Science.gov

Sample records for integrated modeling system

  1. Integrated Workforce Modeling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moynihan, Gary P.

    2000-01-01

    There are several computer-based systems, currently in various phases of development at KSC, which encompass some component, aspect, or function of workforce modeling. These systems may offer redundant capabilities and/or incompatible interfaces. A systems approach to workforce modeling is necessary in order to identify and better address user requirements. This research has consisted of two primary tasks. Task 1 provided an assessment of existing and proposed KSC workforce modeling systems for their functionality and applicability to the workforce planning function. Task 2 resulted in the development of a proof-of-concept design for a systems approach to workforce modeling. The model incorporates critical aspects of workforce planning, including hires, attrition, and employee development.

  2. Cotangent Models for Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesenhofer, Anna; Miranda, Eva

    2016-07-01

    We associate cotangent models to a neighbourhood of a Liouville torus in symplectic and Poisson manifolds focusing on b-Poisson/b-symplectic manifolds. The semilocal equivalence with such models uses the corresponding action-angle theorems in these settings: the theorem of Liouville-Mineur-Arnold for symplectic manifolds and an action-angle theorem for regular Liouville tori in Poisson manifolds (Laurent- Gengoux et al., IntMath Res Notices IMRN 8: 1839-1869, 2011). Our models comprise regular Liouville tori of Poisson manifolds but also consider the Liouville tori on the singular locus of a b-Poisson manifold. For this latter class of Poisson structures we define a twisted cotangent model. The equivalence with this twisted cotangent model is given by an action-angle theorem recently proved by the authors and Scott (Math. Pures Appl. (9) 105(1):66-85, 2016). This viewpoint of cotangent models provides a new machinery to construct examples of integrable systems, which are especially valuable in the b-symplectic case where not many sources of examples are known. At the end of the paper we introduce non-degenerate singularities as lifted cotangent models on b-symplectic manifolds and discuss some generalizations of these models to general Poisson manifolds.

  3. CTBT integrated verification system evaluation model supplement

    SciTech Connect

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; BUNTING,MARCUS; PAYNE JR.,ARTHUR C.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-03-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia's Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, ''top-level,'' modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM's unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, in sound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection), location accuracy, and identification capability of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system's performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. The original IVSEM report, CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model, SAND97-25 18, described version 1.2 of IVSEM. This report describes the changes made to IVSEM version 1.2 and the addition of identification capability estimates that have been incorporated into IVSEM version 2.0.

  4. CTBT Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model

    SciTech Connect

    Edenburn, M.W.; Bunting, M.L.; Payne, A.C. Jr.

    1997-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a computer based model called IVSEM (Integrated Verification System Evaluation Model) to estimate the performance of a nuclear detonation monitoring system. The IVSEM project was initiated in June 1994, by Sandia`s Monitoring Systems and Technology Center and has been funded by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security (DOE/NN). IVSEM is a simple, top-level, modeling tool which estimates the performance of a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring system and can help explore the impact of various sensor system concepts and technology advancements on CTBT monitoring. One of IVSEM`s unique features is that it integrates results from the various CTBT sensor technologies (seismic, infrasound, radionuclide, and hydroacoustic) and allows the user to investigate synergy among the technologies. Specifically, IVSEM estimates the detection effectiveness (probability of detection) and location accuracy of the integrated system and of each technology subsystem individually. The model attempts to accurately estimate the monitoring system`s performance at medium interfaces (air-land, air-water) and for some evasive testing methods such as seismic decoupling. This report describes version 1.2 of IVSEM.

  5. The integrated Regional Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraucunas, I.; Clarke, L.; Dirks, J.; Hejazi, M. I.; Hibbard, K. A.; Huang, M.; Janetos, A. C.; Kintner-Meyer, M.; Kleese van Dam, K.; Leung, L.; Moss, R. H.; Rice, J.; Scott, M. J.; Thomson, A. M.; West, T. O.; Whitney, P.; Yang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    The integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM) is a unique modeling framework being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to simulate the interactions among natural and human systems at scales relevant to regional decision making. The framework unites high-resolution models of regional climate, hydrology, agriculture, socioeconomics, and energy systems using a flexible software architecture. The framework is portable and can be customized to inform a variety of complex questions and decisions, including (but not limited to) planning, implementation, and evaluation of mitigation and adaptation options across a range of sectors. iRESM also incorporates extensive stakeholder interactions and analysis to inform model development, coupling strategies, and characterization of uncertainties. Ongoing numerical experiments are yielding new insights into the interactions among human and natural systems on regional scales, with an initial focus on the energy-land-water nexus and the penetration of renewable energy technologies in the upper U.S. Midwest. The iRESM framework also is being extended and applied to the U.S. Gulf Coast, with a particular emphasis on how changes in extreme events will affect both coastal in inland energy infrastructure in the region. This talk will focus on iRESM's development and capabilities, initial results from numerical experiments, and the challenges and opportunities associated with integrated regional modeling.

  6. Integrated modeling of advanced optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Hugh C.; Needels, Laura; Levine, B. Martin

    1993-02-01

    This poster session paper describes an integrated modeling and analysis capability being developed at JPL under funding provided by the JPL Director's Discretionary Fund and the JPL Control/Structure Interaction Program (CSI). The posters briefly summarize the program capabilities and illustrate them with an example problem. The computer programs developed under this effort will provide an unprecedented capability for integrated modeling and design of high performance optical spacecraft. The engineering disciplines supported include structural dynamics, controls, optics and thermodynamics. Such tools are needed in order to evaluate the end-to-end system performance of spacecraft such as OSI, POINTS, and SMMM. This paper illustrates the proof-of-concept tools that have been developed to establish the technology requirements and demonstrate the new features of integrated modeling and design. The current program also includes implementation of a prototype tool based upon the CAESY environment being developed under the NASA Guidance and Control Research and Technology Computational Controls Program. This prototype will be available late in FY-92. The development plan proposes a major software production effort to fabricate, deliver, support and maintain a national-class tool from FY-93 through FY-95.

  7. Integrated Modeling of Complex Optomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Torben; Enmark, Anita

    2011-09-01

    Mathematical modeling and performance simulation are playing an increasing role in large, high-technology projects. There are two reasons; first, projects are now larger than they were before, and the high cost calls for detailed performance prediction before construction. Second, in particular for space-related designs, it is often difficult to test systems under realistic conditions beforehand, and mathematical modeling is then needed to verify in advance that a system will work as planned. Computers have become much more powerful, permitting calculations that were not possible before. At the same time mathematical tools have been further developed and found acceptance in the community. Particular progress has been made in the fields of structural mechanics, optics and control engineering, where new methods have gained importance over the last few decades. Also, methods for combining optical, structural and control system models into global models have found widespread use. Such combined models are usually called integrated models and were the subject of this symposium. The objective was to bring together people working in the fields of groundbased optical telescopes, ground-based radio telescopes, and space telescopes. We succeeded in doing so and had 39 interesting presentations and many fruitful discussions during coffee and lunch breaks and social arrangements. We are grateful that so many top ranked specialists found their way to Kiruna and we believe that these proceedings will prove valuable during much future work.

  8. Modelling of Integrated Renewable Energy System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akella, A. K.; Saini, R. P.; Sharma, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Energy is supplied in the form of electricity, heat or fuels and an energy supply system must guarantee sufficient production and distribution of energy. An energy supply system based on renewable energy can be utilized as integrated renewable energy system (IRES), which can satisfy the energy needs of an area in appropriate & sustainable manner. Given the key role of renewable energy in rural electrification of remote rural areas, the IRES for a given area can be modeled & optimized for meeting the energy needs. In the present paper, Jaunpur block of Uttaranchal state of India has been selected as remote area. Based upon the data collected, the resource potential and energy demand has been calculated & presented. The model on the basis of unit cost of the energy has been optimized using LINDO software 6.10 version. The results indicated that the optimized model has been found to the best choice for meeting the energy needs of the area. The results further indicated that for the above area, either an IRES consisting of the above sources can provide a feasible solution in terms of energy fulfillments in the range of EPDF from 1.0 to 0.75.

  9. Modeling for System Integration Studies (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Orwig, K. D.

    2012-05-01

    This presentation describes some the data requirements needed for grid integration modeling and provides real-world examples of such data and its format. Renewable energy integration studies evaluate the operational impacts of variable generation. Transmission planning studies investigate where new transmission is needed to transfer energy from generation sources to load centers. Both use time-synchronized wind and solar energy production and load as inputs. Both examine high renewable energy penetration scenarios in the future.

  10. Development and Integration of Control System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Young K.

    1998-01-01

    The computer simulation tool, TREETOPS, has been upgraded and used at NASA/MSFC to model various complicated mechanical systems and to perform their dynamics and control analysis with pointing control systems. A TREETOPS model of Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility - Imaging (AXAF-1) dynamics and control system was developed to evaluate the AXAF-I pointing performance for Normal Pointing Mode. An optical model of Shooting Star Experiment (SSE) was also developed and its optical performance analysis was done using the MACOS software.

  11. Aggregated models for integrated distillation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Caballero, J.A.; Grossmann, I.E.

    1999-06-01

    In this work the authors present an aggregated representation for distillation columns that can be used in the synthesis of separation sequences with heat integration. A new aggregated model is first presented for the stripping and rectifying sections of individual distillation columns. This model is based on mass balances and equilibrium feasibility, expressed in terms of flows, inlet concentrations, and recoveries. The energy balance can then be decoupled from the mass balance, and the utilities can be calculated for each separation task. The proposed model is applied to three different superstructures: state task network, state equipment network, and an intermediate representation. The proposed model yields a lower bound to the vapor flow or to the total cost of the utilities. Performance of the different superstructure representations in terms of robustness and computational time is illustrated with several examples.

  12. THE EPA MULTIMEDIA INTEGRATED MODELING SYSTEM SOFTWARE SUITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is developing a Multimedia Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) framework that will provide a software infrastructure or environment to support constructing, composing, executing, and evaluating complex modeling studies. The framework will include (1) common software ...

  13. Integrated Main Propulsion System Performance Reconstruction Process/Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Eduardo; Elliott, Katie; Snell, Steven; Evans, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Main Propulsion System (MPS) Performance Reconstruction process provides the MPS post-flight data files needed for postflight reporting to the project integration management and key customers to verify flight performance. This process/model was used as the baseline for the currently ongoing Space Launch System (SLS) work. The process utilizes several methodologies, including multiple software programs, to model integrated propulsion system performance through space shuttle ascent. It is used to evaluate integrated propulsion systems, including propellant tanks, feed systems, rocket engine, and pressurization systems performance throughout ascent based on flight pressure and temperature data. The latest revision incorporates new methods based on main engine power balance model updates to model higher mixture ratio operation at lower engine power levels.

  14. Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Physical Modelling Systems Design. A Personal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Richard

    A computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Physical Modeling Systems Design project was undertaken in a time of rapid change in the industrial, business, technological, training, and educational areas in Australia. A specification of a manufacturing physical modeling system was drawn up. Physical modeling provides a flexibility and configurability…

  15. Integrative systems modeling and multi-objective optimization

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation presents a number of algorithms, tools, and methods for utilizing multi-objective optimization within integrated systems modeling frameworks. We first present innovative methods using a genetic algorithm to optimally calibrate the VELMA and SWAT ecohydrological ...

  16. An integrated system for nonpoint source pollution modelling and management.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Chen, J; Du, P; He, W

    2006-01-01

    Modelling the impact of nonpoint source pollution (NSP) is a complex problem that has troubled water resource managers for many years when trying to set up proper management practices in catchment areas. In this paper, an integrated decision support system, NPSDSS (nonpoint source decision support system), was introduced to resolve this problem in a relatively easy way. The system was developed in a unique platform and integrated with the IMPULSE (integrated model of nonpoint source pollution processes) model, a stand alone geographic information system (GIS) toolbox, a well-structured database, a measure screening model, and an expert system, as well. The system has been applied in the Dianchi Lake catchment area and shown to give a good perspective on providing useful recommendations for appropriate NSP management.

  17. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  18. Multiscale modeling of integrated CCS systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhajaj, Ahmed; Shah, Nilay

    2015-01-01

    The world will continue consuming fossil fuel within the coming decades to meet its growing energy demand; however, this source must be cleaner through implementation of carbon capture, transport and storage (CCTS). This process is complex and involves multiple phases, owned by different operational companies and stakeholders with different business models and regulatory framework. The objective of this work is to develop a multiscale modeling approach to link process models, post-combustion capture plant model and network design models under an optimization framework in order to design and analyse the cost optimal CO2 infrastructure that match CO2 sources and sinks in capacity and time. The network comprises a number of CO2 sources at fixed locations and a number of potential CO2 storage sites. The decisions to be determined include from which sources it is appropriate to capture CO2 and the cost-optimal degree-of-capture (DOC) for a given source and the infrastructural layout of the CO2 transmission network.

  19. Integrated modeling and systems engineering for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, George Z.; Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; MacMynowski, Doug; Seo, Byoung-Joon; Nissly, Carl; Troy, Mitchell; Cho, Myung

    2011-09-01

    Modeling is an integral part of systems engineering. It is utilized in requirement validation, system verification, as well as for supporting design trade studies. Modeling highly complex systems poses particular challenges, including the definition and interpretation of system performance, and the combined evaluation of physical processes spanning a wide range of time frames. Our solution is based on statistical interpretation of system performance and a unique image quality metric developed by TMT. The Stochastic Framework and Point Source Sensitivity allow us to properly estimate and combine the optical effects of various disturbances and telescope imperfections.

  20. Systems Modeling to Implement Integrated System Health Management Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge F.; Walker, Mark; Morris, Jonathan; Smith, Harvey; Schmalzel, John

    2007-01-01

    ISHM capability includes: detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes of anomalies, prediction of future anomalies, and user interfaces that enable integrated awareness (past, present, and future) by users. This is achieved by focused management of data, information and knowledge (DIaK) that will likely be distributed across networks. Management of DIaK implies storage, sharing (timely availability), maintaining, evolving, and processing. Processing of DIaK encapsulates strategies, methodologies, algorithms, etc. focused on achieving high ISHM Functional Capability Level (FCL). High FCL means a high degree of success in detecting anomalies, diagnosing causes, predicting future anomalies, and enabling health integrated awareness by the user. A model that enables ISHM capability, and hence, DIaK management, is denominated the ISHM Model of the System (IMS). We describe aspects of the IMS that focus on processing of DIaK. Strategies, methodologies, and algorithms require proper context. We describe an approach to define and use contexts, implementation in an object-oriented software environment (G2), and validation using actual test data from a methane thruster test program at NASA SSC. Context is linked to existence of relationships among elements of a system. For example, the context to use a strategy to detect leak is to identify closed subsystems (e.g. bounded by closed valves and by tanks) that include pressure sensors, and check if the pressure is changing. We call these subsystems Pressurizable Subsystems. If pressure changes are detected, then all members of the closed subsystem become suspect of leakage. In this case, the context is defined by identifying a subsystem that is suitable for applying a strategy. Contexts are defined in many ways. Often, a context is defined by relationships of function (e.g. liquid flow, maintaining pressure, etc.), form (e.g. part of the same component, connected to other components, etc.), or space (e.g. physically close

  1. Integrated Baseline System (IBS) Version 2.0: Models guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Baseline System (IBS) is an emergency management planning and analysis tool being developed under the direction of the US Army Nuclear and Chemical Agency. This Models Guide summarizes the IBS use of several computer models for predicting the results of emergency situations. These include models for predicting dispersion/doses of airborne contaminants, traffic evacuation, explosion effects, heat radiation from a fire, and siren sound transmission. The guide references additional technical documentation on the models when such documentation is available from other sources. The audience for this manual is chiefly emergency management planners and analysts, but also data managers and system managers.

  2. Integrated Farm System Model: Reference Manual, Version 2.1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Integrated Farm System Model simulates the major biological and physical processes of a crop, beef, or dairy farm. Crop production, feed use, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land are simulated over each of 25 years of weather. Growth and development of alfalfa, grass, corn, soybea...

  3. The integrated Earth System Model Version 1: formulation and functionality

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, William D.; Craig, Anthony P.; Truesdale, John E.; Di Vittorio, Alan; Jones, Andrew D.; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Calvin, Katherine V.; Edmonds, James A.; Kim, Son H.; Thomson, Allison M.; Patel, Pralit L.; Zhou, Yuyu; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter E.; Chini, Louise M.; Hurtt, George C.

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth System Model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for pro- jecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) and an Earth System Model (ESM) into a common modeling in- frastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species, land use and land cover change, and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM project integrates the economic and human dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a sin- gle simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore- omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific under- standing of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper de- scribes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.

  4. The integrated Earth system model version 1: formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Jones, A. D.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J. A.; Kim, S. H.; Thomson, A. M.; et al

    2015-07-23

    The integrated Earth system model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an integrated assessment model (IAM) and an Earth system model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species (SLS), land use and land cover change (LULCC), and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. Themore » iESM project integrates the economic and human-dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  5. Modeling for Integrated Science Management and Resilient Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.

    2014-01-01

    Many physiological, environmental, and operational risks exist for crewmembers during spaceflight. An understanding of these risks from an integrated perspective is required to provide effective and efficient mitigations during future exploration missions that typically have stringent limitations on resources available, such as mass, power, and crew time. The Human Research Program (HRP) is in the early stages of developing collaborative modeling approaches for the purposes of managing its science portfolio in an integrated manner to support cross-disciplinary risk mitigation strategies and to enable resilient human and engineered systems in the spaceflight environment. In this talk, we will share ideas being explored from fields such as network science, complexity theory, and system-of-systems modeling. Initial work on tools to support these explorations will be discussed briefly, along with ideas for future efforts.

  6. An integrated system for rainfall induced shallow landslides modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Capparelli, Giovanna; Rigon, Riccardo; Versace, Pasquale

    2014-05-01

    Rainfall induced shallow landslides (RISL) cause significant damages involving loss of life and properties. Predict susceptible locations for RISL is a complex task that involves many disciplines: hydrology, geotechnical science, geomorphology, statistic. Usually to accomplish this task two main approaches are used: statistical or physically based model. In this work an open source (OS), 3-D, fully distributed hydrological model was integrated in an OS modeling framework (Object Modeling System). The chain is closed by linking the system to a component for safety factor computation with infinite slope approximation able to take into account layered soils and suction contribution to hillslope stability. The model composition was tested for a case study in Calabria (Italy) in order to simulate the triggering of a landslide happened in the Cosenza Province. The integration in OMS allows the use of other components such as a GIS to manage inputs-output processes, and automatic calibration algorithms to estimate model parameters. Finally, model performances were quantified by comparing modelled and simulated trigger time. This research is supported by Ambito/Settore AMBIENTE E SICUREZZA (PON01_01503) project.

  7. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  8. Integrated modelling of ecosystem services and energy systems research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwala, Matthew; Lovett, Andrew; Bateman, Ian; Day, Brett; Agnolucci, Paolo; Ziv, Guy

    2016-04-01

    The UK Government is formally committed to reducing carbon emissions and protecting and improving natural capital and the environment. However, actually delivering on these objectives requires an integrated approach to addressing two parallel challenges: de-carbonising future energy system pathways; and safeguarding natural capital to ensure the continued flow of ecosystem services. Although both emphasise benefiting from natural resources, efforts to connect natural capital and energy systems research have been limited, meaning opportunities to improve management of natural resources and meet society's energy needs could be missed. The ecosystem services paradigm provides a consistent conceptual framework that applies in multiple disciplines across the natural and economic sciences, and facilitates collaboration between them. At the forefront of the field, integrated ecosystem service - economy models have guided public- and private-sector decision making at all levels. Models vary in sophistication from simple spreadsheet tools to complex software packages integrating biophysical, GIS and economic models and draw upon many fields, including ecology, hydrology, geography, systems theory, economics and the social sciences. They also differ in their ability to value changes in natural capital and ecosystem services at various spatial and temporal scales. Despite these differences, current models share a common feature: their treatment of energy systems is superficial at best. In contrast, energy systems research has no widely adopted, unifying conceptual framework that organises thinking about key system components and interactions. Instead, the literature is organised around modelling approaches, including life cycle analyses, econometric investigations, linear programming and computable general equilibrium models. However, some consistencies do emerge. First, often contain a linear set of steps, from exploration to resource supply, fuel processing, conversion

  9. Defining Requirements for an Integrated Water Resource Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, David A.; Peterson, Todd S.; Frodge, Jonathan

    2002-07-29

    This paper describes the process used to define the requirements for an integrated water resource modeling system that will be employed by a range of users with varying backgrounds and needs. A five-step process was initiated to ensure consideration of the needs and interests of users representing many different parts of the organization. The steps of the process, the results of each step and a summary of the results are presented.

  10. Integrated modeling of the GMT laser tomography adaptive optics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatrou, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics (LTAO) is one of adaptive optics systems planned for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). End-to-end simulation tools that are able to cope with the complexity and computational burden of the AO systems to be installed on the extremely large telescopes such as GMT prove to be an integral part of the GMT LTAO system development endeavors. SL95, the Fortran 95 Simulation Library, is one of the software tools successfully used for the LTAO system end-to-end simulations. The goal of SL95 project is to provide a complete set of generic, richly parameterized mathematical models for key elements of the segmented telescope wavefront control systems including both active and adaptive optics as well as the models for atmospheric turbulence, extended light sources like Laser Guide Stars (LGS), light propagation engines and closed-loop controllers. The library is implemented as a hierarchical collection of classes capable of mutual interaction, which allows one to assemble complex wavefront control system configurations with multiple interacting control channels. In this paper we demonstrate the SL95 capabilities by building an integrated end-to-end model of the GMT LTAO system with 7 control channels: LGS tomography with Adaptive Secondary and on-instrument deformable mirrors, tip-tilt and vibration control, LGS stabilization, LGS focus control, truth sensor-based dynamic noncommon path aberration rejection, pupil position control, SLODAR-like embedded turbulence profiler. The rich parameterization of the SL95 classes allows to build detailed error budgets propagating through the system multiple errors and perturbations such as turbulence-, telescope-, telescope misalignment-, segment phasing error-, non-common path-induced aberrations, sensor noises, deformable mirror-to-sensor mis-registration, vibration, temporal errors, etc. We will present a short description of the SL95 architecture, as well as the sample GMT LTAO system simulation

  11. An integrated model-based neurosurgical guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Songbai; Fan, Xiaoyao; Fontaine, Kathryn; Hartov, Alex; Roberts, David; Paulsen, Keith

    2010-02-01

    Maximal tumor resection without damaging healthy tissue in open cranial surgeries is critical to the prognosis for patients with brain cancers. Preoperative images (e.g., preoperative magnetic resonance images (pMR)) are typically used for surgical planning as well as for intraoperative image-guidance. However, brain shift even at the start of surgery significantly compromises the accuracy of neuronavigation, if the deformation is not compensated for. Compensating for brain shift during surgical operation is, therefore, critical for improving the accuracy of image-guidance and ultimately, the accuracy of surgery. To this end, we have developed an integrated neurosurgical guidance system that incorporates intraoperative three-dimensional (3D) tracking, acquisition of volumetric true 3D ultrasound (iUS), stereovision (iSV) and computational modeling to efficiently generate model-updated MR image volumes for neurosurgical guidance. The system is implemented with real-time Labview to provide high efficiency in data acquisition as well as with Matlab to offer computational convenience in data processing and development of graphical user interfaces related to computational modeling. In a typical patient case, the patient in the operating room (OR) is first registered to pMR image volume. Sparse displacement data extracted from coregistered intraoperative US and/or stereovision images are employed to guide a computational model that is based on consolidation theory. Computed whole-brain deformation is then used to generate a model-updated MR image volume for subsequent surgical guidance. In this paper, we present the key modular components of our integrated, model-based neurosurgical guidance system.

  12. Integrated modeling tool for performance engineering of complex computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Gary; Ball, Duane; Hoyt, Susan; Steele, Oscar

    1989-01-01

    This report summarizes Advanced System Technologies' accomplishments on the Phase 2 SBIR contract NAS7-995. The technical objectives of the report are: (1) to develop an evaluation version of a graphical, integrated modeling language according to the specification resulting from the Phase 2 research; and (2) to determine the degree to which the language meets its objectives by evaluating ease of use, utility of two sets of performance predictions, and the power of the language constructs. The technical approach followed to meet these objectives was to design, develop, and test an evaluation prototype of a graphical, performance prediction tool. The utility of the prototype was then evaluated by applying it to a variety of test cases found in the literature and in AST case histories. Numerous models were constructed and successfully tested. The major conclusion of this Phase 2 SBIR research and development effort is that complex, real-time computer systems can be specified in a non-procedural manner using combinations of icons, windows, menus, and dialogs. Such a specification technique provides an interface that system designers and architects find natural and easy to use. In addition, PEDESTAL's multiview approach provides system engineers with the capability to perform the trade-offs necessary to produce a design that meets timing performance requirements. Sample system designs analyzed during the development effort showed that models could be constructed in a fraction of the time required by non-visual system design capture tools.

  13. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  14. Multiscale mechanobiology: computational models for integrating molecules to multicellular systems

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Michael; Kim, Taeyoon

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical signals exist throughout the biological landscape. Across all scales, these signals, in the form of force, stiffness, and deformations, are generated and processed, resulting in an active mechanobiological circuit that controls many fundamental aspects of life, from protein unfolding and cytoskeletal remodeling to collective cell motions. The multiple scales and complex feedback involved present a challenge for fully understanding the nature of this circuit, particularly in development and disease in which it has been implicated. Computational models that accurately predict and are based on experimental data enable a means to integrate basic principles and explore fine details of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction in and across all levels of biological systems. Here we review recent advances in these models along with supporting and emerging experimental findings. PMID:26019013

  15. Multiscale mechanobiology: computational models for integrating molecules to multicellular systems.

    PubMed

    Mak, Michael; Kim, Taeyoon; Zaman, Muhammad H; Kamm, Roger D

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical signals exist throughout the biological landscape. Across all scales, these signals, in the form of force, stiffness, and deformations, are generated and processed, resulting in an active mechanobiological circuit that controls many fundamental aspects of life, from protein unfolding and cytoskeletal remodeling to collective cell motions. The multiple scales and complex feedback involved present a challenge for fully understanding the nature of this circuit, particularly in development and disease in which it has been implicated. Computational models that accurately predict and are based on experimental data enable a means to integrate basic principles and explore fine details of mechanosensing and mechanotransduction in and across all levels of biological systems. Here we review recent advances in these models along with supporting and emerging experimental findings.

  16. Research on models of biological systems that can be integrated into mechatronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.; Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Chiver, O.

    2016-02-01

    The models of biological systems that we find on Earth can be the subject of research to develop a few mechatronic systems. Such models are offered by bees, ants, crows, cranes, etc. Article aims to investigate these models and their manifestations. Imitating this behavior and studied him offer ideas for develop models that can be integrated into mechatronic systems. They can be integrated into mechatronic system as algorithms for finding local optimum, to search, to detect an optimal way travel on a network, to find best decision, etc.

  17. NREL Wind Integrated System Design and Engineering Model

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, S. Andrew; Scott, George; Graf, Peter

    2013-09-30

    NREL_WISDEM is an integrated model for wind turbines and plants developed In python based on the open source software OpenMDAO. NREL_WISDEM is a set of wrappers for various wind turbine and models that integrate pre-existing models together into OpenMDAO. It is organized into groups each with their own repositories including Plant_CostSE. Plant_EnergySE, Turbine_CostSE and TurbineSE. The wrappers are designed for licensed and non-licensed models though in both cases, one has to have access to and install the individual models themselves before using them in the overall software platform.

  18. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system, and a precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.E.; Knapp, L.K.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to communicate model results, leading to a broader understanding of the model assumptions, sensitivities, and conclusions at a management level.Investigating natural, potential, and human-induced impacts on hydrologic systems commonly requires complex modeling with overlapping data requirements, plus massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrologic studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modeling and spatial analysis with a flexible, intuitive display. Integrating geographic information systems (GIS) and scientific visualization systems (SVS) provides such an infrastructure. This paper describes an integrated system consisting of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS, and an SVS. The results of this study provide a basis for improving the understanding of hydro-climatic processes in mountainous regions. An additional benefit of the integrated system, the value of which is often underestimated, is the improved ability to

  19. Nuclear Thermal Rocket - Arc Jet Integrated System Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian D.; Emrich, William

    2016-01-01

    In the post-shuttle era, space exploration is moving into a new regime. Commercial space flight is in development and is planned to take on much of the low earth orbit space flight missions. With the development of a heavy lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch, System, NASA has become focused on deep space exploration. Exploration into deep space has traditionally been done with robotic probes. More ambitious missions such as manned missions to asteroids and Mars will require significant technology development. Propulsion system performance is tied to the achievability of these missions and the requirements of other developing technologies that will be required. Nuclear thermal propulsion offers a significant improvement over chemical propulsion while still achieving high levels of thrust. Opportunities exist; however, to build upon what would be considered a standard nuclear thermal engine to attain improved performance, thus further enabling deep space missions. This paper discuss the modeling of a nuclear thermal system integrated with an arc jet to further augment performance. The performance predictions and systems impacts are discussed.

  20. Integrated modeling of natural and human systems - problems and initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, H.; Giles, J.; Gunnink, J.; Hughes, A.; Moore, R. V.; Peach, D.

    2009-12-01

    's system, e.g. the flow of groundwater to an abstraction borehole or the availability of water for irrigation. Particular problems arise when model data from two or more disciplines are incompatible in terms of data formats, scientific concepts or language. Other barriers include the cultural segregation within and between science disciplines as well as impediments to data exchange due to ownership and copyright restrictions. OpenMI and GeoSciML are initiatives that are trying to overcome these barriers by building international communities that share vocabularies and data formats. This paper will give examples of the successful merging of geological and hydrological models from the UK and the Netherlands and will introduce the vision of an open Environmental Modelling Platform which aims to link data, knowledge and concepts seamlessly to numerical process models. Last but not least there is an urgent need to create a Subsurface Management System akin to a Geographic Information System in which all results of subsurface modelling can be visualised and analysed in an integrated manner.

  1. Systems integrity in health and aging - an animal model approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Human lifespan is positively correlated with childhood intelligence, as measured by psychometric (IQ) tests. The strength of this correlation is similar to the negative effect that smoking has on the life course. This result suggests that people who perform well on psychometric tests in childhood may remain healthier and live longer. The correlation, however, is debated: is it caused exclusively by social-environmental factors or could it also have a biological component? Biological traits of systems integrity that might result in correlations between brain function and lifespan have been suggested but are not well-established, and it is questioned what useful knowledge can come from understanding such mechanisms. In a recent study, we found a positive correlation between brain function and longevity in honey bees. Honey bees are highly social, but relevant social-environmental factors that contribute to cognition-survival correlations in humans are largely absent from insect colonies. Our results, therefore, suggest a biological explanation for the correlation in the bee. Here, we argue that individual differences in stress handling (coping) mechanisms, which both affect the bees’ performance in tests of brain function and their survival could be a trait of systems integrity. Individual differences in coping are much studied in vertebrates, and several species provide attractive models. Here, we discuss how pigs are an interesting model for studying behavioural, physiological and molecular mechanisms that are recruited during stress and that can drive correlations between health, cognition and longevity traits. By revealing biological factors that make individuals susceptible to stress, it might be possible to alleviate health and longevity disparities in people. PMID:24472488

  2. Modeling Integrated Farm Systems: A Tool for Developing more Economically and Environmentally Sustainable Farming Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of models have been developed to represent farm systems, but only a few actually integrate all or most of the major biological, physical, and economic processes of a farm. Farm system models are used for decision support, education, and research purposes. Because of differences in the type ...

  3. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : programmer's manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Klaus, C. M.; Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  4. Integrated dynamic landscape analysis and modeling system (IDLAMS) : installation manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Z.; Majerus, K. A.; Sundell, R. C.; Sydelko, P. J.; Vogt, M. C.

    1999-02-24

    The Integrated Dynamic Landscape Analysis and Modeling System (IDLAMS) is a prototype, integrated land management technology developed through a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL). Dr. Ronald C. Sundell, Ms. Pamela J. Sydelko, and Ms. Kimberly A. Majerus were the principal investigators (PIs) for this project. Dr. Zhian Li was the primary software developer. Dr. Jeffrey M. Keisler, Mr. Christopher M. Klaus, and Mr. Michael C. Vogt developed the decision analysis component of this project. It was developed with funding support from the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), a land/environmental stewardship research program with participation from the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Department of Energy (DOE), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). IDLAMS predicts land conditions (e.g., vegetation, wildlife habitats, and erosion status) by simulating changes in military land ecosystems for given training intensities and land management practices. It can be used by military land managers to help predict the future ecological condition for a given land use based on land management scenarios of various levels of training intensity. It also can be used as a tool to help land managers compare different land management practices and further determine a set of land management activities and prescriptions that best suit the needs of a specific military installation.

  5. Integrated System Modeling for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Stephen W.; Borowski, Stanley K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has long been identified as a key enabling technology for space exploration beyond LEO. From Wernher Von Braun's early concepts for crewed missions to the Moon and Mars to the current Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 and recent lunar and asteroid mission studies, the high thrust and specific impulse of NTP opens up possibilities such as reusability that are just not feasible with competing approaches. Although NTP technology was proven in the Rover / NERVA projects in the early days of the space program, an integrated spacecraft using NTP has never been developed. Such a spacecraft presents a challenging multidisciplinary systems integration problem. The disciplines that must come together include not only nuclear propulsion and power, but also thermal management, power, structures, orbital dynamics, etc. Some of this integration logic was incorporated into a vehicle sizing code developed at NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) in the early 1990s called MOMMA, and later into an Excel-based tool called SIZER. Recently, a team at GRC has developed an open source framework for solving Multidisciplinary Design, Analysis and Optimization (MDAO) problems called OpenMDAO. A modeling approach is presented that builds on previous work in NTP vehicle sizing and mission analysis by making use of the OpenMDAO framework to enable modular and reconfigurable representations of various NTP vehicle configurations and mission scenarios. This approach is currently applied to vehicle sizing, but is extensible to optimization of vehicle and mission designs. The key features of the code will be discussed and examples of NTP transfer vehicles and candidate missions will be presented.

  6. NREL Wind Integrated System Design and Engineering Model

    2013-09-30

    NREL_WISDEM is an integrated model for wind turbines and plants developed In python based on the open source software OpenMDAO. NREL_WISDEM is a set of wrappers for various wind turbine and models that integrate pre-existing models together into OpenMDAO. It is organized into groups each with their own repositories including Plant_CostSE. Plant_EnergySE, Turbine_CostSE and TurbineSE. The wrappers are designed for licensed and non-licensed models though in both cases, one has to have access to andmore » install the individual models themselves before using them in the overall software platform.« less

  7. Integrating a geographic information system, a scientific visualization system and an orographic precipitation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hay, L.; Knapp, L.

    1996-01-01

    Investigating natural, potential, and man-induced impacts on hydrological systems commonly requires complex modelling with overlapping data requirements, and massive amounts of one- to four-dimensional data at multiple scales and formats. Given the complexity of most hydrological studies, the requisite software infrastructure must incorporate many components including simulation modelling, spatial analysis and flexible, intuitive displays. There is a general requirement for a set of capabilities to support scientific analysis which, at this time, can only come from an integration of several software components. Integration of geographic information systems (GISs) and scientific visualization systems (SVSs) is a powerful technique for developing and analysing complex models. This paper describes the integration of an orographic precipitation model, a GIS and a SVS. The combination of these individual components provides a robust infrastructure which allows the scientist to work with the full dimensionality of the data and to examine the data in a more intuitive manner.

  8. Integration of Earth System Models and Workflow Management under iRODS for the Northeast Regional Earth System Modeling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, F.; Yang, P.; Rosenzweig, B.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM, NSF Award #1049181) integrates weather research and forecasting models, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, a water balance/transport model, and mesoscale and energy systems input-out economic models developed by interdisciplinary research team from academia and government with expertise in physics, biogeochemistry, engineering, energy, economics, and policy. NE-RESM is intended to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy systems and economy through the 21st century. Integration of model components and the development of cyberinfrastructure for interacting with the system is facilitated with the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS), a distributed data grid that provides archival storage with metadata facilities and a rule-based workflow engine for automating and auditing scientific workflows.

  9. Integrated model development for liquid fueled rocket propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santi, L. Michael

    1993-01-01

    As detailed in the original statement of work, the objective of phase two of this research effort was to develop a general framework for rocket engine performance prediction that integrates physical principles, a rigorous mathematical formalism, component level test data, system level test data, and theory-observation reconciliation. Specific phase two development tasks are defined.

  10. SUSTAIN:Urban Modeling Systems Integrating Optimization and Economics

    EPA Science Inventory

    The System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to support practitioners in developing cost-effective management plans for municipal storm water programs and evaluating and selecting Best Manag...

  11. Integration of Feedstock Assembly System and Cellulosic Ethanol Conversion Models to Analyze Bioenergy System Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jared M. Abodeely; Douglas S. McCorkle; Kenneth M. Bryden; David J. Muth; Daniel Wendt; Kevin Kenney

    2010-09-01

    Research barriers continue to exist in all phases of the emerging cellulosic ethanol biorefining industry. These barriers include the identification and development of a sustainable and abundant biomass feedstock, the assembly of viable assembly systems formatting the feedstock and moving it from the field (e.g., the forest) to the biorefinery, and improving conversion technologies. Each of these phases of cellulosic ethanol production are fundamentally connected, but computational tools used to support and inform analysis within each phase remain largely disparate. This paper discusses the integration of a feedstock assembly system modeling toolkit and an Aspen Plus® conversion process model. Many important biomass feedstock characteristics, such as composition, moisture, particle size and distribution, ash content, etc. are impacted and most effectively managed within the assembly system, but generally come at an economic cost. This integration of the assembly system and the conversion process modeling tools will facilitate a seamless investigation of the assembly system conversion process interface. Through the integrated framework, the user can design the assembly system for a particular biorefinery by specifying location, feedstock, equipment, and unit operation specifications. The assembly system modeling toolkit then provides economic valuation, and detailed biomass feedstock composition and formatting information. This data is seamlessly and dynamically used to run the Aspen Plus® conversion process model. The model can then be used to investigate the design of systems for cellulosic ethanol production from field to final product.

  12. Experimental Investigation and Modeling of Integrated Tri-generation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetinkaya, Eda

    Energy demand in the world is increasing with population growth and higher living standards. Today, the need for energy requires a focus on renewable sources without abandoning fossil fuels. Efficient use of energy is one of the most important tasks in modern energy systems to achieve. In addition to the energy need, growing environmental concerns are linked with energy is emerged. Multi-purpose energy generation allows a higher efficiency by generating more outputs with the same input in the same system. Tri-generation systems are expected to provide at least three commodities, such as heating, cooling, desalination, storable fuel production and some other useful outputs, in addition to power generation. In this study, an experimental investigation of gasification is presented and two integrated tri-generation systems are proposed. The first integrated tri-generation system (System 1) utilizes solar energy as input and the outputs are power, fresh water and hot water. It consists of four sub-systems, namely solar power tower system, desalination system, Rankine cycle and organic Rankine cycle (ORC). The second integrated tri-generation system (System 2) utilizes coal and biomass as input and the outputs are power, fuel and hot water. It consists of five sub-systems: gasification plant, Brayton cycle, Rankine cycle, Fischer-Tropsch synthesis plant and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Experimental investigation includes coal and biomass gasification, where the experimental results of synthesis gas compositions are utilized in the analysis of the second systems. To maximize efficiency, heat losses from the system should be minimized through a recovery system to make the heat a useful commodity for other systems, such as ORCs which can utilize the low-grade heat. In this respect, ORCs are first analyzed for three different configurations in terms of energy and exergy efficiencies altering working fluids to increase the power output. Among two types of coal and one type

  13. System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Energy Systems Modeling and Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Saurabh; Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Jones, Wesley

    2015-08-21

    Today’s electricity grid is the most complex system ever built—and the future grid is likely to be even more complex because it will incorporate distributed energy resources (DERs) such as wind, solar, and various other sources of generation and energy storage. The complexity is further augmented by the possible evolution to new retail market structures that provide incentives to owners of DERs to support the grid. To understand and test new retail market structures and technologies such as DERs, demand-response equipment, and energy management systems while providing reliable electricity to all customers, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed at NREL. The IESM is composed of a power flow simulator (GridLAB-D), home energy management systems implemented using GAMS/Pyomo, a market layer, and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (testing appliances such as HVAC, dishwasher, etc.). The IESM is a system-of-systems (SoS) simulator wherein the constituent systems are brought together in a virtual testbed. We will describe an SoS approach for developing a distributed simulation environment. We will elaborate on the methodology and the control mechanisms used in the co-simulation illustrated by a case study.

  14. Combining multimedia models with integrated urban water system models for micropollutants.

    PubMed

    De Keyser, W; Gevaert, V; Verdonck, F; Nopens, I; De Baets, B; Vanrolleghem, P A; Mikkelsen, P S; Benedetti, L

    2010-01-01

    Integrated urban water system (IUWS) modeling aims at assessing the quality of the surface water receiving the urban emissions through sewage treatment plants, combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and stormwater drainage systems. However, some micropollutants tend to appear in more than one environmental medium (air, water, sediment, soil, groundwater, etc.). In this work, a multimedia fate and transport model (MFTM) is "wrapped around" a dynamic IUWS model for organic micropollutants to enable integrated environmental assessment. The combined model was tested on a hypothetical catchment using two scenarios: on the one hand a reference scenario with a combined sewerage system and on the other hand a stormwater infiltration pond scenario, as an example of a sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS). A case for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was simulated and resulted in reduced surface water concentrations for the latter scenario. However, the model also showed that this was at the expense of increased fluxes to air, groundwater and infiltration pond soil. The latter effects are generally not included in IUWS models, whereas MTFMs usually do not consider dynamic surface water concentrations,; hence the combined model approach provides a better basis for integrated environmental assessment of micropollutants' fate in urban environments.

  15. The Integrated WRF/Urban Modeling System: Development, Evaluation, and Applications to Urban Environmental Problems

    EPA Science Inventory

    To bridge the gaps between traditional mesoscale modelling and microscale modelling, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, in collaboration with other agencies and research groups, has developed an integrated urban modelling system coupled to the weather research and fore...

  16. Interactive Schematic Integration Within the Propellant System Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coote, David; Ryan, Harry; Burton, Kenneth; McKinney, Lee; Woodman, Don

    2012-01-01

    Task requirements for rocket propulsion test preparations of the test stand facilities drive the need to model the test facility propellant systems prior to constructing physical modifications. The Propellant System Modeling Environment (PSME) is an initiative designed to enable increased efficiency and expanded capabilities to a broader base of NASA engineers in the use of modeling and simulation (M&S) technologies for rocket propulsion test and launch mission requirements. PSME will enable a wider scope of users to utilize M&S of propulsion test and launch facilities for predictive and post-analysis functionality by offering a clean, easy-to-use, high-performance application environment.

  17. HyPEP FY-07 Report: System Integration Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    C. H. Oh; E. S. Kim; S. R. Sherman; R. Vilim

    2007-04-01

    The integrated system of a Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) and a High Temperature Steam Electrolysis (HTSE) process is one of systems being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy and Idaho National Laboratory. This system will produce hydrogen by utilizing a highly efficient VHTR with an outlet temperature of 900 °C and supplying necessary energy and electricity to the HTSE process for electrolysis of high temperature steam. This report includes a description of five configurations including an indirect parallel cycle, an indirect serial cycle, a direct serial cycle, a steam combined cycle, and a reheat cycle. HYSYS simulations were performed for each of these configurations coupled to a HTSE process. Final results are presented along with parametric studies and process optimization.

  18. Mussels as a model system for integrative ecomechanics.

    PubMed

    Carrington, Emily; Waite, J Herbert; Sarà, Gianluca; Sebens, Kenneth P

    2015-01-01

    Mussels form dense aggregations that dominate temperate rocky shores, and they are key aquaculture species worldwide. Coastal environments are dynamic across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and their changing abiotic conditions affect mussel populations in a variety of ways, including altering their investments in structures, physiological processes, growth, and reproduction. Here, we describe four categories of ecomechanical models (biochemical, mechanical, energetic, and population) that we have developed to describe specific aspects of mussel biology, ranging from byssal attachment to energetics, population growth, and fitness. This review highlights how recent advances in these mechanistic models now allow us to link them together across molecular, material, organismal, and population scales of organization. This integrated ecomechanical approach provides explicit and sometimes novel predictions about how natural and farmed mussel populations will fare in changing climatic conditions.

  19. Mussels as a Model System for Integrative Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrington, Emily; Waite, J. Herbert; Sarà, Gianluca; Sebens, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    Mussels form dense aggregations that dominate temperate rocky shores, and they are key aquaculture species worldwide. Coastal environments are dynamic across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, and their changing abiotic conditions affect mussel populations in a variety of ways, including altering their investments in structures, physiological processes, growth, and reproduction. Here, we describe four categories of ecomechanical models (biochemical, mechanical, energetic, and population) that we have developed to describe specific aspects of mussel biology, ranging from byssal attachment to energetics, population growth, and fitness. This review highlights how recent advances in these mechanistic models now allow us to link them together across molecular, material, organismal, and population scales of organization. This integrated ecomechanical approach provides explicit and sometimes novel predictions about how natural and farmed mussel populations will fare in changing climatic conditions.

  20. Human growth and body weight dynamics: an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Rahmandad, Hazhir

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying human weight and height dynamics due to growth, aging, and energy balance can inform clinical practice and policy analysis. This paper presents the first mechanism-based model spanning full individual life and capturing changes in body weight, composition and height. Integrating previous empirical and modeling findings and validated against several additional empirical studies, the model replicates key trends in human growth including A) Changes in energy requirements from birth to old ages. B) Short and long-term dynamics of body weight and composition. C) Stunted growth with chronic malnutrition and potential for catch up growth. From obesity policy analysis to treating malnutrition and tracking growth trajectories, the model can address diverse policy questions. For example I find that even without further rise in obesity, the gap between healthy and actual Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) has embedded, for different population groups, a surplus of 14%-24% in energy intake which will be a source of significant inertia in obesity trends. In another analysis, energy deficit percentage needed to reduce BMI by one unit is found to be relatively constant across ages. Accompanying documented and freely available simulation model facilitates diverse applications customized to different sub-populations.

  1. System model of a natural circulation integral test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvin, Mark R.

    The Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics (NE/RHP) at Oregon State University (OSU) has been developing an innovative modular reactor plant concept since being initiated with a Department of Energy (DoE) grant in 1999. This concept, the Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR), is an integral pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant that utilizes natural circulation flow in the primary and employs advanced passive safety features. The OSU MASLWR test facility is an electrically heated integral effects facility, scaled from the MASLWR concept design, that has been previously used to assess the feasibility of the concept design safety approach. To assist in evaluating operational scenarios, a simulation tool that models the test facility and is based on both test facility experimental data and analytical methods has been developed. The tool models both the test facility electric core and a simulated nuclear core, allowing evaluation of a broad spectrum of operational scenarios to identify those scenarios that should be explored experimentally using the test facility or design-quality multi-physics tools. Using the simulation tool, the total cost of experimentation and analysis can be reduced by directing time and resources towards the operational scenarios of interest.

  2. An integrated systems model for heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Bangerter, R O; Faltens, A; Meier, W R

    1998-09-02

    A source-to-target computer model for an induction linac driver for heavy ion fusion has been developed and used to define a reference case driver that meets the requirements of one current target design. Key features of the model are discussed, and the design parameters of the reference case design are described. Examples of the systems analyses leading to the point design are given, and directions for future work are noted.

  3. An integrated chronic disease management model: a diagonal approach to health system strengthening in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ozayr Haroon; Asmall, Shaidah; Freeman, Melvyn

    2014-11-01

    The integrated chronic disease management model provides a systematic framework for creating a fundamental change in the orientation of the health system. This model adopts a diagonal approach to health system strengthening by establishing a service-linked base to training, supervision, and the opportunity to try out, assess, and implement integrated interventions.

  4. Integrating remote sensing, geographic information systems and global positioning system techniques with hydrological modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Jay Krishna; Singh, Sudhir Kumar; Ekanthalu, Vicky Shettigondahalli

    2016-03-01

    Integration of remote sensing (RS), geographic information systems (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) are emerging research areas in the field of groundwater hydrology, resource management, environmental monitoring and during emergency response. Recent advancements in the fields of RS, GIS, GPS and higher level of computation will help in providing and handling a range of data simultaneously in a time- and cost-efficient manner. This review paper deals with hydrological modeling, uses of remote sensing and GIS in hydrological modeling, models of integrations and their need and in last the conclusion. After dealing with these issues conceptually and technically, we can develop better methods and novel approaches to handle large data sets and in a better way to communicate information related with rapidly decreasing societal resources, i.e. groundwater.

  5. Multiobjective Integrated Decision Analysis System (MIDAS): Volume 1, Model overview: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, M.; Brusger, E.; Gerber, M.

    1988-04-01

    MIDAS (Multiobjective Integrated Decision Analysis System) is an innovative utility planning tool that facilitates the analysis of risk. Three features distinguish this framework from other planning models: it incorporates a generalized decision analysis approach; it includes a completely integrated planning model for demand-supply evaluation; and the complete model runs on a microcomputer. 24 figs.

  6. Integrated Multimedia Modeling System Response to Regional Land Management Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-media system of nitrogen and co-pollutant models describing critical physical and chemical processes that cascade synergistically and competitively through the environment, the economy and society has been developed at the USEPA Office of research and development. It is ...

  7. Laboratory-Model Integrated-System FARAD Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, K.A.; Best, S.; Miller, R.; Rose, M.F.; Owens, T.

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma accelerators are spacecraft propulsion devices in which energy is stored in a capacitor and then discharged through an inductive coil. The device is electrodeless, inducing a plasma current sheet in propellant located near the face of the coil. The propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (order of 10 km/s) through the interaction of the plasma current with an induced magnetic field. The Faraday Accelerator with RF-Assisted Discharge (FARAD) thruster [1,2] is a type of pulsed inductive plasma accelerator in which the plasma is preionized by a mechanism separate from that used to form the current sheet and accelerate the gas. Employing a separate preionization mechanism in this manner allows for the formation of an inductive current sheet at much lower discharge energies and voltages than those found in previous pulsed inductive accelerators like the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT). In a previous paper [3], the authors presented a basic design for a 100 J/pulse FARAD laboratory-version thruster. The design was based upon guidelines and performance scaling parameters presented in Refs. [4, 5]. In this paper, we expand upon the design presented in Ref. [3] by presenting a fully-assembled and operational FARAD laboratory-model thruster and addressing system and subsystem-integration issues (concerning mass injection, preionization, and acceleration) that arose during assembly. Experimental data quantifying the operation of this thruster, including detailed internal plasma measurements, are presented by the authors in a companion paper [6]. The thruster operates by first injecting neutral gas over the face of a flat, inductive acceleration coil and at some later time preionizing the gas. Once the gas is preionized current is passed through the acceleration coil, inducing a plasma current sheet in the propellant that is accelerated away from the coil through electromagnetic interaction with the time-varying magnetic field

  8. Computer-aided operations engineering with integrated models of systems and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, Dan; Fleming, Land

    1994-01-01

    CONFIG 3 is a prototype software tool that supports integrated conceptual design evaluation from early in the product life cycle, by supporting isolated or integrated modeling, simulation, and analysis of the function, structure, behavior, failures and operation of system designs. Integration and reuse of models is supported in an object-oriented environment providing capabilities for graph analysis and discrete event simulation. Integration is supported among diverse modeling approaches (component view, configuration or flow path view, and procedure view) and diverse simulation and analysis approaches. Support is provided for integrated engineering in diverse design domains, including mechanical and electro-mechanical systems, distributed computer systems, and chemical processing and transport systems. CONFIG supports abstracted qualitative and symbolic modeling, for early conceptual design. System models are component structure models with operating modes, with embedded time-related behavior models. CONFIG supports failure modeling and modeling of state or configuration changes that result in dynamic changes in dependencies among components. Operations and procedure models are activity structure models that interact with system models. CONFIG is designed to support evaluation of system operability, diagnosability and fault tolerance, and analysis of the development of system effects of problems over time, including faults, failures, and procedural or environmental difficulties.

  9. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  10. Improving reservoir operations modeling for integration in a regional Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, N.; Li, H.; Ward, D. L.; Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Wigmosta, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    In integrated Earth system models (EaSMs), accurate hydrologic information in all of its components including socio-economy, atmosphere, land, and energy infrastructure is needed to represent the interactions between human and Earth system processes. The hydrology processes regulate the water, energy and carbon fluxes in this integrated framework. Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of EaSMs in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies such as integrated assessment activities at regional to global scales. Dynamic programming approaches to optimize operations of reservoir systems have been widely used for water resources management planning at local and regional scales and recently have emerged in global-scale applications; albeit they are performed offline from the EaSMs , and require accurate knowledge of future flow for the upcoming water year. Other emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are more flexible for coupling with EaSMs. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing overall regulated flow at large basin scales. Improved generic operating rules are presented and evaluated across multiple spatial scales and objectives (flow but also storage and supply) over the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System, which is representative of large river systems with increasing competitive reservoir purposes in the future. Challenges due to the difference in time and spatial scales between the physical processes versus reservoir operations and targets (irrigation, flood control, hydropower, environmental flow, navigation) are then discussed in the context of improving hydrology and evapotranspiration fluxes within an integrated EaSM.

  11. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  12. Global water resources modeling with an integrated model of the social-economic-environmental system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Evan G. R.; Simonovic, Slobodan P.

    2011-06-01

    Awareness of increasing water scarcity has driven efforts to model global water resources for improved insight into water resources infrastructure and management strategies. Most water resources models focus explicitly on water systems and represent socio-economic and environmental change as external drivers. In contrast, the system dynamics-based integrated assessment model employed here, ANEMI, incorporates dynamic representations of these systems, so that their broader changes affect and are affected by water resources systems through feedbacks. Sectors in ANEMI therefore include the global climate system, carbon cycle, economy, population, land use and agriculture, and novel versions of the hydrological cycle, global water use and water quality. Since the model focus is on their interconnections through explicit nonlinear feedbacks, simulations with ANEMI provide insight into the nature and structure of connections between water resources and socio-economic and environmental change. Of particular interest to water resources researchers and modelers will be the simulated effects of a new water stress definition that incorporates both water quality and water quantity effects into the measurement of water scarcity. Five simulation runs demonstrate the value of wastewater treatment and reuse programs and the feedback-effects of irrigated agriculture and greater consumption of animal products.

  13. Integrating Geohydrological Models In ATES-Systems Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloemendal, Martin

    2015-04-01

    1) Purpose. Accomplish optimal and sustainable use of subsurface for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES). 2) Scope. A heat pump in combination with an ATES system can efficiently and sustainably provide heating and cooling for user comfort within buildings. ATES systems are popular in moderate climate in which ATES systems are exploited as they are able to save primary energy. While storing warm and cold groundwater, ATES systems occupy a significant amount of the subsurface space, making that the space in the aquifers below cities is becoming scarce [1]. With the rapid growth of the number of ATES systems, the use of the subsurface intensifies, which raises additional questions regarding its sustainability and the long term profitability of the individual systems. In practice considerable difficulties regarding A) the performance of these installations and B) optimal and sustainable use of the subsurface are met. 3) Approach. Recently it was confirmed [2] that ATES systems can be placed closer to each other with limited effect on their energy efficiency. By placing them closer together we introduce the risk of a tragedy of the commons [3]. Therefore it is of importance to know where the warm and cold zones are over time and enable ATES-controllers to use the subsurface optimal and sustainably. From the field of multi agent systems and complex adaptive systems we use approaches and techniques to make an operation and control system that enables to adapt their control not only based on current demand, but also on current aquifer status and expected future demand. We are developing a numerical groundwater model structure which is fed with operational data of different ATES-systems. While doing this we run into challenges and opportunities like; spatial and temporal scale issues, sustaining the storage with balancing thermal storage and extraction at area level, dynamics and relation between hydrological and thermal influence and consequences for spreading of

  14. Model documentation report: Short-term Integrated Forecasting System demand model 1985. [(STIFS)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) Demand Model consists of a set of energy demand and price models that are used to forecast monthly demand and prices of various energy products up to eight quarters in the future. The STIFS demand model is based on monthly data (unless otherwise noted), but the forecast is published on a quarterly basis. All of the forecasts are presented at the national level, and no regional detail is available. The model discussed in this report is the April 1985 version of the STIFS demand model. The relationships described by this model include: the specification of retail energy prices as a function of input prices, seasonal factors, and other significant variables; and the specification of energy demand by product as a function of price, a measure of economic activity, and other appropriate variables. The STIFS demand model is actually a collection of 18 individual models representing the demand for each type of fuel. The individual fuel models are listed below: motor gasoline; nonutility distillate fuel oil, (a) diesel, (b) nondiesel; nonutility residual fuel oil; jet fuel, kerosene-type and naphtha-type; liquefied petroleum gases; petrochemical feedstocks and ethane; kerosene; road oil and asphalt; still gas; petroleum coke; miscellaneous products; coking coal; electric utility coal; retail and general industry coal; electricity generation; nonutility natural gas; and utility petroleum. The demand estimates produced by these models are used in the STIFS integrating model to produce a full energy balance of energy supply, demand, and stock change. These forecasts are published quarterly in the Outlook. Details of the major changes in the forecasting methodology and an evaluation of previous forecast errors are presented once a year in Volume 2 of the Outlook, the Methodology publication.

  15. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into Systems Engineering Modeling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Sean; Darpel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    During the early development of products, flight, or experimental hardware, emphasis is often given to the identification of technical requirements, utilizing such tools as use case and activity diagrams. Designers and project teams focus on understanding physical and performance demands and challenges. It is typically only later, during the evaluation of preliminary designs that a first pass, if performed, is made to determine the process, safety, and mission quality assurance requirements. Evaluation early in the life cycle, though, can yield requirements that force a fundamental change in design. This paper discusses an alternate paradigm for using the concepts of use case or activity diagrams to identify safety hazard and mission quality assurance risks and concerns using the same systems engineering modeling tools being used to identify technical requirements. It contains two examples of how this process might be used in the development of a space flight experiment, and the design of a Human Powered Pizza Delivery Vehicle, along with the potential benefits to decrease development time, and provide stronger budget estimates.

  16. Integrating the Illness Beliefs Model in clinical practice: a Family Systems Nursing knowledge utilization model.

    PubMed

    Duhamel, Fabie; Dupuis, France; Turcotte, Annie; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Goudreau, Johanne

    2015-05-01

    To promote the integration of Family Systems Nursing (FSN) in clinical practice, we need to better understand how nurses overcome the challenges of FSN knowledge utilization. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted with 32 practicing female nurses from hospital and community settings who had received FSN intervention training and skill development based on the Illness Beliefs Model and the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models. The participants were interviewed about how they utilized FSN knowledge in their nursing practice. From the data analysis, a FSN Knowledge Utilization Model emerged that involves three major components: (a) nurses' beliefs in FSN and in their FSN skills, (b) nurses' knowledge utilization strategies to address the challenges of FSN practice, and (c) FSN positive outcomes. The FSN Knowledge Utilization Model describes a circular, incremental, and iterative process used by nurses to integrate FSN in daily nursing practice. Findings point to a need for re-evaluation of educational and management strategies in clinical settings for advancing the practice of FSN.

  17. Career Planning and Computer-Based Systems: Models of Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Bowlsbey, JoAnn

    1995-01-01

    Discusses developments in computer applications in guidance and counseling, specifically the information systems and career planning emphasis systems available to counselors and their use with clients in individual or group career counseling and education. (LKS)

  18. Health Promotion Dissemination and Systems Thinking: Towards an Integrative Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Allan; Moor, Gregg; Holmes, Bev; Clark, Pamela I.; Bruce, Ted; Leischow, Scott; Buchholz, Kaye; Krajnak, Judith

    2003-01-01

    Objective:: To help close the gap between health promotion research and practice by using systems thinking. Methods: We review 3 national US tobacco control initiatives and a project (ISIS) that has introduced systems thinking to tobacco control, speculating on ways in which systems thinking may add value to health promotion dissemination and…

  19. Numerical Modeling of Pressurization of Cryogenic Propellant Tank for Integrated Vehicle Fluid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; LeClair, Andre C.; Hedayat, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of pressurization of a cryogenic propellant tank for the Integrated Vehicle Fluid (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been running tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to develop an integrated model of the tank and the pressurization system. This paper presents an iterative algorithm for converging the interface boundary conditions between different component models of a large system model. The model results have been compared with test data.

  20. Computer-aided-engineering system for modeling and analysis of ECLSS integration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepahban, Sonbol

    1987-01-01

    The accurate modeling and analysis of two-phase fluid networks found in environmental control and life support systems is presently undertaken by computer-aided engineering (CAE) techniques whose generalized fluid dynamics package can solve arbitrary flow networks. The CAE system for integrated test bed modeling and analysis will also furnish interfaces and subsystem/test-article mathematical models. Three-dimensional diagrams of the test bed are generated by the system after performing the requisite simulation and analysis.

  1. Integration of agricultural and energy system models for biofuel assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents a coupled modeling framework to capture the dynamic linkages between agricultural and energy markets that have been enhanced through the expansion of biofuel production, as well as the environmental impacts resulting from this expansion. The framework incorpor...

  2. Improving the Effectiveness of Integral Property Calculation in a CSG Solid Modeling System by Exploiting Predictability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    Integral property calculation is an important application for solid modeling systems. Algorithms for computing integral properties for various solid representation schemes are fairly well known. It is important to deigners and users of solid modeling systems to understand the behavior of such algorithms. Specifically the trade-off between execution time and accuracy is critical to effective use of integral property calculation. The average behavior of two algorithms for Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG) representations is investigated. Experimental results from the PADL-2 solid modeling system show that coarse decompositions can be used to predict execution time and error estimates for finer decompositions. Exploiting this predictability allow effective use of the algorithms in a solid modeling system.

  3. Integrated Thermal Response Modeling System For Hypersonic Entry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y.-K.; Milos, F. S.; Partridge, Harry (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe all extension of the Markov decision process model in which a continuous time dimension is included ill the state space. This allows for the representation and exact solution of a wide range of problems in which transitions or rewards vary over time. We examine problems based on route planning with public transportation and telescope observation scheduling.

  4. Integrated cumulus ensemble and turbulence (ICET): An integrated parameterization system for general circulation models (GCMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.L.; Frank, W.M.; Young, G.S.

    1996-04-01

    Successful simulations of the global circulation and climate require accurate representation of the properties of shallow and deep convective clouds, stable-layer clouds, and the interactions between various cloud types, the boundary layer, and the radiative fluxes. Each of these phenomena play an important role in the global energy balance, and each must be parameterized in a global climate model. These processes are highly interactive. One major problem limiting the accuracy of parameterizations of clouds and other processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is that most of the parameterization packages are not linked with a common physical basis. Further, these schemes have not, in general, been rigorously verified against observations adequate to the task of resolving subgrid-scale effects. To address these problems, we are designing a new Integrated Cumulus Ensemble and Turbulence (ICET) parameterization scheme, installing it in a climate model (CCM2), and evaluating the performance of the new scheme using data from Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites.

  5. Limitations of Western Medicine and Models of Integration Between Medical Systems.

    PubMed

    Attena, Francesco

    2016-05-01

    This article analyzes two major limitations of Western medicine: maturity and incompleteness. From this viewpoint, Western medicine is considered an incomplete system for the explanation of living matter. Therefore, through appropriate integration with other medical systems, in particular nonconventional approaches, its knowledge base and interpretations may be widened. This article presents possible models of integration of Western medicine with homeopathy, the latter being viewed as representative of all complementary and alternative medicine. To compare the two, a medical system was classified into three levels through which it is possible to distinguish between different medical systems: epistemological (first level), theoretical (second level), and operational (third level). These levels are based on the characterization of any medical system according to, respectively, a reference paradigm, a theory on the functioning of living matter, and clinical practice. The three levels are consistent and closely consequential in the sense that from epistemology derives theory, and from theory derives clinical practice. Within operational integration, four models were identified: contemporary, alternative, sequential, and opportunistic. Theoretical integration involves an explanation of living systems covering simultaneously the molecular and physical mechanisms of functioning living matter. Epistemological integration provides a more thorough and comprehensive explanation of the epistemic concepts of indeterminism, holism, and vitalism to complement the reductionist approach of Western medicine; concepts much discussed by Western medicine while lacking the epistemologic basis for their emplacement. Epistemologic integration could be reached with or without a true paradigm shift and, in the latter, through a model of fusion or subsumption.

  6. Lactate metabolism during exercise: analysis by an integrative systems model.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, M E; Saidel, G M; Kalhan, S C

    1999-11-01

    To provide a framework for quantitative analysis of metabolic and transport processes associated with ATP production during exercise, we adapted a recently developed model that links cellular metabolism and its control to whole body responses at rest. The enhanced model is based on dynamic mass balances for glycogen, glucose, pyruvate (PY), lactate (LA), O(2), and CO(2) and is solved numerically to simulate responses to acute (<20 min), moderate exercise (i.e., below the LA threshold, less than approximately 60% maximal rate of O(2) uptake). Simulations of responses to a step change in muscle ATP turnover predict substrate changes in muscle, splanchnic, and other tissues compartments, as well as changes in other metabolites (e.g., NADH, ADP) whose reactions are coupled to the main reactions. Even a significant (64%) decrease in muscle O(2) concentration (C(m, O(2))) did not affect muscle O(2) consumption. Model simulations of moderate exercise show that 1) muscle oxygenation is sufficient (C(m, O(2)) >2 mM) even during the transient state; 2) transient increases in concentration of muscle LA and arterial concentration of LA are associated with increases in glycolysis from increases in ADP/ATP and in LA production associated with a rise in NADH/NAD; 3) muscle ADP/ATP reaches a higher steady state that stimulates glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation to match the ATP demand; and 4) muscle NADH/NAD reaches a lower steady state that stimulates LA oxidation. It is suggested that the continuous stimulation of ATP synthesis processes during moderate exercise is mainly due to a higher ADP/ATP, not to a higher NADH/NAD. Critical measurements needed to quantify metabolic control mechanisms are identified.

  7. Marital conflict and marital intimacy: an integrative psychodynamic-behavioral-systemic model.

    PubMed

    Feldman, L B

    1979-03-01

    A conceptual model of some of the intrapsychic and interpersonal forces that stimulate and maintain repetitive, nonproductive marital conflict behavior is presented. In this model, concepts derived from psychoanalytic and social-learning theory and integrated within a family systems framework. Implications for conjoint therapy with conflictual couples are discussed.

  8. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

  9. Predicting carbon dynamics in integrated production systems in Brazil using the CQESTR model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process-based carbon models are research tools to predict management impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) and options to increase SOC stocks and reduce CO2. The CQESTR model was used to examine the effect of soil management practices, including integrated crop-livestock system (iCLS), and various sc...

  10. Social Factors in Creating an Integrated Capability for Health System Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maglio, Paul P.; Cefkin, Melissa; Haas, Peter J.; Selinger, Pat

    The health system is a complex system of systems - changes in agriculture, transportation, economics, family life, medical practices, and many other things can have a profound influence on health and health costs. Yet today, policy-level investment decisions are frequently made by modeling individual systems in isolation. We describe two sets of issues that we face in trying to develop a platform, method, and service for integrating expert models from different domains to support health policy and investment decisions. The first set of questions concerns how to develop accurate social and behavioral health models and integrate them with engineering models of transportation, clinic operations, and so forth. The second set of questions concerns the design of an environment that will encourage and facilitate collaboration between the health modelers themselves, who come from a wide variety of disciplines.

  11. The treatment of climate science in Integrated Assessment Modelling: integration of climate step function response in an energy system integrated assessment model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessens, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) are used as crucial inputs to policy-making on climate change. These models simulate aspect of the economy and climate system to deliver future projections and to explore the impact of mitigation and adaptation policies. The IAMs' climate representation is extremely important as it can have great influence on future political action. The step-function-response is a simple climate model recently developed by the UK Met Office and is an alternate method of estimating the climate response to an emission trajectory directly from global climate model step simulations. Good et al., (2013) have formulated a method of reconstructing general circulation models (GCMs) climate response to emission trajectories through an idealized experiment. This method is called the "step-response approach" after and is based on an idealized abrupt CO2 step experiment results. TIAM-UCL is a technology-rich model that belongs to the family of, partial-equilibrium, bottom-up models, developed at University College London to represent a wide spectrum of energy systems in 16 regions of the globe (Anandarajah et al. 2011). The model uses optimisation functions to obtain cost-efficient solutions, in meeting an exogenously defined set of energy-service demands, given certain technological and environmental constraints. Furthermore, it employs linear programming techniques making the step function representation of the climate change response adapted to the model mathematical formulation. For the first time, we have introduced the "step-response approach" method developed at the UK Met Office in an IAM, the TIAM-UCL energy system, and we investigate the main consequences of this modification on the results of the model in term of climate and energy system responses. The main advantage of this approach (apart from the low computational cost it entails) is that its results are directly traceable to the GCM involved and closely connected to well-known methods of

  12. An Evaluation Model To Select an Integrated Learning System in a Large, Suburban School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlette, William L.; And Others

    The systematic evaluation process used in Georgia's DeKalb County School System to purchase comprehensive instructional software--an integrated learning system (ILS)--is described, and the decision-making model for selection is presented. Selection and implementation of an ILS were part of an instructional technology plan for the DeKalb schools…

  13. Bioinformatics for transporter pharmacogenomics and systems biology: data integration and modeling with UML.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    Bioinformatics is the rational study at an abstract level that can influence the way we understand biomedical facts and the way we apply the biomedical knowledge. Bioinformatics is facing challenges in helping with finding the relationships between genetic structures and functions, analyzing genotype-phenotype associations, and understanding gene-environment interactions at the systems level. One of the most important issues in bioinformatics is data integration. The data integration methods introduced here can be used to organize and integrate both public and in-house data. With the volume of data and the high complexity, computational decision support is essential for integrative transporter studies in pharmacogenomics, nutrigenomics, epigenetics, and systems biology. For the development of such a decision support system, object-oriented (OO) models can be constructed using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). A methodology is developed to build biomedical models at different system levels and construct corresponding UML diagrams, including use case diagrams, class diagrams, and sequence diagrams. By OO modeling using UML, the problems of transporter pharmacogenomics and systems biology can be approached from different angles with a more complete view, which may greatly enhance the efforts in effective drug discovery and development. Bioinformatics resources of membrane transporters and general bioinformatics databases and tools that are frequently used in transporter studies are also collected here. An informatics decision support system based on the models presented here is available at http://www.pharmtao.com/transporter . The methodology developed here can also be used for other biomedical fields.

  14. Path integral and boson-fermion expansion in many-fermion systems: Lipkin model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, K. )

    1989-11-01

    In a previous paper, a quantum-mechanical formulation involving both mean fields and independent-particle fields in many-fermion systems was proposed using the path-integral technique. Then the semiclassical calculation of the energy spectra was performed, and the quantization rule was derived by applying a stationary phase approximation on the path integral. In this paper, a boson-fermion expansion is derived from our formulation using Dirac quantization. As an illustration, the Lipkin model is utilized.

  15. Measured system component development for the night vision integrated performance model (NV-IPM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Haefner, David P.

    2016-05-01

    The Night Vision Integrated Performance Model (NV-IPM) introduced a variety of measured system components in version 1.6 of the model. These measured system components enable the characterization of systems based on lab measurements which treat the system as a `black-box.' This encapsulation of individual component terms into higher level measurable quantities circumvents the need to develop costly, time-consuming measurement techniques for each individual input term. Each of the `black-box' system components were developed based upon the minimum required system level measurements for a particular type of imaging system. The measured system hierarchy also includes components for cases where a very limited number of measurements are possible. We discuss the development of the measured system components, the transition of lab measurements into model inputs, and any assumptions inherent to this process.

  16. Automatic Generation of Integrated Formal Models Corresponding to UML System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treharne, Helen; Turner, Edward; Paige, Richard F.; Kolovos, Dimitrios S.

    This paper presents a complex model transformation that takes two related UML models as input (class diagrams and state machines) and outputs an integrated formal model. The transformation is achieved using the Epsilon model management framework and has involved the definition of new CSP and B metamodels. The target model is a CSPB specification (a fusion of CSP and B) that can be used to analyse the source UML. Through a comparative study we conclude that the code written using Epsilon is more concise than the equivalent model-to-text transformation achieved using the iUML toolset.

  17. Development Of An Open System For Integration Of Heterogeneous Models For Flood Forecasting And Hazard Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W.; Tsai, W.; Lin, F.; Lin, S.; Lien, H.; Chung, T.; Huang, L.; Lee, K.; Chang, C.

    2008-12-01

    During a typhoon or a heavy storm event, using various forecasting models to predict rainfall intensity, and water level variation in rivers and flood situation in the urban area is able to reveal its capability technically. However, in practice, the following two causes tend to restrain the further application of these models as a decision support system (DSS) for the hazard mitigation. The first one is due to the difficulty of integration of heterogeneous models. One has to take into consideration the different using format of models, such as input files, output files, computational requirements, and so on. The second one is that the development of DSS requires, due to the heterogeneity of models and systems, a friendly user interface or platform to hide the complexity of various tools from users. It is expected that users can be governmental officials rather than professional experts, therefore the complicated interface of DSS is not acceptable. Based on the above considerations, in the present study, we develop an open system for integration of several simulation models for flood forecasting by adopting the FEWS (Flood Early Warning System) platform developed by WL | Delft Hydraulics. It allows us to link heterogeneous models effectively and provides suitable display modules. In addition, FEWS also has been adopted by Water Resource Agency (WRA), Taiwan as the standard operational system for river flooding management. That means this work can be much easily integrated with the use of practical cases. In the present study, based on FEWS platform, the basin rainfall-runoff model, SOBEK channel-routing model, and estuary tide forecasting model are linked and integrated through the physical connection of model initial and boundary definitions. The work flow of the integrated processes of models is shown in Fig. 1. This differs from the typical single model linking used in FEWS, which only aims at data exchange but without much physical consideration. So it really

  18. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-04-01

    The general goals of this research project is to enhance and transfer to DOE a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for coal-fired power plants. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model parameters. This capability allows performance and cost to be quantified stochastically in comparing conventional technologies with advanced systems offering improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE have been selected for detailed modeling and analysis as part of this project.

  19. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-04-01

    The general goals of this research project is to enhance and transfer to DOE a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for coal-fired power plants. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model parameters. This capability allows performance and cost to be quantified stochastically in comparing conventional technologies with advanced systems offering improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE have been selected for detailed modeling and analysis as part of this project.

  20. Comparison of the accuracy of the calibration model on the double and single integrating sphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Karsten, A.

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy of the calibration model for the single and double integrating sphere systems are compared for a white light system. A calibration model is created from a matrix of samples with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients. In this instance the samples are made using different concentrations of intralipid and black ink. The total and diffuse transmittance and reflectance is measured on both setups and the accuracy of each model compared by evaluating the prediction errors of the calibration model for the different systems. Current results indicate that the single integrating sphere setup is more accurate than the double system method. This is based on the low prediction errors of the model for the single sphere system for a He-Ne laser as well as a white light source. The model still needs to be refined for more absorption factors. Tests on the prediction accuracies were then determined by extracting the optical properties of solid resin based phantoms for each system. When these properties of the phantoms were used as input to the modeling software excellent agreement between measured and simulated data was found for the single sphere systems.

  1. Chemical Transformation System: Cloud Based Cheminformatic Services to Support Integrated Environmental Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated Environmental Modeling (IEM) systems that account for the fate/transport of organics frequently require physicochemical properties as well as transformation products. A myriad of chemical property databases exist but these can be difficult to access and often do not co...

  2. A data integration approach for cell cycle analysis oriented to model simulation in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Alfieri, Roberta; Merelli, Ivan; Mosca, Ettore; Milanesi, Luciano

    2007-01-01

    Background The cell cycle is one of the biological processes most frequently investigated in systems biology studies and it involves the knowledge of a large number of genes and networks of protein interactions. A deep knowledge of the molecular aspect of this biological process can contribute to making cancer research more accurate and innovative. In this context the mathematical modelling of the cell cycle has a relevant role to quantify the behaviour of each component of the systems. The mathematical modelling of a biological process such as the cell cycle allows a systemic description that helps to highlight some features such as emergent properties which could be hidden when the analysis is performed only from a reductionism point of view. Moreover, in modelling complex systems, a complete annotation of all the components is equally important to understand the interaction mechanism inside the network: for this reason data integration of the model components has high relevance in systems biology studies. Description In this work, we present a resource, the Cell Cycle Database, intended to support systems biology analysis on the Cell Cycle process, based on two organisms, yeast and mammalian. The database integrates information about genes and proteins involved in the cell cycle process, stores complete models of the interaction networks and allows the mathematical simulation over time of the quantitative behaviour of each component. To accomplish this task, we developed, a web interface for browsing information related to cell cycle genes, proteins and mathematical models. In this framework, we have implemented a pipeline which allows users to deal with the mathematical part of the models, in order to solve, using different variables, the ordinary differential equation systems that describe the biological process. Conclusion This integrated system is freely available in order to support systems biology research on the cell cycle and it aims to become a useful

  3. Options of system integrated environment modelling in the predicated dynamic cyberspace

    SciTech Connect

    Janková, Martina; Dvořák, Jiří

    2015-03-10

    In this article there are briefly mentioned some selected options of contemporary conception of cybernetic system models in the corresponding and possible integratable environment with modern system dynamics thinking and all this in the cyberspace of possible projecting of predicted system characteristics. The key to new capabilities of system integration modelling in the considered cyberspace is mainly the ability to improve the environment and the system integration options, all this with the aim of modern control in the hierarchically arranged dynamic cyberspace, e.g. in the currently desired electronic business with information. The aim of this article is to assess generally the trends in the use of modern modelling methods considering the cybernetics applications verified in practice, modern concept of project management and also the potential integration of artificial intelligence in the new projecting and project management of integratable and intelligent models, e.g. with the optimal structures and adaptable behaviour.The article results from the solution of a specific research partial task at the faculty; especially the moments proving that the new economics will be based more and more on information, knowledge system defined cyberspace of modern management, are stressed in the text.

  4. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-10-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period July 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused primarily on the completion, testing and documentation of the NO{sub x}SO process model. The sections below present the details of these developments.

  5. Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink(Registered TradeMark) (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.

  6. Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.

  7. Modeling Framework and Validation of a Smart Grid and Demand Response System for Wind Power Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Broeer, Torsten; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, David P.; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-31

    Electricity generation from wind power and other renewable energy sources is increasing, and their variability introduces new challenges to the power system. The emergence of smart grid technologies in recent years has seen a paradigm shift in redefining the electrical system of the future, in which controlled response of the demand side is used to balance fluctuations and intermittencies from the generation side. This paper presents a modeling framework for an integrated electricity system where loads become an additional resource. The agent-based model represents a smart grid power system integrating generators, transmission, distribution, loads and market. The model incorporates generator and load controllers, allowing suppliers and demanders to bid into a Real-Time Pricing (RTP) electricity market. The modeling framework is applied to represent a physical demonstration project conducted on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA, and validation simulations are performed using actual dynamic data. Wind power is then introduced into the power generation mix illustrating the potential of demand response to mitigate the impact of wind power variability, primarily through thermostatically controlled loads. The results also indicate that effective implementation of Demand Response (DR) to assist integration of variable renewable energy resources requires a diversity of loads to ensure functionality of the overall system.

  8. Integration of multiple land surface models into NASA's Carbon Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikka, M.; Fisher, J. B.; Schwalm, C. R.; Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Huntzinger, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's Carbon Monitoring System Flux (CMS-Flux) integrates NASA remote sensing and modeling capabilities with emphasis on CO2 fluxes between the land (incl. fossil fuel), ocean, and atmosphere. CMS-Flux is distinguished by two foci: cross-component expertise, and exploitation of new global satellite observations of atmospheric CO2 (XCO2) from JAXA's GOSAT and NASA's imminent OCO-2. Critical objectives of CMS-Flux include the spatiotemporal representation of flux uncertainty within the carbon cycle and the assessment of where the integration of remote sensing carbon data across components can reduce that uncertainty. One of the largest uncertainties in the global carbon cycle is from the terrestrial biosphere, and we asked how atmospheric CO2 observations can constrain terrestrial biosphere carbon flux estimates. To address this, we provided the CMS-Flux atmospheric inversion model (which is driven by XCO2) with terrestrial biosphere flux estimates using 10 process models from the Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) as a prior estimate of land flux. We show here the system of integrating the benchmark-weighted multi-model mean and variability of MsTMIP land models into the atmospheric system, and present results on how coupling these two cutting-edge land and atmospheric components reduces uncertainty in the global carbon cycle.

  9. Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPS), executable model and source model (version 5.a) (on diskette). Model-Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    The Integrated Air Pollution Control System (IAPCS) Cost Model was developed to estimate costs and performance for emission control systems applied to coal-fired utility boilers. The model can project a material balance, an equipment list, and capital investment and revenue requirements based on user-specified input data. The model includes conventional and emerging technologies for controlling nitrogen oxides (NOX), sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter emissions. A variety of technology modules built into the model can be incorporated and combined. Cost and performance estimates can be analyzed in terms of integrated technologies. Conventional and emerging technologies included are low NOX combustion (overfire air/low NOX burners), natural gas reburning, advanced gas reburning, selective catalytic reduction, selective noncatalytic reduction, limestone injection multistage burners, the advanced silicate process, wet limestone flue gas desulfurization, dry sorbent injection, physical coal cleaning, coal switching, lime spray drying, spray humidification, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, the integrated gasfication combined cycle process, and pulverized coal burning boilers. The following revisions have been made to version 5.a: - Addition of Gas Substitution (GS) to the Natural Gas Reburning (NGR) and Advanced Gas Reburning (AGR) Module. Gas Substitution (GS) was added to allow the user to estimate the cost of substituting natural gas for coal in a utility boiler. - Flue Gas Flow Rate Revision. The user can now choose to use coal analyses to compute the mass and volumetric flue gas flow rate. Previously, an F-Factor was used, which calculated flue gas flow rate as a function of heat input to the boiler (dscf/MMBtu). ADVACATE Revision. The maximum size of a tower mill is 60 MW. The previous ADVACATE cost equations were based on a tower mill size of 100 MW.

  10. The integrated Earth System Model (iESM): formulation and functionality

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Collins, W. D.; Craig, A. P.; Truesdale, J. E.; Di Vittorio, A. V.; Jones, A. D.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Calvin, K. V.; Edmonds, J. A.; Kim, S. H.; Thomson, A. M.; et al

    2015-01-21

    The integrated Earth System Model (iESM) has been developed as a new tool for projecting the joint human/climate system. The iESM is based upon coupling an Integrated Assessment Model (IAM) and an Earth System Model (ESM) into a common modeling infrastructure. IAMs are the primary tool for describing the human–Earth system, including the sources of global greenhouse gases (GHGs) and short-lived species, land use and land cover change, and other resource-related drivers of anthropogenic climate change. ESMs are the primary scientific tools for examining the physical, chemical, and biogeochemical impacts of human-induced changes to the climate system. The iESM projectmore » integrates the economic and human dimension modeling of an IAM and a fully coupled ESM within a single simulation system while maintaining the separability of each model if needed. Both IAM and ESM codes are developed and used by large communities and have been extensively applied in recent national and international climate assessments. By introducing heretofore-omitted feedbacks between natural and societal drivers, we can improve scientific understanding of the human–Earth system dynamics. Potential applications include studies of the interactions and feedbacks leading to the timing, scale, and geographic distribution of emissions trajectories and other human influences, corresponding climate effects, and the subsequent impacts of a changing climate on human and natural systems. This paper describes the formulation, requirements, implementation, testing, and resulting functionality of the first version of the iESM released to the global climate community.« less

  11. The blackboard model - A framework for integrating multiple cooperating expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    The use of an artificial intelligence (AI) architecture known as the blackboard model is examined as a framework for designing and building distributed systems requiring the integration of multiple cooperating expert systems (MCXS). Aerospace vehicles provide many examples of potential systems, ranging from commercial and military aircraft to spacecraft such as satellites, the Space Shuttle, and the Space Station. One such system, free-flying, spaceborne telerobots to be used in construction, servicing, inspection, and repair tasks around NASA's Space Station, is examined. The major difficulties found in designing and integrating the individual expert system components necessary to implement such a robot are outlined. The blackboard model, a general expert system architecture which seems to address many of the problems found in designing and building such a system, is discussed. A progress report on a prototype system under development called DBB (Distributed BlackBoard model) is given. The prototype will act as a testbed for investigating the feasibility, utility, and efficiency of MCXS-based designs developed under the blackboard model.

  12. Integration of Biogeochemistry and Marine Ecosystem Model in Mercator-Ocean Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Moussaoui, Abdelali; Dombrowsky, Eric; Moulin, Cyril; Bopp, Laurent; Aumont, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Accounting for ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem dynamic is of strong interest in the context of Earth System modelling to better represent the marine component to the global atmospheric cycle of greenhouse gazes that influence climate as CO2. Furthermore, treating the ocean as a whole is also the way to address large anthropogenic impacts on marine systems as climate change, nutrients loading, acidification, and eventually overfishing and habitat destructuring. To forecast how interactions between marine biogeochemical cycles and ecosystems respond to and force global change, several efforts have been promoted on biogeochemical integration into operational Mercator Ocean systems. The aim of this work is to implement a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem component at global scale into the MERCATOR operational system, using first PSY3 analysis at 1/4° then PSY4 at 1/12°. Previous works have conducted successfully the integration of a multi-nutrient and multi-plankton biogeochemical model (PISCES, N5P2Z2D2 type) into MERCATOR system. This allowed the use of MERCATOR operational analyses to drive near real time forecast of marine primary production. Results will be shown and advances on biogeochemical model integration within Mercator Systems will be discussed.

  13. Developing a Fundamental Model for an Integrated GPS/INS State Estimation System with Kalman Filtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This work will demonstrate the integration of sensor and system dynamic data and their appropriate models using an optimal filter to create a robust, adaptable, easily reconfigurable state (motion) estimation system. This state estimation system will clearly show the application of fundamental modeling and filtering techniques. These techniques are presented at a general, first principles level, that can easily be adapted to specific applications. An example of such an application is demonstrated through the development of an integrated GPS/INS navigation system. This system acquires both global position data and inertial body data, to provide optimal estimates of current position and attitude states. The optimal states are estimated using a Kalman filter. The state estimation system will include appropriate error models for the measurement hardware. The results of this work will lead to the development of a "black-box" state estimation system that supplies current motion information (position and attitude states) that can be used to carry out guidance and control strategies. This black-box state estimation system is developed independent of the vehicle dynamics and therefore is directly applicable to a variety of vehicles. Issues in system modeling and application of Kalman filtering techniques are investigated and presented. These issues include linearized models of equations of state, models of the measurement sensors, and appropriate application and parameter setting (tuning) of the Kalman filter. The general model and subsequent algorithm is developed in Matlab for numerical testing. The results of this system are demonstrated through application to data from the X-33 Michael's 9A8 mission and are presented in plots and simple animations.

  14. Modeling, control and integration of a portable solid oxide fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Puran

    This thesis presents an innovative method for the modeling, control and integration of a portable hybrid solid oxide fuel cell system. The control and integration of the fuel cell system is important not only for its efficient operation, but also for issues related to safety and reliability. System modeling is needed in order to facilitate the controller design. Mathematical models of the various components of the system are built in the matlab/simulink environment. Dynamic modeling of the fuel cell stack, catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX) reformer, heat exchanger, tail gas combustor and tail gas splitter of the balance of plant system is performed first. Followed by, modeling of the three input DC/DC converter and energy storage devices (battery and supercapacitor). A two-level control approach, higher level and lower level, is adopted in this research. Each of the two major subsystems, balance of plant subsystem and power electronics subsystem, has its own local level controller (called lower level controller) that are designed such that they follow exactly the command reference from a higher level controller. The higher level controller is an intelligent controller that makes decisions about how the lower level or local controllers should perform based on the status of fuel cell, energy storage device and external load demand. Linear analysis has been done for the design and development of the local controllers as appropriate. For the higher level controller, a finite state machine model is developed and implemented using stateflow and fuzzy logic toolboxes of matlab. Simulations are carried out for the integrated system. The simulation results verify that the controllers are robust in performance during the transient condition when the energy storage devices supplement fuel cells. The temperature and flow rates of the fuel and air are controlled as desired. The output from the designed fuel cell system is a regulated DC voltage, which verifies the overall

  15. Integrated risk/cost planning models for the US Air Traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulvey, J. M.; Zenios, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    A prototype network planning model for the U.S. Air Traffic control system is described. The model encompasses the dual objectives of managing collision risks and transportation costs where traffic flows can be related to these objectives. The underlying structure is a network graph with nonseparable convex costs; the model is solved efficiently by capitalizing on its intrinsic characteristics. Two specialized algorithms for solving the resulting problems are described: (1) truncated Newton, and (2) simplicial decomposition. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated using data collected from a control center in the Midwest. Computational results with different computer systems are presented, including a vector supercomputer (CRAY-XMP). The risk/cost model has two primary uses: (1) as a strategic planning tool using aggregate flight information, and (2) as an integrated operational system for forecasting congestion and monitoring (controlling) flow throughout the U.S. In the latter case, access to a supercomputer is required due to the model's enormous size.

  16. Flexible Approximation Model Approach for Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw; Kim, Hongman; Ragon, Scott; Soremekun, Grant; Malone, Brett

    2004-01-01

    Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis (BLISS) is an approach that allows design problems to be naturally decomposed into a set of subsystem optimizations and a single system optimization. In the BLISS approach, approximate mathematical models are used to transfer information from the subsystem optimizations to the system optimization. Accurate approximation models are therefore critical to the success of the BLISS procedure. In this paper, new capabilities that are being developed to generate accurate approximation models for BLISS procedure will be described. The benefits of using flexible approximation models such as Kriging will be demonstrated in terms of convergence characteristics and computational cost. An approach of dealing with cases where subsystem optimization cannot find a feasible design will be investigated by using the new flexible approximation models for the violated local constraints.

  17. Collaborative modelling and integrated decision support system analysis of a developed terminal lake basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niswonger, Richard; Allander, Kip K.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    A terminal lake basin in west-central Nevada, Walker Lake, has undergone drastic change over the past 90 yrs due to upstream water use for agriculture. Decreased inflows to the lake have resulted in 100 km2 decrease in lake surface area and a total loss of fisheries due to salinization. The ecologic health of Walker Lake is of great concern as the lake is a stopover point on the Pacific route for migratory birds from within and outside the United States. Stakeholders, water institutions, and scientists have engaged in collaborative modeling and the development of a decision support system that is being used to develop and analyze management change options to restore the lake. Here we use an integrated management and hydrologic model that relies on state-of-the-art simulation capabilities to evaluate the benefits of using integrated hydrologic models as components of a decision support system. Nonlinear feedbacks among climate, surface-water and groundwater exchanges, and water use present challenges for simulating realistic outcomes associated with management change. Integrated management and hydrologic modeling provides a means of simulating benefits associated with management change in the Walker River basin where drastic changes in the hydrologic landscape have taken place over the last century. Through the collaborative modeling process, stakeholder support is increasing and possibly leading to management change options that result in reductions in Walker Lake salt concentrations, as simulated by the decision support system.

  18. Collaborative modelling and integrated decision support system analysis of a developed terminal lake basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niswonger, Richard G.; Allander, Kip K.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-09-01

    A terminal lake basin in west-central Nevada, Walker Lake, has undergone drastic change over the past 90 yrs due to upstream water use for agriculture. Decreased inflows to the lake have resulted in 100 km2 decrease in lake surface area and a total loss of fisheries due to salinization. The ecologic health of Walker Lake is of great concern as the lake is a stopover point on the Pacific route for migratory birds from within and outside the United States. Stakeholders, water institutions, and scientists have engaged in collaborative modeling and the development of a decision support system that is being used to develop and analyze management change options to restore the lake. Here we use an integrated management and hydrologic model that relies on state-of-the-art simulation capabilities to evaluate the benefits of using integrated hydrologic models as components of a decision support system. Nonlinear feedbacks among climate, surface-water and groundwater exchanges, and water use present challenges for simulating realistic outcomes associated with management change. Integrated management and hydrologic modeling provides a means of simulating benefits associated with management change in the Walker River basin where drastic changes in the hydrologic landscape have taken place over the last century. Through the collaborative modeling process, stakeholder support is increasing and possibly leading to management change options that result in reductions in Walker Lake salt concentrations, as simulated by the decision support system.

  19. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Douglas J.; Kerstman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and approach for the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software decision support tool that forecasts medical events during spaceflight and optimizes medical systems during simulations. It includes information on the software capabilities, program stakeholders, use history, and the software logic.

  20. Integrating the system dynamic and cellular automata models to predict land use and land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoming; Du, Ziqiang; Zhang, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is a widely researched topic in related studies. A number of models have been established to simulate LULCC patterns. However, the integration of the system dynamic (SD) and the cellular automata (CA) model have been rarely employed in LULCC simulations, although it allows for combining the advantages of each approach and therefore improving the simulation accuracy. In this study, we integrated an SD model and a CA model to predict LULCC under three future development scenarios in Northern Shanxi province of China, a typical agro-pastoral transitional zone. The results indicated that our integrated approach represented the impacts of natural and socioeconomic factors on LULCC well, and could accurately simulate the magnitude and spatial pattern of LULCC. The modeling scenarios illustrated that different development pathways would lead to various LULCC patterns. This study demonstrated the advantages of the integration approach for simulating LULCC and suggests that LULCC is affected to a large degree by natural and socioeconomic factors.

  1. Integrating the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM) and optical instrument models to model complete visual optical systems inclusive of the typical or atypical eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, William J., III

    2012-06-01

    PURPOSE: To present a commercially available optical modeling software tool to assist the development of optical instrumentation and systems that utilize and/or integrate with the human eye. METHODS: A commercially available flexible eye modeling system is presented, the Advanced Human Eye Model (AHEM). AHEM is a module that the engineer can use to perform rapid development and test scenarios on systems that integrate with the eye. Methods include merging modeled systems initially developed outside of AHEM and performing a series of wizard-type operations that relieve the user from requiring an optometric or ophthalmic background to produce a complete eye inclusive system. Scenarios consist of retinal imaging of targets and sources through integrated systems. Uses include, but are not limited to, optimization, telescopes, microscopes, spectacles, contact and intraocular lenses, ocular aberrations, cataract simulation and scattering, and twin eye model (binocular) systems. RESULTS: Metrics, graphical data, and exportable CAD geometry are generated from the various modeling scenarios.

  2. Integrating 3D geological information with a national physically-based hydrological modelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Elizabeth; Parkin, Geoff; Kessler, Holger; Whiteman, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Robust numerical models are an essential tool for informing flood and water management and policy around the world. Physically-based hydrological models have traditionally not been used for such applications due to prohibitively large data, time and computational resource requirements. Given recent advances in computing power and data availability, a robust, physically-based hydrological modelling system for Great Britain using the SHETRAN model and national datasets has been created. Such a model has several advantages over less complex systems. Firstly, compared with conceptual models, a national physically-based model is more readily applicable to ungauged catchments, in which hydrological predictions are also required. Secondly, the results of a physically-based system may be more robust under changing conditions such as climate and land cover, as physical processes and relationships are explicitly accounted for. Finally, a fully integrated surface and subsurface model such as SHETRAN offers a wider range of applications compared with simpler schemes, such as assessments of groundwater resources, sediment and nutrient transport and flooding from multiple sources. As such, SHETRAN provides a robust means of simulating numerous terrestrial system processes which will add physical realism when coupled to the JULES land surface model. 306 catchments spanning Great Britain have been modelled using this system. The standard configuration of this system performs satisfactorily (NSE > 0.5) for 72% of catchments and well (NSE > 0.7) for 48%. Many of the remaining 28% of catchments that performed relatively poorly (NSE < 0.5) are located in the chalk in the south east of England. As such, the British Geological Survey 3D geology model for Great Britain (GB3D) has been incorporated, for the first time in any hydrological model, to pave the way for improvements to be made to simulations of catchments with important groundwater regimes. This coupling has involved

  3. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (I): Methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Ye, Yushi

    2015-12-01

    Due to the adaption, dynamic and multi-objective characteristics of complex water resources system, it is a considerable challenge to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable way. An integrated optimal allocation model is proposed for complex adaptive system of water resources management. The model consists of three modules: (1) an agent-based module for revealing evolution mechanism of complex adaptive system using agent-based, system dynamic and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II methods, (2) an optimal module for deriving decision set of water resources allocation using multi-objective genetic algorithm, and (3) a multi-objective evaluation module for evaluating the efficiency of the optimal module and selecting the optimal water resources allocation scheme using project pursuit method. This study has provided a theoretical framework for adaptive allocation, dynamic allocation and multi-objective optimization for a complex adaptive system of water resources management.

  4. Space station ECLSS integration analysis: Simplified General Cluster Systems Model, ECLS System Assessment Program enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The data base verification of the ECLS Systems Assessment Program (ESAP) was documented and changes made to enhance the flexibility of the water recovery subsystem simulations are given. All changes which were made to the data base values are described and the software enhancements performed. The refined model documented herein constitutes the submittal of the General Cluster Systems Model. A source listing of the current version of ESAP is provided in Appendix A.

  5. An integrated water system model considering hydrological and biogeochemical processes at basin scale: model construction and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Shao, Q. X.; Ye, A. Z.; Xing, H. T.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated water system modeling is a reasonable approach to provide scientific understanding and possible solutions to tackle the severe water crisis faced over the world and to promote the implementation of integrated river basin management. Such a modeling practice becomes more feasible nowadays due to better computing facilities and available data sources. In this study, the process-oriented water system model (HEXM) is developed by integrating multiple water related processes including hydrology, biogeochemistry, environment and ecology, as well as the interference of human activities. The model was tested in the Shaying River Catchment, the largest, highly regulated and heavily polluted tributary of Huai River Basin in China. The results show that: HEXM is well integrated with good performance on the key water related components in the complex catchments. The simulated daily runoff series at all the regulated and less-regulated stations matches observations, especially for the high and low flow events. The average values of correlation coefficient and coefficient of efficiency are 0.81 and 0.63, respectively. The dynamics of observed daily ammonia-nitrogen (NH4N) concentration, as an important index to assess water environmental quality in China, are well captured with average correlation coefficient of 0.66. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of nonpoint source pollutant load and grain yield are also simulated properly, and the outputs have good agreements with the statistics at city scale. Our model shows clear superior performance in both calibration and validation in comparison with the widely used SWAT model. This model is expected to give a strong reference for water system modeling in complex basins, and provide the scientific foundation for the implementation of integrated river basin management all over the world as well as the technical guide for the reasonable regulation of dams and sluices and environmental improvement in river basins.

  6. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beam lines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical change with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP, and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are imbedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed these application programs for a fourth time. This time, however, the programs we are developing are generic so that we will not have to do it again. We have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Generic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs.

  7. GOLD: Integration of model-based control systems with artificial intelligence and workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Clearwater, S.

    1987-08-01

    Our experience with model-based accelerator control started at SPEAR. Since that time nearly all accelerator beamlines have been controlled using model-based application programs, for example, PEP and SLC at SLAC. In order to take advantage of state-of-the-art hardware and software technology, the design and implementation of the accelerator control programs have undergone radical changes with time. Consequently, SPEAR, PEP and SLC all use different control programs. Since many of these application programs are embedded deep into the control system, they had to be rewritten each time. Each time this rewriting has occurred a great deal of time and effort has been spent on training physicists and programmers to do the job. Now, we have developed an integrated system called GOLD (Genetic Orbit and Lattice Debugger) for debugging and correcting trajectory errors in accelerator lattices. The system consists of a lattice modeling program (COMFORT), a beam simulator (PLUS), a graphical workstation environment (micro-VAX) and an expert system (ABLE). This paper will describe some of the features and applications of our integrated system with emphasis on the automation offered by expert systems. 5 refs.

  8. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  9. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-05-16

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China.

  10. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  11. Integrated System-Level Optimization for Concurrent Engineering With Parametric Subsystem Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuman, Todd; DeWeck, Oliver L.; Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of concurrent design practices to the aerospace industry has greatly increased the productivity of engineers and teams during design sessions as demonstrated by JPL's Team X. Simultaneously, advances in computing power have given rise to a host of potent numerical optimization methods capable of solving complex multidisciplinary optimization problems containing hundreds of variables, constraints, and governing equations. Unfortunately, such methods are tedious to set up and require significant amounts of time and processor power to execute, thus making them unsuitable for rapid concurrent engineering use. This paper proposes a framework for Integration of System-Level Optimization with Concurrent Engineering (ISLOCE). It uses parametric neural-network approximations of the subsystem models. These approximations are then linked to a system-level optimizer that is capable of reaching a solution quickly due to the reduced complexity of the approximations. The integration structure is described in detail and applied to the multiobjective design of a simplified Space Shuttle external fuel tank model. Further, a comparison is made between the new framework and traditional concurrent engineering (without system optimization) through an experimental trial with two groups of engineers. Each method is evaluated in terms of optimizer accuracy, time to solution, and ease of use. The results suggest that system-level optimization, running as a background process during integrated concurrent engineering sessions, is potentially advantageous as long as it is judiciously implemented.

  12. Modeling systems-level dynamics: Understanding without mechanistic explanation in integrative systems biology.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Miles; Nersessian, Nancy J

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we draw upon rich ethnographic data of two systems biology labs to explore the roles of explanation and understanding in large-scale systems modeling. We illustrate practices that depart from the goal of dynamic mechanistic explanation for the sake of more limited modeling goals. These processes use abstract mathematical formulations of bio-molecular interactions and data fitting techniques which we call top-down abstraction to trade away accurate mechanistic accounts of large-scale systems for specific information about aspects of those systems. We characterize these practices as pragmatic responses to the constraints many modelers of large-scale systems face, which in turn generate more limited pragmatic non-mechanistic forms of understanding of systems. These forms aim at knowledge of how to predict system responses in order to manipulate and control some aspects of them. We propose that this analysis of understanding provides a way to interpret what many systems biologists are aiming for in practice when they talk about the objective of a "systems-level understanding."

  13. Integration of the virtual 3D model of a control system with the virtual controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbuś, K.; Ociepka, P.

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays the design process includes simulation analysis of different components of a constructed object. It involves the need for integration of different virtual object to simulate the whole investigated technical system. The paper presents the issues related to the integration of a virtual 3D model of a chosen control system of with a virtual controller. The goal of integration is to verify the operation of an adopted object of in accordance with the established control program. The object of the simulation work is the drive system of a tunneling machine for trenchless work. In the first stage of work was created an interactive visualization of functioning of the 3D virtual model of a tunneling machine. For this purpose, the software of the VR (Virtual Reality) class was applied. In the elaborated interactive application were created adequate procedures allowing controlling the drive system of a translatory motion, a rotary motion and the drive system of a manipulator. Additionally was created the procedure of turning on and off the output crushing head, mounted on the last element of the manipulator. In the elaborated interactive application have been established procedures for receiving input data from external software, on the basis of the dynamic data exchange (DDE), which allow controlling actuators of particular control systems of the considered machine. In the next stage of work, the program on a virtual driver, in the ladder diagram (LD) language, was created. The control program was developed on the basis of the adopted work cycle of the tunneling machine. The element integrating the virtual model of the tunneling machine for trenchless work with the virtual controller is the application written in a high level language (Visual Basic). In the developed application was created procedures responsible for collecting data from the running, in a simulation mode, virtual controller and transferring them to the interactive application, in which is verified the

  14. Complete atomistic model of a bacterial cytoplasm for integrating physics, biochemistry, and systems biology.

    PubMed

    Feig, Michael; Harada, Ryuhei; Mori, Takaharu; Yu, Isseki; Takahashi, Koichi; Sugita, Yuji

    2015-05-01

    A model for the cytoplasm of Mycoplasma genitalium is presented that integrates data from a variety of sources into a physically and biochemically consistent model. Based on gene annotations, core genes expected to be present in the cytoplasm were determined and a metabolic reaction network was reconstructed. The set of cytoplasmic genes and metabolites from the predicted reactions were assembled into a comprehensive atomistic model consisting of proteins with predicted structures, RNA, protein/RNA complexes, metabolites, ions, and solvent. The resulting model bridges between atomistic and cellular scales, between physical and biochemical aspects, and between structural and systems views of cellular systems and is meant as a starting point for a variety of simulation studies.

  15. Complete Atomistic Model of a Bacterial Cytoplasm for Integrating Physics, Biochemistry, and Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Feig, Michael; Harada, Ryuhei; Mori, Takaharu; Yu, Isseki; Takahashi, Koichi; Sugita, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    A model for the cytoplasm of Mycoplasma genitalium is presented that integrates data from a variety of sources into a physically and biochemically consistent model. Based on gene annotations, core genes expected to be present in the cytoplasm were determined and a metabolic reaction network was reconstructed. The set of cytoplasmic genes and metabolites from the predicted reactions were assembled into a comprehensive atomistic model consisting of proteins with predicted structures, RNA, protein/RNA complexes, metabolites, ions, and solvent. The resulting model bridges between atomistic and cellular scales, between physical and biochemical aspects, and between structural and systems views of cellular systems and is meant as a starting point for a variety of simulation studies. PMID:25765281

  16. Root Systems Biology: Integrative Modeling across Scales, from Gene Regulatory Networks to the Rhizosphere1

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kristine; Porco, Silvana; Lobet, Guillaume; Zappala, Susan; Mooney, Sacha; Draye, Xavier; Bennett, Malcolm J.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and genomic approaches in model organisms have advanced our understanding of root biology over the last decade. Recently, however, systems biology and modeling have emerged as important approaches, as our understanding of root regulatory pathways has become more complex and interpreting pathway outputs has become less intuitive. To relate root genotype to phenotype, we must move beyond the examination of interactions at the genetic network scale and employ multiscale modeling approaches to predict emergent properties at the tissue, organ, organism, and rhizosphere scales. Understanding the underlying biological mechanisms and the complex interplay between systems at these different scales requires an integrative approach. Here, we describe examples of such approaches and discuss the merits of developing models to span multiple scales, from network to population levels, and to address dynamic interactions between plants and their environment. PMID:24143806

  17. An integrated numerical and physical modeling system for an enhanced in situ bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y F; Huang, G H; Wang, G Q; Lin, Q G; Chakma, A

    2006-12-01

    Groundwater contamination due to releases of petroleum products is a major environmental concern in many urban districts and industrial zones. Over the past years, a few studies were undertaken to address in situ bioremediation processes coupled with contaminant transport in two- or three-dimensional domains. However, they were concentrated on natural attenuation processes for petroleum contaminants or enhanced in situ bioremediation processes in laboratory columns. In this study, an integrated numerical and physical modeling system is developed for simulating an enhanced in situ biodegradation (EISB) process coupled with three-dimensional multiphase multicomponent flow and transport simulation in a multi-dimensional pilot-scale physical model. The designed pilot-scale physical model is effective in tackling natural attenuation and EISB processes for site remediation. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed system is effective in modeling the EISB process, and can thus be used for investigating the effects of various uncertainties.

  18. An integrated logit model for contamination event detection in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Housh, Mashor; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-05-15

    The problem of contamination event detection in water distribution systems has become one of the most challenging research topics in water distribution systems analysis. Current attempts for event detection utilize a variety of approaches including statistical, heuristics, machine learning, and optimization methods. Several existing event detection systems share a common feature in which alarms are obtained separately for each of the water quality indicators. Unifying those single alarms from different indicators is usually performed by means of simple heuristics. A salient feature of the current developed approach is using a statistically oriented model for discrete choice prediction which is estimated using the maximum likelihood method for integrating the single alarms. The discrete choice model is jointly calibrated with other components of the event detection system framework in a training data set using genetic algorithms. The fusing process of each indicator probabilities, which is left out of focus in many existing event detection system models, is confirmed to be a crucial part of the system which could be modelled by exploiting a discrete choice model for improving its performance. The developed methodology is tested on real water quality data, showing improved performances in decreasing the number of false positive alarms and in its ability to detect events with higher probabilities, compared to previous studies.

  19. A clinical information system strategic planning model for integrated healthcare delivery networks.

    PubMed

    Snyder-Halpern, R; Chervany, N L

    2000-12-01

    As healthcare organizations are transformed into consolidated healthcare delivery networks, their success is increasingly dependent on the integration and effectiveness of their clinical information systems (CIS). Greater financial investments are being made in CIS products and services to support processes related to clinical care oversight, direct care delivery, and ancillary clinical services. To make good investment decisions, these enterprises must engage in a comprehensive strategic planning process that tightly links their healthcare delivery network clinical strategy, CIS strategic vision, and specific CIS investments. The authors illustrate the linkages among these three strategic planning stages through the application of a clinical information system strategic planning model to a case example.

  20. Application of macro material flow modeling to the decision making process for integrated waste management systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, S.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1995-04-01

    Computer models have been used for almost a decade to model and analyze various aspects of solid waste management Commercially available models exist for estimating the capital and operating costs of landfills, waste-to-energy facilities and compost systems and for optimizing system performance along a single dimension (e.g. cost or transportation distance). An alternative to the use of currently available models is the more flexible macro material flow modeling approach in which a macro scale or regional level approach is taken. Waste materials are tracked through the complete integrated waste management cycle from generation through recycling and reuse, and finally to ultimate disposal. Such an approach has been applied by the authors to two different applications. The STELLA simulation language (for Macintosh computers) was used to model the solid waste management system of Puerto Rico. The model incorporated population projections for all 78 municipalities in Puerto Rico from 1990 to 2010, solid waste generation factors, remaining life for the existing landfills, and projected startup time for new facilities. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has used the SimScript simulation language (for Windows computers) to model the management of solid and hazardous wastes produced during cleanup and remediation activities at the Hanford Nuclear Site.

  1. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, W. R.; Anklam, T. M.; Erlandson, A. C.; Miles, R. R.; Simon, A. J.; Sawicki, R.; Storm, E.

    2010-08-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to "burn" spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  2. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2009-10-22

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  3. System architecture and information model for integrated access to distributed biomedical information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Alaoui, Adil; Levine, Betty; Leondaridis, Leonidas; Shields, Peter; Byers, Steve; Cleary, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    The current trend towards systems medicine will rely heavily on computational and bioinformatics capabilities to collect, integrate, and analyze massive amounts of data from disparate sources. The objective is to use this information to make medical decisions that improve patient care. At Georgetown University Medical Center, we are developing an informatics capability to integrate several research and clinical databases. Our long term goal is to provide researchers at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center better access to aggregated molecular and clinical information facilitating the investigation of new hypotheses that impact patient care. We also recognize the need for data mining tools and intelligent agents to help researchers in these efforts. This paper describes our initial work to create a flexible platform for researchers and physicians that provides access to information sources including clinical records, medical images, genomic, epigenomic, proteomic and metabolomic data. This paper describes the data sources selected for this pilot project and possible approaches to integrating these databases. We present the different database integration models that we considered. We conclude by outlining the proposed Information Model for the project.

  4. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  5. An integrative model of the neural systems supporting the comprehension of observed emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-02-01

    Understanding others' emotions requires both the identification of overt behaviors ("smiling") and the attribution of behaviors to a cause ("friendly disposition"). Previous research suggests that whereas emotion identification depends on a cortical mirror system that enables the embodiment of observed motor behavior within one's own motor system, causal attribution for emotion depends on a separate cortical mentalizing system, so-named because its function is associated with mental state representation. We used fMRI to test an Identification-Attribution model of mirror and mentalizing system contributions to the comprehension of emotional behavior. Normal volunteers watched a set of ecologically valid videos of human emotional displays. During each viewing, volunteers either identified an emotion-relevant motor behavior (explicit identification) or inferred a plausible social cause (explicit attribution). These explicit identification and attribution goals strongly distinguished activity in the mirror and mentalizing systems, respectively. However, frontal mirror areas, though preferentially engaged by the identification goal, nevertheless exhibited activation when observers possessed the attribution goal. One of these areas-right posterior inferior frontal gyrus-demonstrated effective connectivity with areas of the mentalizing system during attributional processing. These results support an integrative model of the neural systems supporting the comprehension of emotional behavior, where the mirror system helps facilitate the rapid identification of emotional expressions that then serve as inputs to attributional processing in the mentalizing system.

  6. Integrated Data-Archive and Distributed Hydrological Modelling System for Optimized Dam Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Jaranilla-Sanchez, Patricia Ann; Koike, Toshio

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, typhoon Bopha, which passed through the southern part of the Philippines, devastated the nation leaving hundreds of death tolls and significant destruction of the country. Indeed the deadly events related to cyclones occur almost every year in the region. Such extremes are expected to increase both in frequency and magnitude around Southeast Asia, during the course of global climate change. Our ability to confront such hazardous events is limited by the best available engineering infrastructure and performance of weather prediction. An example of the countermeasure strategy is, for instance, early release of reservoir water (lowering the dam water level) during the flood season to protect the downstream region of impending flood. However, over release of reservoir water affect the regional economy adversely by losing water resources, which still have value for power generation, agricultural and industrial water use. Furthermore, accurate precipitation forecast itself is conundrum task, due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere yielding uncertainty in model prediction over time. Under these circumstances we present a novel approach to optimize contradicting objectives of: preventing flood damage via priori dam release; while sustaining sufficient water supply, during the predicted storm events. By evaluating forecast performance of Meso-Scale Model Grid Point Value against observed rainfall, uncertainty in model prediction is probabilistically taken into account, and it is then applied to the next GPV issuance for generating ensemble rainfalls. The ensemble rainfalls drive the coupled land-surface- and distributed-hydrological model to derive the ensemble flood forecast. Together with dam status information taken into account, our integrated system estimates the most desirable priori dam release through the shuffled complex evolution algorithm. The strength of the optimization system is further magnified by the online link to the Data Integration and

  7. Integrated defense system overlaps as a disease model: with examples for multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Rowat, S C

    1998-01-01

    The central nervous, immune, and endocrine systems communicate through multiple common messengers. Over evolutionary time, what may be termed integrated defense system(s) (IDS) have developed to coordinate these communications for specific contexts; these include the stress response, acute-phase response, nonspecific immune response, immune response to antigen, kindling, tolerance, time-dependent sensitization, neurogenic switching, and traumatic dissociation (TD). These IDSs are described and their overlap is examined. Three models of disease production are generated: damage, in which IDSs function incorrectly; inadequate/inappropriate, in which IDS response is outstripped by a changing context; and evolving/learning, in which the IDS learned response to a context is deemed pathologic. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are developed from several IDS disease models. Model 1A is pesticide damage to the central nervous system, overlapping with body chemical burdens, TD, and chronic zinc deficiency; model 1B is benzene disruption of interleukin-1, overlapping with childhood developmental windows and hapten-antigenic spreading; and model 1C is autoimmunity to immunoglobulin-G (IgG), overlapping with spreading to other IgG-inducers, sudden spreading of inciters, and food-contaminating chemicals. Model 2A is chemical and stress overload, including comparison with the susceptibility/sensitization/triggering/spreading model; model 2B is genetic mercury allergy, overlapping with: heavy metals/zinc displacement and childhood/gestational mercury exposures; and model 3 is MCS as evolution and learning. Remarks are offered on current MCS research. Problems with clinical measurement are suggested on the basis of IDS models. Large-sample patient self-report epidemiology is described as an alternative or addition to clinical biomarker and animal testing. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9539008

  8. Fast and accurate computation of system matrix for area integral model-based algebraic reconstruction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunli; Zhang, Dinghua; Gong, Hao; Ghasemalizadeh, Omid; Wang, Ge; Cao, Guohua

    2014-11-01

    Iterative algorithms, such as the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART), are popular for image reconstruction. For iterative reconstruction, the area integral model (AIM) is more accurate for better reconstruction quality than the line integral model (LIM). However, the computation of the system matrix for AIM is more complex and time-consuming than that for LIM. Here, we propose a fast and accurate method to compute the system matrix for AIM. First, we calculate the intersection of each boundary line of a narrow fan-beam with pixels in a recursive and efficient manner. Then, by grouping the beam-pixel intersection area into six types according to the slopes of the two boundary lines, we analytically compute the intersection area of the narrow fan-beam with the pixels in a simple algebraic fashion. Overall, experimental results show that our method is about three times faster than the Siddon algorithm and about two times faster than the distance-driven model (DDM) in computation of the system matrix. The reconstruction speed of our AIM-based ART is also faster than the LIM-based ART that uses the Siddon algorithm and DDM-based ART, for one iteration. The fast reconstruction speed of our method was accomplished without compromising the image quality.

  9. Evaluating and improving CLM hydrologic processes for integrated earth system modeling at regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Wigmosta, M. S.; Coleman, A. M.; Ke, Y.; Tesfa, T. K.; Li, H.

    2010-12-01

    The community land model (CLM) was designed for coupling with atmospheric models to simulate water, energy, and carbon fluxes between the land surface and atmosphere. These fluxes are regulated in various degrees by its hydrologic processes, which have not been vigorously evaluated for applications at watershed or regional scales. In the framework of an integrated regional earth system model being developed, accurate hydrologic information in all of its components including socio-economy, atmosphere, land, and energy infrastructure is needed to represent the interactions between human and earth system processes. Applying CLM in this framework requires evaluation and model improvement so that CLM could be used to represent hydrology, soil, managed and unmanaged ecosystems, and biogeochemical processes across scales in a single modeling framework. In this presentation, we will report preliminary results on the development of CLM featuring: (1) improved land surface hydrology that incorporates hydrologic processes from the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land surface model, including the parameterizations of subgrid variability, dynamic surface- and groundwater interactions, and hydraulic redistribution; (2) a semi-distributed extension of CLM (DCLM) for more spatially-explicit hydrologic modeling, which is critical for regional land and water management decisions under climate change mitigation and adaptation scenarios. The model development will be evaluated at flux towers and watersheds at various scales.

  10. WAAS error, integrity and availability modeling for GPS based aircraft landing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Guangwei

    From its initial conception to deployment, the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) was hailed as revolutionary for the navigation industry. However, the WAAS deployment effort has suffered significant delays and budget overruns. The reason for these misfortunes lies in the demanding mandates on the performance of the WAAS system. In the long process of getting WAAS commissioned, availability has always been the metric that holds the system back from achieving the promised capability. The inherent tradeoff between integrity and availability is the major reason that the VPL and HPL algorithms need to be improved. The integrity algorithms are well defined in the WAAS Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). However, our experimental data clearly indicate that the MOPS VPL and HPL algorithms are over-conservative. This lack of compactness from the MOPS introduces unnecessary epochs of the system being unavailable. To improve the system performance, the intuitive approach is through the range/correction domain since these factors can be observed, controlled and manipulated to improve the system performance in individual cases. However, we need a better error model and better understanding of the threat model, i.e. we need to know more about the nature of all error sources and the threats the WAAS faces, which is very difficult to accomplish due to the stochastic natures of these sources. Therefore, it is unlikely that a range/correction domain solution can be applied to a wide range of applications while having significant improvement for the system performance. Besides, it is still subject to the hindrance that the WAAS message structure might need to be changed or adjusted to take advantage of the new development. In this dissertation, a new position domain algorithm is presented to improve the MOPS integrity methodology in hopes of improving the overall system performance. The information needed to do this is already in the WAAS messages. Therefore, this

  11. A Decision Support Systems Using A Combined Dynamic Model For Integrated Watershed Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, E.; Ostrowski, M.

    In this context A Decision Support System (DSS) is presented using a combined dy- namic model for Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) in a small urbanized basin in Japan. In order to improve today's often unsustainable watershed management, the causes of water problems, which interact with each other, must be identified and adequate actions must be chosen to solve the problems. To achieve the ultimate goal of sustain- able development (SD) for water it is essential to develop and apply generic DSSs. A DSS is frequently defined as a combination of a management information system, a model base and an evaluation / assessment module. The EU Water Framework Di- rectives recently established have a narrow time schedule requiring fast action into this direction, which does hardly allow to develop completely new tolls. Thus we are trying to combine different existing dynamic models that incorporate an urban man- agement model, a water quality analysis model, a groundwater analysis model and a water supply model including geographical information system data. With this com- bined model, the most appropriate and sustainable water management plan in an urban area will be developed while considering land use, ground water level, allocation of drainage system, sewerage, water supply works, water quality, and quantity. Because of sharing input data, using this combined model requires less data than using sev- eral separate models. The DSS can also be used to determine the optimum location of gages and monitoring sites. As a case study, the research will deal with the Taguri-river basin in Japan. This basin is located near Tokyo. Although the area in this basin has about 8 km2 only, there are densely build-up areas, paddy fields, and non-developed areas. The river is polluted due to wastewater from point resources: households, and non-point resources: roads and fields, etc. Overpumping of aquifers results in sinking groundwater tables and land subsidence. Moreover, a decrease

  12. Modeling the Arctic freshwater system and its integration in the global system: Lessons learned and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lique, Camille; Holland, Marika M.; Dibike, Yonas B.; Lawrence, David M.; Screen, James A.

    2016-03-01

    Numerous components of the Arctic freshwater system (atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, and terrestrial hydrology) have experienced large changes over the past few decades, and these changes are projected to amplify further in the future. Observations are particularly sparse, in both time and space, in the polar regions. Hence, modeling systems have been widely used and are a powerful tool to gain understanding on the functioning of the Arctic freshwater system and its integration within the global Earth system and climate. Here we present a review of modeling studies addressing some aspect of the Arctic freshwater system. Through illustrative examples, we point out the value of using a hierarchy of models with increasing complexity and component interactions, in order to dismantle the important processes at play for the variability and changes of the different components of the Arctic freshwater system and the interplay between them. We discuss past and projected changes for the Arctic freshwater system and explore the sources of uncertainty associated with these model results. We further elaborate on some missing processes that should be included in future generations of Earth system models and highlight the importance of better quantification and understanding of natural variability, among other factors, for improved predictions of Arctic freshwater system change.

  13. An integrative modeling framework to evaluate the productivity and sustainability of biofuel crop production systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X; Izaurralde, R. C.; Manowitz, D.; West, T. O.; Thomson, A. M.; Post, Wilfred M; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Nichols, Jeff; Williams, J.

    2010-10-01

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: (1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, (2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and (3) an evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a nine-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to (1) simulate biofuel crop production, (2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and (3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  14. A comparison between different error modeling of MEMS applied to GPS/INS integrated systems.

    PubMed

    Quinchia, Alex G; Falco, Gianluca; Falletti, Emanuela; Dovis, Fabio; Ferrer, Carles

    2013-07-24

    Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS) and the inertial navigation system (INS) integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects, terrestrial and pedestrian navigation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), stabilization of many platforms, etc. Although these MEMS sensors are low-cost, they present different errors, which degrade the accuracy of the navigation systems in a short period of time. Therefore, a suitable modeling of these errors is necessary in order to minimize them and, consequently, improve the system performance. In this work, the most used techniques currently to analyze the stochastic errors that affect these sensors are shown and compared: we examine in detail the autocorrelation, the Allan variance (AV) and the power spectral density (PSD) techniques. Subsequently, an analysis and modeling of the inertial sensors, which combines autoregressive (AR) filters and wavelet de-noising, is also achieved. Since a low-cost INS (MEMS grade) presents error sources with short-term (high-frequency) and long-term (low-frequency) components, we introduce a method that compensates for these error terms by doing a complete analysis of Allan variance, wavelet de-nosing and the selection of the level of decomposition for a suitable combination between these techniques. Eventually, in order to assess the stochastic models obtained with these techniques, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) of a loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration strategy is augmented with different states. Results show a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional sensor error models under GPS signal blockages using real data collected in urban roadways.

  15. An Integrative Modeling Framework to Evaluate the Productivity and Sustainability of Biofuel Crop Production Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xuesong; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Manowitz, David H.; West, T. O.; Post, W. M.; Thomson, Allison M.; Bandaru, V. P.; Nichols, J.; Williams, J.R.

    2010-09-08

    The potential expansion of biofuel production raises food, energy, and environmental challenges that require careful assessment of the impact of biofuel production on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, soil erosion, nutrient loading, and water quality. In this study, we describe a spatially-explicit integrative modeling framework (SEIMF) to understand and quantify the environmental impacts of different biomass cropping systems. This SEIMF consists of three major components: 1) a geographic information system (GIS)-based data analysis system to define spatial modeling units with resolution of 56 m to address spatial variability, 2) the biophysical and biogeochemical model EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) applied in a spatially-explicit way to predict biomass yield, GHG emissions, and other environmental impacts of different biofuel crops production systems, and 3) an evolutionary multi-objective optimization algorithm for exploring the trade-offs between biofuel energy production and unintended ecosystem-service responses. Simple examples illustrate the major functions of the SEIMF when applied to a 9-county Regional Intensive Modeling Area (RIMA) in SW Michigan to 1) simulate biofuel crop production, 2) compare impacts of management practices and local ecosystem settings, and 3) optimize the spatial configuration of different biofuel production systems by balancing energy production and other ecosystem-service variables. Potential applications of the SEIMF to support life cycle analysis and provide information on biodiversity evaluation and marginal-land identification are also discussed. The SEIMF developed in this study is expected to provide a useful tool for scientists and decision makers to understand sustainability issues associated with the production of biofuels at local, regional, and national scales.

  16. A Comparison between Different Error Modeling of MEMS Applied to GPS/INS Integrated Systems

    PubMed Central

    Quinchia, Alex G.; Falco, Gianluca; Falletti, Emanuela; Dovis, Fabio; Ferrer, Carles

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the development of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) have made possible the fabrication of cheap and small dimension accelerometers and gyroscopes, which are being used in many applications where the global positioning system (GPS) and the inertial navigation system (INS) integration is carried out, i.e., identifying track defects, terrestrial and pedestrian navigation, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), stabilization of many platforms, etc. Although these MEMS sensors are low-cost, they present different errors, which degrade the accuracy of the navigation systems in a short period of time. Therefore, a suitable modeling of these errors is necessary in order to minimize them and, consequently, improve the system performance. In this work, the most used techniques currently to analyze the stochastic errors that affect these sensors are shown and compared: we examine in detail the autocorrelation, the Allan variance (AV) and the power spectral density (PSD) techniques. Subsequently, an analysis and modeling of the inertial sensors, which combines autoregressive (AR) filters and wavelet de-noising, is also achieved. Since a low-cost INS (MEMS grade) presents error sources with short-term (high-frequency) and long-term (low-frequency) components, we introduce a method that compensates for these error terms by doing a complete analysis of Allan variance, wavelet de-nosing and the selection of the level of decomposition for a suitable combination between these techniques. Eventually, in order to assess the stochastic models obtained with these techniques, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) of a loosely-coupled GPS/INS integration strategy is augmented with different states. Results show a comparison between the proposed method and the traditional sensor error models under GPS signal blockages using real data collected in urban roadways. PMID:23887084

  17. Automated model integration at source code level: An approach for implementing models into the NASA Land Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Mocko, D. M.; Kumar, S.; Nearing, G. S.; Arsenault, K. R.; Geiger, J. V.

    2014-12-01

    Model integration bridges the data flow between modeling frameworks and models. However, models usually do not fit directly into a particular modeling environment, if not designed for it. An example includes implementing different types of models into the NASA Land Information System (LIS), a software framework for land-surface modeling and data assimilation. Model implementation requires scientific knowledge and software expertise and may take a developer months to learn LIS and model software structure. Debugging and testing of the model implementation is also time-consuming due to not fully understanding LIS or the model. This time spent is costly for research and operational projects. To address this issue, an approach has been developed to automate model integration into LIS. With this in mind, a general model interface was designed to retrieve forcing inputs, parameters, and state variables needed by the model and to provide as state variables and outputs to LIS. Every model can be wrapped to comply with the interface, usually with a FORTRAN 90 subroutine. Development efforts need only knowledge of the model and basic programming skills. With such wrappers, the logic is the same for implementing all models. Code templates defined for this general model interface could be re-used with any specific model. Therefore, the model implementation can be done automatically. An automated model implementation toolkit was developed with Microsoft Excel and its built-in VBA language. It allows model specifications in three worksheets and contains FORTRAN 90 code templates in VBA programs. According to the model specification, the toolkit generates data structures and procedures within FORTRAN modules and subroutines, which transfer data between LIS and the model wrapper. Model implementation is standardized, and about 80 - 90% of the development load is reduced. In this presentation, the automated model implementation approach is described along with LIS programming

  18. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  19. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  20. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  1. Integrated Modeling of the Human-Natural System to Improve Local Water Management and Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, W. J., Jr.; Dziubanski, D.; Franz, K.; Goodwin, J.; Rehmann, C. R.; Simpkins, W. W.; Tesfastion, L.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Jie, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Communities across the world are experiencing the effects of unsustainable water management practices. Whether the problem is a lack of water, too much water, or water of degraded quality, finding acceptable solutions requires community-level efforts that integrate sound science with local needs and values. Our project develops both a software technology (agent-based hydrological modeling) and a social technology (a participatory approach to model development) that will allow communities to comprehensively address local water challenges. Using agent-based modeling (ABM), we are building a modeling system that includes a semi-distributed hydrologic process model coupled with agent (stakeholder) models. Information from the hydrologic model is conveyed to the agent models, which, along with economic information, determine appropriate agent actions that subsequently affect hydrology within the model. The iterative participatory modeling (IPM) process will assist with the continual development of the agent models. Further, IPM creates a learning environment in which all participants, including researchers, are co-exploring relevant data, possible scenarios and solutions, and viewpoints through continuous interactions. Our initial work focuses on the impact of flood mitigation and conservation efforts on reducing flooding in an urban area. We are applying all research elements above to the Squaw Creek watershed that flows through parts of four counties in central Iowa. The watershed offers many of the typical tensions encountered in Iowa, such as different perspectives on water management between upstream farmers and downstream urban areas, competition for various types of recreational services, and increasing absentee land ownership that may conflict with community values. Ultimately, climate change scenarios will be incorporated into the model to determine long term patterns that may develop within the social or natural system.

  2. Development and Calibration of a System-Integrated Rotorcraft Finite Element Model for Impact Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annett, Martin S.; Horta, Lucas G.; Jackson, Karen E.; Polanco, Michael A.; Littell, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    Two full-scale crash tests of an MD-500 helicopter were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at NASA Langley's Landing and Impact Research Facility in support of NASA s Subsonic Rotary Wing Crashworthiness Project. The first crash test was conducted to evaluate the performance of an externally mounted composite deployable energy absorber (DEA) under combined impact conditions. In the second crash test, the energy absorber was removed to establish baseline loads that are regarded as severe but survivable. The presence of this energy absorbing device reduced the peak impact acceleration levels by a factor of three. Accelerations and kinematic data collected from the crash tests were compared to a system-integrated finite element model of the test article developed in parallel with the test program. In preparation for the full-scale crash test, a series of sub-scale and MD-500 mass simulator tests were conducted to evaluate the impact performances of various components and subsystems, including new crush tubes and the DEA blocks. Parameters defined for the system-integrated finite element model were determined from these tests. Results from 19 accelerometers placed throughout the airframe were compared to finite element model responses. The model developed for the purposes of predicting acceleration responses from the first crash test was inadequate when evaluating more severe conditions seen in the second crash test. A newly developed model calibration approach that includes uncertainty estimation, parameter sensitivity, impact shape orthogonality, and numerical optimization was used to calibrate model results for the full-scale crash test without the DEA. This combination of heuristic and quantitative methods identified modeling deficiencies, evaluated parameter importance, and proposed required model changes. The multidimensional calibration techniques presented here are particularly effective in identifying model adequacy. Acceleration results for the calibrated model were

  3. Global search tool for the Advanced Photon Source Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) database.

    SciTech Connect

    Quock, D. E. R.; Cianciarulo, M. B.; APS Engineering Support Division; Purdue Univ.

    2007-01-01

    The Integrated Relational Model of Installed Systems (IRMIS) is a relational database tool that has been implemented at the Advanced Photon Source to maintain an updated account of approximately 600 control system software applications, 400,000 process variables, and 30,000 control system hardware components. To effectively display this large amount of control system information to operators and engineers, IRMIS was initially built with nine Web-based viewers: Applications Organizing Index, IOC, PLC, Component Type, Installed Components, Network, Controls Spares, Process Variables, and Cables. However, since each viewer is designed to provide details from only one major category of the control system, the necessity for a one-stop global search tool for the entire database became apparent. The user requirements for extremely fast database search time and ease of navigation through search results led to the choice of Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) technology in the implementation of the IRMIS global search tool. Unique features of the global search tool include a two-tier level of displayed search results, and a database data integrity validation and reporting mechanism.

  4. Computational Challenges in Integrated Regional Earth System Modeling (iRESM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleese van Dam, K.; Hibbard, K. A.; Gorton, I.; Liu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Policy and decision making, in response to climate change, will require both economic and environmental tradeoffs. Decisions about allocating scarce water across competing municipal, agricultural, and ecosystem demands is just one of the challenges ahead, along with decisions regarding competing land use priorities such as biofuels, food, and species habitat. Assessing potential mitigation actions must include processes at a global level and extended time frame. However, adaptation is more relevant on a regional scale and in a shorter time frame, which encourages current research to address mitigation and adaptation separately, even though strategies for mitigation influence our ability for adaptation, and vice versa, none have attempted to fully integrate human and environmental processes at the regional level. The fundamental goal of the iRESM initiative is the critical analyses of the tradeoffs and consequences of decision and policy making on the background of integrated human and environmental systems, combining the different scientific processes, bridging different temporal and geographic scales and resolving the semantic differences between them. Hereby the iRESM Initiative will work in the first instance with the climate, socio-economic, crop and energy modeling communities to develop an initial system. The computational challenges faced by the project go hand in hand with the scientific ones, as the researchers from different domains are starting to bridge the gaps, an adaptive computational framework needs to be established that facilitates the integration and transition across different geographical, time, thematic and semantic divides. With an expectation that more diverse processes and interchanges will be added in the future the framework also needs to be adaptive and flexible, providing the ability to grow with the project needs. We provide an overview of the iRESM initiative from PNNL with the initial architectural framework to evaluate the

  5. The Anthropology of Science Education Reform: An Alabama Model for Building an Integrated Stakeholder Systems Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denson, R. L.; Cox, G. N.

    2004-12-01

    Anthropologists are concerned with every aspect of the culture they are investigating. One of the five main branches of anthropology, socio-cultural anthropology, concerns itself with studying the relationship between behavior and culture. This paper explores the concept that changing the behavior of our culture - its beliefs and values - towards science is at the heart of science education reform. There are five institutions that socio-cultural anthropologists use to study the social organization of cultures: the educational system is only one of them. Its function - across all cultures - is to serve as a mechanism for implementing change in cultural beliefs and values. As leaders of science education reform, the Alabama model contends that we must stop the struggle with our purpose and get on with the business of leading culture change through an integrated stakeholder systems approach. This model stresses the need for the interaction of agencies other than education - including government, industry, the media and our health communities to operate in an integrated and systemic fashion to address the issues of living among a technically literate society. Twenty-five years of science education reform needs being voiced and programs being developed has not produced the desired results from within the educational system. This is too limited a focus to affect any real cultural change. It is when we acknowledge that students spend only an average of 12 percent of their life time in schools, that we can begin to ask ourselves what are our students learning the other 88 percent of their time - from their peers, their parents and the media - and what should we be doing to address this cultural crisis in these other arenas in addition to the educational system? The Alabama Math, Science and Technology Education Coalition (AMSTEC) is a non-profit 501c(3) organization operating in the state of Alabama to provide leadership in improving mathematics, science, and technology

  6. Designing a mathematical model for integrating dynamic cellular manufacturing into supply chain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalaei, Amin; Davoudpour, Hamid

    2012-11-01

    This article presents designing a new mathematical model for integrating dynamic cellular manufacturing into supply chain system with an extensive coverage of important manufacturing features consideration of multiple plants location, multi-markets allocation, multi-period planning horizons with demand and part mix variation, machine capacity, and the main constraints are demand of markets satisfaction in each period, machine availability, machine time-capacity, worker assignment, available time of worker, production volume for each plant and the amounts allocated to each market. The aim of the proposed model is to minimize holding and outsourcing costs, inter-cell material handling cost, external transportation cost, procurement & maintenance and overhead cost of machines, setup cost, reconfiguration cost of machines installation and removal, hiring, firing and salary worker costs. Aimed to prove the potential benefits of such a design, presented an example is shown using a proposed model.

  7. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-06-01

    This is the third quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period April 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused on, (1) completion of a sulfuric acid plant model (used in conjunction with by-product recovery processes for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal) and, (2) an update the NOXSO process model. Other accomplishments involved revision and expansion of the enthalpy data algorithms used for process energy balances. The sections below present the details of these developments. References are included at the end of each section.

  8. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  9. Integrated systems optimization model for biofuel development: The influence of environmental constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housh, M.; Ng, T.; Cai, X.

    2012-12-01

    The environmental impact is one of the major concerns of biofuel development. While many other studies have examined the impact of biofuel expansion on stream flow and water quality, this study examines the problem from the other side - will and how a biofuel production target be affected by given environmental constraints. For this purpose, an integrated model comprises of different sub-systems of biofuel refineries, transportation, agriculture, water resources and crops/ethanol market has been developed. The sub-systems are integrated into one large-scale model to guide the optimal development plan considering the interdependency between the subsystems. The optimal development plan includes biofuel refineries location and capacity, refinery operation, land allocation between biofuel and food crops, and the corresponding stream flow and nitrate load in the watershed. The watershed is modeled as a network flow, in which the nodes represent sub-watersheds and the arcs are defined as the linkage between the sub-watersheds. The runoff contribution of each sub-watershed is determined based on the land cover and the water uses in that sub-watershed. Thus, decisions of other sub-systems such as the land allocation in the land use sub-system and the water use in the refinery sub-system define the sources and the sinks of the network. Environmental policies will be addressed in the integrated model by imposing stream flow and nitrate load constraints. These constraints can be specified by location and time in the watershed to reflect the spatial and temporal variation of the regulations. Preliminary results show that imposing monthly water flow constraints and yearly nitrate load constraints will change the biofuel development plan dramatically. Sensitivity analysis is performed to examine how the environmental constraints and their spatial and the temporal distribution influence the overall biofuel development plan and the performance of each of the sub-systems

  10. An Integrated Model for Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    D. Muth; K. M. Bryden

    2003-12-01

    Agricultural residues have been identified as a significant potential resource for bioenergy production, but serious questions remain about the sustainability of harvesting residues. Agricultural residues play an important role in limiting soil erosion from wind and water and in maintaining soil organic carbon. Because of this, multiple factors must be considered when assessing sustainable residue harvest limits. Validated and accepted modeling tools for assessing these impacts include the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation Version 2 (RUSLE2), the Wind Erosion Prediction System (WEPS), and the Soil Conditioning Index. Currently, these models do not work together as a single integrated model. Rather, use of these models requires manual interaction and data transfer. As a result, it is currently not feasible to use these computational tools to perform detailed sustainable agricultural residue availability assessments across large spatial domains or to consider a broad range of land management practices. This paper presents an integrated modeling strategy that couples existing datasets with the RUSLE2 water erosion, WEPS wind erosion, and Soil Conditioning Index soil carbon modeling tools to create a single integrated residue removal modeling system. This enables the exploration of the detailed sustainable residue harvest scenarios needed to establish sustainable residue availability. Using this computational tool, an assessment study of residue availability for the state of Iowa was performed. This study included all soil types in the state of Iowa, four representative crop rotation schemes, variable crop yields, three tillage management methods, and five residue removal methods. The key conclusions of this study are that under current management practices and crop yields nearly 26.5 million Mg of agricultural residue are sustainably accessible in the state of Iowa, and that through the adoption of no till practices residue removal could sustainably approach 40

  11. Integrated system modeling analysis of a cryogenic multi-cell deflecting-mode cavity resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min; Church, Michael

    2013-09-15

    A deflecting mode cavity is the integral element for six-dimensional phase-space beam control in bunch compressors and emittance transformers at high energy beam test facilities. RF performance of a high-Q device is, however, highly sensitive to operational conditions, in particular in a cryo-cooling environment. Using analytic calculations and RF simulations, we examined cavity parameters and deflecting characteristics of TM{sub 110,π} mode of a 5 cell resonator in a liquid nitrogen cryostat, which has long been used at the Fermilab A0 Photoinjector (A0PI). The sensitivity analysis indicated that the cavity could lose 30%–40% of deflecting force due to defective input power coupling accompanying non-uniform field distribution across the cells with 40 ∼ 50 MeV electron beam and 70–80 kW klystron power. Vacuum-cryomodules of the 5 cell cavity are planned to be installed at the Fermilab Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator facility. Comprehensive modeling analysis integrated with multi-physics simulation tools showed that RF loading of 1 ms can cause a ∼5 K maximum temperature increase, corresponding to a ∼4.3 μm/ms deformation and a 1.32 MHz/K maximum frequency shift. The integrated system modeling analysis will improve design process of a high-Q cavity with more accurate prediction of cryogenic RF performance under a high power pulse operation.

  12. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model.

  13. Integrated earth system dynamic modeling for life cycle impact assessment of ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Arbault, Damien; Rivière, Mylène; Rugani, Benedetto; Benetto, Enrico; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia

    2014-02-15

    Despite the increasing awareness of our dependence on Ecosystem Services (ES), Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) does not explicitly and fully assess the damages caused by human activities on ES generation. Recent improvements in LCIA focus on specific cause-effect chains, mainly related to land use changes, leading to Characterization Factors (CFs) at the midpoint assessment level. However, despite the complexity and temporal dynamics of ES, current LCIA approaches consider the environmental mechanisms underneath ES to be independent from each other and devoid of dynamic character, leading to constant CFs whose representativeness is debatable. This paper takes a step forward and is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of using an integrated earth system dynamic modeling perspective to retrieve time- and scenario-dependent CFs that consider the complex interlinkages between natural processes delivering ES. The GUMBO (Global Unified Metamodel of the Biosphere) model is used to quantify changes in ES production in physical terms - leading to midpoint CFs - and changes in human welfare indicators, which are considered here as endpoint CFs. The interpretation of the obtained results highlights the key methodological challenges to be solved to consider this approach as a robust alternative to the mainstream rationale currently adopted in LCIA. Further research should focus on increasing the granularity of environmental interventions in the modeling tools to match current standards in LCA and on adapting the conceptual approach to a spatially-explicit integrated model. PMID:24291626

  14. Grambling State University's Planning/Budgeting Model: An Integral Component of a Decision Support System. SAIR Conference Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, Harold W.

    The development of a planning/budgeting model as an integral component of a decision support system is described. The case study approach is used to describe how Grambling State University (GSU) developed the model to improve its financial planning and budgeting processes. The model can be used for tactical and/or strategic planning. The model is…

  15. Drivers' communicative interactions: on-road observations and modelling for integration in future automation systems.

    PubMed

    Portouli, Evangelia; Nathanael, Dimitris; Marmaras, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Social interactions with other road users are an essential component of the driving activity and may prove critical in view of future automation systems; still up to now they have received only limited attention in the scientific literature. In this paper, it is argued that drivers base their anticipations about the traffic scene to a large extent on observations of social behaviour of other 'animate human-vehicles'. It is further argued that in cases of uncertainty, drivers seek to establish a mutual situational awareness through deliberate communicative interactions. A linguistic model is proposed for modelling these communicative interactions. Empirical evidence from on-road observations and analysis of concurrent running commentary by 25 experienced drivers support the proposed model. It is suggested that the integration of a social interactions layer based on illocutionary acts in future driving support and automation systems will improve their performance towards matching human driver's expectations. Practitioner Summary: Interactions between drivers on the road may play a significant role in traffic coordination. On-road observations and running commentaries are presented as empirical evidence to support a model of such interactions; incorporation of drivers' interactions in future driving support and automation systems may improve their performance towards matching driver's expectations.

  16. Assessment of urban stream morphology: an integrated index and modelling system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ting; Zhu, Wei; Xin, Pei; Li, Lei

    2010-08-01

    Physical morphology is an important attribute of a stream system. The morphological state of a natural pristine stream often reflects its biological condition because of their close links. In contrast, the morphology of an urban stream may exhibit different behaviours due to serious human disturbances. For an urban stream system, the morphological condition not only determines the in-stream habitat quality but also provides the physical basis for the stream's municipal functionalities. By comparing the morphological characters of urban and natural streams, this paper develops an integrated index system and model for the assessment of urban stream morphology. The model is applied to the Ancient Canal (Zhenjiang, China) with the aim of comparing the morphological conditions of reaches with and without ongoing restoration programs and further of assessing the effectiveness of the restoration methods and techniques. The results indicate that the water security and the landscape functionality of the canal have been upgraded. However, the quality of the in-stream habitat has been degraded as a result of the restoration. Based on the modelled results, recommendations are given for improving the effects of the next-phase restoration. The assessment system and findings from the application presented here are expected to have important implications for the restoration of disturbed urban streams in many other cities in China and elsewhere in the world. PMID:19609699

  17. The impact of new developments on river water quality from an integrated system modelling perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Khu, Soon-Thiam

    2009-02-01

    New housing areas are a ubiquitous feature of modern life in the developing and developed world alike built in response to rising social, demographic and economic pressures. Inevitably, these new developments will have an impact on the environment around them. Empirical evidence confirms the close relationship between urbanisation and ambient water quality. However, what is lacking so far is a detailed and more generalised analysis of environmental impact at a relatively small scale. The aim of this paper is to quantify the impact of new developments on river water quality within an integrated system modelling perspective. To conduct the impact analyses, an existing integrated urban wastewater model was used to predict water flow and quality in the sewer system, treatment plant and receiving water body. The impact on combined sewer overflow (CSO) discharges, treatment plant effluent, and within the river at various reaches is analysed by 'locating' a new development on a semi-hypothetical urban catchment. River water quality is used as feedback to constrain the scale of the new development within different thresholds in compliance with water quality standards. Further, the regional sensitivity analysis (RSA) method is applied to reveal the parameters with the greatest impact on water quality. These analyses will help to inform town planners and water specialists who advise them, how to minimise the impact of such developments given the specific context.

  18. Digital terrain model (DTM) integration and three-dimensional query spaces in geographic information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Dieter; Schmidt, Dieter

    1994-08-01

    The integration of digital terrain models (DTM) in geographic information systems (GIS) implies automatically an extension of the GIS reference surface and its query space. It is trivial that a DTM is the natural boundary representation of the earth's surface. Man-made objects, for instance homes, streets, bridges, dams should be considered in a second step because these objects cannot be represented well by boundary surfaces. The link of these objects to DTM can be realized by keys and pointers. Therefore, an efficient DTM integration in GIS is the first task to be solved. The paper introduces DTM data structures represented by NIAM diagrams. Using the entity-relationship model these diagrams are very capable to describe the power of relations. Next a 3-D query space is defined keeping in mind 3-D coordinates and 2- D topological elements. Based on this query space spatial operators are derived which fit in standard SQL vocabulary. The implementation part of the paper uses the exodus storage manger to map the DTM of the Federal State Baden-Wurrtemberg in a spatial database system.

  19. An Integrated Model for a Water Leasing System on the Middle Rio Grand, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookshire, D. S.; Coursey, D. L.; Tidwell, V. C.; Broadbent, C. D.

    2006-12-01

    Since 1950 demand for water has more than doubled in the United States. Virtually all water supplies are allocated, leading to the question, where will water come from? The concept of water leasing has gained considerable attention as a volunteer, market-mediated system for transferring water between competing uses. For a water leasing system to be truly effective, detailed knowledge of the available water supply and the factors that affect water demand is critical. Improving understating of the factors that determine residential, industrial, and agricultural demand for water using experimental economics and then integrating with a hydrological model will allow for better understanding of market-based mechanisms potential to allocate water resources effectively. Currently we have three case studies underway, a generalized water leasing system on the Middle Rio Grande, a sophisticated farmer decision process and a study in the Mimbres basin in southern New Mexico. The developed market model utilizes an open market trading system known as a double auction, where buyers and sellers declare their bids and offers to the market. The developed hydrological model utilizes the Upper Rio Grande Water Operations Model (URGWOM) system structure and data for the generalized water leasing system and the farmer decision process, with a different hydrological model being developed for the Mimbres basin. A key coupling between the hydrologic and market models involves tracking the difference in river losses for trades that move water up or down the river. In the experiments the hydrological model runs before the market-trading period to establish water rights, the trading period occurs and the hydrological model then runs a second time to report flows to each reach of the river. Participants in the experiment represent the interests of specific users, including farmers, Native American interests, urban interests and environmental interests. Participants in the experiments are

  20. CAI: A Model for the Comparison and Selection of Integrated Learning Systems in Large School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Paul E.; Rost, Paul

    The Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools conducted a three-year study of integrated computer-based learning systems, including WICAT, Dolphin, PLATO, CCC, and DEGEM. Through cooperation with the Education Consolidation Improvement Act Chapter 1 program, four large integrated learning systems (ILS) were purchased and studied. They were installed…

  1. Integration of environmental simulation models with satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies: case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyaert, Louis T.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Reed, Bradley C.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental modelers are testing and evaluating a prototype land cover characteristics database for the conterminous United States developed by the EROS Data Center of the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Nebraska Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies. This database was developed from multi temporal, 1-kilometer advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data for 1990 and various ancillary data sets such as elevation, ecological regions, and selected climatic normals. Several case studies using this database were analyzed to illustrate the integration of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems technologies with land-atmosphere interactions models at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The case studies are representative of contemporary environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management, and environmental simulation modeling at local to regional levels in global change research, land and water resource management and environmental risk assessment. The case studies feature land surface parameterizations for atmospheric mesoscale and global climate models; biogenic-hydrocarbons emissions models; distributed parameter watershed and other hydrological models; and various ecological models such as ecosystem, dynamics, biogeochemical cycles, ecotone variability, and equilibrium vegetation models. The case studies demonstrate the important of multi temporal AVHRR data to develop to develop and maintain a flexible, near-realtime land cover characteristics database. Moreover, such a flexible database is needed to derive various vegetation classification schemes, to aggregate data for nested models, to develop remote sensing algorithms, and to provide data on dynamic landscape characteristics. The case studies illustrate how such a database supports research on spatial heterogeneity, land use, sensitivity analysis, and scaling issues

  2. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    This is the sixth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79863, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period January 1, 1989 to March 31, 1989. Efforts this past quarter focused primarily on the preparation of a computer User's Guide for the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). Drafts of the first two chapters are now complete. These chapters constitute the bulk of this quarterly report. Drafts of the remaining chapters are in preparation, and will appear in a future report this year. We also have been working closely with DOE/PETC to define the computer configuration to be transferred to PETC as a contract deliverable. That process is now complete and the equipment is on order. Delivery of the IECM to PETC is expected during the next calendar quarter. Finally, we are continuing our efforts to develop and refine a number of clean coal technology process models. These efforts will be summarized and reported at a future date.

  3. Modeling of Nonlinear Aggregation for Information Fusion Systems with Outliers Based on the Choquet Integral

    PubMed Central

    Su, Kuo-Lan; Jau, You-Min; Jeng, Jin-Tsong

    2011-01-01

    Modern information fusion systems essentially associate decision-making processes with multi-sensor systems. Precise decision-making processes depend upon aggregating useful information extracted from large numbers of messages or large datasets; meanwhile, the distributed multi-sensor systems which employ several geographically separated local sensors are required to provide sufficient messages or data with similar and/or dissimilar characteristics. These kinds of information fusion techniques have been widely investigated and used for implementing several information retrieval systems. However, the results obtained from the information fusion systems vary in different situations and performing intelligent aggregation and fusion of information from a distributed multi-source, multi-sensor network is essentially an optimization problem. A flexible and versatile framework which is able to solve complex global optimization problems is a valuable alternative to traditional information fusion. Furthermore, because of the highly dynamic and volatile nature of the information flow, a swift soft computing technique is imperative to satisfy the demands and challenges. In this paper, a nonlinear aggregation based on the Choquet integral (NACI) model is considered for information fusion systems that include outliers under inherent interaction among feature attributes. The estimation of interaction coefficients for the proposed model is also performed via a modified algorithm based on particle swarm optimization with quantum-behavior (QPSO) and the high breakdown value estimator, least trimmed squares (LTS). From simulation results, the proposed MQPSO algorithm with LTS (named LTS-MQPSO) readily corrects the deviations caused by outliers and swiftly achieves convergence in estimating the parameters of the proposed NACI model for the information fusion systems with outliers. PMID:22163747

  4. Integrated optimal allocation model for complex adaptive system of water resources management (II): Case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Xu, Chong-Yu; Liu, Dedi; Chen, Lu; Wang, Dong

    2015-12-01

    Climate change, rapid economic development and increase of the human population are considered as the major triggers of increasing challenges for water resources management. This proposed integrated optimal allocation model (IOAM) for complex adaptive system of water resources management is applied in Dongjiang River basin located in the Guangdong Province of China. The IOAM is calibrated and validated under baseline period 2010 year and future period 2011-2030 year, respectively. The simulation results indicate that the proposed model can make a trade-off between demand and supply for sustainable development of society, economy, ecology and environment and achieve adaptive management of water resources allocation. The optimal scheme derived by multi-objective evaluation is recommended for decision-makers in order to maximize the comprehensive benefits of water resources management.

  5. Integrated Standardized Database/Model Management System: Study management concepts and requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.; Swerdlow, S.; Schultz, R.; Tolchin, R.

    1994-02-01

    Data-sharing among planners and planning software for utility companies is the motivation for creating the Integrated Standardized Database (ISD) and Model Management System (MMS). The purpose of this document is to define the requirements for the ISD/MMS study management component in a manner that will enhance the use of the ISD. After an analysis period which involved EPRI member utilities across the United States, the study concept was formulated. It is defined in terms of its entities, relationships and its support processes, specifically for implementation as the key component of the MMS. From the study concept definition, requirements are derived. There are unique requirements, such as the necessity to interface with DSManager, EGEAS, IRPManager, MIDAS and UPM and there are standard information systems requirements, such as create, modify, delete and browse data. An initial ordering of the requirements is established, with a section devoted to future enhancements.

  6. Towards an integrated understanding of gut microbiota using insects as model systems.

    PubMed

    Pernice, Mathieu; Simpson, Stephen J; Ponton, Fleur

    2014-10-01

    Metazoans form symbioses with microorganisms that synthesize essential nutritional compounds and increase their efficiency to digest and absorb nutrients. Despite the growing awareness that microbes within the gut play key roles in metabolism, health and development of metazoans, symbiotic relationships within the gut are far from fully understood. Insects, which generally harbor a lower microbial diversity than vertebrates, have recently emerged as potential model systems to study these interactions. In this review, we give a brief overview of the characteristics of the gut microbiota in insects in terms of low diversity but high variability at intra- and interspecific levels and we investigate some of the ecological and methodological factors that might explain such variability. We then emphasize how studies integrating an array of techniques and disciplines have the potential to provide new understanding of the biology of this micro eco-system.

  7. Model predictive control system and method for integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Kumar, Rajeeva; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-04-09

    Control system and method for controlling an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system may include a controller coupled to a dynamic model of the plant to process a prediction of plant performance and determine a control strategy for the IGCC plant over a time horizon subject to plant constraints. The control strategy may include control functionality to meet a tracking objective and control functionality to meet an optimization objective. The control strategy may be configured to prioritize the tracking objective over the optimization objective based on a coordinate transformation, such as an orthogonal or quasi-orthogonal projection. A plurality of plant control knobs may be set in accordance with the control strategy to generate a sequence of coordinated multivariable control inputs to meet the tracking objective and the optimization objective subject to the prioritization resulting from the coordinate transformation.

  8. On the integration of the baroreflex control mechanism in a heterogeneous model of the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Blanco, P J; Trenhago, P R; Fernandes, L G; Feijóo, R A

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to describe the integration of a mathematical model for the baroreceptor reflex mechanism to provide regulatory action into a dimensionally heterogeneous (3D-1D-0D) closed-loop model of the cardiovascular system. Such heterogeneous model comprises a 1D description of the arterial tree, a 0D network for the venous, cardiac and pulmonary circulations and 3D patient-specific geometries for vascular districts of interest. Thus, the detailed topological description of the arterial network allows us to perform vasomotor control actions in a differentiated way, while gaining insight about the effects of the baroreflex regulation over hemodynamic quantities of interest throughout the entire network. Two examples of application are presented. Firstly, we simulate the hemorrhage in the abdominal aorta artery and analyze the action of the baroreflex over the system. Secondly, the self-regulated closed-loop model is applied to study the influence of the control action in the hemodynamic environment that determines the blood flow pattern in a cerebral aneurism in the presence of a regurgitating aortic valve. PMID:25365656

  9. Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) with the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) version 2.51

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jöckel, Patrick; Tost, Holger; Pozzer, Andrea; Kunze, Markus; Kirner, Oliver; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Brinkop, Sabine; Cai, Duy S.; Dyroff, Christoph; Eckstein, Johannes; Frank, Franziska; Garny, Hella; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Graf, Phoebe; Grewe, Volker; Kerkweg, Astrid; Kern, Bastian; Matthes, Sigrun; Mertens, Mariano; Meul, Stefanie; Neumaier, Marco; Nützel, Matthias; Oberländer-Hayn, Sophie; Ruhnke, Roland; Runde, Theresa; Sander, Rolf; Scharffe, Dieter; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Three types of reference simulations, as recommended by the Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI), have been performed with version 2.51 of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts - Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model: hindcast simulations (1950-2011), hindcast simulations with specified dynamics (1979-2013), i.e. nudged towards ERA-Interim reanalysis data, and combined hindcast and projection simulations (1950-2100). The manuscript summarizes the updates of the model system and details the different model set-ups used, including the on-line calculated diagnostics. Simulations have been performed with two different nudging set-ups, with and without interactive tropospheric aerosol, and with and without a coupled ocean model. Two different vertical resolutions have been applied. The on-line calculated sources and sinks of reactive species are quantified and a first evaluation of the simulation results from a global perspective is provided as a quality check of the data. The focus is on the intercomparison of the different model set-ups. The simulation data will become publicly available via CCMI and the Climate and Environmental Retrieval and Archive (CERA) database of the German Climate Computing Centre (DKRZ). This manuscript is intended to serve as an extensive reference for further analyses of the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) simulations.

  10. ProcessGene-Connect: SOA Integration between Business Process Models and Enactment Transactions of Enterprise Software Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, Avi; Lincoln, Maya

    In recent years, both practitioners and applied researchers have become increasingly interested in methods for integrating business process models and enterprise software systems through the deployment of enabling middleware. Integrative BPM research has been mainly focusing on the conversion of workflow notations into enacted application procedures, and less effort has been invested in enhancing the connectivity between design level, non-workflow business process models and related enactment systems such as: ERP, SCM and CRM. This type of integration is useful at several stages of an IT system lifecycle, from design and implementation through change management, upgrades and rollout. The paper presents an integration method that utilizes SOA for connecting business process models with corresponding enterprise software systems. The method is then demonstrated through an Oracle E-Business Suite procurement process and its ERP transactions.

  11. The MIT Integrated Global System Model: A facility for Assessing and Communicating Climate Change Uncertainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prinn, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    The world is facing major challenges that create tensions between human development and environmental sustenance. In facing these challenges, computer models are invaluable tools for addressing the need for probabilistic approaches to forecasting. To illustrate this, I use the MIT Integrated Global System Model framework (IGSM; http://globalchange.mit.edu ). The IGSM consists of a set of coupled sub-models of global economic and technological development and resultant emissions, and physical, dynamical and chemical processes in the atmosphere, land, ocean and ecosystems (natural and managed). Some of the sub-models have both complex and simplified versions available, with the choice of which version to use being guided by the questions being addressed. Some sub-models (e.g.urban air pollution) are reduced forms of complex ones created by probabilistic collocation with polynomial chaos bases. Given the significant uncertainties in the model components, it is highly desirable that forecasts be probabilistic. We achieve this by running 400-member ensembles (Latin hypercube sampling) with different choices for key uncertain variables and processes within the human and natural system model components (pdfs of inputs estimated by model-observation comparisons, literature surveys, or expert elicitation). The IGSM has recently been used for probabilistic forecasts of climate, each using 400-member ensembles: one ensemble assumes no explicit climate mitigation policy and others assume increasingly stringent policies involving stabilization of greenhouse gases at various levels. These forecasts indicate clearly that the greatest effect of these policies is to lower the probability of extreme changes. The value of such probability analyses for policy decision-making lies in their ability to compare relative (not just absolute) risks of various policies, which are less affected by the earth system model uncertainties. Given the uncertainties in forecasts, it is also clear that

  12. Mercury Lightcraft Project Update: 3-D Modeling, Systems Analysis and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckton, Thomas W.; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    This paper is a progress report on the laser-propelled Mercury Lightcraft Project at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The laser-propelled, 1-person craft has a diameter of 252-cm, height of 217-cm, internal volume of 3 m3, `dry' mass of 700 kg, and gross liftoff mass of 1 metric ton. Expendable liquids including 70 kg of liquid hydrogen, and an equivalent mass (at least) of de-ionized water serves as open-cycle coolants for the 520 MWe laser/electric power conversion system. Its hyper-energetic airbreathing engine can easily accelerate the vehicle at 10 Gs or more. The tractor-beam lightcraft is intended as a prototype for use in a future global aerospace transportation system based on a constellation of satellite solar power stations in geostationary orbit, with laser relay stations in low Earth orbit. Using SolidWorks® 3-D modeling software, several important features were successfully integrated into the Mercury lightcraft model - principally: a rotating shroud (for spin stabilization) simple actuation system for a new variable-geometry air inlet; refined optical train for the laser-heated H2 plasma generators; pneumatically deployed, robotic quadra-pod landing gear; ejection seat/pod/hatch system; and a more detailed airframe structural concept. The CAD effort has brought the Mercury Lightcraft concept one significant step closer to reality.

  13. An Integrated Gulf Coast Monitoring System Using Field, Remote Sensing and Model Results (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Sa, E. J.; Ko, D. S.; Stone, G.; Walker, N. D.

    2010-12-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico is strongly influenced by the discharge of water, nutrients, dissolved and suspended particulate matter from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system, the largest in North America. It is also frequently impacted by energetic meteorological events that cause storm surge, high waves and affects water quality along its coastal waters. We describe the components of an integrated web-based Gulf Coast Information System (GCIS) (http://gulf-coast.lsu.edu) developed to serve remotely sensed products from a number of NASA satellite sensors such as the SeaWiFS and MODIS ocean color and the QuikSCAT wind sensors. GCIS also serves high-resolution nowcast and 48-hour forecast outputs (sea level variations, temperature, salinity and currents) from a 3-dimensional NCOM coastal circulation model for the coastal states of Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas. The GCIS is coupled to the near real-time outputs of a field monitoring and satellite receiving system, the Wave-Current Information System (WAVCIS) (http://www.wavcis.lsu.edu) and Earth Scan Laboratory (ESL) (www.esl.lsu.edu), respectively that provide critical decision support during hurricanes to the Gulf Coast. We present results on the use of the combined field, satellite and model outputs to monitor the effects of fronts, hurricanes, oil spill and the potential to study longer term climate impacts along the Gulf coast.

  14. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system

  15. An integrated material metabolism model for stocks of urban road system in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Fuhua; Huang, Guolong; Xiao, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has greatly altered the urban metabolism of material and energy. As a significant part of the infrastructure, urban roads are being rapidly developed worldwide. Quantitative analysis of metabolic processes on urban road systems, especially the scale, composition and spatial distribution of their stocks, could help to assess the resource appropriation and potential environmental impacts, as well as improve urban metabolism models. In this paper, an integrated model, which covered all types of roads, intersection structures and ancillary facilities, was built for calculating the material stocks of urban road systems. Based on a bottom-up method, the total stocks were disassembled into a number of stock parts rather than obtained by input-output data, which provided an approach promoting data availability and inner structure understanding. The combination with GIS enabled the model to tackle the complex structures of road networks and avoid double counting. In the case study of Beijing, the following results are shown: 1) The total stocks for the entire road system reached 159 million tons, of which nearly 80% was stored in roads, and 20% in ancillary facilities. 2) Macadam was the largest stock (111 million tons), while stone mastic asphalt, polyurethane plastics, and atactic polypropylene accounted for smaller components of the overall system. 3) The stock per unit area of pedestrian overcrossing was higher than that of the other stock units in the entire system, and its steel stocks reached 0.49 t/m(2), which was 10 times as high as that in interchanges. 4) The high stock areas were mainly distributed in ring-shaped and radial expressways, as well as in major interchanges. 5) Expressways and arterials were excessively emphasized, while minor roads were relatively ignored. However, the variation of cross-sectional thickness in branches and neighborhood roads will have a significant impact on the scale of material stocks in the entire road system.

  16. Integrating Soft Set Theory and Fuzzy Linguistic Model to Evaluate the Performance of Training Simulation Systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance-performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system. PMID:27598390

  17. Integrating Soft Set Theory and Fuzzy Linguistic Model to Evaluate the Performance of Training Simulation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance–performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system. PMID:27598390

  18. Integrating Soft Set Theory and Fuzzy Linguistic Model to Evaluate the Performance of Training Simulation Systems.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuei-Hu; Chang, Yung-Chia; Chain, Kai; Chung, Hsiang-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of high technologies and the arrival of the information age have caused changes to the modern warfare. The military forces of many countries have replaced partially real training drills with training simulation systems to achieve combat readiness. However, considerable types of training simulation systems are used in military settings. In addition, differences in system set up time, functions, the environment, and the competency of system operators, as well as incomplete information have made it difficult to evaluate the performance of training simulation systems. To address the aforementioned problems, this study integrated analytic hierarchy process, soft set theory, and the fuzzy linguistic representation model to evaluate the performance of various training simulation systems. Furthermore, importance-performance analysis was adopted to examine the influence of saving costs and training safety of training simulation systems. The findings of this study are expected to facilitate applying military training simulation systems, avoiding wasting of resources (e.g., low utility and idle time), and providing data for subsequent applications and analysis. To verify the method proposed in this study, the numerical examples of the performance evaluation of training simulation systems were adopted and compared with the numerical results of an AHP and a novel AHP-based ranking technique. The results verified that not only could expert-provided questionnaire information be fully considered to lower the repetition rate of performance ranking, but a two-dimensional graph could also be used to help administrators allocate limited resources, thereby enhancing the investment benefits and training effectiveness of a training simulation system.

  19. Computational modelling of placental amino acid transfer as an integrated system.

    PubMed

    Panitchob, N; Widdows, K L; Crocker, I P; Johnstone, E D; Please, C P; Sibley, C P; Glazier, J D; Lewis, R M; Sengers, B G

    2016-07-01

    Placental amino acid transfer is essential for fetal development and its impairment is associated with poor fetal growth. Amino acid transfer is mediated by a broad array of specific plasma membrane transporters with overlapping substrate specificity. However, it is not fully understood how these different transporters work together to mediate net flux across the placenta. Therefore the aim of this study was to develop a new computational model to describe how human placental amino acid transfer functions as an integrated system. Amino acid transfer from mother to fetus requires transport across the two plasma membranes of the placental syncytiotrophoblast, each of which contains a distinct complement of transporter proteins. A compartmental modelling approach was combined with a carrier based modelling framework to represent the kinetics of the individual accumulative, exchange and facilitative classes of transporters on each plasma membrane. The model successfully captured the principal features of transplacental transfer. Modelling results clearly demonstrate how modulating transporter activity and conditions such as phenylketonuria, can increase the transfer of certain groups of amino acids, but that this comes at the cost of decreasing the transfer of others, which has implications for developing clinical treatment options in the placenta and other transporting epithelia. PMID:27045077

  20. Integration of Geographic Information System frameworks into domain discretisation and meshing processes for geophysical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candy, A. S.; Avdis, A.; Hill, J.; Gorman, G. J.; Piggott, M. D.

    2014-09-01

    Computational simulations of physical phenomena rely on an accurate discretisation of the model domain. Numerical models have increased in sophistication to a level where it is possible to support terrain-following boundaries that conform accurately to real physical interfaces, and resolve a multiscale of spatial resolutions. Whilst simulation codes are maturing in this area, pre-processing tools have not developed significantly enough to competently initialise these problems in a rigorous, efficient and recomputable manner. In the relatively disjoint field of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) however, techniques and tools for mapping and analysis of geographical data have matured significantly. If data provenance and recomputability are to be achieved, the manipulation and agglomeration of data in the pre-processing of numerical simulation initialisation data for geophysical models should be integrated into GIS. A new approach to the discretisation of geophysical domains is presented, and introduced with a verified implementation. This brings together the technologies of geospatial analysis, meshing and numerical simulation models. This platform enables us to combine and build up features, quickly drafting and updating mesh descriptions with the rigour that established GIS tools provide. This, combined with the systematic workflow, supports a strong provenance for model initialisation and encourages the convergence of standards.

  1. The Parallel System for Integrating Impact Models and Sectors (pSIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Joshua; Kelly, David; Chryssanthacopoulos, James; Glotter, Michael; Jhunjhnuwala, Kanika; Best, Neil; Wilde, Michael; Foster, Ian

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework for massively parallel climate impact simulations: the parallel System for Integrating Impact Models and Sectors (pSIMS). This framework comprises a) tools for ingesting and converting large amounts of data to a versatile datatype based on a common geospatial grid; b) tools for translating this datatype into custom formats for site-based models; c) a scalable parallel framework for performing large ensemble simulations, using any one of a number of different impacts models, on clusters, supercomputers, distributed grids, or clouds; d) tools and data standards for reformatting outputs to common datatypes for analysis and visualization; and e) methodologies for aggregating these datatypes to arbitrary spatial scales such as administrative and environmental demarcations. By automating many time-consuming and error-prone aspects of large-scale climate impacts studies, pSIMS accelerates computational research, encourages model intercomparison, and enhances reproducibility of simulation results. We present the pSIMS design and use example assessments to demonstrate its multi-model, multi-scale, and multi-sector versatility.

  2. Holistic Modeling, Design & Analysis of Integrated Stirling and Auxiliary Clean Energy Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Amrit Om

    The research revolves around the development of a model to design and analyze Stirling systems. Lack of a standard approach to study Stirling systems and difficulty in generalizing existing approaches pose stiff challenges. A stable mathematical model (integrated second order adiabatic and dynamic model) is devised and validated for general use. The research attempts to design compact combined heat and power (CHP) system to run on multiple biomass fuels and solar energy. Analysis is also carried out regarding the design of suitable auxiliary systems like thermal energy storage system, biomass moisture removal system and Fresnel solar collector for the CHP Stirling system.

  3. Integrated analysis environment for high impact systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.; Davis, J.; Scott, J.; Sztipanovits, J.; Karsai, G.

    1998-02-01

    Modeling and analysis of high consequence, high assurance systems requires special modeling considerations. System safety and reliability information must be captured in the models. Previously, high consequence systems were modeled using separate, disjoint models for safety, reliability, and security. The MultiGraph Architecture facilitates the implementation of a model integrated system for modeling and analysis of high assurance systems. Model integrated computing allows an integrated modeling technique to be applied to high consequence systems. Among the tools used for analyzing safety and reliability are a behavioral simulator and an automatic fault tree generation and analysis tool. Symbolic model checking techniques are used to efficiently investigate the system models. A method for converting finite state machine models to ordered binary decision diagrams allows the application of symbolic model checking routines to the integrated system models. This integrated approach to modeling and analysis of high consequence systems ensures consistency between the models and the different analysis tools.

  4. Evaluation of medium-range weather forecasts about Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) Integrated Model System (KIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Seol, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Korea Institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is a government funded non-profit research and development institute located in Seoul, South Korea. KIAPS was established in 2011 by the Korea Meteorological Administration, KIAPS' primary sponsor. KIAPS is developing the KIAPS Integrated Model System (KIM), a backbone for the next-generation operational global numerical weather prediction (NWP) system. The KIM will be a unified model that can be used for global modeling as well as local areas, particularly optimized to topographic and meteorological features of the Korean Peninsula. We have been completed developing major model components based on KIAPS own research and release the KIAPS beta version model on September 2014. We evaluated the results of KIM by using verification system developed KIAPS, it is composed of standard verification score based on WMO report. The system consists of four parts: verification against analysis, observations, vertical verification and quantitative precipitation forecasts. The results of verification against analysis, we found that increase of error for temperature under 700 hPa. In case of MSLP, poor performance except for tropical region is represented, and the increase of error for geopotential height is shown in tropical region. For verification against observations, positive bias is represented for upper level geopotential height, for low level wind speed in tropical region in summer, for all level wind speed in Northern Hemisphere in winter, and for specific humidity in Northern Hemisphere in summer. As previously stated about the result against analysis, cold bias for low level temperature is shown in Northern Hemisphere in summer. In case of verification for rain about KIM, the model value is underestimated in heavy rain category in summer, on the contrary, that is overestimated in heavy rain category in winter. Overall, there is overestimation in ocean for all models. Our findings indicate that continuing

  5. System integration report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badler, N. I.; Korein, J. D.; Meyer, C.; Manoochehri, K.; Rovins, J.; Beale, J.; Barr, B.

    1985-01-01

    Several areas that arise from the system integration issue were examined. Intersystem analysis is discussed as it relates to software development, shared data bases and interfaces between TEMPUS and PLAID, shaded graphics rendering systems, object design (BUILD), the TEMPUS animation system, anthropometric lab integration, ongoing TEMPUS support and maintenance, and the impact of UNIX and local workstations on the OSDS environment.

  6. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    PubMed

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  7. Integrated Modeling and Simulation Verification, Validation, and Accreditation Strategy for Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    Models and simulations (M&S) are critical resources in the exploration of space. They support program management, systems engineering, integration, analysis, test, and operations and provide critical information and data supporting key analyses and decisions (technical, cost and schedule). Consequently, there is a clear need to establish a solid understanding of M&S strengths and weaknesses, and the bounds within which they can credibly support decision-making. Their usage requires the implementation of a rigorous approach to verification, validation and accreditation (W&A) and establishment of formal process and practices associated with their application. To ensure decision-making is suitably supported by information (data, models, test beds) from activities (studies, exercises) from M&S applications that are understood and characterized, ESMD is establishing formal, tailored W&A processes and practices. In addition, to ensure the successful application of M&S within ESMD, a formal process for the certification of analysts that use M&S is being implemented. This presentation will highlight NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) management approach for M&S W&A to ensure decision-makers receive timely information on the model's fidelity, credibility, and quality.

  8. Integrating water data, models and forecasts - the Australian Water Resources Information System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argent, R.; Sheahan, P.; Plummer, N.

    2010-12-01

    working with the OGC’s Hydrology Domain Working Group on the development of WaterML 2, which will provide an international standard applicable to a sub-set of the information handled by WDTF. Making water data accessible for multiple uses, such as for predictive models and external products, has required the development of consistent data models for describing the relationships between the various data elements. Early development of the AWRIS data model has utilised a model-driven architecture approach, the benefits of which are likely to accrue in the long term, as more products and services are developed from the common core. Moving on from our initial focus on data organisation and management, the Bureau is in the early stages of developing an integrated modelling suite (the Bureau Hydrological Modelling System - BHMS) which will encompass the variety of hydrological modelling needs of the Bureau, ranging from water balances, assessments and accounts, to streamflow and hydrological forecasting over scales from hours and days to years and decades. It is envisaged that this modelling suite will also be developed, as far as possible, using standardised, discoverable services to enhance data-model and model-model integration.

  9. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  10. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  11. Incorporating Stakeholder Decision Support Needs into an Integrated Regional Earth System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Jennie S.; Moss, Richard H.; Runci, Paul J.; Anderson, K. L.; Malone, Elizabeth L.

    2012-03-21

    A new modeling effort exploring the opportunities, constraints, and interactions between mitigation and adaptation at regional scale is utilizing stakeholder engagement in an innovative approach to guide model development and demonstration, including uncertainty characterization, to effectively inform regional decision making. This project, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), employs structured stakeholder interactions and literature reviews to identify the most relevant adaptation and mitigation alternatives and decision criteria for each regional application of the framework. The information is used to identify important model capabilities and to provide a focus for numerical experiments. This paper presents the stakeholder research results from the first iRESM pilot region. The pilot region includes the Great Lakes Basin in the Midwest portion of the United States as well as other contiguous states. This geographic area (14 states in total) permits cohesive modeling of hydrologic systems while also providing gradients in climate, demography, land cover/land use, and energy supply and demand. The results from the stakeholder research indicate that iRESM should prioritize addressing adaptation alternatives in the water resources, urban infrastructure, and agriculture sectors, such as water conservation, expanded water quality monitoring, altered reservoir releases, lowered water intakes, urban infrastructure upgrades, increased electric power reserves in urban areas, and land use management/crop selection changes. Regarding mitigation alternatives, the stakeholder research shows a need for iRESM to focus on policies affecting the penetration of renewable energy technologies, and the costs and effectiveness of energy efficiency, bioenergy production, wind energy, and carbon capture and sequestration.

  12. The Integrated Medical Model: A Risk Assessment and Decision Support Tool for Space Flight Medical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; deCarvalho, Mary Freire; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool that is useful to mission planners and medical system designers in assessing risks and designing medical systems for space flight missions. The IMM provides an evidence based approach for optimizing medical resources and minimizing risks within space flight operational constraints. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew profiles, medical condition incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential crew functional impairments, and clinical end-states are established to determine probable mission outcomes. Stochastic computational methods are used to forecast probability distributions of crew health and medical resource utilization, as well as estimates of medical evacuation and loss of crew life. The IMM has been used in support of the International Space Station (ISS) medical kit redesign, the medical component of the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment, and the development of the Constellation Medical Conditions List. The IMM also will be used to refine medical requirements for the Constellation program. The IMM outputs for ISS and Constellation design reference missions will be presented to demonstrate the potential of the IMM in assessing risks, planning missions, and designing medical systems. The implementation of the IMM verification and validation plan will be reviewed. Additional planned capabilities of the IMM, including optimization techniques and the inclusion of a mission timeline, will be discussed. Given the space flight constraints of mass, volume, and crew medical training, the IMM is a valuable risk assessment and decision support tool for medical system design and mission planning.

  13. Power system modeling and optimization methods vis-a-vis integrated resource planning (IRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsali, Mohammad H.

    1998-12-01

    The state-of-the-art restructuring of power industries is changing the fundamental nature of retail electricity business. As a result, the so-called Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) strategies implemented on electric utilities are also undergoing modifications. Such modifications evolve from the imminent considerations to minimize the revenue requirements and maximize electrical system reliability vis-a-vis capacity-additions (viewed as potential investments). IRP modifications also provide service-design bases to meet the customer needs towards profitability. The purpose of this research as deliberated in this dissertation is to propose procedures for optimal IRP intended to expand generation facilities of a power system over a stretched period of time. Relevant topics addressed in this research towards IRP optimization are as follows: (1) Historical prospective and evolutionary aspects of power system production-costing models and optimization techniques; (2) A survey of major U.S. electric utilities adopting IRP under changing socioeconomic environment; (3) A new technique designated as the Segmentation Method for production-costing via IRP optimization; (4) Construction of a fuzzy relational database of a typical electric power utility system for IRP purposes; (5) A genetic algorithm based approach for IRP optimization using the fuzzy relational database.

  14. Systems Integration, Analysis and Modeling Support to the HEDS Technology/Commercialization Initiative (HTCI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feingold, Harvey; ONeil, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In response to a recommendation from OMB, NASA's Fiscal Year 2001 budget included a new program within the HEDS (Human Exploration and Development of Space) Enterprise called HEDS Technology/ Commercialization Initiative (HTCI). HTCI had three overarching goals: to support REDS analysis and planning for safe, affordable and effective future programs and projects that advance human exploration, scientific discovery, and the commercial development of space; to pursue research, development, and validation of breakthrough technologies and highly innovative systems concepts; and to advance die creation of strong partnerships within NASA, with U.S. industry and universities, and internationally. As part of its contracted effort, SAIC was to write a report contribution, describing die results of its task activities, to a final HTCI report prepared by MSFC. Unfortunately, government cancellation of the HTCI program in the summer of 2001 curtailed all efforts on the program including die Final HTCI report. In the absence of that report, SAIC has issued this final report in an attempt to document some of the technical material it produced. The report contains SAIC presentations for both HTCI workshops; a set of roadmap charts for the Systems Analysis, Integration and Modeling; and charts showing the evolution of the current TITAN modeling architecture.

  15. Glacial integrative modelling.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, Andrey

    2003-09-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of past climate changes requires modelling of the complex interaction between all major components of the Earth system: atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This paper reviews attempts at such an integrative approach to modelling climate changes during the glacial age. In particular, the roles of different factors in shaping glacial climate are compared based on the results of simulations with an Earth-system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. It is shown that ice sheets, changes in atmospheric compositions, vegetation cover, and reorganization of the ocean thermohaline circulation play important roles in glacial climate changes. Another example of this approach is the modelling of two major types of abrupt glacial climate changes: Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Our results corroborate some of the early proposed mechanisms, which relate abrupt climate changes to the internal instability of the ocean thermohaline circulation and ice sheets. At the same time, it is shown that realistic representation of the temporal evolution of the palaeoclimatic background is crucial to simulate observed features of the glacial abrupt climate changes.

  16. Glacial integrative modelling.

    PubMed

    Ganopolski, Andrey

    2003-09-15

    Understanding the mechanisms of past climate changes requires modelling of the complex interaction between all major components of the Earth system: atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere, lithosphere and biosphere. This paper reviews attempts at such an integrative approach to modelling climate changes during the glacial age. In particular, the roles of different factors in shaping glacial climate are compared based on the results of simulations with an Earth-system model of intermediate complexity, CLIMBER-2. It is shown that ice sheets, changes in atmospheric compositions, vegetation cover, and reorganization of the ocean thermohaline circulation play important roles in glacial climate changes. Another example of this approach is the modelling of two major types of abrupt glacial climate changes: Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Our results corroborate some of the early proposed mechanisms, which relate abrupt climate changes to the internal instability of the ocean thermohaline circulation and ice sheets. At the same time, it is shown that realistic representation of the temporal evolution of the palaeoclimatic background is crucial to simulate observed features of the glacial abrupt climate changes. PMID:14558899

  17. Modeling of an Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) with hydrogen storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, Navin Kodange

    2010-12-01

    Scope and Method of Study. The purpose of the study was to consider the integration of hydrogen storage technology as means of energy storage with renewable sources of energy. Hydrogen storage technology consists of an alkaline electrolyzer, gas storage tank and a fuel cell. The Integrated Renewable Energy System (IRES) under consideration includes wind energy, solar energy from photovoltaics, solar thermal energy and biomass energy in the form of biogas. Energy needs are categorized depending on the type and quality of the energy requirements. After meeting all the energy needs, any excess energy available from wind and PVs is converted into hydrogen using an electrolyzer for later use in a fuel cell. Similarly, when renewable energy generation is not able to supply the actual load demand, the stored hydrogen is utilized through fuel cell to fulfill load demand. Analysis of how IRES operates in order to satisfy different types of energy needs is discussed. Findings and Conclusions. All simulations are performed using MATLAB software. Hydrogen storage technology consisting of an electrolyzer, gas storage tank and a fuel cell is incorporated in the IRES design process for a hypothetical remote community. Results show that whenever renewable energy generated is greater than the electrical demand, excess energy is stored in the form of hydrogen and in case of energy shortfall, the stored hydrogen is utilized through the fuel cell to supply to excess power demand. The overall operation of IRES is enhanced as a result of energy storage in the form of hydrogen. Hydrogen has immense potential to be the energy carrier of the future because of its clean character and the model of hydrogen storage discussed here can form an integral part of IRES for remote area applications.

  18. Academic Research Integration System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surugiu, Iula; Velicano, Manole

    2008-01-01

    This paper comprises results concluding the research activity done so far regarding enhanced web services and system integration. The objective of the paper is to define the software architecture for a coherent framework and methodology for enhancing existing web services into an integrated system. This document presents the research work that has…

  19. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  20. Systems Integration (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program

    2011-10-13

    The Systems Integration (SI) subprogram works closely with industry, universities, and the national laboratories to overcome technical barriers to the large-scale deployment of solar technologies. To support these goals, the subprogram invests primarily in four areas: grid integration, technology validation, solar resource assessment, and balance of system development.

  1. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Freiere deCarvalho, Mary; Myers, Jerry; Walton, Marlei; Butler, Douglas; Iyengar, Sriram; Johnson-Throop, Kathy; Baumann, David

    2010-01-01

    The goals of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) are to develop an integrated, quantified, evidence-based decision support tool useful to crew health and mission planners and to help align science, technology, and operational activities intended to optimize crew health, safety, and mission success. Presentation slides address scope and approach, beneficiaries of IMM capabilities, history, risk components, conceptual models, development steps, and the evidence base. Space adaptation syndrome is used to demonstrate the model's capabilities.

  2. Dynamic modeling, experimental evaluation, optimal design and control of integrated fuel cell system and hybrid energy systems for building demands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Gia Luong Huu

    Fuel cells can produce electricity with high efficiency, low pollutants, and low noise. With the advent of fuel cell technologies, fuel cell systems have since been demonstrated as reliable power generators with power outputs from a few watts to a few megawatts. With proper equipment, fuel cell systems can produce heating and cooling, thus increased its overall efficiency. To increase the acceptance from electrical utilities and building owners, fuel cell systems must operate more dynamically and integrate well with renewable energy resources. This research studies the dynamic performance of fuel cells and the integration of fuel cells with other equipment in three levels: (i) the fuel cell stack operating on hydrogen and reformate gases, (ii) the fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit, and (iii) the hybrid energy system consisting of photovoltaic panels, fuel cell system, and energy storage. In the first part, this research studied the steady-state and dynamic performance of a high temperature PEM fuel cell stack. Collaborators at Aalborg University (Aalborg, Denmark) conducted experiments on a high temperature PEM fuel cell short stack at steady-state and transients. Along with the experimental activities, this research developed a first-principles dynamic model of a fuel cell stack. The dynamic model developed in this research was compared to the experimental results when operating on different reformate concentrations. Finally, the dynamic performance of the fuel cell stack for a rapid increase and rapid decrease in power was evaluated. The dynamic model well predicted the performance of the well-performing cells in the experimental fuel cell stack. The second part of the research studied the dynamic response of a high temperature PEM fuel cell system consisting of a fuel reformer, a fuel cell stack, and a heat recovery unit with high thermal integration. After verifying the model performance with the

  3. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, ``Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

  4. An Integrated Model of the Cardiovascular and Central Nervous Systems for Analysis of Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, R.; Gady, S.; Heinemann, K.; Nelson, E. S.; Mulugeta, L.; Ethier, C. R.; Samuels, B. C.; Feola, A.; Vera, J.; Myers, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    A recognized side effect of prolonged microgravity exposure is visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The medical understanding of this phenomenon is at present preliminary, although it is hypothesized that the headward shift of bodily fluids in microgravity may be a contributor. Computational models can be used to provide insight into the origins of VIIP. In order to further investigate this phenomenon, NASAs Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is developing an integrated computational model of the human body which is divided into the eye, the cerebrovascular system, and the cardiovascular system. This presentation will focus on the development and testing of the computational model of an integrated model of the cardiovascular system (CVS) and central nervous system (CNS) that simulates the behavior of pressures, volumes, and flows within these two physiological systems.

  5. Hybrid Environmental Control System Integrated Modeling Trade Study Analysis for Commercial Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrilla, Javier

    Current industry trends demonstrate aircraft electrification will be part of future platforms in order to achieve higher levels of efficiency in various vehicle level sub-systems. However electrification requires a substantial change in aircraft design that is not suitable for re-winged or re-engined applications as some aircraft manufacturers are opting for today. Thermal limits arise as engine cores progressively get smaller and hotter to improve overall engine efficiency, while legacy systems still demand a substantial amount of pneumatic, hydraulic and electric power extraction. The environmental control system (ECS) provides pressurization, ventilation and air conditioning in commercial aircraft, making it the main heat sink for all aircraft loads with exception of the engine. To mitigate the architecture thermal limits in an efficient manner, the form in which the ECS interacts with the engine will have to be enhanced as to reduce the overall energy consumed and achieve an energy optimized solution. This study examines a tradeoff analysis of an electric ECS by use of a fully integrated Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) model that is capable of studying the interaction between the ECS and the engine cycle deck. It was found that a peak solution lays in a hybrid ECS where it utilizes the correct balance between a traditional pneumatic and a fully electric system. This intermediate architecture offers a substantial improvement in aircraft fuel consumptions due to a reduced amount of waste heat and customer bleed in exchange for partial electrification of the air-conditions pack which is a viable option for re-winged applications.

  6. The Integrated Farm System Model: A Tool for Whole Farm Nutrient Management Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With tighter profit margins and increasing environmental constraints, strategic planning of farm production systems is becoming both more important and more difficult. This is especially true for integrated crop and animal production systems. Animal production is complex with a number of interacting...

  7. Integrable discrete PT symmetric model.

    PubMed

    Ablowitz, Mark J; Musslimani, Ziad H

    2014-09-01

    An exactly solvable discrete PT invariant nonlinear Schrödinger-like model is introduced. It is an integrable Hamiltonian system that exhibits a nontrivial nonlinear PT symmetry. A discrete one-soliton solution is constructed using a left-right Riemann-Hilbert formulation. It is shown that this pure soliton exhibits unique features such as power oscillations and singularity formation. The proposed model can be viewed as a discretization of a recently obtained integrable nonlocal nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  8. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  9. PRISMA: Program of Research to Integrate the Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy. A system-level integration model in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    MacAdam, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The Program of Research to Integrate the Services for the Maintenance of Autonomy (PRISMA) began in Quebec in 1999. Evaluation results indicated that the PRISMA Project improved the system of care for the frail elderly at no additional cost. In 2001, the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services made implementing the six features of the PRISMA approach a province-wide goal in the programme now known as RSIPA (French acronym). Extensive Province-wide progress has been made since then, but ongoing challenges include reducing unmet need for case management and home care services, creating incentives for increased physician participation in care planning and improving the computerized client chart, among others. PRISMA is the only evaluated international model of a coordination approach to integration and one of the few, if not the only, integration model to have been adopted at the system level by policy-makers. PMID:26417212

  10. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    PubMed

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  11. Integrated water system simulation by considering hydrological and biogeochemical processes: model development, with parameter sensitivity and autocalibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Shao, Q. X.; Ye, A. Z.; Xing, H. T.; Xia, J.

    2016-02-01

    Integrated water system modeling is a feasible approach to understanding severe water crises in the world and promoting the implementation of integrated river basin management. In this study, a classic hydrological model (the time variant gain model: TVGM) was extended to an integrated water system model by coupling multiple water-related processes in hydrology, biogeochemistry, water quality, and ecology, and considering the interference of human activities. A parameter analysis tool, which included sensitivity analysis, autocalibration and model performance evaluation, was developed to improve modeling efficiency. To demonstrate the model performances, the Shaying River catchment, which is the largest highly regulated and heavily polluted tributary of the Huai River basin in China, was selected as the case study area. The model performances were evaluated on the key water-related components including runoff, water quality, diffuse pollution load (or nonpoint sources) and crop yield. Results showed that our proposed model simulated most components reasonably well. The simulated daily runoff at most regulated and less-regulated stations matched well with the observations. The average correlation coefficient and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency were 0.85 and 0.70, respectively. Both the simulated low and high flows at most stations were improved when the dam regulation was considered. The daily ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentration was also well captured with the average correlation coefficient of 0.67. Furthermore, the diffuse source load of NH4-N and the corn yield were reasonably simulated at the administrative region scale. This integrated water system model is expected to improve the simulation performances with extension to more model functionalities, and to provide a scientific basis for the implementation in integrated river basin managements.

  12. Developing an Integrated Model Framework for the Assessment of Sustainable Agricultural Residue Removal Limits for Bioenergy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    David Muth, Jr.; Jared Abodeely; Richard Nelson; Douglas McCorkle; Joshua Koch; Kenneth Bryden

    2011-08-01

    Agricultural residues have significant potential as a feedstock for bioenergy production, but removing these residues can have negative impacts on soil health. Models and datasets that can support decisions about sustainable agricultural residue removal are available; however, no tools currently exist capable of simultaneously addressing all environmental factors that can limit availability of residue. The VE-Suite model integration framework has been used to couple a set of environmental process models to support agricultural residue removal decisions. The RUSLE2, WEPS, and Soil Conditioning Index models have been integrated. A disparate set of databases providing the soils, climate, and management practice data required to run these models have also been integrated. The integrated system has been demonstrated for two example cases. First, an assessment using high spatial fidelity crop yield data has been run for a single farm. This analysis shows the significant variance in sustainably accessible residue across a single farm and crop year. A second example is an aggregate assessment of agricultural residues available in the state of Iowa. This implementation of the integrated systems model demonstrates the capability to run a vast range of scenarios required to represent a large geographic region.

  13. Human Systems Integration Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    This lecture provides an overview of Human Systems Integration (HSI), its implementation cost and return on investment, HSI domains, how HSI fits into the NASA organization structure, HSI roles and...

  14. INTEGRATED PROCESS GAS MODELING FOR TRITIUM SYSTEMS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, T; Anita Poore, A

    2007-08-30

    Significant savings are being realized from the consolidated tritium gas-processing operations at the Savannah River Site. However, the trade-off is some reduction of operational flexibility due to decreased storage capacity for process and waste gases. Savannah River National Laboratory researchers are developing an integrated process gas model for tritium processing using Aspen Custom Modeler{trademark} (ACM) software. The modeling involves fully characterizing process flow streams (gas composition, quantity), frequency of batch transfers, and availability of equipment in the flow stream. The model provides a valuable engineering tool to identify flow bottlenecks, thereby enabling adjustments to be made to improve process operations.

  15. An approach to modeling and optimization of integrated renewable energy system (ires)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Zeel

    The purpose of this study was to cost optimize electrical part of IRES (Integrated Renewable Energy Systems) using HOMER and maximize the utilization of resources using MATLAB programming. IRES is an effective and a viable strategy that can be employed to harness renewable energy resources to energize remote rural areas of developing countries. The resource- need matching, which is the basis for IRES makes it possible to provide energy in an efficient and cost effective manner. Modeling and optimization of IRES for a selected study area makes IRES more advantageous when compared to hybrid concepts. A remote rural area with a population of 700 in 120 households and 450 cattle is considered as an example for cost analysis and optimization. Mathematical models for key components of IRES such as biogas generator, hydropower generator, wind turbine, PV system and battery banks are developed. A discussion of the size of water reservoir required is also presented. Modeling of IRES on the basis of need to resource and resource to need matching is pursued to help in optimum use of resources for the needs. Fixed resources such as biogas and water are used in prioritized order whereas movable resources such as wind and solar can be used simultaneously for different priorities. IRES is cost optimized for electricity demand using HOMER software that is developed by the NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). HOMER optimizes configuration for electrical demand only and does not consider other demands such as biogas for cooking and water for domestic and irrigation purposes. Hence an optimization program based on the need-resource modeling of IRES is performed in MATLAB. Optimization of the utilization of resources for several needs is performed. Results obtained from MATLAB clearly show that the available resources can fulfill the demand of the rural areas. Introduction of IRES in rural communities has many socio-economic implications. It brings about improvement in living

  16. Integrative approaches for modeling regulation and function of the respiratory system

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Tal, Alona

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been central to understanding the interaction between neural control and breathing. Models of the entire respiratory system – which comprises the lungs and the neural circuitry that controls their ventilation - have been derived using simplifying assumptions to compartmentalise each component of the system and to define the interactions between components. These full system models often rely – through necessity - on empirically derived relationships or parameters, in addition to physiological values. In parallel with the development of whole respiratory system models are mathematical models that focus on furthering a detailed understanding of the neural control network, or of the several functions that contribute to gas exchange within the lung. These models are biophysically based, and rely on physiological parameters. They include single-unit models for a breathing lung or neural circuit, through to spatially-distributed models of ventilation and perfusion, or multi-circuit models for neural control. The challenge is to bring together these more recent advances in models of neural control with models of lung function, into a full simulation for the respiratory system that builds upon the more detailed models but remains computationally tractable. This requires first understanding the mathematical models that have been developed for the respiratory system at different levels, and which could be used to study how physiological levels of O2 and CO2 in the blood are maintained. PMID:24591490

  17. Integrative approaches for modeling regulation and function of the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tal, Alona; Tawhai, Merryn H

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models have been central to understanding the interaction between neural control and breathing. Models of the entire respiratory system-which comprises the lungs and the neural circuitry that controls their ventilation-have been derived using simplifying assumptions to compartmentalize each component of the system and to define the interactions between components. These full system models often rely-through necessity-on empirically derived relationships or parameters, in addition to physiological values. In parallel with the development of whole respiratory system models are mathematical models that focus on furthering a detailed understanding of the neural control network, or of the several functions that contribute to gas exchange within the lung. These models are biophysically based, and rely on physiological parameters. They include single-unit models for a breathing lung or neural circuit, through to spatially distributed models of ventilation and perfusion, or multicircuit models for neural control. The challenge is to bring together these more recent advances in models of neural control with models of lung function, into a full simulation for the respiratory system that builds upon the more detailed models but remains computationally tractable. This requires first understanding the mathematical models that have been developed for the respiratory system at different levels, and which could be used to study how physiological levels of O2 and CO2 in the blood are maintained.

  18. Arcjet system integration development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zafran, Sidney

    1994-01-01

    Compatibility between an arcjet propulsion system and a communications satellite was verified by testing a Government-furnished, 1.4 kW hydrazine arcjet system with the FLTSATCOM qualification model satellite in a 9.1-meter (30-foot) diameter thermal-vacuum test chamber. Background pressure was maintained at 10(exp -5) torr during arcjet operation by cryopumping the thruster exhaust with an array of 5 K liquid helium cooled panels. Power for the arcjet system was obtained from the FLTSATCOM battery simulator. Spacecraft telemetry was monitored during each thruster firing period. No changes in telemetry data attributable to arcjet operation were detected in any of the tests. Electromagnetic compatibility data obtained included radiated emission measurements, conducted emission measurements, and cable coupling measurements. Significant noise was observed at lower frequencies. Above 500 MHz, radiated emissions were generally within limits, indicating that communication links at S-band and higher frequencies will not be affected. Other test data taken with a diagnostic array of calorimeters, radiometers, witness plates, and a residual gas analyzer evidenced compatible operation, and added to the data base for arcjet system integration. Two test series were conducted. The first series only included the arcjet and diagnostic array operating at approximately 0.1 torr background pressure. The second series added the qualification model spacecraft, a solar panel, and the helium cryopanels. Tests were conducted at 0.1 torr and 10(exp-5) torr. The arcjet thruster was canted 20 degrees relative to the solar panel axis, typical of the configuration used for stationkeeping thrusters on geosynchronous communications satellites.

  19. Integrated Avionics System (IAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    As spacecraft designs converge toward miniaturization and with the volumetric and mass constraints placed on avionics, programs will continue to advance the 'state of the art' in spacecraft systems development with new challenges to reduce power, mass, and volume. Although new technologies have improved packaging densities, a total system packaging architecture is required that not only reduces spacecraft volume and mass budgets, but increase integration efficiencies, provide modularity and scalability to accommodate multiple missions. With these challenges in mind, a novel packaging approach incorporates solutions that provide broader environmental applications, more flexible system interconnectivity, scalability, and simplified assembly test and integration schemes. This paper will describe the fundamental elements of the Integrated Avionics System (IAS), Horizontally Mounted Cube (HMC) hardware design, system and environmental test results. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Integrated Farm System Model Version 4.1 and Dairy Gas Emissions Model Version 3.1 software release and distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal facilities are significant contributors of gaseous emissions including ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Previous versions of the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM version 4.0) and Dairy Gas Emissions Model (DairyGEM version 3.0), two whole-farm simulation models developed by USDA-ARS, ...

  1. An integrated geographic information system approach for modeling the suitability of conifer habitat in an alpine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Alpine periglacial environments within the forest-alpine tundra ecotone (FATE) may be among the first to reflect changes in habitat characteristics as a consequence of climatic change. Previous FATE studies used Integrated Geographic Information System (IGIS) techniques to collect and model biophysical data but lacked the necessary detail to model the micro-scale patterns and compositions of habitat within alpine periglacial environments. This paper describes several promising data collection, integration, and cartographic modeling techniques used in an IGIS approach to model alpine periglacial environments in Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. High-resolution (I X I m) multi-spectral remote sensing data and differentially corrected Global Positioning System (DGPS) data were integrated with other biophysical data using a raster-based IGIS approach. Biophysical factors, hypothesized to influence the pattern and composition of the FATE and the alpine tundra ecosystem, were derived from the high-resolution remote sensing data, in-situ GPS data, high-resolution models of digital elevation, and other thematic data using image processing techniques and cartographic modeling. Suitability models of conifer habitat were created using indices generated from the IGIS database. This IGIS approach identified suitable conifer habitat within the FATE and permitted the modeling of micro-scale periglacial features and alpine tundra communities that are absent from traditional approaches of landscape-scale (30 X 30 m) modeling.

  2. Integrated biogas systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaratunga, M.

    1980-01-01

    Integrated biogas systems as alternatives to fossil fuels in Sri Lanka are considered from standpoints of population growth, land availability, and employment opportunities. Agricultural practices would be improved by use of chemical fertilizers, and health/nutrition problems be alleviated by using biogas systems. Fuel for cooking and rural industries will become more easily available; water weeds, such as water hyacinth and salvinia which pose a threat to waterways and rice paddy lands could be used for the production of biogas and fertilizers. A concept of an integrated biogas system comprising photosynthesis and anaerobic degradation processes to produce food and energy is presented.

  3. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  4. Getting expert systems off the ground: Lessons learned from integrating model-based diagnostics with prototype flight hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Amy; Erikson, Carol A.

    1991-01-01

    As an initial attempt to introduce expert system technology into an onboard environment, a model based diagnostic system using the TRW MARPLE software tool was integrated with prototype flight hardware and its corresponding control software. Because this experiment was designed primarily to test the effectiveness of the model based reasoning technique used, the expert system ran on a separate hardware platform, and interactions between the control software and the model based diagnostics were limited. While this project met its objective of showing that model based reasoning can effectively isolate failures in flight hardware, it also identified the need for an integrated development path for expert system and control software for onboard applications. In developing expert systems that are ready for flight, artificial intelligence techniques must be evaluated to determine whether they offer a real advantage onboard, identify which diagnostic functions should be performed by the expert systems and which are better left to the procedural software, and work closely with both the hardware and the software developers from the beginning of a project to produce a well designed and thoroughly integrated application.

  5. Integrated Data Modeling and Simulation on the Joint Polar Satellite System Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Christopher J.; Boyce, Leslye; Smith, Gary; Li, Angela; Barrett, Larry

    2012-01-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is a modern, large-scale, complex, multi-mission aerospace program, and presents a variety of design, testing and operational challenges due to: (1) System Scope: multi-mission coordination, role, responsibility and accountability challenges stemming from porous/ill-defined system and organizational boundaries (including foreign policy interactions) (2) Degree of Concurrency: design, implementation, integration, verification and operation occurring simultaneously, at multiple scales in the system hierarchy (3) Multi-Decadal Lifecycle: technical obsolesce, reliability and sustainment concerns, including those related to organizational and industrial base. Additionally, these systems tend to become embedded in the broader societal infrastructure, resulting in new system stakeholders with perhaps different preferences (4) Barriers to Effective Communications: process and cultural issues that emerge due to geographic dispersion and as one spans boundaries including gov./contractor, NASA/Other USG, and international relationships.

  6. An integrated and modular digital modeling approach for the Space Station electrical power system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gombos, Frank J.; Dravid, Narayan

    1988-01-01

    An electrical power system for the Space Station was designed, developed and built. This system provides for electrical power generation, conditioning, storage, and distribution. The initial configuration uses photovoltaic power generation. The power system control is based on a hierarchical architecture to support the requirements of automation. In the preliminary design and technology development phase of the program, various modeling techniques and software tools were evaluated for the purpose of meeting the Space Station power system modeling requirements. Rocketdyne and LeRC jointly selected the EASY5 simulation software, developed by Boeing Computer Services, as a system level modeling tool. The application of the selected analytical modeling approach to represent the entire power system is described. Typical results of model predictions are also summarized. The equipment modeled includes solar arrays, dc to ac converters, resonant inverters, battery storage system, alternator, transmission line, switch gear, and system level microprocessor controls. During the advanced development phase of this program, several models were developed using this approach.

  7. An integrated and modular digital modeling approach for the space station electrical power system development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gombos, Frank J.; Dravid, Narayan

    1988-01-01

    An electrical power system for the Space Station was designed, developed and built. This system provides for electrical power generation, conditioning, storage, and distribution. The initial configuration uses photovoltaic power generation. The power system control is based on a hierarchical architecture to support the requirements of automation. In the preliminary design and technology development phase of the program, various modeling techniques and software tools were evaluated for the purpose of meeting the Space Station power system modeling requirements. Rocketdyne and LeRC jointly selected the EASY5 simulation software, developed by Boeing Computer Services, as a system level modeling tool. The application of the selected analytical modeling approach to represent the entire power system is described. Typical results of model predictions are also summarized. The equipment modeled includes solar arrays, dc to ac converters, resonant inverters, battery storage system, alternator, transmission line, switch gear, and system level microprocessor controls. During the advanced development phase of this program, several models were developed using this approach.

  8. Chemical Weather Forecasting using the online fully integrated modeling system RAMS/ICLAMS - Comparison with the offline approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushta, Jonilda; Astitha, Marina; Solomos, Stavros; Kallos, George

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of chemical weather forecasting, the online approach consists of the coupled treatment of chemical parameters, simultaneously with the meteorological parameters, in a single integrated modelling system. This approach offers the possibility to simulate the links and feedbacks between atmospheric processes that are traditionally neglected in air quality models. These links include direct and indirect effects of gases and aerosols on radiation, clouds and precipitation that in turn re-modify atmospheric composition in a two way interactive pattern. Both meteorological and chemical components are expected to benefit from this approach. The extend to which this improvement can justify a thorough migration to integrated systems is the subject of the current work. In this study we discuss the performance of the online Integrated Community Limited Area Modelling System (RAMS/ICLAMS) and compare the results with the offline use with CAMx model, for a month long summertime text period. The area under consideration is Europe and the Greater Mediterranean Region (GMR). In both on and off line simulations the same meteorological driver has been used (RAMS). The comparability of the two models is achieved with the implementation of same chemical mechanisms, meteorological fields, emissions, initial and boundary conditions. The differences in the model configurations are also taken into account in the comparison of the two modelling approaches. In this presentation, the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the regional atmospheric chemical composition by using the online versus the offline approach are analyzed and discussed.

  9. Using Discrete Event Simulation to Model Integrated Commodities Consumption for a Launch Campaign of the Space Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Daniel; Parsons, Jeremy W.; Cates, Grant

    2014-01-01

    In May 2013, NASA's GSDO Program requested a study to develop a discrete event simulation (DES) model that analyzes the launch campaign process of the Space Launch System (SLS) from an integrated commodities perspective. The scope of the study includes launch countdown and scrub turnaround and focuses on four core launch commodities: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and helium. Previously, the commodities were only analyzed individually and deterministically for their launch support capability, but this study was the first to integrate them to examine the impact of their interactions on a launch campaign as well as the effects of process variability on commodity availability. The study produced a validated DES model with Rockwell Arena that showed that Kennedy Space Center's ground systems were capable of supporting a 48-hour scrub turnaround for the SLS. The model will be maintained and updated to provide commodity consumption analysis of future ground system and SLS configurations.

  10. Integrated work management system.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Edward J., Jr.; Henry, Karen Lynne

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories develops technologies to: (1) sustain, modernize, and protect our nuclear arsenal (2) Prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction; (3) Provide new capabilities to our armed forces; (4) Protect our national infrastructure; (5) Ensure the stability of our nation's energy and water supplies; and (6) Defend our nation against terrorist threats. We identified the need for a single overarching Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) that would enable us to focus on customer missions and improve FMOC processes. Our team selected highly configurable commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software with out-of-the-box workflow processes that integrate strategic planning, project management, facility assessments, and space management, and can interface with existing systems, such as Oracle, PeopleSoft, Maximo, Bentley, and FileNet. We selected the Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) from Tririga, Inc. Facility Management System (FMS) Benefits are: (1) Create a single reliable source for facility data; (2) Improve transparency with oversight organizations; (3) Streamline FMOC business processes with a single, integrated facility-management tool; (4) Give customers simple tools and real-time information; (5) Reduce indirect costs; (6) Replace approximately 30 FMOC systems and 60 homegrown tools (such as Microsoft Access databases); and (7) Integrate with FIMS.

  11. Evaluating Depth-Integrated Steric Contributions to Sea-Level Trends and Variability in Earth System Model Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, E.; Sriver, R. L.

    2015-12-01

    Earth system model ensembles exhibit considerable uncertainties surrounding trends and magnitude of steric sea-level variations, due in part to structural model differences, internal model variability, and parameterizations that influence ocean heat uptake. Here we analyze depth-integrated steric sea-level changes using the CMIP5 models and a new CESM ensemble that samples internal variability of the coupled Earth system. The CESM ensemble contains 50 members, with historical and future projections (1850-2100) initialized from unique model states sampled from a ~10,000 year fully coupled unforced equilibrium simulation. The CESM ensemble enables us to examine how initial conditions uncertainty (internal variability) within the full-ocean can influence depth-integrated steric sea-level variability. The second ensemble is comprised of runs from 32 different CMIP5 models. We performed grid-level drift correction for each model using the pre-industrial control simulations, which enables us to examine depth-integrated variability and trends due to different model structures. We compare and contrast our results with published observational datasets, and we analyze the effect of different sources of uncertainty on simulated sea-level variability and trends for different ocean depths. Results point to the importance of the deep ocean in attempting to attribute and predict temporal patterns of steric sea-level on a global scale.

  12. A volumetric CMUT-based ultrasound imaging system simulator with integrated reception and μ-beamforming electronics models.

    PubMed

    Matrone, Giulia; Savoia, Alessandro S; Terenzi, Marco; Caliano, Giosuè; Quaglia, Fabio; Magenes, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In modern ultrasound imaging devices, two-dimensional probes and electronic scanning allow volumetric imaging of anatomical structures. When dealing with the design of such complex 3-D ultrasound (US) systems, as the number of transducers and channels dramatically increases, new challenges concerning the integration of electronics and the implementation of smart micro-beamforming strategies arise. Hence, the possibility to predict the behavior of the whole system is mandatory. In this paper, we propose and describe an advanced simulation tool for ultrasound system modeling and simulation, which conjugates the US propagation and scattering, signal transduction, electronic signal conditioning, and beamforming in a single environment. In particular, we present the architecture and model of an existing 16-channel integrated receiver, which includes an amplification and micro-beamforming stage, and validate it by comparison with circuit simulations. The developed model is then used in conjunction with the transducer and US field models to perform a system simulation, aimed at estimating the performance of an example 3-D US imaging system that uses a capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) 2-D phased-array coupled to the modeled reception front-end. Results of point spread function (PSF) calculations, as well as synthetic imaging of a virtual phantom, show that this tool is actually able to model the complete US image reconstruction process, and that it could be used to quickly provide valuable system-level feedback for an optimized tuning of electronic design parameters.

  13. A Model for Integrating a Job-Aiding, Training, and Performance Assessment System--A Preliminary Concept Paper. Final Technical Paper for Period June-August 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Charles R., Jr.; Lester, Mark

    This paper presents a model for an integrated system used for job-aiding, training, and performance assessment for persons who maintain systems of various types. The model is driven by updatable job aids, by integrated human-machine heuristics, and by an expanding matrix of maintenance activities. The model uses the job-aiding base, updated by…

  14. Application of Manifold Methods for Data Assimilation in Integrated Earth System Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safaie, A.; Dang, C.; Radha, H.; Phanikumar, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    A novel manifold-based method is presented to assimilate different types of spatio-temporal data in integrated land and oceanic models. This method has been developed based on the assumption that hydrologic, atmospheric and oceanic data can be mapped onto an underlying differential manifold. In this study, the proposed method is employed to reconstruct meteorological forcing dataset over Lake Michigan, bathymetry of Gull Lake, and precipitation over the Grand River watershed in the State of Michigan. In the first case study, hourly interpolated meteorological forcing parameters are used to run a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model of Lake Michigan to show the improvement that results from the use of the interpolation method by comparing model results with observed data for currents. In the second case study, the bathymetry of the Gull Lake is interpolated from the scatter point data using the manifold technique. A hydrodynamic model of Gull Lake has been developed and improved by using the interpolated bathymetry. In the last case study, 13-year daily participation data are interpolated over the Grand River watershed and used as input for an integrated, distributed watershed model. All three case studies illustrate the effectiveness of the presented manifold based interpolation algorithm.

  15. Evaluating agricultural nonpoint-source pollution using integrated geographic information systems and hydrologic/water quality model

    SciTech Connect

    Tim, U.S.; Jolly, R.

    1994-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in developing physically based, distributed parameter, hydrologic/water quality (HIWQ) models for planning and control of nonpoint-source pollution. The widespread use of these models is often constrained by the excessive and time-consuming input data demands and the lack of computing efficiencies necessary for iterative simulation of alternative management strategies. Recent developments in geographic information systems (GIS) provide techniques for handling large amounts of spatial data for modeling nonpoint-source pollution problems. Because a GIS can be used to combine information from several sources to form an array of model input data and to examine any combinations of spatial input/output data, it represents a highly effective tool for HiWQ modeling. This paper describes the integration of a distributed-parameter model (AGNPS) with a GIS (ARC/INFO) to examine nonpoint sources of pollution in an agricultural watershed. The ARC/INFO GIS provided the tools to generate and spatially organize the disparate data to support modeling, while the AGNPS model was used to predict several water quality variables including soil erosion and sedimentation within a watershed. The integrated system was used to evaluate the effectiveness of several alternative management strategies in reducing sediment pollution in a 417-ha watershed located in southern Iowa. The implementation of vegetative filter strips and contour buffer (grass) strips resulted in a 41 and 47% reduction in sediment yield at the watershed outlet, respectively. In addition, when the integrated system was used, the combination of the above management strategies resulted in a 71% reduction in sediment yield. In general, the study demonstrated the utility of integrating a simulation model with GIS for nonpoini-source pollution control and planning. Such techniques can help characterize the diffuse sources of pollution at the landscape level. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Resource Planning Model: An Integrated Resource Planning and Dispatch Tool for Regional Electric Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mai, T.; Drury, E.; Eurek, K.; Bodington, N.; Lopez, A.; Perry, A.

    2013-01-01

    This report introduces a new capacity expansion model, the Resource Planning Model (RPM), with high spatial and temporal resolution that can be used for mid- and long-term scenario planning of regional power systems. Although RPM can be adapted to any geographic region, the report describes an initial version of the model adapted for the power system in Colorado. It presents examples of scenario results from the first version of the model, including an example of a 30%-by-2020 renewable electricity penetration scenario.

  17. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  18. An Integrated Model Recontextualized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Saltmarsh, John

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, authors KerryAnn O'Meara and John Saltmarsh reflect on their 2008 "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement" article "An Integrated Model for Advancing the Scholarship of Engagement: Creating Academic Homes for the Engaged Scholar," reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of…

  19. Model-Based Design and Integration of Large Li-ion Battery Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kandler; Kim, Gi-Heon; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Shi, Ying; Pesaran, Ahmad; Mukherjee, Partha; Barai, Pallab; Maute, Kurt; Behrou, Reza; Patil, Chinmaya

    2015-11-17

    This presentation introduces physics-based models of batteries and software toolsets, including those developed by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Computer-Aided Engineering for Electric-Drive Vehicle Batteries Program (CAEBAT). The presentation highlights achievements and gaps in model-based tools for materials-to-systems design, lifetime prediction and control.

  20. Integral equation model of light scattering by an oriented monodisperse system of triaxial dielectric ellipsoids: application in ectacytometry.

    PubMed

    Stamatakos, G S; Yova, D; Uzunoglu, N K

    1997-09-01

    A novel mathematical model of light scattering by an oriented monodisperse system of triaxial dielectric ellipsoids of complex index of refraction is presented. It is based on an integral equation solution to the scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a single triaxial dielectric ellipsoid. Both the position and the orientation of a single representative scatterer in a given coordinate system are considered arbitrary. A Monte Carlo simulation is developed to reproduce the diffraction pattern of a population of aligned ellipsoids. As an example of practical importance, light scattering by a population of erythrocytes subjected to intense shear stress is modeled. Agreement with experimental observations and the anomalous diffraction theory is illustrated. Thus a novel check of the electromagnetic basis of ektacytometry is provided. Furthermore, the versatility of the integral equation method, particularly in the advent of parallel processing systems, is demonstrated. PMID:18259511

  1. Integration of Water Resource Models with Fayetteville Shale Decision Support and Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Cothren, Jackson; Thoma, Greg; DiLuzio, Mauro; Limp, Fred

    2013-06-30

    Significant issues can arise with the timing, location, and volume of surface water withdrawals associated with hydraulic fracturing of gas shale reservoirs as impacted watersheds may be sensitive, especially in drought years, during low flow periods, or during periods of the year when activities such as irrigation place additional demands on the surface supply of water. Significant energy production and associated water withdrawals may have a cumulative impact to watersheds over the short-term. Hence, hydraulic fracturing based on water withdrawal could potentially create shifts in the timing and magnitude of low or high flow events or change the magnitude of river flow at daily, monthly, seasonal, or yearly time scales. These changes in flow regimes can result in dramatically altered river systems. Currently little is known about the impact of fracturing on stream flow behavior. Within this context the objective of this study is to assess the impact of the hydraulic fracturing on the water balance of the Fayetteville Shale play area and examine the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on river flow regime at subbasin scale. This project addressed that need with four unique but integrated research and development efforts: 1) Evaluate the predictive reliability of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model based at a variety of scales (Task/Section 3.5). The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to simulate the across-scale water balance and the respective impact of hydraulic fracturing. A second hypothetical scenario was designed to assess the current and future impacts of water withdrawals for hydraulic fracturing on the flow regime and on the environmental flow components (EFCs) of the river. The shifting of these components, which present critical elements to water supply and water quality, could influence the ecological dynamics of river systems. For this purpose, we combined the use of SWAT model and Richter et al.’s (1996

  2. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  3. Integrated modeling: a look back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Clark

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses applications and implementation approaches used for integrated modeling of structural systems with optics over the past 30 years. While much of the development work focused on control system design, significant contributions were made in system modeling and computer-aided design (CAD) environments. Early work appended handmade line-of-sight models to traditional finite element models, such as the optical spacecraft concept from the ACOSS program. The IDEAS2 computational environment built in support of Space Station collected a wider variety of existing tools around a parametric database. Later, IMOS supported interferometer and large telescope mission studies at JPL with MATLAB modeling of structural dynamics, thermal analysis, and geometric optics. IMOS's predecessor was a simple FORTRAN command line interpreter for LQG controller design with additional functions that built state-space finite element models. Specialized language systems such as CAESY were formulated and prototyped to provide more complex object-oriented functions suited to control-structure interaction. A more recent example of optical modeling directly in mechanical CAD is used to illustrate possible future directions. While the value of directly posing the optical metric in system dynamics terms is well understood today, the potential payoff is illustrated briefly via project-based examples. It is quite likely that integrated structure thermal optical performance (STOP) modeling could be accomplished in a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) tool set. The work flow could be adopted, for example, by a team developing a small high-performance optical or radio frequency (RF) instrument.

  4. Performance Assessment of a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Site using GoldSim Integrated Systems Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrell, G.; Singh, A.; Tauxe, J.; Perona, R.; Dornsife, W.; grisak, G. E.; Holt, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Texas Commission on Environmental Quality has approved licenses for four landfills at the Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site located in Andrews County, West Texas. The site includes a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. An updated performance assessment is necessary prior to acceptance of waste at the landfills. The updated performance assessment a) provides for more realistic and flexible dose modeling capabilities, b) addresses all plausible release and accident scenarios as they relate to the performance objectives, c) includes impact of climate and hydrologic scenarios that may impact long-term performance of the landfill, d) addresses impact of cover naturalization and degradation on the landfill, and e) incorporates uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for critical parameters. For the updated performance assessment, WCS has developed an integrated systems level performance assessment model using the GoldSim platform. GoldSim serves as a model for integrating all of the major components of a performance assessment, which include the radionuclide source term, facility design, environmental transport pathways, exposure scenarios, and radiological doses. Unlike many computer models that are based on first principles, GoldSim is a systems level model that can be used to integrate and abstract more complex sub-models into one system. This can then be used to assess the results into a unified model of the disposal system and environment. In this particular application, the GoldSim model consists of a) hydrogeologic model that simulates flow and transport through the Dockum geologic unit that underlies all of the waste facilities, b) waste cells that represent the containment unit and simulate degradation of waste forms, radionuclide leaching, and partitioning into the liquid and vapor phase within the waste unit, c) a cover system model that simulates upward diffusive transport from the underground repository to the atmosphere. In

  5. A system model to integrate the “Green Manufacturing” concept in Romanian manufacturing organisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilină, D. I.; Zapciu, M.; Mohora, C.

    2015-11-01

    In Romania, the large majorities of the manufacturing companies consume natural resources and energy in an unsustainable manner. Over the years, the emissions of greenhouse gases have led not only to many environmental problems but also to important social and economic problems. A real solution to help the Romanian manufacturing companies to adapt to the new legislative requirements is the green manufacturing implementation. Considering the current situation, the purpose of this paper is to present a model that will integrate the green manufacturing concept at the organizational level based on the practices identified in the Romanian manufacturing companies at the operational level in the context of sustainable development.

  6. Integrated driver modelling considering state transition feature for individual adaptation of driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Khaisongkram, Wathanyoo; Nagai, Masao; Shimosaka, Masamichi; Mori, Taketoshi; Sato, Tomomasa

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the modelling of naturalistic driving behaviour in real-world traffic scenarios, based on driving data collected via an experimental automobile equipped with a continuous sensing drive recorder. This paper focuses on the longitudinal driving situations which are classified into five categories - car following, braking, free following, decelerating and stopping - and are referred to as driving states. Here, the model is assumed to be represented by a state flow diagram. Statistical machine learning of driver-vehicle-environment system model based on driving database is conducted by a discriminative modelling approach called boosting sequential labelling method.

  7. Integrated Environmental Control Model

    1999-09-03

    IECM is a powerful multimedia engineering software program for simulating an integrated coal-fired power plant. It provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integratedmore » into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of dofferent costs and performance results. A Graphical Use Interface (GUI) facilitates the configuration of the technologies, entry of data, and retrieval of results.« less

  8. On recognizing 'shades-of-gray' (self-nonself discrimination) or 'colour' (Integrity model) by the immune system.

    PubMed

    Dembic, Z

    2013-10-01

    The aim is to discuss Cohn's T-cell receptor (TCR) Tritope model of recognition, propose a novel suggestion for prior-to-positive selection of thymocytes contributing to inherent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) reactivity of a T-cell repertoire and clarify the Integrity model about the function of the immune system. If we compare the perception of light with the recognition of nonself, we could imagine that the opacity might be a measure of docking interaction between specific receptors for antigen on T or B cells (TCR/peptide-MHC or BCR/antigen). From this viewpoint, the self-nonself discrimination (S-NS) metaphor would be perception of black (self) versus white (nonself). However, whereas detection of shades-of-gray suffices to describe S-NS discrimination principle, colour vision of the antigenic world portrays best the Integrity model. In concert with recognition of opacity, the Integrity model proposes detection of at least three colours (signals): red (harmful), blue (useful) and yellow (the rest, including homoeostatic ones). As a result, recognition of nonself is transferred into communication within self while deciding on type of the immune response. Hence, the S-NS discrimination model seems to be an oversimplification, because it fails to see colours and consequently lacks the need for suppressor/regulatory function. Similarly, the Danger model stops short of detecting being useful signals that confer immune asylum to helpful micro-organisms like commensals. I suggest that the immune system's repertoire for recognition, in general, has evolved by a novel drive called 'natural integrity' alongside natural selection, thus facilitating communication between cells of the immune system.

  9. Geo-Semantic Framework for Integrating Long-Tail Data and Model Resources for Advancing Earth System Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elag, M.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Often, scientists and small research groups collect data, which target to address issues and have limited geographic or temporal range. A large number of such collections together constitute a large database that is of immense value to Earth Science studies. Complexity of integrating these data include heterogeneity in dimensions, coordinate systems, scales, variables, providers, users and contexts. They have been defined as long-tail data. Similarly, we use "long-tail models" to characterize a heterogeneous collection of models and/or modules developed for targeted problems by individuals and small groups, which together provide a large valuable collection. Complexity of integrating across these models include differing variable names and units for the same concept, model runs at different time steps and spatial resolution, use of differing naming and reference conventions, etc. Ability to "integrate long-tail models and data" will provide an opportunity for the interoperability and reusability of communities' resources, where not only models can be combined in a workflow, but each model will be able to discover and (re)use data in application specific context of space, time and questions. This capability is essential to represent, understand, predict, and manage heterogeneous and interconnected processes and activities by harnessing the complex, heterogeneous, and extensive set of distributed resources. Because of the staggering production rate of long-tail models and data resulting from the advances in computational, sensing, and information technologies, an important challenge arises: how can geoinformatics bring together these resources seamlessly, given the inherent complexity among model and data resources that span across various domains. We will present a semantic-based framework to support integration of "long-tail" models and data. This builds on existing technologies including: (i) SEAD (Sustainable Environmental Actionable Data) which supports curation

  10. Modeling and Simulation Resource Repository (MSRR)(System Engineering/Integrated M&S Management Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milroy, Audrey; Hale, Joe

    2006-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) is implementing a management approach for modeling and simulation (M&S) that will provide decision-makers information on the model s fidelity, credibility, and quality, including the verification, validation and accreditation information. The NASA MSRR will be implemented leveraging M&S industry best practices. This presentation will discuss the requirements that will enable NASA to capture and make available the "meta data" or "simulation biography" data associated with a model. The presentation will also describe the requirements that drive how NASA will collect and document relevant information for models or suites of models in order to facilitate use and reuse of relevant models and provide visibility across NASA organizations and the larger M&S community.

  11. An integrated modelling framework to aid smallholder farming system management in the Olifants River Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magombeyi, M. S.; Taigbenu, A. E.

    Computerised integrated models from science contribute to better informed and holistic assessments of multifaceted policies and technologies than individual models. This view has led to considerable effort being devoted to developing integrated models to support decision-making under integrated water resources management (IWRM). Nevertheless, an appraisal of previous and ongoing efforts to develop such decision support systems shows considerable deficiencies in attempts to address the hydro-socio-economic effects on livelihoods. To date, no universal standard integration method or framework is in use. For the existing integrated models, their application failures have pointed to the lack of stakeholder participation. In an endeavour to close this gap, development and application of a seasonal time-step integrated model with prediction capability is presented in this paper. This model couples existing hydrology, agronomy and socio-economic models with feedbacks to link livelihoods of resource-constrained smallholder farmers to water resources at catchment level in the semi-arid Olifants subbasin in South Africa. These three models, prior to coupling, were calibrated and validated using observed data and participation of local stakeholders. All the models gave good representation of the study conditions, as indicated by the statistical indicators. The integrated model is of general applicability, hence can be extended to other catchments. The impacts of untied ridges, planting basins and supplemental irrigation were compared to conventional rainfed tillage under maize crop production and for different farm typologies. Over the 20 years of simulation, the predicted benefit of untied ridges and planting basins versus conventional rainfed tillage on surface runoff (Mm 3/year) reduction was 14.3% and 19.8%, respectively, and about 41-46% sediment yield (t/year) reduction in the catchment. Under supplemental irrigation, maize yield improved by up to 500% from the long

  12. Nanophotonics for integrated information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Uriel; Tetz, Kevin; Rokitski, Rostislav; Kim, Hyu-Chang; Tsai, Chia-Ho; Abashin, Maxim; Pang, Lin; Zezhad, Maziar; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2006-02-01

    Optical technology plays an increasingly important role in numerous information system applications, including optical communications, storage, signal processing, biology, medicine, and sensing. As optical technology develops, there is a growing need to develop scalable and reliable photonic integration technologies. These include the development of passive and active optical components that can be integrated into functional optical circuits and systems, including filters, electrically or optically controlled switching fabrics, optical sources, detectors, amplifiers, etc. We explore the unique capabilities and advantages of nanotechnology in developing next generation integrated photonic information systems. Our approach includes design, modeling and simulations of selected components and devices, their nanofabrication, followed by validation via characterization and testing of the fabricated devices. The latter exploits our recently constructed near field complex amplitude imaging tool. The understanding of near field interactions in nanophotonic devices and systems is a crucial step as these interactions provide a variety of functionalities useful for optical systems integration. Furthermore, near-field optical devices facilitate miniaturization, and simultaneously enhance multifunctionality, greatly increasing the functional complexity per unit volume of the photonic system. Since the optical properties of near-field materials are controlled by the geometry, there is flexibility in the choice of constituent materials, facilitating the implementation of a wide range of devices using compatible materials for ease of fabrication and integration.

  13. Effect of overpressure on the catchment outflow of a tile drainage system: an integrated modeling strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henine, H.; Nedelec, Y.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of agricultural artificial drainage on catchment outflow has been a debate for quite some time. Predicting the drainage impacts on downstream peak flow is complex because it involves different flow media: soil, drainage pipes' network and open channels. This work follows up field experiments carried out in a small subsurface drained catchment. Flow rates and pressure heads were monitored in buried pipe collectors, within the drainage network, at the junction between field collector and main collector, and at the whole catchment outlet. A watertable profile in the drained field was recorded simultaneously to investigating underground flow during pipe pressurization. Several years of data collection showed that pipe pressurization, during intense rainfall events, induced limited or reversed collector discharge and temporary storage of infiltrated water within the field soil while the water table rose. In order to better understand and predict the influence of the temporary pipe pressurization on field drainage discharge during intense rainfall events, this work proposes an integrated modeling strategy. The modeling approach consists in adapting and coupling a 1D Saint-Venant network model, with a 2D Boussinesq shallow watertable model. Two main issues are addressed here. The first one is the ability of both models to cope with pressurized conditions for both buried pipes and watertable above drain. The second issue deals with assessing the effects of topography and network organization on drainage pipe pressurization.

  14. Analysis of scenarios for wastewater and urban drainage systems in Brazil based on an integrated modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Soares, S R A; Parkinson, J; Bernardes, R S

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is currently facing widespread problems in the urban environment associated with inadequate wastewater and urban drainage systems, particularly for low-income communities. These problems are promoted by the rapid and often unplanned urbanization process in developing cities and are compounded by a lack of funding, absence of planning, ineffective institutional arrangements, and inappropriate policies to provide the framework for integrated wastewater and stormwater management. Because planning for the provision of wastewater and urban drainage systems is a complex task, an integrated-modeling approach is proposed to provide a practical methodology for sanitation and urban drainage planning in Brazilian cities. In the model development, as well as technical aspects, other aspects related to institutional, financial, socio-economic, environmental and public health issues were also taken into account.

  15. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. The results of the checkout, shakedown, and initial parametric tests are summarized.

  16. Integrated oxygen recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. Gene; Davenport, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Life Systems has conceptualized an innovative Integrated Oxygen Recovery System (IORS) applicable to advanced mission air revitalization. The IORS provides the capability to electrochemically generate metabolic oxygen (O2) and recover O2 from the space habitat atmosphere via a carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction process within a single assembly. To achieve this capability, the IORS utilizes a Solid Metal Cathode (SMC) water electrolysis unit that simultaneously serves as the Sabatier CO2 reduction reactor. The IORS enables two major life support systems currently baselined in closed loop air revitalization systems to be combined into one smaller, less complex system. This concept reduces fluidic and electrical interface requirements and eliminates a hydrogen (H2) interface. Life Systems is performing an evaluation of the IORS process directed at demonstrating performance and quantifying key physical characteristics including power, weight, and volume. Technical progress achieved during the first two months of the program is summarized.

  17. Benefit/Cost Ratio in Systems Engineering: Integrated Models, Tests, Design, and Production

    SciTech Connect

    Nitta, C; Logan, R; Chidester, S; Foltz, M F

    2004-10-27

    We have previously described our methodology for quantification of risk and risk reduction, and the use of risk, quantified as a dollar value, in the Value Engineering and decision tradeoff process. In this work we extend our example theme of the safety of reactive materials during accidental impacts. We have begun to place the validation of our impact safety model into a systems engineering context. In that sense, we have made connections between the data and the trends in the data, our models of the impact safety process, and the implications regarding confidence levels and reliability based on given impact safety requirements. We have folded this information into a quantitative risk assessment, and shown the assessed risk reduction value of developing an even better model, with more model work or more experimental data or both. Since there is a cost incurred for either model improvement or testing, we have used a Benefit/Cost Ratio metric to quantify this, where Benefit is our quantification of assessed risk reduction, and cost is the cost of the new test data, code development, and model validation. This has left us with further questions posed for our evolving system engineering representation for impact safety and its implications. We had concluded that the Benefit/Cost Ratio for more model validation was high, but such improvement could take several paths. We show our progress along two such paths; simple and high fidelity modeling of the impact safety process, and the implications of our knowledge and assumptions of the probability distribution functions involved. At the other end of the systems engineering scale, we discuss the implications of our linkage from model validation to risk on our production plant operations. Naturally, the nature of most such methodologies is still evolving, and this work represents the views of the authors and not necessarily the views of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  18. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    SciTech Connect

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-15

    The development of medical diagnostic system has been one of the main research fields during years. The goal of the medical diagnostic system is to place a nosological system that could ease the diagnostic evaluation normally performed by scientists and doctors. Efficient diagnostic evaluation is essentials and requires broad knowledge in order to improve conventional diagnostic system. Several approaches on developing the medical diagnostic system have been designed and tested since the earliest 60s. Attempts on improving their performance have been made which utilizes the fields of artificial intelligence, statistical analyses, mathematical model and engineering theories. With the availability of the microcomputer and software development as well as the promising aforementioned fields, medical diagnostic prototypes could be developed. In general, the medical diagnostic system consists of several stages, namely the 1) data acquisition, 2) feature extraction, 3) feature selection, and 4) classifications stages. Data acquisition stage plays an important role in converting the inputs measured from the real world physical conditions to the digital numeric values that can be manipulated by the computer system. One of the common medical inputs could be medical microscopic images, radiographic images, magnetic resonance image (MRI) as well as medical signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Normally, the scientist or doctors have to deal with myriad of data and redundant to be processed. In order to reduce the complexity of the diagnosis process, only the significant features of the raw data such as peak value of the ECG signal or size of lesion in the mammogram images will be extracted and considered in the subsequent stages. Mathematical models and statistical analyses will be performed to select the most significant features to be classified. The statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis as well

  19. Towards intelligent diagnostic system employing integration of mathematical and engineering model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat

    2015-05-01

    The development of medical diagnostic system has been one of the main research fields during years. The goal of the medical diagnostic system is to place a nosological system that could ease the diagnostic evaluation normally performed by scientists and doctors. Efficient diagnostic evaluation is essentials and requires broad knowledge in order to improve conventional diagnostic system. Several approaches on developing the medical diagnostic system have been designed and tested since the earliest 60s. Attempts on improving their performance have been made which utilizes the fields of artificial intelligence, statistical analyses, mathematical model and engineering theories. With the availability of the microcomputer and software development as well as the promising aforementioned fields, medical diagnostic prototypes could be developed. In general, the medical diagnostic system consists of several stages, namely the 1) data acquisition, 2) feature extraction, 3) feature selection, and 4) classifications stages. Data acquisition stage plays an important role in converting the inputs measured from the real world physical conditions to the digital numeric values that can be manipulated by the computer system. One of the common medical inputs could be medical microscopic images, radiographic images, magnetic resonance image (MRI) as well as medical signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and electroencephalogram (EEG). Normally, the scientist or doctors have to deal with myriad of data and redundant to be processed. In order to reduce the complexity of the diagnosis process, only the significant features of the raw data such as peak value of the ECG signal or size of lesion in the mammogram images will be extracted and considered in the subsequent stages. Mathematical models and statistical analyses will be performed to select the most significant features to be classified. The statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and discriminant analysis as well

  20. Modeling and Control System Design for an Integrated Solar Generation and Energy Storage System with a Ride-Through Capability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Yue, M.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a generic approach for PV panel modeling. Data for this modeling can be easily obtained from manufacturer datasheet, which provides a convenient way for the researchers and engineers to investigate the PV integration issues. A two-stage power conversion system (PCS) is adopted in this paper for the PV generation system and a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) can be connected to the dc-link through a bi-directional dc/dc converter. In this way, the BESS can provide some ancillary services which may be required in the high penetration PV generation scenario. In this paper, the fault ride-through (FRT) capability is specifically focused. The integrated BESS and PV generation system together with the associated control systems is modeled in PSCAD and Matlab platforms and the effectiveness of the controller is validated by the simulation results.

  1. Developing an Action Model for Integration of Health System Response to HIV/AIDS and Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Setswe, Geoffrey; Elliott, Julian; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although there are several models of integrated architecture, we still lack models and theories about the integration process of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. Objective: The overall purpose of this study is to design an action model, a systematic approach, for the integration of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in developing countries. Methods: An iterative and progressive approach of model development using inductive qualitative evidence synthesis techniques was applied. As evidence about integration is spread across different fields, synthesis of evidence from a broad range of disciplines was conducted. Results: An action model of integration having 5 underlying principles, 4 action fields, and a 9-step action cycle is developed. The INTEGRATE model is an acronym of the 9 steps of the integration process: 1) Interrelate the magnitude and distribution of the problems, 2) Navigate the linkage between the problems, 3) Testify individual level co-occurrence of the problems, 4) Examine the similarities and understand the differences between the response functions, 5) Glance over the health system’s environment for integration, 6) Repackage and share evidence in a useable form, 7) Ascertain the plan for integration, 8) Translate the plan in to action, 9) Evaluate and Monitor the integration. Conclusion: Our model provides a basis for integration of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in the context of developing countries. We propose that future empirical work is needed to refine the validity and applicability of the model. PMID:24373260

  2. Enabling model customization and integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Minho; Fishwick, Paul A.

    2003-09-01

    Until fairly recently, the idea of dynamic model content and presentation were treated synonymously. For example, if one was to take a data flow network, which captures the dynamics of a target system in terms of the flow of data through nodal operators, then one would often standardize on rectangles and arrows for the model display. The increasing web emphasis on XML, however, suggests that the network model can have its content specified in an XML language, and then the model can be represented in a number of ways depending on the chosen style. We have developed a formal method, based on styles, that permits a model to be specified in XML and presented in 1D (text), 2D, and 3D. This method allows for customization and personalization to exert their benefits beyond e-commerce, to the area of model structures used in computer simulation. This customization leads naturally to solving the bigger problem of model integration - the act of taking models of a scene and integrating them with that scene so that there is only one unified modeling interface. This work focuses mostly on customization, but we address the integration issue in the future work section.

  3. Integrated groundwater-surface water modeling at the neighborhood scale in urbanized hydrologic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.; Cole, J.

    2013-12-01

    Modification of the hydrologic cycle by urban development is influenced by fine-scale spatial characteristics of cut-and-fill topography, road networks, and subsurface utilities. To address impacts on both groundwater and surface water in an integrated manner, we are using ParFlow, a parallel distributed watershed model, to conduct high-resolution simulations. We are applying ParFlow across six watershed subbasins with drainage areas of 0.3-0.6 km2 using a horizontal grid resolution of 10 m and vertical resolution of 1 m. Sites have been selected to represent a range of development intensity, age, and stormwater management practices, and each is instrumented for stage and discharge. A LIDAR-derived DEM defines model topography, and an orthoimagery and LIDAR-derived land cover classification from U. Vermont is used to develop model surface hydrologic properties. In some cases, portions of the watershed divide modified by large infrastructure elements, such as freeways, roads, and stormwater features, pose difficulties to overland flow routing within the model and to watershed delineation. In these cases, additional information, including the location of stormwater infrastructure, has been used to modify the DEM and represent where surface flow paths follow the storm drain network instead of topography. Results of these methods have improved estimation of domain extent and flow paths in overland flow tests of these basins. Boundary and initial conditions have been selected for each basin using legacy well data and a conceptual model of the Piedmont physiographic province hydrogeology. Steady-state simulations have been conducted in some cases to help refine model boundary conditions. Model spin-up has been conducted using surface forcing (P and ET) for the years 2008-2009 from NLDAS2 dataset. Ongoing analysis is focused on modeling the impact of development patterns and type of stormwater management. Challenges related to applying a coupled model in an urban setting

  4. Surface water vulnerability assessment applying the integrity model as a decision support system for quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mirauda, Domenica; Ostoich, Marco

    2011-04-15

    The implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC, aimed at achieving a 'Good' Ecological Status of surface water bodies by 2015, indicates the adoption of a River Basin Management approach by using a model which works as a support for decision making. This work has applied the suggestions put forward by the WFD by means of a mathematical model called the Integrity Model. This represents valid support when assessing the efficiency of planned interventions which may directly or indirectly play a role in enhancing the quality of surface waters at the basin scale. Herein the results of a preliminary application limited to just two indexes on the Bacchiglione river basin, located in Northern Italy, are both presented and compared with the results of institutional monitoring activities in compliance with set technical regulations. The proposed model appears to be useful when carrying out Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedures in accordance with Directive 2001/42/EC concerning water management and protection plans as well as for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) procedure to be carried out on the interventions identified.

  5. An integrated system dynamics model developed for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Benoit, Gaboury; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yong; Guo, Huaicheng

    2015-05-15

    A reliable system simulation to relate socioeconomic development with water environment and to comprehensively represent a watershed's dynamic features is important. In this study, after identifying lake watershed system processes, we developed a system dynamics modeling framework for managing lake water quality at the watershed scale. Two reinforcing loops (Development and Investment Promotion) and three balancing loops (Pollution, Resource Consumption, and Pollution Control) were constituted. Based on this work, we constructed Stock and Flow Diagrams that embedded a pollutant load model and a lake water quality model into a socioeconomic system dynamics model. The Dianchi Lake in Yunnan Province, China, which is the sixth largest and among the most severely polluted freshwater lakes in China, was employed as a case study to demonstrate the applicability of the model. Water quality parameters considered in the model included chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP). The business-as-usual (BAU) scenario and three alternative management scenarios on spatial adjustment of industries and population (S1), wastewater treatment capacity construction (S2), and structural adjustment of agriculture (S3), were simulated to assess the effectiveness of certain policies in improving water quality. Results showed that S2 is most effective scenario, and the COD, TN, and TP concentrations in Caohai in 2030 are 52.5, 10.9, and 0.8 mg/L, while those in Waihai are 9.6, 1.2, and 0.08 mg/L, with sustained development in the watershed. Thus, the model can help support the decision making required in development and environmental protection strategies.

  6. Structured approaches to large-scale systems: Variational integrators for interconnected Lagrange-Dirac systems and structured model reduction on Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Helen Frances

    This dissertation presents two projects related to the structured integration of large-scale mechanical systems. Structured integration uses the considerable differential geometric structure inherent in mechanical motion to inform the design of numerical integration schemes. This process improves the qualitative properties of simulations and becomes especially valuable as a measure of accuracy over long time simulations in which traditional Gronwall accuracy estimates lose their meaning. Often, structured integration schemes replicate continuous symmetries and their associated conservation laws at the discrete level. Such is the case for variational integrators, which discretely replicate the process of deriving equations of motion from variational principles. This results in the conservation of momenta associated to symmetries in the discrete system and conservation of a symplectic form when applicable. In the case of Lagrange-Dirac systems, variational integrators preserve a discrete analogue of the Dirac structure preserved in the continuous flow. In the first project of this thesis, we extend Dirac variational integrators to accommodate interconnected systems. We hope this work will find use in the fields of control, where a controlled system can be thought of as a "plant" system joined to its controller, and in the approach of very large systems, where modular modeling may prove easier than monolithically modeling the entire system. The second project of the thesis considers a different approach to large systems. Given a detailed model of the full system, can we reduce it to a more computationally efficient model without losing essential geometric structures in the system? Asked without the reference to structure, this is the essential question of the field of model reduction. The answer there has been a resounding yes, with Principal Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) with snapshots rising as one of the most successful methods. Our project builds on previous work

  7. A Model for Developing High-Quality Online Courses: Integrating a Systems Approach with Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzziferro, Maria; Shelton, Kaye

    2008-01-01

    As the demand for online education continues to increase, institutions are faced with developing process models for efficient, high-quality online course development. This paper describes a systems, team-based, approach that centers on an online instructional design theory ("Active Mastery Learning") implemented at Colorado State University-Global…

  8. The Strategic Impact Model: An Integrative Approach to Performance Improvement and Instructional Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael; Pershing, James A.

    2004-01-01

    Training in business settings and instruction in academic settings have never taken place in a vacuum, but in earlier times many instructional technology professionals behaved as though they did. Models of instructional systems design (ISD) placed training and instruction at the center of the universe ignoring the impact of the external…

  9. Integration and alignment of ATLAS instrument engineering model components in Optical Development System Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Tyler

    2013-09-01

    The ATLAS Instrument for the ICESat-2 mission at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center required a test-bed to prove out new concepts before the mission launches in 2016. The Optical Development System (ODS) laboratory was created to use breadboard, prototype, and engineering-model levels of hardware and software to model and evaluate the ATLAS alignment system. A one meter parabolic mirror was used to create a collimated light beam to align prototype and engineering model transmitter and receiver optics and test closed-loop alignment algorithms. To achieve an error of less than two micro-radians, an active deformable mirror was used to correct the wave front to subtract out the collimator mount error.

  10. Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23388858

  11. Application of the integrated Rule Oriented Data System (iRODS) to support regional-scale hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billah, M. M.; Goodall, J. L.; Narayan, U.; Lakshmi, V.; Rajasekar, A.; Moore, R.

    2012-12-01

    Modeling regional-scale hydrologic systems introduces major data challenges related to the access and transformation of datasets from heterogeneous sources into the information needed to execute hydrologic models. These activities are rarely automated, making the reproducibility of model results directly from raw data sources impractical or even impossible. This is a major challenge facing the hydrologic community and must be overcome to advance understanding and management of regional-scale water resource systems. In this study we address this challenge by demonstrating how the integrated Rule Oriented Data Management Systems (iRODS) can be used as a data management system to support the workflow inherent to running regional-scale hydrologic models. Focusing on the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model as a case study, we show how data preparation steps can be written as micro-services and rules within iRODS, and how iRODS can be used to federate data access and data processing routines across data providers and data consumers. We apply iRODS and VIC to study hydrologic conditions in the Carolinas during the period 1998-2007 to better understand hydrologic conditions during and following periods of drought within the region. The case study demonstrates a distinct advantage of our approach in that, by automating the data access and transformation steps, scientists and managers can more easily document model applications, reproduce model results, and explore sources of model uncertainty.

  12. Slimplectic Integrators: Variational Integrators for Nonconservative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David

    2016-05-01

    Symplectic integrators are widely used for long-term integration of conservative astrophysical problems due to their ability to preserve the constants of motion; however, they cannot in general be applied in the presence of nonconservative interactions. Here we present the “slimplectic” integrator, a new type of numerical integrator that shares many of the benefits of traditional symplectic integrators yet is applicable to general nonconservative systems. We utilize a fixed-time-step variational integrator formalism applied to a newly developed principle of stationary nonconservative action (Galley, 2013, Galley et al 2014). As a result, the generalized momenta and energy (Noether current) evolutions are well-tracked. We discuss several example systems, including damped harmonic oscillators, Poynting–Robertson drag, and gravitational radiation reaction, by utilizing our new publicly available code to demonstrate the slimplectic integrator algorithm. Slimplectic integrators are well-suited for integrations of systems where nonconservative effects play an important role in the long-term dynamical evolution. As such they are particularly appropriate for cosmological or celestial N-body dynamics problems where nonconservative interactions, e.g., gas interactions or dissipative tides, can play an important role.

  13. Slimplectic Integrators: Variational Integrators for Nonconservative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, David

    2016-01-01

    Symplectic integrators are widely used for long-term integration of conservative astrophysical problems due to their ability to preserve the constants of motion; however, they cannot in general be applied in the presence of nonconservative interactions. In this Letter, we develop the "slimplectic" integrator, a new type of numerical integrator that shares many of the benefits of traditional symplectic integrators yet is applicable to general nonconservative systems. We utilize a fixed-time-step variational integrator formalism applied to the principle of stationary nonconservative action developed in Galley et al. As a result, the generalized momenta and energy (Noether current) evolutions are well-tracked. We discuss several example systems, including damped harmonic oscillators, Poynting-Robertson drag, and gravitational radiation reaction, by utilizing our new publicly available code to demonstrate the slimplectic integrator algorithm. Slimplectic integrators are well-suited for integrations of systems where nonconservative effects play an important role in the long-term dynamical evolution. As such they are particularly appropriate for cosmological or celestial N-body dynamics problems where nonconservative interactions, e.g., gas interactions or dissipative tides, can play an important role.

  14. Integrated hydrometeorological predictions with the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochis, D. J.; Yu, W.

    2013-12-01

    Prediction of heavy rainfall and associated streamflow responses remain as critical hydrometeorological challenges and require improved understanding of the linkages between atmospheric and land surface processes. Streamflow prediction skill is intrinsically liked to quantitative precipitation forecast skill, which emphasizes the need to produce mesoscale predictions of rainfall of high fidelity. However, in many cases land surface parameters can also exert significant control on the runoff response to heavy rainfall and on the formation or localization of heavy rainfall as well. A new generation of integrated atmospheric-hydrologic modeling systems is emerging from different groups around the world to meet the challenge of integrated water cycle predictions. In this talk the community WRF-Hydro modeling system will be presented. After a brief reviewing the architectural features of the WRF-Hydro system short-term forecasting and regional hydroclimate prediction applications of the model from western North America will be presented. In these applications, analyses will present results from observation-validated prediction experiments where atmospheric and terrestrial hydrologic model components are run in both a fully coupled mode and separately without two-way interactions. Emphasis is placed on illustrating an assessment framework using an initial state perturbation methodology to quantify the role of land-atmosphere energy and moisture flux partitioning in controlling precipitation and runoff forecast skill. Issues related to experimental design of fully-coupled model prediction experiments will also be discussed as will issues related to computational performance.

  15. Prospective and participatory integrated assessment of agricultural systems from farm to regional scales: Comparison of three modeling approaches.

    PubMed

    Delmotte, Sylvestre; Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Barbier, Jean-Marc; Wery, Jacques

    2013-11-15

    Evaluating the impacts of the development of alternative agricultural systems, such as organic or low-input cropping systems, in the context of an agricultural region requires the use of specific tools and methodologies. They should allow a prospective (using scenarios), multi-scale (taking into account the field, farm and regional level), integrated (notably multicriteria) and participatory assessment, abbreviated PIAAS (for Participatory Integrated Assessment of Agricultural System). In this paper, we compare the possible contribution to PIAAS of three modeling approaches i.e. Bio-Economic Modeling (BEM), Agent-Based Modeling (ABM) and statistical Land-Use/Land Cover Change (LUCC) models. After a presentation of each approach, we analyze their advantages and drawbacks, and identify their possible complementarities for PIAAS. Statistical LUCC modeling is a suitable approach for multi-scale analysis of past changes and can be used to start discussion about the futures with stakeholders. BEM and ABM approaches have complementary features for scenarios assessment at different scales. While ABM has been widely used for participatory assessment, BEM has been rarely used satisfactorily in a participatory manner. On the basis of these results, we propose to combine these three approaches in a framework targeted to PIAAS. PMID:24013558

  16. An integrated multi-level watershed-reservoir modeling system for examining hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Huang, Guo H; Wang, Dunling; Zhang, Xiaodong; Li, Gongchen; An, Chunjiang; Cui, Zheng; Liao, Renfei; Nie, Xianghui

    2012-03-15

    Eutrophication of small prairie reservoirs presents a major challenge in water quality management and has led to a need for predictive water quality modeling. Studies are lacking in effectively integrating watershed models and reservoir models to explore nutrient dynamics and eutrophication pattern. A water quality model specific to small prairie water bodies is also desired in order to highlight key biogeochemical processes with an acceptable degree of parameterization. This study presents a Multi-level Watershed-Reservoir Modeling System (MWRMS) to simulate hydrological and biogeochemical processes in small prairie watersheds. It integrated a watershed model, a hydrodynamic model and an eutrophication model into a flexible modeling framework. It can comprehensively describe hydrological and biogeochemical processes across different spatial scales and effectively deal with the special drainage structure of small prairie watersheds. As a key component of MWRMS, a three-dimensional Willows Reservoir Eutrophication Model (WREM) is developed to addresses essential biogeochemical processes in prairie reservoirs and to generate 3D distributions of various water quality constituents; with a modest degree of parameterization, WREM is able to meet the limit of data availability that often confronts the modeling practices in small watersheds. MWRMS was applied to the Assiniboia Watershed in southern Saskatchewan, Canada. Extensive efforts of field work and lab analysis were undertaken to support model calibration and validation. MWRMS demonstrated its ability to reproduce the observed watershed water yield, reservoir water levels and temperatures, and concentrations of several water constituents. Results showed that the aquatic systems in the Assiniboia Watershed were nitrogen-limited and sediment flux played a crucial role in reservoir nutrient budget and dynamics. MWRMS can provide a broad context of decision support for water resources management and water quality

  17. An integrated modeling system for estimating glacier and snow melt driven streamflow from remote sensing and earth system data products in the Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M. E.; Racoviteanu, A. E.; Tarboton, D. G.; Gupta, A. Sen; Nigro, J.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Tokay, M.; Shrestha, M. S.; Bajracharya, S.; Hummel, P.; Gray, M.; Duda, P.; Zaitchik, B.; Mahat, V.; Artan, G.; Tokar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Quantification of the contribution of the hydrologic components (snow, ice and rain) to river discharge in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is important for decision-making in water sensitive sectors, and for water resources management and flood risk reduction. In this area, access to and monitoring of the glaciers and their melt outflow is challenging due to difficult access, thus modeling based on remote sensing offers the potential for providing information to improve water resources management and decision making. This paper describes an integrated modeling system developed using downscaled NASA satellite based and earth system data products coupled with in-situ hydrologic data to assess the contribution of snow and glaciers to the flows of the rivers in the HKH region. Snow and glacier melt was estimated using the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model, further enhanced to accommodate glacier ice melt over clean and debris-covered tongues, then meltwater was input into the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (GeoSFM). The two model components were integrated into Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources modeling framework (BASINS) as a user-friendly open source system and was made available to countries in high Asia. Here we present a case study from the Langtang Khola watershed in the monsoon-influenced Nepal Himalaya, used to validate our energy balance approach and to test the applicability of our modeling system. The snow and glacier melt model predicts that for the eight years used for model evaluation (October 2003-September 2010), the total surface water input over the basin was 9.43 m, originating as 62% from glacier melt, 30% from snowmelt and 8% from rainfall. Measured streamflow for those years were 5.02 m, reflecting a runoff coefficient of 0.53. GeoSFM simulated streamflow was 5.31 m indicating reasonable correspondence between measured and model confirming the capability of the integrated system to provide a quantification of

  18. An Integrated Modeling System for Estimating Glacier and Snow Melt Driven Streamflow from Remote Sensing and Earth System Data Products in the Himalayas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, M. E.; Racoviteanu, A. E.; Tarboton, D. G.; Sen Gupta, A.; Nigro, J.; Policelli, F.; Habib, S.; Tokay, M.; Shrestha, M. S.; Bajracharya, S.

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of the contribution of the hydrologic components (snow, ice and rain) to river discharge in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is important for decision-making in water sensitive sectors, and for water resources management and flood risk reduction. In this area, access to and monitoring of the glaciers and their melt outflow is challenging due to difficult access, thus modeling based on remote sensing offers the potential for providing information to improve water resources management and decision making. This paper describes an integrated modeling system developed using downscaled NASA satellite based and earth system data products coupled with in-situ hydrologic data to assess the contribution of snow and glaciers to the flows of the rivers in the HKH region. Snow and glacier melt was estimated using the Utah Energy Balance (UEB) model, further enhanced to accommodate glacier ice melt over clean and debris-covered tongues, then meltwater was input into the USGS Geospatial Stream Flow Model (Geo- SFM). The two model components were integrated into Better Assessment Science Integrating point and Nonpoint Sources modeling framework (BASINS) as a user-friendly open source system and was made available to countries in high Asia. Here we present a case study from the Langtang Khola watershed in the monsoon-influenced Nepal Himalaya, used to validate our energy balance approach and to test the applicability of our modeling system. The snow and glacier melt model predicts that for the eight years used for model evaluation (October 2003-September 2010), the total surface water input over the basin was 9.43 m, originating as 62% from glacier melt, 30% from snowmelt and 8% from rainfall. Measured streamflow for those years were 5.02 m, reflecting a runoff coefficient of 0.53. GeoSFM simulated streamflow was 5.31 m indicating reasonable correspondence between measured and model confirming the capability of the integrated system to provide a quantification

  19. On an improved sub-regional water resources management representation for integration into earth system models

    SciTech Connect

    Voisin, Nathalie; Li, Hongyi; Ward, Duane L.; Huang, Maoyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-09-30

    Human influence on the hydrologic cycle includes regulation and storage, consumptive use and overall redistribution of water resources in space and time. Representing these processes is essential for applications of earth system models in hydrologic and climate predictions, as well as impact studies at regional to global scales. Emerging large-scale research reservoir models use generic operating rules that are flexible for coupling with earth system models. Those generic operating rules have been successful in reproducing the overall regulated flow at large basin scales. This study investigates the uncertainties of the reservoir models from different implementations of the generic operating rules using the complex multi-objective Columbia River Regulation System in northwestern United States as an example to understand their effects on not only regulated flow but also reservoir storage and fraction of the demand that is met. Numerical experiments are designed to test new generic operating rules that combine storage and releases targets for multi-purpose reservoirs and to compare the use of reservoir usage priorities, withdrawals vs. consumptive demand, as well as natural vs. regulated mean flow for calibrating operating rules. Overall the best performing implementation is the use of the combined priorities (flood control storage targets and irrigation release targets) operating rules calibrated with mean annual natural flow and mean monthly withdrawals. The challenge of not accounting for groundwater withdrawals, or on the contrary, assuming that all remaining demand is met through groundwater extractions, is discussed.

  20. Integrated traffic system

    SciTech Connect

    Creighton, H. ); Allen, R.; Stewart, S.; Hayto, S. )

    1990-11-01

    The traffic congestion on our roads today is becoming a critical problem. There is increased fuel consumption as cars wait along poorly timed arterials. Safety is threatened as poor traffic flow leads to collisions. This paper reports that Transport Canada and the Ministry of Transportation Ontario has developed an integrated traffic system (ITS). The system is designed to enable the optimization of traffic flow on existing roadways. The ITS system contains a data-base management system for traffic data (including accidents, roadway volumes, and signal timing details) and links this data base to the traffic analysis programs. This will ease the data management situation within the municipalities and standardize the traffic operations and reduce duplication of computerization development efforts.

  1. An integrated model for cognitive behavioural therapy for mobile diabetes self-management system.

    PubMed

    Alanzi, T M; Istepanian, R S H; Philip, N

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing clinical evidence that behavioural change theories can help diabetic patients with their diabetic management in providing better education and a healthy lifestyle. In recent years, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) has been increasingly used as a key psychological method for studies of behavioural changes for diabetes patients. However, to date, there is no extensive study that addresses the challenges and opportunities on applying CBT models within the mobile diabetes management cycle of care. In this paper, we present a review of the current status of CBT in diabetes management and propose a model for the implementation of CBT Therapy into a mobile diabetes management system by using smart mobile phone technologies.

  2. The concept of anti-integrability applied to dynamical systems and to structural and electronic models in condensed matter physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubry, Serge

    1994-02-01

    Many models for structures in condensed matter can be associated with Hamiltonian dynamical systems with discrete time. This connection is due to the fact that both models are defined by the minimisation or the extremalisation of the same variational form called “free energy” in the first case and “action” in the second case. Thus, the results obtained for the first class of problems turn out to have applications for the second class and vice-versa, but however, with a physical interpretation which is totally different. For example, the breaking of the KAM tori and the occurrence of chaos in the standard map turns out to correspond to a pinning transition and the occurrence of chaotic metastable states in the associated Frenkel-Kontorowa models. The anti-integrable limit for structural problems is a very natural limit where the “atoms” of the structure become disconnected. It corresponds to a highly singular limit for the associated dynamical system which up to now did not focus much attention. The associated dynamical system becomes undeterministic and just reduces to a Bernoulli shift. Nevertheless, a perturbation theorem can be established at this limit which proves the persistence of chaotic trajectories when the dynamical system returns to be deterministic. This result is extended to a large class of dynamical systems with discrete time including non-Hamiltonian systems. An anti-integrable limit can also be found in the adiabatic Holstein model describing electrons coupled to phonons at several dimensions and some extensions which are not apparently connected to any dynamical system. Then the anti-integrable limit is obtained when the electronic kinetic energy vanishes. Treating this kinetic energy in an exact perturbation theory, allows one to prove new results concerning the existence of bipolaronic, polaronic and mixed polaronic-bipolaronic insulators. The possible extension of the KAM theory to the small electron-phonon coupling regime and

  3. An integrated and dynamic optimisation model for the multi-level emergency logistics network in anti-bioterrorism system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Zhao, Lindu

    2012-08-01

    Demand for emergency resources is usually uncertain and varies quickly in anti-bioterrorism system. Besides, emergency resources which had been allocated to the epidemic areas in the early rescue cycle will affect the demand later. In this article, an integrated and dynamic optimisation model with time-varying demand based on the epidemic diffusion rule is constructed. The heuristic algorithm coupled with the MATLAB mathematical programming solver is adopted to solve the optimisation model. In what follows, the application of the optimisation model as well as a short sensitivity analysis of the key parameters in the time-varying demand forecast model is presented. The results show that both the model and the solution algorithm are useful in practice, and both objectives of inventory level and emergency rescue cost can be controlled effectively. Thus, it can provide some guidelines for decision makers when coping with emergency rescue problem with uncertain demand, and offers an excellent reference when issues pertain to bioterrorism.

  4. Integrated healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, J

    1995-01-01

    When it comes to electronic data processing in healthcare, we offer a guarded, but hopeful, prognosis. To be sure, the age of electronic information processing has hit healthcare. Employers, insurance companies, hospitals, physicians and a host of ancillary service providers are all being ushered into a world of high speed, high tech electronic information. Some are even predicting that the health information business will grow from $20 billion to over $100 billion in a decade. Yet, out industry lags behind other industries in its overall movement to the paperless world. Selecting and installing the most advanced integrated information system isn't a simple task, as we've seen. As in life, compromises can produce less than optimal results. Nevertheless, integrated healthcare systems simply won't achieve their goals without systems designed to support the operation of a continuum of services. That's the reality! It is difficult to read about the wonderful advances in other sectors, while realizing that many trees still fall each year in the name of the health care industry. Yes, there are some outstanding examples of organizations pushing the envelop in a variety of areas. Yet from a very practical standpoint, many (like our physician's office) are still struggling or are on the sidelines wondering what to do. Given the competitive marketplace, organizations without effective systems may not have long to wonder and wait.

  5. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  6. Integrating traditional Chinese medicine into mainstream healthcare system in Hong Kong, China-A model of integrative medicine in the HKU-SZ Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lao, Lixing; Ning, Zhipeng

    2015-11-01

    The European Congress for Integrative Medicine 2015 Global Summit on Integrative Medicine and Healthcare in Greater Copenhagen has successfully promoted integrative medicine to the public once again. Integrative medicine, which is called the art and science of healthcare by Nordic Integrative Medicine, has been widely used in the world. In Hong Kong, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine, which is also known as the Chinese version of integrative medicine, provides a valuable reference for the development of integrative medicine in the world. In this article, we introduce the development of traditional Chinese medicine in Hong Kong and an integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine model in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital.

  7. Hydrological Modelling of Cherial Watershed Integrating Remote Sensing and Geographical Information System (gis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siva Sankar, A.

    2004-12-01

    The increasing population growth is continuing to exert extra pressure on existing water resources all over the world. An imperative need for the development and judicious use of these resources is therefore essential. Rainfall in southern India is very erratic, unpredictable, uneven and distributed over a short period of 3-4 Months. Out of 4000 billion cubic meters of rainfall received annually, 41% is lost as evaporation and transpiration, 40% lost as runoff into seas and 10% seeps in for recharging groundwater. As a result Krishna and Godavari rivers of southern India are almost in dry conditions throughout the year with farmers suffering from droughts since past 20 years especially in the state of Andhra Pradesh. An imperative need for the development and judicious use of these resources is therefore essential for conservation of water resources and maintaining the hydrologic table when water is becoming a scarce material. Keeping this in view an integrated model is developed for the chronically drought prone area of Cherial watershed in Warangal district of Andhra Pradesh using Remote sensing and GIS techniques. This model explores and suggests cost-effective and sustainable methods of increasing the crop yield by increasing the ground water potential artificially. The main objective of the study is to evaluate both surface and groundwater resources in the region and develop methods for its efficient utilization and sustainable management. Remote sensing and GIS applications are adopted as an effective tool in meeting the objective of the study. The thematic layers v.i.z. drainage pattern, land use/ land cover, hydrogeomorphology, slope, soil, physiography and ground water prospects are all derived from IRS-ID PAN + LISS-III merged satellite imagery and Survey of India (SOI) topomaps using visual interpretation technique. These maps are then converted to digital format using AutoCAD software and further integrated using Arc/Info and ArcView GIS software for

  8. Integrated Canada-U.S. Power Sector Modeling with the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Eurek, K.; Mai, T.; Perry, A.

    2013-02-01

    The electric power system in North America is linked between the United States and Canada. Canada has historically been a net exporter of electricity to the United States. The extent to which this remains true will depend on the future evolution of power markets, technology deployment, and policies. To evaluate these and related questions, we modify the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model to include an explicit representation of the grid-connected power system in Canada to the continental United States. ReEDS is unique among long-term capacity expansion models for its high spatial resolution and statistical treatment of the impact of variable renewable generation on capacity planning and dispatch. These unique traits are extended to new Canadian regions. We present example scenario results using the fully integrated Canada-U.S. version of ReEDS to demonstrate model capabilities. The newly developed, integrated Canada-U.S. ReEDS model can be used to analyze the dynamics of electricity transfers and other grid services between the two countries under different scenarios.

  9. Integration of multiscale dendritic spine structure and function data into systems biology models

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, James J.; Cheng, Jie; Yin, Zheng; Gilliam, Jared C.; Xia, Xiaofeng; Li, Xuping; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2014-01-01

    Comprising 1011 neurons with 1014 synaptic connections the human brain is the ultimate systems biology puzzle. An increasing body of evidence highlights the observation that changes in brain function, both normal and pathological, consistently correlate with dynamic changes in neuronal anatomy. Anatomical changes occur on a full range of scales from the trafficking of individual proteins, to alterations in synaptic morphology both individually and on a systems level, to reductions in long distance connectivity and brain volume. The major sites of contact for synapsing neurons are dendritic spines, which provide an excellent metric for the number and strength of signaling connections between elements of functional neuronal circuits. A comprehensive model of anatomical changes and their functional consequences would be a holy grail for the field of systems neuroscience but its realization appears far on the horizon. Various imaging technologies have advanced to allow for multi-scale visualization of brain plasticity and pathology, but computational analysis of the big data sets involved forms the bottleneck toward the creation of multiscale models of brain structure and function. While a full accounting of techniques and progress toward a comprehensive model of brain anatomy and function is beyond the scope of this or any other single paper, this review serves to highlight the opportunities for analysis of neuronal spine anatomy and function provided by new imaging technologies and the high-throughput application of older technologies while surveying the strengths and weaknesses of currently available computational analytical tools and room for future improvement. PMID:25429262

  10. Research priorities in land use and land-cover change for the Earth system and integrated assessment modelling

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Pongratz, Julia; Rose, Steven K.; Betts, Richard; Herold, Martin; Feddema, Johannes J.

    2010-11-15

    This special issue has highlighted recent and innovative methods and results that integrate observations and AQ3 modelling analyses of regional to global aspect of biophysical and biogeochemical interactions of land-cover change with the climate system. Both the Earth System and the Integrated Assessment modeling communities recognize the importance of an accurate representation of land use and land-cover change to understand and quantify the interactions and feedbacks with the climate and socio-economic systems, respectively. To date, cooperation between these communities has been limited. Based on common interests, this work discusses research priorities in representing land use and land-cover change for improved collaboration across modelling, observing and measurement communities. Major research topics in land use and land-cover change are those that help us better understand (1) the interaction of land use and land cover with the climate system (e.g. carbon cycle feedbacks), (2) the provision of goods and ecosystem services by terrestrial (natural and anthropogenic) land-cover types (e.g. food production), (3) land use and management decisions and (4) opportunities and limitations for managing climate change (for both mitigation and adaptation strategies).

  11. An integrative model of the cardiovascular system coupling heart cellular mechanics with arterial network hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Tae; Lee, Jeong Sang; Youn, Chan-Hyun; Choi, Jae-Sung; Shim, Eun Bo

    2013-08-01

    The current study proposes a model of the cardiovascular system that couples heart cell mechanics with arterial hemodynamics to examine the physiological role of arterial blood pressure (BP) in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We developed a comprehensive multiphysics and multiscale cardiovascular model of the cardiovascular system that simulates physiological events, from membrane excitation and the contraction of a cardiac cell to heart mechanics and arterial blood hemodynamics. Using this model, we delineated the relationship between arterial BP or pulse wave velocity and LVH. Computed results were compared with existing clinical and experimental observations. To investigate the relationship between arterial hemodynamics and LVH, we performed a parametric study based on arterial wall stiffness, which was obtained in the model. Peak cellular stress of the left ventricle and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the brachial and central arteries also increased; however, further increases were limited for higher arterial stiffness values. Interestingly, when we doubled the value of arterial stiffness from the baseline value, the percentage increase of SBP in the central artery was about 6.7% whereas that of the brachial artery was about 3.4%. It is suggested that SBP in the central artery is more critical for predicting LVH as compared with other blood pressure measurements.

  12. cuSwift --- a suite of numerical integration methods for modelling planetary systems implemented in C/CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellmich, S.; Mottola, S.; Hahn, G.; Kührt, E.; Hlawitschka, M.

    2014-07-01

    Simulations of dynamical processes in planetary systems represent an important tool for studying the orbital evolution of the systems [1--3]. Using modern numerical integration methods, it is possible to model systems containing many thousands of objects over timescales of several hundred million years. However, in general, supercomputers are needed to get reasonable simulation results in acceptable execution times [3]. To exploit the ever-growing computation power of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) in modern desktop computers, we implemented cuSwift, a library of numerical integration methods for studying long-term dynamical processes in planetary systems. cuSwift can be seen as a re-implementation of the famous SWIFT integrator package written by Hal Levison and Martin Duncan. cuSwift is written in C/CUDA and contains different integration methods for various purposes. So far, we have implemented three algorithms: a 15th-order Radau integrator [4], the Wisdom-Holman Mapping (WHM) integrator [5], and the Regularized Mixed Variable Symplectic (RMVS) Method [6]. These algorithms treat only the planets as mutually gravitationally interacting bodies whereas asteroids and comets (or other minor bodies of interest) are treated as massless test particles which are gravitationally influenced by the massive bodies but do not affect each other or the massive bodies. The main focus of this work is on the symplectic methods (WHM and RMVS) which use a larger time step and thus are capable of integrating many particles over a large time span. As an additional feature, we implemented the non-gravitational Yarkovsky effect as described by M. Brož [7]. With cuSwift, we show that the use of modern GPUs makes it possible to speed up these methods by more than one order of magnitude compared to the single-core CPU implementation, thereby enabling modest workstation computers to perform long-term dynamical simulations. We use these methods to study the influence of the Yarkovsky

  13. Integrating Predictive Modeling with Control System Design for Managed Aquifer Recharge and Recovery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drumheller, Z. W.; Regnery, J.; Lee, J. H.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Smits, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    Aquifers around the world show troubling signs of irreversible depletion and seawater intrusion as climate change, population growth, and urbanization led to reduced natural recharge rates and overuse. Scientists and engineers have begun to re-investigate the technology of managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MAR) as a means to increase the reliability of the diminishing and increasingly variable groundwater supply. MAR systems offer the possibility of naturally increasing groundwater storage while improving the quality of impaired water used for recharge. Unfortunately, MAR systems remain wrought with operational challenges related to the quality and quantity of recharged and recovered water stemming from a lack of data-driven, real-time control. Our project seeks to ease the operational challenges of MAR facilities through the implementation of active sensor networks, adaptively calibrated flow and transport models, and simulation-based meta-heuristic control optimization methods. The developed system works by continually collecting hydraulic and water quality data from a sensor network embedded within the aquifer. The data is fed into an inversion algorithm, which calibrates the parameters and initial conditions of a predictive flow and transport model. The calibrated model is passed to a meta-heuristic control optimization algorithm (e.g. genetic algorithm) to execute the simulations and determine the best course of action, i.e., the optimal pumping policy for current aquifer conditions. The optimal pumping policy is manually or autonomously applied. During operation, sensor data are used to assess the accuracy of the optimal prediction and augment the pumping strategy as needed. At laboratory-scale, a small (18"H x 46"L) and an intermediate (6'H x 16'L) two-dimensional synthetic aquifer were constructed and outfitted with sensor networks. Data collection and model inversion components were developed and sensor data were validated by analytical measurements.

  14. The Integral System

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Integral System is a total care management system based on the Integral Theory which states ‘prolapse and symptoms of urinary stress, urge, abnormal bowel & bladder emptying, and some forms of pelvic pain, mainly arise, for different reasons, from laxity in the vagina or its supporting ligaments, a result of altered connective tissue’. Normal function The organs are suspended by ligaments against which muscles contract to open or close the their outlet tubes, urethra and anus. These ligaments fall naturally into a three-zone zone classification, anterior, middle, and posterior. Dysfunction Damaged ligaments weaken the force of muscle contraction, causing prolapse and abnormal bladder and bowel symptoms Diagnosis A pictorial diagnostic algorithm relates specific symptoms to damaged ligaments in each zone. Treatment In mild cases, new pelvic floor muscle exercises based on a squatting principle strengthen the natural closure muscles and their ligamentous insertions, thereby improving the symptoms predicted by the Theory. With more severe cases, polypropylene tapes applied through “keyhole” incision using special instruments reinforce the damaged ligaments, restoring structure and function. Problems that can be potentially addressed by application of the Integral System Urinary stress incontinenceUrinary urge incontinenceAbnormal bladder emptyingFacal incontinence and “obstructed evacuation” (“constipation”)Pelvic pain, and some types of vulvodynia and interstitial cystitisOrgan prolapse Conclusions Organ prolapse and symptoms are related, and both are mainly caused by laxity in the four main suspensory ligaments and perineal body. Restoration of ligament/fascial length and tension is required to restore anatomy and function. PMID:24578877

  15. Modeling energy in an Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPR) system with CO{sub 2} capture integrated with oxy-fuel combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Harendra, Sivaram; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Oxy-coal combustion is one of the technical solutions for mitigating CO{sub 2} in thermal power plants. Many processes have been evolved in past the decade to capture CO{sub 2} from process industries. Researchers at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have patented a process, integrated pollutant removal (IPR), that uses off the shelf technology to produce a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream from an oxy-combustion power plant. The IPR process as it is realized at the Jupiter Oxygen Burner Test Facility is a spray tower (direct-contact heat exchanger) followed by four stages of compression with intercooling. To study the energy flows of the oxy-combustion process, a 15 MW{sub t}h oxy-combustion pulverized-coal-fired plant integrated with the IPR system was simulated and analyzed using ASPEN Plus and ASPEN energy analyzer. This paper discusses flue-gas recycle, energy flow, recovery, and optimization of IPR systems. ASPEN models of heat- and mass-transfer processes in aflue-gas-condensing heat-exchanger system were developed to predict the heat transferred from flue gas to cooling water. The flue-gas exit temperature, cooling water outlet temperature, and energy flows of IPR streams were computed using ASPEN models. Pinch principles are deployed for targeting design and operation-guiding purposes and balancing the heat and mass transfer in the IPR system. The results are expected to support sophistication of the IPR system design, improving its application in a variety of settings. They open the door for valuable IPR efficiency improvements and generalization of methodology for simultaneous management of energy resources.

  16. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus as a model system for integrative studies in evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Ralf J; McGaughran, Angela

    2013-05-01

    Comprehensive studies of evolution have historically been hampered by the division among disciplines. Now, as biology moves towards an '-omics' era, it is more important than ever to tackle the evolution of function and form by considering all those research areas involved in the regulation of phenotypes. Here, we review recent attempts to establish the nematode Pristionchus pacificus as a model organism that allows integrative studies of development and evo-devo, with ecology and population genetics. Originally developed for comparative study with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, P. pacificus provided insight into developmental pathways including dauer formation, vulva and gonad development, chemosensation, innate immunity and neurobiology. Its subsequent discovery across a wide geographic distribution in association with scarab beetles enabled its evaluation in a biogeographic context. Development of an evolutionary field station on La Réunion Island, where P. pacificus is present in high abundance across a number of widespread habitat types, allows examination of the microfacets of evolution - processes of natural selection, adaptation and drift among populations can now be examined in this island setting. The combination of laboratory-based functional studies with fieldwork in P. pacificus has the long-term prospective to provide both proximate (mechanistic) and ultimate (evolutionary and ecological) causation and might therefore help to overcome the long-term divide between major areas in biology. PMID:23530614

  17. Investigating the Hydrogeologic Controls on Memory and Feedbacks to Climate Change in Mountain Groundwater Systems: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovich, K. H.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rising global temperatures are profoundly impacting alpine environments by shifting the precipitation type and the timing of peak snowmelt runoff. Uncertainty in the magnitude of these shifts translates to uncertainty in how climate change affects timing of snowmelt runoff, and hence availability of surface water during the remainder of the year. Integrated hydrologic models are useful tools for capturing these feedbacks by closing the loop between atmosphere, land surface, and subsurface dynamics. Recent integrated models have been used to predict streamflow response to climate change in mountain basins, however these models assume that shallow, local flow paths comprise the majority of recharge and baseflow to streams. Several studies have challenged this assumption with discordant groundwater ages and hysteresis loops, suggesting that deep, regional flow paths may play a more substantial role even at the local stream scale. This would have considerable implications for predicted responses to climate change in alpine basins, as deep, regional groundwater would initially buffer perturbations, but exhibit greater memory over the long-term. The goal of this study is to understand how various hydrogeological settings will control the relative feedbacks to climate change. This research uses three simplified, conceptual hillslope models: a "fast" draining, low storage, granodiorite similar to that of of the Sierra Nevada or Himalayan mountain range, a "slow" draining, high storage basalt of the Cascade or Andes Range, and a vertically homogeneous "base" case. The relative response of these hillslopes to three future climate scenarios: warm, warm and dry, and warm and wet are tested using ParFlow, an integrated surface water-groundwater model, coupled with CLM, a land surface model. These models will help quantify the relative feedbacks of deep groundwater in various hydrogeologic settings and will ultimately be scaled up to assess the 3-D, transient response of deep

  18. Modeling Pilot Behavior for Assessing Integrated Alert and Notification Systems on Flight Decks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cover, Mathew; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Numerous new flight deck configurations for caution, warning, and alerts can be conceived; yet testing them with human-in-the-Ioop experiments to evaluate each one would not be practical. New sensors, instruments, and displays are being put into cockpits every day and this is particularly true as we enter the dawn of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). By modeling pilot behavior in a computer simulation, an unlimited number of unique caution, warning, and alert configurations can be evaluated 24/7 by a computer. These computer simulations can then identify the most promising candidate formats to further evaluate in higher fidelity, but more costly, Human-in-the-Ioop (HITL) simulations. Evaluations using batch simulations with human performance models saves time, money, and enables a broader consideration of possible caution, warning, and alerting configurations for future flight decks.

  19. C5a alters blood-brain barrier integrity in a human in vitro model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Parikh, Neil U; Woodruff, Trent M; Jarvis, James N; Lopez, Molly; Hennon, Teresa; Cunningham, Patrick; Quigg, Richard J; Schwartz, Stanley A; Alexander, Jessy J

    2015-09-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a crucial role in brain homeostasis, thereby maintaining the brain environment precise for optimal neuronal function. Its dysfunction is an intriguing complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disorder where neurological complications occur in 5-50% of cases and is associated with impaired BBB integrity. Complement activation occurs in SLE and is an important part of the clinical profile. Our earlier studies demonstrated that C5a generated by complement activation caused the loss of brain endothelial layer integrity in rodents. The goal of the current study was to determine the translational potential of these studies to a human system. To assess this, we used a two dimensional in vitro BBB model constructed using primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and astroglial cells, which closely emulates the in vivo BBB allowing the assessment of BBB integrity. Increased permeability monitored by changes in transendothelial electrical resistance and cytoskeletal remodelling caused by actin fiber rearrangement were observed when the cells were exposed to lupus serum and C5a, similar to the observations in mice. In addition, our data show that C5a/C5aR1 signalling alters nuclear factor-κB translocation into nucleus and regulates the expression of the tight junction proteins, claudin-5 and zonula occludens 1 in this setting. Our results demonstrate for the first time that C5a regulates BBB integrity in a neuroinflammatory setting where it affects both endothelial and astroglial cells. In addition, we also demonstrate that our previous findings in a mouse model, were emulated in human cells in vitro, bringing the studies one step closer to understanding the translational potential of C5a/C5aR1 blockade as a promising therapeutic strategy in SLE and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Lunar materials processing system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this paper is that governmental resources will not permit the simultaneous development of all viable lunar materials processing (LMP) candidates. Choices will inevitably be made, based on the results of system integration trade studies comparing candidates to each other for high-leverage applications. It is in the best long-term interest of the LMP community to lead the selection process itself, quickly and practically. The paper is in five parts. The first part explains what systems integration means and why the specialized field of LMP needs this activity now. The second part defines the integration context for LMP -- by outlining potential lunar base functions, their interrelationships and constraints. The third part establishes perspective for prioritizing the development of LMP methods, by estimating realistic scope, scale, and timing of lunar operations. The fourth part describes the use of one type of analytical tool for gaining understanding of system interactions: the input/output model. A simple example solved with linear algebra is used to illustrate. The fifth and closing part identifies specific steps needed to refine the current ability to study lunar base system integration. Research specialists have a crucial role to play now in providing the data upon which this refinement process must be based.

  1. Integrated modeling and control of a PEM fuel cell power system with a PWM DC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Song-Yul; Lee, Jung-Gi; Ahn, Jong-Woo; Baek, Soo-Hyun

    A fuel cell powered system is regarded as a high current and low voltage source. To boost the output voltage of a fuel cell, a DC/DC converter is employed. Since these two systems show different dynamics, they need to be coordinated to meet the demand of a load. This paper proposes models for the two systems with associated controls, which take into account a PEM fuel cell stack with air supply and thermal systems, and a PWM DC/DC converter. The integrated simulation facilitates optimization of the power control strategy, and analyses of interrelated effects between the electric load and the temperature of cell components. In addition, the results show that the proposed power control can coordinate the two sources with improved dynamics and efficiency at a given dynamic load.

  2. Integrated Medical Model Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons. B.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project.

  3. Integrated atmospheric characterization system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David W.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Stewart, John M.; Whiteman, David N.; Eaton, Frank D.

    2009-05-01

    The Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) is developing a transportable multi-lidar instrument known as the Integrated Atmospheric Characterization System (IACS). The system will be housed in standard shipping containers that will be transported to remote sites by tractor-trailer. IACS will comprise three lidars: a 355 nm imaging lidar for profiling refractive turbulence, a 355 nm Raman lidar for profiling water vapor, and an aerosol lidar operating at both 1.06 and 1.625 microns. All of the lidar transmit/receive optics will be co-aligned on a common mount, pointable at any elevation angle from horizontal to vertical. The entire system will be computer controlled to facilitate pointing and automatic data acquisition. The purpose of IACS is to characterize optical propagation paths during outdoor tests of electro-optical systems. The tests are anticipated to include ground-to-ground, air-to-ground, and ground-to-air scenarios, so the system must accommodate arbitrary slant paths through the atmosphere with maximum measurement ranges of 5-10 km. Elevation angle scans will be used to determine atmospheric extinction profiles at the infrared wavelengths, and data from the three wavelengths will be used to determine the aerosol Angstrom coefficient, enabling interpolation of results to other wavelengths in the 355 nm to 1.6 micron region. The imaging lidar for profiling refractive turbulence is based on a previously-reported project known as Range Profiles of Turbulence.

  4. Integrated network modelling for identifying microbial mechanisms of particulate organic carbon accumulation in coastal marine systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Karlie; Turk, Valentina; Mozetič, Patricija; Tinta, Tinkara; Malfatti, Francesca; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Accumulation of particulate organic carbon (POC) has the potential to change the structure and function of marine ecosystems. High abidance of POC can develop into aggregates, known as marine snow or mucus aggregates that can impair essential marine ecosystem functioning and services. Currently marine POC formation, accumulation and sedimentation processes are being explored as potential pathways to remove CO2 from the atmosphere by CO2 sequestration via fixation into biomass by phytoplankton. However, the current ability of scientists, environmental managers and regulators to analyse and predict high POC concentrations is restricted by the limited understanding of the dynamic nature of the microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation events in marine environments. We present a proof of concept study that applies a novel Bayesian Networks (BN) approach to integrate relevant biological and physical-chemical variables across spatial and temporal scales in order to identify the interactions of the main contributing microbial mechanisms regulating POC accumulation in the northern Adriatic Sea. Where previous models have characterised only the POC formed, the BN approach provides a probabilistic framework for predicting the occurrence of POC accumulation by linking biotic factors with prevailing environmental conditions. In this paper the BN was used to test three scenarios (diatom, nanoflagellate, and dinoflagellate blooms). The scenarios predicted diatom blooms to produce high chlorophyll a at the water surface while nanoflagellate blooms were predicted to occur at lower depths (> 6m) in the water column and produce lower chlorophyll a concentrations. A sensitivity analysis identified the variables with the greatest influence on POC accumulation being the enzymes protease and alkaline phosphatase, which highlights the importance of microbial community interactions. The developed proof of concept BN model allows for the first time to quantify the impacts of

  5. Recent Progresses in Incorporating Human Land-Water Management into Global Land Surface Models Toward Their Integration into Earth System Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokhrel, Yadu N.; Hanasaki, Naota; Wada, Yoshihide; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-01-01

    The global water cycle has been profoundly affected by human land-water management. As the changes in the water cycle on land can affect the functioning of a wide range of biophysical and biogeochemical processes of the Earth system, it is essential to represent human land-water management in Earth system models (ESMs). During the recent past, noteworthy progress has been made in large-scale modeling of human impacts on the water cycle but sufficient advancements have not yet been made in integrating the newly developed schemes into ESMs. This study reviews the progresses made in incorporating human factors in large-scale hydrological models and their integration into ESMs. The study focuses primarily on the recent advancements and existing challenges in incorporating human impacts in global land surface models (LSMs) as a way forward to the development of ESMs with humans as integral components, but a brief review of global hydrological models (GHMs) is also provided. The study begins with the general overview of human impacts on the water cycle. Then, the algorithms currently employed to represent irrigation, reservoir operation, and groundwater pumping are discussed. Next, methodological deficiencies in current modeling approaches and existing challenges are identified. Furthermore, light is shed on the sources of uncertainties associated with model parameterizations, grid resolution, and datasets used for forcing and validation. Finally, representing human land-water management in LSMs is highlighted as an important research direction toward developing integrated models using ESM frameworks for the holistic study of human-water interactions within the Earths system.

  6. A general linear mathematical model of power flow analysis and control for integrated structure-control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y. P.; Xing, J. T.; Price, W. G.

    2003-10-01

    Generalized integrated structure-control dynamical systems consisting of any number of active/passive controllers and three-dimensional rigid/flexible substructures are investigated. The developed mathematical model assessing the behaviour of these complex systems includes description of general boundary conditions, the interaction mechanisms between structures, power flows and control characteristics. Three active control strategies are examined. That is, multiple channel absolute/relative velocity feedback controllers, their hybrid combination and an existing passive control system to which the former control systems are attached in order to improve overall control efficiency. From the viewpoint of continuum mechanics, an analytical solution of this generalized structure-control system has been developed allowing predictions of the dynamic responses at any point on or in substructures of the coupled system. Absolute or relative dynamic response or receptance, transmissibility, mobility, transfer functions have been derived to evaluate complex dynamic interaction mechanisms through various transmission paths. The instantaneous and time-averaged power flow of energy input, transmission and dissipation or absorption within and between the source substructure, control subsystems and controlled substructure are presented. The general theory developed provides an integrated framework to solve various vibration isolation and control problems and provides a basis to develop a general algorithm that may allow the user to build arbitrarily complex linear control models using simple commands and inputs. The proposed approach is applied to a practical example to illustrate and validate the mathematical model as well as to assess control effectiveness and to provide important guidelines to assist vibration control designers.

  7. Testing the ability of RIEMS2.0 (Regional Integrated Environment Modeling System) on regional climate simulation in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D.; Fu, C.; Yan, X.

    2010-12-01

    RIEMS1.0 (Regional Integrated Environmental Modeling System version 1.0) was developed by researchers from the START (Global change System for Analysis, Research, and Training) Regional Center for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS in 1998. The model was built on the thermodynamic frame of PSU/NCAR MM5V2, into which a land surface scheme (BATS1e) and radiative transfer scheme (the revised CCM3) are integrated. The model has been widely used in regional climate studies in the East Asia monsoon system and expresses excellent performance from RMIP (Regional Climate Model Inter-comparison Project). RIEMS2.0 is now being developed starting from RIEMS1.0 by the Key Laboratory of Regional Climate Environment Research for Temperate East Asia, IAP/CAS, and Nanjing University. The new version is built on the thermodynamic framework of nonhydrostatic approximation from MM5V3 with the same land surface model and radiation scheme as RIEMS1.0. To make it an integrated modeling system, the Princeton ocean mode (POM), Atmosphere-Vegetation interaction model (AVIM) and a chemical model are now being integrated. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate short-term climate, we perform ensemble simulations with different physics process schemes. The model will be used to perform ensemble simulations on two continuous extreme climate events, which is serve drought with high temperature in north China in the summer (June, July and August) of 1997 and serve flood in the Yangtze River valley in the summer of 1998. The results show that RIEMS2.0 can reproduce the spatial distribution of the precipitation and SAT from two continuous extreme climate events in the summer of 1997/1998, and disclose sub-regional characteristics. Though difference can be found among ensemble members, ensembles can decrease the model’s uncertainty and improve the simulation decision in a certain degree. In order to test RIEMS2.0’s ability to simulate long-term climate and climate change, we compare

  8. Improved cyberinfrastructure for integrated hydrometeorological predictions within the fully-coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gochis, David; hooper, Rick; parodi, Antonio; Jha, Shantenu; Yu, Wei; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Ganapati, Dinesh

    2014-05-01

    The community WRF-Hydro system is currently being used in a variety of flood prediction and regional hydroclimate impacts assessment applications around the world. Despite its increasingly wide use certain cyberinfrastructure bottlenecks exist in the setup, execution and post-processing of WRF-Hydro model runs. These bottlenecks result in wasted time, labor, data transfer bandwidth and computational resource use. Appropriate development and use of cyberinfrastructure to setup and manage WRF-Hydro modeling applications will streamline the entire workflow of hydrologic model predictions. This talk will present recent advances in the development and use of new open-source cyberinfrastructure tools for the WRF-Hydro architecture. These tools include new web-accessible pre-processing applications, supercomputer job management applications and automated verification and visualization applications. The tools will be described successively and then demonstrated in a set of flash flood use cases for recent destructive flood events in the U.S. and in Europe. Throughout, an emphasis on the implementation and use of community data standards for data exchange is made.

  9. The integrated environmental control model

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Berkenpas, M.B.; Kalagnanam, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    The capability to estimate the performance and cost of emission control systems is critical to a variety of planning and analysis requirements faced by utilities, regulators, researchers and analysts in the public and private sectors. The computer model described in this paper has been developed for DOe to provide an up-to-date capability for analyzing a variety of pre-combustion, combustion, and post-combustion options in an integrated framework. A unique capability allows performance and costs to be modeled probabilistically, which allows explicit characterization of uncertainties and risks.

  10. Choosing the Right Systems Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péči, Matúš; Važan, Pavel

    2014-12-01

    The paper examines systems integration and its main levels at higher levels of control. At present, the systems integration is one of the main aspects participating in the consolidation processes and financial flows of a company. Systems Integration is a complicated emotionconsuming process and it is often a problem to choose the right approach and level of integration. The research focused on four levels of integration, while each of them is characterized by specific conditions. At each level, there is a summary of recommendations and practical experience. The paper also discusses systems integration between the information and MES levels. The main part includes user-level integration where we describe an example of such integration. Finally, we list recommendations and also possible predictions of the systems integration as one of the important factors in the future.

  11. Apollo cryogenic integrated systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seto, R. K. M.; Cunningham, J. E.

    1971-01-01

    The integrated systems program is capable of simulating both nominal and anomalous operation of the Apollo cryogenics storage system (CSS). Two versions of the program exist; one for the Apollo 14 configuration and the other for J Type Mission configurations. The program consists of two mathematical models which are dynamically coupled. A model of the CSS components and lines determines the oxygen and hydrogen flowrate from each storage tank given the tank pressures and temperatures, and the electrical power subsystem and environmental control subsystem flow demands. Temperatures and pressures throughout the components and lines are also determined. A model of the CSS tankage determines the pressure and temperatures in the tanks given the flowrate from each tank and the thermal environment. The model accounts for tank stretch and includes simplified oxygen tank heater and stratification routines. The program is currently operational on the Univac 1108 computer.

  12. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William; Bevan Ryan M.; Stahl, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication is making very large space based telescopes possible. In the many applications, only monolithic mirrors meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass. Again, available and planned payload shroud size limits near term designs to 4 meter class mirror. Practical 8 meter and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors lower mass and larger mirrors, presents the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system and be launched. This paper shows how the design of the suspension system and mirror blank needs to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems, which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass. The AMTD project is developing and maturing the processes for future replacements for HUBBLE, creating the design tools, validating the methods and techniques necessary to manufacture, test and launch extremely large optical missions. This paper will use the AMTD 4 meter "design point" as an illustration of the typical use of the modeler in generating the multiple models of mirror and suspension systems used during the conceptual design phase of most projects. The influence of Hexapod geometry, mirror depth, cell size and construction techniques (Exelsis Deep Core Low Temperature Fusion (c) versus Corning Frit Bonded (c) versus Schott Pocket Milled Zerodur (c) in this particular study) are being evaluated. Due to space and time consideration we will only be able to present snippets of the study in this paper. The advances in manufacturing techniques for lightweight mirrors, such as EXELSIS deep core low

  13. A Communication Model to Integrate the Request-Response and the Publish-Subscribe Paradigms into Ubiquitous Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, Carlos; Benghazi, Kawtar; Noguera, Manuel; Garrido, José Luis; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Ruiz-López, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    The Request-Response (RR) paradigm is widely used in ubiquitous systems to exchange information in a secure, reliable and timely manner. Nonetheless, there is also an emerging need for adopting the Publish-Subscribe (PubSub) paradigm in this kind of systems, due to the advantages that this paradigm offers in supporting mobility by means of asynchronous, non-blocking and one-to-many message distribution semantics for event notification. This paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of both the RR and PubSub paradigms to support communications in ubiquitous systems and proposes an abstract communication model in order to enable their seamless integration. Thus, developers will be focused on communication semantics and the required quality properties, rather than be concerned about specific communication mechanisms. The aim is to provide developers with abstractions intended to decrease the complexity of integrating different communication paradigms commonly needed in ubiquitous systems. The proposal has been applied to implement a middleware and a real home automation system to show its applicability and benefits. PMID:22969366

  14. A communication model to integrate the Request-Response and the Publish-Subscribe paradigms into ubiquitous systems.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Domínguez, Carlos; Benghazi, Kawtar; Noguera, Manuel; Garrido, José Luis; Rodríguez, María Luisa; Ruiz-López, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    The Request-Response (RR) paradigm is widely used in ubiquitous systems to exchange information in a secure, reliable and timely manner. Nonetheless, there is also an emerging need for adopting the Publish-Subscribe (PubSub) paradigm in this kind of systems, due to the advantages that this paradigm offers in supporting mobility by means of asynchronous, non-blocking and one-to-many message distribution semantics for event notification. This paper analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of both the RR and PubSub paradigms to support communications in ubiquitous systems and proposes an abstract communication model in order to enable their seamless integration. Thus, developers will be focused on communication semantics and the required quality properties, rather than be concerned about specific communication mechanisms. The aim is to provide developers with abstractions intended to decrease the complexity of integrating different communication paradigms commonly needed in ubiquitous systems. The proposal has been applied to implement a middleware and a real home automation system to show its applicability and benefits.

  15. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  16. Evaluation and optimization of a micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack model including an integrated cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hering, Martin; Brouwer, Jacob; Winkler, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    A micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cell stack model including an integrated cooling system was developed using a quasi three-dimensional, spatially resolved, transient thermodynamic, physical and electrochemical model that accounts for the complex geometrical relations between the cells and cooling-tubes. For the purpose of model evaluation, reference operating, geometrical and material properties are determined. The reference stack design is composed of 3294 cells, with a diameter of 2 mm, and 61 cooling-tubes. The stack is operated at a power density of 300 mW/cm2 and air is used as the cooling fluid inside the integrated cooling system. Regarding the performance, the reference design achieves an electrical stack efficiency of around 57% and a power output of 1.1 kW. The maximum occurring temperature of the positive electrode electrolyte negative electrode (PEN)-structure is 1369 K. As a result of a design of experiments, parameters of a best-case design are determined. The best-case design achieves a comparable power output of 1.1 kW with an electrical efficiency of 63% and a maximum occurring temperature of the PEN-structure of 1268 K. Nevertheless, the best-case design has an increased volume based on the higher diameter of 3 mm and increased spacing between the cells.

  17. A System Dynamics Model for Integrated Decision Making: The Durham-Orange Light Rail Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) is conducting transdisciplinary research to inform and empower decision-makers. EPA tools and approaches are being developed to enable communities to effectively weigh and integrate human health, socioeconomic, envi...

  18. INTEGRATION OF THE BIOGENIC EMISSIONS INVENTORY SYSTEM (BEIS3) INTO THE COMMUNITY MULTISCALE AIR QUALITY MODELING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of biogenic emissions for regional air quality modeling is generally recognized [Guenther et al., 2000]. Since the 1980s, biogenic emission estimates have been derived from algorithms such as the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) [Pierce et. al., 1998]....

  19. A balanced calibration of water quantity and quality by multi-objective optimization for integrated water system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongyong; Shao, Quanxi; Taylor, John A.

    2016-07-01

    Due to the high interactions among multiple processes in integrated water system models, it is extremely difficult, if not impossible, to achieve reasonable solutions for all objectives by using the traditional step-by-step calibration. In many cases, water quantity and quality are equally important but their objectives in model calibration usually conflict with each other, so it is not a good practice to calibrate one after another. In this study, a combined auto-calibration multi-process approach was proposed for the integrated water system model (HEQM) using a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm. This ensures that the model performance among inseparable or interactive processes could be balanced by users based on the Pareto front. The Huai River Basin, a highly regulated and heavily polluted region of China, was selected as a case study. The hydrological and water quality parameters of HEQM were calibrated simultaneously based on the observed series of runoff and ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N) concentrations. The results were compared with those of the step-by-step calibration to demonstrate the rationality and feasibility of the multi-objective approach. The results showed that a Pareto optimal front was formed and could be divided into three clear sections based on the elastic coefficient of model performance between NH4-N and runoff, i.e., the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, the trade-off section between NH4-N and runoff, and the dominated section for runoff improvement. The trade-off of model performance between runoff and NH4-N concentration was clear. The results of the step-by-step calibration fell in the dominated section for NH4-N improvement, where just the optimum of the runoff simulation was achieved with a large potential to improve NH4-N simulation without a significant degradation of the runoff simulation. The overall optimal solutions for all the simulations appeared in the trade-off section. Therefore, the Pareto front provided different

  20. Integrated fluorescence analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Buican, Tudor N.; Yoshida, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    An integrated fluorescence analysis system enables a component part of a sample to be virtually sorted within a sample volume after a spectrum of the component part has been identified from a fluorescence spectrum of the entire sample in a flow cytometer. Birefringent optics enables the entire spectrum to be resolved into a set of numbers representing the intensity of spectral components of the spectrum. One or more spectral components are selected to program a scanning laser microscope, preferably a confocal microscope, whereby the spectrum from individual pixels or voxels in the sample can be compared. Individual pixels or voxels containing the selected spectral components are identified and an image may be formed to show the morphology of the sample with respect to only those components having the selected spectral components. There is no need for any physical sorting of the sample components to obtain the morphological information.

  1. Integrative Analysis of Metabolomics and Transcriptomics Data: A Unified Model Framework to Identify Underlying System Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Brink-Jensen, Kasper; Bak, Søren; Jørgensen, Kirsten; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of high-dimensional measurements in the form of gene expression and mass spectroscopy calls for models to elucidate the underlying biological system. For widely studied organisms like yeast, it is possible to incorporate prior knowledge from a variety of databases, an approach used in several recent studies. However if such information is not available for a particular organism these methods fall short. In this paper we propose a statistical method that is applicable to a dataset consisting of Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gene expression (DNA microarray) measurements from the same samples, to identify genes controlling the production of metabolites. Due to the high dimensionality of both LC-MS and DNA microarray data, dimension reduction and variable selection are key elements of the analysis. Our proposed approach starts by identifying the basis functions (“building blocks”) that constitute the output from a mass spectrometry experiment. Subsequently, the weights of these basis functions are related to the observations from the corresponding gene expression data in order to identify which genes are associated with specific patterns seen in the metabolite data. The modeling framework is extremely flexible as well as computationally fast and can accommodate treatment effects and other variables related to the experimental design. We demonstrate that within the proposed framework, genes regulating the production of specific metabolites can be identified correctly unless the variation in the noise is more than twice that of the signal. PMID:24086255

  2. Integration of geographic information systems and logistic multiple regression for aquatic macrophyte modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Narumalani, S.; Jensen, J.R.; Althausen, J.D.; Burkhalter, S.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Since aquatic macrophytes have an important influence on the physical and chemical processes of an ecosystem while simultaneously affecting human activity, it is imperative that they be inventoried and managed wisely. However, mapping wetlands can be a major challenge because they are found in diverse geographic areas ranging from small tributary streams, to shrub or scrub and marsh communities, to open water lacustrian environments. In addition, the type and spatial distribution of wetlands can change dramatically from season to season, especially when nonpersistent species are present. This research, focuses on developing a model for predicting the future growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This model will use a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze some of the biophysical variables that affect aquatic macrophyte growth and distribution. The data will provide scientists information on the future spatial growth and distribution of aquatic macrophytes. This study focuses on the Savannah River Site Par Pond (1,000 ha) and L Lake (400 ha) these are two cooling ponds that have received thermal effluent from nuclear reactor operations. Par Pond was constructed in 1958, and natural invasion of wetland has occurred over its 35-year history, with much of the shoreline having developed extensive beds of persistent and non-persistent aquatic macrophytes.

  3. An integrated assessment of the catchment-scale energy and water balance using a terrestrial systems modeling platform and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulis, Mauro; Shrestha, Prabhakar; Keune, Jessica; Steinke, Sandra; Diederich, Malte; Schween, Jan; Crewell, Susanne; Simmer, Clemens; Kollet, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Fully coupled hydrological models close the water and energy cycles while accounting for the dynamic feedbacks between the subsurface, land surface, and atmosphere compartments of terrestrial systems. Diagnoses of their predictive capabilities require spatio-temporal coherent data sets including states and fluxes across the soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum. This study presents an extensive comparison between numerical simulations carried out using a novel integrated hydrological modeling platform (TerrSysMP) and a suite of cross-compartmental observations obtained from intensive field campaigns and continuous monitoring over the Rur catchment in western Germany during the HOPE experiment (April-May 2013). The observations encompass amongst others rainfall estimates from several X-band radars, atmospheric integrated water vapor estimates from microwave radiometers, radiation and turbulent fluxes at the land surface, and soil moisture retrieval from cosmic-ray probes. A detailed analysis of the radiation components indicates that TerrSysMP systematically overestimates incoming shortwave due to a cloudiness effect, but underestimates incoming longwave due to a lower simulated atmospheric water vapor content. Screening of observed and simulated data for clear sky conditions also reveals mismatches between surface albedo at certain locations within the catchment. Moreover, a preliminary cross-comparison of precipitation and soil moisture suggests that overall the model is able to reproduce catchment dynamics reasonably well while pronounced discrepancies between model and observations were observed in the mountainous region due to the lack of detailed soil parameterization (i.e., soil organic content) and the underestimation of some rainfall events.

  4. Advanced Integrated Traction System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Smith; Charles Gough

    2011-08-31

    The United States Department of Energy elaborates the compelling need for a commercialized competitively priced electric traction drive system to proliferate the acceptance of HEVs, PHEVs, and FCVs in the market. The desired end result is a technically and commercially verified integrated ETS (Electric Traction System) product design that can be manufactured and distributed through a broad network of competitive suppliers to all auto manufacturers. The objectives of this FCVT program are to develop advanced technologies for an integrated ETS capable of 55kW peak power for 18 seconds and 30kW of continuous power. Additionally, to accommodate a variety of automotive platforms the ETS design should be scalable to 120kW peak power for 18 seconds and 65kW of continuous power. The ETS (exclusive of the DC/DC Converter) is to cost no more than $660 (55kW at $12/kW) to produce in quantities of 100,000 units per year, should have a total weight less than 46kg, and have a volume less than 16 liters. The cost target for the optional Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter is $375. The goal is to achieve these targets with the use of engine coolant at a nominal temperature of 105C. The system efficiency should exceed 90% at 20% of rated torque over 10% to 100% of maximum speed. The nominal operating system voltage is to be 325V, with consideration for higher voltages. This project investigated a wide range of technologies, including ETS topologies, components, and interconnects. Each technology and its validity for automotive use were verified and then these technologies were integrated into a high temperature ETS design that would support a wide variety of applications (fuel cell, hybrids, electrics, and plug-ins). This ETS met all the DOE 2010 objectives of cost, weight, volume and efficiency, and the specific power and power density 2015 objectives. Additionally a bi-directional converter was developed that provides charging and electric power take-off which is the first step

  5. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  6. Earthworms dilong: ancient, inexpensive, noncontroversial models may help clarify approaches to integrated medicine emphasizing neuroimmune systems.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Edwin L; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  7. An updated model for nitrate uptake modelling in plants. II. Assessment of active root involvement in nitrate uptake based on integrated root system age: measured versus modelled outputs.

    PubMed

    Malagoli, Philippe; Le Deunff, Erwan

    2014-05-01

    Background and Aims An updated version of a mechanistic structural-functional model was developed to predict nitrogen (N) uptake throughout the growth cycle by a crop of winter oilseed rape, Brassica napus, grown under field conditions. Methods The functional component of the model derives from a revisited conceptual framework that combines the thermodynamic Flow-Force interpretation of nitrate uptake isotherms and environmental and in planta effects on nitrate influx. Estimation of the root biomass (structural component) is based upon a combination of root mapping along the soil depth profile in the field and a relationship between the specific root length and external nitrate concentration. The root biomass contributing actively to N uptake was determined by introduction of an integrated root system age that allows assignment of a root absorption capacity at a specific age of the root. Key Results Simulations were well matched to measured data of N taken up under field conditions for three levels of N fertilization. The model outputs indicated that the two topsoil layers (0-30 and 30-60 cm) contained 75-88 % of the total root length and biomass, and accounted for 90-95 % of N taken up at harvest. Conclusions This conceptual framework provides a model of nitrate uptake that is able to respond to external nitrate fluctuations at both functional and structural levels.

  8. A Three-Tier Model of Integrated Behavior and Learning Supports: Linking System-Wide Implementation to Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harms, Anna Leigh Shon

    2010-01-01

    This study explored elementary schools' implementation of an integrated three-tier model of reading and behavior supports as they participated with a statewide Response to Intervention (RtI) project. The purpose of the study was to examine the process of implementing an integrated three-tier model and to explore the relation between implementation…

  9. Decentralized Multisensory Information Integration in Neural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-hao; Chen, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    How multiple sensory cues are integrated in neural circuitry remains a challenge. The common hypothesis is that information integration might be accomplished in a dedicated multisensory integration area receiving feedforward inputs from the modalities. However, recent experimental evidence suggests that it is not a single multisensory brain area, but rather many multisensory brain areas that are simultaneously involved in the integration of information. Why many mutually connected areas should be needed for information integration is puzzling. Here, we investigated theoretically how information integration could be achieved in a distributed fashion within a network of interconnected multisensory areas. Using biologically realistic neural network models, we developed a decentralized information integration system that comprises multiple interconnected integration areas. Studying an example of combining visual and vestibular cues to infer heading direction, we show that such a decentralized system is in good agreement with anatomical evidence and experimental observations. In particular, we show that this decentralized system can integrate information optimally. The decentralized system predicts that optimally integrated information should emerge locally from the dynamics of the communication between brain areas and sheds new light on the interpretation of the connectivity between multisensory brain areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To extract information reliably from ambiguous environments, the brain integrates multiple sensory cues, which provide different aspects of information about the same entity of interest. Here, we propose a decentralized architecture for multisensory integration. In such a system, no processor is in the center of the network topology and information integration is achieved in a distributed manner through reciprocally connected local processors. Through studying the inference of heading direction with visual and vestibular cues, we show that

  10. Integrated Management Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, Terrance

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronic search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.

  11. Integrated Management Tracking System

    2000-03-30

    The Integrated Management Tracking System (IMTS) is a "Web Enabled" Client/Server Business application that provides for the Identification and Resolution of commitments, situations, events and problems. The IMTS engine is written with Microsoft Active Server Pages (ASP) for IIS4. The system provides for reporting, entering, editing, closing and administration over a Intranet, Extranet or Internet. This Application facilitates: Electronic assignment, acceptance and tracking to completion. Email notifications of assigned action. Establishment of Due Dates. Electronicmore » search and retrieval based on keywords in combination with user specified database parameters (Document Type, Date Ranges, etc.). Coded for Trending and Reporting. User selected reports. Various levels of access for reports and administration. The "Server" side of this application consists of a Microsoft Access database running on a NT Server with Internet Information Server (IIS). As the "Client" side of the application runs on any Web browser, this solution is a cost effective, user friendly application that lends itself to organizations not physically colocated in one location providing information immediately available to everyone at once.« less

  12. Integrated clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, G

    1995-01-01

    SIDOCI (Système Informatisé de DOnnées Cliniques Intégrées) is a Canadian joint venture introducing newly-operating paradigms into hospitals. The main goal of SIDOCI is to maintain the quality of care in todayUs tightening economy. SIDOCI is a fully integrated paperless patient-care system which automates and links all information about a patient. Data is available on-line and instantaneously to doctors, nurses, and support staff in the format that best suits their specific requirements. SIDOCI provides a factual and chronological summary of the patient's progress by drawing together clinical information provided by all professionals working with the patient, regardless of their discipline, level of experience, or physical location. It also allows for direct entry of the patient's information at the bedside. Laboratory results, progress notes, patient history and graphs are available instantaneously on screen, eliminating the need for physical file transfers. The system, incorporating a sophisticated clinical information database, an intuitive graphical user interface, and customized screens for each medical discipline, guides the user through standard procedures. Unlike most information systems created for the health care industry, SIDOCI is longitudinal, covering all aspects of the health care process through its link to various vertical systems already in place. A multidisciplinary team has created a clinical dictionary that provides the user with most of the information she would normally use: symptoms, signs, diagnoses, allergies, medications, interventions, etc. This information is structured and displayed in such a manner that health care professionals can document the clinical situation at the touch of a finger. The data is then encoded into the patient's file. Once encoded, the structured data is accessible for research, statistics, education, and quality assurance. This dictionary complies with national and international nomenclatures. It also

  13. Integrated clinical information system.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, G

    1995-01-01

    SIDOCI (Système Informatisé de DOnnées Cliniques Intégrées) is a Canadian joint venture introducing newly-operating paradigms into hospitals. The main goal of SIDOCI is to maintain the quality of care in todayUs tightening economy. SIDOCI is a fully integrated paperless patient-care system which automates and links all information about a patient. Data is available on-line and instantaneously to doctors, nurses, and support staff in the format that best suits their specific requirements. SIDOCI provides a factual and chronological summary of the patient's progress by drawing together clinical information provided by all professionals working with the patient, regardless of their discipline, level of experience, or physical location. It also allows for direct entry of the patient's information at the bedside. Laboratory results, progress notes, patient history and graphs are available instantaneously on screen, eliminating the need for physical file transfers. The system, incorporating a sophisticated clinical information database, an intuitive graphical user interface, and customized screens for each medical discipline, guides the user through standard procedures. Unlike most information systems created for the health care industry, SIDOCI is longitudinal, covering all aspects of the health care process through its link to various vertical systems already in place. A multidisciplinary team has created a clinical dictionary that provides the user with most of the information she would normally use: symptoms, signs, diagnoses, allergies, medications, interventions, etc. This information is structured and displayed in such a manner that health care professionals can document the clinical situation at the touch of a finger. The data is then encoded into the patient's file. Once encoded, the structured data is accessible for research, statistics, education, and quality assurance. This dictionary complies with national and international nomenclatures. It also

  14. Using X-band Weather Radar Measurements to Monitor the Integrity of Digital Elevation Models for Synthetic Vision Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Steve; UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Sayre, Jonathon

    2003-01-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with displays of stored geo-spatial data representing terrain, obstacles, and cultural features. As comprehensive validation is impractical, these databases typically have no quantifiable level of integrity. Further, updates to the databases may not be provided as changes occur. These issues limit the certification level and constrain the operational context of SVS for civil aviation. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of using a realtime monitor to bound the integrity of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) by using radar altimeter measurements during flight. This paper describes an extension of this concept to include X-band Weather Radar (WxR) measurements. This enables the monitor to detect additional classes of DEM errors and to reduce the exposure time associated with integrity threats. Feature extraction techniques are used along with a statistical assessment of similarity measures between the sensed and stored features that are detected. Recent flight-testing in the area around the Juneau, Alaska Airport (JNU) has resulted in a comprehensive set of sensor data that is being used to assess the feasibility of the proposed monitor technology. Initial results of this assessment are presented.

  15. Using X-band weather radar measurements to monitor the integrity of digital elevation models for synthetic vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Steven D.; Uijt de Haag, Maarten; Sayre, Jonathon

    2003-09-01

    Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) provide pilots with displays of stored geo-spatial data representing terrain, obstacles, and cultural features. As comprehensive validation is impractical, these databases typically have no quantifiable level of integrity. Futher, updates to the databases may not be provided as changes occur. These issues limit the certification level and constrain the operational context of SVS for civil aviation. Previous work demonstrated the feasibility of using a real-time monitor to bound the integrity of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) by using radar altimeter measurements during flight. This paper describes an extension of this concept to include X-band Weather Radar (WxR) measurements. This enables the monitor to detect additional classes of DEM errors and to reduce the exposure time associated with integrity threats. Feature extraction techniques are used along with a statistical assessment of similarity measures between the sensed and stored features that are detected. Recent flight-testing in the area around Juneau, Alaska Airport (JNU) has resulted in a comprehensive set of sensor data that is being used to assess the feasibility of the proposed monitor technology. Initial results of this assessment are presented.

  16. Integrating Multiple Evidence Sources to Predict Adverse Drug Reactions Based on a Systems Pharmacology Model

    PubMed Central

    Cao, D-S; Xiao, N; Li, Y-J; Zeng, W-B; Liang, Y-Z; Lu, A-P; Xu, Q-S; Chen, AF

    2015-01-01

    Identifying potential adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is critically important for drug discovery and public health. Here we developed a multiple evidence fusion (MEF) method for the large-scale prediction of drug ADRs that can handle both approved drugs and novel molecules. MEF is based on the similarity reference by collaborative filtering, and integrates multiple similarity measures from various data types, taking advantage of the complementarity in the data. We used MEF to integrate drug-related and ADR-related data from multiple levels, including the network structural data formed by known drug–ADR relationships for predicting likely unknown ADRs. On cross-validation, it obtains high sensitivity and specificity, substantially outperforming existing methods that utilize single or a few data types. We validated our prediction by their overlap with drug–ADR associations that are known in databases. The proposed computational method could be used for complementary hypothesis generation and rapid analysis of potential drug–ADR interactions. PMID:26451329

  17. Integrated system checkout report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-14

    The planning and preparation phase of the Integrated Systems Checkout Program (ISCP) was conducted from October 1989 to July 1991. A copy of the ISCP, DOE-WIPP 90--002, is included in this report as an appendix. The final phase of the Checkout was conducted from July 10, 1991, to July 23, 1991. This phase exercised all the procedures and equipment required to receive, emplace, and retrieve contact handled transuranium (CH TRU) waste filled dry bins. In addition, abnormal events were introduced to simulate various equipment failures, loose surface radioactive contamination events, and personnel injury. This report provides a detailed summary of each days activities during this period. Qualification of personnel to safely conduct the tasks identified in the procedures and the abnormal events were verified by observers familiar with the Bin-Scale CH TRU Waste Test requirements. These observers were members of the staffs of Westinghouse WID Engineering, QA, Training, Health Physics, Safety, and SNL. Observers representing a number of DOE departments, the state of new Mexico, and the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board observed those Checkout activities conducted during the period from July 17, 1991, to July 23, 1991. Observer comments described in this report are those obtained from the staff member observers. 1 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Space Station Information System integrated communications concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, J.; Bigham, J.; Whitelaw, V.; Marker, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrated communications within the Space Station Information System (SSIS). The SSIS is generally defined as the integrated set of space and ground information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The requirements used to develop the model are presented, and the various elements of the model described.

  19. Integrated DEA Models and Grey System Theory to Evaluate Past-to-Future Performance: A Case of Indian Electricity Industry

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better “past-present-future” insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry. PMID:25821854

  20. Integrated DEA models and grey system theory to evaluate past-to-future performance: a case of Indian electricity industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Nan; Nguyen, Nhu-Ty; Tran, Thanh-Tuyen

    2015-01-01

    The growth of economy and population together with the higher demand in energy has created many concerns for the Indian electricity industry whose capacity is at 211 gigawatts mostly in coal-fired plants. Due to insufficient fuel supply, India suffers from a shortage of electricity generation, leading to rolling blackouts; thus, performance evaluation and ranking the industry turn into significant issues. By this study, we expect to evaluate the rankings of these companies under control of the Ministry of Power. Also, this research would like to test if there are any significant differences between the two DEA models: Malmquist nonradial and Malmquist radial. Then, one advance model of MPI would be chosen to see these companies' performance in recent years and next few years by using forecasting results of Grey system theory. Totally, the realistic data 14 are considered to be in this evaluation after the strict selection from the whole industry. The results found that all companies have not shown many abrupt changes on their scores, and it is always not consistently good or consistently standing out, which demonstrated the high applicable usability of the integrated methods. This integrated numerical research gives a better "past-present-future" insights into performance evaluation in Indian electricity industry.

  1. Updates in the Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs)-Double Fourier Series (DFS) Dynamical Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, M. S.; Park, H.; Park, S. H.; Hong, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Global/Regional Integrated Model system (GRIMs)-double Fourier series (DFS) spectral dynamical core has been developed to overcome the limitation of traditional spectral model using spherical harmonics in terms of computational cost at very high resolution. Recently, the GRIMs-DFS dynamical core was updated in two respects: (1) better scalability on high-performance computing platform; and (2) reduction of numerical time-stepping error. To improve the parallel efficiency, the archived wave domain was designed not to be sliced in the meridional direction, but to be decomposed in the horizontal and vertical directions. Although the computational cost slightly increased due to the requirement of temporary work array, the revised DFS dynamical core yielded higher scalability in terms of the wall-clock-time than the original one. In addition, its efficiency gain became greater with the increase of horizontal resolution when the number of processors is increased. The Robert-Asselin-Williams (RAW) time filter has been proposed as a simple improvement to the widely used Robert-Asselin filter, in order to reduce time-stepping errors in semi-implicit leapfrog integration. This new approach was implemented into the GRIMs-DFS dynamical core and its impact was quantitatively evaluated on medium-range forecast and seasonal ensemble prediction frameworks. Preliminary results showed that the RAW time-filter properly reduced spurious light rainfalls that might be produced from unphysical computational mode generated by leap-frog time stepping. Further details will be presented in the conference.

  2. The WRF-CMAQ Integrated On-Line Modeling System: Development, Testing, and Initial Applications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally, atmospheric chemistry-transport and meteorology models have been applied in an off-line paradigm, in which archived output on the dynamical state of the atmosphere simulated using the meteorology model is used to drive transport and chemistry calculations of atmos...

  3. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Malek, K.; Kruger, C.; Yoder, J.; Marsh, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest covers parts of US and Canada with a total drainage area of about 670,000 square kilometers. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of Columbia River water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area in the CRB. Agriculture is an important component of the economy in the region, with an annual value over $5 billion in Washington State alone. The availability of surface water for irrigation in the basin is expected to be negatively impacted by climate change. Previous climate change studies in the CRB region suggest a likelihood of increasing temperatures and a shift in precipitation patterns, with precipitation higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Warming further exacerbates summer water availability in many CRB tributaries as they shift from snowmelt-dominant towards rain-dominant hydrologic regimes. The goal of this research is to study the impacts of climate change on CRB water availability and agricultural production in the expectation that curtailment will occur more frequently in an altered climate. Towards this goal it is essential that we understand the interactions between crop-growth dynamics, climate dynamics, the hydrologic cycle, water management, and agricultural economy. To study these interactions at the regional scale, we use the newly developed crop-hydrology model VIC-CropSyst, which integrates a crop growth model CropSyst with the hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC). Simulation of future climate by VIC-CropSyst captures the socio-economic aspects of this system through economic analysis of the impacts of climate change on crop patterns. This integrated framework (submitted as a separate paper) is linked to a reservoir operations simulations model, Colsim. ColSim is modified to explicitly account for agricultural withdrawals. Washington State water

  4. Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS) for Combined Transmission and Distribution Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Palmintier, Bryan

    2015-07-28

    This presentation discusses the next-generation analysis framework for full-scale transmission and distribution modeling that supports millions of highly distributed energy resources, and also discusses future directions for transmission and distribution.

  5. Flexible Power System Operations Simulation Model for Assessing Wind Integration: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper a model was developed to mimic operator behavior using a combination of security-constrained unit commitment, security-constrained economic dispatch, and automatic generation control programs.

  6. WRATS Integrated Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piatak, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) data acquisition system (DAS) is a 64-channel data acquisition display and analysis system specifically designed for use with the WRATS 1/5-scale V-22 tiltrotor model of the Bell Osprey. It is the primary data acquisition system for experimental aeroelastic testing of the WRATS model for the purpose of characterizing the aeromechanical and aeroelastic stability of prototype tiltrotor configurations. The WRATS DAS was also used during aeroelastic testing of Bell Helicopter Textron s Quad-Tiltrotor (QTR) design concept, a test which received international attention. The LabVIEW-based design is portable and capable of powering and conditioning over 64 channels of dynamic data at sampling rates up to 1,000 Hz. The system includes a 60-second circular data archive, an integrated model swashplate excitation system, a moving block damping application for calculation of whirl flutter mode subcritical damping, a loads and safety monitor, a pilot-control console display, data analysis capabilities, and instrumentation calibration functions. Three networked computers running custom-designed LabVIEW software acquire data through National Instruments data acquisition hardware. The aeroelastic model (see figure) was tested with the DAS at two facilities at NASA Langley, the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) and the Rotorcraft Hover Test Facility (RHTF). Because of the need for seamless transition between testing at these facilities, DAS is portable. The software is capable of harmonic analysis of periodic time history data, Fast Fourier Transform calculations, power spectral density calculations, and on-line calibration of test instrumentation. DAS has a circular buffer archive to ensure critical data is not lost in event of model failure/incident, as well as a sample-and-hold capability for phase-correct time history data.

  7. GSFLOW - Coupled Ground-Water and Surface-Water Flow Model Based on the Integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Regan, R. Steven; Prudic, David E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    The need to assess the effects of variability in climate, biota, geology, and human activities on water availability and flow requires the development of models that couple two or more components of the hydrologic cycle. An integrated hydrologic model called GSFLOW (Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW) was developed to simulate coupled ground-water and surface-water resources. The new model is based on the integration of the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW). Additional model components were developed, and existing components were modified, to facilitate integration of the models. Methods were developed to route flow among the PRMS Hydrologic Response Units (HRUs) and between the HRUs and the MODFLOW finite-difference cells. This report describes the organization, concepts, design, and mathematical formulation of all GSFLOW model components. An important aspect of the integrated model design is its ability to conserve water mass and to provide comprehensive water budgets for a location of interest. This report includes descriptions of how water budgets are calculated for the integrated model and for individual model components. GSFLOW provides a robust modeling system for simulating flow through the hydrologic cycle, while allowing for future enhancements to incorporate other simulation techniques.

  8. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  9. Systems biology of bacterial nitrogen fixation: High-throughput technology and its integrative description with constraint-based modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial nitrogen fixation is the biological process by which atmospheric nitrogen is uptaken by bacteroids located in plant root nodules and converted into ammonium through the enzymatic activity of nitrogenase. In practice, this biological process serves as a natural form of fertilization and its optimization has significant implications in sustainable agricultural programs. Currently, the advent of high-throughput technology supplies with valuable data that contribute to understanding the metabolic activity during bacterial nitrogen fixation. This undertaking is not trivial, and the development of computational methods useful in accomplishing an integrative, descriptive and predictive framework is a crucial issue to decoding the principles that regulated the metabolic activity of this biological process. Results In this work we present a systems biology description of the metabolic activity in bacterial nitrogen fixation. This was accomplished by an integrative analysis involving high-throughput data and constraint-based modeling to characterize the metabolic activity in Rhizobium etli bacteroids located at the root nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris (bean plant). Proteome and transcriptome technologies led us to identify 415 proteins and 689 up-regulated genes that orchestrate this biological process. Taking into account these data, we: 1) extended the metabolic reconstruction reported for R. etli; 2) simulated the metabolic activity during symbiotic nitrogen fixation; and 3) evaluated the in silico results in terms of bacteria phenotype. Notably, constraint-based modeling simulated nitrogen fixation activity in such a way that 76.83% of the enzymes and 69.48% of the genes were experimentally justified. Finally, to further assess the predictive scope of the computational model, gene deletion analysis was carried out on nine metabolic enzymes. Our model concluded that an altered metabolic activity on these enzymes induced different effects in nitrogen

  10. Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.

  11. Enhanced functional integration of human photoreceptor precursors into human and rodent retina in an ex vivo retinal explant model system.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Anat; Laver, Christopher R J; Gregory-Evans, Cheryl Y; Liu, Ran R; Gregory-Evans, Kevin

    2015-06-01

    Retinal disease is the major cause of irreversible blindness in developed countries. Transplantation of photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a promising and widely applicable approach for the treatment of these blinding conditions. Previously, it has been shown that after transplantation into the degenerating retina, the percentage of PPCs that undergo functional integration is low. The factors that inhibit PPC engraftment remain largely unknown, in part, because so many adverse factors could be at play during in vivo experiments. To advance our knowledge in overcoming potential adverse effects and optimize PPC transplantation, we have developed a novel ex vivo system. Harvested neural retina was placed directly on top of cultured retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells from a number of different sources. To mimic PPC transplantation into the subretinal space, hESC-derived PPCs were inserted between the retinal explant and underlying RPE. Explants cocultured with hESC-derived RPE maintained normal gross morphology and viability for up to 2 weeks, whereas the explants cultured on ARPE19 and RPE-J failed by 7 days. Furthermore, the proportion of PPCs expressing ribbon synapse-specific proteins BASSOON and RIBEYE was significantly higher when cocultured with hESC-derived RPE (20% and 10%, respectively), than when cocultured with ARPE19 (only 6% and 2%, respectively). In the presence of the synaptogenic factor thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), the proportion of BASSOON-positive and RIBEYE-positive PPCs cocultured with hESC-derived RPE increased to ∼30% and 15%, respectively. These data demonstrate the utility of an ex vivo model system to define factors, such as TSP-1, which could influence integration efficiency in future in vivo experiments in models of retinal degeneration.

  12. Integrated numerical modeling of a landslide early warning system in a context of adaptation to future climatic pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khabarov, Nikolay; Huggel, Christian; Obersteiner, Michael; Ramírez, Juan Manuel

    2010-05-01

    Mountain regions are typically characterized by rugged terrain which is susceptible to different types of landslides during high-intensity precipitation. Landslides account for billions of dollars of damage and many casualties, and are expected to increase in frequency in the future due to a projected increase of precipitation intensity. Early warning systems (EWS) are thought to be a primary tool for related disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation to extreme climatic events and hydro-meteorological hazards, including landslides. An EWS for hazards such as landslides consist of different components, including environmental monitoring instruments (e.g. rainfall or flow sensors), physical or empirical process models to support decision-making (warnings, evacuation), data and voice communication, organization and logistics-related procedures, and population response. Considering this broad range, EWS are highly complex systems, and it is therefore difficult to understand the effect of the different components and changing conditions on the overall performance, ultimately being expressed as human lives saved or structural damage reduced. In this contribution we present a further development of our approach to assess a landslide EWS in an integral way, both at the system and component level. We utilize a numerical model using 6 hour rainfall data as basic input. A threshold function based on a rainfall-intensity/duration relation was applied as a decision criterion for evacuation. Damage to infrastructure and human lives was defined as a linear function of landslide magnitude, with the magnitude modelled using a power function of landslide frequency. Correct evacuation was assessed with a ‘true' reference rainfall dataset versus a dataset of artificially reduced quality imitating the observation system component. Performance of the EWS using these rainfall datasets was expressed in monetary terms (i.e. damage related to false and correct evacuation). We

  13. Functional integral approach to the Lipkin model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, K.

    1988-07-01

    A quantum-mechanical formulation involving both collective and independent-particle motions in many-fermion systems is proposed by using the path-integral technique. A semiclassical method of evaluating the functional integral over both fields is described. As an illustration, the Lipkin model is utilized.

  14. Social Ecological Model Analysis for ICT Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagami, Jason

    2013-01-01

    ICT integration of teacher preparation programmes was undertaken by the Australian Teaching Teachers for the Future (TTF) project in all 39 Australian teacher education institutions and highlighted the need for guidelines to inform systemic ICT integration approaches. A Social Ecological Model (SEM) was used to positively inform integration…

  15. An Integrated Framework for Modeling Air Carrier Behavior, Policy, and Impacts in the U.S. Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, Brant M.; Kumar, Vivek; DeCicco, Anthony H.; Hasan, Shahab; Stouffer, Virginia L.; Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in the United States is an ongoing challenge for policymakers due to the complexity of the air transportation system (ATS) with its broad array of stakeholders and dynamic interdependencies between them. The successful implementation of NextGen has a hard dependency on the active participation of U.S. commercial airlines. To assist policymakers in identifying potential policy designs that facilitate the implementation of NextGen, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and LMI developed a research framework called the Air Transportation System Evolutionary Simulation (ATS-EVOS). This framework integrates large empirical data sets with multiple specialized models to simulate the evolution of the airline response to potential future policies and explore consequential impacts on ATS performance and market dynamics. In the ATS-EVOS configuration presented here, we leverage the Transportation Systems Analysis Model (TSAM), the Airline Evolutionary Simulation (AIRLINE-EVOS), the Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES), and the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), all of which enable this research to comprehensively represent the complex facets of the ATS and its participants. We validated this baseline configuration of ATS-EVOS against Airline Origin and Destination Survey (DB1B) data and subject matter expert opinion, and we verified the ATS-EVOS framework and agent behavior logic through scenario-based experiments that explored potential implementations of a carbon tax, congestion pricing policy, and the dynamics for equipage of new technology by airlines. These experiments demonstrated ATS-EVOS's capabilities in responding to a wide range of potential NextGen-related policies and utility for decision makers to gain insights for effective policy design.

  16. Designing a Model for Integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the Iranian Agricultural Research System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharifzadeh, Aboulqasem; Abdollahzadeh, Gholam Hossein; Sharifi, Mahnoosh

    2009-01-01

    Capacity Development is needed in the Iranian Agricultural System. Integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the agricultural research system is an appropriate capacity development mechanism. The appropriate application of ICTs and information such as a National Agricultural Information System requires a systemically…

  17. Integration of mirror design with suspension system using NASA's new mirror modeling software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, William R.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-09-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass.

  18. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System Using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass.

  19. Integrating Models of Collaborative Consultation and Systems Change to Implement Forgiveness-Focused Bullying Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaar, Nicole R.; Freedman, Suzanne; Carlon, Amy; Watson, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Through collaborative consultation with school staff, school psychologists have increasingly helped schools add bullying prevention and intervention programming to their service delivery systems. As schools search for ways to lessen the impact of bullying on the social-emotional health and academic achievement of students, forgiveness education is…

  20. Integration of Mirror Design with Suspension System using NASA's New Mirror Modeling Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold,William R., Sr.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Stahl, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Advances in mirror fabrication are making very large space based telescopes possible. In many applications, only monolithic mirrors can meet the performance requirements. The existing and near-term planned heavy launch vehicles place a premium on lowest possible mass, and then available payload shroud sizes limit near term designs to 4 meter class mirrors. Practical 8 meter class and beyond designs could encourage planners to include larger shrouds, if it can be proven that such mirrors can be manufactured. These two factors, lower mass and larger mirrors, present the classic optimization problem. There is a practical upper limit to how large of a mirror can be supported by a purely kinematic mount system handling both operational and launch loads. This paper shows how the suspension system and mirror blank need to be designed simultaneously. We will also explore the concepts of auxiliary support systems which act only during launch and disengage on orbit. We will define required characteristics of these systems and show how they can substantially reduce the mirror mass.

  1. Central Fan Integrated Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-12

    This information sheet describes one example of a ventilation system design, a central fan integrated supply (CFIS) system, a mechanical ventilation and pollutant source control to ensure that there is reasonable indoor air quality inside the house.

  2. Evolving neural models of path integration.

    PubMed

    Vickerstaff, R J; Di Paolo, E A

    2005-09-01

    We use a genetic algorithm to evolve neural models of path integration, with particular emphasis on reproducing the homing behaviour of Cataglyphis fortis ants. This is done within the context of a complete model system, including an explicit representation of the animal's movements within its environment. We show that it is possible to produce a neural network without imposing a priori any particular system for the internal representation of the animal's home vector. The best evolved network obtained is analysed in detail and is found to resemble the bicomponent model of Mittelstaedt. Because of the presence of leaky integration, the model can reproduce the systematic navigation errors found in desert ants. The model also naturally mimics the searching behaviour that ants perform once they have reached their estimate of the nest location. The results support possible roles for leaky integration and cosine-shaped compass response functions in path integration.

  3. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2014-02-28

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  4. Energy Systems Integration Facility Overview

    ScienceCinema

    Arvizu, Dan; Chistensen, Dana; Hannegan, Bryan; Garret, Bobi; Kroposki, Ben; Symko-Davies, Martha; Post, David; Hammond, Steve; Kutscher, Chuck; Wipke, Keith

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is located at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory is the right tool, at the right time... a first-of-its-kind facility that addresses the challenges of large-scale integration of clean energy technologies into the energy systems that power the nation.

  5. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution over 36 years using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2016-04-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology, where the site-specific emissions will result, via atmospheric transport and chemistry, in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, is used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different domain and scales; the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) to calculate the air pollution levels in the Northern Hemisphere with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the Urban Background Model (UBM) to further calculate the air pollution in Denmark at 1 km x 1 km resolution using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. Previous health impact assessments related to air pollution have been made on a lower resolution. In this study, the integrated model system, EVA, has been used to estimate the health impacts and related external cost for Denmark at a 1 km x 1 km resolution. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as the development of health impacts and related external costs in Europe and Denmark over a period of 36 years (1979-2014). Acknowledgements This work was funded by: DCE - National Centre for Environment and Energy. Project: "Health impacts and external costs from air pollution in Denmark over 25 years" and NordForsk under the Nordic Programme on Health and Welfare. Project: "Understanding the link between air pollution and distribution of related health impacts and welfare in the

  6. A generic system for integrated modelling of multi-dimensional spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I. M.

    A generic approach to computer modelling of earth science data is presented, utilising a state-of-the-art scientific visualisation environment (AVS/Express). The greater flexibility of such an approach allows us to handle a wide variety of different data types, including geophysical data as well as other earth science data (eg. stratigraphy, geomorphology, palaeontology) which often contrast by being generally discrete bodies rather than continuous fields. Application of volume visualisation techniques generally demonstrates that the sparse nature of sampling favours using surface-extraction techniques, such as isosurfaces and slicing, rather than direct volume rendering techniques. These techniques have also been applied to temporal 4D data-sets by incorporating time-slices into animation. However, all these procedures require a high performance workstation to be effective. Therefore, to allow greater desktop analysis of complex models, we are using the Virtual Reality Modelling Language (VRML) which provides considerable scope for increased access to 3D/4D data for education and collaboration.

  7. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry

    1991-01-01

    A system infrastructure must be properly designed and integrated from the conceptual development phase to accommodate evolutionary intelligent technologies. Several technology development activities were identified that may have application to rendezvous and capture systems. Optical correlators in conjunction with fuzzy logic control might be used for the identification, tracking, and capture of either cooperative or non-cooperative targets without the intensive computational requirements associated with vision processing. A hybrid digital/analog system was developed and tested with a robotic arm. An aircraft refueling application demonstration is planned within two years. Initially this demonstration will be ground based with a follow-on air based demonstration. System dependability measurement and modeling techniques are being developed for fault management applications. This involves usage of incremental solution/evaluation techniques and modularized systems to facilitate reuse and to take advantage of natural partitions in system models. Though not yet commercially available and currently subject to accuracy limitations, technology is being developed to perform optical matrix operations to enhance computational speed. Optical terrain recognition using camera image sequencing processed with optical correlators is being developed to determine position and velocity in support of lander guidance. The system is planned for testing in conjunction with Dryden Flight Research Facility. Advanced architecture technology is defining open architecture design constraints, test bed concepts (processors, multiple hardware/software and multi-dimensional user support, knowledge/tool sharing infrastructure), and software engineering interface issues.

  8. Enhancing the Design Process for Complex Space Systems through Early Integration of Risk and Variable-Fidelity Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri; Osburg, Jan

    2005-01-01

    An important enabler of the new national Vision for Space Exploration is the ability to rapidly and efficiently develop optimized concepts for the manifold future space missions that this effort calls for. The design of such complex systems requires a tight integration of all the engineering disciplines involved, in an environment that fosters interaction and collaboration. The research performed under this grant explored areas where the space systems design process can be enhanced: by integrating risk models into the early stages of the design process, and by including rapid-turnaround variable-fidelity tools for key disciplines. Enabling early assessment of mission risk will allow designers to perform trades between risk and design performance during the initial design space exploration. Entry into planetary atmospheres will require an increased emphasis of the critical disciplines of aero- and thermodynamics. This necessitates the pulling forward of EDL disciplinary expertise into the early stage of the design process. Radiation can have a large potential impact on overall mission designs, in particular for the planned nuclear-powered robotic missions under Project Prometheus and for long-duration manned missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond under Project Constellation. This requires that radiation and associated risk and hazards be assessed and mitigated at the earliest stages of the design process. Hence, RPS is another discipline needed to enhance the engineering competencies of conceptual design teams. Researchers collaborated closely with NASA experts in those disciplines, and in overall space systems design, at Langley Research Center and at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report documents the results of this initial effort.

  9. Integrated Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Cossarin, Mary; Doxsee, Harry; Schwartz, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Four integrated learning management packages were reviewed: "CentraOne", "IntraLearn", "Lyceum", and "Silicon Chalk". These products provide different combinations of synchronous and asynchronous tools. The current report examines the products in relation to their specific value for distance educators and students.

  10. Introducing Subgrid-scale Convective Cloud and Aerosol Interactions to the WRF-CMAQ Integrated Modeling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alapaty, K. V.; Yu, S.; Nolte, C. G.; Zhang, G. J.; Song, X.; Pleim, J.; Mathur, R.; Wong, D.

    2013-12-01

    Many regional and global climate models include aerosol indirect effects (AIE) on grid-scale/resolved clouds. However, the interaction between aerosols and convective clouds remains highly uncertain, as noted in the IPCC AR4 report. The objective of this work is to help fill in this scientific gap by including aerosol indirect effects on parameterized deep convection in the WRF-CMAQ integrated regional modeling system. This is accomplished by first incorporating a convective cloud microphysical scheme directly into a deep convection parameterization, and linking that microphysical scheme with aerosols predicted by the air quality model, CMAQ. To study the relative magnitudes of aerosol indirect forcing by grid- and subgrid-scale clouds, three numerical simulations (one with AIE on resolved clouds only, one with AIE on subgrid-scale clouds only, and one with AIE on both resolved and subgrid-scale clouds) are performed for the summer months (June, July, and August) of 2006 covering the continental US using 12 km grids. These results along with the comparisons of the simulated cloud micro- and macro-physical and radiation parameters as well as other meteorological parameters with observations and reanalysis products will be presented.

  11. Integrating pro-environmental behavior with transportation network modeling: User and system level strategies, implementation, and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, H. M. Abdul

    Personal transport is a leading contributor to fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse (GHG) emissions in the U.S. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that light-duty vehicles (LDV) are responsible for 61% of all transportation related energy consumption in 2012, which is equivalent to 8.4 million barrels of oil (fossil fuel) per day. The carbon content in fossil fuels is the primary source of GHG emissions that links to the challenge associated with climate change. Evidently, it is high time to develop actionable and innovative strategies to reduce fuel consumption and GHG emissions from the road transportation networks. This dissertation integrates the broader goal of minimizing energy and emissions into the transportation planning process using novel systems modeling approaches. This research aims to find, investigate, and evaluate strategies that minimize carbon-based fuel consumption and emissions for a transportation network. We propose user and system level strategies that can influence travel decisions and can reinforce pro-environmental attitudes of road users. Further, we develop strategies that system operators can implement to optimize traffic operations with emissions minimization goal. To complete the framework we develop an integrated traffic-emissions (EPA-MOVES) simulation framework that can assess the effectiveness of the strategies with computational efficiency and reasonable accuracy. The dissertation begins with exploring the trade-off between emissions and travel time in context of daily travel decisions and its heterogeneous nature. Data are collected from a web-based survey and the trade-off values indicating the average additional travel minutes a person is willing to consider for reducing a lb. of GHG emissions are estimated from random parameter models. Results indicate that different trade-off values for male and female groups. Further, participants from high-income households are found to have higher trade-off values

  12. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  13. A system dynamics model integrating physiology and biochemical regulation predicts extent of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) phases.

    PubMed

    Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard

    2013-12-01

    A system dynamics (SD) approach was taken to model crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression from measured biochemical and physiological constants. SD emphasizes state-dependent feedback interaction to describe the emergent properties of a complex system. These mechanisms maintain biological systems with homeostatic limits on a temporal basis. Previous empirical studies on CAM have correlated biological constants (e.g. enzyme kinetic parameters) with expression over the CAM diel cycle. The SD model integrates these constants within the architecture of the CAM 'system'. This allowed quantitative causal connections to be established between biological inputs and the four distinct phases of CAM delineated by gas exchange and malic acid accumulation traits. Regulation at flow junctions (e.g. stomatal and mesophyll conductance, and malic acid transport across the tonoplast) that are subject to feedback control (e.g. stomatal aperture, malic acid inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and enzyme kinetics) was simulated. Simulated expression for the leaf-succulent Kalanchoë daigremontiana and more succulent tissues of Agave tequilana showed strong correlation with measured gas exchange and malic acid accumulation (R(2)  = 0.912 and 0.937, respectively, for K. daigremontiana and R(2)  = 0.928 and 0.942, respectively, for A. tequilana). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantitatively identify determinants of diel CO2 uptake. The transition in CAM expression from low to high volume/area tissues (elimination of phase II-IV carbon-uptake signatures) was achieved largely by the manipulation three input parameters. PMID:23992169

  14. A system dynamics model integrating physiology and biochemical regulation predicts extent of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) phases.

    PubMed

    Owen, Nick A; Griffiths, Howard

    2013-12-01

    A system dynamics (SD) approach was taken to model crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression from measured biochemical and physiological constants. SD emphasizes state-dependent feedback interaction to describe the emergent properties of a complex system. These mechanisms maintain biological systems with homeostatic limits on a temporal basis. Previous empirical studies on CAM have correlated biological constants (e.g. enzyme kinetic parameters) with expression over the CAM diel cycle. The SD model integrates these constants within the architecture of the CAM 'system'. This allowed quantitative causal connections to be established between biological inputs and the four distinct phases of CAM delineated by gas exchange and malic acid accumulation traits. Regulation at flow junctions (e.g. stomatal and mesophyll conductance, and malic acid transport across the tonoplast) that are subject to feedback control (e.g. stomatal aperture, malic acid inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and enzyme kinetics) was simulated. Simulated expression for the leaf-succulent Kalanchoë daigremontiana and more succulent tissues of Agave tequilana showed strong correlation with measured gas exchange and malic acid accumulation (R(2)  = 0.912 and 0.937, respectively, for K. daigremontiana and R(2)  = 0.928 and 0.942, respectively, for A. tequilana). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to quantitatively identify determinants of diel CO2 uptake. The transition in CAM expression from low to high volume/area tissues (elimination of phase II-IV carbon-uptake signatures) was achieved largely by the manipulation three input parameters.

  15. Integrative medicine and systemic outcomes research: issues in the emergence of a new model for primary health care.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R; Caspi, Opher; Schwartz, Gary E R; Grant, Kathryn L; Gaudet, Tracy W; Rychener, David; Maizes, Victoria; Weil, Andrew

    2002-01-28

    Clinicians and researchers are increasingly using the term integrative medicine to refer to the merging of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) with conventional biomedicine. However, combination medicine (CAM added to conventional) is not integrative. Integrative medicine represents a higher-order system of systems of care that emphasizes wellness and healing of the entire person (bio-psycho-socio-spiritual dimensions) as primary goals, drawing on both conventional and CAM approaches in the context of a supportive and effective physician-patient relationship. Using the context of integrative medicine, this article outlines the relevance of complex systems theory as an approach to health outcomes research. In this view, health is an emergent property of the person as a complex living system. Within this conceptualization, the whole may exhibit properties that its separate parts do not possess. Thus, unlike biomedical research that typically examines parts of health care and parts of the individual, one at a time, but not the complete system, integrative outcomes research advocates the study of the whole. The whole system includes the patient-provider relationship, multiple conventional and CAM treatments, and the philosophical context of care as the intervention. The systemic outcomes encompass the simultaneous, interactive changes within the whole person. PMID:11802746

  16. The LARsen Ice Shelf System, Antarctica, LARISSA a Model for Antarctic Integrated System Science (AISS) Investigations using Marine Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domack, E. W.; Huber, B. A.; Vernet, M.; Leventer, A.; Scambos, T. A.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Smith, C. R.; de Batist, M. A.; Yoon, H.; Larissa

    2010-12-01

    The LARISSA program is the first interdisciplinary project funded in the AISS program of the NSF Office of Polar Programs and was officially launched in the closing days of the IPY. This program brings together investigators, students, and media to address the rapid and fundamental changes taking place in the region of the Larsen Ice Shelf and surrounding areas. Scientific foci include: glaciologic and oceanographic interactions, the response of pelagic and benthic ecosystems to ice shelf decay, sedimentary record of ice shelf break disintegration, the geologic evolution of ice shelf systems over the last 100,000 years, paleoclimate/environmental records from marine sediment and ice cores, and the crustal response to ice mass loss at decade to millennial time scales. The first major field season took place this past austral summer aboard the NB Palmer (cruise NBP10-01) which deployed with a multi-layered logistical infrastructure that included: two Bell 220 aircraft, a multifunctional deep water ROV, video guided sediment corer, jumbo piston core, and an array of oceanographic and biological sensors and instruments. In tandem with this ship based operation Twin Otter aircraft supported an ice core team upon the crest of the Bruce Plateau with logistic support provided by the BAS at Rothera Station. Although unusually heavy sea ice prevented much of the original work from being completed in the Larsen Embayment the interdisciplinary approach proved useful. Further the logistical model of ship based aircraft to support interdisciplinary work proved viable, again despite an unusually severe summer meterologic pattern across the northern Antarctic Peninsula. As the program moves forward other vessels will come into play and the model can be applied to interdisciplinary objectives in other regions of Antarctica which are remote and lack land based infrastructure to support coastal field programs in glaciology, geology, or meteorology. This work could then be completed

  17. INTEGRATED FISCHER TROPSCH MODULAR PROCESS MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; Richard Boardman; Anastasia M. Gribik; Rick A. Wood; Robert A. Carrington

    2007-12-01

    With declining petroleum reserves, increased world demand, and unstable politics in some of the world’s richest oil producing regions, the capability for the U.S. to produce synthetic liquid fuels from domestic resources is critical to national security and economic stability. Coal, biomass and other carbonaceous materials can be converted to liquid fuels using several conversion processes. The leading candidate for large-scale conversion of coal to liquid fuels is the Fischer Tropsch (FT) process. Process configuration, component selection, and performance are interrelated and dependent on feed characteristics. This paper outlines a flexible modular approach to model an integrated FT process that utilizes a library of key component models, supporting kinetic data and materials and transport properties allowing rapid development of custom integrated plant models. The modular construction will permit rapid assessment of alternative designs and feed stocks. The modeling approach consists of three thrust areas, or “strands” – model/module development, integration of the model elements into an end to end integrated system model, and utilization of the model for plant design. Strand 1, model/module development, entails identifying, developing, and assembling a library of codes, user blocks, and data for FT process unit operations for a custom feedstock and plant description. Strand 2, integration development, provides the framework for linking these component and subsystem models to form an integrated FT plant simulation. Strand 3, plant design, includes testing and validation of the comprehensive model and performing design evaluation analyses.

  18. Integrating land management into Earth system models: the importance of land use transitions at sub-grid-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, Julia; Wilkenskjeld, Stiig; Kloster, Silvia; Reick, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies indicate that changes in surface climate and carbon fluxes caused by land management (i.e., modifications of vegetation structure without changing the type of land cover) can be as large as those caused by land cover change. Further, such effects may occur on substantial areas: while about one quarter of the land surface has undergone land cover change, another fifty percent are managed. This calls for integration of management processes in Earth system models (ESMs). This integration increases the importance of awareness and agreement on how to diagnose effects of land use in ESMs to avoid additional model spread and thus unnecessary uncertainties in carbon budget estimates. Process understanding of management effects, their model implementation, as well as data availability on management type and extent pose challenges. In this respect, a significant step forward has been done in the framework of the current IPCC's CMIP5 simulations (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5): The climate simulations were driven with the same harmonized land use dataset that, different from most datasets commonly used before, included information on two important types of management: wood harvest and shifting cultivation. However, these new aspects were employed by only part of the CMIP5 models, while most models continued to use the associated land cover maps. Here, we explore the consequences for the carbon cycle of including subgrid-scale land transformations ("gross transitions"), such as shifting cultivation, as example of the current state of implementation of land management in ESMs. Accounting for gross transitions is expected to increase land use emissions because it represents simultaneous clearing and regrowth of natural vegetation in different parts of the grid cell, reducing standing carbon stocks. This process cannot be captured by prescribing land cover maps ("net transitions"). Using the MPI-ESM we find that ignoring gross transitions

  19. Integrative modeling of the cardiac ventricular myocyte

    PubMed Central

    Winslow, Raimond L.; Cortassa, Sonia; O'Rourke, Brian; Hashambhoy, Yasmin L.; Rice, John Jeremy; Greenstein, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac electrophysiology is a discipline with a rich 50-year history of experimental research coupled with integrative modeling which has enabled us to achieve a quantitative understanding of the relationships between molecular function and the integrated behavior of the cardiac myocyte in health and disease. In this paper, we review the development of integrative computational models of the cardiac myocyte. We begin with a historical overview of key cardiac cell models that helped shape the field. We then narrow our focus to models of the cardiac ventricular myocyte and describe these models in the context of their subcellular functional systems including dynamic models of voltage-gated ion channels, mitochondrial energy production, ATP-dependent and electrogenic membrane transporters, intracellular Ca dynamics, mechanical contraction, and regulatory signal transduction pathways. We describe key advances and limitations of the models as well as point to new directions for future modeling research. PMID:20865780

  20. Integrated roof wind energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suma, A. B.; Ferraro, R. M.; Dano, B.; Moonen, S. P. G.

    2012-10-01

    Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  1. Engineering challenges of BioNEMS: the integration of microfluidics, micro- and nanodevices, models and external control for systems biology.

    PubMed

    Wikswo, J P; Prokop, A; Baudenbacher, F; Cliffel, D; Csukas, B; Velkovsky, M

    2006-08-01

    Systems biology, i.e. quantitative, postgenomic, postproteomic, dynamic, multiscale physiology, addresses in an integrative, quantitative manner the shockwave of genetic and proteomic information using computer models that may eventually have 10(6) dynamic variables with non-linear interactions. Historically, single biological measurements are made over minutes, suggesting the challenge of specifying 10(6) model parameters. Except for fluorescence and micro-electrode recordings, most cellular measurements have inadequate bandwidth to discern the time course of critical intracellular biochemical events. Micro-array expression profiles of thousands of genes cannot determine quantitative dynamic cellular signalling and metabolic variables. Major gaps must be bridged between the computational vision and experimental reality. The analysis of cellular signalling dynamics and control requires, first, micro- and nano-instruments that measure simultaneously multiple extracellular and intracellular variables with sufficient bandwidth; secondly, the ability to open existing internal control and signalling loops; thirdly, external BioMEMS micro-actuators that provide high bandwidth feedback and externally addressable intracellular nano-actuators; and, fourthly, real-time, closed-loop, single-cell control algorithms. The unravelling of the nested and coupled nature of cellular control loops requires simultaneous recording of multiple single-cell signatures. Externally controlled nano-actuators, needed to effect changes in the biochemical, mechanical and electrical environment both outside and inside the cell, will provide a major impetus for nanoscience.

  2. An Integrated Model to Compare Net Electricity Generation for Carbon Dioxide- and Water-Based Geothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Vikas

    Utilization of supercritical CO2 as a geothermal fluid instead of water has been proposed by Brown in 2000 and its advantages have been discussed by him and other researchers such as Karsten Pruess and Fouillac. This work assesses the net electricity that could be generated by using supercritical CO2 as a geothermal working fluid and compares it with water under the same temperature and pressure reservoir conditions. This procedure provides a method of direct comparison of water and CO2 as geothermal working fluids, in terms of net electricity generation over time given a constant geothermal fluid flow rate. An integrated three-part model has been developed to determine net electricity generation for CO2- and water-based geothermal reservoirs. This model consists of a wellbore model, reservoir simulation, and surface plant simulation. To determine the bottomhole pressure and temperature of the geothermal fluid (either water or CO2) in the injection well, a wellbore model was developed using fluid-phase, thermodynamic equations of state, fluid dynamics, and heat transfer models. A computer program was developed that solves for the temperature and pressure of the working fluid (either water or CO 2) down the wellbore by simultaneously solving for the fluid thermophysical properties, heat transfer, and frictional losses. For the reservoir simulation, TOUGH2, a general purpose numerical simulator has been used to model the temperature and pressure characteristics of the working fluid in the reservoir. The EOS1 module of TOUGH2 has been used for the water system and the EOS2 module of the TOUGH2 code has been employed for the CO2 case. The surface plant is simulated using CHEMCAD, a chemical process simulator, to determine the net electricity generated. A binary organic (iso-pentane) Rankine cycle is simulated. The calculated net electricity generated for the optimized water and CO2 systems are compared over the working time of the reservoir. Based on the theoretical

  3. Health systems integration: state of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, Gail D.; Suter, Esther; Oelke, Nelly D.; Adair, Carol E.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Integrated health systems are considered a solution to the challenge of maintaining the accessibility and integrity of healthcare in numerous jurisdictions worldwide. However, decision makers in a Canadian health region indicated they were challenged to find evidence-based information to assist with the planning and implementation of integrated healthcare systems. Methods A systematic literature review of peer-reviewed literature from health sciences and business databases, and targeted grey literature sources. Results Despite the large number of articles discussing integration, significant gaps in the research literature exist. There was a lack of high quality, empirical studies providing evidence on how health systems can improve service delivery and population health. No universal definition or concept of integration was found and multiple integration models from both the healthcare and business literature were proposed in the literature. The review also revealed a lack of standardized, validated tools that have been systematically used to evaluate integration outcomes. This makes measuring and comparing the impact of integration on system, provider and patient level challenging. Discussion and conclusion Healthcare is likely too complex for a one-size-fits-all integration solution. It is important for decision makers and planners to choose a set of complementary models, structures and processes to create an integrated health system that fits the needs of the population across the continuum of care. However, in order to have evidence available, decision makers and planners should include evaluation for accountability purposes and to ensure a better understanding of the effectiveness and impact of health systems integration. PMID:19590762

  4. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Tan, Hongdong

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  5. TOWARD EFFICIENT RIPARIAN RESTORATION: INTEGRATING ECONOMIC, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper integrates economic, biological, and physical models to determine the efficient combination and spatial allocation of conservation efforts for water quality protection and salmonid habitat enhancement in the Grande Ronde basin, Oregon. The integrated modeling system co...

  6. An integrated modeling approach to support management decisions of coupled groundwater-agricultural systems under multiple uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagos Subagadis, Yohannes; Schütze, Niels; Grundmann, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The planning and implementation of effective water resources management strategies need an assessment of multiple (physical, environmental, and socio-economic) issues, and often requires new research in which knowledge of diverse disciplines are combined in a unified methodological and operational frameworks. Such integrative research to link different knowledge domains faces several practical challenges. Such complexities are further compounded by multiple actors frequently with conflicting interests and multiple uncertainties about the consequences of potential management decisions. A fuzzy-stochastic multiple criteria decision analysis tool was developed in this study to systematically quantify both probabilistic and fuzzy uncertainties associated with complex hydrosystems management. It integrated physical process-based models, fuzzy logic, expert involvement and stochastic simulation within a general framework. Subsequently, the proposed new approach is applied to a water-scarce coastal arid region water management problem in northern Oman, where saltwater intrusion into a coastal aquifer due to excessive groundwater extraction for irrigated agriculture has affected the aquifer sustainability, endangering associated socio-economic conditions as well as traditional social structure. Results from the developed method have provided key decision alternatives which can serve as a platform for negotiation and further exploration. In addition, this approach has enabled to systematically quantify both probabilistic and fuzzy uncertainties associated with the decision problem. Sensitivity analysis applied within the developed tool has shown that the decision makers' risk aversion and risk taking attitude may yield in different ranking of decision alternatives. The developed approach can be applied to address the complexities and uncertainties inherent in water resources systems to support management decisions, while serving as a platform for stakeholder participation.

  7. Integrating oculomotor and perceptual training to induce a pseudofovea: A model system for studying central vision loss

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rong; Kwon, MiYoung

    2016-01-01

    People with a central scotoma often adopt an eccentric retinal location (Preferred Retinal Locus, PRL) for fixation. Here, we proposed a novel training paradigm as a model system to study the nature of the PRL formation and its impacts on visual function. The training paradigm was designed to effectively induce a PRL at any intended retinal location by integrating oculomotor control and pattern recognition. Using a gaze-contingent display, a simulated central scotoma was induced in eight normally sighted subjects. A subject's entire peripheral visual field was blurred, except for a small circular aperture with location randomly assigned to each subject (to the left, right, above, or below the scotoma). Under this viewing condition, subjects performed a demanding oculomotor and visual recognition task. Various visual functions were tested before and after training at both PRL and nonPRL locations. After 6–10 hr of the training, all subjects formed their PRL within the clear window. Both oculomotor control and visual recognition performance significantly improved. Moreover, there was considerable improvement at PRL location in high-level function, such as trigram letter-recognition, reading, and spatial attention, but not in low-level function, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity. Our results demonstrated that within a relatively short time, a PRL could be induced at any intended retinal location in normally-sighted subjects with a simulated scotoma. Our training paradigm might not only hold promise as a model system to study the dynamic nature of the PRL formation, but also serve as a rehabilitation regimen for individuals with central vision loss. PMID:27089065

  8. Integrating oculomotor and perceptual training to induce a pseudofovea: A model system for studying central vision loss.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Kwon, MiYoung

    2016-01-01

    People with a central scotoma often adopt an eccentric retinal location (Preferred Retinal Locus, PRL) for fixation. Here, we proposed a novel training paradigm as a model system to study the nature of the PRL formation and its impacts on visual function. The training paradigm was designed to effectively induce a PRL at any intended retinal location by integrating oculomotor control and pattern recognition. Using a gaze-contingent display, a simulated central scotoma was induced in eight normally sighted subjects. A subject's entire peripheral visual field was blurred, except for a small circular aperture with location randomly assigned to each subject (to the left, right, above, or below the scotoma). Under this viewing condition, subjects performed a demanding oculomotor and visual recognition task. Various visual functions were tested before and after training at both PRL and nonPRL locations. After 6-10 hr of the training, all subjects formed their PRL within the clear window. Both oculomotor control and visual recognition performance significantly improved. Moreover, there was considerable improvement at PRL location in high-level function, such as trigram letter-recognition, reading, and spatial attention, but not in low-level function, such as acuity and contrast sensitivity. Our results demonstrated that within a relatively short time, a PRL could be induced at any intended retinal location in normally-sighted subjects with a simulated scotoma. Our training paradigm might not only hold promise as a model system to study the dynamic nature of the PRL formation, but also serve as a rehabilitation regimen for individuals with central vision loss. PMID:27089065

  9. From systems biology to photosynthesis and whole-plant modeling: a conceptual model for integrating multi-scale networks

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, David; Hanson, Paul J; Norby, Richard J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2012-01-01

    Network analysis is now a common statistical tool for molecular biologists. Network algorithms are readily used to model gene, protein and metabolic correlations providing insight into pathways driving biological phenomenon. One output from such an analysis is a candidate gene list that can be responsible, in part, for the biological process of interest. The question remains, however, as to whether molecular network analysis can be used to inform process models at higher levels of biological organization. In our previous work, transcriptional networks derived from three plant species were constructed, interrogated for orthology and then correlated to photosynthetic inhibition at elevated temperature. One unique aspect of that study was the link from co-expression networks to net photosynthesis. In this addendum, we propose a conceptual model where traditional network analysis can be linked to whole-plant models thereby informing predictions on key processes such as photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and assimilation, and C partitioning.

  10. An integrated crop model and GIS decision support system for assisting agronomic decision making under climate change.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Singh, Piara; S, Chukka; Irshad, Mohammad A; Bantilan, M C S

    2015-07-15

    The semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India are suffering from low productivity which may be further aggravated by anticipated climate change. The present study analyzes the spatial variability of climate change impacts on groundnut yields in the Anantapur district of India and examines the relative contribution of adaptation strategies. For this purpose, a web based decision support tool that integrates crop simulation model and Geographical Information System (GIS) was developed to assist agronomic decision making and this tool can be scalable to any location and crop. The climate change projections of five global climate models (GCMs) relative to the 1980-2010 baseline for Anantapur district indicates an increase in rainfall activity to the tune of 10.6 to 25% during Mid-century period (2040-69) with RCP 8.5. The GCMs also predict warming exceeding 1.4 to 2.4°C by 2069 in the study region. The spatial crop responses to the projected climate indicate a decrease in groundnut yields with four GCMs (MPI-ESM-MR, MIROC5, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES) and a contrasting 6.3% increase with the GCM, GFDL-ESM2M. The simulation studies using CROPGRO-Peanut model reveals that groundnut yields can be increased on average by 1.0%, 5.0%, 14.4%, and 20.2%, by adopting adaptation options of heat tolerance, drought tolerant cultivars, supplemental irrigation and a combination of drought tolerance cultivar and supplemental irrigation respectively. The spatial patterns of relative benefits of adaptation options were geographically different and the greatest benefits can be achieved by adopting new cultivars having drought tolerance and with the application of one supplemental irrigation at 60days after sowing.

  11. An integrated crop model and GIS decision support system for assisting agronomic decision making under climate change.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, M D M; Nedumaran, S; Singh, Piara; S, Chukka; Irshad, Mohammad A; Bantilan, M C S

    2015-07-15

    The semi-arid tropical (SAT) regions of India are suffering from low productivity which may be further aggravated by anticipated climate change. The present study analyzes the spatial variability of climate change impacts on groundnut yields in the Anantapur district of India and examines the relative contribution of adaptation strategies. For this purpose, a web based decision support tool that integrates crop simulation model and Geographical Information System (GIS) was developed to assist agronomic decision making and this tool can be scalable to any location and crop. The climate change projections of five global climate models (GCMs) relative to the 1980-2010 baseline for Anantapur district indicates an increase in rainfall activity to the tune of 10.6 to 25% during Mid-century period (2040-69) with RCP 8.5. The GCMs also predict warming exceeding 1.4 to 2.4°C by 2069 in the study region. The spatial crop responses to the projected climate indicate a decrease in groundnut yields with four GCMs (MPI-ESM-MR, MIROC5, CCSM4 and HadGEM2-ES) and a contrasting 6.3% increase with the GCM, GFDL-ESM2M. The simulation studies using CROPGRO-Peanut model reveals that groundnut yields can be increased on average by 1.0%, 5.0%, 14.4%, and 20.2%, by adopting adaptation options of heat tolerance, drought tolerant cultivars, supplemental irrigation and a combination of drought tolerance cultivar and supplemental irrigation respectively. The spatial patterns of relative benefits of adaptation options were geographically different and the greatest benefits can be achieved by adopting new cultivars having drought tolerance and with the application of one supplemental irrigation at 60days after sowing. PMID:25829290

  12. Model-Based Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisch, Harold P.

    2007-01-01

    Engineers, who design systems using text specification documents, focus their work upon the completed system to meet Performance, time and budget goals. Consistency and integrity is difficult to maintain within text documents for a single complex system and more difficult to maintain as several systems are combined into higher-level systems, are maintained over decades, and evolve technically and in performance through updates. This system design approach frequently results in major changes during the system integration and test phase, and in time and budget overruns. Engineers who build system specification documents within a model-based systems environment go a step further and aggregate all of the data. They interrelate all of the data to insure consistency and integrity. After the model is constructed, the various system specification documents are prepared, all from the same database. The consistency and integrity of the model is assured, therefore the consistency and integrity of the various specification documents is insured. This article attempts to define model-based systems relative to such an environment. The intent is to expose the complexity of the enabling problem by outlining what is needed, why it is needed and how needs are being addressed by international standards writing teams.

  13. Integrating Models and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womebarger, Amy

    2011-01-01

    For the past ten years, the coronal loops community has held bi-annual workshops to discuss the analysis of coronal loop observations and the latest efforts to model the loop structures. During this time, several heating scenarios have been proposed to explain loop observations. These heating scenarios rely on different heating frequencies, locations, and durations, as well as different loop sub-structure. Often the scenarios are developed to explain an observation, hence all heating scenarios match some observational criteria. The key to discriminating between the competing heating scenarios is to first identify the distinguishing observables. For instance, both effectively steady and nanoflare-heating scenarios can produce quasi-steady intensities. Observing quasi-steady intensities, then, does not help determine which heating scenario is most likely. These heating scenarios may, however, predict different velocities or different emission measure distributions. In this talk, I will discuss a few of the expected observations for some simple heating scenarios. I will ask the modeling community to calculate similar observations for the different heating scenarios to generate a standard list of expected observations. After the community develops this list, comparisons with actual loop observations can then distinguish the most likely heating scenario.

  14. Digital system bus integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldredge, Donald; Hitt, Ellis F.

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes and describes the results of a study of current or emerging multiplex data buses as applicable to digital flight systems, particularly with regard to civil aircraft. Technology for pre-1995 and post-1995 timeframes has been delineated and critiqued relative to the requirements envisioned for those periods. The primary emphasis has been an assured airworthiness of the more prevalent type buses, with attention to attributes such as fault tolerance, environmental susceptibility, and problems under continuing investigation. Additionally, the capacity to certify systems relying on such buses has been addressed.

  15. Models for medical practice integration.

    PubMed

    Harris, R M

    1994-08-01

    Decreased physician income, increased administrative burdens, and interference with the compassionate delivery of high-quality medical care are threatening the independent practice of medicine in solo and small group practices. Many established physicians, and the hospitals with which they relate, are searching for organizational models that, by integrating some or all aspects of their practices, will preserve incomes and reduce regulatory and administrative burdens. This article will describe several "practice integration models," pointing out advantages and disadvantages to physicians in established practices. (Many of the same arguments could be made for physicians new to practice, with different emphasis). The continuum of integration models is shown in figure 1, page 19. The group practice without walls and its two submodels, the independent group practice without walls (IGWW) and the affiliated medical practice corporation (AMPC) are more recent and more effective models and will be covered in depth in the article.

  16. Voice integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, P. Mike

    1977-01-01

    The program at Naval Air Development Center was initiated to determine the desirability of interactive voice systems for use in airborne weapon systems crew stations. A voice recognition and synthesis system (VRAS) was developed and incorporated into a human centrifuge. The speech recognition aspect of VRAS was developed using a voice command system (VCS) developed by Scope Electronics. The speech synthesis capability was supplied by a Votrax, VS-5, speech synthesis unit built by Vocal Interface. The effects of simulated flight on automatic speech recognition were determined by repeated trials in the VRAS-equipped centrifuge. The relationship of vibration, G, O2 mask, mission duration, and cockpit temperature and voice quality was determined. The results showed that: (1) voice quality degrades after 0.5 hours with an O2 mask; (2) voice quality degrades under high vibration; and (3) voice quality degrades under high levels of G. The voice quality studies are summarized. These results were obtained with a baseline of 80 percent recognition accuracy with VCS.

  17. Integrated Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Ward

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Internet-based information system that has provided effective communications and reporting for the upgrade to K-12 schools in Scottsdale, Arizona. The Website and software applications created valuable communications in the construction process and improved reporting on progress. (SLD)

  18. Integrating automated systems with modular architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Salit, M.L.; Guenther, F.R.; Kramer, G.W. ); Griesmeyer, J.M. )

    1994-03-15

    The modularity project of the Consortium for Automated Analytical Laboratory Systems, or CAALS, has been working to define and produce specifications with which manufacturers of analytical equipment can produce products suited for integration into automated systems. A set of standards that will allow subsystems to be configured into robust, useful, controllable systems in a stylized, consistent manner will facilitate the development and integration process. Such standards could ultimately allow an analytical chemist to select devices from a heterogeneous set of vendors and integrate those devices into a work cell to perform chemical methods without further invention, computer programming, or engineering. Our approach to this formidable task is to view analytical chemistry in an abstract fashion, forming a generic model from the understanding of what it is we do. In this article, we report on the generic model and the integration architecture we have developed to implement it. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Human System Integration: Regulatory Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document was intended as an input to the Access 5 Policy Integrated Product team. Using a Human System Integration (HIS) perspective, a regulatory analyses of the FARS (specifically Part 91), the Airman s Information Manual (AIM) and the FAA Controllers Handbook (7110.65) was conducted as part of a front-end approach needed to derive HSI requirements for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) operations in the National Airspace System above FL430. The review of the above aviation reference materials yielded eighty-four functions determined to be necessary or highly desirable for flight within the Air Traffic Management System. They include categories for Flight, Communications, Navigation, Surveillance, and Hazard Avoidance.

  20. Development of an Antarctic digital elevation model by integrating cartographic and remotely sensed data: A geographic information system based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongxing; Jezek, Kenneth C.; Li, Biyan

    1999-10-01

    We present a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the Antarctic. It was created in a geographic information system (GIS) environment by integrating the best available topographic data from a variety of sources. Extensive GIS-based error detection and correction operations ensured that our DEM is free of gross errors. The carefully designed interpolation algorithms for different types of source data and incorporation of surface morphologic information preserved and enhanced the fine surface structures present in the source data. The effective control of adverse edge effects and the use of the Hermite blending weight function in data merging minimized the discontinuities between different types of data, leading to a seamless and topographically consistent DEM throughout the Antarctic. This new DEM provides exceptional topographical details and represents a substantial improvement in horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy over the earlier, continental-scale renditions, particularly in mountainous and coastal regions. It has a horizontal resolution of 200 m over the rugged mountains, 400 m in the coastal regions, and approximately 5 km in the interior. The vertical accuracy of the DEM is estimated at about 100-130 m over the rugged mountainous area, better than 2 m for the ice shelves, better than 15 m for the interior ice sheet, and about 35 m for the steeper ice sheet perimeter. The Antarctic DEM can be obtained from the authors.

  1. The Self-System in Integral Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, R. Elliott; Cook-Greuter, Susanne R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors introduce the integral model of the self-system and, using that model, describe the dynamics of healthy growth and the development of psychogenic pathology. Self-identification is described as "sliding" in nature, and stage theories for self-related lines are outlined to help clinicians understand the characteristics of each stage the…

  2. Separations and safeguards model integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Zinaman, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Research and development of advanced reprocessing plant designs can greatly benefit from the development of a reprocessing plant model capable of transient solvent extraction chemistry. This type of model can be used to optimize the operations of a plant as well as the designs for safeguards, security, and safety. Previous work has integrated a transient solvent extraction simulation module, based on the Solvent Extraction Process Having Interaction Solutes (SEPHIS) code developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The goal of this work was to strengthen the integration by linking more variables between the two codes. The results from this integrated model show expected operational performance through plant transients. Additionally, ORIGEN source term files were integrated into the SSPM to provide concentrations, radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and thermal power data for various spent fuels. This data was used to generate measurement blocks that can determine the radioactivity, neutron emission rate, or thermal power of any stream or vessel in the plant model. This work examined how the code could be expanded to integrate other separation steps and benchmark the results to other data. Recommendations for future work will be presented.

  3. Streamlining the Discovery, Evaluation, and Integration of Data, Models, and Decision Support Systems: a Big Picture View

    EPA Science Inventory

    21st century environmental problems are wicked and require holistic systems thinking and solutions that integrate social and economic knowledge with knowledge of the environment. Computer-based technologies are fundamental to our ability to research and understand the relevant sy...

  4. Modeling, simulation, and fabrication of a fully integrated, acid-stable, scalable solar-driven water-splitting system.

    PubMed

    Walczak, Karl; Chen, Yikai; Karp, Christoph; Beeman, Jeffrey W; Shaner, Matthew; Spurgeon, Joshua; Sharp, Ian D; Amashukeli, Xenia; West, William; Jin, Jian; Lewis, Nathan S; Xiang, Chengxiang

    2015-02-01

    A fully integrated solar-driven water-splitting system comprised of WO3 /FTO/p(+) n Si as the photoanode, Pt/TiO2 /Ti/n(+) p Si as the photocathode, and Nafion as the membrane separator, was simulated, assembled, operated in 1.0 M HClO4 , and evaluated for performance and safety characteristics under dual side illumination. A multi-physics model that accounted for the performance of the photoabsorbers and electrocatalysts, ion transport in the solution electrolyte, and gaseous product crossover was first used to define the optimal geometric design space for the system. The photoelectrodes and the membrane separators were then interconnected in a louvered design system configuration, for which the light-absorbing area and the solution-transport pathways were simultaneously optimized. The performance of the photocathode and the photoanode were separately evaluated in a traditional three-electrode photoelectrochemical cell configuration. The photocathode and photoanode were then assembled back-to-back in a tandem configuration to provide sufficient photovoltage to sustain solar-driven unassisted water-splitting. The current-voltage characteristics of the photoelectrodes showed that the low photocurrent density of the photoanode limited the overall solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency due to the large band gap of WO3 . A hydrogen-production rate of 0.17 mL hr(-1) and a STH conversion efficiency of 0.24 % was observed in a full cell configuration for >20 h with minimal product crossover in the fully operational, intrinsically safe, solar-driven water-splitting system. The solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, ηSTH , calculated using the multiphysics numerical simulation was in excellent agreement with the experimental behavior of the system. The value of ηSTH was entirely limited by the performance of the photoelectrochemical assemblies employed in this study. The louvered design provides a robust platform for implementation of various types of

  5. Multiscale systems integration in the eye.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Marc D

    2009-01-01

    A series of research topics on the eye is reviewed with the aim of illustrating how integrative and systems-biological approaches can be used to understand complex properties and functions of ocular tissues. Emphasis is placed on the diversity of physiological systems represented in the eye, and the variety of approaches required to analyze those systems, both empirically and theoretically. Modeling and empirical studies reviewed focus mainly on problems that the eye presents, in the broad areas of biomechanics and fluid dynamics from the molecular to the whole-organ scale. Attention is given to the relevance of these studies in human disease and the current potential for development of medical therapies based upon a biophysical, integrative modeling approach. The creation of a multiscale hierarchy of numerical models of the eye is proposed as an important and unifying aim of integrative eye research.

  6. Integrated Building Management System (IBMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Anita Lewis

    2012-07-01

    This project provides a combination of software and services that more easily and cost-effectively help to achieve optimized building performance and energy efficiency. Featuring an open-platform, cloud- hosted application suite and an intuitive user experience, this solution simplifies a traditionally very complex process by collecting data from disparate building systems and creating a single, integrated view of building and system performance. The Fault Detection and Diagnostics algorithms developed within the IBMS have been designed and tested as an integrated component of the control algorithms running the equipment being monitored. The algorithms identify the normal control behaviors of the equipment without interfering with the equipment control sequences. The algorithms also work without interfering with any cooperative control sequences operating between different pieces of equipment or building systems. In this manner the FDD algorithms create an integrated building management system.

  7. Integrated high power VCSEL systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moench, Holger; Conrads, Ralf; Gronenborn, Stephan; Gu, Xi; Miller, Michael; Pekarski, Pavel; Pollmann-Retsch, Jens; Pruijmboom, Armand; Weichmann, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    High power VCSEL systems are a novel laser source used for thermal treatment in industrial manufacturing. These systems will be applied in many applications, which have not used a laser source before. This is enabled by the unique combination of efficiency, compactness and robustness. High power VCSEL system technology encompasses elements far beyond the VCSEL chip itself: i.e. heat sinks, bonding technology and integrated optics. This paper discusses the optimization of these components and processes specifically for building high-power laser systems with VCSEL arrays. New approaches help to eliminate components and process steps and make the system more robust and easier to manufacture. New cooler concepts with integrated electrical and mechanical interfaces have been investigated and offer advantages for high power system design. The bonding process of chips on sub-mounts and coolers has been studied extensively and for a variety of solder materials. High quality of the interfaces as well as good reliability under normal operation and thermal cycling have been realized. A viable alternative to soldering is silver sintering. The very positive results which have been achieved with a variety of technologies indicate the robustness of the VCSEL chips and their suitability for high power systems. Beam shaping micro-optics can be integrated on the VCSEL chip in a wafer scale process by replication of lenses in a polymer layer. The performance of VCSEL arrays with integrated collimation lenses has been positively evaluated and the integrated chips are fully compatible with all further assembly steps. The integrated high power systems make the application even easier and more robust. New examples in laser material processing and pumping of solid state lasers are presented.

  8. Further development and implementation of the DIWA distributed hydrological model-based integrated hydroinformatics system in the Danube River Basin for supporting decision making in water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, J. A.; Réti, G. Z.; Tóth, T.

    2012-04-01

    Today, the most significant mission of the decision makers on integrated water management issues is to carry out sustainable management for sharing the resources between a variety of users and the environment under conditions of considerable uncertainty (such as climate/land use/population/etc. change) conditions. In light of this increasing water management complexity, we consider that the most pressing needs is to develop and implement up-to-date Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS) for aiding decision-making processes to improve water management. One of the most important parts of such an SDSS is a distributed hydrologic model-based integrated hydroinformatics system to analyze the different scenarios. The less successful statistical and/or empirical model-experiments of earlier decades have highlighted the importance of paradigm shift in hydrological modelling approach towards the physically based distributed models, to better describe the complex hydrological processes even on catchments of more ten thousands of square km. Answers to questions like what are the effects of human actions in the catchment area (e. g. forestation or deforestation) or the changing of climate/land use on the flood, drought, or water scarcity, or what is the optimal strategy for planning and/or operating reservoirs, have become increasingly important. Nowadays the answers to this kind of questions can be provided more easily than before. The progress of applied mathematical methods, the advanced state of computer technology as well as the development of remote sensing and meteorological radar technology have accelerated the research capable of answering these questions using well-designed integrated hydroinformatics systems. With most emphasis on the recent years of extensive scientific and computational development HYDROInform UnLtd developed a distributed hydrological model-based integrated hydroinformatics system for supporting the various decisions in water management. Our

  9. Integrating the revenue cycle for improved health system performance.

    PubMed

    Colton, Ben; Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three integrated revenue cycle models reflect the various levels of integration a health system'might find desirable or feasible based on its current circumstances and environment: Model A: A single health system executive provides oversight, but physician and hospital revenue cycles are managed separately. Model B: A single health system leader provides oversight, with a functional framework for management at the director level. Model C: Integration is complete for all processes.

  10. Integrating the revenue cycle for improved health system performance.

    PubMed

    Colton, Ben; Davis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Three integrated revenue cycle models reflect the various levels of integration a health system'might find desirable or feasible based on its current circumstances and environment: Model A: A single health system executive provides oversight, but physician and hospital revenue cycles are managed separately. Model B: A single health system leader provides oversight, with a functional framework for management at the director level. Model C: Integration is complete for all processes. PMID:26665989

  11. Integration mechanisms and hospital efficiency in integrated health care delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Thomas T H; Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Ma, Allen

    2002-04-01

    This study analyzes integration mechanisms that affect system performances measured by indicators of efficiency in integrated delivery systems (IDSs) in the United States. The research question is, do integration mechanisms improve IDSs' efficiency in hospital care? American Hospital Association's Annual Survey (1998) and Dorenfest's Survey on Information Systems in Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems (1998) were used to conduct the study, using IDS as the unit of analysis. A covariance structure equation model of the effects of system integration mechanisms on IDS performance was formulated and validated by an empirical examination of IDSs. The study sample includes 973 hospital-based integrated health care delivery systems operating in the United States, carried in the list of Dorenfests Survey on Information Systems in Integrated Health care Delivery Systems. The measurement indicators of system integration mechanisms are categorized into six related domains: informatic integration, case management, hybrid physician-hospital integration, forward integration, backward integration, and high tech medical services. The multivariate analysis reveals that integration mechanisms in system operation are positively correlated and positively affect IDSs' efficiency. The six domains of integration mechanisms account for 58.9% of the total variance in hospital performance. The service differentiation strategy such as having more high tech medical services have much stronger influences on efficiency than other integration mechanisms do. The beneficial effects of integration mechanisms have been realized in IDS performance. High efficiency in hospital care can be achieved by employing proper integration strategies in operations.

  12. Integrators for Nonholonomic Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLachlan, R.; Perlmutter, M.

    2006-08-01

    We study a discrete analog of the Lagrange-d'Alembert principle of nonhonolomic mechanics and give conditions for it to define a map and to be reversible. In specific cases it can generate linearly implicit, semi-implicit, or implicit numerical integrators for nonholonomic systems which, in several examples, exhibit superior preservation of the dynamics. We also study discrete nonholonomic systems on Lie groups and their reduction theory, and explore the properties of the exact discrete flow of a nonholonomic system.

  13. The Integrated Medical Model - Optimizing In-flight Space Medical Systems to Reduce Crew Health Risk and Mission Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Minard, Charles; Saile, Lynn; Myers, Jerry; Butler, Doug; Lyengar, Sriram; Fitts, Mary; Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a decision support tool used by medical system planners and designers as they prepare for exploration planning activities of the Constellation program (CxP). IMM provides an evidence-based approach to help optimize the allocation of in-flight medical resources for a specified level of risk within spacecraft operational constraints. Eighty medical conditions and associated resources are represented in IMM. Nine conditions are due to Space Adaptation Syndrome. The IMM helps answer fundamental medical mission planning questions such as What medical conditions can be expected? What type and quantity of medical resources are most likely to be used?", and "What is the probability of crew death or evacuation due to medical events?" For a specified mission and crew profile, the IMM effectively characterizes the sequence of events that could potentially occur should a medical condition happen. The mathematical relationships among mission and crew attributes, medical conditions and incidence data, in-flight medical resources, potential clinical and crew health end states are established to generate end state probabilities. A Monte Carlo computational method is used to determine the probable outcomes and requires up to 25,000 mission trials to reach convergence. For each mission trial, the pharmaceuticals and supplies required to diagnose and treat prevalent medical conditions are tracked and decremented. The uncertainty of patient response to treatment is bounded via a best-case, worst-case, untreated case algorithm. A Crew Health Index (CHI) metric, developed to account for functional impairment due to a medical condition, provides a quantified measure of risk and enables risk comparisons across mission scenarios. The use of historical in-flight medical data, terrestrial surrogate data as appropriate, and space medicine subject matter expertise has enabled the development of a probabilistic, stochastic decision support tool capable of

  14. Exiting prostitution: an integrated model.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lynda M; Dalla, Rochelle L; Williamson, Celia

    2010-05-01

    Exiting street-level prostitution is a complex, convoluted process. Few studies have described this process within any formal conceptual framework. This article reviews two general models and two prostitution-specific models and their applicability to the exiting process. Barriers encountered as women attempt to leave the streets are identified. Based on the four models, the barriers, the prostitution literature, and the authors' experience with prostituted women, a new integrated six-stage model that is comprehensive in scope and sensitive to women's attempts to exit prostitution is offered as a foundation for continued research on the process of women leaving the streets.

  15. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Quarterly progress report, [July 1, 1988--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-10-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled ``Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` This report summarizes accomplishments during the period July 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused primarily on the completion, testing and documentation of the NO{sub x}SO process model. The sections below present the details of these developments.

  16. Improved integrated sniper location system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figler, Burton D.; Spera, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    In July of 1995, Lockheed Martin IR Imaging Systems, of Lexington, Massachusetts began the development of an integrated sniper location system for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and for the Department of the Navy's Naval Command Control & Ocean Surveillance Center, RDTE Division in San Diego, California. The I-SLS integrates acoustic and uncooled infrared sensing technologies to provide an affordable and highly effective sniper detection and location capability. This system, its performance and results from field tests at Camp Pendleton, California, in October 1996 were described in a paper presented at the November 1996 SPIE Photonics East Symposium1 on Enabling Technologies for Law Enforcement and Security. The I-SLS combines an acoustic warning system with an uncooled infrared warning system. The acoustic warning system has been developed by SenTech, Inc., of Lexington, Massachusetts. This acoustic warning system provides sniper detection and coarse location information based upon the muzzle blast of the sniper's weapon and/or upon the shock wave produced by the sniper's bullet, if the bullet is supersonic. The uncooled infrared warning system provides sniper detection and fine location information based upon the weapon's muzzle flash. In addition, the uncooled infrared warning system can provide thermal imagery that can be used to accurately locate and identify the sniper. Combining these two technologies improves detection probability, reduces false alarm rate and increases utility. In the two years since the last report of the integrated sniper location system, improvements have been made and a second field demonstration was planned. In this paper, we describe the integrated sniper location system modifications in preparation for the new field demonstration. In addition, fundamental improvements in the uncooled infrared sensor technology continue to be made. These improvements include higher sensitivity (lower minimum resolvable temperature

  17. Intelligent systems technology infrastructure for integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, Henry, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred during the last decade in intelligent systems technologies (a.k.a. knowledge-based systems, KBS) including research, feasibility demonstrations, and technology implementations in operational environments. Evaluation and simulation data obtained to date in real-time operational environments suggest that cost-effective utilization of intelligent systems technologies can be realized for Automated Rendezvous and Capture applications. The successful implementation of these technologies involve a complex system infrastructure integrating the requirements of transportation, vehicle checkout and health management, and communication systems without compromise to systems reliability and performance. The resources that must be invoked to accomplish these tasks include remote ground operations and control, built-in system fault management and control, and intelligent robotics. To ensure long-term evolution and integration of new validated technologies over the lifetime of the vehicle, system interfaces must also be addressed and integrated into the overall system interface requirements. An approach for defining and evaluating the system infrastructures including the testbed currently being used to support the on-going evaluations for the evolutionary Space Station Freedom Data Management System is presented and discussed. Intelligent system technologies discussed include artificial intelligence (real-time replanning and scheduling), high performance computational elements (parallel processors, photonic processors, and neural networks), real-time fault management and control, and system software development tools for rapid prototyping capabilities.

  18. Data and Model Integration Promoting Interdisciplinarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, T.

    2014-12-01

    It is very difficult to reflect accumulated subsystem knowledge into holistic knowledge. Knowledge about a whole system can rarely be introduced into a targeted subsystem. In many cases, knowledge in one discipline is inapplicable to other disciplines. We are far from resolving cross-disciplinary issues. It is critically important to establish interdisciplinarity so that scientific knowledge can transcend disciplines. We need to share information and develop knowledge interlinkages by building models and exchanging tools. We need to tackle a large increase in the volume and diversity of data from observing the Earth. The volume of data stored has exponentially increased. Previously, almost all of the large-volume data came from satellites, but model outputs occupy the largest volume in general. To address the large diversity of data, we should develop an ontology system for technical and geographical terms in coupling with a metadata design according to international standards. In collaboration between Earth environment scientists and IT group, we should accelerate data archiving by including data loading, quality checking and metadata registration, and enrich data-searching capability. DIAS also enables us to perform integrated research and realize interdisciplinarity. For example, climate change should be addressed in collaboration between the climate models, integrated assessment models including energy, economy, agriculture, health, and the models of adaptation, vulnerability, and human settlement and infrastructure. These models identify water as central to these systems. If a water expert can develop an interrelated system including each component, the integrated crisis can be addressed by collaboration with various disciplines. To realize this purpose, we are developing a water-related data- and model-integration system called a water cycle integrator (WCI).

  19. A Crop Simulation System for Integrating Remote Sensing and Climate Information to Reduce Model Uncertainty in Crop Yield Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ines, A. M.; Honda, K.; Yui, A.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainties in crop yield assessments are caused by many factors, including an imperfect model, model parameters and modeling assumptions, as well as errors in data inputs, e.g. climate. Here, we present a crop simulation system that aims to reduce uncertainty in crop yield assessment due to model and data uncertainties. The system uses DSSAT-CSM as the core crop simulation model. The simulation strategy is two-folds: i) crop model parameter estimation and ii) simulation and prediction mode. In i) a noisy Monte Carlo genetic algorithm (NMCGA) is used to estimate crop, soil and management parameters and their uncertainties, where field and remote sensing data can be used in the process. In ii) simulations can be done in an incremental way, where climate data until the current day is used as inputs to the crop model while the climate inputs for rest of the simulation period are generated by a stochastic weather generator based on climatological or climate forecasts information. Also, in the prediction mode, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used to update crop model state variables, e.g., leaf area index (LAI) and soil moisture from remote sensing and field sensors, this can be used in tandem with the climate merging mechanism within the crop simulation system. A case study on wheat modeling in Hokkaido, Japan will be presented. Model uncertainty assessment and implications of the crop simulation system for crop assessment will be discussed.

  20. Development of a Human Motor Model for the Evaluation of an Integrated Alerting and Notification Flight Deck System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daiker, Ron; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    A human motor model was developed on the basis of performance data that was collected in a flight simulator. The motor model is under consideration as one component of a virtual pilot model for the evaluation of NextGen crew alerting and notification systems in flight decks. This model may be used in a digital Monte Carlo simulation to compare flight deck layout design alternatives. The virtual pilot model is being developed as part of a NASA project to evaluate multiple crews alerting and notification flight deck configurations. Model parameters were derived from empirical distributions of pilot data collected in a flight simulator experiment. The goal of this model is to simulate pilot motor performance in the approach-to-landing task. The unique challenges associated with modeling the complex dynamics of humans interacting with the cockpit environment are discussed, along with the current state and future direction of the model.

  1. Integrating Systems Thinking Into Nursing Education.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janet M; Stalter, Ann M

    2016-09-01

    A critical need exists for nursing leadership in current complex health care settings. Systems thinking can be incorporated into nursing education at all levels by using evidence-based principles in education. Teaching tips are provided using a systems awareness model to guide nurse educators in the assessment and integration of systems thinking and engaging learners in interprofessional education and practice. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2016;47(9):395-397. PMID:27580505

  2. Two integrable systems with integrals of motion of degree four

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiganov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the possibility of using second-order Killing tensors to construct Liouville-integrable Hamiltonian systems that are not Nijenhuis integrable. As an example, we consider two Killing tensors with a nonzero Haantjes torsion that satisfy weaker geometric conditions and also three-dimensional systems corresponding to them that are integrable in Euclidean space and have two quadratic integrals of motion and one fourth-order integral in momenta.

  3. Rethinking School Bullying: Towards an Integrated Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Roz; Smith, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    What would make anti-bullying initiatives more successful? This book offers a new approach to the problem of school bullying. The question of what constitutes a useful theory of bullying is considered and suggestions are made as to how priorities for future research might be identified. The integrated, systemic model of school bullying introduced…

  4. Integrated Meteorology and Chemistry Modeling: Evaluation and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade several online integrated atmospheric chemical-transport and meteorology modeling systems with varying levels of interactions among different atmospheric processes have been developed. A variety of approaches to meteorology-chemistry integration with differe...

  5. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  6. Integrated model of the shallow and deep hydrothermal systems in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Riney, T.D.; Pritchett, J.W.; Rice, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, thermal, petrophysical and hydrological data available for the East Mesa hydrothermal system that are pertinent to the construction of a computer model of the natural flow of heat and fluid mass within the system are assembled and correlated. A conceptual model of the full system is developed and a subregion selected for quantitative modeling. By invoking the Boussinesq approximation, valid for describing the natural flow of heat and mass in a liquid hydrothermal system, it is found practical to carry computer simulations far enough in time to ensure that steady-state conditions are obtained. Initial calculations for an axisymmetric model approximating the system demonstrate that the vertical formation permeability of the deep East Mesa system must be very low (k/sub v/ approx. 0.25 to 0.5 md). Since subsurface temperature and surface heat flow data exhibit major deviations from the axisymmetric approximation, exploratory three-dimensional calculations are performed to assess the effects of various mechanisms which might operate to produce such observed asymmetries. A three-dimensional model evolves from this iterative data synthesis and computer analysis which includes a hot fluid convective source distributed along a leaky fault radiating northward from the center of the hot spot and realistic variations in the reservoir formation properties.

  7. Integrated model of the shallow and deep hydrothermal systems in the East Mesa area, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riney, T. David; Pritchett, J.W.; Rice, L.F.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geophysical, thermal, petrophysical and hydrological data available for the East Mesa hydrothermal system that are pertinent to the construction of a computer model of the natural flow of heat and fluid mass within the system are assembled and correlated. A conceptual model of the full system is developed and a subregion selected for quantitative modeling. By invoking the .Boussinesq approximation, valid for describing the natural flow of heat and mass in a liquid hydrothermal system, it is found practical to carry computer simulations far enough in time to ensure that steady-state conditions are obtained. Initial calculations for an axisymmetric model approximating the system demonstrate that the vertical formation permeability of the deep East Mesa system must be very low (kv ~ 0.25 to 0.5 md). Since subsurface temperature and surface heat flow data exhibit major deviations from the axisymmetric approximation, exploratory three-dimensional calculations are performed to assess the effects of various mechanisms which might operate to produce such observed asymmetries. A three-dimensional model evolves from this iterative data synthesis and computer analysis which includes a hot fluid convective source distributed along a leaky fault radiating northward from the center of the hot spot and realistic variations in the reservoir formation properties.

  8. Integrating Kinetic Model of E. coli with Genome Scale Metabolic Fluxes Overcomes Its Open System Problem and Reveals Bistability in Central Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mannan, Ahmad A.; Toya, Yoshihiro; Shimizu, Kazuyuki; McFadden, Johnjoe; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Rocco, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the dynamics of the metabolic profile of a bacterial cell is sought from a dynamical systems analysis of kinetic models. This modelling formalism relies on a deterministic mathematical description of enzyme kinetics and their metabolite regulation. However, it is severely impeded by the lack of available kinetic information, limiting the size of the system that can be modelled. Furthermore, the subsystem of the metabolic network whose dynamics can be modelled is faced with three problems: how to parameterize the model with mostly incomplete steady state data, how to close what is now an inherently open system, and how to account for the impact on growth. In this study we address these challenges of kinetic modelling by capitalizing on multi-‘omics’ steady state data and a genome-scale metabolic network model. We use these to generate parameters that integrate knowledge embedded in the genome-scale metabolic network model, into the most comprehensive kinetic model of the central carbon metabolism of E. coli realized to date. As an application, we performed a dynamical systems analysis of the resulting enriched model. This revealed bistability of the central carbon metabolism and thus its potential to express two distinct metabolic states. Furthermore, since our model-informing technique ensures both stable states are constrained by the same thermodynamically feasible steady state growth rate, the ensuing bistability represents a temporal coexistence of the two states, and by extension, reveals the emergence of a phenotypically heterogeneous population. PMID:26469081

  9. Development of the integrated environmental control model: Performance models of selective catalytic reduction NO{sub x} control systems. Quarterly progress report, [April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.

    1993-07-01

    This report concerns the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) created and enhanced by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) for the US Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The IECM provides a capability to model various conventional and advanced processes for controlling air pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants before, during, or after combustion. The principal purpose of the model is to calculate the performance, emissions, and cost of power plant configurations employing alternative environmental control methods. The model consists of various control technology modules, which may be integrated into a complete utility plant in any desired combination. In contrast to conventional deterministic models, the IECM offers the unique capability to assign probabilistic values to all model input parameters, and to obtain probabilistic outputs in the form of cumulative distribution functions indicating the likelihood of different costs and performance results.

  10. Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. -F.; Hurley, Francis X.; Huang, Jie; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1996-01-01

    %T Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design%A C-F. Lin%A Francis X. Hurley%A Jie Huang%A F. Y. Hadaegh%J International Conference on Control and Information(psi)995%C Hong Kong%D June 1995%K aeropropulsion, control, system%U http://jpltrs.jpl.nasa.gov/1995/95-0658.pdfAn integrated intelligent control approach is proposed to design a high performance control system for aeropropulsion systems based on advanced sensor processing, nonlinear control and neural fuzzy control integration. Our approach features the following innovations:??e complexity and uncertainty issues are addressed via the distributed parallel processing, learning, and online reoptimization properties of neural networks.??e nonlinear dynamics and the severe coupling can be naturally incorporated into the design framework.??e knowledge base and decision making logic furnished by fuzzy systems leads to a human intelligence enhanced control scheme.In addition, fault tolerance, health monitoring and reconfigurable control strategies will be accommodated by this approach to ensure stability, graceful degradation and reoptimization in the case of failures, malfunctions and damage.!.

  11. Design of a component-based integrated environmental modeling framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    Integrated environmental modeling (IEM) includes interdependent science-based components (e.g., models, databases, viewers, assessment protocols) that comprise an appropriate software modeling system. The science-based components are responsible for consuming and producing inform...

  12. An integrated SARA reporting system

    SciTech Connect

    Siebenberger, K.; Takacs, J.; Olsson, P.

    1999-07-01

    Mallinckrodt Inc. has recently implemented a custom designed environmental data management system to meet SARA reporting requirements at the St. Louis facility. The SARA system is a Visual Basic/Access-based Windows system using Crystal Reports as the report generator. The SARA system is directly integrated with the facility's production, accounting, and MSDS systems to receive SARA related information. What makes this SARA system unique is the ability to collect and process, on a daily basis, facility production and storage information from the facility's AS400 mainframe. This inventory information is saved for each product and gives daily resolution on the amount and location of SARA chemicals on-site. The Windows interface allows the users to search and browse through the daily inventories providing information on product amount, MSDS information, location and storage information. The SARA reporting system has significantly improved the SARA reporting capabilities at the Mallinckrodt St. Louis facility. The integration with facility production and accounting systems and corporate MSDS information has greatly shortened the time required to compile the SARA data and allows Mallinckrodt the additional time to assure the quality of the information.

  13. Microfabricated integrated DNA analysis systems

    SciTech Connect

    Woolley, A.T.; Mathies, R.A.; Northrup, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Microfabrication has the potential to revolutionize chemical analysis, from reactions to separations to molecular biotechnology. Microfabricated devices allow high speed separations, automated sample handling, and the study of reactions in the pl to {mu}l volume range. Our research has focused on microfabricated integrated DNA analysis systems (MIDAS). As a first step, we have demonstrated high-speed DNA restriction fragment sizing, and DNA sequencing on microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. We have recently coupled microfabricated PCR reactors and CE chips to make integrated DNA analysis devices. With these devices, rapid PCR can be performed and the reaction products immediately analyzed on the CE chip, eliminating the need for manual transfer of the amplified sample. PCR amplifications have been done in less than 16 minutes, followed by CE analysis in under 100 seconds. These PCR-CE chips represent an important step towards completely integrated sample manipulation on microfabricated devices.

  14. Fiber optic control system integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.; Russell, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    A total fiber optic, integrated propulsion/flight control system concept for advanced fighter aircraft is presented. Fiber optic technology pertaining to this system is identified and evaluated for application readiness. A fiber optic sensor vendor survey was completed, and the results are reported. The advantages of centralized/direct architecture are reviewed, and the concept of the protocol branch is explained. Preliminary protocol branch selections are made based on the F-18/F404 application. Concepts for new optical tools are described. Development plans for the optical technology and the described system are included.

  15. Streamlining the discovery, evaluation, and integration of data, models, and decision support systems: a big picture view (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laniak, G.

    2013-12-01

    21st century environmental problems are wicked and require holistic systems thinking and solutions that integrate social and economic knowledge with knowledge of the environment. Computer-based technologies are fundamental to our ability to research and understand the relevant systems and to provide assessors and decision makers with appropriate data, tools, and strategies. There are significant science and technology challenges being confronted in an effort to streamline the movement of knowledge from its research and experience-based sources to its decision endpoints. In this presentation we explore this continuum and attempt to articulate a holistic and coherent picture of the relationship among the myriad elements of the environmental problem solving landscape. This is done in the hope that this view will enhance the ability of all environmental stakeholders to express their individual contributions in a technological form that will be accessible and usable to the greater community.

  16. An integrated production and inventory model for a system comprising an assembly supply chain and a distribution network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wen-Tsung; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the production and inventory problem for a system comprising an assembly supply chain and a distribution network. A uniform lot size is produced uninterruptedly with a single setup at each production stage. Equal-sized batch shipment policy is applied to the whole system and the number of batches can be varied. All retailers have agreed on a joint replenishment policy with a common replenishment cycle. The objective is to determine the optimal common replenishment cycle, the number of batches of each production stage and retailer, all of which minimises the integrated total cost. Moreover, a new concept is introduced; namely, critical replenishment cycle. The replenishment cycle division (RCD) and recursive tightening (RT) methods are then developed to obtain the optimal solutions to the subject problem. Two theorems are verified to ensure the solutions obtained by the RCD and RT methods reaching the global optimum. An example is presented to illustrate the procedures involved in the RCD and RT methods.

  17. Integration of a vision-based tracking platform, visual instruction, and error analysis models for an efficient billiard training system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chihhsiong; Hsiung, Pao-Ann; Wan, Chieh-Hao; Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Liu, Tang-Kun; Yang, Yuanfan; Lin, Chu-Hsing; Chu, William Cheng-Chung

    2009-02-01

    A billiard ball tracking system is designed to combine with a visual guide interface to instruct users for a reliable strike. The integrated system runs on a PC platform. The system makes use of a vision system for cue ball, object ball and cue stick tracking. A least-squares error calibration process correlates the real-world and the virtual-world pool ball coordinates for a precise guidance line calculation. Users are able to adjust the cue stick on the pool table according to a visual guidance line instruction displayed on a PC monitor. The ideal visual guidance line extended from the cue ball is calculated based on a collision motion analysis. In addition to calculating the ideal visual guide, the factors influencing selection of the best shot among different object balls and pockets are explored. It is found that a tolerance angle around the ideal line for the object ball to roll into a pocket determines the difficulty of a strike. This angle depends in turn on the distance from the pocket to the object, the distance from the object to the cue ball, and the angle between these two vectors. Simulation results for tolerance angles as a function of these quantities are given. A selected object ball was tested extensively with respect to various geometrical parameters with and without using our integrated system. Players with different proficiency levels were selected for the experiment. The results indicate that all players benefit from our proposed visual guidance system in enhancing their skills, while low-skill players show the maximum enhancement in skill with the help of our system. All exhibit enhanced maximum and average hit-in rates. Experimental results on hit-in rates have shown a pattern consistent with that of the analysis. The hit-in rate is thus tightly connected with the analyzed tolerance angles for sinking object balls into a target pocket. These results prove the efficiency of our system, and the analysis results can be used to attain an

  18. Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, H.; Abeles, F.

    1978-01-01

    The Firefighters Integrated Response Equipment System (Project FIRES) is a joint National Fire Prevention and Control Administration (NFPCA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program for the development of an 'ultimate' firefighter's protective ensemble. The overall aim of Project FIRES is to improve firefighter protection against hazards, such as heat, flame, smoke, toxic fumes, moisture, impact penetration, and electricity and, at the same time, improve firefighter performance by increasing maneuverability, lowering weight, and improving human engineering design of his protective ensemble.

  19. Search of novel model for integrative medicine.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Bhushan; Mutalik, Gururaj

    2014-03-01

    This article provides global and Indian scenario with strengths and limitations of present health care system. Affordability, accessibility and availability of health care coupled with disproportionate growth and double burden of diseases have become major concerns in India. This article emphasizes need for mindset change from illness-disease-drug centric curative to person-health-wellness centric preventive and promotive approaches. It highlights innovation deficit faced pharmaceutical industry and drugs being withdrawn from market for safety reasons. Medical pluralism is a growing trend and people are exploring various options including modern, traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. In such a situation, knowledge from Ayurveda, yoga, Chinese medicine and acupuncture may play an important role. We can evolve a suitable model by integrating modern and traditional systems of medicine for affordable health care. In the larger interest of global community, Indian and Chinese systems should share knowledge and experiences for mutual intellectual enrichments and work together to evolve a novel model of integrative medicine.

  20. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J.; Quapp, W.J.; Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W.; Swartz, G.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. Advanced integrated enhanced vision systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, J. R.; Luk, Chiu H.; Hammerstrom, Dan; Pavel, Misha

    2003-09-01

    In anticipation of its ultimate role in transport, business and rotary wing aircraft, we clarify the role of Enhanced Vision Systems (EVS): how the output data will be utilized, appropriate architecture for total avionics integration, pilot and control interfaces, and operational utilization. Ground-map (database) correlation is critical, and we suggest that "synthetic vision" is simply a subset of the monitor/guidance interface issue. The core of integrated EVS is its sensor processor. In order to approximate optimal, Bayesian multi-sensor fusion and ground correlation functionality in real time, we are developing a neural net approach utilizing human visual pathway and self-organizing, associative-engine processing. In addition to EVS/SVS imagery, outputs will include sensor-based navigation and attitude signals as well as hazard detection. A system architecture is described, encompassing an all-weather sensor suite; advanced processing technology; intertial, GPS and other avionics inputs; and pilot and machine interfaces. Issues of total-system accuracy and integrity are addressed, as well as flight operational aspects relating to both civil certification and military applications in IMC.

  2. Development of an in-situ wireless strain monitoring system and its integration with FEA SHM simulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikbin, K.; Abdi, F.

    2012-06-01

    The paper proposes the development and verification of a hardware and software tool that will be able to evaluate and optimize sensorized aerospace structures is proposed. The tool will be extension of an existing suite of structural health monitoring (SHM) and diagnostic prognostic system (DPS). The goal of the extended SHM-DPS is to apply multi-scale nonlinear physics-based finite element analyses to the "as-is" structural configuration to determine residual strength, remaining service life, and future inspection intervals and procedures. Information from a distributed system of sensors will be used to determine the "as-is' state of the structure versus the "as-designed" target. The proposed approach will enable active monitoring of aerospace structural component performance and realization of DPS-based maintenance. Software enhancements will incorporate information from a sensor system that is distributed over an aerospace structural component. In the case of the proposed project, the component will be a stiffened composite fuselage panel. Two stiffened panels is instrumented with wireless sensors; the second with an optimized sensor network. It is shown that the sensor system output will be routed and integrated into a nonlinear multi-scale physics-based finite element analysis (FEA) tool to determine the panel's residual strength, remaining service life, and future inspection interval. The FEA will utilize the GENOA progressive failure analysis software suite, which is applicable to metallic and advanced composites.

  3. Recent Updates to the Arnold Mirror Modeler and Integration into the Evolving NASA Overall Design System for Large Space-Based Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Since last year, a number of expanded capabilities have been added to the modeler. The support the integration with thermal modeling, the program can now produce simplified thermal models with the same geometric parameters as the more detailed dynamic and even more refined stress models. The local mesh refinement and mesh improvement tools have been expanded and more user friendly. The goal is to provide a means of evaluating both monolithic and segmented mirrors to the same level of fidelity and loading conditions at reasonable man-power efforts. The paper will demonstrate most of these new capabilities.

  4. Recent Updates to the Arnold Mirror Modeler and Integration into the Evolving NASA Overall Design System for Large Space Based Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William R., Sr.

    2015-01-01

    Since last year, a number of expanded capabilities have been added to the modeler. The support the integration with thermal modeling, the program can now produce simplified thermal models with the same geometric parameters as the more detailed dynamic and even more refined stress models. The local mesh refinement and mesh improvement tools have been expanded and more user friendly. The goal is to provide a means of evaluating both monolithic and segmented mirrors to the same level of fidelity and loading conditions at reasonable man-power efforts. The paper will demonstrate most of these new capabilities.

  5. Generalized Gibbs ensemble in integrable lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Lev; Rigol, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    The generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) was introduced ten years ago to describe observables in isolated integrable quantum systems after equilibration. Since then, the GGE has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool to predict the outcome of the relaxation dynamics of few-body observables in a variety of integrable models, a process we call generalized thermalization. This review discusses several fundamental aspects of the GGE and generalized thermalization in integrable systems. In particular, we focus on questions such as: which observables equilibrate to the GGE predictions and who should play the role of the bath; what conserved quantities can be used to construct the GGE; what are the differences between generalized thermalization in noninteracting systems and in interacting systems mappable to noninteracting ones; why is it that the GGE works when traditional ensembles of statistical mechanics fail. Despite a lot of interest in these questions in recent years, no definite answers have been given. We review results for the XX model and for the transverse field Ising model. For the latter model, we also report original results and show that the GGE describes spin-spin correlations over the entire system. This makes apparent that there is no need to trace out a part of the system in real space for equilibration to occur and for the GGE to apply. In the past, a spectral decomposition of the weights of various statistical ensembles revealed that generalized eigenstate thermalization occurs in the XX model (hard-core bosons). Namely, eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with similar distributions of conserved quantities have similar expectation values of few-spin observables. Here we show that generalized eigenstate thermalization also occurs in the transverse field Ising model.

  6. Generalized Gibbs ensemble in integrable lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmar, Lev; Rigol, Marcos

    2016-06-01

    The generalized Gibbs ensemble (GGE) was introduced ten years ago to describe observables in isolated integrable quantum systems after equilibration. Since then, the GGE has been demonstrated to be a powerful tool to predict the outcome of the relaxation dynamics of few-body observables in a variety of integrable models, a process we call generalized thermalization. This review discusses several fundamental aspects of the GGE and generalized thermalization in integrable systems. In particular, we focus on questions such as: which observables equilibrate to the GGE predictions and who should play the role of the bath; what conserved quantities can be used to construct the GGE; what are the differences between generalized thermalization in noninteracting systems and in interacting systems mappable to noninteracting ones; why is it that the GGE works when traditional ensembles of statistical mechanics fail. Despite a lot of interest in these questions in recent years, no definite answers have been given. We review results for the XX model and for the transverse field Ising model. For the latter model, we also report original results and show that the GGE describes spin–spin correlations over the entire system. This makes apparent that there is no need to trace out a part of the system in real space for equilibration to occur and for the GGE to apply. In the past, a spectral decomposition of the weights of various statistical ensembles revealed that generalized eigenstate thermalization occurs in the XX model (hard-core bosons). Namely, eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with similar distributions of conserved quantities have similar expectation values of few-spin observables. Here we show that generalized eigenstate thermalization also occurs in the transverse field Ising model.

  7. The Habitat Demonstration Unit System Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Tracy R.; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Tri, Terry O.; Howe, Alan S.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Surface System Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) will require a project team to integrate a variety of contributions from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) centers and potential outside collaborators and poses a challenge in integrating these disparate efforts into a cohesive architecture. To accomplish the development of the first version of the HDU, the Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM), from conception in June 2009 to rollout for operations in July 2010, the HDU project team is using several strategies to mitigate risks and bring the separate efforts together. First, a set of design standards is being developed to define the interfaces between the various systems of PEM and to the payloads, such as the Geology Laboratory, that those systems will support. Scheduled activities such as early fit-checks and the utilization of a habitat avionics test bed prior to equipment installation into HDU PEM are planned to facilitate the integration process. A coordinated effort to establish simplified Computer Aided Design (CAD) standards and the utilization of a modeling and simulation systems will aid in design and integration concept development. Finally, decision processes on the shell development including the assembly sequence and the transportation have been fleshed out early on HDU design to maximize the efficiency of both integration and field operations.

  8. Noah-MP-CROP: an integrated atmosphere-crop-soil modeling system for regional agro-climatic assessments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Barlage, M. J.; Chen, F.; Niyogi, D. S.; Zhou, G.

    2014-12-01

    Cropland plays an important role in land-atmosphere interactions. Integrating advanced regional-scale crop-growth modeling capabilities into a land surface model (LSM) is not only crucial for assessing potential impacts of climate change and climate variability on crop yields, but also can help to improve the representation of crop-atmosphere interactions in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model. Therefore, the objectives of developing Noah-MP-CROP are: 1) provide high-spatial and high-temporal resolution regional agro-climatic related products; 2) enhance the simulations of cropland surface-fluxes in the WRF model for numerical weather prediction and regional climate modeling. Noah-MP is a new-generation of LSM that uses multiple parameterizations for land hydrology and energy processes. In this study, we couple species-specific crop phenology and carbon allocation schemes with Noah-MP-based complex simulations of canopy photosynthesis and soil moisture. The Noah-MP-CROP can be executed at field-scales or grid-scales of different spatial resolution and it also can be applied at multiple temporal scales. The major agriculture-related outputs include: grain mass, leaf mass, leaf area index, crop yield, growth primary production, growing degree days, soil temperature, soil moisture, and evapotranspiration. The model also allows us to conduct different assessments by using either historical, real-time, short-term forecast or future projected weather input data. In this study, we focus on evaluating the Noah-MP-CROP for the regional agro-climatic assessments in the U.S. Corn Belt. Model simulations are conducted at both field-scale (Bondville, IL and Mead, NE) and grid-scale (4km-resolution). At both field sites, model outputs of crop yield (grain mass), leaf area index and surface fluxes show strong agreement with observations. Also incorporating crop-growth models in Noah-MP improves the simulated latent heat and sensible heat fluxes during the crop

  9. Integrated Modelling - the next steps (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. V.

    2010-12-01

    Integrated modelling (IM) has made considerable advances over the past decade but it has not yet been taken up as an operational tool in the way that its proponents had hoped. The reasons why will be discussed in Session U17. This talk will propose topics for a research and development programme and suggest an institutional structure which, together, could overcome the present obstacles. Their combined aim would be first to make IM into an operational tool useable by competent public authorities and commercial companies and, in time, to see it evolve into the modelling equivalent of Google Maps, something accessible and useable by anyone with a PC or an iphone and an internet connection. In a recent study, a number of government agencies, water authorities and utilities applied integrated modelling to operational problems. While the project demonstrated that IM could be used in an operational setting and had benefit, it also highlighted the advances that would be required for its widespread uptake. These were: greatly improving the ease with which models could be a) made linkable, b) linked and c) run; developing a methodology for applying integrated modelling; developing practical options for calibrating and validating linked models; addressing the science issues that arise when models are linked; extending the range of modelling concepts that can be linked; enabling interface standards to pass uncertainty information; making the interface standards platform independent; extending the range of platforms to include those for high performance computing; developing the concept of modelling components as web services; separating simulation code from the model’s GUI, so that all the results from the linked models can be viewed through a single GUI; developing scenario management systems so that that there is an audit trail of the version of each model and dataset used in each linked model run. In addition to the above, there is a need to build a set of integrated

  10. MODELING THE DYNAMICS OF THE INTEGRATED EARTH SYSTEM AND THE VALUE OF GLOBAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES USING THE GUMBO MODEL. (R827169)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A global unified metamodel of the biosphere (GUMBO) was developed to simulate the integrated earth system and assess the dynamics and values of ecosystem services. It is a `metamodel' in that it represents a synthesis and a simplification of several existing dynamic gl...

  11. An Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Totah, Joseph J.; Kinney, David J.; Kaneshige, John T.; Agabon, Shane

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment for estimating aircraft geometric, inertial, and aerodynamic characteristics, and for interfacing with a high fidelity, workstation based flight simulation architecture. The goals in developing this environment are to aid in the design of next generation intelligent fight control technologies, conduct research in advanced vehicle interface concepts for autonomous and semi-autonomous applications, and provide a value-added capability to the conceptual design and aircraft synthesis process. Results are presented for three aircraft by comparing estimates generated by the Integrated Vehicle Modeling Environment with known characteristics of each vehicle under consideration. The three aircraft are a modified F-15 with moveable canards attached to the airframe, a mid-sized, twin-engine commercial transport concept, and a small, single-engine, uninhabited aerial vehicle. Estimated physical properties and dynamic characteristics are correlated with those known for each aircraft over a large portion of the flight envelope of interest. These results represent the completion of a critical step toward meeting the stated goals for developing this modeling environment.

  12. Modelling past and future sediment transfer in catchment-lake systems using integrated records of environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sellami, Haykel; Sangster, Heather; Riley, Mark; Chiverrell, Richard; Boyle, John

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural change has caused significant environmental impacts with the onset of modern practices and intensification over the past century. In response, many current policy and management initiatives aim to reduce soil erosion and river pollution by fine sediment. However, there is a lack of detailed, longer-term baseline information extending beyond the instrumental record against which to measure the success or otherwise of such efforts. Furthermore, future reductions in the magnitude of impacts on soil erosion achievable under a changing climate remain unclear. Here, we provide an overview of an integrated approach for reconstructing impacts from past agricultural change based on social and environmental records coupled with multi-model simulations of catchment erosion and lake sediment dating. We aim to model soil erosion and sediment transfer responses to climatic variability and land use changes spanning the last ca. 100 years using variants of the RUSLE and Morgan-Morgan-Finney models. The study focuses on six lake catchments in Britain which cover a range of agricultural environments from intensively-farmed lowlands to upland catchments subject to lower-intensity livestock grazing. Land use reconstructions are based on historic aerial photography (1940s-2000s) and satellite-derived land cover maps (1990-2007) in combination with annual parish-level agricultural census data (1890s-1970s) and farmer interviews. Radionuclide dating of lake sediments coupled with pollen analysis provides independent data on decadal sedimentation rates and vegetation cover for comparison with model outputs and land use reconstructions. This combination of social and environmental records, soil erosion modelling and dating of lake sedimentary archives forms a powerful platform from which to project impacts from future agricultural scenarios under a changing climate.

  13. Solving a mathematical model integrating unequal-area facilities layout and part scheduling in a cellular manufacturing system by a genetic algorithm.