better continuum of care for individuals with substance-use disorders. PMID:27616951

  5. The Relative Effectiveness of Integrated Reading Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taslidere, Erdal; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the combined and partial effects of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach on ninth grade private high school students' achievement in and attitudes toward optics. The Integrated Reading/Study Strategy is a new strategy which was developed by integrating previously existing reading strategies of the KWL and SQ3R with classroom lecturing. The Conceptual Physics Approach is an instructional strategy developed on the basis of Conceptual Physics suggested by Paul G. Hewitt. To investigate the partial and combined effects of methods, factorial design was used. The study was conducted with 124 students from two private high schools in the Çankaya district region of Ankara, Turkey. Various teaching/learning materials were developed and used for the study. Two measuring tools, Achievement Test about Optics and Attitude Scale about Optics were used as pre and post tests before and after instruction. The study continued for a two-month treatment period. The results of the study showed that the combined effect of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach improved students' achievement significantly compared to the separate individual methods. Although the product of the Integrated Reading/Study Strategy and Conceptual Physics Approach increased students' attitudes more compared to the remaining methods, the result is not statistically significant.

  6. The Relationship between Hospital Financial Performance and Information Technology Integration Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In light of the new healthcare regulations, hospitals are increasingly reevaluating their IT integration strategies to meet expanded healthcare information exchange requirements. Nevertheless, hospital executives do not have all the information they need to differentiate between the available strategies and recognize what may better fit their…

  7. Identification of Effective Staff Development/Inservice Education Strategies to Integrate Desegregated Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, A. L.; Galindo, Letticia

    This study examined strategies perceived by school and community representatives as effective in integrating desegregated schools; that is, improving race relations and fostering an atmosphere for equal educational opportunity. The effectiveness of school desegregation strategies and demographic and historical factors of the community are…

  8. Integrated Related Services for Preschoolers with Neurological Impairments: Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Winnie

    1989-01-01

    This paper clarifies the roles of occupational therapy and physical therapy in the educational experiences of preschool children with neurological impairments. Research is reviewed showing the positive effects of therapeutic strategies, and methods are presented for integrating therapeutic strategies into learning experiences. (Author/JDD)

  9. The Enhancement of Community Integration: Coping Strategies of Chinese Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bernard P. H.; Lam, Shui-fong; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a collaborative research project by school psychologists and educators in Hong Kong. It investigated the coping strategies used by Chinese parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ("N"?=?380) to enhance their children's community integration and how these strategies were related to their perceptions of…

  10. The Enhancement of Community Integration: Coping Strategies of Chinese Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Bernard P. H.; Lam, Shui-fong; Leung, Doris; Ho, Daphne; Au-Yeung, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a collaborative research project by school psychologists and educators in Hong Kong. It investigated the coping strategies used by Chinese parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders ("N"?=?380) to enhance their children's community integration and how these strategies were related to their perceptions of…

  11. The Relationship between Hospital Financial Performance and Information Technology Integration Strategy Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In light of the new healthcare regulations, hospitals are increasingly reevaluating their IT integration strategies to meet expanded healthcare information exchange requirements. Nevertheless, hospital executives do not have all the information they need to differentiate between the available strategies and recognize what may better fit their…

  12. Best Practice Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education. Version 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WCET, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This list of best practice strategies is based on "Institutional Policies/Practices and Course Design Strategies to Promote Academic Integrity in Online Education," produced by WCET (WICHE Cooperative for Educational Technologies) in February 2009 and updated in April 2009. In May 2009, the Instructional Technology Council (ITC) surveyed…

  13. Instructional Strategies for Learners with Dual Sensory Impairments in Integrated Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, June; Eichinger, Joanne

    1990-01-01

    This article on educating students with dual sensory impairments describes administrative and instructional strategies and effective use of personnel. Mainstreaming is advocated, and specific examples are given of practical intervention strategies for accommodating sensory impairments in integrated academic and social settings, such as tactile…

  14. Integrated care as a priority of the Basque Strategy for Chronic Diseases: the Bidasoa Integrated Healthcare Organisation

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, Nuria Toro; Arce, Regina Sauto; Solinis, Roberto Nuño; Zabalegui, Iñaki Berraondo; Irazusta, Itziar Pérez

    2011-01-01

    Context The Basque Department of Health released in 2010 the “Strategy for tackling the challenge of chronicity in the Basque Country”. One of its five priority policies is contributing to the continuity of care for chronic patients. A key strategic project is the development of new integration initiatives and pilots projects in the public Basque Health System. Five different integration projects are already in place, with the Bidasoa Integrated Healthcare Organisation as the flagship project. Aim The creation of the Bidasoa Integrated Healthcare Organisation as a public brand new organisation in January 2011 aims at integrating three primary care centres and their regional hospital of reference, covering a total population of 86,235 citizens. Case description The Bidasoa integration process is characterised by its shared leadership, with converging top-down and bottom-up initiatives, and collaboration between top-management and clinicians. The initiatives for integration are operating simultaneously at different levels: strategic (integrated strategic plan), financial (common budget and capitation payment), managerial (integrated clinical management agreements), processes (integrated care pathways, development of transitional care nursing, creation of polipathology unit), tools (stratification of the population, unification of electronic health record), and research (development of action-research pilots).

  15. Part 2 -- current program integrating strategies and lubrication technology

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper is the second of two that describe the Predictive Maintenance Program for rotating machinery at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station. The Predictive Maintenance program has been enhanced through organizational changes and improved interdisciplinary usage of technology. This paper will discuss current program strategies that have improved the interaction between the Vibration and Lube Oil programs. The {open_quotes}Lube Oil{close_quotes} view of the combined program along with case studies will then be presented.

  16. Alterant geophysical tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.L.; Lytle, R.J.

    1983-05-01

    We describe and evaluate a new geophysical technique used to remotely map fractures between boreholes: alterant geophysical tomography (AGT). The method requires that the attenuation properties of rock fractures be altered by forcing into the rock a fluid with different electrical properties than those of the native fluids in the rock. Measurements of electromagnetic attenuation factor are performed before and after the tracer is used. Measuring changes in attenuation properties offers significant advantages over measuring absolute attentuation properties. Results of an experiment in which this technique was employed are discussed. 4 references, 4 figures.

  17. Geophysics adds a dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, D.

    1984-03-01

    Geophysics is adding technology which can pinpoint drill sites, quicken drilling schedules and enhance success ratios. The use of 3-D seismic surveys can help determine the exact extent and shape of an oil or gas field. Vertical seismic profiling (VSP) also is proving to be extremely useful among companies that recognize its potential. A land air gun has started to refine the seismic surveys since it can be refired on 6 to 8 second intervals. A combination of these geophysical techniques may become a cheaper and more effective way of correlating strata.

  18. Teaching oriented geophysical software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Victor; Rivero, Lluis; Casas, Albert

    2000-08-01

    Interactive teaching techniques encourage students to adopt an active role in their education and should therefore be used at different levels of the teaching sequence. In order to mitigate the lack of educational software for Applied Geophysics, a fully interactive graphic software has been developed. The program is written in Visual Basic with some subroutines in FORTRAN and is designed for IBM-PC microcomputers using a Windows environment. The program offers the majority of the processes involved in geophysical data handling, modelling, tutorials, and instrument simulators.

  19. Geophysical Fiber Interferometer Gyroscope.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-31

    gravitational antenna. Basically, their device was a Twyman -Green laser interferometer that was allegedly well-isolated from its thermal and...r ~AD-AO92 913 UTAH UNIV RESEARCH INST SALT LAKE CITY GEOSPACE SCIE-EYC F/B 20/6 GEOPHYSICAL FIBER INTERFEROMETER GYROSCOPE(U) .S DEC 79 L 0 WEAVER...ACCESSION no: S, 111CIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AF6ii M_ __ _ __I_ _ 4. TItLIL (eovm4jk"IU .TYEo nPaTawn.ocoet GEOPHYSICAL FIBER INTERFEROMETER GYROSCOPE. / 9

  20. The Effects of an Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy: A Culturally Responsive Teaching Approach for Fifth-Grade Students' Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui, Yvonne N.; Fagan, Yvette M.

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy on two levels. The Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy integrated story grammar instruction and story maps, prior knowledge and prediction method, and word webs through a culturally responsive teaching framework; the Integrated Reading Comprehension Strategy…

  1. The Future of School Integration: Socioeconomic Diversity as an Education Reform Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Century Foundation released The Future of School Integration: Socioeconomic Diversity as an Education Reform Strategy, edited by senior fellow Richard D. Kahlenberg. The volume seeks to answer important questions about how socioeconomic integration plans are faring and to provide guidance for how they can be sustained and expanded in the…

  2. Preferred Instructional Design Strategies for Preparation of Pre-Service Teachers of Integrated STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda Shackleford

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred instructional design strategies for the preparation of pre-service teachers who will deliver integrated STEM lessons. The research objectives were threefold and included identifying a preferred definition of integrated STEM education, developing its purpose statement, and creating a list of…

  3. Preferred Instructional Design Strategies for Preparation of Pre-Service Teachers of Integrated STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda Shackleford

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the preferred instructional design strategies for the preparation of pre-service teachers who will deliver integrated STEM lessons. The research objectives were threefold and included identifying a preferred definition of integrated STEM education, developing its purpose statement, and creating a list of…

  4. The Future of School Integration: Socioeconomic Diversity as an Education Reform Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The Century Foundation released The Future of School Integration: Socioeconomic Diversity as an Education Reform Strategy, edited by senior fellow Richard D. Kahlenberg. The volume seeks to answer important questions about how socioeconomic integration plans are faring and to provide guidance for how they can be sustained and expanded in the…

  5. An integrated science plan for the Lake Tahoe basin: conceptual framework and research strategies

    Treesearch

    Zachary P. Hymanson; Michael W. Collopy

    2010-01-01

    An integrated science plan was developed to identify and refine contemporary science information needs for the Lake Tahoe basin ecosystem. The main objectives were to describe a conceptual framework for an integrated science program, and to develop research strategies addressing key uncertainties and information gaps that challenge government agencies in the theme...

  6. Cardiac PACS: strategies for planning, integration & vendor selection.

    PubMed

    Bruski, Georgann B; Cutler, Sara

    2003-01-01

    Cardiologists are clamoring for better imaging techniques, the ability to view images from their office or home, and for the resulting improvement in efficiency which translates into increased profitability. The future is here; are you ready? Cardiac systems have developed into full-blown information management and digital imaging systems. Hospitals are moving aggressively to update their cardiac information systems and identifying the significant role the CIS (cardiac information system) plays in the selection process. It is important to plan the infrastructure of your cardiac PACS (picture archival communication system) and determine how it will integrate with the radiology PACS. Equally important is the integration potential with other hospital information systems such as the laboratory, pharmacy and billing, etc. Answers to these decision factors are provided in addition to information pertaining to the overall cardiac PACS planning process and vendor offerings.

  7. Intelligent Sensors: Strategies for an Integrated Systems Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chitikeshi, Sanjeevi; Mahajan, Ajay; Bandhil, Pavan; Utterbach, Lucas; Figueroa, Fernando

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes the development of intelligent sensors as an integrated systems approach, i.e. one treats the sensors as a complete system with its own sensing hardware (the traditional sensor), A/D converters, processing and storage capabilities, software drivers, self-assessment algorithms, communication protocols and evolutionary methodologies that allow them to get better with time. Under a project being undertaken at the Stennis Space Center, an integrated framework is being developed for the intelligent monitoring of smart elements. These smart elements can be sensors, actuators or other devices. The immediate application is the monitoring of the rocket test stands, but the technology should be generally applicable to the Intelligent Systems Health Monitoring (ISHM) vision. This paper outlines progress made in the development of intelligent sensors by describing the work done till date on Physical Intelligent Sensors (PIS) and Virtual Intelligent Sensors (VIS).

  8. An integrated psychological strategy for advanced colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Pugliese, Patrizia; Perrone, Maria; Nisi, Enrica; Garufi, Carlo; Giannarelli, Diana; Bottomley, Andrew; Terzoli, Edmondo

    2006-01-01

    Background There is evidence regarding the usefulness of psychosocial intervention to improve health related quality of life (HRQOL) in adult cancer patients. The aim of this report is to describe an integrated approach and to evaluate its feasibility in routine clinical practice in 98 advanced colorectal cancer (ACC) patients during chronomodulated chemotherapy. Methods A prospective non-randomised design was developed and applied in a cancer out-patient setting. The intervention consisted of an integrated approach, whereby the psycho-oncologist had an active role in the health care team with the physician and routinely included psychological understanding in the medical treatment program. The psychological evaluation assessed: a) adaptation, awareness, psychopathological disorders through a psychodynamic interview; b) anxiety and depression using the HAD scale; c) subjective perception of care quality through a structured interview and d) HRQOL evaluation assessment with the EORTC QLQ C30. Outcomes data were collected before and after 18 weeks of chemotherapy. Results After 18 weeks of chemotherapy a significant improvement of adaptation and awareness was observed. The HADs results showed a significant decrease in anxiety when compared to pre-treatment. The structured interview showed a significant increase of patients who positively experienced the impact of medical treatment on HRQOL, anxiety, depression, interpersonal relationships, free-time and who positively experienced the care quality. Indeed, a majority of patients positively experienced the team relationship modality during the whole treatment. All scales on the EORTC questionnaire remained unchanged during the entire treatment. Conclusion Our results suggest that it is feasible to carry out an integrated approach during chemotherapy. These results seem to support the integrated approach as a tool in aiding advanced colorectal cancer patients' ability to cope with their diagnosis and treatment although

  9. Generalized access control strategies for integrated services token passing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Joseph W. M.; Tobagi, Fouad A.; Boyd, Stephen

    1994-08-01

    The demand for integrated services local area networks is increasing at a rapid pace with the advent of many new and exciting applications: office and factory automation, distributed computing, and multimedia communications. To support these new applications, it is imperative to integrate traffic with diverse statistical characteristics and differing delay requirements on the same network. An attractive approach for integrating traffic has been adopted in two token passing local area network standards, the IEEE 802.4 token bus standard and FDDI. The idea is to control the transmissions of each station based on a distributed timing algorithm, so as to achieve the following goals: (1) to limit the token cycles so that time-critical traffic can be accommodated, and (2) to allocate pre-specified bandwidths to different stations when the network is overloaded. We have investigated the analysis and design of this protocol. In this paper, we generalize the transmission control algorithm used previously. The major advantages of the generalization over the original protocol are: (1) it provides a much expanded design space, (2) it guarantees convergent behavior, and (3) it gives meaningful insights into the dynamics of the basic control algorithm.

  10. A strategy for curriculum integration of information skills instruction.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, S; Ginn, D S; Love, N; Williams, T L

    1989-01-01

    The ever increasing need of health professionals for information and the inclusion of active learning experiences in the medical school curriculum require that students learn the effective use of health information tools. Curriculum integration is gaining acceptance as an effective approach to teaching information skills in this setting. At the University of Miami School of Medicine, information skills components taught by library faculty are integrated into the Freshman Orientation Program and two sophomore curriculum courses. Beginning with a core set of skills and basic information management tools, more complex and subject-specific skills are introduced sequentially throughout the basic sciences curriculum. During the first two years, a wide range of information skills are taught, and students receive many opportunities to seek and identify information using both printed sources and computerized bibliographic databases. This paper describes how curriculum integration of information skills instruction was achieved and the many benefits of this approach. Included are a description of the information skills components, evaluation data, and future plans. PMID:2667671

  11. Integrative biology approach identifies cytokine targeting strategies for psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Perera, Gayathri K; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Semenova, Ekaterina; Hundhausen, Christian; Barinaga, Guillermo; Kassen, Deepika; Williams, Andrew E; Mirza, Muddassar M; Balazs, Mercedesz; Wang, Xiaoting; Rodriguez, Robert Sanchez; Alendar, Andrej; Barker, Jonathan; Tsoka, Sophia; Ouyang, Wenjun; Nestle, Frank O

    2014-02-12

    Cytokines are critical checkpoints of inflammation. The treatment of human autoimmune disease has been revolutionized by targeting inflammatory cytokines as key drivers of disease pathogenesis. Despite this, there exist numerous pitfalls when translating preclinical data into the clinic. We developed an integrative biology approach combining human disease transcriptome data sets with clinically relevant in vivo models in an attempt to bridge this translational gap. We chose interleukin-22 (IL-22) as a model cytokine because of its potentially important proinflammatory role in epithelial tissues. Injection of IL-22 into normal human skin grafts produced marked inflammatory skin changes resembling human psoriasis. Injection of anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody in a human xenotransplant model of psoriasis, developed specifically to test potential therapeutic candidates, efficiently blocked skin inflammation. Bioinformatic analysis integrating both the IL-22 and anti-IL-22 cytokine transcriptomes and mapping them onto a psoriasis disease gene coexpression network identified key cytokine-dependent hub genes. Using knockout mice and small-molecule blockade, we show that one of these hub genes, the so far unexplored serine/threonine kinase PIM1, is a critical checkpoint for human skin inflammation and potential future therapeutic target in psoriasis. Using in silico integration of human data sets and biological models, we were able to identify a new target in the treatment of psoriasis.

  12. Successful strategies for integrating bedside ultrasound into undergraduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Palma, James K

    2015-04-01

    Nearly all physician specialties currently utilize bedside ultrasound, and its applications continue to expand. Bedside ultrasound is becoming a core skill for physicians; as such, it should be taught during undergraduate medical education. When ultrasound is integrated in a longitudinal manner beginning in the preclerkship phase of medical school, it not only enhances teaching the basic science topics of anatomy, physiology, and pathology but also ties those skills and knowledge to the clerkship phase and medical decision-making. Bedside ultrasound is a natural bridge from basic science to clinical science. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine is currently in its fourth year of implementing an integrated ultrasound curriculum in the school of medicine. In our experience, successful integration of a bedside ultrasound curriculum should: align with unique focuses of a medical schools' mission, simplify complex anatomy through multimodal teaching, correlate to teaching of the physical examination, solidify understanding of physiology and pathology, directly link to other concurrent content, narrow differential diagnoses, enhance medical decision-making, improve procedural skills, match to year-group skillsets, develop teaching and leadership abilities, and have elective experiences for advanced topics. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. Examining Curricular Integration Strategies To Optimize Learning Of The Anatomical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisk, Kristina Adriana Ayako

    Background: Integration of basic and clinical science knowledge is essential to clinical practice. Although the importance of these two knowledge domains is well-recognized, successfully supporting the development of learners' integrated basic and clinical science knowledge, remains an educational challenge. In this dissertation, I examine curricular integration strategies to optimize learning of the anatomical sciences. Objectives: The studies were designed to achieve the following research aims: 1) to objectively identify clinically relevant content for an integrated musculoskeletal anatomy curriculum; 2) to examine the value of integrated anatomy and clinical science instruction compared to clinical science instruction alone on novices' diagnostic accuracy and diagnostic reasoning process; 3) to compare the effect of integrating and segregating anatomy and clinical science instruction along with a learning strategy (self-explanation) on novices' diagnostic accuracy. Methods: A modified Delphi was used to objectively select clinically relevant content for an integrated musculoskeletal anatomy curriculum. Two experimental studies were created to compare different instructional strategies to optimize learning of the curricular content. In both of these studies, novice learners were taught the clinical features of musculoskeletal pathologies using different learning approaches. Diagnostic performance was measured immediately after instruction and one-week later. Results: The results show that the Delphi method is an effective strategy to select clinically relevant content for integrated anatomy curricula. The findings also demonstrate that novices who were explicitly taught the clinical features of musculoskeletal diseases using causal basic science descriptions had superior diagnostic accuracy and a better understanding of the relative importance of key clinical features for disease categories. Conclusions: This research demonstrates how integration strategies can

  14. Integrative tobacco cessation: A survey assessing past quit strategies and future interest

    PubMed Central

    Howerter, Amy; Floden, Lysbeth; Matthews, Eva; Muramoto, Myra L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco cessation remains a public health priority. Unassisted quits are most common despite evidence for a combination of guideline-recommended strategies. This paper reports findings from a pilot study designed to assess past quit strategies and tobacco users’ receptiveness to using an integrative clinic that offers both conventional and alternative treatments for future cessation attempts. Methods Participants were recruited from a pool of individuals reporting for jury duty. Paper-pencil surveys assessed smoking, past cessation behaviors, and interest in use of the integrative clinic which offers both conventional and alternative treatments. Current and former smokers (n=304) returned surveys. Results Using multivariate logistic regression, past physiological quit strategies, past behavioral quit strategies, and use of multiple quit strategies increased agreement with interest in future use of an integrative clinic option. Additionally, there is support for the notion that if such a clinic were offered, smokers may be inclined to use this resource for a future quit attempt. Conclusions An integrative clinic option for tobacco cessation may encourage smokers to try to quit, especially for those who have used varied cessation strategies in the past. Motivating smokers to use a combined approach for tobacco cessation is a potential future direction for tobacco cessation treatment. Developing and testing an integrative approach may support this effort. PMID:27747150

  15. Geophysics News 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephen

    The last two years have witnessed many major geophysical events such as the Loma Prieta earthquake, new insights into plate motions, new seismic and mid-ocean ridge observational programs, and new views of a distant planet. AGU's Public Information Committee, chaired by Debra Knopman of the U.S. Geological Survey, was asked by the American Institute of Physics to prepare a series of articles on the major topics in geophysics for publication in Physics News in 1990. Several of those papers did appear in the AIP publication. In the absence of a comparable publication devoted solely to a summary of news in geophysics, AGU is publishing the 20 articles solicited by the Public Information Committee as a booklet, Geophysics News 1990, that is being distributed to the media. The articles are also being published in Eos starting with this issue and continuing for the next several weeks. The topics covered in these articles range from the world's deepest rocks to the powerful blast waves from major solar flares.

  16. Geophysical Signal Recognition,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    quite helpful in the magnetosphere. Detecting a particular in earthquake prediction . However pattern recog- micropulsation event can provide a diagnosis...bio- In su..a.iry, application of pattern recognition to medical signals, progress in geophysical signal earthquake prediction is in its infancy

  17. An Integrated Hydrogeologic and Geophysical Investigation to Characterize the Hydrostratigraphy of the Edwards Aquifer in an Area of Northeastern Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shah, Sachin D.; Smith, Bruce D.; Clark, Allan K.; Payne, Jason

    2008-01-01

    In August 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, did a hydrogeologic and geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrostratigraphy (hydrostratigraphic zones) and also the hydrogeologic features (karst features such as sinkholes and caves) of the Edwards aquifer in a 16-square-kilometer area of northeastern Bexar County, Texas, undergoing urban development. Existing hydrostratigraphic information, enhanced by local-scale geologic mapping in the area, and surface geophysics were used to associate ranges of electrical resistivities obtained from capacitively coupled (CC) resistivity surveys, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) soundings, and two-dimensional direct-current (2D-DC) resistivity surveys with each of seven hydrostratigraphic zones (equivalent to members of the Kainer and Person Formations) of the Edwards aquifer. The principal finding of this investigation is the relation between electrical resistivity and the contacts between the hydrostratigraphic zones of the Edwards aquifer and the underlying Trinity aquifer in the area. In general, the TDEM data indicate a two-layer model in which an electrical conductor underlies an electrical resistor, which is consistent with the Trinity aquifer (conductor) underlying the Edwards aquifer (resistor). TDEM data also show the plane of Bat Cave fault, a well-known fault in the area, to be associated with a local, nearly vertical zone of low resistivity that provides evidence, although not definitive, for Bat Cave fault functioning as a flow barrier, at least locally. In general, the CC resistivity, FDEM survey, and 2D-DC resistivity survey data show a sharp electrical contrast from north to south, changing from high resistivity to low resistivity across Bat Cave fault as well as possible karst features in the study area. Interpreted karst features that show relatively low resistivity within a relatively high

  18. Interpretations on the Geologic Setting of Yogyakarta Earthquakes 2006 (Central Java, Indonesia) Based on Integration of Aftershock Monitoring and Existing Geologic, Geophysical and Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setijadji, L. D.; Watanabe, K.; Fukuoka, K.; Ehara, S.; Setiadji, Y.; Rahardjo, W.; Susilo, A.; Barianto, D. H.; Harijoko, A.; Sudarno, I.; Pramumijoyo, S.; Hendrayana, H.; Akmalludin, A.; Nishijima, J.; Itaya, T.

    2007-05-01

    The unprecedented 26 May 2006 Yogyakarta earthquake (central Java, Indonesia) that took victims of 5,700 lives was generally accepted to have a depth of about 10 km and moment magnitude of 6.4. However, the definition of location of active fault is still under debate as the epicenter of mainshock was reported quite differently by several institutions. Many researchers believe that the Opak fault which is located at the eastern boundary of Yogyakarta low-land area (or Yogyakarta Basin) and the high-land region of Southern Mountains was the source of year 2006 earthquakes. However, our result of aftershocks observation suggests that the ruptured zone was not located along the Opak fault but from an unknown fault located about 10 km to the east from it and within the Southern Mountains domain. Unfortunately, surface geologic manifestations are scarce as this area is now largely covered by limestone. Therefore the suspected active fault system must be studied through interpretations of the subsurface geology and evaluation of the Cenozoic geo-history of the region utilizing existing geologic, geophysical and remote sensing data. This work suggests that the Yogyakarta Basin is a volcano-tectonic depression formed gradually since the early Tertiary period (Oligo-Miocene or older). Geological and geophysical evidence suggest that structural trends changed from the Oligocene NE-SW towards the Oligo-Miocene NNE-SSW and the Plio-Pleistocene NW-SE and E-W directions. The ruptured "X" fault during the Yogyakarta earthquakes 2006 is likely to be a NNE-SSW trending fault which is parallel to the Opak fault and both were firstly active in the Oligo-Miocene as sinistral strike-slip faults. However, while the Opak fault had changed into a normal faulting after the Pliocene, the evidence from Kali Ngalang and Kali Widoro suggests that the "X" fault system was still reactivated as a strike-slip one during the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny. As this new interpretation of active fault causes

  19. Flexible strategies for sensory integration during motor planning.

    PubMed

    Sober, Samuel J; Sabes, Philip N

    2005-04-01

    When planning target-directed reaching movements, human subjects combine visual and proprioceptive feedback to form two estimates of the arm's position: one to plan the reach direction, and another to convert that direction into a motor command. These position estimates are based on the same sensory signals but rely on different combinations of visual and proprioceptive input, suggesting that the brain weights sensory inputs differently depending on the computation being performed. Here we show that the relative weighting of vision and proprioception depends both on the sensory modality of the target and on the information content of the visual feedback, and that these factors affect the two stages of planning independently. The observed diversity of weightings demonstrates the flexibility of sensory integration and suggests a unifying principle by which the brain chooses sensory inputs so as to minimize errors arising from the transformation of sensory signals between coordinate frames.

  20. The strategy for numerical solving of PIES without explicit calculation of singular integrals in 2D potential problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szerszeń, Krzysztof; Zieniuk, Eugeniusz

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents a strategy for numerical solving of parametric integral equation system (PIES) for 2D potential problems without explicit calculation of singular integrals. The values of these integrals will be expressed indirectly in terms of easy to compute non-singular integrals. The effectiveness of the proposed strategy is investigated with the example of potential problem modeled by the Laplace equation. The strategy simplifies the structure of the program with good the accuracy of the obtained solutions.

  1. Resources for Computational Geophysics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keers, Henk; Rondenay, Stéphane; Harlap, Yaël.; Nordmo, Ivar

    2014-09-01

    An important skill that students in solid Earth physics need to acquire is the ability to write computer programs that can be used for the processing, analysis, and modeling of geophysical data and phenomena. Therefore, this skill (which we call "computational geophysics") is a core part of any undergraduate geophysics curriculum. In this Forum, we share our personal experience in teaching such a course.

  2. Integration of health care organizations: using the power strategies of horizontal and vertical integration in public and private health systems.

    PubMed

    Thaldorf, Carey; Liberman, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    Integration in health care attempts to provide all elements in a seamless continuum of care. Pressures influencing development of system-wide integration primarily come from unsustainable cost increases in the United States over the later part of the 20th century and the early 21st century. Promoters of health care integration assume that it will lead to increased effectiveness and quality of care while concurrently increasing cost-effectiveness and possibly facilitating cost savings. The primary focus of this literature review is on the Power Strategies of Horizontal and Vertical Integration. The material presented suggests that vertical integration is most effective in markets where the partners involved are larger and dominant in the regions they serve. The research has also found that integrating health care networks had little or no significant effect on improving overall organizational efficiencies or profits. Capital investment in information technologies still is cost prohibitive and outweighs its benefits to integration efficiencies in the private sector; however, there are some indications of improvements in publicly provided health care. Further research is needed to understand the reasons the public sector has had greater success in improving effectiveness and efficiency through integration than the private sector.

  3. Geophysical Characterization and Reactive Transport Modeling to Quantify Plume Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, S. S.; Wainwright, H.; Bea, S. A.; Spycher, N.; Li, L.; Sassen, D.; Chen, J.

    2012-12-01

    Predictions of subsurface contaminant plume mobility and remediation often fail due to the inability to tractably characterize heterogeneous flow-and-transport properties and monitor critical geochemical transitions over plume-relevant scales. This study presents two recently developed strategies to quantify and predict states and processes across scales that govern plume behavior. Development of both strategies takes advantage of multi-scale and disparate datasets and has involved the use of reactive transport models, geophysical methods, and stochastic integration approaches. The first approach, called reactive facies, exploits coupled physiochemical heterogeneity to characterize subsurface flow and transport properties that impact plume sorption and thus mobility. We develop and test the reactive facies concept within uranium contaminated Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments that underlie the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site, F-Area, South Carolina. Through analysis of field data (core samples, geophysical well logs, and cross-hole ground penetrating radar and seismic datasets) coupled with laboratory sorption studies, we have identified two reactive facies that have unique distributions of mineralogy, texture, porosity, hydraulic conductivity and geophysical attributes. We develop and use facies-based relationships with geophysical data in a Bayesian framework to spatially distribute reactive facies and their associated transport properties and uncertainties along local and plume-scale geophysical transects. To illustrate the value of reactive facies, we used the geophysically-obtained reactive facies properties to parameterize reactive transport models and simulate the migration of an acidic-U(VI) plume through the 2D domains. Modeling results suggest that each identified reactive facies exerts control on plume evolution, highlighting the usefulness of the reactive facies concept and approach for spatially distributing properties that control flow and

  4. An Integrative Literature Review of Evidence-Based Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators.

    PubMed

    Breytenbach, Cecile; Ten Ham-Baloyi, Wilma; Jordan, Portia J

    The aim of the study was to explore and describe the best available literature on evidence-based teaching strategies that can be used by nurse educators. Evidence-based teaching strategies in nursing education are fundamental to promote an in-depth understanding of information. Although some teaching strategies for nurse educators were identified, no integrative literature review was found summarizing the best teaching strategies for nurse educators. Integrative literature review. Sixteen studies were included encompassing eight teaching strategies (e-learning, concept mapping, Internet-based learning, web-based learning, gaming, problem-based learning, case studies, and evidence-based learning). Of these, three (concept mapping, Internet-based learning, and evidence-based learning) significantly increased student knowledge. All teaching strategies increased knowledge in some way, indicating that faculties should use a variety of teaching strategies. However, more research is needed to compare the impact of a variety of teaching strategies and the best use of different teaching strategies.

  5. Integrating the development of innovative concepts into corporate strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.M.

    1988-03-01

    Most good innovative ideas come from individuals who become creatively stimulated when they least expect it. The challenge is to convert these good ideas into marketable products. Most scientists contribute greatly to the advancement of technology often without considering that their discoveries may solve a market need. Better communications and understanding of marketing objectives and techniques is needed, since the problem facing most large corporate executives is to convert fragmented developments into total market solutions. Several organizational approaches have evolved in the management of technology designed to address the possibility of maximizing benefits from creative ideas, but two will be discussed in depth in this paper. The first internally directed method is to incorporate innovative ideas into the portfolio structure of strategic business units. The second externally directed method is to form a technology transfer operation which leads to new corporate or external spinoff ventures. Both of these approaches deal with the problems of cost and risk associated with the crucial step of commercialization, but in different ways. The achievements of all participants in technological research will be greatest if individual efforts are clearly and efficiently coordinated. The result will be the satisfaction of the objectives of all parties. The ultimate benefit, however, will be increased productivity and an improved standard of living. Consumers will have access to superior products, and American business will regain its competitive advantage by developing efficient methods of integrating good ideas into commercial and industrial products and services. 6 refs.

  6. Integrating Psychosocial Care into Neuro-Oncology: Challenges and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Suzanne K.; Grassi, Luigi; Hyde, Melissa K.; Holland, Jimmie; Dunn, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 256,000 cases of malignant brain and nervous system cancer were diagnosed worldwide during 2012 and 189,000 deaths, with this burden falling more heavily in the developed world. Problematically, research describing the psychosocial needs of people with brain tumors and their carers and the development and evaluation of intervention models has lagged behind that of more common cancers. This may relate, at least in part, to poor survival outcomes and high morbidity associated with this illness, and stigma about this disease. The evidence base for the benefits of psychosocial care in oncology has supported the production of clinical practice guidelines across the globe over the past decade, with a recent mandate to integrate the psychosocial domain and measurement of distress into routine care. Clinical care guidelines for people with brain tumors have emerged, with a building focus on psychosocial and survivorship care. However, researchers will need to work intensively with health care providers to ensure future practice is evidence-based and able to be implemented across both acute and community settings and likely within existing resources. PMID:25756038

  7. Retail grocery store marketing strategies and obesity: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Glanz, Karen; Bader, Michael D M; Iyer, Shally

    2012-05-01

    In-store food marketing can influence food-purchasing behaviors and warrants increased attention given the dramatic rise in obesity. Descriptive and experimental studies of key marketing components have been conducted by consumer scientists, marketing researchers, and public health experts. This review synthesizes research and publications from industry and academic sources and provides direction for developing and evaluating promising interventions. Literature sources for the review were English-language articles published from 1995 to 2010, identified from multidisciplinary search indexes, backward searches of cited articles, review articles, industry reports, and online sources. Only articles that focused on physical grocery stores and food products were included. Data collection occurred in 2010 and 2011. Articles were classified in the categories of product, price, placement, and promotion and divided into controlled laboratory experiments, observation, and field experiments; 125 primary peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Narrative synthesis methods were used. Key findings were synthesized by category of focus and study design. Evidence synthesis was completed in 2011. Findings suggest several strategies for in-store marketing to promote healthful eating by increasing availability, affordability, prominence, and promotion of healthful foods and/or restricting or de-marketing unhealthy foods. Key results of research in controlled laboratory studies should be adapted and tested in real-world in-store settings. Industry methods for assessing consumer behavior, such as electronic sales data and individually linked sales information from loyalty card holders, can help public health researchers increase the scientific rigor of field studies. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory informatics tools integration strategies for drug discovery: integration of LIMS, ELN, CDS, and SDMS.

    PubMed

    Machina, Hari K; Wild, David J

    2013-04-01

    There are technologies on the horizon that could dramatically change how informatics organizations design, develop, deliver, and support applications and data infrastructures to deliver maximum value to drug discovery organizations. Effective integration of data and laboratory informatics tools promises the ability of organizations to make better informed decisions about resource allocation during the drug discovery and development process and for more informed decisions to be made with respect to the market opportunity for compounds. We propose in this article a new integration model called ELN-centric laboratory informatics tools integration.

  9. Translational toxicology: a developmental focus for integrated research strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that toxicology studies the potential adverse effects of environmental exposures on various forms of life and that clinical toxicology typically focuses on human health effects, what can and should the relatively new term of "translational toxicology" be taken to mean? Discussion Our assertion is that the core concept of translational toxicology must incorporate existing principles of toxicology and epidemiology, but be driven by the aim of developing safe and effective interventions beyond simple reduction or avoidance of exposure to prevent, mitigate or reverse adverse human health effects of exposures. The field of toxicology has now reached a point where advances in multiple areas of biomedical research and information technologies empower us to make fundamental transitions in directly impacting human health. Translational toxicology must encompass four action elements as follows: 1) Assessing human exposures in critical windows across the lifespan 2) Defining modes of action and relevance of data from animal models 3) Use of mathematical models to develop plausible predictions as the basis for 4) Protective and restorative human health interventions. The discussion focuses on the critical window of in-utero development. Summary Exposure assessment, basic toxicology and development of certain categories of mathematical models are not new areas of research; however overtly integrating these in order to conceive, assess and validate effective interventions to mitigate or reverse adverse effects of environmental exposures is our novel opportunity. This is what we should do in translational toxicology so that we have a portfolio of interventional options to improve human health that include both minimizing exposures and specific preventative/restorative/mitigative therapeutics. PMID:24079609

  10. Geophysical investigations in Jordan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovach, R.L.; Andreasen, G.E.; Gettings, M.E.; El-Kaysi, K.

    1990-01-01

    A number of geophysical investigations have been undertaken in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to provide data for understanding the tectonic framework, the pattern of seismicity, earthquake hazards and geothermal resources of the country. Both the historical seismic record and the observed recent seismicity point to the dominance of the Dead Sea Rift as the main locus of seismic activity but significant branching trends and gaps in the seismicity pattern are also seen. A wide variety of focal plane solutions are observed emphasizing the complex pattern of fault activity in the vicinity of the rift zone. Geophysical investigations directed towards the geothermal assessment of the prominent thermal springs of Zerga Ma'in and Zara are not supportive of the presence of a crustal magmatic source. ?? 1990.

  11. A Strategy for Integrating a Large Finite Element Model: X-33 Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGhee, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The X-33 vehicle is an advanced technology demonstrator sponsored by NASA. For the past three years the Structural Dynamics & Loads Group of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has had the task of integrating the X-33 vehicle structural finite element model. In that time, five versions of the integrated vehicle model have been produced and a strategy has evolved that would benefit anyone given the task of integrating structural finite element models that have been generated by various modelers and companies. The strategy that has been presented here consists of six decisions that need to be made. These six decisions are: purpose of model, units, common material list, model numbering, interface control, and archive format. This strategy has been proved and expanded from experience on the X-33 vehicle.

  12. Integrating Scientists into Teacher Professional Development—Strategies for Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, S. E.; Buhr, S. M.; Smith, L. K.

    2010-12-01

    subsequent workshops. To measure achievement of program goals, feedback surveys, interviews, and workshop observation are employed. Evaluation data have shown consistently throughout the years that both educators and scientists value the time spent with each other at these workshops. Scientists enjoy sharing their topic areas with motivated and energetic educators. Conversely, science teachers appreciate the opportunity to work directly with scientists and to hear about cutting-edge research being done. This paper will review the most successful strategies for including scientists in professional development workshops, from both the teachers’ and the scientists’ perspectives.

  13. Asteroid Surface Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdoch, N.; Sánchez, P.; Schwartz, S. R.; Miyamoto, H.

    The regolith-covered surfaces of asteroids preserve records of geophysical processes that have occurred both at their surfaces and sometimes also in their interiors. As a result of the unique microgravity environment that these bodies possess, a complex and varied geophysics has given birth to fascinating features that we are just now beginning to understand. The processes that formed such features were first hypothesized through detailed spacecraft observations and have been further studied using theoretical, numerical, and experimental methods that often combine several scientific disciplines. These multiple approaches are now merging toward a further understanding of the geophysical states of the surfaces of asteroids. In this chapter we provide a concise summary of what the scientific community has learned so far about the surfaces of these small planetary bodies and the processes that have shaped them. We also discuss the state of the art in terms of experimental techniques and numerical simulations that are currently being used to investigate regolith processes occurring on small-body surfaces and that are contributing to the interpretation of observations and the design of future space missions.

  14. [Integrated strategy for dengue prevention and control in the Region of the Americas].

    PubMed

    San Martín, José Luis; Brathwaite-Dick, Olivia

    2007-01-01

    During the last 22 years, the Region of the Americas has seen an upward trend in dengue incidence, with epidemics peaking ever higher and recurring every 3-5 years, almost regularly. A major factor in the spread of the disease has been the diminished capacity of national programs to respond with dengue prevention and control. This paper evaluates the Integrated Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control-approved by the 44th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization in September 2003- and its preliminary results. The Integrated Strategy for Dengue is a management model designed to strengthen national programs, with a focus on reducing morbidity, mortality, and the societal and economic burdens produced by outbreaks and epidemics. Currently, 11 of the countries in the Region have developed a plan for or implemented a national strategy. In addition, a sub-Regional plan has been developed for Central America and the Dominican Republic. The Integrated Strategy for Dengue is expected to produce a qualitative leap forward in prevention and control through stronger partnerships among the State, its various ministries, and governing bodies, at all levels; private companies; and the range of community and civil groups. Once implemented, this strategy will reduce risk factors for dengue transmission, establish an integrated epidemiological surveillance system, decrease Aedes aegypti mosquito populations, prepare laboratories to better detect and identify the virus, optimize diagnosis and treatment, and, as a result, decrease the frequency, magnitude, and severity of dengue outbreaks and epidemics.

  15. Integrated NASA Lidar System Strategy for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Heaps, William S.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent peer reviews of' NASA's space-based lidar missions and of the technology readiness of lasers appropriate for space-based lidars indicated a critical need for an integrated research and development strategy to move laser transmitter technology from low technical readiness levels to the higher levels required for space missions. This paper presents a multi-Center efforts leading to formulation of an integrated NASA strategy to provide the technology and maturity of systems necessary to make Lidar/Laser systems viable for space-based study and monitoring of the earth's atmosphere.

  16. Multicriteria Evaluation of Classical Swine Fever Control Strategies Using the Choquet Integral.

    PubMed

    Brosig, J; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2016-02-01

    An outbreak of the highly contagious animal disease classical swine fever (CSF) requires the selection of an optimal control strategy. The choice of a control strategy is a decision process depending on different aspects. Besides epidemiology, economic and ethical/social aspects must be taken into account. In this study, multicriteria decision-making (MCDM) was used to evaluate six control strategies for two regions with different farm densities. A strategy including only the minimum EU control measures and the traditional control strategy based on preventive culling were compared to alternative control strategies using emergency vaccination and/or rapid PCR testing ('emergency vaccination', 'test to slaughter', 'test to control' and 'vaccination in conjunction with rapid testing'). The MACBETH approach was used in order to assess the three main criteria (epidemiology, economics and ethical/social aspects). Subcriteria with both quantitative and qualitative performance levels were translated into a normalized scale. The Choquet integral approach was adopted to obtain a ranking of the six CSF control strategies based on the three main criteria, taking interactions into account. Three different rankings of the importance of the main criteria, which were to reflect the potential perceptions of stakeholders, were examined. Both the region under investigation and the ranking of the main criteria had an influence on the 'best' choice. Alternative control strategies were favourable to the minimum EU control and the traditional control measures independent of the farm density. Because the choice of the 'best' control strategy does not solely depend on the epidemiological efficiency, MCDM can help to find the best solution. Both MACBETH and the Choquet integral approach are feasible MCDM approaches. MACBETH only needs a qualitative evaluation and is therefore a comparatively intuitive approach. The Choquet integral does not only take the importance of the criteria into

  17. A Bayesian trans-dimensional approach for the fusion of multiple geophysical datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    JafarGandomi, Arash; Binley, Andrew

    2013-09-01

    We propose a Bayesian fusion approach to integrate multiple geophysical datasets with different coverage and sensitivity. The fusion strategy is based on the capability of various geophysical methods to provide enough resolution to identify either subsurface material parameters or subsurface structure, or both. We focus on electrical resistivity as the target material parameter and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), electromagnetic induction (EMI), and ground penetrating radar (GPR) as the set of geophysical methods. However, extending the approach to different sets of geophysical parameters and methods is straightforward. Different geophysical datasets are entered into a trans-dimensional Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) search-based joint inversion algorithm. The trans-dimensional property of the McMC algorithm allows dynamic parameterisation of the model space, which in turn helps to avoid bias of the post-inversion results towards a particular model. Given that we are attempting to develop an approach that has practical potential, we discretize the subsurface into an array of one-dimensional earth-models. Accordingly, the ERT data that are collected by using two-dimensional acquisition geometry are re-casted to a set of equivalent vertical electric soundings. Different data are inverted either individually or jointly to estimate one-dimensional subsurface models at discrete locations. We use Shannon's information measure to quantify the information obtained from the inversion of different combinations of geophysical datasets. Information from multiple methods is brought together via introducing joint likelihood function and/or constraining the prior information. A Bayesian maximum entropy approach is used for spatial fusion of spatially dispersed estimated one-dimensional models and mapping of the target parameter. We illustrate the approach with a synthetic dataset and then apply it to a field dataset. We show that the proposed fusion strategy is

  18. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath Ireland from integrated geophysical-petrological modeling - I: Observations, 1D and 2D hypothesis testing and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Fullea, Javier; Salajegheh, Farshad

    2014-02-01

    Modeling the continental lithosphere's physical properties, especially its depth extent, must be done within a self-consistent petrological-geophysical framework; modeling using only one or two data types may easily lead to inconsistencies and erroneous interpretations. Using the LitMod approach for hypothesis testing and first-order modeling, we show how assumptions made about crustal information and the probable compositions of the lithospheric and sub-lithospheric mantle affect particular observables, particularly especially surface topographic elevation. The critical crustal parameter is density, leading to ca. 600 m error in topography for 50 kg m- 3 imprecision. The next key parameter is crustal thickness, and uncertainties in its definition lead to around ca. 4 km uncertainty in LAB for every 1 km of variation in Moho depth. Possible errors in the other assumed crustal parameters introduce a few kilometers of uncertainty in the depth to the LAB. We use Ireland as a natural laboratory to demonstrate the approach. From first-order arguments and given reasonable assumptions, a topographic elevation in the range of 50-100 m, which is the average across Ireland, requires that the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath most of Ireland must lie in the range 90-115 km. A somewhat shallower (to 85 km) LAB is permitted, but the crust must be thinned (< 29 km) to compensate. The observations, especially topography, are inconsistent with suggestions, based on interpretation of S-to-P receiver functions, that the LAB thins from 85 km in southern Ireland to 55 km in central northern Ireland over a distance of < 150 km. Such a thin lithosphere would result in over 1000 m of uplift, and such rapid thinning by 30 km over less than 150 km would yield significant north-south variations in topographic elevation, Bouguer anomaly, and geoid height, none of which are observed. Even juxtaposing the most extreme probable depleted composition for the lithospheric mantle

  19. 3-D mapping of segmented active faults in the Vienna Basin from integrated geophysical, geomorphological and geological data: building up an active fault database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsch, R.; Decker, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Vienna Basin basin formed as a Miocene pull-apart basin along a sinistral transform system between the Eastern Alps and the Carpathians. Moderate seismicity in the southern Vienna Basin as well as thick Quaternary deposits in the center of the basin prove that part of the faults within the Miocene basin are active today. However, nearly no systematical data exist on the positions, segmentation, and geometry of active faults, which yield important input parameters for seismic hazard evaluations. Spatial mapping of active faults and kinematical analyses are based on 3-D reflection seismic data by OMV Austria, geomorphological features such as tilted Quaternary river terraces and fault scarps, the geometry of Quaternary basins, and published geodetic data. Interpretation of combined data sets are summarized in a map and an active fault catalog of for future seismic hazard evaluations. The map reveals two regions with different types of Quaternary and active faults. (A) The southern part of the Vienna Basin reveals a seismically active NE-striking sinistral strike-slip fault with a large negative flower structure. Recent activity of the flower structure is documented by the accumulation of up to 150 m thick Quaternary gravels. The Quaternary basin is limited by faults, depicted by 3-D seismics and near surface geophysics (Gegenleitner et al, 2003, this volume). At the surface, a prominent morphological scarp parallels the fault traces mapped from the 3-D seismic. (B) The western and central part of the Vienna Basin is characterized by major listric E-dipping normal faults branching off from the strike-slip fault system, which is localized in the seismically active area at the eastern border of the Basin. Deformation is partitioned on several normal faults via a common detachment horizon. These faults kinematically link up with the strike-slip fault system. At the surface normal faulting is documented by tilted Quaternary terraces of the Danube caused by the

  20. An integrated approach (remote sensing, geophysics, field) to assess the structural control of groundwater flow in Wadi Feiran basement complex, Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, L.; Sultan, M.; Ahmed, M.; Zaki, A.

    2013-12-01

    The groundwater flow and potentiality for groundwater accumulation in the fractured basement rocks and the overlaying alluvial deposits were examined in Wadi Feiran basin using remote sensing (Landsat ETM, Ikonos, and Envisat, TRMM, and SIR-C radar images), field (well location, depth to water table), and geophysical (Very Low Frequency [VLF], magnetic) datasets. Our approach encompassed the following steps: (1) head data from 52 wells was utilized to build an approximate potentiometric surface map for the basin; (2) Landsat ETM, 3D, hill shade, Ikonos and SIR-C radar images were used to delineate structures in the study area including faults and dikes; (3) major precipitation events were identified from three-hourly TRMM data; and (4) false color composite images were generated from pairs of multi-temporal Envisat images acquired before and after a precipitation event (17th and 18th of January 2010) to identify structures (faults and dykes) that show an increase in moisture content and radar reflectivity following precipitation events and persisting for periods of days to months. Examination of the radar images revealed: (1) a network of highly reflective interconnected structures and channels (wadis) that are here interpreted to indicate preferred groundwater flow direction in the study area; and (2) many of the identified highly persistent reflective structures were found to be sub-parallel (hereafter referred to as low angle) to groundwater flow directions indicating that they are exceptionally conducive to groundwater flow. We suspect that groundwater flow occurs along low angle faults and dykes within the fault damaged zones and the weathered borders of mafic dykes. These suggestions are further corroborated by: (1) VLF results that showed significant dip angles (up to 60%) indicative of presence of shallow sub-vertical, sheet-like conductors across the identified low angle faults and dykes, (2) the presence of groundwater accumulation down gradient, along

  1. A unified double-loop multi-scale control strategy for NMP integrating-unstable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seer, Qiu Han; Nandong, Jobrun

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new control strategy which unifies the direct and indirect multi-scale control schemes via a double-loop control structure. This unified control strategy is proposed for controlling a class of highly nonminimum-phase processes having both integrating and unstable modes. This type of systems is often encountered in fed-batch fermentation processes which are very difficult to stabilize via most of the existing well-established control strategies. A systematic design procedure is provided where its applicability is demonstrated via a numerical example.

  2. Organizing integrated care for older persons: strategies in Sweden during the past decade.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Helene; Blomberg, Staffan; Dunér, Anna; Kjellgren, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse ways of organizing integrated care for older persons in Sweden during the past decade. The data consist of 62 cases of development work, described in official reports. A meta-analysis of cases was performed, including content analysis of each case. A theoretical framework comprising different forms of integration (co-ordination, contracting, co-operation and collaboration) was applied. Co-operation was common and collaboration, including multiprofessional teamwork, was rare in the cases. Contracting can be questioned as being a form of integration, and the introduction of consumer choice models appeared problematic in inter-organization integration. Goals stated in the cases concerned steering and designing care, rather than outcome specifications for older persons. Explicit goals to improve integration in itself could imply that the organizations adapt to strong normative expectations in society. Trends over the decade comprised development of local health care systems, introduction of consumer choice models and contracting out. Most cases were projects, but others comprised evaluations of regular organization of integrated care. These evaluations were often written normatively, but constituted the conditions for practice and were important study contributions. Guiding clinical practice to be aware of importance of setting follow-up goals. Awareness of the risk that special funds may impede sustainable strategies development. A theoretical framework of forms of integration was applied to several different strategies, which had been carried out mostly in practice. The study contributes to understanding of how different strategies have been developed and applied to organize integrated care, and highlights some relationships between integration theory and practice.

  3. [Women-and Child-Friendly Institutional Strategies with an integral approach in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Farías-Jiménez, Patricia; Arocha-Zuluaga, Gina Paola; Trujillo-Ramírez, Kenny Margarita; Botero-Uribe, Inés

    2014-01-01

    It is uncommon to implement and document a maternal and child healthcare strategy on a territorial and institutional level is infrequent. Therefore, we aimed to describe the experience of a consulting team composed of two physicians, two nurses and two nutritionists, whose purpose was to support the introduction of the Women- and Child-Friendly Institutional Strategy with an integral approach in 25 healthcare institutions in three Colombian departments (Cauca, Huila and Nariño), according to unmet basic needs. The Women- and Child-Friendly Institutional Strategy, considered a senior management strategy, promotes a specific method that allows monitoring of institutions during the implementation of a health and nutritional care strategy for women and children, and offers them the possibility of voluntarily becoming accredited as a Women- and Child-Friendly Institutions.

  4. Institutional-Level Integration of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Theresa; Wong, Eva; Downing, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to exhibit the integration of learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI) with the City University of Hong Kong information systems to promote teaching and learning within the university. Design/methodology/approach: From the 2006 entry cohort, all undergraduate freshmen at City University of Hong Kong are…

  5. Integrating Scaffolding Strategies into Technology-Enhanced Assessments of English Learners: Task Types and Measurement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…

  6. Institutional-Level Integration of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Theresa; Wong, Eva; Downing, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to exhibit the integration of learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI) with the City University of Hong Kong information systems to promote teaching and learning within the university. Design/methodology/approach: From the 2006 entry cohort, all undergraduate freshmen at City University of Hong Kong are…

  7. Acculturation process: a collaborative strategy of integration in attaining culturally congruent nursing care.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Deborah B

    2009-01-01

    The author describes a strategic partnership effort in pursuit of culturally congruent care: the professional model of nursing practice. The organizing framework is an integrated strategy of acculturation based in cultural care theory. The professional health system's department of staff development and a vendor partnered to develop and implement the framework in acculturating Philippine nurses. The author also presents recommendations for future consideration.

  8. Integrating Research and Teaching Strategies: Implications for Institutional Management and Leadership. Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapworth, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the link between teaching and research, with emphasis on how best to manage core business of a higher education institution. The author argues that institutions should seek to integrate these core strategies, and agrees that 'universities need to set as a mission goal the improvement of the nexus between research and teaching'…

  9. Rural Poverty Alleviation in Brazil: Toward an Integrated Strategy. World Bank Country Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alberto; Mistiaen, Johan A.

    This report constitutes a step toward designing an integrated strategy for rural poverty reduction in Brazil. The report contains an updated and detailed profile of the rural poor in the northeast and southeast regions of Brazil; identifies key components of rural poverty in those regions; and proposes a five-pronged strategic framework in which…

  10. Exploring the Benefits of Teacher-Modeling Strategies Integrated into Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathers, Thomas J., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined how career and technical education classes function using multiple instructional modeling strategies integrated into vocational and technical training environments. Seven New Jersey public school technical teachers received an introductory overview of the investigation and participated by responding to 10 open-end…

  11. Technology Integration in the College Classroom: A Baker's Dozen Frugal but Promising Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Keith; Hendricks, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Educational technology integration in higher education consumes enormous resources but with little evidence of efficacy, due in large measure to lack of vision and a cohesive strategy. Instructors perceive formidable technical skills in undergraduate students, untapped in an instructional role, but this may be unfounded. This article proposes a…

  12. The PEA Strategy: One Teacher's Approach to Integrating Writing in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sielaff, Christopher K.; Washburn, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    With the adoption of the "Common Core State Standards" many social studies teachers are faced with the task of very intentionally integrating writing instruction into their content curriculum. While this task may be daunting, there are research-based instructional frameworks to help teachers implement strategies to support student…

  13. Strategies for Integrating Emerging Technologies: Case Study of an Online Educational Technology Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging technologies do not necessarily facilitate or advance learning processes; teaching strategies that are used in the learning process, integration and incorporation methods do. In online instruction, research shows that "effective distance education depends on the provision of pedagogical excellence" (Bernard et al., 2004, p.413).…

  14. Integrating Scaffolding Strategies into Technology-Enhanced Assessments of English Learners: Task Types and Measurement Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mikyung Kim; Guzman-Orth, Danielle; Lopez, Alexis; Castellano, Katherine; Himelfarb, Igor; Tsutagawa, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates ways to improve the assessment of English learner students' English language proficiency given the current movement of creating next-generation English language proficiency assessments in the Common Core era. In particular, this article discusses the integration of scaffolding strategies, which are prevalently utilized as…

  15. Chronic Modes of Action for Ecotoxicity: Integrated Testing Strategies for the 21st Century, presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    This initiative, though focusing perhaps on individual assays at the beginning, recognizes the need for a tiered strategy for ecotoxicity tests that better integrates new techniques (models, in vitro methods, new technologies) to improve ecotoxicity testing as a whole. The reali...

  16. Instructional Strategies for Learners with Dual Sensory Impairments in Integrated Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, June; Eichinger, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents information on instructional strategies and the effective use of personnel needed for educating students with dual sensory impairments in integrated learning environments. To counter the practice of educating students in separate environments according to their most apparent weaknesses and limitations, the authors contend…

  17. Novel integration strategy for enhancing chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp. in a 7-L fermenter.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shoushuai; Yang, Hailin; Zhan, Xiao; Wang, Wu

    2014-06-01

    An integrated strategy (additional energy substrate-three stage pH control-fed batch) was firstly proposed for efficiently improving chalcopyrite bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus sp. in a 7-L fermenter. The strain adaptive-growing phase was greatly shortened from 8days into 4days with the supplement of additional 2g/L Fe(2+)+2g/L S(0). Jarosite passivation was effectively weakened basing on higher biomass via the three-stage pH-stat control (pH 1.3-1.0-0.7). The mineral substrate inhibition was attenuated by fed-batch fermentation. With the integrated strategy, the biochemical reaction was promoted and achieved a better balance. Meanwhile, the domination course of A. thiooxidans in the microbial community was shortened from 14days to 8days. As the results of integrated strategy, the final copper ion and productivity reached 89.1mg/L and 2.23mg/(Ld), respectively, which was improved by 52.8% compared to the uncontrolled batch bioleaching. The integrated strategy could be further exploited for industrial chalcopyrite bioleaching.

  18. The PEA Strategy: One Teacher's Approach to Integrating Writing in the Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sielaff, Christopher K.; Washburn, Erin K.

    2015-01-01

    With the adoption of the "Common Core State Standards" many social studies teachers are faced with the task of very intentionally integrating writing instruction into their content curriculum. While this task may be daunting, there are research-based instructional frameworks to help teachers implement strategies to support student…

  19. Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy: A vision for an innovative and integrated approach to managing the risks

    Treesearch

    Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy Project Management Team

    2006-01-01

    The Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy (CWFS) provides a vision for a new, innovative, and integrated approach to wildland fire management in Canada. It was developed under the auspices of the Canadian Council of Forest Ministers and seeks to balance the social, ecological, and economic aspects of wildland fire through a risk management framework that emphasizes hazard...

  20. Exploring the Benefits of Teacher-Modeling Strategies Integrated into Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cathers, Thomas J., Sr.

    2013-01-01

    This case study examined how career and technical education classes function using multiple instructional modeling strategies integrated into vocational and technical training environments. Seven New Jersey public school technical teachers received an introductory overview of the investigation and participated by responding to 10 open-end…

  1. Classroom Strategies Coaching Model: Integration of Formative Assessment and Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Lekwa, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the theory, key components, and empirical support for the Classroom Strategies Coaching (CSC) Model, a data-driven coaching approach that systematically integrates data from multiple observations to identify teacher practice needs and goals, design practice plans, and evaluate progress towards goals. The primary aim of the…

  2. Classroom Strategies Coaching Model: Integration of Formative Assessment and Instructional Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Dudek, Christopher M.; Lekwa, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the theory, key components, and empirical support for the Classroom Strategies Coaching (CSC) Model, a data-driven coaching approach that systematically integrates data from multiple observations to identify teacher practice needs and goals, design practice plans, and evaluate progress towards goals. The primary aim of the…

  3. Mingling "Fact" with "Fiction": Strategies for Integrating Literature into History and Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Diana B.; Klein, Emily; Dickstein, Shari

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a series of strategies to help teachers integrate literature into their history and social studies classrooms without losing the flavor or essence of either the literature they are using or the history they are trying to teach. None of the presented approaches is mutually exclusive of the others, and several may…

  4. Instructional Strategies for Learners with Dual Sensory Impairments in Integrated Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, June; Eichinger, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents information on instructional strategies and the effective use of personnel needed for educating students with dual sensory impairments in integrated learning environments. To counter the practice of educating students in separate environments according to their most apparent weaknesses and limitations, the authors contend…

  5. Integration of Technology Enhanced Learning within Business Organizations: Which Strategy to Choose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminskiene, Lina; Rutkiene, Aušra; Trepule, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses a responsible and a responsive strategic organizational approach for a smooth integration of technology enhanced learning (TEL). A response to external and internal contingencies and an involvement of different stakeholders into the development and implementation of the so-called eLearning strategies is one of the approaches…

  6. Technology Integration in the College Classroom: A Baker's Dozen Frugal but Promising Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Keith; Hendricks, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Educational technology integration in higher education consumes enormous resources but with little evidence of efficacy, due in large measure to lack of vision and a cohesive strategy. Instructors perceive formidable technical skills in undergraduate students, untapped in an instructional role, but this may be unfounded. This article proposes a…

  7. Online Polar Oceans Geophysical Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; O'Hara, S.; Arko, R. A.; Carbotte, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    With funding from the Office of Polar Programs of the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Antarctic Multibeam Bathymetry Synthesis (AMBS, http://www.marine-geo.org/antarctic/) is an integrated web-accessible bathymetry and geophysical database for the Southern Ocean and Antarctica, serving data from the US research vessels Nathaniel B. Palmer and Laurence M. Gould, amongst others. Interdisciplinary polar data can be downloaded for free through Data Link (http://www.marine-geo.org/link/index.php) which enables keyword searches by data and instrument type, geographical bounds, scientist, expedition name and dates. The data visualisation tool GeoMapApp (http://www.marine-geo.org/geomapapp/) supports dynamic exploration of a multi-resolutional digital elevation model (DEM) of the global oceans, including the polar regions, allowing users to generate custom grids and maps and import their own data sets and grids. A specialised polar stereographic map projection incorporating multibeam swath bathymetry and the BEDMAP under-ice seaflooor topography is available for the Southern Ocean. To promote inter-operability, we are working with research partners including the Marine Metadata Interoperability (MMI) project and the National Geophysical Data Center to develop standardised metadata and best practices that comply with existing FGDC and ISO standards. For example, the global DEM is served freely as an OGC-compliant Web Map Service map layer and is available for viewing with Google Earth. We are working towards full indexing of the AMBS database holdings at the Antarctic Master Directory. geo.org/antarctic/

  8. Managing incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms with integrated molecular pathology is a cost-effective strategy.

    PubMed

    Das, Ananya; Brugge, William; Mishra, Girish; Smith, Dennis M; Sachdev, Mankanwal; Ellsworth, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Current guidelines recommend using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) testing and cytology to manage incidental pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCN); however, studies suggest a strategy including integrated molecular pathology (IMP) of cyst fluid may further aid in predicting risk of malignancy. Here, we evaluate several strategies for diagnosing and managing asymptomatic PCN using healthcare economic modeling. A third-party-payer perspective Markov decision model examined four management strategies in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 asymptomatic patients incidentally found to have a 3 cm solitary pancreatic cystic lesion. Strategy I used cross-sectional imaging, recommended surgery only if symptoms or risk factors emerged. Strategy II considered patients for resection without initial EUS. Strategy III (EUS + CEA + Cytology) referred only those with mucinous cysts (CEA > 192 ng/mL) for resection. Strategy IV implemented IMP; a commercially available panel provided a "Benign," "Mucinous," or "Aggressive" classification based on the level of mutational change in cyst fluid. "Benign" and "Mucinous" patients were followed with surveillance; "Aggressive" patients were referred for resection. Quality-adjusted life-years (QALY), relative risk with 95 %CI, Number Needed to Treat (NNT), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Strategy IV provided the greatest increase in QALY at nearly identical cost to the cheapest approach, Strategy I. Relative risk of malignancy compared to the current standard of care and nearest competing strategy, Strategy III, was 0.18 (95 %CI 0.06 - 0.53) with an NNT of 56 (95 %CI 34 - 120). Use of IMP was the most cost-effective strategy, supporting its routine clinical use.

  9. Geophysics publications honored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geophysics and geology publications by the U.S. Geological Survey were awarded one first- and two third-place prizes at the ‘Blue Pencil’ ceremony last month, sponsored by the National Association of Government Communicators.First place in the news release category went to Frank Forrester, an AGU member and recently retired USGS information officer. Edit