Science.gov

Sample records for integrated pest management

  1. Integrated nursery pest management

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    What is integrated pest management? Take a look at the definition of each word to better understand the concept. Two of the words (integrated and management) are relatively straightforward. Integrated means to blend pieces or concepts into a unified whole, and management is the wise use of techniques to successfully accomplish a desired outcome. A pest is any biotic (...

  2. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  3. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  4. Adopting Integrated Pest Management in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, William E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of an effective Integrated Pest Management program is discussed. Provided are the common goals and procedures involved in adopting an Integrated Pest Management program for schools. (CW)

  5. Wildlife and integrated pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, Robert H.

    1980-09-01

    A number of options are available to those professionals interested in pest management through an integrated approach. The components of this approach are manipulation of vegetation; manipulation of population structure, dynamics, and interaction; and manipulation of the values associated with animal and plant crop production. Each component has numerous methods, which when used alone or in combination, offer a nearly infinite number of alternatives to the successful use of pesticides.

  6. Hanford site integrated pest management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Giddings, R.F.

    1996-04-09

    The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

  7. Integrated Management of Structural Pests in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    The state of Illinois is encouraging schools to better inspect and evaluate the causes of their pest infestation problems through use of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) guidelines developed by the Illinois Department of Public Health. This guide reviews the philosophy and organization of an IPM program for structural pests in schools,…

  8. Genetic engineering, integrated pest management and the evolution of pests.

    PubMed

    Gould, F

    1988-04-01

    It is well known that pest populations can evolve resistance to pesticides. The bollworm complex (Heliothis spp.), which attacks cotton plants, is a particularly good example of a highly adaptable pest. To achieve long-term success, genetic engineering projects for the production of 'insecticidal' crop plants, including cotton, need to take account of the adaptive potential of pests. Using the bollworm complex as a model, it is possible to show how an integrated approach to pest management, involving genetic engineers, evolutionary biologists and ecologists, could lead to the development of safe and effective transgenic cultivars. Copyright © 1988. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Integrated pest management - an overview and update

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Integrated pest management, better known as IPM, is a familiar term for those of us working in forest, conservation, and native plant nurseries. An almost synonymous concept is "holistic pest management" that has been the topic of chapters in recent Agriculture Handbooks that would be useful to growers of native plants (see Landis and others 2009; Landis and...

  10. Integrated Pest Management Research Symposium: The Proceedings

    Treesearch

    Susan J. Branham; Robert C. Thatcher; [Editors

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-seven papers are presented that summarize the findings from research and development work conducted as a part of the Integrated Pest Management RD&A Program for Bark Beetles of Southern Pines during the 5-year period 1980-85. Presentations cover the areas of sampling and impact assessment, bark beetle biology and ecology, host susceptibility, host/pest...

  11. Integrated Pest Management. A Curriculum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert H., Ed.; And Others

    This book consists of materials prepared for a conference aimed at developing courses of study in Integrated Pest Management appropriate for use at several levels: secondary schools, MDTA programs, community colleges and technical institutions, baccalaureate programs, and master's and doctoral level programs. The first section (Background Papers)…

  12. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-04-14

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed.

  13. Insect Pathogenic Bacteria in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Ruiu, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The scientific community working in the field of insect pathology is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bioinsecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programs. In this scientific context, market data report a significant growth of the biopesticide segment. Acquisition of new technologies by multinational Ag-tech companies is the center of the present industrial environment. This trend is in line with the requirements of new regulations on Integrated Pest Management. After a few decades of research on microbial pest management dominated by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), novel bacterial species with innovative modes of action are being discovered and developed into new products. Significant cases include the entomopathogenic nematode symbionts Photorhabdus spp. and Xenorhabdus spp., Serratia species, Yersinia entomophaga, Pseudomonas entomophila, and the recently discovered Betaproteobacteria species Burkholderia spp. and Chromobacterium spp. Lastly, Actinobacteria species like Streptomyces spp. and Saccharopolyspora spp. have gained high commercial interest for the production of a variety of metabolites acting as potent insecticides. With the aim to give a timely picture of the cutting-edge advancements in this renewed research field, different representative cases are reported and discussed. PMID:26463190

  14. Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

  15. Inspect, Detect, Correct: Structural Integrated Pest Management Strategies at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jochim, Jerry

    2003-01-01

    Describes a model integrated pest management (IPM) program for schools used in Monroe County, Indiana. Addresses how to implement an IPM program, specific school problem areas, specific pest problems and solutions, and common questions. (EV)

  16. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  17. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey.

  18. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    PubMed

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  19. Integrated pest management: theoretical insights from a threshold policy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Michel I da Silveira; Faria, Lucas Del B

    2010-01-01

    An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration.

  20. Pest Control in the School Environment: Adopting Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    As the public becomes more aware of the health and environmental risks pesticides may pose, its interest in seeking the use of equally effective alternative pest control methods increases. School administrators and other persons who have pest control decision-making responsibilities for school buildings and grounds can use this guide to become…

  1. Study on Integrated Pest Management for Libraries and Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Thomas A.

    This study addresses the problems caused by the major insect and rodent pests and molds and mildews in libraries and archives; the damage they do to collections; and techniques for their prevention and control. Guidelines are also provided for the development and initiation of an Integrated Pest Management program for facilities housing library…

  2. An Integrated Pest Management Tool for Evaluating Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Blake; Hurley, Janet; Merchant, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Having the ability to assess pest problems in schools is essential for a successful integrated pest management (IPM) program. However, such expertise can be costly and is not available to all school districts across the United States. The web-based IPM Calculator was developed to address this problem. By answering questions about the condition of…

  3. An Integrated Pest Management Tool for Evaluating Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Blake; Hurley, Janet; Merchant, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Having the ability to assess pest problems in schools is essential for a successful integrated pest management (IPM) program. However, such expertise can be costly and is not available to all school districts across the United States. The web-based IPM Calculator was developed to address this problem. By answering questions about the condition of…

  4. Integrated pest management for certified organic production in Oklahoma

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated pest management (IPM) and sustainable agriculture are basic precepts within the organic crop production philosophy. The establishment of federal guidelines for organic certification in 2002 provided a structure for producers and processors to market certified organic foods. The guidelin...

  5. Previous Webinars about Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Center of Expertise for School IPM hosts a webinar series featuring national experts from across the country relaying educational and practical strategies for establishing and improving integrated pest management programs in schools.

  6. Information for Child Care Providers about Pesticides/Integrated Pest Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about pesticides/integrated pest management, the health effects associated with exposure to pests and pesticides, and the steps that can be taken to use integrated pest management strategies in childcare facilities.

  7. Pesticide-Induced Stress in Arthropod Pests for Optimized Integrated Pest Management Programs.

    PubMed

    Guedes, R N C; Smagghe, G; Stark, J D; Desneux, N

    2016-01-01

    More than six decades after the onset of wide-scale commercial use of synthetic pesticides and more than fifty years after Rachel Carson's Silent Spring, pesticides, particularly insecticides, arguably remain the most influential pest management tool around the globe. Nevertheless, pesticide use is still a controversial issue and is at the regulatory forefront in most countries. The older generation of insecticide groups has been largely replaced by a plethora of novel molecules that exhibit improved human and environmental safety profiles. However, the use of such compounds is guided by their short-term efficacy; the indirect and subtler effects on their target species, namely arthropod pest species, have been neglected. Curiously, comprehensive risk assessments have increasingly explored effects on nontarget species, contrasting with the majority of efforts focused on the target arthropod pest species. The present review mitigates this shortcoming by hierarchically exploring within an ecotoxicology framework applied to integrated pest management the myriad effects of insecticide use on arthropod pest species.

  8. Integrated Pest Management of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Treesearch

    Robert N. Coulson; Hannu Saarenmaa

    2011-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is the maintenance of destructive agents, including insects, at tolerable levels by the planned use of a variety of preventive, suppressive, or regulatory tactics and strategies that are ecologically and economically efficient and socially and politically acceptable. It is explicit that the actions taken are fully integrated into the...

  9. Integrated Pest Management in Schools Program Brochure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Our Nation's children spend a considerable amount of their time in schools, as do teachers and school support staff. EPA is working to reduce the risk that both children and employees experience from pests and pesticides in and around schools.

  10. Demonstrating Integrated Pest Management of Hot Peppers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  11. DEMONSTRATING INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF HOT PEPPERS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the effects of organic and synthetic chemical fertilizers on crop growth, yield and associated insect pests for two varieties of hot pepper, Capsicum chinense Jacquin (Solanaceae): “Scotch Bonnet” and “Caribbean Red” in north Florida. Hot peppers were grown under three treatments: poultr...

  12. Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-09-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Integrated Pest Management: A Curriculum for Early Care and Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Childcare Health Program, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This "Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Early Care and Education Programs" presents practical information about using integrated pest management (IPM) to prevent and manage pest problems in early care and education programs. This curriculum will help people in early care and education programs learn how to keep pests out of early…

  14. Analytical models integrated with satellite images for optimized pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The global field protection (GFP) was developed to protect and optimize pest management resources integrating satellite images for precise field demarcation with physical models of controlled release devices of pesticides to protect large fields. The GFP was implemented using a graphical user interf...

  15. Technology Transfer in Integrated Forest Pest Management in the South

    Treesearch

    Gerard D. Hertel; Susan J. Branham; Kenneth M. Swain; [Editors

    1985-01-01

    A synopsis of the technology transfer activities of the Forest Service's Integrated Pest Management Research, Development and Applications Program for Bark Beetles of Southern Pines, and the Southern Region, 1980-85, with emphasis on State demonstration projects and user involvement.

  16. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  17. Pest Private Eye: Using an Interactive Role-Playing Video Game to Teach about Pests and Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Erin; Ogg, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    The trend toward encouraging adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in schools has increased in the last decade. Because IPM helps reduce risk of human pesticide exposure, reduce allergens and asthma triggers, save energy, and protect the environment, it's essential that IPM awareness continue not only with current school administrators,…

  18. Robust manipulations of pest insect behavior using repellents and practical application for integrated pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In agricultural settings, examples of effective control strategies using repellent chemicals in integrated pest management (IPM) are relatively scarce compared to those using attractants. This may be partly due to a poor understanding of how repellents affect insect behavior once they are deployed. ...

  19. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:25954144

  20. On impulsive integrated pest management models with stochastic effects.

    PubMed

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We extend existing impulsive differential equation models for integrated pest management (IPM) by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. Based on our model, we propose an approach that incorporates various competing stochastic components. This approach enables us to select a model with optimally determined weights for maximum accuracy and precision in parameter estimation. This is significant in the case of IPM because the proposed model accommodates varying unknown environmental and climatic conditions, which affect the resources needed for pest eradication.

  1. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

    2009-11-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM.

  2. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them. PMID:26463205

  3. Insect Pests and Integrated Pest Management in Museums, Libraries and Historic Buildings.

    PubMed

    Querner, Pascal

    2015-06-16

    Insect pests are responsible for substantial damage to museum objects, historic books and in buildings like palaces or historic houses. Different wood boring beetles (Anobium punctatum, Hylotrupes bajulus, Lyctus sp. or introduced species), the biscuit beetle (Stegobium paniceum), the cigarette beetle (Lasioderma serricorne), different Dermestides (Attagenus sp., Anthrenus sp., Dermestes sp., Trogoderma sp.), moths like the webbing clothes moth (Tineola bisselliella), Silverfish (Lepisma saccharina) and booklice (Psocoptera) can damage materials, objects or building parts. They are the most common pests found in collections in central Europe, but most of them are distributed all over the world. In tropical countries, termites, cockroaches and other insect pests are also found and result in even higher damage of wood and paper or are a commune annoyance in buildings. In this short review, an introduction to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in museums is given, the most valuable collections, preventive measures, monitoring in museums, staff responsible for the IPM and chemical free treatment methods are described. In the second part of the paper, the most important insect pests occurring in museums, archives, libraries and historic buildings in central Europe are discussed with a description of the materials and object types that are mostly infested and damaged. Some information on their phenology and biology are highlighted as they can be used in the IPM concept against them.

  4. Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) integrated pest management programs for fruiting vegetables in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spread of the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) resulted in the worldwide destabilization of established integrated pest management programs for many crops. Efforts to control the pest and the thrips-vectored tospoviruses with calendar applicat...

  5. SPUR: Moving San Diego, California Schools toward Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a report, slide show, and brochure to promote awareness of the hazards of toxic pest control for school pest management personnel in the San Diego Unified School District is discussed. The future plans of the coalition are proposed. (CW)

  6. Information for Participants Implementing Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Parents, school faculty and staff, school administrators, and pest management professionals all have important roles in planning and implementing school IPM. Find out about these roles and resources available to help.

  7. IPM: Integrated Pest Management Kit for Building Managers. How To Implement an Integrated Pest Management Program in Your Building(s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Brad

    This management kit introduces building managers to the concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), and provides the knowledge and tools needed to implement an IPM program in their buildings. It discusses the barriers to implementing an IPM program, why such a program should be used, and the general guidelines for its implementation. Managerial…

  8. Bug Off: A Guide for Integrated Pest Management in Granville Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This guide describes options for the Granville schools when dealing with pests. It is based on Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a philosophy that employs safe and practical pest control methods. The guide can be used to incorporate IPM philosophy into the school systems. The first section provides the environmental context for an interest in…

  9. Pest Control in the School Environment:Adopting Integrated Pest Management

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about establishing a school IPM program, including developing an official IPM policy statement, setting roles for participants and pest management objectives, inspecting sites, setting action threshold, applying IPM strategies and evaluating results.

  10. Assessing integrated pest management adoption: measurement problems and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM-for whatever reason-and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption-weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management-and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  11. Assessing Integrated Pest Management Adoption: Measurement Problems and Policy Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Molly; Darnall, Nicole; Forkner, Rebecca E.

    2011-11-01

    For more than a decade, the U.S. government has promoted integrated pest management (IPM) to advance sustainable agriculture. However, the usefulness of this practice has been questioned because of lagging implementation. There are at least two plausible rationales for the slow implementation: (1) growers are not adopting IPM—for whatever reason—and (2) current assessment methods are inadequate at assessing IPM implementation. Our research addresses the second plausibility. We suggest that the traditional approach to measuring IPM implementation on its own fails to assess the distinct, biologically hierarchical components of IPM, and instead aggregates growers' management practices into an overall adoption score. Knowledge of these distinct components and the extent to which they are implemented can inform government officials as to how they should develop targeted assistance programs to encourage broader IPM use. We address these concerns by assessing the components of IPM adoption and comparing our method to the traditional approach alone. Our results indicate that there are four distinct components of adoption—weed, insect, general, and ecosystem management—and that growers implement the first two components significantly more often than the latter two. These findings suggest that using a more nuanced measure to assess IPM adoption that expands on the traditional approach, allows for a better understanding of the degree of IPM implementation.

  12. Optimal sterile insect release for area-wide integrated pest management in a density regulated pest population.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Luis F

    2014-06-01

    To determine optimal sterile insect release policies in area-wide integrated pest management is a challenge that users of this pest control method inevitably confront. In this note we provide approximations to best policies of release through the use of simulated annealing. The discrete time model for the population dynamics includes the effects of sterile insect release and density dependence in the pest population. Spatial movement is introduced through integrodifference equations, which allow the use of the stochastic search in cases where movement is described through arbitrary dispersal kernels. As a byproduct of the computations, an assessment of appropriate control zone sizes is possible.

  13. Development and Evaluation of an Integrated Pest Management Toolkit for Child Care Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Abbey; Kalmar, Evie; Leonard, Victoria; Flint, Mary Louise; Kuo, Devina; Davidson, Nita; Bradman, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Young children and early care and education (ECE) staff are exposed to pesticides used to manage pests in ECE facilities in the United States and elsewhere. The objective of this pilot study was to encourage child care programs to reduce pesticide use and child exposures by developing and evaluating an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Toolkit for…

  14. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C B; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L A; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G; Vanek, Steven J; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-03-11

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was "insufficient training and technical support to farmers." Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated "IPM requires collective action within a farming community" as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the "shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists." Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts.

  15. Obstacles to integrated pest management adoption in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Morse, Stephen; Bonifacio, Alejandro; Chancellor, Timothy C. B.; Condori, Bruno; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Hobbs, Shaun L. A.; Kroschel, Jürgen; Ba, Malick N.; Rebaudo, François; Sherwood, Stephen G.; Vanek, Steven J.; Faye, Emile; Herrera, Mario A.; Dangles, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Despite its theoretical prominence and sound principles, integrated pest management (IPM) continues to suffer from anemic adoption rates in developing countries. To shed light on the reasons, we surveyed the opinions of a large and diverse pool of IPM professionals and practitioners from 96 countries by using structured concept mapping. The first phase of this method elicited 413 open-ended responses on perceived obstacles to IPM. Analysis of responses revealed 51 unique statements on obstacles, the most frequent of which was “insufficient training and technical support to farmers.” Cluster analyses, based on participant opinions, grouped these unique statements into six themes: research weaknesses, outreach weaknesses, IPM weaknesses, farmer weaknesses, pesticide industry interference, and weak adoption incentives. Subsequently, 163 participants rated the obstacles expressed in the 51 unique statements according to importance and remediation difficulty. Respondents from developing countries and high-income countries rated the obstacles differently. As a group, developing-country respondents rated “IPM requires collective action within a farming community” as their top obstacle to IPM adoption. Respondents from high-income countries prioritized instead the “shortage of well-qualified IPM experts and extensionists.” Differential prioritization was also evident among developing-country regions, and when obstacle statements were grouped into themes. Results highlighted the need to improve the participation of stakeholders from developing countries in the IPM adoption debate, and also to situate the debate within specific regional contexts. PMID:24567400

  16. The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Cook, Samantha M; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A

    2007-01-01

    Push-pull strategies involve the behavioral manipulation of insect pests and their natural enemies via the integration of stimuli that act to make the protected resource unattractive or unsuitable to the pests (push) while luring them toward an attractive source (pull) from where the pests are subsequently removed. The push and pull components are generally nontoxic. Therefore, the strategies are usually integrated with methods for population reduction, preferably biological control. Push-pull strategies maximize efficacy of behavior-manipulating stimuli through the additive and synergistic effects of integrating their use. By orchestrating a predictable distribution of pests, efficiency of population-reducing components can also be increased. The strategy is a useful tool for integrated pest management programs reducing pesticide input. We describe the principles of the strategy, list the potential components, and present case studies reviewing work on the development and use of push-pull strategies in each of the major areas of pest control.

  17. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  18. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protectio...

  19. Integrating augmentative biocontrol and inherited sterility for management of lepidopteran pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pest management can benefit from the integration of biological control agents and the release of sterile insect pests (hosts). Released sterile or semi-sterile insects and their sterile progeny may augment natural enemies by serving as hosts for build-up of the natural enemies prior to the t...

  20. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  1. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  2. Integrated pest management in western flower thrips: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Mouden, Sanae; Sarmiento, Kryss Facun; Klinkhamer, Peter Gl; Leiss, Kirsten A

    2017-05-01

    Western flower thrips (WFT) is one of the most economically important pest insects of many crops worldwide. Recent EU legislation has caused a dramatic shift in pest management strategies, pushing for tactics that are less reliable on chemicals. The development of alternative strategies is therefore an issue of increasing urgency. This paper reviews the main control tactics in integrated pest management (IPM) of WFT, with the focus on biological control and host plant resistance as areas of major progress. Knowledge gaps are identified and innovative approaches emphasised, highlighting the advances in 'omics' technologies. Successful programmes are most likely generated when preventive and therapeutic strategies with mutually beneficial, cost-effective and environmentally sound foundations are incorporated. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Seeds of change: corn seed mixtures for resistance management and integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Onstad, David W; Mitchell, Paul D; Hurley, Terrance M; Lundgren, Jonathan G; Porter, R Patrick; Krupke, Christian H; Spencer, Joseph L; DiFonzo, Christine D; Baute, Tracey S; Hellmich, Richard L; Buschman, Lawrent L; Hutchison, William D; Tooker, John F

    2011-04-01

    The use of mixtures of transgenic insecticidal seed and nontransgenic seed to provide an in-field refuge for susceptible insects in insect-resistance-management (IRM) plans has been considered for at least two decades. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has only recently authorized the practice. This commentary explores issues that regulators, industry, and other stakeholders should consider as the use of biotechnology increases and seed mixtures are implemented as a major tactic for IRM. We discuss how block refuges and seed mixtures in transgenic insecticidal corn, Zea mays L., production will influence integrated pest management (IPM) and the evolution of pest resistance. We conclude that seed mixtures will make pest monitoring more difficult and that seed mixtures may make IRM riskier because of larval behavior and greater adoption of insecticidal corn. Conversely, block refuges present a different suite of risks because of adult pest behavior and the lower compliance with IRM rules expected from farmers. It is likely that secondary pests not targeted by the insecticidal corn as well as natural enemies will respond differently to block refuges and seed mixtures.

  4. Assessing the integrated pest management practices of southeastern US ornamental nursery operations.

    PubMed

    LeBude, Anthony V; White, Sarah A; Fulcher, Amy F; Frank, Steve; Klingeman Iii, William E; Chong, Juang-Horng; Chappell, Matthew R; Windham, Alan; Braman, Kris; Hale, Frank; Dunwell, Winston; Williams-Woodward, Jean; Ivors, Kelly; Adkins, Craig; Neal, Joe

    2012-09-01

    The Southern Nursery Integrated Pest Management (SNIPM) working group surveyed ornamental nursery crop growers in the southeastern United States to determine their pest management practices. Respondents answered questions about monitoring practices for insects, diseases and weeds, prevention techniques, intervention decisions, concerns about IPM and educational opportunities. Survey respondents were categorized into three groups based on IPM knowledge and pest management practices adopted. The three groups differed in the use of standardized sampling plans for scouting pests, in monitoring techniques, e.g. sticky cards, phenology and growing degree days, in record-keeping, in the use of spot-spraying and in the number of samples sent to a diagnostic clinic for identification and management recommendation. Stronger emphasis is needed on deliberate scouting techniques and tools to monitor pest populations to provide earlier pest detection and greater flexibility of management options. Most respondents thought that IPM was effective and beneficial for both the environment and employees, but had concerns about the ability of natural enemies to control insect pests, and about the availability and effectiveness of alternatives to chemical controls. Research and field demonstration is needed for selecting appropriate natural enemies for augmentative biological control. Two groups utilized cooperative extension almost exclusively, which would be an avenue for educating those respondents. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Who Wants To Be an IPM Super Sleuth? Integrated Pest Management Educational Activities & Resources for Kids of All Ages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walejko, Gina K.; Colon, Joseph L.

    This guide presents games and activities on integrated pest management (IPM) for home targeting grades 1-7. The activities and games use a problem-solving approach based on pest knowledge to develop an understanding of pest management. Three cases are presented: (1) "Inspection is the Key to IPM Success" includes two…

  6. Integrated pest management is the lucrative bridge connecting the ever emerging knowledge islands of genetics and ecology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated pest management has long been considered a profit- and product (or technology)-driven multidisciplinary research field that maximizes crop yield and minimizes pest-inflicted economic losses. The introduction of transgenic crops has revolutionized crop protection and pest management by com...

  7. Integrated pest management policies in America's schools: is federal legislation needed?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrea Kidd; Esdaille, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    America's school children are at risk of developing asthma and other respiratory illnesses as a result of exposure to hazardous pesticides. Integrated pest management (IPM) policies are being implemented in states and school districts across the country; however, the content and regulation of these policies vary. The need for standardization of such policies and a federal IPM law is the only way to ensure that children in America's schools are adequately protected from exposure to hazardous pesticides used to control pests.

  8. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance.

    PubMed

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W; Stiller, Warwick N; Wilson, Lewis J

    2016-01-01

    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars.

  9. Enhancing Integrated Pest Management in GM Cotton Systems Using Host Plant Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Trapero, Carlos; Wilson, Iain W.; Stiller, Warwick N.; Wilson, Lewis J.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton has lost many ancestral defensive traits against key invertebrate pests. This is suggested by the levels of resistance to some pests found in wild cotton genotypes as well as in cultivated landraces and is a result of domestication and a long history of targeted breeding for yield and fiber quality, along with the capacity to control pests with pesticides. Genetic modification (GM) allowed integration of toxins from a bacteria into cotton to control key Lepidopteran pests. Since the mid-1990s, use of GM cotton cultivars has greatly reduced the amount of pesticides used in many cotton systems. However, pests not controlled by the GM traits have usually emerged as problems, especially the sucking bug complex. Control of this complex with pesticides often causes a reduction in beneficial invertebrate populations, allowing other secondary pests to increase rapidly and require control. Control of both sucking bug complex and secondary pests is problematic due to the cost of pesticides and/or high risk of selecting for pesticide resistance. Deployment of host plant resistance (HPR) provides an opportunity to manage these issues in GM cotton systems. Cotton cultivars resistant to the sucking bug complex and/or secondary pests would require fewer pesticide applications, reducing costs and risks to beneficial invertebrate populations and pesticide resistance. Incorporation of HPR traits into elite cotton cultivars with high yield and fiber quality offers the potential to further reduce pesticide use and increase the durability of pest management in GM cotton systems. We review the challenges that the identification and use of HPR against invertebrate pests brings to cotton breeding. We explore sources of resistance to the sucking bug complex and secondary pests, the mechanisms that control them and the approaches to incorporate these defense traits to commercial cultivars. PMID:27148323

  10. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part I. Control of lepidopteran pests

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, J. F.; Beers, E. H.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    Three neonicotinyl insecticides, acetamiprid, thiacloprid and clothianidin, were evaluated for their impact on four species of lepidopteran pests of apple in Washington, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), the Pandemis leafroller, Pandemis pyrusana Kearfott, and the obliquebanded leafroller, Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris), and Lacanobia subjuncta (Grote & Robinson). None of the neonicotinyl insecticides demonstrated sufficient activity against P. pyrusana, C. rosaceana, or L. subjuncta to warrant field trials. Conversely, all had some activity against one or more stages of C. pomonella. Acetamiprid was highly toxic to larvae in laboratory bioassays, and had relatively long activity of field-aged residues (21 days). It also showed some toxicity to C. pomonella eggs (via topical exposure) and adults. Acetamiprid provided the highest level of fruit protection from C. pomonella attack in field trials conducted over five years in experimental orchards with extremely high codling moth pressure. Thiacloprid performed similarly in bioassays, but fruit protection in field trials was slightly lower than acetamiprid. Clothianidin showed moderate to high toxicity in bioassays, depending on the C. pomonella stage tested, but poor fruit protection from attack in field trials. None of the neonicotinyl insecticides were as toxic to larvae or effective in protecting fruit as the current standard organophosphate insecticide used for C. pomonella control, azinphosmethyl. However, both acetamiprid and thiacloprid should provide acceptable levels of C. pomonella control in commercial orchards where densities are much lower than in the experimental orchards used for our trials. The advantages and disadvantages of the neonicotinyl insecticides as replacements for the organophosphate insecticides and their role in a pest management system for Washington apple orchards are discussed. Abbreviation: MFR Maximum field rate PMID:16341246

  11. Health Benefits of Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following documents describe the health case for School IPM.They describe what IPM is, and then summarize currently available research pointing to how pest control via IPM makes for a healthier school environment.

  12. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  13. Economic Thresholds in Soybean-Integrated Pest Management: Old Concepts, Current Adoption, and Adequacy.

    PubMed

    Bueno, A F; Paula-Moraes, S V; Gazzoni, D L; Pomari, A F

    2013-10-01

    Increasing global demands for food underline the need for higher crop yields. The relatively low costs of the most commonly used insecticides in combination with increasing soybean market prices led growers and technical advisors to debate the adequacy of recommended economic thresholds (ETs). The adoption of ETs and pest sampling has diminished in Brazil, leading to excessive pesticide use on soybean. The reduced efficacy of natural biological control, faster pest resurgence, and environment contamination are among the side-effects of pesticide abuse. To address these problems and maximize agricultural production, pest control programs must be guided by a proper integrated pest management (IPM) approach, including the ET concept. Therefore, the most appropriate time to initiate insecticide spraying in soybean is indicated by the available ETs which are supported by experiments over the last 40 years in different edapho-climatic conditions and regions with distinct soybean cultivars. Published scientific data indicate that preventive insecticide use is an expensive and harmful use of chemicals that increases the negative impact of pesticides in agroecosystems. However, the established ETs are for a limited number of species (key pests), and they only address the use of chemicals. There is a lack of information regarding secondary pests and other control strategies in addition to insecticides. It is clear then that much progress is still needed to improve ETs for pest management decisions. Nevertheless, using the current ETs provides a basis for reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture without reducing yields and overall production, thereby improving sustainability.

  14. Integrated Pest Management in a Predator-Prey System with Allee Effects.

    PubMed

    Costa, M I S; dos Anjos, L

    2015-08-01

    A commonly used biocontrol strategy to control invasive pests with Allee effects consists of the deliberate introduction of natural enemies. To enhance the effectiveness of this strategy, several tactics of control of invasive species (e.g., mass-trapping, manual removal of individuals, and pesticide spraying) are combined so as to impair pest outbreaks. This combination of strategies to control pest species dynamics are usually named integrated pest management (IPM). In this work, we devise a predator-prey dynamical model in order to assess the influence of the intensity of chemical killing on the success of an IPM. The biological and mathematical framework presented in this study can also be analyzed in the light of species conservation and food web dynamics theory.

  15. The Rise and Demise of Integrated Pest Management in Rice in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Thorburn, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia’s 11-year (1989–1999) National Integrated Pest Management Program was a spectacularly successful example of wide-scale adoption of integrated pest management (IPM) principles and practice in a developing country. This program introduced the innovative Farmer Field School model of agro-ecosystem-based experiential learning, subsequently adapted to different crops and agricultural systems in countries throughout the world. Since the termination of the program in 1999, Indonesia has undergone profound changes as the country enters a new era of democratic reform. Government support for the national IPM program has wavered during this period, and pesticide producers and traders have taken advantage of the policy vacuum to mount an aggressive marketing campaign in the countryside. These factors have contributed to a reappearance of the pesticide-induced resurgent pest problems that led to the establishment of the National IPM Program in the first place.

  16. 76 FR 12959 - Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick-Borne Diseases; Notice of Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... AGENCY Promoting Community Integrated Pest Management To Prevent Tick- Borne Diseases; Notice of Public... Community Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for Preventing Tick-Borne Diseases Conference on March 30 and 31... objectives of the conference are to identify knowledge gaps and barriers to effective community-wide...

  17. Integrated pest management with stochastic birth rate for prey species.

    PubMed

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Song and Xiang (2006) developed an impulsive differential equations model for a two-prey one-predator model with stage structure for the predator. They demonstrate the conditions on the impulsive period for which a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution exists, as well as conditions on the impulsive period for which the prey species is permanently maintained under an economically acceptable threshold. We extend their model by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. As in Song and Xiang (2006), we find the conditions under which a globally asymptotically stable pest eradication periodic solution exists. In addition, we numerically show the relationship between the stochastically varying birth rate of the prey and the necessary efficacy of the pesticide for which the probability of eradication of the prey species is above 90%. This is significant because the model recognizes varying environmental and climatic conditions which affect the resources needed for pest eradication.

  18. Integrated pest management with stochastic birth rate for prey species

    PubMed Central

    Akman, Olcay; Comar, Timothy D.; Hrozencik, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Song and Xiang (2006) developed an impulsive differential equations model for a two-prey one-predator model with stage structure for the predator. They demonstrate the conditions on the impulsive period for which a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution exists, as well as conditions on the impulsive period for which the prey species is permanently maintained under an economically acceptable threshold. We extend their model by including stage structure for both predator and prey as well as by adding stochastic elements in the birth rate of the prey. As in Song and Xiang (2006), we find the conditions under which a globally asymptotically stable pest eradication periodic solution exists. In addition, we numerically show the relationship between the stochastically varying birth rate of the prey and the necessary efficacy of the pesticide for which the probability of eradication of the prey species is above 90%. This is significant because the model recognizes varying environmental and climatic conditions which affect the resources needed for pest eradication. PMID:23964194

  19. Safer Schools: Achieving a Healthy Learning Environment through Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a program of prevention, monitoring, and control that offers the opportunity to eliminate or drastically reduce hazardous pesticide use. IPM is intended to establish a program that uses cultural, mechanical, biological, and other non-toxic practices, and only introduces least-hazardous chemicals as a last…

  20. The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

  1. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  2. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  3. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  4. The Adoption of Integrated Pest Management Practices among Texas Cotton Growers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, John K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes integrated pest management (IPM), a more advanced approach than chemical pesticide. Applies diffusion and farming-systems theories to create analytical model to explain IPM's adoption, use, and implications for agricultural change. Telephone surveys of Texas cotton growers on IPM practices found different sources of IPM information…

  5. Social Capital and Geography of Learning: Roles in Accelerating the Spread of Integrated Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palis, Florencia G.; Morin, Stephen; Hossain, Mahabub

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to show the relevance of spatial proximity and social capital in accelerating the spread of agricultural technologies such as integrated pest management (IPM). The research was done in response to the problem of slow diffusion of agricultural technologies. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in investigating the…

  6. Report on Tick-Borne Disease and Integrated Pest Management Conference

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) co-hosted a conference on Tick-Borne Disease Integrated Pest Management on March 5-6, 2013, in Arlington, VA. This document summarizes this meeting.

  7. Emerging issues in Integrated Pest Management implementation and adoption in the North Central USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a long tradition of integrated pest management (IPM) in the North Central region of the U.S. IPM is difficult to define, and it means different things to different people. But in general it is a philosophy based on multiple tactics to prevent a population from building up to unacceptable da...

  8. Integrated pest management and weed management in the United States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Owen, Micheal D K; Beckie, Hugh J; Leeson, Julia Y; Norsworthy, Jason K; Steckel, Larry E

    2015-03-01

    There is interest in more diverse weed management tactics because of evolved herbicide resistance in important weeds in many US and Canadian crop systems. While herbicide resistance in weeds is not new, the issue has become critical because of the adoption of simple, convenient and inexpensive crop systems based on genetically engineered glyphosate-tolerant crop cultivars. Importantly, genetic engineering has not been a factor in rice and wheat, two globally important food crops. There are many tactics that help to mitigate herbicide resistance in weeds and should be widely adopted. Evolved herbicide resistance in key weeds has influenced a limited number of growers to include a more diverse suite of tactics to supplement existing herbicidal tactics. Most growers still emphasize herbicides, often to the exclusion of alternative tactics. Application of integrated pest management for weeds is better characterized as integrated weed management, and more typically integrated herbicide management. However, adoption of diverse weed management tactics is limited. Modifying herbicide use will not solve herbicide resistance in weeds, and the relief provided by different herbicide use practices is generally short-lived at best. More diversity of tactics for weed management must be incorporated in crop systems.

  9. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S; Tatchell, G Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P

    2011-07-12

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry.

  10. The development, regulation and use of biopesticides for integrated pest management

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, David; Bailey, Alastair S.; Tatchell, G. Mark; Davidson, Gill; Greaves, Justin; Grant, Wyn P.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides, but their availability is now declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. Therefore, alternative pest management tactics are needed. Biopesticides are pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, they are regulated by systems designed originally for chemical pesticides that have created market entry barriers by imposing burdensome costs on the biopesticide industry. There are also significant technical barriers to making biopesticides more effective. In the European Union, a greater emphasis on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) as part of agricultural policy may lead to innovations in the way that biopesticides are regulated. There are also new opportunities for developing biopesticides in IPM by combining ecological science with post-genomics technologies. The new biopesticide products that will result from this research will bring with them new regulatory and economic challenges that must be addressed through joint working between social and natural scientists, policy makers and industry. PMID:21624919

  11. Recent trends of modern bacterial insecticides for pest control practice in integrated crop management system.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Banerjee, Goutam; Mukherjee, Sayantan

    2017-05-01

    Food security and safety are the major concern in ever expanding human population on the planet earth. Each and every year insect pests cause a serious damage in agricultural field that cost billions of dollars annually to farmers. The loss in term of productivity and high cost of chemical pesticides enhance the production cost. Irrespective use of chemical pesticides (such as Benzene hexachloride, Endosulfan, Aldicarb, and Fenobucarb) in agricultural field raised several types of environmental issues. Furthermore, continuous use of chemical pesticides creates a selective pressure which helps in emerging of resistance pest. These excess chemical pesticide residues also contaminate the environment including the soil and water. Therefore, the biological control of insect pest in the agricultural field gains more importance due to food safety and environment friendly nature. In this regard, bacterial insecticides offer better alternative to chemical pesticides. It not only helps to establish food security through fighting against insect pests but also ensure the food safety. In this review, we have categorized insect pests and the corresponding bacterial insecticides, and critically analyzed the importance and mode of action of bacterial pesticides. We also have summarized the use of biopesticides in integrated pest management system. We have tried to focus the future research area in this field for the upcoming scientists.

  12. Threshold conditions for integrated pest management models with pesticides that have residual effects.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Liang, Juhua; Tan, Yuanshun; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Impulsive differential equations (hybrid dynamical systems) can provide a natural description of pulse-like actions such as when a pesticide kills a pest instantly. However, pesticides may have long-term residual effects, with some remaining active against pests for several weeks, months or years. Therefore, a more realistic method for modelling chemical control in such cases is to use continuous or piecewise-continuous periodic functions which affect growth rates. How to evaluate the effects of the duration of the pesticide residual effectiveness on successful pest control is key to the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM) in practice. To address these questions in detail, we have modelled IPM including residual effects of pesticides in terms of fixed pulse-type actions. The stability threshold conditions for pest eradication are given. Moreover, effects of the killing efficiency rate and the decay rate of the pesticide on the pest and on its natural enemies, the duration of residual effectiveness, the number of pesticide applications and the number of natural enemy releases on the threshold conditions are investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications and predator releases. Latin Hypercube Sampling/Partial Rank Correlation uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques are employed to investigate the key control parameters which are most significantly related to threshold values. The findings combined with Volterra's principle confirm that when the pesticide has a strong effect on the natural enemies, repeated use of the same pesticide can result in target pest resurgence. The results also indicate that there exists an optimal number of pesticide applications which can suppress the pest most effectively, and this may help in the design of an optimal control strategy.

  13. An impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey for integrated pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ruiqing; Chen, Lansun

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, an impulsive predator-prey model with disease in the prey is investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. In the first part of the main results, we get the sufficient condition for the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the pest will be doomed. In the second part of the main results, we also get the sufficient condition for the permanence of the system. This means if the release amount of infective prey and predator satisfy the condition, then the prey and the predator will coexist. In the last section, we interpret our mathematical results. We also point out some possible future work.

  14. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) pesticide policy and integrated pest management in certified tropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Lemes, Pedro Guilherme; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo; Lawson, Simon A

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was the first non-governmental organization composed of multi-stakeholders to ensure the social, environmental, and economic sustainability of forest resources. FSC prohibits certain chemicals and active ingredients in certified forest plantations. A company seeking certification must discontinue use of products so listed and many face problems to comply with these constraints. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of certification on pest management from the perspective of Brazilian private forestry sector. Ninety-three percent of Brazilian FSC-certified forest companies rated leaf-cutting ants as "very important" pests. Chemical control was the most important management technique used and considered very important by 82 % of respondents. The main chemical used to control leaf-cutting ants, sulfluramid, is in the derogation process and was classified as very important by 96.5 % of the certified companies. Certified companies were generally satisfied in relation to FSC certification and the integrated management of forest pests, but 27.6 % agreed that the prohibitions of pesticides for leaf-cutting ant and termite control could be considered as a non-tariff barrier on high-productivity Brazilian forest plantations. FSC forest certification has encouraged the implementation of more sustainable techniques and decisions in pest management in forest plantations in Brazil. The prohibition on pesticides like sulfluramid and the use of alternatives without the same efficiency will result in pest mismanagement, production losses, and higher costs. This work has shown that the application of global rules for sustainable forest management needs to adapt to each local reality.

  15. Returns to integrated pest management research and outreach for soybean aphid.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Swinton, Scott M

    2009-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major invasive pest that has caused substantial yield loss and increased insecticide use in the United States since its discovery in 2000. Using the economic surplus approach, we estimate the economic benefits of U.S. research and outreach for integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean aphid. We calculate ex ante net benefits from adoption of an IPM economic threshold (ET). The ET triggers insecticide application only if the value of predicted yield damage from pest scouting is expected to exceed the cost of pest control. Our research finds that gradual adoption of an ET for soybean aphid management will generate a projected economic net benefit of $1.3 billion, for an internal rate of return of 124%, over the 15 yr since soybean aphid IPM research began in 2003. Lower and upper bound sensitivity analysis brackets the estimated net benefit to U.S. consumers and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., growers in the range of $0.6 to $2.6 billion in 2005 dollars. If a 10% rate of return is attributed to IPM applied research and outreach on soybean aphid, that would leave nearly $800 million to compensate prior activities that contribute to the development and adoption of IPM.

  16. History and contemporary perspectives of the integrated pest management of soybean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Panizzi, A R

    2013-04-01

    The integrated pest management (IPM) of soybean developed and implemented in Brazil was one of the most successful programs of pest management in the world. Established during the 1970s, it showed a tremendous level of adoption by growers, decreasing the amount of insecticide use by over 50%. It included outstanding approaches of field scouting and decision making, considering the economic injury levels (EILs) for the major pests. Two main biological control programs were highly important to support the soybean IPM program in Brazil, i.e., the use of a NPVAg to control the major defoliator, the velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatalis Hübner, and the use of egg parasitoids against the seed-sucking stink bugs, in particular, the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.). These two biological control programs plus pests scouting, and the use of more selective insecticides considering the EILs supported the IPM program through the 1980s and 1990s. With the change in the landscape, with the adoption of the no-tillage cultivation system and the introduction of more intense multiple cropping, and with the lower input to divulge and adapt the IPM program to this new reality, the program started to decline during the years 2000s. Nowadays, soybean IPM is almost a forgotten control technology. In this mini-review article, suggestions are made to possibly revive and adapt the soybean IPM to contemporary time.

  17. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  18. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  19. Duality in Phase Space and Complex Dynamics of an Integrated Pest Management Network Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Baoyin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    Fragmented habitat patches between which plants and animals can disperse can be modeled as networks with varying degrees of connectivity. A predator-prey model with network structures is proposed for integrated pest management (IPM) with impulsive control actions. The model was analyzed using numerical methods to investigate how factors such as the impulsive period, the releasing constant of natural enemies and the mode of connections between the patches affect pest outbreak patterns and the success or failure of pest control. The concept of the cluster as defined by Holland and Hastings is used to describe variations in results ranging from global synchrony when all patches have identical fluctuations to n-cluster solutions with all patches having different dynamics. Heterogeneity in the initial densities of either pest or natural enemy generally resulted in a variety of cluster oscillations. Surprisingly, if n > 1, the clusters fall into two groups one with low amplitude fluctuations and the other with high amplitude fluctuations (i.e. duality in phase space), implying that control actions radically alter the system's characteristics by inducing duality and more complex dynamics. When the impulsive period is small enough, i.e. the control strategy is undertaken frequently, the pest can be eradicated. As the period increases, the pest's dynamics shift from a steady state to become chaotic with periodic windows and more multicluster oscillations arise for heterogenous initial density distributions. Period-doubling bifurcation and periodic halving cascades occur as the releasing constant of the natural enemy increases. For the same ecological system with five differently connected networks, as the randomness of the connectedness increases, the transient duration becomes smaller and the probability of multicluster oscillations appearing becomes higher.

  20. The case and opportunity for public-supported financial incentives to implement integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Hoard, Robert J; Landis, Joy N; Elworth, Lawrence E

    2004-12-01

    Food, water, and worker protection regulations have driven availability, and loss, of pesticides for use in pest management programs. In response, public-supported research and extension projects have targeted investigation and demonstration of reduced-risk integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. But these new techniques often result in higher financial burden to the grower, which is counter to the IPM principle that economic competitiveness is critical to have IPM adopted. As authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill and administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), conservation programs exist for delivering public-supported financial incentives to growers to increase environmental stewardship on lands in production. NRCS conservation programs are described, and the case for providing financial incentives to growers for implementing IPM is presented. We also explored the opportunity and challenge to use one key program, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), to aid grower adoption of IPM. The EQIP fund distribution to growers from 1997 to 2002 during the last Farm Bill cycle totaled approximately 1.05 billion dollars with a portion of funds supporting an NRCS-designed pest management practice. The average percentage of allocation of EQIP funds to this pest management practice among states was 0.77 +/- 0.009% (mean +/- SD). Using Michigan as an example, vegetable and fruit grower recognition of the program's use to implement IPM was modest (25% of growers surveyed), and their recognition of its use in aiding implementation of IPM was improved after educational efforts (74%). Proposals designed to enhance program usefulness in implementing IPM were delivered through the NRCS advisory process in Michigan. Modifications for using the NRCS pest management practice to address resource concerns were adopted, incentive rates for pest management were adjusted, and an expanded incentive structure for IPM

  1. Should I fight or should I flight? How studying insect aggression can help integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Aggression plays a key role all across the animal kingdom, as it allows the acquisition and/or defence of limited resources (food, mates and territories) in a huge number of species. A large part of our knowledge on aggressive behaviour has been developed on insects of economic importance. How can this knowledge be exploited to enhance integrated pest management? Here, I highlight how knowledge on intraspecific aggression can help IPM both in terms of insect pests (with a focus on the enhancement of the sterile insect technique) and in terms of biological control agents (with a focus on mass-rearing optimisation). Then, I examine what implications for IPM can be outlined from knowledge about interspecific aggressive behaviour. Besides predator-pest aggressive interactions predicted by classic biological control, I focus on what IPM can learn from (i) interspecific aggression among pest species (with special reference to competitive displacement), (ii) defensive behaviour exhibited by prey against predaceous insects and (iii) conflicts among predaceous arthropods sharing the same trophic niche (with special reference to learning/sensitisation practices and artificial manipulation of chemically mediated interactions).

  2. The Armed Forces Pest Management Board

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-15

    It is the policy of the Department of Defense to maintain safe, efficient, and environmentally sound integrated pest management programs to prevent or control pests that may adversely affect health or damage property.

  3. Ecoinformatics for integrated pest management: expanding the applied insect ecologist's tool-kit.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Jay A; Parsa, Soroush; Forbes, Andrew A; Krimmel, William A; Law, Yao Hua; Segoli, Michal; Segoli, Moran; Sivakoff, Frances S; Zaviezo, Tania; Gross, Kevin

    2011-04-01

    Experimentation has been the cornerstone of much of integrated pest management (IPM) research. Here, we aim to open a discussion on the possible merits of expanding the use of observational studies, and in particular the use of data from farmers or private pest management consultants in "ecoinformatics" studies, as tools that might complement traditional, experimental research. The manifold advantages of experimentation are widely appreciated: experiments provide definitive inferences regarding causal relationships between key variables, can produce uniform and high-quality data sets, and are highly flexible in the treatments that can be evaluated. Perhaps less widely considered, however, are the possible disadvantages of experimental research. Using the yield-impact study to focus the discussion, we address some reasons why observational or ecoinformatics approaches might be attractive as complements to experimentation. A survey of the literature suggests that many contemporary yield-impact studies lack sufficient statistical power to resolve the small, but economically important, effects on crop yield that shape pest management decision-making by farmers. Ecoinformatics-based data sets can be substantially larger than experimental data sets and therefore hold out the promise of enhanced power. Ecoinformatics approaches also address problems at the spatial and temporal scales at which farming is conducted, can achieve higher levels of "external validity," and can allow researchers to efficiently screen many variables during the initial, exploratory phases of research projects. Experimental, observational, and ecoinformatics-based approaches may, if used together, provide more efficient solutions to problems in pest management than can any single approach, used in isolation.

  4. Plant protection in Poland on the eve of obligatory integrated pest management implementation.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-09-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) will be obligatory in all European Union (EU) member states from January 1, 2014. Successful IPM implementation will depend not only on the sound guidelines and goodwill of the farmers, but also on conditions in farmers' environment. This paper presents the most important factors influencing IPM implementation in Poland. The most favorable aspects on the eve of obligatory IPM implementation are the relatively low use of plant protection products and popularity of some non-chemical methods of pest control, such as sowing cereal in mixture. The most important challenges are the improvement of advisory service and the crop structure with almost three-quarters of sown area covered by cereals. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Nematology-status and prospects: the role of nematology in integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Bird, G W

    1980-07-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is an interdisciplinary science dealing with the development, evaluation, and implementation of pest control strategies that result in favorable economic, ecologic, and sociologic consequences. IPM has received considerable attention during the past few years, and this has led to recommendations directly related to the growth of the science of hematology. This report describes the current state of IPM in relation to the role of hematology, with special emphasis on scientific personnel requirements. All current indications are that IPM will continue to grow, very likely at an increased rate. This will place additional research, extension, and teaching demands on current hematology programs and should result in an expended resource base for nematology.

  6. Integrated pest management in the U.S.: progress and promise.

    PubMed Central

    Huffaker, C B; Croft, B A

    1976-01-01

    In the U.S., where heavy use of insecticides has been commonplace for years, the development of proper integrated insect pest control cannot get underway unless there is a changed use pattern for such chemicals. A changed use pattern, however, cannot be accomplished without much study to establish the requirements for integrated control for each major crop situation. In this paper recent developments in a number of crop areas in the U.S. in which the necessary study has been begun are reviewed. Important phases in the development of integrated control programs include: the single tactics phase, the multitactic phase, phase, the biological monitoring phase, the modeling phase, the management and optimization phase, and the implementation phase. Several crops are discussed in relation to how far along we are in the development of practical programs of insect pest control. These are cotton, apples, alfalfa, soybeans, citrus, corn, cereal grains, tobacco and pine forests. Several of these programs have already made substantial headway, e.g., those for cotton, alfalfa, apples, tobacco, and soybeans, although the accomplishments have not been even or parellel with respect to the phases of development where progress has been good. The review of developments in these crops suggests that programs of control for individual crops and perhaps for complexes of associated crops will be developed according to specific needs of the crop, the geographic area and the pests, the technologies available and the socioeconomic and political factors of relevance. The tendency will be toward greater use of science in pest control decision-making, with extensive use of biological monitoring to establish realistic levels of threatened damage to the crop, and greater concern given to possible profit reductions and environmental disturbances of applying an insecticide, as well as the possible gain from doing so. PMID:789064

  7. Pest measurement and management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest scouting, whether it is done only with ground scouting methods or using remote sensing with some ground-truthing, is an important tool to aid site-specific crop management. Different pests may be monitored at different times and using different methods. Remote sensing has the potential to provi...

  8. Integrated pest management concepts for red imported fire ants Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Drees, Bastiaan M; Calixto, Alejandro A; Nester, Paul R

    2013-08-01

    Management of imported fire ant species has evolved since their accidental introduction into the United States and currently uses integrated pest management concepts to design, implement, and evaluate suppression programs. Although eradication is the management goal in certain isolated infestation sites, localized goals vary dramatically in larger infestations where reinvasion of treated areas is likely. These goals are influenced by regulatory policies, medical liabilities, ecological impact, and/or economic considerations. Tactics employed in fire ant management programs presented here include cultural and biological control options along with judicious use of site-specific insecticide products. In addition, program design considerations that include management goal(s), action level(s), ant form (monogyne or polygyne), presence of nontarget ant species, size of treatment area, seasonality, implementation cost, and environmental impact are also presented. Optimally, elegant IPM programs are target specific, threshold driven, environmentally friendly and cost-effective. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Comparison of toxicological impacts of integrated and chemical pest management in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Antón, A; Castells, F; Montero, J I; Huijbregts, M

    2004-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the relative impacts of pest-control methods in greenhouses, based on current LCA tools. As a case study, the relative impacts of two tomato production methods, chemical pest management (CPM) and integrated pest management (IPM), are assessed. The amount of the active ingredients applied, the fate of the ingredients in the various greenhouse and environmental compartments, the human exposure routes via the various compartments and the inherent toxicity of the ingredients were taken into account in the relative impact calculations. To assess the importance of model selection in the assessment, pesticide-specific fate and exposure factors for humans and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, used to aggregate pesticide emissions, were calculated with two different models: (1) the USES-LCA model, adapted in order to calculate the pesticide transfer from greenhouse air and soil to fruits, and (2) the empirical model critical surface time (CST). Impact scores have in general shown a higher level of potential contamination in greenhouses treated with CPM compared to IPM (a factor of 1.4 to 2.3). Relative impacts have been shown highly dependent on the selection of specific pesticides and crop stage development at the moment of pesticide application. This means that both CPM and IPM could be improved by a careful selection of pesticides. In order to improve the relative impact calculations, future research in pesticide transfer to food will be necessary.

  10. Meeting people where they are: engaging public housing residents for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Madeleine K; Duro, Laurie; Litonjua, Emily; Berry, Lilly; Reid, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    In a unique partnership, the Boston Public Health Commission, the Boston Housing Authority (BHA), Boston University School of Public Health, the Committee for Boston Public Housing, and the West Broadway Task Force (WBTF) led an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) intervention in Boston's public housing developments. Key to the success of the program was recruiting residents to participate. Residents who were trained as Community Health Advocates (CHAs) at the West Broadway Development in South Boston, Massachusetts, recruited over 300 homes to participate in the IPM intervention (out of 484 living units). This article describes the recruitment strategy and success from the perspective of CHAs at the West Broadway development.

  11. Demonstration of an Integrated Pest Management Program for Wheat in Tajikistan

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Douglas A.; Saidov, Nurali; Jaliov, Anvar; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Kennelly, Megan; Bahlai, Christie; Landis, Joy N.; Maredia, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is an important food security crop in central Asia but frequently suffers severe damage and yield losses from insect pests, pathogens, and weeds. With funding from the United States Agency for International Development, a team of scientists from three U.S. land-grant universities in collaboration with the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas and local institutions implemented an integrated pest management (IPM) demonstration program in three regions of Tajikistan from 2011 to 2014. An IPM package was developed and demonstrated in farmer fields using a combination of crop and pest management techniques including cultural practices, host plant resistance, biological control, and chemical approaches. The results from four years of demonstration/research indicated that the IPM package plots almost universally had lower pest abundance and damage and higher yields and were more profitable than the farmer practice plots. Wheat stripe rust infestation ranged from 30% to over 80% in farmer practice plots, while generally remaining below 10% in the IPM package plots. Overall yield varied among sites and years but was always at least 30% to as much as 69% greater in IPM package plots. More than 1,500 local farmers—40% women—were trained through farmer field schools and field days held at the IPM demonstration sites. In addition, students from local agricultural universities participated in on-site data collection. The IPM information generated by the project was widely disseminated to stakeholders through peer-reviewed scientific publications, bulletins and pamphlets in local languages, and via Tajik national television. PMID:28446990

  12. Demonstration of an Integrated Pest Management Program for Wheat in Tajikistan.

    PubMed

    Landis, Douglas A; Saidov, Nurali; Jaliov, Anvar; El Bouhssini, Mustapha; Kennelly, Megan; Bahlai, Christie; Landis, Joy N; Maredia, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is an important food security crop in central Asia but frequently suffers severe damage and yield losses from insect pests, pathogens, and weeds. With funding from the United States Agency for International Development, a team of scientists from three U.S. land-grant universities in collaboration with the International Center for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas and local institutions implemented an integrated pest management (IPM) demonstration program in three regions of Tajikistan from 2011 to 2014. An IPM package was developed and demonstrated in farmer fields using a combination of crop and pest management techniques including cultural practices, host plant resistance, biological control, and chemical approaches. The results from four years of demonstration/research indicated that the IPM package plots almost universally had lower pest abundance and damage and higher yields and were more profitable than the farmer practice plots. Wheat stripe rust infestation ranged from 30% to over 80% in farmer practice plots, while generally remaining below 10% in the IPM package plots. Overall yield varied among sites and years but was always at least 30% to as much as 69% greater in IPM package plots. More than 1,500 local farmers-40% women-were trained through farmer field schools and field days held at the IPM demonstration sites. In addition, students from local agricultural universities participated in on-site data collection. The IPM information generated by the project was widely disseminated to stakeholders through peer-reviewed scientific publications, bulletins and pamphlets in local languages, and via Tajik national television.

  13. Recent developments and applications of bait stations for integrated pest management of tephritid fruit flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The attract-and-kill approach involves the behavioral manipulation of pest insects through the integration of long-distance olfactory/visual stimuli to attract a particular pest and a killing agent and/or a collection device. Bait stations, an element of an attract-and-kill system, can be defined as...

  14. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  15. Integrated pest management of the banded sunflower moth in cultivated sunflower in North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key insect pest of cultivated sunflowers in North Dakota. We investigated pest management strategies to reduce feeding injury caused by the banded sunflower moth in commercial oilseed and confection sunflower fields l...

  16. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2013-01-01

    To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper. PMID:25288956

  17. A three-year field validation study to improve the integrated pest management of hot pepper.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yun, Sung-Chul

    2013-09-01

    To improve the integrated pest management (IPM) of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control). The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper.

  18. Development of an airborne remote sensing system for crop pest management: System integration and verification

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  19. Cotton insect pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton production is challenged worldwide by a diversity of arthropod pests that require management to prevent or reduce crop damage. Advances in arthropod control technologies and improved insect and crop management systems have dramatically reduced levels of arthropod damage and the need for inse...

  20. Comparative study of integrated pest management and baiting for German cockroach management in public housing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of a building-wide cockroach integrated pest management (IPM) program compared with bait alone treatment in public housing. In total, 12 buildings (66 apartments) were treated and monitored for cockroach infestations over 7 mo. The buildings were divided into two groups: bait treatment and IPM. Apartments in the bait alone group were treated with Maxforce FC Select (0.01% fipronil) during the first 12 wk and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel (2.15% hydramethylnon) from 16 wk when necessary. For the IPM group, cockroaches were flushed and vacuumed at the beginning of the study; sticky traps were placed in all apartments to monitor and reduce cockroach numbers; educational materials were delivered to the residents; and Maxforce FC Select and Maxforce Roach Killer Bait Gel were applied to kill cockroaches. Two seminars were presented to the manger, and Community Service Program staff of the Gary Housing Authority to help gain tenant cooperation in the program. Effects of the treatments were monitored using sticky traps (six per apartment) at 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 29 wk after treatment. More treatments were applied during each monitoring visit when necessary. Those apartments with high levels of infestations (> or =12 cockroaches in six traps) before treatment were used to compare the IPM and bait only treatments. IPM resulted in significantly greater trap catch reduction than the bait treatment. The IPM (n=12) and bait only treatment (n=11) resulted in 100.0 and 94.6%, respectively, reduction in trap catch after 16 wk. At 29 wk, only one apartment in the IPM group had a high level (>12 cockroaches) of cockroach infestation. In contrast, five apartments in the bait treatment group had high level infestations at 29 wk based on overnight trapping counts; thus, IPM is a more sustainable method of population reduction. Sanitation levels in the IPM group significantly improved at 29 wk (n=11) compared with that at the beginning of

  1. Role of two insect growth regulators in integrated pest management of citrus scales.

    PubMed

    Grafton-Cardwell, E E; Lee, J E; Stewart, J R; Olsen, K D

    2006-06-01

    Portions of two commercial citrus orchards were treated for two consecutive years with buprofezin or three consecutive years with pyriproxyfen in a replicated plot design to determine the long-term impact of these insect growth regulators (IGRs) on the San Joaquin Valley California integrated pest management program. Pyriproxyfen reduced the target pest, California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii Maskell, to nondetectable levels on leaf samples approximately 4 mo after treatment. Pyriproxyfen treatments reduced the California red scale parasitoid Aphytis melinus DeBach to a greater extent than the parasitoid Comperiella bifasciata Howard collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons Citrus limon (L.) Burm. f. infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 33% direct mortality of the parasitoid, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Three years of pyriproxyfen treatments did not maintain citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana), below the treatment threshold and cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, was slowly but incompletely controlled. Buprofezin reduced California red scale to very low but detectable levels approximately 5 mo after treatment. Buprofezin treatments resulted in similar levels of reduction of the two parasitoids A. melinus and C. bifasciata collected on sticky cards. Treatments of lemons infested with scale parasitized by A. melinus showed only 7% mortality of the parasitoids, suggesting the population reduction observed on sticky cards was due to low host density. Citricola scale was not present in this orchard, and cottony cushion scale was slowly and incompletely controlled by buprofezin. These field plots demonstrated that IGRs can act as organophosphate insecticide replacements for California red scale control; however, their narrower spectrum of activity and disruption of coccinellid beetles can allow other scale species to attain primary pest status.

  2. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pretty, Jules; Pervez Bharucha, Zareen

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move. PMID:26463073

  3. Multiple attractors of host-parasitoid models with integrated pest management strategies: eradication, persistence and outbreak.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Xiao, Yanni; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Host-parasitoid models including integrated pest management (IPM) interventions with impulsive effects at both fixed and unfixed times were analyzed with regard to host-eradication, host-parasitoid persistence and host-outbreak solutions. The host-eradication periodic solution with fixed moments is globally stable if the host's intrinsic growth rate is less than the summation of the mean host-killing rate and the mean parasitization rate during the impulsive period. Solutions for all three categories can coexist, with switch-like transitions among their attractors showing that varying dosages and frequencies of insecticide applications and the numbers of parasitoids released are crucial. Periodic solutions also exist for models with unfixed moments for which the maximum amplitude of the host is less than the economic threshold. The dosages and frequencies of IPM interventions for these solutions are much reduced in comparison with the pest-eradication periodic solution. Our results, which are robust to inclusion of stochastic effects and with a wide range of parameter values, confirm that IPM is more effective than any single control tactic.

  4. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa.

    PubMed

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2015-03-05

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4-$19 (€3-15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM's impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  5. Three years monitoring survey of pesticide residues in Sardinia wines following integrated pest management strategies.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Dedola, Fabrizio

    2013-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a pesticide monitoring survey on wine grapes from the 2008-2010 vintage from vineyards grown according to integrated pest management strategies. A multi-residue gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method in electron ionization and chemical ionization mode has been used for the determination of 30 pesticides in wine samples. The analytical method showed good recoveries and allowed a good separation of the selected pesticides. Repeatability and intermediate precision showed good results with CV < 20 %. The instrumental method limits of determination (LOD) and of quantification (LOQ) were below the maximum residue levels set in wine. The analysis of the wines showed that pesticide residues were below the instrumental LOQ, and most of them were undetectable (

  6. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-12-30

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested.

  7. Pregnancy outcomes among farming households of Nueva Ecija with conventional pesticide use versus integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Crisostomo, Lenore; Molina, Victorio V

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to compare pregnancy outcomes in farming households that used pesticides conventionally with those that practiced integrated pest management (IPM) in Nueva Ecija, Philippines, in the period 1998-1999. Conventional pesticide users (CPUs) were defined as pesticide appliers who used pesticides routinely and regularly, whereas users of IPM were those who used pesticides as necessary, and on economically injured crop areas only. The data sets were subjected to the chi-square test of association, Fisher's exact probability test, and logistic regression analysis. At a significance level at 0.05, spontaneous abortion occurred significantly more often among the 345 CPU households than among the 331 IPM households (adjusted risk ratio 6.17). Likewise, birth defects were significantly more common in the CPU group (adjusted risk ratio 4.56). Thus, people of reproductive age who plan to have children should avoid any use of pesticides.

  8. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    PubMed

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  9. Benefits of collaborative learning for environmental management: applying the integrated systems for knowledge management approach to support animal pest control.

    PubMed

    Allen, W; Bosch, O; Kilvington, M; Oliver, J; Gilbert, M

    2001-02-01

    Resource management issues continually change over time in response to coevolving social, economic, and ecological systems. Under these conditions adaptive management, or "learning by doing," offers an opportunity for more proactive and collaborative approaches to resolving environmental problems. In turn, this will require the implementation of learning-based extension approaches alongside more traditional linear technology transfer approaches within the area of environmental extension. In this paper the Integrated Systems for Knowledge Management (ISKM) approach is presented to illustrate how such learning-based approaches can be used to help communities develop, apply, and refine technical information within a larger context of shared understanding. To outline how this works in practice, we use a case study involving pest management. Particular attention is paid to the issues that emerge as a result of multiple stakeholder involvement within environmental problem situations. Finally, the potential role of the Internet in supporting and disseminating the experience gained through ongoing adaptive management processes is examined.

  10. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  11. Use of an Integrated Pest Management Assessment Administered through Turningpoint as an Educational, Needs Assessment, and Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Lizabeth A. B.; Behnken, Lisa M.; Breitenbach, Fritz R.; Miller, Ryan P.; Nicolai, David; Gunsolus, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    University of Minnesota educators use an integrated pest management (IPM) survey conducted during private pesticide applicator training as an educational, needs assessment, and evaluation tool. By incorporating the IPM Assessment, as the survey is called, into a widely attended program and using TurningPoint audience response devices, Extension…

  12. Use of an Integrated Pest Management Assessment Administered through Turningpoint as an Educational, Needs Assessment, and Evaluation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Lizabeth A. B.; Behnken, Lisa M.; Breitenbach, Fritz R.; Miller, Ryan P.; Nicolai, David; Gunsolus, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    University of Minnesota educators use an integrated pest management (IPM) survey conducted during private pesticide applicator training as an educational, needs assessment, and evaluation tool. By incorporating the IPM Assessment, as the survey is called, into a widely attended program and using TurningPoint audience response devices, Extension…

  13. Principles and practices of integrated pest management on cotton in the lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustainable agriculture is ecologically sound, economically viable, socially just, and humane. These four goals for sustainability can be applied to all aspects of any agricultural system, from production and marketing, to processing and consumption. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) may be conside...

  14. A systematic review of the literature reveals trends and gaps in integrated pest management studies conducted in the United States.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen L

    2017-08-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is a broad-based approach for addressing pests that negatively affect human and environmental health and economic profitability. Weeds, insects and disease-causing pathogens (diseases) are the pests most often associated with IPM. A systematic review, widely used in other scientific disciplines, was employed to determine the most commonly studied IPM topics and summarize the reasons for these trends and the gaps. In a field synopsis of the literature, 1679 relevant published papers were identified and categorized into one of the following five broad areas: IPM and organic (organic), climate change and pests (climate), rural and urban IPM (rural and urban), next-generation education (education) and advanced production systems (technology). Papers were examined in greater detail for at least one of the three main pests in a systematic review. A majority (85%) of IPM papers have been in the area of rural and urban IPM, primarily addressing agriculture (78%). Professionals, landowners and the general public were the focus of a majority (95%) of IPM papers on education. Technology is an increasing area of focus in the literature. Over the past 40 years, IPM papers have primarily (75%) addressed insects and been limited mostly to rural and urban settings. Climate change, technology and education specific to pest management studies are increasingly being published and will help broaden the focus that could result in increased adoption and development of IPM. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Budding trends in integrated pest management using advanced micro- and nano-materials: Challenges and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Neha; Barbole, Ranjit S; Banerjee, Shashwat S; Chate, Govind P; Biradar, Ankush V; Khandare, Jayant J; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-12-15

    One of the most vital supports to sustain human life on the planet earth is the agriculture system that has been constantly challenged in terms of yield. Crop losses due to insect pest attack even after excessive use of chemical pesticides, are major concerns for humanity and environment protection. By the virtue of unique properties possessed by micro and nano-structures, their implementation in Agri-biotechnology is largely anticipated. Hence, traditional pest management strategies are now forestalling the potential of micro and nanotechnology as an effective and viable approach to alleviate problems pertaining to pest control. These technological innovations hold promise to contribute enhanced productivity by providing novel agrochemical agents and delivery systems. Application of these systems engages to achieve: i) control release of agrochemicals, ii) site-targeted delivery of active ingredients to manage specific pests, iii) reduced pesticide use, iv) detection of chemical residues, v) pesticide degradation, vi) nucleic acid delivery and vii) to mitigate post-harvest damage. Applications of micro and nano-technology are still marginal owing to the perception of low economic returns, stringent regulatory issues involving safety assessment and public awareness over their uses. In this review, we highlight the potential application of micro and nano-materials with a major focus on effective pest management strategies including safe handling of pesticides. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Push-Pull: Chemical Ecology-Based Integrated Pest Management Technology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeyaur; Midega, Charles A O; Hooper, Antony; Pickett, John

    2016-07-01

    Lepidopterous stemborers, and parasitic striga weeds belonging to the family Orobanchaceae, attack cereal crops in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe yield losses. The smallholder farmers are resource constrained and unable to afford expensive chemicals for crop protection. The push-pull technology, a chemical ecology- based cropping system, is developed for integrated pest and weed management in cereal-livestock farming systems. Appropriate plants were selected that naturally emit signaling chemicals (semiochemicals). Plants highly attractive for stemborer egg laying were selected and employed as trap crops (pull), to draw pests away from the main crop. Plants that repelled stemborer females were selected as intercrops (push). The stemborers are attracted to the trap plant, and are repelled from the main cereal crop using a repellent intercrop (push). Root exudates of leguminous repellent intercrops also effectively control the parasitic striga weed through an allelopathic mechanism. Their root exudates contain flavonoid compounds some of which stimulate germination of Striga hermonthica seeds, such as Uncinanone B, and others that dramatically inhibit their attachment to host roots, such as Uncinanone C and a number of di-C-glycosylflavones (di-CGFs), resulting in suicidal germination. The intercrop also improves soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, natural mulching, improved biomass, and control of erosion. Both companion plants provide high value animal fodder, facilitating milk production and diversifying farmers' income sources. The technology is appropriate to smallholder mixed cropping systems in Africa. Adopted by about 125,000 farmers to date in eastern Africa, it effectively addresses major production constraints, significantly increases maize yields, and is economical as it is based on locally available plants, not expensive external inputs.

  17. The integrated control concept and its relevance to current integrated pest management in California fresh market grapes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Walter J

    2009-12-01

    The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007.

  18. Approaches and incentives to implement integrated pest management that addresses regional and environmental issues.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Goodell, Peter B

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural, environmental, and social and policy interests have influenced integrated pest management (IPM) from its inception. The first 50 years of IPM paid special attention to field-based management and market-driven decision making. Concurrently, IPM strategies became available that were best applied both within and beyond the bounds of individual fields and that also provided environmental benefits. This generated an incentives dilemma for farmers: selecting IPM activities for individual fields on the basis of market-based economics versus selecting IPM activities best applied regionally that have longer-term benefits, including environmental benefits, that accrue to the broader community as well as the farmer. Over the past several decades, public-supported incentives, such as financial incentives available to farmers from conservation programs for farms, have begun to be employed to encourage use of conservation techniques, including strategies with IPM relevance. Combining private investments with public support may effectively address the incentives dilemma when advanced IPM strategies are used regionally and provide public goods such as those benefiting resource conservation. This review focuses on adaptation of IPM to these broader issues, on transitions of IPM from primarily individual field-based decision making to coordinated community decision making, and on the form of partnerships needed to gain long-lasting regional and environmental benefits. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  19. he land manager’s handbook on integrated pest management of Melaleuca quinquenervia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The adventive Australian tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake is an invasive pest plant in the greater Everglades region of Florida. Public agencies and organizations responsible for natural areas management have developed effective chemical and mechanical strategies for treating infestati...

  20. Aggression in Tephritidae Flies: Where, When, Why? Future Directions for Research in Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) include over 4000 species, many of which constitute enormous threats to fruit and vegetable production worldwide. A number of Tephritidae are lekking species, forming aggregations in which males fight to defend a small territory where they court females and mate. Male-male contests also occur in non-lekking species, characterized by resource defense polygyny. Tephritidae females display agonistic behavior to maintain single oviposition sites and reduce larval competition for food. Here, how, where, when and why aggressive interactions occur in Tephritidae flies is reviewed. A number of neglected issues deserving further research are highlighted, with a special focus on diel periodicity of aggression, cues evoking aggressive behavior, the role of previous experience on fighting success and the evolution of behavioral lateralization of aggressive displays. In the final section, future directions to exploit this knowledge in Integrated Pest Management, with particular emphasis on enhancement of Sterile Insect Technique and interspecific competitive displacement in the field are suggested. PMID:26463064

  1. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard.

    PubMed

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant.

  2. Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2011-07-27

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of <15% in the concentration range of 0.005-0.250 mg/kg. The limit of detection (LOD) for all compounds met maximum residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and β-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples.

  3. Strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming: phenolic composition and antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Domingues, Valentina F; de Freitas, Victor; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Mateus, Nuno

    2012-10-15

    Consumer awareness, pesticide and fertilizer contaminations and environmental concerns have resulted in significant demand for organically grown farm produce. Consumption of berries has become popular among health-conscious consumers due to the high levels of valuable antioxidants, such as anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds. The present study evaluated the influence that organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) practise exert on the total phenolic content in 22 strawberry samples from four varieties. Postharvest performance of OF and IPM strawberries grown in the same area in the centre of Portugal and harvested at the same maturity stage were compared. Chemical profiles (phenolic compounds) were determined with the aid of HPLC-DAD/MS. Total phenolic content was higher for OF strawberry extracts. This study showed that the main differences in bioactive phytochemicals between organically and IPM grown strawberries concerned their anthocyanin levels. Organically grown strawberries were significantly higher in antioxidant activity than were the IPM strawberries, as measured by DPPH and FRAP assays.

  4. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    PubMed

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  5. Effect of Integrated Pest Management Training on Ugandan Small-Scale Farmers

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Anna Sabine; Jørs, Erik; Atuhaire, Aggrey; Thomsen, Jane Frølund

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale farmers in developing countries use hazardous pesticides taking few or no safety measures. Farmer field schools (FFSs) teaching integrated pest management (IPM) have been shown to reduce pesticide use among trained farmers. This cross-sectional study compares pesticide-related knowledge, attitude, practice (KAP), potential exposure, and self-reported poisoning symptoms among 35 FFS farmers, 44 neighboring farmers, and 35 control farmers after an IPM intervention in Uganda (2011-2012). The FFS farmers were encouraged to teach their neighboring farmers. Data were based on standardized interviews and were analyzed using a linear trend test and logistic regression. The results showed that FFS and neighboring farmers used significantly fewer pesticide applications (P = .021) and used more safety measures. No differences were found on the hazardousness of pesticides used or self-reported symptoms. The study supports IPM as a method to reduce pesticide use and potential exposure and to improve pesticide-related KAP among small-scale farmers in developing countries. PMID:28469450

  6. The Rhizosphere Bacterial Microbiota of Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir in an Integrated Pest Management Vineyard

    PubMed Central

    Novello, Giorgia; Gamalero, Elisa; Bona, Elisa; Boatti, Lara; Mignone, Flavio; Massa, Nadia; Cesaro, Patrizia; Lingua, Guido; Berta, Graziella

    2017-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with Vitis vinifera (grapevine) can affect its growth, health and grape quality. The aim of this study was to unravel the biodiversity of the bacterial rhizosphere microbiota of grapevine in an integrated pest management vineyard located in Piedmont, Italy. Comparison between the microbial community structure in the bulk and rhizosphere soil (variable: space) were performed. Moreover, the possible shifts of the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiota according to two phenological stages such as flowering and early fruit development (variable: time) were characterized. The grapevine microbiota was identified using metagenomics and next-generation sequencing. Biodiversity was higher in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil, independent of the phenological stage. Actinobacteria were the dominant class with frequencies ≥ 50% in all the soil samples, followed by Proteobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, and Bacteroidetes. While Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria are well-known as being dominant in soil, this is the first time the presence of Gemmatimonadetes has been observed in vineyard soils. Gaiella was the dominant genus of Actinobacteria in all the samples. Finally, the microbiota associated with grapevine differed from the bulk soil microbiota and these variations were independent of the phenological stage of the plant. PMID:28855895

  7. Integrating Soil Silicon Amendment into Management Programs for Insect Pests of Drill-Seeded Rice.

    PubMed

    Villegas, James M; Way, Michael O; Pearson, Rebecca A; Stout, Michael J

    2017-08-13

    Silicon soil amendment has been shown to enhance plant defenses against insect pests. Rice is a silicon-accumulating graminaceous plant. In the southern United States, the rice water weevil and stem borers are important pests of rice. Current management tactics for these pests rely heavily on the use of insecticides. This study evaluated the effects of silicon amendment when combined with current management tactics for these rice insect pests in the field. Field experiments were conducted from 2013 to 2015. Rice was drill-planted in plots subjected to factorial combinations of variety (conventional and hybrid), chlorantraniliprole seed treatment (treated and untreated), and silicon amendment (treated and untreated). Silicon amendment reduced densities of weevil larvae on a single sampling date in 2014, but did not affect densities of whiteheads caused by stem borers. In contrast, insecticidal seed treatment strongly reduced densities of both weevil larvae and whiteheads. Higher densities of weevil larvae were also observed in the hybrid variety in 2014, while higher incidences of whiteheads were observed in the conventional variety in 2014 and 2015. Silicon amendment improved rice yields, as did chlorantraniliprole seed treatment and use of the hybrid variety.

  8. Oviposition Deterrents in Herbivorous Insects and their potential use in Integrated Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Kaushik, Nutan

    2016-03-01

    In the life cycle of insects, oviposition is an important phenomenon, and it is influenced by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, especially in relation to suitable hosts for completion of their life-cycle. Oviposition deterrents which deter an insect from laying eggs are important in the management of insect pests. Proper understanding of these deterrents shall provide necessary insight into new vistas for Insect Pest Management. Chemicals from plants and insects play an important role in attracting phytophagous insects for selecting host for oviposition. Considerable research has been done on oviposition deterrents and their mode of actions. In the present review, we have consolidated the updated information on this important aspect of insect behavior.

  9. German cockroach allergen levels in North Carolina schools: comparison of integrated pest management and conventional cockroach control.

    PubMed

    Nalyanya, Godfrey; Gore, J Chad; Linker, H Michael; Schal, Coby

    2009-05-01

    Cockroach suppression is fundamental to cockroach allergen mitigation in infested homes. The effects of various cockroach control strategies on cockroach populations and allergen concentration have not been examined in schools. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) and conventional pest control in controlling German cockroach (Blattella germanica L.) infestations and concentrations of the cockroach allergen Bla g 1 in public school buildings. Two school districts included six schools that used conventional pest control and one district included seven schools that used IPM to control pests. Cockroach traps were deployed to assess the level of infestation, settled dust samples were collected in food service areas, classrooms, and other school areas, and the Bla g 1 allergen was quantified by ELISA. Both cockroach counts and Bla g 1 concentrations were dependent on the pest control approach, with highly significant differences between IPM-treated schools and conventionally treated schools in both the cockroach mean trap counts (0 versus 82.6 +/- 17.3 cockroaches/trap/wk, respectively) and in the amount of Bla g 1 in dust samples (2.8 +/- 0.3 versus 30.6 +/- 3.4 U/g dust). Cockroaches and Bla g 1 were primarily associated with food preparation and food service areas and much less with classrooms and offices. Our data extend recent findings from studies in homes, showing that cockroach allergens can be reduced by cockroach elimination alone or by integrating several tactics including education, cleaning, and pest control. IPM is not only effective at controlling cockroaches but also can lead to long-term reductions in cockroach allergen concentrations, resulting in a healthier environment for students and school personnel.

  10. Pesticide residues in apples grown under a conventional and integrated pest management system.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, R; Shtereva, D

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes method validation for determination of more than 40 pesticides in apples using a GC technique. Target compounds belonged to the organochlorine, organophosphorus, carbamates, pyrethroids, triazoles, dicarboximides and strobilurins groups, among others. Sample preparation consisted of acetone extraction and subsequent cleanup/concentration by SPE with a polymer-based sorbent. Single quadrupole GC-MS operating in SIM mode and electron impact ionization was used for identification and quantification of the pesticides. Average recoveries for analytes ranged between 70 and 110% at three fortification levels - 0.01, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg(-1). Relative standard deviations were lower than 20% for all tested compounds. Calculated limits of detection and limits of quantification were below 0.01 mg kg(-1), which were sufficiently low compared to the maximum residue levels (MRLs) established by European legislation. The proposed method was applied for determination of pesticide residue in four selected apple varieties after harvesting. Whole and processed fruits (peel and peeled fruits) were analyzed from different treatment systems: two conventional, one based on integrated pest management (IPM) and two variants based on organic production (controls). Higher levels of pesticide residues were found in apple fruits under conventional conditions. Fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos residues were detected frequently in apple peel at concentrations up to 0.45 and 0.77 mg kg(-1), respectively. The levels found in the whole fruits of the same samples were much lower than in peel and below the respective MRLs (0.5 mg kg(-1) for both pesticides). Measurable residues of triadimenol only, up to 0.05 mg kg(-1), concentrated in the peel, were found in the apples from IPM.

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Aristizábal, Luis F.; Bustillo, Alex E.; Arthurs, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers’ conditions. PMID:26848690

  12. Integrated Pest Management of Coffee Berry Borer: Strategies from Latin America that Could Be Useful for Coffee Farmers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, Luis F; Bustillo, Alex E; Arthurs, Steven P

    2016-02-03

    The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is the primary arthropod pest of coffee plantations worldwide. Since its detection in Hawaii (September 2010), coffee growers are facing financial losses due to reduced quality of coffee yields. Several control strategies that include cultural practices, biological control agents (parasitoids), chemical and microbial insecticides (entomopathogenic fungi), and a range of post-harvest sanitation practices have been conducted to manage CBB around the world. In addition, sampling methods including the use of alcohol based traps for monitoring CBB populations have been implemented in some coffee producing countries in Latin America. It is currently unclear which combination of CBB control strategies is optimal under economical, environmental, and sociocultural conditions of Hawaii. This review discusses components of an integrated pest management program for CBB. We focus on practical approaches to provide guidance to coffee farmers in Hawaii. Experiences of integrated pest management (IPM) of CBB learned from Latin America over the past 25 years may be relevant for establishing strategies of control that may fit under Hawaiian coffee farmers' conditions.

  13. Holistic pest management [Chapter 15

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2009-01-01

    As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a continuous process of solving problems. Murphy's Law of "anything that can go wrong, will go wrong" sounds as if it were meant for native plant production. One recurring problem is pests. Nursery managers have traditionally talked about "controlling" a pest. This approach...

  14. Theoretical study and control optimization of an integrated pest management predator-prey model with power growth rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaibiao; Zhang, Tonghua; Tian, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a pest control predator-prey model, where rate of change in prey density follows a scaling law with exponent less than one and the control is by an integrated management strategy. The aim is to investigate the change in system dynamics and determine a pest control level with minimum control price. First, the dynamics of the proposed model without control is investigated by taking the exponent as an index parameter. And then, to determine the frequency of spraying chemical pesticide and yield releases of the predator, the existence of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system is discussed in cases. Furthermore, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted control, i.e., for an inaccurately detected species density or a deviation, the control system could be stabilized at the order-1 periodic orbit, the stability of the order-1 periodic orbit is verified by an stability criterion for a general semi-continuous dynamical system. In addition, to minimize the total cost input in pest control, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum pest control level is obtained. At last, the numerical simulations with a specific model are carried out to complement the theoretical results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention in Controlling Cockroaches, Mice, and Allergens in New York City Public Housing

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-01-01

    Background Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. Objectives We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. Methods We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Results Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. Conclusions In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences. PMID:19672400

  16. Effectiveness of an integrated pest management intervention in controlling cockroaches, mice, and allergens in New York City public housing.

    PubMed

    Kass, Daniel; McKelvey, Wendy; Carlton, Elizabeth; Hernandez, Marta; Chew, Ginger; Nagle, Sean; Garfinkel, Robin; Clarke, Brian; Tiven, Julius; Espino, Christian; Evans, David

    2009-08-01

    Cockroaches and mice, which are common in urban homes, are sources of allergens capable of triggering asthma symptoms. Traditional pest control involves the use of scheduled applications of pesticides by professionals as well as pesticide use by residents. In contrast, integrated pest management (IPM) involves sanitation, building maintenance, and limited use of least toxic pesticides. We implemented and evaluated IPM compared with traditional practice for its impact on pests, allergens, pesticide use, and resident satisfaction in a large urban public housing authority. We assigned IPM or control status to 13 buildings in five housing developments, and evaluated conditions at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months in 280 apartments in Brooklyn and Manhattan, in New York City (New York). We measured cockroach and mouse populations, collected cockroach and mouse urinary protein allergens in dust, and interviewed residents. All statistical models controlled for baseline levels of pests or allergens. Compared with controls, apartments receiving IPM had significantly lower counts of cockroaches at 3 months and greater success in reducing or sustaining low counts of cockroaches at both 3 and 6 months. IPM was associated with lower cockroach allergen levels in kitchens at 3 months and in beds and kitchens at 6 months. Pesticide use was reduced in IPM relative to control apartments. Residents of IPM apartments also rated building services more positively. In contrast to previous IPM studies, which involved extensive cleaning, repeat visits, and often extensive resident education, we found that an easily replicable single IPM visit was more effective than the regular application of pesticides alone in managing pests and their consequences.

  17. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    PubMed

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Integrated Pest Management Practices Reduce Insecticide Applications, Preserve Beneficial Insects, and Decrease Pesticide Residues in Flue-Cured Tobacco Production.

    PubMed

    Slone, Jeremy D; Burrack, Hannah J

    2016-09-22

    Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at < 40%, according to NC cooperative extension surveys conducted during the last four years. Previous research has suggested that timing insecticide treatments using currently available ETs can reduce the average number of applications to two or fewer per season. We conducted field-scale trials at nine commercial tobacco farms, three in 2104 and six in 2015, to quantify inputs associated with current scouting recommendations, to determine if current ETs were able to reduce insecticide applications as compared to grower standard practices, and to assess the impacts of reduced insecticide applications on end of season yield and pesticide residues. Two fields were identified at each farm and were scouted weekly for insects. One field was only treated with insecticides if pests reached ET (IPM), while the other field was managed per grower discretion (Grower Standard). IPM fields received an average of two fewer insecticide applications without compromising yield. More insecticide applications resulted in higher pesticide residues in cured leaf samples from Grower Standard fields than those from IPM fields. Reductions in insecticides and management intensity also resulted in larger beneficial insect populations in IPM fields.

  19. Pest management with natural products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The 2012 Philadelphia ACS Symposium on Natural Products for Pest Management introduced recent discoveries and applications of natural products from insect, terrestrial plant, microbial, and synthetic sources for the management of insects, weeds, plant pathogenic microbes, and nematodes. The symposiu...

  20. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    PubMed

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  1. Impact of Training Bolivian Farmers on Integrated Pest Management and Diffusion of Knowledge to Neighboring Farmers.

    PubMed

    Jørs, Erik; Konradsen, Flemming; Huici, Omar; Morant, Rafael C; Volk, Julie; Lander, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching farmers integrated pest management (IPM) in farmer field schools (FFS) has led to reduced pesticide use and safer handling. This article evaluates the long-term impact of training farmers on IPM and the diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers to neighboring farmers, a subject of importance to justify training costs and to promote a healthy and sustainable agriculture. Training on IPM of farmers took place from 2002 to 2004 in their villages in La Paz County, Bolivia, whereas dissemination of knowledge from trained farmer to neighboring farmer took place until 2009. To evaluate the impact of the intervention, self-reported knowledge and practice on pesticide handling and IPM among trained farmers (n = 23) and their neighboring farmers (n = 47) were analyzed in a follow-up study and compared in a cross-sectional analysis with a control group of farmers (n = 138) introduced in 2009. Variables were analyzed using χ2 test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Trained farmers improved and performed significantly better in all tested variables than their neighboring farmers, although the latter also improved their performance from 2002 to 2009. Including a control group showed an increasing trend in all variables, with the control farmers having the poorest performance and trained farmers the best. The same was seen in an aggregated variable where trained farmers had a mean score of 16.55 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.45-17.65), neighboring farmers a mean score of 11.97 (95% CI: 10.56-13.38), and control farmers a mean score of 9.18 (95% CI: 8.55-9.80). Controlling for age and living altitude did not change these results. Trained farmers and their neighboring farmers improved and maintained knowledge and practice on IPM and pesticide handling. Diffusion of knowledge from trained farmers might explain the better performance of the neighboring farmers compared with the control farmers. Dissemination of knowledge can contribute to justify the cost and convince

  2. Effect of an Integrated Pest Management Intervention on Asthma Symptoms Among Mouse-Sensitized Children and Adolescents With Asthma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Elizabeth C; Perzanowski, Matthew; Peng, Roger D; Wise, Robert A; Balcer-Whaley, Susan; Newman, Michelle; Cunningham, Amparito; Divjan, Adnan; Bollinger, Mary E; Zhai, Shuyan; Chew, Ginger; Miller, Rachel L; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2017-03-14

    Professionally delivered integrated pest management (IPM) interventions can reduce home mouse allergen concentrations, but whether they reduce asthma morbidity among mouse-sensitized and exposed children and adolescents is unknown. To determine the effect of an IPM intervention on asthma morbidity among mouse-sensitized and exposed children and adolescents with asthma. Randomized clinical trial conducted in Baltimore, Maryland, and Boston, Massachusetts. Participants were mouse-sensitized and exposed children and adolescents (aged 5-17 years) with asthma randomized to receive professionally delivered IPM plus pest management education or pest management education alone. Enrollment occurred between May 2010 and August 2014; the final follow-up visit occurred on September 25, 2015. Integrated pest management consisted of application of rodenticide, sealing of holes that could serve as entry points for mice, trap placement, targeted cleaning, allergen-proof mattress and pillow encasements, and portable air purifiers. Infestation was assessed every 3 months, and if infestation persisted or recurred, additional treatments were delivered. All participants received pest management education, which consisted of written material and demonstration of the materials needed to set traps and seal holes. The primary outcome was maximal symptom days defined as the highest number of days of symptoms in the previous 2 weeks among 3 types of symptoms (days of slowed activity due to asthma; number of nights of waking with asthma symptoms; and days of coughing, wheezing, or chest tightness) across 6, 9, and 12 months. Of 361 children and adolescents who were randomized (mean [SD] age, 9.8 [3.2] years; 38% female; 181 in IPM plus pest management education group and 180 in pest management education alone group), 334 were included in the primary analysis. For the primary outcome, there was no statistically significant between-group difference for maximal symptom days across 6, 9, and 12

  3. Determination of pesticide residues in Turkey's table grapes: the effect of integrated pest management, organic farming, and conventional farming.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Cafer; Ornek, Hakan; Cutright, Teresa J

    2011-02-01

    Turkey is one of the world's largest producers and exporters of table grapes. Growing social concerns over excessive pesticide use have led to farming to move from conventional to organic practices. Table grapes were collected from 99 different farms in three Aegean regions. Pesticide residues were only detected in farms using conventional agriculture practices while no pesticides were detected in grapes from farms using organic or integrated pest management. A risk assessment model indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin posed the most significant risk at conventional farms.

  4. A quest for ecologically based pest management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Martin, P. B.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The article presents a holistic approach to studying and applying crop protection in agricultural systems A theoretical framework of integrated pest management (IPM) is presented that allows an understanding of pest population processes on a whole-agroecological-system basis The need for and emergence of holistic research on agroecosystems is discussed, as are the current trends in ecological theory and pest management

  5. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-08-03

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  6. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B.

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  7. Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era?

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael E

    2011-06-08

    The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to

  8. Optimum timing for integrated pest management: modelling rates of pesticide application and natural enemy releases.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sanyi; Tang, Guangyao; Cheke, Robert A

    2010-05-21

    Many factors including pest natural enemy ratios, starting densities, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies can affect the success of IPM control programmes. To address how such factors influence successful pest control, hybrid impulsive pest-natural enemy models with different frequencies of pesticide sprays and natural enemy releases were proposed and analyzed. With releasing both more or less frequent than the sprays, a stability threshold condition for a pest eradication periodic solution is provided. Moreover, the effects of times of spraying pesticides (or releasing natural enemies) and control tactics on the threshold condition were investigated with regard to the extent of depression or resurgence resulting from pulses of pesticide applications. Multiple attractors from which the pest population oscillates with different amplitudes can coexist for a wide range of parameters and the switch-like transitions among these attractors showed that varying dosages and frequencies of insecticide applications and the numbers of natural enemies released are crucial. To see how the pesticide applications could be reduced, we developed a model involving periodic releases of natural enemies with chemical control applied only when the densities of the pest reached the given Economic Threshold. The results indicate that the pest outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the initial densities and the control tactics.

  9. New Miticides for Integrated Pest Management of Varroa destructor (Acari: Varroidae) in Honey Bee Colonies on the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M

    2014-12-01

    Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.

  10. Simulation of rotational grazing to evaluate integrated pest management strategies for Boophilus microplus (Acari: ixodidae) in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Hernández-A, F; Teel, P D; Corson, M S; Grant, W E

    2000-09-20

    Ranchers in Venezuela historically have controlled the cattle-fever tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), with acaricide treatments of cattle but no technical planning. We developed a simulation model to evaluate cattle-tick population dynamics in systematic pasture rotation systems and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approaches to managing ticks in the tropical dry-forest ecological zone of Venezuela. Model output showed five generations of cattle-ticks produced each year throughout the dry and rainy seasons that occur in this zone. Sensitivity analyses showed disproportionately large changes in on-host B. microplus populations in response to small changes in larval mortality rates, such as those resulting from differences in the innate resistance of cattle to tick parasitism. Simulation results with 1-6 pasture systems suggest that adjusting the graze:rest sequence with systematic rotation among 4-6 pastures could suppress, but not eradicate, tick populations.

  11. User's Guide for SeedCalc: A Decision-Support System for Integrated Pest Management in Slash Pine Seed Orchards

    Treesearch

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Wayne N. Dixon

    1996-01-01

    SeedCalc, a decision-support system designed for use on personal computers, evaluates the consequences of different pest management strategies in slash pine (Pinus ellliottii Engelm. var. elliottii) seed orchards.

  12. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Gent, David H; De Wolf, Erick; Pethybridge, Sarah J

    2011-06-01

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect tactical management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease risk and thus assist in accurately targeting events critical for management. However, in many instances adoption of these systems for use in routine disease management has been perceived as slow. The under-utilization of some decision support systems is likely due to both technical and perception constraints that have not been addressed adequately during development and implementation phases. Growers' perceptions of risk and their aversion to these perceived risks can be reasons for the "slow" uptake of decision support systems and, more broadly, integrated pest management (IPM). Decision theory provides some tools that may assist in quantifying and incorporating subjective and/or measured probabilities of disease occurrence or crop loss into decision support systems. Incorporation of subjective probabilities into IPM recommendations may be one means to reduce grower uncertainty and improve trust of these systems because management recommendations could be explicitly informed by growers' perceptions of risk and economic utility. Ultimately though, we suggest that an appropriate measure of the value and impact of decision support systems is grower education that enables more skillful and informed management decisions independent of consultation of the support tool outputs.

  13. Obstacles and Opportunities for Diffusion of Integrated Pest Management Strategies Reported by Bolivian Small-Scale Farmers and Agronomists

    PubMed Central

    Jørs, Erik; Aramayo, Antonio; Huici, Omar; Konradsen, Flemming; Gulis, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) with an increased used of ecological farming methods and less and safer use of pesticides offers solutions to reduce risks of developing pest resistance, human poisoning, and environmental pollution. Despite being promoted by Food and Agriculture Organization and others, it has not spread readily in low-income countries. This article presents the opinions of Bolivian farmers and agronomists on perceived obstacles and opportunities for a diffusion of IPM. Focus group discussions revealed an increased workload without certainty of higher yields or better prices for products grown with IPM compared with traditional agriculture being hindrances for a spread of IPM. Moreover, IPM requires some new practices not that easy to learn by farmers. In favor of IPM was an increasing awareness of the importance of a healthy and sustainable food production, easiness to try out without expensive investments needed, and a higher quality of the products. A healthy and sustainable agricultural production should be promoted by support to farmers through IPM training, a certification, and better prices. Finding allies to such a promotion is not easy, though, according to both farmers and agronomists. PMID:28469449

  14. Integrated pest management of the Pyralid stalkborers, Eoreuma loftini and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugarcane represents an important commodity crop in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. The primary insect pest of sugarcane is the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini followed by the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera) which cause substantial economic damage. We quantified the re...

  15. Integrated pest management for the wheat head armyworm complex in the Pacific Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cutworms, armyworms, and loopers are caterpillars that damage numerous crops, including potato, when they feed on foliage, fruits, stems, and roots. Growers need better information on those species that should be of concern on different crops, so that the pests can be detected and monitored for eff...

  16. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  17. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated Pest Managment Program to control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using contingent valuation, the perceived value of an area-wide, integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, was estimated. The residents’ maximum willingness-to-pay (WTP) and payment modality was estimat...

  18. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  19. Perceived Consequences of Herbicide-Tolerant and Insect-Resistant Crops on Integrated Pest Management Strategies in the Western United States: Results of an Online Survey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We conducted an online survey to assess the potential effects of herbicide-tolerant (HT) and insect-resistant (IR) crops on integrated pest management (IPM) practices in the Western United States. For HT crops, participants perceived a decrease in several IPM practices, including crop and herbicide ...

  20. Site-specific integrated pest management for high value crops: sample units for map generation using the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) as a model system.

    PubMed

    Weisz, R; Fleischer, S; Smilowitz, Z

    1995-10-01

    Site-specific agriculture uses maps to optimize within-field placement of agricultural practices. This technology introduces the potential to optimize pest management by varying pesticide or other inputs to better match within-field variation in pest density. Current sampling plans are designed to estimate mean density and may not be suitable for mapping, although useful sampling plans could be developed for map generation for integrated pest management. Using Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), adults, larvae, and egg masses as model systems, the influence of the sample unit on map validity was explored. Adapting currently used sampling plans for potato integrated pest management by spatially referencing each sampled stem failed to resolve spatial dependence and resulted in maps with poor reliability. Increasing the sample unit improved resolution of spatial dependence and map reliability for each life stage. A distance-walk sample unit for adult and late instar Colorado potato beetles which has high potential for map generation is introduced. Using this sample unit, generalizations about Colorado potato beetle spatial dependence are made to discuss issues of developing sampling programs for map generation. An iterative process of sampling, spatial analysis, and error analysis is suggested for evaluating sample units for mapping pest density in high value crops.

  1. DoD Pest Management Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-24

    Pest Management Program,’ to revise policy and procedures for the...DoD Pest Management Program; authorizes the publication of DoD 4150.7-R, ’DoD Pest Management Program,’ and DoD 4150.7-M, ’Plan for Certification of...DoD directive 5025.1, ’Department of Defense Directives System,’ and cancels reference (c) Defense Environmental Quality Program Policy Memorandum (DEQPPM) 80-10, ’Department of Defense Pest Management

  2. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  3. In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program: II. Maize waxy mutation assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G S; Pimentel, D; Weinstein, L H

    1998-02-13

    The mutagenicity induced by pesticides applied in an integrated pest management (IPM) program was evaluated in situ with the maize forward waxy mutation bioassay. Three pesticide application rates were prescribed as follows: (1) Low--no field pesticide spray; (2) Medium--IPM test rate: banded cyanazine plus metolachlor (2.7 kg a.i. and 2.3 l a.i./ha of herbicides, respectively); and (3) High--a preventative pesticide application program: broadcast cyanazine plus metolachlor (same application rates as above) plus chlorpyrifos (1 kg a.i./ha of insecticide). In general, there was no significant reduction in the genotoxic effects from the high to the medium treatment levels of the IPM program. This suggests that the reduction in pesticide application rates attained with the implementation of the proposed IPM program was not sufficient to abate the genotoxicity of the pesticides. The results indicate that replacing genotoxic compounds may be the only effective remediation measure if concern about environmental mutagenesis were to result in changes in agricultural management.

  4. Urban Pest Management of Ants in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Keeping pace with the dynamic and evolving landscape of invasive ants in California presents a formidable challenge to the pest management industry. Pest management professionals (PMPs) are on the frontlines when it comes to battling these exotic ant pests, and are often the first ones to intercept ...

  5. Forest pest management in a changing world

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold

    2012-01-01

    The scope, context and science guiding forest pest management have evolved and are likely to continue changing into the future. Here, I present six areas of advice to guide practitioners in the implementation of forest pest management. First, human dimensions will continue to play a key role in most pest problems and should always be a primary consideration in...

  6. New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.

    PubMed

    Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks.

  7. Mediterranean fruit fly suppression using chemosterilants for area-wide integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Llopis, Vicente; Domínguez-Ruiz, Javier; Zarzo, Manuel; Alfaro, Cristina; Primo, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    The chemosterilisation technique has been demonstrated to reduce the population and fruit damage of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), in citrus orchards. Field trials showed efficacy by reducing the fruit fly population, which was progressively achieved by continuous application of lufenuron to several generations. Different authors have suggested that field trials should be carried out in isolated or wide areas in order to reduce fruit fly intrusion and obtain best results. To this end, a wide-area trial over 3600 hectares has been under investigation in Valencia (Spain) since 2002 to validate the chemosterilisation technique against the fruit fly. The whole area was treated with 24 traps ha(-1), using more than 86,000 traps in the field trial. A continuous decrease in fruit fly population was observed over the 4 years under trial. Moreover, results showed a significant reduction in persimmon damage in the chemosterilant treatment area compared with a malathion aerial treatment area. In the case of citrus damage, no significant differences were obtained between malathion and chemosterilant treatments. The chemosterilant method reduces Mediterranean fruit fly populations, and therefore it is a candidate treatment to replace aerial treatments with insecticides in order to suppress this pest. In addition, the efficacy of chemosterilant treatment is increasing year after year. The possibility of using this technique combined with other control methods is discussed.

  8. Considerations in developing an integrated pest management programme for control of sea lice on farmed salmon in Pacific Canada.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K M

    2009-01-01

    In the development of integrated pest management (IPM) plans for the control of sea lice there are some components that are common to many areas. However, effective plans must be tailored to regionally varying environmental and biological factors affecting the severity of sea lice infections. This paper describes factors that would be involved in the development of an IPM plan for sea lice in the Broughton Archipelago, British Columbia. Temperature, salinity and currents affect the production, dispersion and competence of larvae of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), as they develop to the infective copepodid stage. This information can be coupled with oceanographic conditions in the Broughton Archipelago and emerging computer models to define zones of infection where infections of new hosts are most likely. Salinity and temperature depend, in part, on river discharge in estuarine systems. River discharge depends on precipitation, snow pack and ambient temperatures, which can be monitored to help forecast the intensity of sea lice infections associated with both farmed and wild hosts. One of the goals of IPM planning is to reduce reliance on pesticides to avoid development of resistance in targeted parasites and to minimize environmental residues. Recommendations for developing an IPM plan specific to the Broughton Archipelago are provided along with a discussion of the additional information needed to refine IPM plans in this and other areas.

  9. Pesticide residues in Portuguese strawberries grown in 2009-2010 using integrated pest management and organic farming.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-11-01

    Pesticides are among the most widely used chemicals in the world. Because of the widespread use of agricultural chemicals in food production, people are exposed to low levels of pesticide residues through their diets. Scientists do not yet have a total understanding of the health effects of these pesticide residues. This work aims to determine differences in terms of pesticide residue content in Portuguese strawberries grown using different agriculture practices. The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe sample preparation method was conducted and shown to have good performance for multiclass pesticides extraction in strawberries. The screening of 25 pesticides residue was performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In quantitative validation, acceptable performances were achieved with recoveries of 70-120 and <12 % residual standard deviation for 25 pesticides. Good linearity was obtained for all the target compounds, with highly satisfactory repeatability. The limits of detection were in the range of 0.1-28 μg/kg. The method was applied to analyze strawberry samples from organic and integrated pest management (IPM) practices harvested in 2009-2010. The results showed the presence of fludioxonil, bifenthrin, mepanipyrim, tolylfluanid, cyprodinil, tetraconazole, and malathion when using IPM below the maximum residue levels.

  10. Community monitoring of integrated pest management versus conventional pesticide use in a World Bank project in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ishii-Eiteman, Marcia J; Ardhianie, Nila

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide Action Network North America (PANNA) collaborated with a local Indonesian nongovernmental organization (NGO), Yayasan Duta Awam (YDA), in monitoring impacts of the World Bank-financed Integrated Swamps Development Project (ISDP). This paper reports the results of the community-based investigation, which found wide disparities between the World Bank's policy on pest management and its implementation. Instead of reducing farmers' reliance on pesticides as required, the ISDP led to increased intensity and frequency of pesticide use and adverse health and environmental effects from pesticide exposures. YDA and PANNA presented the findings to the Indonesian government and World Bank officials, and farmers requested training in IPM among other recommendations. After NGOs undertook joint advocacy efforts to reduce pesticide dependence in the project, the World Bank withdrew hazardous pesticides from input packages, IPM training was initiated, and community monitors became local leaders in their villages. The study demonstrates the importance and efficacy of independent community-based monitoring in documenting pesticide problems and replacing pesticides with IPM in World Bank development projects.

  11. Products containing microorganisms as a tool in integrated pest management and the rules of their market placement in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Matyjaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-09-01

    Products containing microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and viruses) can be used in plant production as an intervention as well as a prevention method for pest control. Their utilisation is strictly in line with the principles of integrated pest management, provided that they are effective and safe. The rules of registration of microorganisms for crop production in the European Union differ, depending on whether they are placed on the market as plant protection products or not. For over 20 years, uniform rules for registration of plant protection products have been in force. Currently, 36 microorganisms marked up to the strain are approved for use in pest control in the Community. The decision concerning market placement of plant protection products containing approved microorganisms is issued for each member state separately. The approaches to market placement of other products with microorganisms differ within the EU, ranging from a complete lack of requirements to long and costly registration procedures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

  13. Cockroach Clean-Up Tour . Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy/mix of tatics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests, including human…

  14. Pennsylvania: Penn State University Integrated Pest Management Project (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Penn State University (PSU) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement targeting environmental risks in Philadelphia communities. PSU is involved in developing IPM management practices recommendations and policies.

  15. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings.

  16. Silvicultural and integrated pest management strategies for restoring eastern hemlock to degraded southern Appalachian mountain ecosystems.

    Treesearch

    W.A. Whittier; A.E. Mayfield III; R.M. Jetton

    2017-01-01

    The ecologically foundational species eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis, is being functionally eliminated from southern Appalachian forests by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae). The management of HWA has focused on chemical and biological control, conservation of hemlock genetic resources, and host resistance...

  17. Hiring a Pest Management Professional for Bed Bugs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If you hire someone to treat your bed bug infestation, make sure they use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques, check credentials, and know they may need multiple visits, to take apart furniture, and to use vacuums, heat, and pesticides.

  18. Airborne multispectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scientists and engineers in areawide pest management programs have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with global positioning systems, geographic information system...

  19. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  20. The Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae Against Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for Integrated Pest Management in California Rice.

    PubMed

    Aghaee, Mohammad-Amir; Godfrey, Larry D

    2015-02-01

    Rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kushel) is the most damaging insect pest of rice in the United States. Larval feeding on the roots stunt growth and reduce yield. Current pest management against the weevil in California relies heavily on pyrethroids that can be damaging to aquatic food webs. Examination of an environmentally friendly alternative biopesticide based on Bacillus thuringiensis spp. galleriae chemistry against rice water weevil larvae showed moderate levels of activity in pilot studies. We further examined the performance of different formulations of Bt.galleriae against the leading insecticide used in California rice, λ-cyhalothrin. The granular formulation performed as well as the λ-cyhalothrin in use in California in some of our greenhouse and field studies. This is the first reported use of B. thuringiensis spp. galleriae against rice water weevil.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of integrated pest management compared with insecticidal spraying against the German cockroach in apartment buildings.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Gholam H; Hafidzi, M N; Khadri, M S; Rafinejad, J; Ibrahim, Y B

    2011-10-01

    This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10% EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943%) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100% of infested units compared to 78% for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2% more expensive than the conventional method.

  2. In situ assessment of pesticide genotoxicity in an integrated pest management program I--Tradescantia micronucleus assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G S; Pimentel, D; Weinstein, L H

    1998-02-13

    The genotoxicity induced by pesticides applied in an integrated pest management (IPM) program was evaluated with the Tradescantia micronucleus assay (Trad-MCN). Three pesticide application rates were prescribed as follows: (a) Low, no field pesticide spray; (b) Medium, IPM test rate: banded cyanazine plus metolachlor (2.7 kg a.i. and 2.3 l a.i./ha of herbicides, respectively); and (c) High, a preventative pesticide application program: broadcast cyanazine plus metolachlor (same application rates as above) plus chlorpyrifos (1 kg a.i./ha of insecticide). The Trad-MCN was employed for the assessment of (a) the formulated compounds, singly and in combinations; (b) pesticide residues extracted from soils sampled before and after application, and (c) in situ exposures (14-h exposure to pesticide-sprayed field). All pesticides showed clastogenic potency at doses between 10 and 50 ppm. Aqueous extracts of the two pesticide-sprayed soils were clastogenic, but the unsprayed soil extracts were not. Plants exposed in situ to pesticide-sprayed soils (inside a chamber receiving vapors from the soil) also showed significant increases in micronuclei frequency in relation to controls exposed to unsprayed soil. In general, there was no significant reduction in the genotoxic effects from the High to the Medium treatment levels of the IPM program. This suggests that the reduction in pesticide application rates attained with the implementation of the proposed IPM program was not sufficient to abate the genotoxicity of the pesticides, as perceived with the sensitive assays employed. The results indicate that replacing genotoxic compounds may be the only effective remediation measure to eliminate the risks imposed by mutagenic compounds in the agricultural environment.

  3. Radar, Insect Population Ecology, and Pest Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, C. R. (Editor); Wolf, W. (Editor); Klassen, W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Discussions included: (1) the potential role of radar in insect ecology studies and pest management; (2) the potential role of radar in correlating atmospheric phenomena with insect movement; (3) the present and future radar systems; (4) program objectives required to adapt radar to insect ecology studies and pest management; and (5) the specific action items to achieve the objectives.

  4. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    PubMed Central

    Damos, Petros; Escudero Colomar, Lucía-Adriana; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains. PMID:26463407

  5. Integrated Fruit Production and Pest Management in Europe: The Apple Case Study and How Far We Are From the Original Concept?

    PubMed

    Damos, Petros; Colomar, Lucía-Adriana Escudero; Ioriatti, Claudio

    2015-06-26

    This review focuses on the process of adapting the original concept of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to the wider conception of the Integrated Fruit Production (IFP) implemented in Europe. Even though most of the pest management strategies still rely on the use of synthetic pesticides, a wide array of innovative and environmentally friendly tools are now available as possible alternative to the pesticides within the modern apple production system. We also highlight how recent pest management strategies and tools have created an opening for research towards IPM improvement, including the use of biorational pesticides, semiochemicals and biological control. Forecasting models, new tree training systems and innovative spray equipment have also been developed to improve treatment coverage, to mitigate pesticide drift and to reduce chemical residues on fruits. The possible threats that jeopardize the effective implementation of IPM and particularly the risks related to the development of the pesticide resistance and the introduction of new invasive pests are also reviewed. With the directive 128/09, the European legislation recognizes IPM as a strategic approach for the sustainable use of pesticides. Within this context, IPM and related guidelines is called to meet different areas of concern in relation to the worker and bystander safety. Beside the traditional economic criteria of the market-oriented agriculture, sustainable agriculture includes the assessment of the environmental impact of the agronomic practices within the societal context where they take place. As a consequence of the raising consumer concerns about environmental impacts generated by the fruit production, IFP certification over product standards, including process aspects, are frequently required by consumers and supermarket chains.

  6. Are Schools Making the Grade? School Districts Nationwide Adopt Safer Pest Management Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Cortney; Owens, Kagan

    2002-01-01

    This report documents school districts that have adopted safer pest management policies, such as integrated pest management (IPM), in response to state requirements or as a voluntary measure that exceeds state law. It also documents the state of local school pest management policies and illustrates the opportunities that exist for better…

  7. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Roger I.; Piñero, Jaime C.; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  8. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-04-03

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  9. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  10. Economic Evaluation of an Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management Program to Control the Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    Shepard, Donald S.; Halasa, Yara A.; Fonseca, Dina M.; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P.; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A.; Clark, Gary G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8. PMID:25338065

  11. Integrated Pest Management, Preliminary. Curriculum Guide and Instructional Materials for a Secondary School Vo-Ag Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady County Board of Education, Cairo, GA.

    This curriculum guide presents methods to disseminate information to students interested in dealing with pests, or who have concerns about the environmental impacts of modern pest control methods. Options are encouraged for pest control methods using a combination of natural, biological, cultural, and chemical means of control. Specifically…

  12. Integrated Pest Management, Preliminary. Curriculum Guide and Instructional Materials for a Secondary School Vo-Ag Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady County Board of Education, Cairo, GA.

    This curriculum guide presents methods to disseminate information to students interested in dealing with pests, or who have concerns about the environmental impacts of modern pest control methods. Options are encouraged for pest control methods using a combination of natural, biological, cultural, and chemical means of control. Specifically…

  13. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    PubMed

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified.

  14. Efficacy and value of prophylactic vs. integrated pest management approaches for management of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in wheat and ramifications for adoption by growers.

    PubMed

    Reisig, Dominic D; Bacheler, Jack S; Herbert, D Ames; Kuhar, Thomas; Malone, Sean; Philips, Chris; Weisz, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L., can be effectively managed in southeastern U.S. wheat, Triticum aestivum L., with scouting and a single insecticide treatment, applied at the recommended economic threshold. However, many growers eschew this approach for a prophylactic treatment, often tank mixed with a nitrogen application before wheat growth stage 30. The efficacy of a prophylactic and an integrated pest management (IPM) approach was compared for 2 yr using small plot studies in North Carolina and regional surveys across North Carolina and Virginia. Economic analyses were performed, comparing the total cost of management of each approach using the regional survey data. From a cost perspective, the prophylactic approach was riskier, because when cereal leafbeetle densities were high, economic loss was also high. However, fields under the prophylactic approach did not exceed threshold as often as fields using IPM. Total cost of prophylactic management was also $20.72 less per hectare, giving this approach an economic advantage over IPM. The majority of fields under the IPM approach did not exceed the economic threshold. Hence, from an economic perspective, both the prophylactic and IPM approaches have advantages and disadvantages. This helps explains the partial, rather than complete, adoption of IPM by southeastern U.S. wheat growers. Cereal leaf beetle was spatially aggregated across the region in 2010, but not in 2011. As a result, from an economic standpoint, prophylaxis or IPM may have a better fit in localized areas of the region than others. Finally, because IPM adoption is favored when it has a strong economic advantage over alternative management approaches, more emphasis should be placed on research to reduce costs within the IPM approach.

  15. Coccinellids and the Modern Pest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodek, Ivo

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the concept of integrated pest control combining chemical and biological methods. Describes many examples of the successful use of coccinellids beetles to control other insects. Cites ecological and physiological research studies related to predator prey relationships involving coccinellids. (EB)

  16. Role of neonicotinyl insecticides in Washington apple integrated pest management. Part II. Nontarget effects on integrated mite control

    PubMed Central

    Beers, E. H.; Brunner, J. F.; Dunley, J. E.; Doerr, M.; Granger, K.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of neonicotinyl insecticides on integrated mite control in Washington apple was examined from 0 In a series of 20 field trials (54 treatments) designed primarily to look at efficacy against the codling moth, Cydia pomonella, nearly half of the treatments using four or more applications of acetamiprid had peak mite densities exceeding the economic threshold of 5 mites per leaf. Overall, acetamiprid treatments had 4.6-fold higher mite densities than the standard organophosphate insecticide treatment. Of the treatments with high mite populations, Panonychus ulmi, the European red mite, and Tetranychus urticae, the twospotted spider mite, were the dominant species in roughly equal numbers of cases. Only 11.1% of the thiacloprid treatments exceeded 5 mites per leaf; these experimental treatments included eight applications, whereas the current label restricts the number of applications at the rate for C. pomonella to two applications. One out of six clothianidin treatments caused a significantly higher mite density than the standard treatment; however, this material appeared to suppress predatory mites. Neonicotinyl insecticides did not eliminate predatory mites, but they inhibited their ability to respond normally to increasing prey populations. In field trials designed specifically to examine mite population densities where neonicotinyl insecticides were used, significantly higher levels of tetranychid mites occurred in one or more acetamiprid treatments (one, two or four applications) in five out of six trials. In the sixth trial (in a commercial orchard), only two acetamiprid applications were made, and mite populations were low in all treatments. While elevated mite densities were more likely to occur with four applications, in one case it occurred following a single application. The predominant tetranychid mite species (either P. ulmi or T. urticae) varied from trial to trial; however, there was no apparent bias regarding stimulation of the two species

  17. DoD Pest Management Program,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-22

    Pest Management Program, as established under DoD Directive 4715.1, Section 125 of Title 10, United States Code, and the Joint Service Regulation, ’Joint Field Operating Agencies of the Office of The Surgeon General of the Army’ authorizes the publication of DoD 41 50.7-M, ’DoD Pest Management Training and Certification’ authorizes the publication of DoD 4150.7-P, ’DoD Plan for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators’ and designates the Secretary of the Army as the DoD Executive Agent for the Armed Forces Pest

  18. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mensah, Robert K.; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 102 to 109) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 × 107 spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production. PMID:26463189

  19. Development of a Microbial-Based Integrated Pest Management Program for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Beneficial Insects on Conventional Cotton Crops in Australia.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Robert K; Young, Alison; Rood-England, Leah

    2015-04-09

    Entomopathogenic fungi, when used as a microbial control agent against cotton pests, such as Helicoverpa spp., may have the potential to establish and spread in the environment and to have an impact on both pests and beneficial insects. Information on the effect of entomopathogenic fungi on pests and beneficial insects is crucial for a product to be registered as a biopesticide. The effect of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639 (Aspergillus sp.) against Helicoverpa spp. and beneficial insects (mostly predatory insects) was studied in the laboratory and in cotton field trials. The results show that when Helicoverpa spp. second instar larvae were exposed to increasing concentrations (from 10² to 10⁸) of the entomopathogenic fungus BC 639, the optimum dose required to kill over 50% of the insects was 1.0 ´ 10⁷ spores/mL. In the field trials, the number of Helicoverpa spp. per metre on plots treated with 1.0 or 0.50 L/ha of BC 639 was the same as on plots treated with the recommended rate of the commercial insecticide, Indoxacarb. However, when plots were treated with 0.25 L/ha of BC 639, this was not as effective at controlling Helicoverpa spp. as 1.0 or 0.5 L/ha BC 639 or Indoxacarb. BC 639 had less effect on predatory insects when applied at lower rates (0.50 and 0.25 L/ha) than at higher rates (1.0 L/ha). Thus, BC 639 was more selective against predators when applied at lower rates than at the higher rate, but was also more selective than Indoxacarb. Thus, the ability of BC 639 to control Helicoverpa spp. effectively with a minimal effect on predatory insects indicates its potential for enhancing integrated pest management programs and to sustain cotton production.

  20. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  1. Training Childcare Center Administrators about Integrated Pest Management through Greener Environmental Communication Venues and Collecting Pesticide Use Data in the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    Many people assume that schools and childcare centers are environmentally safe places for children to learn. However, adverse health effects from pest allergy related illnesses or pesticide exposure incidents can demonstrate the need for safer and more effective pest management strategies. The goal of this research is to measure the efficacy of…

  2. Guidelines for the use of mathematics in operational area-wide integrated pest management programs using the sterile insect technique with a special focus on Tephritid Fruit Flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest control managers can benefit from using mathematical approaches, particularly models, when implementing area-wide pest control programs that include sterile insect technique (SIT), especially when these are used to calculate required rates of sterile releases to result in suppression or eradica...

  3. The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

  4. The Case of the Wild House Mouse. Urban Pest Management. Teaching Environmental Living Skills to Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM), a decision-making approach to pest control, is designed to help individuals decide if pest suppression treatments are necessary, when they should be initiated, where they should be applied, and what strategy and mix of tactics to use. IPM combines a variety of approaches with which to manage pests. These include…

  5. DoD Pest Management Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-29

    Commonwealths of Puerto Rico, the Northern Marianas, the Virgin Islands; and the Territories of Guam and American Samoa. ENCLOSURE 2 14 DoDI 4150.07, May...minor nuisance pest problems. Quarters and housing occupants are responsible for controlling pests, such as cockroaches , household infesting ants... cockroach and ant baits and/or traps, mouse traps, glue boards, and ready-to-use aerosol pesticides. The office designated to manage the

  6. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271... Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic facility must use management practices to prevent pests, including but not limited to: (1) Removal of pest...

  7. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271... Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic facility must use management practices to prevent pests, including but not limited to: (1) Removal of pest...

  8. Evaluation of two least toxic integrated pest management programs for managing bed bugs (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) with discussion of a bed bug intercepting device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Gibb, Timothy; Bennett, Gary W

    2009-05-01

    The cost and effectiveness of two bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) integrated pest management (IPM) programs were evaluated for 10 wk. Sixteen bed bug-infested apartments were chosen from a high-rise low-income apartment building. The apartments were randomly divided into two treatment groups: diatomaceous earth dust-based IPM (D-IPM) and chlorfenapyr spray-based IPM (S-IPM). The initial median (minimum, maximum) bed bug counts (by visual inspection) of the two treatment groups were 73.5 (10, 352) and 77 (18, 3025), respectively. A seminar and an educational brochure were delivered to residents and staff. It was followed by installing encasements on mattresses and box springs and applying hot steam to bed bug-infested areas in all 16 apartments. Diatomaceous earth dust (Mother Earth-D) was applied in the D-IPM group 2 d after steaming. In addition, bed bug-intercepting devices were installed under legs of infested beds or sofas or chairs to intercept bed bugs. The S-IPM group only received 0.5% chlorfenapyr spray (Phantom) after the nonchemical treatments. All apartments were monitored bi-weekly and retreated when necessary. After 10 wk, bed bugs were eradicated from 50% of the apartments in each group. Bed bug count reduction (mean +/- SEM) was 97.6 +/- 1.6 and 89.7 +/- 7.3% in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Mean treatment costs in the 10-wk period were $463 and $482 per apartment in the D-IPM and S-IPM groups, respectively. Bed bug interceptors trapped an average of 219 +/- 135 bed bugs per apartment in 10 wk. The interceptors contributed to the IPM program efficacy and were much more effective than visual inspections in estimating bed bug numbers and determining the existence of bed bug infestations.

  9. The Ohio Schools Pest Management Survey: A Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    In 2001, the Environmental Studies Senior Capstone Seminar class at Denison University helped the state of Ohio work to prevent harmful pesticide use in schools. In cooperation with Ohio State University's Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Schools Program, Denison conducted a statewide survey of school districts to determine current pest…

  10. Arthropod pest management in organic crops.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Geoff; Gurr, Geoff M; Kühne, Stefan; Wade, Mark R; Wratten, Steve D; Wyss, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Burgeoning consumer interest in organically produced foods has made organic farming one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture. This growth has not been supported adequately by rigorous research to address challenges such as arthropod pest management. The research that has been conducted, however, is complemented by research in aspects of conventional agriculture that may have applicability in organic systems, as well as by research in underpinning fields such as applied ecology. This article synthesizes the available literature in relation to a conceptual model of arthropod pest management strategies suitable for organic systems. The present work uses the four phases of the model to review the strategies in an agroecological context and provides a synthesis of the factors that influence the success of each phase. Rather than constituting a fringe science, pest management research for organic systems draws on cutting edge science in fields such as landscape and chemical ecology and has a bright future.

  11. Integrated pest management of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula on tomato crop using trap and refuge crops

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern Green Stinkbug, Nezara viridula (L.) Hemiptera: Pentatomidae is a serious insect pest of tomato crop in tropical and sub-tropical countries. The green stinkbug is difficult to control with currently available insecticides on the market. In this study we investigated the potential use of...

  12. Deltamethrin-incorporated nets as an integrated pest management tool for the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), which have insecticide incorporated within the fibers, have been widely used for the control of malaria and other insect-vectored diseases. Only recently have researchers begun exploring their use for control of agricultural pests. In this study, we evaluated...

  13. Integrated pest management of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomato in North Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Southern Green Stinkbug, Nezara viridula is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential for IPM of N. viridula. The experimental trap crops and refuge crops were, striped sunflower, WGF sorghum and brown ...

  14. Incorporating basic and applied approaches to evaluate the effects of invasive Asian Carp on native fishes: A necessary first step for integrated pest management

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Sara J.; James, Daniel; Hrabik, Robert A.; Herzog, David P.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies throughout North America allege deleterious associations among invasive Asian Carp and native fishes; however, no empirical evidence on a system-wide scale exists. We used Mississippi River Basin fish community data collected by the Long Term Resource Monitoring program and the Missouri Department of Conservation to evaluate possible interaction between Asian Carp and native fishes. Results from two decades of long-term monitoring throughout much of the Mississippi River suggest that Silver Carp relative abundance has increased while relative abundance (Bigmouth Buffalo [F 3, 8240 = 6.44, P<0.01] and Gizzard Shad [F 3, 8240 = 31.04, P<0.01]) and condition (Bigmouth Buffalo [slope = -0.11; t = -1.71; P = 0.1014] and Gizzard Shad [slope = -0.39; t = -3.02; P = 0.0073]) of native planktivores have declined. Floodplain lake qualitative evaluations yielded similar results; floodplain lake fish communities were likely altered (i.e., reductions in native species) by Silver Carp. Furthermore, laboratory experiments corroborated field evidence; Silver Carp negatively influence native planktivores through competition for prey (all comparisons, P > 0.05). To this end, this study provides evidence that Silver Carp are likely adversely influencing native fishes; however, mere presence of Silver Carp in the system does not induce deleterious effects on native fishes. To the best of our knowledge, this evaluation is the first to describe the effects of Asian Carp throughout the Mississippi River Basin and could be used to reduce the effects of Asian Carp on native biota through an integrated pest management program as suggested by congressional policy. Despite the simplicity of the data analyzed and approach used, this study provides a framework for beginning to identify the interactions of invasive fish pests on native fishes (i.e., necessary first step of integrated pest management). However, knowledge gaps remain. We suggest future efforts should conduct more

  15. User`s guide for SeedCalc: A decision-support system for integrated pest management in slash pine seed orchards. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Fatzinger, C.W.; Dixon, W.N.

    1996-03-01

    SeedCalc, a decision-support system designed for use on personal computers, evaluates the consequences of different pest management strategies in slash pine (Pinus elliotti Engelm. var. elliottii) seed orchards. This interactive program allows managers to enter orchard survey data and manipulate pesticides applied, application equipment costs, insect damage rates, strobilus development rates and beginning population, and pesticide efficacy rates to develop a pest management program that best fits their needs. This guide provides user instructions for SeedCalc, presents screen and printer examples, and describes the structure, assumptions, default values and flow charts of the system.

  16. Dispersal behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on tomato at several spatial scales and densities: implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K M; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants.

  17. Dispersal Behavior of Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae on Tomato at Several Spatial Scales and Densities: Implications for Integrated Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Azandémè-Hounmalon, Ginette Y.; Fellous, Simon; Kreiter, Serge; Fiaboe, Komi K. M.; Subramanian, Sevgan; Kungu, Miriam; Martin, Thibaud

    2014-01-01

    Studying distribution is necessary to understand and manage the dynamics of species with spatially structured populations. Here we studied the distribution in Tetranychus evansi and T. urticae, two mite pests of tomato, in the scope of evaluating factors that can influence the effectiveness of Integrated Pest Management strategies. We found greater positive density-dependent distribution with T. evansi than T. urticae when assayed on single, detached tomato leaves. Indeed, T. evansi distribution among leaflets increased with initial population density while it was high even at low T. urticae densities. Intensity and rate of damage to whole plants was higher with T. evansi than T. urticae. We further studied the circadian migration of T. evansi within plant. When T. evansi density was high the distribution behavior peaked between 8 am and 3 pm and between 8 pm and 3 am local time of Kenya. Over 24 h the total number of mites ascending and descending was always similar and close to the total population size. The gregarious behavior of T. evansi combined with its rapid population growth rate, may explain why few tomato plants can be severely damaged by T. evansi and how suddenly all the crop can be highly infested. However the localisation and elimination of the first infested plants damaged by T. evansi could reduce the risk of outbreaks in the entire crop. These findings suggest also that an acaricide treated net placed on the first infested plants could be very effective to control T. evansi. Moreover circadian migration would therefore accentuate the efficiency of an acaricide treated net covering the infested plants. PMID:24743580

  18. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two ...

  19. Area-wide management of Aedes albopictus. Part 2: gauging the efficacy of traditional integrated pest control measures against urban container mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Dina M; Unlu, Isik; Crepeau, Taryn; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel; Gaugler, Randy; Hamilton, George; Kline, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2013-12-01

    Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important disease vector and biting nuisance. During the 2009 active season, six ∼1000-parcel sites were studied, three in urban and three in suburban areas of New Jersey, United States, to examine the efficacy of standard integrated urban mosquito control strategies applied area wide. Active source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding and public education (source reduction through education) were implemented in one site in each county, an education-only approach was developed in a second site and a third site was used as an untreated experimental control. Populations were surveyed weekly with BG-Sentinel traps and ovitraps. A substantial reduction in Ae. albopictus populations was achieved in urban sites, but only modest reductions in suburban sites. Education alone achieved significant reductions in urban adult Ae. albopictus. Egg catches echoed adult catches only in suburban sites. There are significant socioeconomic and climatic differences between urban and suburban sites that impact upon Ae. albopictus populations and the efficacy of the control methods tested. An integrated pest management approach can affect abundances, but labor-intensive, costly source reduction was not enough to maintain Ae. albopictus counts below a nuisance threshold. Nighttime adult population suppression using truck-mounted adulticides can be effective. Area-wide cost-effective strategies are necessary. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Future trends and needs in stored product entomology-pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Insect pest management in stored products, and in particular the concept of integrated pest management (IPM), has different meanings depending on one's viewpoint of IPM. One of the difficulties in stored products is adequately sampling large bulk bins or silos of raw stored grain or large milling an...

  1. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    PubMed

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.

  2. Parasitism performance and fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): implications in integrated pest management strategy.

    PubMed

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control.

  3. Parasitism Performance and Fitness of Cotesia vestalis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Infected with Nosema sp. (Microsporidia: Nosematidae): Implications in Integrated Pest Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Kermani, Nadia; Abu Hassan, Zainal-Abidin; Suhaimi, Amalina; Abuzid, Ismail; Ismail, Noor Farehan; Attia, Mansour; Ghani, Idris Abd

    2014-01-01

    The diamondback moth (DBM) Plutella xylostella (L.) has traditionally been managed using synthetic insecticides. However, the increasing resistance of DBM to insecticides offers an impetus to practice integrated pest management (IPM) strategies by exploiting its natural enemies such as pathogens, parasitoids, and predators. Nevertheless, the interactions between pathogens and parasitoids and/or predators might affect the effectiveness of the parasitoids in regulating the host population. Thus, the parasitism rate of Nosema-infected DBM by Cotesia vestalis (Haliday) (Hym., Braconidae) can be negatively influenced by such interactions. In this study, we investigated the effects of Nosema infection in DBM on the parasitism performance of C. vestalis. The results of no-choice test showed that C. vestalis had a higher parasitism rate on non-infected host larvae than on Nosema-treated host larvae. The C. vestalis individuals that emerged from Nosema-infected DBM (F1) and their progeny (F2) had smaller pupae, a decreased rate of emergence, lowered fecundity, and a prolonged development period compared to those of the control group. DBM infection by Nosema sp. also negatively affected the morphometrics of C. vestalis. The eggs of female C. vestalis that developed in Nosema-infected DBM were larger than those of females that developed in non-infected DBM. These detrimental effects on the F1 and F2 generations of C. vestalis might severely impact the effectiveness of combining pathogens and parasitoids as parts of an IPM strategy for DBM control. PMID:24968125

  4. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Frames 2.0 Pest Integration (F2PEST)

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, Karl J.; Meyer, Philip D.

    2009-06-17

    The implementation of the FRAMES 2.0 F2PEST module is described, including requirements, design, and specifications of the software. This module integrates the PEST parameter estimation software within the FRAMES 2.0 environmental modeling framework. A test case is presented.

  5. Problem prevention and holistic pest management [Chapter 14

    Treesearch

    Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna; R. Kasten Dumroese; Kim M. Wilkinson

    2014-01-01

    As any experienced grower knows only too well, nursery management is a continuous process of solving problems. One recurring problem is pests. In the past, nursery managers waited for an insect or disease to appear and then sprayed some toxic chemical to wipe out the pest or disease. This approach, however, also wipes out natural predators of the pest, resulting in an...

  6. Deltamethrin-Incorporated Nets as an Integrated Pest Management Tool for the Invasive Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Kuhar, T P; Short, B D; Krawczyk, G; Leskey, T C

    2017-03-06

    Long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs), which have insecticide incorporated within the fibers, have been widely used for control of malaria and other insect-vectored diseases. Only recently have researchers begun exploring their use for control of agricultural pests. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of a deltamethrin-incorporated LLIN, ZeroFly (Vestergaard-Frandsen, Washington, DC) for control of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). In the lab, exposure to the ZeroFly net for 10 s resulted in >90% mortality of H. halys nymphs and >40% mortality of H. halys adults. Longer exposure to the net resulted in higher mortality. In another experiment, a 15-cm2 sheet of ZeroFly net placed inside of the stink bug trap provided long-lasting kill of H. halys adults equal to or better than standard dichlorvos kill strip. Potential for the use of ZeroFly nets for H. halys IPM is discussed.

  7. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m < 0.100) across the buffer zones between the flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  8. Performance of a Genetically Modified Strain of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) for Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management With the Sterile Insect Technique.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Santos, Edwin M; Rendón, Pedro; Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Toledo, Jorge; Liedo, Pablo

    2017-02-01

    The genetically modified strain of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) VIENNA 8 1260 has two morphological markers that exhibit fluorescence in body and sperm. To assess the feasibility of its use in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs using the sterile insect technique, its rearing performance and quality control profile under small, medium, and large scales was evaluated, as well as in field cages. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain had a lower yield than the control strains, VIENNA 8 with D53 inversion (VIENNA 8) and without D53 inversion (VIENNA 8 D53-). At mass-rearing scale, yield gradually increased in three generations without reaching the control strain values. The VIENNA 8 1260 strain was stable in the genetic sexing mechanism (>99.9%) and expression of fluorescence (100%). In field cages, the VIENNA 8 1260 males reduced the mating potential of wild males in the same magnitude as the VIENNA 8, when evaluated in independent cage tests. However, the relative sterility index and the strain male relative performance index of VIENNA 8 1260 males were significantly lower than those of the VIENNA 8. There were no significant differences in longevity of these strains. The potential application of the VIENNA 8 1260 in AW-IPM programs is further discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Wittenberg, Eve; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2012-09-01

    Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

  10. Perceptions of risk, risk aversion, and barriers to adoption of decision support systems and integrated pest management: An introduction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rational management of plant diseases, both economically and environmentally, involves assessing risks and the costs associated with both correct and incorrect management decisions to determine when control measures are warranted. Decision support systems can help to inform users of plant disease r...

  11. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

  12. Net returns and risk for cover crop use as an integrated pest management practice in Alabama cotton production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cotton producers in Alabama are faced with uncertain yields and prices, as well as increasing weed management challenges such as glyphosate resistant weeds. By utilizing a production system that will reduce risk while maintaining yield, cotton production may be economically sustainable into the futu...

  13. Evaluation of the potential role of glufosinate-tolerant rice in integrated pest management programs for rice water weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Tindall, K V; Stout, M J; Williams, B J

    2004-12-01

    The impact of a herbicide-tolerant rice, Oryza sativa L., variety was assessed for its resistance to rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and its place in current integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the resistance of a glufosinate-tolerant rice variety and its glufosinate-susceptible parent line Bengal to the rice water weevil in the presence and absence of glufosinate applications. The LC50 dose-response and behavioral effects of glufosinate on adult rice water weevils also were studied. Field studies investigated the impacts of glufosinate-tolerant rice on rice water weevil management in the presence and absence of glufosinate under early and delayed flood conditions. Greenhouse studies demonstrated that in the absence of glufosinate, oviposition was 30% higher on the glufosinate-tolerant rice line than on Bengal rice or on glufosinate-tolerant line treated with recommended rates of commercially formulated glufosinate. Applications of glufosinate to glufosinate-tolerant rice resulted in a 20% reduction in rice water weevil larval densities compared with nontreated glufosinate-tolerant rice. The LC50 of glufosinate against adult rice water weevil was nearly 2 times the concentration recommended for application to glufosinate-tolerant rice. There was no difference in the amount of leaf area consumed by adult rice water weevils on glufosinate-treated and nontreated foliage. The absence of direct toxicity of glufosinate to rice water weevil at recommended glufosinate use rates and lack of behavioral effects suggest that the reduction in rice water weevil densities observed after glufosinate applications resulted from herbicide-induced plant resistance. Field experiments showed that neither rice variety nor herbicide use affected larval densities; however, delaying flood and applying insecticide effectively reduced numbers of rice water weevil larvae.

  14. Population structure of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) between river basins in Burkina Faso: consequences for area-wide integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Jérémy; Ravel, Sophie; Guerrini, Laure; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Sidibé, Issa; Vreysen, Marc J B; Solano, Philippe; De Meeûs, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    African animal trypanosomosis is a major obstacle to the development of more efficient and sustainable livestock production systems in West Africa. Riverine tsetse species such as Glossina palpalis gambiensis Vanderplank are their major vectors. A wide variety of control tactics is available to manage these vectors, but their elimination will only be sustainable if control is exercised following area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) principles, i.e. the control effort is targeting an entire tsetse population within a circumscribed area. In the present study, genetic variation at microsatellite DNA loci was used to examine the population structure of G. p. gambiensis inhabiting two adjacent river basins, i.e. the Comoé and the Mouhoun River basins in Burkina Faso. A remote sensing analysis revealed that the woodland savannah habitats between the river basins have remained unchanged during the last two decades. In addition, genetic variation was studied in two populations that were separated by a man-made lake originating from a dam built in 1991 on the Comoé. Low genetic differentiation was observed between the samples from the Mouhoun and the Comoé River basins and no differentiation was found between the samples separated by the dam. The data presented indicate that the overall genetic differentiation of G. p. gambiensis populations inhabiting two adjacent river basins in Burkina Faso is low (F(ST)=0.016). The results of this study suggest that either G. p. gambiensis populations from the Mouhoun are not isolated from those of the Comoé, or that the isolation is too recent to be detected. If elimination of the G. p. gambiensis population from the Mouhoun River basin is the selected control strategy, re-invasion from adjacent river basins may need to be prevented by establishing a buffer zone between the Mouhoun and the other river basin(s).

  15. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

  16. Airborne multi-spectral remote sensing with ground truth for areawide pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  17. Use of Airborne Multi-Spectral Imagery in Pest Management Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Scientists and researchers have been developing, integrating, and evaluating multiple strategies and technologies into a systems approach for management of field crop insect pests. Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology are...

  18. Cost and effectiveness of community-wide integrated pest management for German cockroach, cockroach allergen, and insecticide use reduction in low-income housing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Bennett, Gary W

    2009-08-01

    Many low-income housing units in the United States continue to have chronic German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), infestations and high prevalence of cockroach allergens despite the availability of highly effective cockroach control products. Several studies have demonstrated the greater effectiveness of integrated pest management (IPM) compared with routine chemical interventions in apartment buildings and the benefit of cockroach allergen reduction using IPM. Yet, there has been little information on the cost and benefit of community-wide cockroach IPM, which is critical for voluntary adoption of IPM programs. We evaluated a community-wide IPM program in two low-income apartment complexes in Gary, IN. The program included education of staff and residents, monthly monitoring, and nonchemical (laying sticky traps) and chemical treatment based on monitoring results. One complex of 191 apartments was treated with cockroach gel bait, boric acid dust, and sticky traps by state licensed entomologists from Purdue University (E-IPM group). The other complex of 251 apartments was treated by pest management professionals (PMPs) from a contractor (C-IPM group) following the same protocol as the E-IPM group. Purdue University researchers trained Gary Housing Authority (GHA) staff on cockroach biology and management and cockroach allergen reduction techniques. GHA staff educated all residents in the two complexes on cockroach control and allergen reduction through printed materials, demonstrations, or both. Purdue University entomologists conducted the initial and monthly monitoring in both complexes (laying six sticky traps per apartment and retrieving them the next day) with the assistance from GHA to evaluate program effectiveness, guide insecticide applications, and identify apartments with poor sanitation conditions. Dust samples were collected from kitchen floors of 72 cockroach-infested apartments at the beginning, and again at 6 and 12 mo to evaluate changes in

  19. Fungal allelochemicals in insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Holighaus, Gerrit; Rohlfs, Marko

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between insects and fungi are widespread, and important mediators of these interactions are fungal chemicals that can therefore be considered as allelochemicals. Numerous studies suggest that fungal chemicals can affect insects in many different ways. Here, we apply the terminology established by insect-plant ecologists for categorizing the effect of fungal allelochemicals on insects and for evaluating the application potential of these chemicals in insect pest management. Our literature survey shows that fungal volatile and non-volatile chemicals have an enormous potential to influence insect behavior and fitness. Many of them still remain to be discovered, but some recent examples of repellents and toxins could open up new ways for developing safe insect control strategies. However, we also identified shortcomings in our understanding of the chemical ecology of insect-fungus interactions and the way they have been investigated. In particular, the mode-of-action of fungal allelochemicals has often not been appropriately designated or examined, and the way in which induction by insects affects fungal chemical diversity is poorly understood. This review should raise awareness that in-depth ecological studies of insect-fungus interactions can reveal novel allelochemicals of particular benefit for the development of innovative insect pest management strategies.

  20. IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2005-03-01

    For years the pest Management Professional has relied on visual and manual inspections to locate insect pest infestations. As building materials have improved, the ability to locate pest problems has become more difficult since building materials are often able to mask the existence of pest infestation. Additionally, these improved building materials have contributed to the pest problem by providing a convenient food and nesting source. Within the past five years, the Pest Management Industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestation by detecting evidence of latent moisture within structures. This paper discusses the use of thermal imaging to detect thermal patterns associated with insect infestation, verification of data and special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  1. Global warming presents new challenges for maize pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Krupke, Christian H.; White, Michael A.; Alexander, Corinne E.

    2008-10-01

    It has been conjectured that global warming will increase the prevalence of insect pests in many agro-ecosystems. In this paper, we quantitatively assess four of the key pests of maize, one of the most important systems in North American grain production. Using empirically generated estimates of pest overwintering thresholds and degree-day requirements, along with climate change projections from a high-resolution climate model, we project potential future ranges for each of these pests in the United States. Our analysis suggests the possibility of increased winter survival and greater degree-day accumulations for each of the pests surveyed. We find that relaxed cold limitation could expand the range of all four pest taxa, including a substantial range expansion in the case of corn earworm (H. zea), a migratory, cold-intolerant pest. Because the corn earworm is a cosmopolitan pest that has shown resistance to insecticides, our results suggest that this expansion could also threaten other crops, including those in high-value areas of the western United States. Because managing significant additional pressure from this suite of established pests would require additional pest management inputs, the projected decreases in cold limitation and increases in heat accumulation have the potential to significantly alter the pest management landscape for North American maize production. Further, these range expansions could have substantial economic impacts through increased seed and insecticide costs, decreased yields, and the downstream effects of changes in crop yield variability.

  2. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    PubMed

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts.

  3. Insect pest management decisions in food processing facilities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pest management decision making in food processing facilities such as flour mills, rice mills, human and pet food manufacturing facilities, distribution centers and warehouses, and retail stores is a challenging undertaking. Insect pest management programs require an understanding of the food facili...

  4. Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

    1986-03-01

    The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

  5. Cost and efficacy comparison of integrated pest management strategies with monthly spray insecticide applications for German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) control in public housing.

    PubMed

    Miller, D M; Meek, F

    2004-04-01

    The long-term costs and efficacy of two treatment methodologies for German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), control were compared in the public housing environment. The "traditional" treatment for German cockroaches consisted of monthly baseboard and crack and crevice treatment (TBCC) by using spray and dust formulation insecticides. The integrated pest management treatment (IPM) involved initial vacuuming of apartments followed by monthly or quarterly applications of baits and insect growth regulator (IGR) devices. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were also monitored with sticky traps. Technician time and the amount of product applied were used to measure cost in both treatments. Twenty-four hour sticky trap catch was used as an indicator of treatment efficacy. The cost of the IPM treatment was found to be significantly greater than the traditional treatment, particularly at the initiation of the test. In the first month (clean-out), the average cost per apartment unit was dollar 14.60, whereas the average cost of a TBCC unit was dollar 2.75. In the second month of treatment, the average cost of IPM was still significantly greater than the TBCC cost. However, after month 4 the cost of the two treatments was no longer significantly different because many of the IPM apartments were moved to a quarterly treatment schedule. To evaluate the long-term costs of the two treatments over the entire year, technician time and product quantities were averaged over all units treated within the 12-mo test period (total 600 U per treatment). The average per unit cost of the IPM treatment was (dollar 4.06). The average IPM cost was significantly greater than that of the TBCC treatment at dollar 1.50 per unit. Although the TBCC was significantly less expensive than the IPM treatment, it was also less effective. Trap catch data indicated that the TBCC treatment had little, if any, effect on the cockroach populations over the course of the year. Cockroach populations in

  6. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    PubMed

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  7. The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Cheema, Zahid A; Wahid, Abdul; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2011-05-01

    Allelopathy is a naturally occurring ecological phenomenon of interference among organisms that may be employed for managing weeds, insect pests and diseases in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be used following rotation, using cover crops, mulching and plant extracts for natural pest management. Application of allelopathic plant extracts can effectively control weeds and insect pests. However, mixtures of allelopathic water extracts are more effective than the application of single-plant extract in this regard. Combined application of allelopathic extract and reduced herbicide dose (up to half the standard dose) give as much weed control as the standard herbicide dose in several field crops. Lower doses of herbicides may help to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in weed ecotypes. Allelopathy thus offers an attractive environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides in agricultural pest management. In this review, application of allelopathy for natural pest management, particularly in small-farm intensive agricultural systems, is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a specific and safe tool for insect pest management?

    PubMed

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-03-14

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully bioinsecticide used in the world in the integrated pest management programs. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity.

  9. Forest nursery pest management in Cuba

    Treesearch

    Rene Alberto Lopez Castilla; Angela Duarte Casanova; Celia Guerra Rivero; Haylett Cruz Escoto; Natividad Triguero Issasi

    2002-01-01

    A systematic survey of methods to detect pests in forest nurseries before they damage plants was done. These surveys recorded the most important forest nursery pests during 18 years (from 1980 to 1998) and their geographical and temporal distribution in the principal enterprises in Cuba. Approximately a dozen insect species and three fungi species responsible for the...

  10. The role of climate-related information in pest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, A.

    1990-03-01

    A distinction is made between climate information and climate-related information. The former pertains to any expression of climate data used for decision making. Climaterelated information for pest management results from quantifying relationships between host, environment, and pest and presenting the consequences of different actions, a decisionmaking format. It is suggested that in order to develop climate-related information for pest management, automated weather stations in climatological networks should be expanded from these site specific locations to crop specific locations. Combining physical and biological data can be the basis for developing or improving crop/pest interaction models and can also serve as a database for verifying existing models. These models can be run under different economic and climatic scenarios with different risk preferences to present end users with results from different pest management options.

  11. In-Field Habitat Management to Optimize Pest Control of Novel Soil Communities in Agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pearsons, Kirsten A; Tooker, John F

    2017-08-05

    The challenge of managing agroecosystems on a landscape scale and the novel structure of soil communities in agroecosystems both provide reason to focus on in-field management practices, including cover crop adoption, reduced tillage, and judicial pesticide use, to promote soil community diversity. Belowground and epigeal arthropods, especially exotic generalist predators, play a significant role in controlling insect pests, weeds, and pathogens in agroecosystems. However, the preventative pest management tactics that dominate field-crop production in the United States do not promote biological control. In this review, we argue that by reducing disturbance, mitigating the effects of necessary field activities, and controlling pests within an Integrated Pest Management framework, farmers can facilitate the diversity and activity of native and exotic arthropod predators.

  12. Insect pest management for raw commodities during storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter provides an overview of the pest management decision-making process during grain storage. An in-depth discussion of sampling methods, cost-benefit analysis, expert systems, consultants and the use of computer simulation models is provided. Sampling is essential to determine if pest...

  13. Climate change, carbon dioxide, and pest biology: Monitor, mitigate, manage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO2] and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a re...

  14. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    PubMed

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration.

  15. Habitat Management to Suppress Pest Populations: Progress and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Gurr, Geoff M; Wratten, Steve D; Landis, Douglas A; You, Minsheng

    2017-01-31

    Habitat management involving manipulation of farmland vegetation can exert direct suppressive effects on pests and promote natural enemies. Advances in theory and practical techniques have allowed habitat management to become an important subdiscipline of pest management. Improved understanding of biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships means that researchers now have a firmer theoretical foundation on which to design habitat management strategies for pest suppression in agricultural systems, including landscape-scale effects. Supporting natural enemies with shelter, nectar, alternative prey/hosts, and pollen (SNAP) has emerged as a major research topic and applied tactic with field tests and adoption often preceded by rigorous laboratory experimentation. As a result, the promise of habitat management is increasingly being realized in the form of practical worldwide implementation. Uptake is facilitated by farmer participation in research and is made more likely by the simultaneous delivery of ecosystem services other than pest suppression.

  16. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies. PMID:26466733

  17. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-11-09

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  18. Comparing conventional and biotechnology-based pest management.

    PubMed

    Duke, Stephen O

    2011-06-08

    Pest management has changed dramatically during the past 15 years by the introduction of transgenes into crops for the purpose of pest management. Transgenes for herbicide resistance or for production of one or more Bt toxins are the predominant pest management traits currently available. These two traits have been rapidly adopted where available because of their superior efficacy and simplification of pest management for the farmer. Furthermore, they have substantially reduced the use of environmentally and toxicologically suspect pesticides while reducing the carbon footprint of pest management as reduced tillage became more common, along with fewer trips across the field to spray pesticides. The most successful of these products have been glyphosate-resistant crops, which cover approximately 85% of all land occupied by transgenic crops. Over-reliance on glyphosate with continual use of these crops has resulted in the evolution of highly problematic glyphosate-resistant weeds. This situation has resulted in some farmers using weed management methods similar to those used with conventional crops. Evolution of resistance has not been a significant problem with Bt crops, perhaps because of a mandated resistance management strategy. Transgenic crops with multiple genes for resistance to different herbicides and resistance to additional insects will be available in the next few years. These products will offer opportunities for the kind of pest management diversity that is more sustainable than that provided by the first generation of transgenic crops.

  19. Integrated applications of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. tenebrionis and Beauveria bassiana for biologically-based integrated pest management of Colorado potato beetle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research conducted over the past decade has indicated a low level of synergism and potentially high degree of complementarity between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- and Beauveria bassiana (Bb)-based biopesticides applied for management of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata. In view...

  20. Crop pest management with an aerial imaging system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Remote sensing along with Global Positioning Systems, Geographic Information Systems, and variable rate technology has been developed, which scientists can implement to help farmers maximize the economic and environmental benefits of crop pest management through precision agriculture. Airborne remo...

  1. Analysis of pesticide residues in strawberries and soils by GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS and two-dimensional GC-time-of-flight MS comparing organic and integrated pest management farming.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Virgínia C; Lehotay, Steven J; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Kwon, Hyeyoung; Mol, Hans G J; van der Kamp, Henk; Mateus, Nuno; Domingues, Valentina F; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed 22 strawberry and soil samples after their collection over the course of 2 years to compare the residue profiles from organic farming with integrated pest management practices in Portugal. For sample preparation, we used the citrate-buffered version of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method. We applied three different methods for analysis: (1) 27 pesticides were targeted using LC-MS/MS; (2) 143 were targeted using low pressure GC-tandem mass spectrometry (LP-GC-MS/MS); and (3) more than 600 pesticides were screened in a targeted and untargeted approach using comprehensive, two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS). Comparison was made of the analyses using the different methods for the shared samples. The results were similar, thereby providing satisfactory confirmation of both similarly positive and negative findings. No pesticides were found in the organic-farmed samples. In samples from integrated pest management practices, nine pesticides were determined and confirmed to be present, ranging from 2 µg kg(-1) for fluazifop-p-butyl to 50 µg kg(-1) for fenpropathrin. Concentrations of residues in strawberries were less than European maximum residue limits.

  2. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars.

  3. Bacterial Endophytic Communities in the Grapevine Depend on Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars. PMID:25387008

  4. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  5. Nonchemical management of soilborne pests in fresh market vegetable production systems.

    PubMed

    Chellemi, D O

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Nonchemical methods including host resistance, organic amendments, crop rotation, soil solarization, and cultural practices have been used to control soilborne pests in fresh market vegetable production systems. Their suitability as alternatives to methyl bromide will depend on the approach to pest management used by the grower. Traditionally, methyl bromide is used in production systems that rely on the single application of a broad-spectrum biocide to disinfest soils prior to planting. Non-chemical methods are not suitable for a single tactic approach to pest management because they do not provide the same broad spectrum of activity or consistency as fumigation with methyl bromide. Nonchemical methods are compatible with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach, where multiple tactics are used to maintain damage from pests below an economic threshold while minimizing the impact to beneficial organisms. However, adoption of IPM is hindered by the paucity of economically feasible sampling programs and thresholds for soilborne pests and by a reluctance of growers to commit additional resources to the collection and management of biological information. A novel approach to the management of soilborne pests is to design the crop production system to avoid pest outbreaks. Using this "proactive" approach, a tomato production system was developed using strip-tillage into existing bahia-grass pasture. By minimizing inputs and disruption to the pasture, growers were able to reap the rotational benefits of bahiagrass without cultivating the rotational crop. While minimizing the need for interventive procedures, a proactive approach is difficult to integrate into existing crop production systems and will require several years of testing and validation.

  6. Role of nanotechnology in agriculture with special reference to management of insect pests.

    PubMed

    Rai, Mahendra; Ingle, Avinash

    2012-04-01

    Nanotechnology is a promising field of interdisciplinary research. It opens up a wide array of opportunities in various fields like medicine, pharmaceuticals, electronics and agriculture. The potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology are enormous. These include insect pests management through the formulations of nanomaterials-based pesticides and insecticides, enhancement of agricultural productivity using bio-conjugated nanoparticles (encapsulation) for slow release of nutrients and water, nanoparticle-mediated gene or DNA transfer in plants for the development of insect pest-resistant varieties and use of nanomaterials for preparation of different kind of biosensors, which would be useful in remote sensing devices required for precision farming. Traditional strategies like integrated pest management used in agriculture are insufficient, and application of chemical pesticides like DDT have adverse effects on animals and human beings apart from the decline in soil fertility. Therefore, nanotechnology would provide green and efficient alternatives for the management of insect pests in agriculture without harming the nature. This review is focused on traditional strategies used for the management of insect pests, limitations of use of chemical pesticides and potential of nanomaterials in insect pest management as modern approaches of nanotechnology.

  7. Social and cultural dimensions of rodent pest management.

    PubMed

    Palis, Florencia G; Singleton, Grant; Sumalde, Zenaida; Hossain, Mahabub

    2007-09-01

    Rice production in Vietnam is threatened by rodent pests, with a significant increase in impact reported from 1990 through to the early 21st century. Pre-harvest rice losses are typically 5-10%, with losses of >20% occurring in some years in some regions. Farmers' rodent control practices are generally reactive and rely essentially on chemical and physical methods. Ecologically-based rodent pest management (EBRM) was developed in the late 1990s to manage rodents in rice-based farming systems in Vietnam and other parts of South-East Asia. EBRM combines both cultural and physical rodent management practices such as synchrony of cropping, short 2-week rat campaigns at key periods in key habitats, increasing general hygiene around villages, and use of a community trap-barrier system. Although EBRM has been reported to be economically profitable, the successful adoption of this set of technologies requires community participation. In this paper we address issues relating to the adoption and sustainability of EBRM in lowland irrigated rice fields in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. We particularly explore the social and cultural mechanisms involved in maintaining community participation to further understand the conditions under which EBRM works and does not work. Positive indications of sustained use of community-based EBRM include: a policy pronouncement from the prime minister directing the use of integrated rodent management; the use of existing cooperatives for developing community actions; budgetary allocation from provincial and local governments; diffusion of EBRM to provinces in the south and north that are not involved in farmer participatory field trials; and the adoption of EBRM by a non-governmental organization, World Vision Vietnam, in their area-development programs.

  8. Pest management update on sunflower midge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sunflower midge (Contarinia schulzi) is a serious insect pest of sunflower, causing bud and head deformation that lead to poor seed development, and in many cases no seed development. This presentation describes the life cycle of the sunflower midge and shows images of infested sunflower heads. ...

  9. Economic aspects of invasive forest pest management

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Holmes; Kathleen P. Bell; Brenna Byrne; Jeremy S. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    The past decade has evidenced growing concern with the causes and consequences of biological invasions, many of which are economic in nature(Perrings et al. 2002). The risk of a new pest introduction is positively correlated with world trade flows (Costello and McAusland 2003, Margolis et al. 2005) and new invasions threaten the productivity and biological diversity of...

  10. Game theory as a conceptual framework for managing insect pests.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joel S; Staňková, Kateřina

    2017-06-01

    For over 100 years it has been recognized that insect pests evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. More recently, managers have advocated restrained use of pesticides, crop rotation, the use of multiple pesticides, and pesticide-free sanctuaries as resistance management practices. Game theory provides a conceptual framework for combining the resistance strategies of the insects and the control strategies of the pest manager into a unified conceptual and modelling framework. Game theory can contrast an ecologically enlightened application of pesticides with an evolutionarily enlightened one. In the former case the manager only considers ecological consequences whereas the latter anticipates the evolutionary response of the pests. Broader applications of this game theory approach include anti-biotic resistance, fisheries management and therapy resistance in cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Building Blocks for School IPM: A Least-Toxic Pest Management Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Becky, Ed.; Owens, Kagan, Ed.

    This publication is a compilation of original and republished materials from numerous individuals and organizations working on pesticide reform and integrated pest management (IPM)--using alternatives to prevailing chemical-intensive practices. The manual provides comprehensive information on implementing school IPM, including a practical guide to…

  12. Integration of Plant Defense Traits with Biological Control of Arthropod Pests: Challenges and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Julie A; Ode, Paul J; Oliveira-Hofman, Camila; Harwood, James D

    2016-01-01

    Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP) traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management.

  13. Integration of Plant Defense Traits with Biological Control of Arthropod Pests: Challenges and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julie A.; Ode, Paul J.; Oliveira-Hofman, Camila; Harwood, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP) traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management. PMID:27965695

  14. The need to implement the landscape of fear within rodent pest management strategies.

    PubMed

    Krijger, Inge M; Belmain, Steven R; Singleton, Grant R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter Wg; Meerburg, Bastiaan G

    2017-05-29

    Current reactive pest management methods have serious drawbacks such as the heavy reliance on chemicals, emerging genetic rodenticide resistance and high secondary exposure risks. Rodent control needs to be based on pest species ecology and ethology to facilitate the development of ecologically based rodent management (EBRM). An important aspect of EBRM is a strong understanding of rodent pest species ecology, behaviour and spatiotemporal factors. Gaining insight into the behaviour of pest species is a key aspect of EBRM. The landscape of fear (LOF) is a mapping of the spatial variation in the foraging cost arising from the risk of predation, and reflects the levels of fear a prey species perceives at different locations within its home range. In practice, the LOF maps habitat use as a result of perceived fear, which shows where bait or traps are most likely to be encountered and used by rodents. Several studies have linked perceived predation risk of foraging animals with quitting-harvest rates or giving-up densities (GUDs). GUDs have been used to reflect foraging behaviour strategies of predator avoidance, but to our knowledge very few papers have directly used GUDs in relation to pest management strategies. An opportunity for rodent control strategies lies in the integration of the LOF of rodents in EBRM methodologies. Rodent management could be more efficient and effective by concentrating on those areas where rodents perceive the least levels of predation risk. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Delivery of intrahemocoelic peptides for insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Bonning, Bryony C; Chougule, Nanasaheb P

    2014-02-01

    The extensive use of chemical insecticides for insect pest management has resulted in insecticide resistance now being recorded in >500 species of insects and mites. Although gut-active toxins such as those derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been successfully used for insect pest management, a diverse range of insect-specific insecticidal peptides remains an untapped resource for pest management efforts. These toxins act within the insect hemocoel (body cavity) and hence require a delivery system to access their target site. Here, we summarize recent developments for appropriate delivery of such intrahemocoelic insect toxins, via fusion to a second protein such as a plant lectin or a luteovirus coat protein for transcytosis across the gut epithelium, or via entomopathogenic fungi.

  16. Efficient Management of Fruit Pests by Pheromone Nanogels

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Deepa; Samanta, Suman K.; Bhattacharya, Santanu

    2013-01-01

    Environment-friendly management of fruit flies involving pheromones is useful in reducing the undesirable pest populations responsible for decreasing the yield and the crop quality. A nanogel has been prepared from a pheromone, methyl eugenol (ME) using a low-molecular mass gelator. This was very stable at open ambient conditions and slowed down the evaporation of pheromone significantly. This enabled its easy handling and transportation without refrigeration, and reduction in the frequency of pheromone recharging in the orchard. Notably the involvement of the nano-gelled pheromone brought about an effective management of Bactrocera dorsalis, a prevalent harmful pest for a number of fruits including guava. Thus a simple, practical and low cost green chemical approach is developed that has a significant potential for crop protection, long lasting residual activity, excellent efficacy and favorable safety profiles. This makes the present invention well-suited for pest management in a variety of crops. PMID:23416455

  17. Environmental ethanol as an ecological constraint on the dietary breadth of the Spotted-Wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Mat. (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and its implication for integrated pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spotted-wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, is a recent exotic insect pest of the Americas. What makes SWD particularly destructive is the female’s double bladed and prominently serrated ovipositor, which inserts eggs below the epidermis of intact berries. Unlike the vast majority of Drosophi...

  18. Pheromone-Based Pest Management in China: Past, Present, and Future Prospects.

    PubMed

    Cui, Gen Zhong; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2016-07-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologies for the integrated pest management. However, in China, similar research lagged 15 to 20 years and was not initiated until the late 1980s. In this review, we present the early history of pheromone research that has led to the current practical applications in China, particularly in the development of pheromone-based pest management products. We also provide information regarding the current status of pheromone-based product manufacturing, marketing, and regulatory issues related to local semiochemical industries, which may be useful to other international companies interested in pursuing business in China. In addition, we share some research topics that represent new directions of the present pheromone research to explore novel tools for advancing semiochemical-based pest management in China.

  19. Forest insect pest management and forest management in China: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations-Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations-with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  20. Forest Insect Pest Management and Forest Management in China: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Lanzhu; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Xiaowei; An, Linli

    2011-12-01

    According to the Seventh National Forest Inventory (2004-2008), China's forests cover an area of 195.45 million ha, or 20.36% of the total land area. China has the most rapidly increasing forest resources in the world. However, China is also a country with serious forest pest problems. There are more than 8,000 species of potential forest pests in China, including insects, plant diseases, rodents and lagomorphs, and hazardous plants. Among them, 300 species are considered as economically or ecologically important, and half of these are serious pests, including 86 species of insects. Forest management and utilization have a considerable influence on the stability and sustainability of forest ecosystems. At the national level, forestry policies always play a major role in forest resource management and forest health protection. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of both achievements and challenges in forest management and insect pest control in China. First, we summarize the current status of forest resources and their pests in China. Second, we address the theories, policies, practices and major national actions on forestry and forest insect pest management, including the Engineering Pest Management of China, the National Key Forestry Programs, the Classified Forest Management system, and the Collective Forest Tenure Reform. We analyze and discuss three representative plantations— Eucalyptus, poplar and Masson pine plantations—with respect to their insect diversity, pest problems and pest management measures.

  1. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.271 Facility pest management practice standard. (a) The producer or handler of an organic... habitat, food sources, and breeding areas; (2) Prevention of access to handling facilities; and (3...

  2. Broadening the application of evolutionarily based genetic pest management.

    PubMed

    Gould, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Insect- and tick-vectored diseases such as malaria, dengue fever, and Lyme disease cause human suffering, and current approaches for prevention are not adequate. Invasive plants and animals such as Scotch broom, zebra mussels, and gypsy moths continue to cause environmental damage and economic losses in agriculture and forestry. Rodents transmit diseases and cause major pre- and postharvest losses, especially in less affluent countries. Each of these problems might benefit from the developing field of Genetic Pest Management that is conceptually based on principles of evolutionary biology. This article briefly describes the history of this field, new molecular tools in this field, and potential applications of those tools. There will be a need for evolutionary biologists to interact with researchers and practitioners in a variety of other fields to determine the most appropriate targets for genetic pest management, the most appropriate methods for specific targets, and the potential of natural selection to diminish the effectiveness of genetic pest management. In addition to producing environmentally sustainable pest management solutions, research efforts in this area could lead to new insights about the evolution of selfish genetic elements in natural systems and will provide students with the opportunity to develop a more sophisticated understanding of the role of evolutionary biology in solving societal problems.

  3. Optimizing pyramided transgenic Bt crops for sustainable pest management.

    PubMed

    Carrière, Yves; Crickmore, Neil; Tabashnik, Bruce E

    2015-02-01

    Transgenic crop pyramids producing two or more Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins that kill the same insect pest have been widely used to delay evolution of pest resistance. To assess the potential of pyramids to achieve this goal, we analyze data from 38 studies that report effects of ten Bt toxins used in transgenic crops against 15 insect pests. We find that compared with optimal low levels of insect survival, survival on currently used pyramids is often higher for both susceptible insects and insects resistant to one of the toxins in the pyramid. Furthermore, we find that cross-resistance and antagonism between toxins used in pyramids are common, and that these problems are associated with the similarity of the amino acid sequences of domains II and III of the toxins, respectively. This analysis should assist in future pyramid design and the development of sustainable resistance management strategies.

  4. Agroecological strategies for arthropod pest management in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato A; Teodoro, Adenir V; dos Santos, Gil R; do Nascimento, Ildon R

    2011-05-01

    There is a need to implement a new approach to pest control in which agroecological strategies are developed and adapted in a site-specific way to highly variable and diverse farm conditions typical of farms in tropical regions such as Brazil. It has become evident that the conventional agriculture based on high use of external inputs and oriented to maximize profits, has often been detrimental and unviable when considered from social and ecological perspectives. Pest problems, for example, are generally related to high input, single-crop agroecosystems. We discuss here agroecological strategies such as conservation biological control, use of natural pesticides and selectivity of synthetic and natural pesticides as a way to conserve and increase natural enemies' efficiency in Brazilian agroecosystems. In addition, we discuss some patents related to agroecological pest management.

  5. Insecticide-induced hormesis and arthropod pest management.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Cutler, G Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Ecological backlashes such as insecticide resistance, resurgence and secondary pest outbreaks are frequent problems associated with insecticide use against arthropod pest species. The last two have been particularly important in sparking interest in the phenomenon of insecticide-induced hormesis within entomology and acarology. Hormesis describes a biphasic dose-response relationship that is characterized by a reversal of response between low and high doses of a stressor (e.g. insecticides). Although the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis often does not receive sufficient attention, or has been subject to semantic confusion, it has been reported in many arthropod pest species and natural enemies, and has been linked to pest outbreaks and potential problems with insecticide resistance. The study of hormesis remains largely neglected in entomology and acarology. Here, we examined the concept of insecticide-induced hormesis in arthropods, its functional basis and potential fitness consequences, and its importance in arthropod pest management and other areas. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  7. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use management practices to prevent crop pests, weeds, and diseases including but not limited to: (1)...

  8. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  9. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: influence of sampling parameters, and validation of binomial sequential sampling plans for the cabbage looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2009-10-01

    Populations of cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were sampled in experimental plots and commercial fields of cabbage (Brasicca spp.) in Minnesota during 1998-1999 as part of a larger effort to implement an integrated pest management program. Using a resampling approach and the Wald's sequential probability ratio test, sampling plans with different sampling parameters were evaluated using independent presence/absence and enumerative data. Evaluations and comparisons of the different sampling plans were made based on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions generated for each plan and through the use of a decision probability matrix. Values for upper and lower decision boundaries, sequential error rates (alpha, beta), and tally threshold were modified to determine parameter influence on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. The following parameters resulted in the most desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions; action threshold of 0.1 proportion of plants infested, tally threshold of 1, alpha = beta = 0.1, upper boundary of 0.15, lower boundary of 0.05, and resampling with replacement. We found that sampling parameters can be modified and evaluated using resampling software to achieve desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Moreover, management of T. ni by using binomial sequential sampling should provide a good balance between cost and reliability by minimizing sample size and maintaining a high level of correct decisions (>95%) to treat or not treat.

  10. Conservation of beneficial species and pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    USDA, ARS scientists and staff at the satellite laboratory of CMAVE in Tallahassee, FL co-organized a vegetable field day with Florida A&M University (FAMU) faculty, staff and extension agents. The field days were held at the ARS and FAMU-Center for Viticulture and small fruit Research Integrated Pe...

  11. Integrating ecosystem services into crop protection and pest management: Case study with the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene and its use in tomato production in Italy.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Samantha; Alix, Anne; Knowles, Steve; Wheeler, James; Tescari, Enzo; Alvarez, Lara; Nicolette, Joseph; Rockel, Mark; Burston, Peter; Quadri, Giorgia

    2016-10-01

    Ecosystems provide the conditions for producing food, regulating water, and providing wildlife habitats; these, among others, are known as ecosystem services (ESs). Food production is both economically and culturally important to southern European farmers, particularly in Italy where farmers grow flavorsome tomatoes with passion and pride. Growers rely on pesticides for crop protection, the potential environmental impact of which is often questioned by regulators and other stakeholders. The European regulatory system for the approval of pesticides includes a thorough evaluation of risks to the environment and is designed to be protective of ecosystems. The consideration of ESs in environmental decision making is a growing trend, and the present case study provides an example of how ESs evaluation could be used to enhance agricultural practices and regulatory policy for crop protection. By attacking plant roots, nematodes may affect the growth and yield of fruit and vegetable crops, and the income earned by farmers at harvest time. Available solutions include chemical treatments such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), physical treatments (solarization), and biological treatments (biofumigation). In order to characterize the risks and benefits associated with the use of 1,3-D in crop protection, ESs and socioeconomic analyses were applied to its use in the control of nematodes in tomato cultivation in southern Italy. The present study confirmed the benefits of 1,3-D to tomato production in Italy, with significant positive effects on production yields and farm income when compared to limited and transient potential impacts on services such as soil function. It was confirmed that 1,3-D allows farm income to be maintained and secures tomato production in these regions for the future. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:801-810. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  12. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  13. Strategic and tactical use of movement information in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knipling, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Several insect movement problems are discussed. Much more information is needed to make a better appraisal of the practical significance of the insect dispersal problem. Data on the time, rate, and extent of movement of insects are provided. Better techniques for measuring insect movement are developed. A better understanding of the importance of insect movement in the development and implementation of more effective and ecologically acceptable pest management strategies and tactics was proved.

  14. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... may be applied to prevent, suppress, or control pests, weeds, or diseases: Provided, That, the... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use...

  15. 7 CFR 205.206 - Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... may be applied to prevent, suppress, or control pests, weeds, or diseases: Provided, That, the... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice... Requirements § 205.206 Crop pest, weed, and disease management practice standard. (a) The producer must use...

  16. Managing Risk of Pest Introduction, Establishment and Spread in a Changing World

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter by Neil Heather and Guy Hallman, in “Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers,” CABI Press, covers the topics of pest risk analysis, risk management, and host status, including the nonhost concept. Pest-free status and production areas as phytosanitary measures are also di...

  17. [Effects of integrated pest control techniques to growth of host larvae Cordyceps sinensis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Wu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Wei; Zhang, De-li; Chen, Shi-jiang; Yin, Ding-hua

    2008-12-01

    To study the effects of the integrated pest control techniques on growth of host larvae of Cordyceps sinensis. The integrated pest control techniques were compared with conventional techniques to evaluate the effects on growth of host larvae. The results showed that the techniques had broken the balance of the microbial living in the material, produced effective inhibition on the pests, raised the survival rate and promoted the growth of the host larvae at the same time.

  18. Pest management systems affect composition but not abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor

    2014-04-01

    We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.

  19. 77 FR 4982 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Smith-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...-Lever 3(d) Extension Integrated Pest Management Competitive Grants Program AGENCY: National Institute of...(d) of the Smith-Lever Act (7 U.S.C. 343(d)) to provide the ] opportunity for 1862 and 1890 Land... agency, CSREES, on October 6, 2008 and March 26, 2009 about the restructuring of the Smith-Lever 3(d) IPM...

  20. What can pest management learn from laboratory animal ethics?

    PubMed

    Yeates, James

    2010-03-01

    There remains a lack of a clear overarching policy framework for decision-making in pest control programmes. In comparison, ethical principles have been extensively developed for scientific procedures, such as those underlying the UK's Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. This paper assesses the extent to which the principles and methodology underlying the act and secondary guidance could be used to provide principles of rodent management. Useful principles include that any programme has a legitimate purpose; that methods are used only if the harms are outweighed by the benefits; that harms are minimised by refinement, replacement and reduction and that there is personal responsibility. The usefulness and implications for pest control of each principle and the overall approach are discussed.

  1. Microbial management of arthropod pests of tea: current state and prospects.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2014-06-01

    Sustainable tea cultivation will rely increasingly on alternatives to conventional chemical insecticides for pest management that are environment-friendly and reduce the amount of pesticide residues in made tea. Entomopathogens can provide effective control, conserve biodiversity, and serve as alternatives to chemical insecticides under several conditions. Due to their specificity for insects, these pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and fungi are ideal candidates for incorporation in the integrated pest management strategies for tea where their effects on other natural enemies will be minimal. Biological and ecological characteristics of several dominant natural entomopathogenic microorganisms have been well documented throughout the tea-growing countries particularly China, Japan, and India. But research to convert them to microbial insecticide formulations for tea pest control by evolving suitable techniques for production, standardization, formulation, and application has not progressed well except in Japan and China to some extent. Increased use of microbial control will depend on a variety of factors including improvements in the pathogens' virulence, formulation, delivery, etc. and an increased awareness of their attributes by growers and the general public. In this review, we provide an overview of microbial control of the key insect pests of tea and also the scope for future studies for their better utilization.

  2. Developing trap cropping systems for effective organic management of key insect pests of cucurbit crops (IPM)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Trap cropping is a behaviorally-based pest management approach that functions by planting highly attractive plants next to a higher value crop so as to attract the pest to the trap crop plants, thus preventing or making less likely the arrival of the pest to the main crop (= cash crop). In 2012, a s...

  3. Effect of integrated pest management on controlling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Emamzadeh Agha Ali Abbas (AS) District, Isfahan province, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Shirani-Bidabadi, Leila; Saberi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Jaffary, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still considered as a health problem in the world. Several methods of control in different regions, together with obtaining integrated information on its natural foci, are needed to decrease its prevalence. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of simultaneous interventions on CL control. Materials and Methods: A standard questionnaire was used to identify patients among pilgrims to Emamzadeh Agha Ali Abbas (Isfahan Province, Iran). Subsequently, three methods of controlling the disease, including, spraying residential buildings with Baygon, baiting with zinc phosphide poisons, changing the vegetative cover of the region, improving the environment, and mounting a mesh on all doors and windows of buildings in residential areas were used. The control measures were then evaluated by comparing the number of pilgrims affected by CL after and before the interventions. Results: While 23 pilgrims (1.4%) were affected with CL before the intervention (pretest), five (0.3%) persons were found to have CL after taking control measures. The Chi-square test did not indicate any significant difference in the relative frequency of CL (P = 0.731). Conclusion: The only scientific method for preventing and controlling zoonotic CL (ZCL) is a combination of the control methods (improving the environment and fighting off the disease districts and vectors) together with changing the vegetative cover of the region. Any measure for controlling this disease must be taken and programmed in accordance with the relevant experts’ views, in coordination with the participation of other organizations and the society. PMID:24818102

  4. Effect of integrated pest management on controlling zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Emamzadeh Agha Ali Abbas (AS) District, Isfahan province, 2006-2009.

    PubMed

    Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Shirani-Bidabadi, Leila; Saberi, Sedigheh; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Jaffary, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is still considered as a health problem in the world. Several methods of control in different regions, together with obtaining integrated information on its natural foci, are needed to decrease its prevalence. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of simultaneous interventions on CL control. A standard questionnaire was used to identify patients among pilgrims to Emamzadeh Agha Ali Abbas (Isfahan Province, Iran). Subsequently, three methods of controlling the disease, including, spraying residential buildings with Baygon, baiting with zinc phosphide poisons, changing the vegetative cover of the region, improving the environment, and mounting a mesh on all doors and windows of buildings in residential areas were used. The control measures were then evaluated by comparing the number of pilgrims affected by CL after and before the interventions. While 23 pilgrims (1.4%) were affected with CL before the intervention (pretest), five (0.3%) persons were found to have CL after taking control measures. The Chi-square test did not indicate any significant difference in the relative frequency of CL (P = 0.731). The only scientific method for preventing and controlling zoonotic CL (ZCL) is a combination of the control methods (improving the environment and fighting off the disease districts and vectors) together with changing the vegetative cover of the region. Any measure for controlling this disease must be taken and programmed in accordance with the relevant experts' views, in coordination with the participation of other organizations and the society.

  5. Development of reference transcriptomes for the major field insect pests of cowpea: a toolbox for insect pest management approaches in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Agunbiade, Tolulope A; Sun, Weilin; Coates, Brad S; Djouaka, Rousseau; Tamò, Manuele; Ba, Malick N; Binso-Dabire, Clementine; Baoua, Ibrahim; Olds, Brett P; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea is a widely cultivated and major nutritional source of protein for many people that live in West Africa. Annual yields and longevity of grain storage is greatly reduced by feeding damage caused by a complex of insect pests that include the pod sucking bugs, Anoplocnemis curvipes Fabricius (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål (Hemiptera: Coreidae); as well as phloem-feeding cowpea aphids, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Efforts to control these pests remain a challenge and there is a need to understand the structure and movement of these pest populations in order to facilitate the development of integrated pest management strategies (IPM). Molecular tools have the potential to help facilitate a better understanding of pest populations. Towards this goal, we used 454 pyrosequencing technology to generate 319,126, 176,262, 320,722 and 227,882 raw reads from A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. The reads were de novo assembled into 11,687, 7,647, 10,652 and 7,348 transcripts for A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti, respectively. Functional annotation of the resulting transcripts identified genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, pathogen defense and immunity. Additionally, sequences that matched the primary aphid endosymbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, were identified among A. craccivora transcripts. Furthermore, 742, 97, 607 and 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were respectively predicted among A. curvipes, A. craccivora, C. tomentosicollis and M. sjostedti transcripts, and will likely be valuable tools for future molecular genetic marker development. These results demonstrate that Roche 454-based transcriptome sequencing could be useful for the development of genomic resources for cowpea pest insects in West Africa.

  6. Challenges with managing insecticide resistance in agricultural pests, exemplisfied by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, I.

    1998-01-01

    For many key agricultural pests, successful management of insecticide resistance depends not only on modifying the way that insecticides are deployed, but also on reducing the total number of treatments applied. Both approaches benefit from a knowledge of the biological characteristics of pests that promote or may retard the development of resistance. For the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), these factors include a haplodiploid breeding system that encourages the rapid selection and fixation of resistance genes, its breeding cycle on a succession of treated or untreated hosts, and its occurrence on and dispersal from high-value crops in greenhouses and glasshouses. These factors, in conjunction with often intensive insecticide use, have led to severe and widespread resistance that now affects several novel as well as conventional control agents. Resistance-management strategies implemented on cotton in Israel, and subsequently in south-western USA, have nonetheless so far succeeded in arresting the resistance treadmill in B. tabaci through a combination of increased chemical diversity, voluntary or mandatory restrictions on the use of key insecticides, and careful integration of chemical control with other pest-management options. In both countries, the most significant achievement has been a dramatic reduction in the number of insecticide treatments applied against whiteflies on cotton, increasing the prospect of sustained use of existing and future insecticides.

  7. Integrated Pest Management of Poplar Species

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer; J. D. Solomon; D. T. Cooper; M. Hubbes

    1979-01-01

    Proper site selection, good site preparation, correct planting practices, and 1st-year cultivation directly and indirectly affect survival rate of trees. Losses from canker fungi are minimized by cultural practices that increase tree vigor--poor tree vigor means more cankers per acre and greater mortality.

  8. School Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's IPM in schools grant program supports projects that include research, development, monitoring, public education, training, demonstrations, or studies to support recipients’ efforts to increase IPM adoption by public and tribal schools (K-12).

  9. Integrated pest management and the pear thrips

    Treesearch

    James C. Space

    1991-01-01

    Although it is a pleasure to be here, our primary reason for being here is far from pleasant. During the last ten years, we have had serious problems with the gypsy moth, western spruce budworm, southern pine beetle, mountain pine beetle, fusiform rust and root diseases and the worst spruce budworm epidemic ever recorded. Just when these outbreaks have largely subsided...

  10. 2012 School Integrated Pest Management Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of this commitment, EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs, in coordination with the EPA Regions, is initiating a grant program to support projects that, through research, development, monitoring, public education, training, demonstrations, or studies.

  11. Developing Soil Microbial Inoculants for Pest Management: Can One Have Too Much of a Good Thing?

    PubMed

    Gadhave, Kiran R; Hourston, James E; Gange, Alan C

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes present a novel and cost-effective method of increasing plant resistance to insect pests and thus create a sustainable opportunity to reduce current pesticide application. However, the use of microbes in integrated pest management programs is still in its infancy. This can be attributed primarily to the variations in microbial inoculum performance under laboratory and field conditions. Soil inoculants containing single, indigenous microbial species have shown promising results in increasing chemical defenses of plants against foliar feeding insects. Conversely, commercial inoculants containing multiple species tend to show no effects on herbivore infestation in the field. We present here a simple model that endeavours to explain how single and multiple species in microbial inoculants differentially govern insect population dynamics via changes in plant chemical profiles. We discuss further how this knowledge can be applied to manipulate soil microbial species and develop 'tailored' microbial inoculants that could be used in plant protection against antagonists.

  12. Olive fruit fly: managing an ancient pest in modern times.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Johnson, Marshall W

    2010-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major pest of commercial olives worldwide. Various aspects of its biology, ecology, management, and impact on olive production are highlighted. With the discovery of insecticidal resistance in some populations frequently treated with organophosphates, old and new control options are being investigated. The potential of biological control is examined. Surveys suggest that a small group of braconids in the Opiinae subfamily best represent the primary parasitoids attacking olive fruit fly in its native range. These species include Psyttalia lounsburyi, P. dacicida, P. concolor, P. ponerophaga, and Utetes africanus. Bracon celer, another braconid but in the Braconinae subfamily, is also reared from the fruit fly in its native range. The potential of these and other natural enemies is discussed with respect to olive fruit fly biology, commercial olive production, and biological constraints that may limit their success. We suggest that numerous species exist that should be further investigated as control agents for olive fruit fly in the many climatic regimes where the pest is found.

  13. Integrating drivers influencing the detection of plant pests carried in the international cut flower trade.

    PubMed

    Areal, F J; Touza, J; MacLeod, A; Dehnen-Schmutz, K; Perrings, C; Palmieri, M G; Spence, N J

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyses the cut flower market as an example of an invasion pathway along which species of non-indigenous plant pests can travel to reach new areas. The paper examines the probability of pest detection by assessing information on pest detection and detection effort associated with the import of cut flowers. We test the link between the probability of plant pest arrivals, as a precursor to potential invasion, and volume of traded flowers using count data regression models. The analysis is applied to the UK import of specific genera of cut flowers from Kenya between 1996 and 2004. There is a link between pest detection and the Genus of cut flower imported. Hence, pest detection efforts should focus on identifying and targeting those imported plants with a high risk of carrying pest species. For most of the plants studied, efforts allocated to inspection have a significant influence on the probability of pest detection. However, by better targeting inspection efforts, it is shown that plant inspection effort could be reduced without increasing the risk of pest entry. Similarly, for most of the plants analysed, an increase in volume traded will not necessarily lead to an increase in the number of pests entering the UK. For some species, such as Carthamus and Veronica, the volume of flowers traded has a significant and positive impact on the likelihood of pest detection. We conclude that analysis at the rank of plant Genus is important both to understand the effectiveness of plant pest detection efforts and consequently to manage the risk of introduction of non-indigenous species.

  14. Pest Management Career Ladder. AFSC 566XO and Occupational Series 5026.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    This is a report of an occupational survey of the Pest Management specialty and related civilian occupational series completed by the USAF...Primarily, the request was prompted to assess the impact of revisions to Pest Management regulating publications and directives; such as, AFR 91-21

  15. [Risk assessment and control strategies of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Zhang, Rong; He, Da-Han; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Zong-Shan

    2009-04-01

    In the risk assessment of pests, both the community structure and the environmental factors should be considered at the same time, because of their mutual effects on the outbreak of disaster pests. This paper established a comprehensive assessment system, including 2 sub-systems, 5 respects, and 14 indices. In the meanwhile, risk assessment indices and experience formula were used to analyze the risk degree of pests in Lycium barbarum fields under different managements. It was found that using risk assessment indices and experience formula could obtain similar results. In abandoned field, Aceria palida, Aphis sp., and Paratrioza sinica were the frequent disaster pests, Lema decempunctata, Neoceratitis asiatica, Jaapiella sp., and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests, and Psylliodes obscurofaciata and Phthorimaea sp. were general pests. In organic field, the frequent disaster pests were the same species as those in abandoned field, while P. indicus, Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. In chemical control field, A. palida, Aphis sp., P. sinica, and P. indicus were the frequent disaster pests, while Jaapiella sp. and Phthorimaea sp. were the incidental disaster pests. Optimal 5 separations most fitted the division of pest sub-communities in L. barbarum fields, which were infancy period (from March 28 to April 15), outbreak I period (from April 15 to July 18), dormancy period (from July 18 to September 8), outbreak II period (from September 8 to October 15), and recession period (after October 15). The matrix of correlation coefficient showed that the dynamics of pests in L. barbarum fields under different managements were significantly correlated with each other, suggesting that the dynamics of pest populations was similar in different L. barbarum fields, which had two population establishment stages and one exponential growth stage in every year. The optimal controlling stages were from late infancy period to early and

  16. Advanced techniques in IR thermography as a tool for the pest management professional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Jon L.

    2006-04-01

    Within the past five years, the Pest Management industry has become aware that IR thermography can aid in the detection of pest infestations and locate other conditions that are within the purview of the industry. This paper will review the applications that can be utilized by the pest management professional and discuss the advanced techniques that may be required in conjunction with thermal imaging to locate insect and other pest infestations, moisture within structures, the verification of data and the special challenges associated with the inspection process.

  17. Sustainability of transgenic insecticidal cultivars: integrating pest genetics and ecology.

    PubMed

    Gould, F

    1998-01-01

    This review examines potential impacts of transgenic cultivars on insect population dynamics and evolution. Experience with classically bred, insecticidal cultivars has demonstrated that a solid understanding of both the target insect's ecology and the cultivar's performance under varied field conditions will be essential for predicting area-wide effects of transgenic cultivars on pest and natural enemy dynamics. This experience has also demonstrated the evolutionary capacity of pests for adaptive response to insecticidal traits in crops. Biochemical and genetic studies of insect adaptation to the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins expressed by currently marketed transgenic cultivars indicate a high risk for rapid adaptation if these cultivars are misused. Theoretical and practical issues involved in implementing strategies to delay pest adaptation to insecticidal cultivars are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on examining the "high dose"/refuge strategy that has become the goal of industry and regulatory authorities.

  18. Reduced-risk pest management programs for eastern U.S. peach orchards: effects on arthropod predators, parasitoids, and select pests.

    PubMed

    Biddinger, David J; Leslie, Timothy W; Joshi, Neelendra K

    2014-06-01

    We developed new integrated pest management programs for eastern U.S. peaches with minimal use of organophosphates. From 2002-2005, we assessed the ecological impacts of these reduced-risk programs versus grower standard conventional programs that still relied primarily on the use of organophosphorous and carbamate insecticides. Using a split-plot design replicated at four commercial Pennsylvania peach orchards, we quantified pesticide rates, environmental impact, and arthropod community response. We used Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) analysis based on the growers' pesticide records from each orchard to calculate seasonal cumulative EIQ field ratings for all years. Ecological effects of the reduced-risk and conventional program were also measured as the abundance and diversity of nontarget arthropod predators, parasitoids, and selected pest taxa. Pesticide inputs and EIQ values were substantially lower in reduced-risk programs compared with conventional spray programs. Arthropod arrays differed significantly between pest management programs: most beneficial predator and parasitoid taxa were positively associated with the reduced-risk program and negatively associated with the standard grower program. Regardless of the pest management program, we observed significant differences in species arrays in the peach tree canopy compared with the ground cover of the orchards, but the arthropod community did not differ among the field sites or based on distance from the edge of the orchard. We conclude that reduced-risk programs not only provide control comparable with that of conventional programs, but they also reduce negative environmental effects while conserving key arthropod biological control agents within eastern U.S. peach orchards.

  19. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G. S.; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system. PMID:26462829

  20. Anystis baccarum: An Important Generalist Predatory Mite to be Considered in Apple Orchard Pest Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, Andrew G S; Qiu, Bao-Li; Murchie, Archie K

    2014-07-24

    The increasing concern over the continued use of pesticides is pressurising apple growers to look for alternatives to chemical pest control. The re-discovery, and subsequent conservation, of the beneficial predatory mite, Anystis baccarum (Linnaeus) (Acari: Anystidae), in Bramley apple orchards in Northern Ireland offers a potential alternative control component for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies. Anystis baccarum readily feeds upon economically important invertebrate pest species including European fruit tree red spider mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) and show a level of compatibility with chemical pesticides. Recent mis-identification by apple growers of this beneficial mite species had resulted in unnecessary pesticide applications being applied within Northern Irish apple orchards. However, dissemination of information to the apple growers and promotion of the benefits this mite offers in apple orchards has helped to conserve its populations. Apple growers, across the United Kingdom, must be encouraged to be aware of A. baccarum, and indeed all predatory fauna, within their orchards and seek to conserve populations. In doing so, it will ensure that the British apple market remains an environmentally sustainable production system.

  1. Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Wearing, C H; Byers, J A

    2006-10-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management programs comprise three major approaches that are being used to provide environmentally friendly control methods of insect pests: mass trapping, "lure and kill," and mating disruption. In this article, we review the potential of mass trapping in long-term pest management as well as in the eradication of invasive species. We discuss similarities and differences between mass trapping and other two main approaches of semiochemical-based pest management programs. We highlight several study cases where mass trapping has been used either in long-term pest management [e.g., codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders); bark beetles, palm weevils, corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.); and fruit flies] or in eradication of invasive species [e.g., gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.); and boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). We list the critical issues that affect the efficacy of mass trapping and compare these with previously published models developed to investigate mass trapping efficacy in pest control. We conclude that mass trapping has good potential to suppress or eradicate low-density, isolated pest populations; however, its full potential in pest management has not been adequately realized and therefore encourages further research and development of this technology.

  2. Exotic Forest Insect Pests and Their Impact on Forest Management

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    More than 4500 exotic organisms are now established in the United States, of which over 400 are insects that feed on trees and shrubs. While most exotic insects cause little or no damage, a few have become serious pests and have greatly altered native forest ecosystems. Three of the most recently introduced exotic forest pests are the pine shoot beetle, the Asian...

  3. Possible impact of radar on pest management operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rainey, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Radar in making and maintaining contact with the most important populations of major pests in different stages of flight is presented. The desert locust and the African armyworm are discussed in understanding problems and developing a more effective control of pests.

  4. Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests: case studies of tsetse and screwworm flies.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, U; Ready, P D

    2014-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have supported a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Applying GIS and population genetics for managing livestock insect pests'. This six-year CRP (2008-2013) focused on research aimed at under-pinning the Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) of populations of tsetse and screwworm flies, and this introductory paper to the Special Issue integrates the findings of the CRP participants and discusses them in a broader context. The tools and techniques for mapping and modelling the distributions of genetically-characterised populations of tsetse and screwworm flies are increasingly used by researchers and managers for more effective decision-making in AW-IPM programmes, as illustrated by the reports in this Special Issue. Currently, the insect pests are often characterized only by neutral genetic markers suitable for recognizing spatially isolated populations that are sometimes associated with specific environments. Two challenges for those involved in AW-IPM are the standardization of best practice to permit the efficient application of GIS and genetic tools by regional teams, and the need to develop further the mapping and modelling of parasite and pest phenotypes that are epidemiologically important.

  5. Pheromone-based pest management in china: past, present and future prospects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologi...

  6. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  7. Area-wide efficacy of a localized forest pest management practice

    Treesearch

    J.T. Cronin; P. Turchin; J.L. Hayes; C.A. Steiner

    1999-01-01

    Few experimental studies have examined the movement of forest pest populations, particularly in response to management tactics that disrupt the growth of pest infestations.We quantified the interinfestation patterns of dispersal of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, by monitoring the fates of marked beetles after emergence from small natural infestations...

  8. Analysis of area-wide management of insect pests based on sampling

    Treesearch

    David W. Onstad; Mark S. Sisterson

    2011-01-01

    The control of invasive species greatly depends on area-wide pest management (AWPM) in heterogeneous landscapes. Decisions about when and where to treat a population with pesticide are based on sampling pest abundance. One of the challenges of AWPM is sampling large areas with limited funds to cover the cost of sampling. Additionally, AWPM programs are often confronted...

  9. Pest Management and Environmental Quality. Course 181. Correspondence Courses in Agriculture, Family Living and Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.; And Others

    This publication is the course book for a correspondence course in pest control with the Pennsylvania State University. It contains basic information for agricultural producers on pest management and the proper and safe use of pesticides. The course consists of eleven lessons which can be completed at one's leisure. The first nine lessons contain…

  10. A systems approach for management of pests and pathogens of nursery crops

    Treesearch

    Jennifer L. Parke; Niklaus J. Grünwald

    2012-01-01

    Horticultural nurseries are heterogeneous and spatially complex agricultural systems, which present formidable challenges to management of diseases and pests. Moreover, nursery plants shipped interstate and internationally can serve as important vectors for pathogens and pests that threaten both agriculture and forestry. Current regulatory strategies to prevent this...

  11. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  12. Bridging Disciplines, Knowledge Systems and Cultures in Pest Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Will; Ogilvie, Shaun; Blackie, Helen; Smith, Des; Sam, Shona; Doherty, James; McKenzie, Don; Ataria, James; Shapiro, Lee; MacKay, Jamie; Murphy, Elaine; Jacobson, Chris; Eason, Charles

    2014-02-01

    The success of research in integrated environmental and natural resource management relies on the participation and involvement of different disciplines and stakeholders. This can be difficult to achieve in practice because many initiatives fail to address the underlying social processes required for successful engagement and social learning. We used an action research approach to support a research-based group with a range of disciplinary and stakeholder expertise to critically reflect on their engagement practice and identify lessons around how to collaborate more effectively. This approach is provided here as a guide that can be used to support reflective research practice for engagement in other integration-based initiatives. This paper is set in the context of an integrated wildlife management research case study in New Zealand. We illustrate how multi-, inter- and trans-disciplinary approaches can provide a framework for considering the different conversations that need to occur in an integrated research program. We then outline rubrics that list the criteria required in inter- and trans-disciplinary collaborations, along with examples of effective engagement processes that directly support integration through such efforts. Finally, we discuss the implications of these experiences for other researchers and managers seeking to improve engagement and collaboration in integrated science, management and policy initiatives. Our experiences reaffirm the need for those involved in integrative initiatives to attend to the processes of engagement in both formal and informal settings, to provide opportunities for critical reflective practice, and to look for measures of success that acknowledge the importance of effective social process.

  13. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Md. Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J.; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O2) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO2), and ozone (O3). Results showed that both low O2 and high CO2 levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O2 and high CO2 had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO2 and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O2. Both low O2 and high CO2 trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O3 has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O3 is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O2 or high CO2. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  14. Pest management of a prey-predator model with sexual favoritism.

    PubMed

    Pei, Yongzhen; Yang, Yong; Li, Changguo; Chen, Lansun

    2009-06-01

    Although sex of prey is an important factor for the risk of predating, few articles consider the consequences of sexual favoritism and the corresponding effects on the impulsive predator-prey dynamics and its utility in biological control. This paper investigates the pest management strategy of a prey-predator system model with sexual favoritism. An impulsive differential equation which models the process of periodically releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticides at different fixed time for pest control is proposed and investigated. It is proved that the pest-eradication periodic solution is globally asymptotically stable under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is greater than some critical value. Permanent conditions are established under the assumption that the release amount of the predator is less than another critical value. In particular, two single control strategies are proposed. Furthermore, we compare three pest control strategies and find that if we choose narrow-spectrum pesticides that targeted to a specific pest's life cycle to kill the pest, then the combined strategy is preferable. Finally, the corresponding system with no sexual favoritism is investigated. The results indicate that we can release fewer amount of the predators to eliminate the preys with sexual favoritism than without and any strong sexual favoritism will drive the pest towards extinction. In view of the biological meaning, the sexual favoritism plays a more active role in suppressing insect pests.

  15. Advances in organic insect pest management in pecan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. The market for organic pecans has been growing. However, in the Southeastern USA, there are a number of insect pests and plant diseases that challenge the ability of growers to produce organic pecans in an economically sound ma...

  16. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  17. Assessing the value and pest management window provided by neonicotinoid seed treatments for management of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) in the Upper Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Krupke, Christian H; Alford, Adam M; Cullen, Eileen M; Hodgson, Erin W; Knodel, Janet J; McCornack, Brian; Potter, Bruce D; Spigler, Madeline I; Tilmon, Kelley; Welch, Kelton

    2017-10-01

    A 2-year, multi-state study was conducted to assess the benefits of using soybean seed treated with the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam to manage soybean aphid in the upper Midwestern USA and compare this approach with an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that included monitoring soybean aphids and treating with foliar-applied insecticide only when the economic threshold was reached. Concentrations of thiamethoxam in soybean foliage were also quantified throughout the growing season to estimate the pest management window afforded by insecticidal seed treatments. Both the IPM treatment and thiamethoxam-treated seed resulted in significant reductions in cumulative aphid days when soybean aphid populations reached threshold levels. However, only the IPM treatment resulted in significant yield increases. Analysis of soybean foliage from thiamethoxam-treated seeds indicated that tissue concentrations of thiamethoxam were statistically similar to plants grown from untreated seeds beginning at the V2 growth stage, indicating that the period of pest suppression for soybean aphid is likely to be relatively short. These data demonstrate that an IPM approach, combining scouting and foliar-applied insecticide where necessary, remains the best option for treatment of soybean aphids, both in terms of protecting the yield potential of the crop and of break-even probability for producers. Furthermore, we found that thiamethoxam concentrations in foliage are unlikely to effectively manage soybean aphids for most of the pests' activity period across the region. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  19. Farm operator perceptions of water quality protective pest management practices: Selected survey findings

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.; Blair, J.; Webb, B.

    1995-12-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture often poses a tension between water quality and environmental protection goals on the one hand and the viability of food supplies on the other hand. Pesticides used for field crops (e.g., corn, soy beans and wheat) have been detected in waterbodies, and according to some studies, are apparently finding their way into water supplies. A considerable amount of discretion is allowed in farm operator`s choice of pest management practices, and voluntary behavior becomes an important factor in promoting environmentally protective practices. Thus, it is important to know the attitudes of farmers who make pest management decisions including pesticide choices, toward the use of various water quality protective pest management practices. A number of studies show that more general environmental attitudes reflect a general world view that shapes attitudes toward particular environmental issues. This paper addresses the relationship between the more general environmental attitudes of farmers to their attitudes toward water quality issues and pest management practices which are protective of water quality. Some of the personal tradeoffs farmers are willing to make to enhance environmental controls on pesticides are also explored. Results are based on preliminary findings from a survey of farm operators who grow corn, soybeans and other field crops in three eastern states. The survey was conducted via a mail questionnaire to 2,700 farmers with telephone follow-up during the Fall of 1994. Implications of the findings for pest management in general are discussed.

  20. Research priorities for rice pest management in tropical Asia: a simulation analysis of yield losses and management efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Willocquet, Laetitia; Elazegui, Francisco A; Castilla, Nancy; Fernandez, Luzviminda; Fischer, Kenneth S; Peng, Shaobing; Teng, Paul S; Srivastava, R K; Singh, H M; Zhu, Defeng; Savary, Serge

    2004-07-01

    ABSTRACT A simulation study was conducted to assess the current and prospective efficiency of rice pest management and develop research priorities for lowland production situations in tropical Asia. Simulation modeling with the RICEPEST model provided the flexibility required to address varying production situations and diverse pest profiles (bacterial leaf blight, sheath blight, brown spot, leaf blast, neck blast, sheath rot, white heads, dead hearts, brown plant-hoppers, insect defoliators, and weeds). Operational definitions for management efficacy (injury reduction) and management efficiency (yield gain) were developed. This approach enabled the modeling of scenarios pertaining to different pest management strategies within the agroecological contexts of rice production and their associated pest injuries. Rice pests could be classified into two broad research priority-setting categories with respect to simulated yield losses and management efficiencies. One group, including weeds, sheath blight, and brown spot, consists of pests for which effective pest management tools need to be developed. The second group consists of leaf blast, neck blast, bacterial leaf blight, and brown plant-hoppers, for which the efficiency of current management methods is to be maintained. Simulated yield losses in future production situations indicated that a new type of rice plant with high-harvest index and high-biomass production ("New Plant Type") was more vulnerable to pests than hybrid rice. Simulations also indicated that the impact of deployment of host resistance (e.g., through genetic engineering) was much larger when targeted against sheath blight than when targeted against stem borers. Simulated yield losses for combinations of production situations and injury profiles that dominate current lowland rice production in tropical Asia ranged from 140 to 230 g m(-2). For these combinations, the simulated efficiency of current pest management methods, expressed in terms of

  1. Concepts of sustainability, motivations for pest management approaches, and implications for communicating change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective communication with farmers is an essential component of impacting their decision processes and encouraging changes in pest management practices, but requires a system of research and extension management that differs from that to which most biological scientists are accustomed. We present...

  2. Pest management in Douglas-fir seed orchards: a microcomputer decision method

    Treesearch

    James B. Hoy; Michael I. Haverty

    1988-01-01

    The computer program described provides a Douglas-fir seed orchard manager (user) with a quantitative method for making insect pest management decisions on a desk-top computer. The decision system uses site-specific information such as estimates of seed crop size, insect attack rates, insecticide efficacy and application costs, weather, and crop value. At sites where...

  3. Natural history of crop-related wild species: Uses in pest habitat management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salick, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The natural histories of crop-related wild species in their native habitats can be used to develop novel pest management strategies. Traditionally, such information has provided insights for biological control, plant breeding, crop management, and applied ecology Further insights can be garnered.

  4. Use of anticoagulant rodenticides by pest management professionals in Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Memmott, Kristin; Murray, Maureen; Rutberg, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Secondary exposure to chemical rodenticides, specifically second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs), poses a threat to non-target wildlife including birds of prey. Federal regulations in the United States currently limit homeowner access to SGARs as a way of minimizing this threat. With legal access to SGARs, pest management professionals (PMPs) represent a potential linkage to non-target exposure. There is limited research focused on rodent control practices, chemical rodenticide preferences, level of concern and awareness, or opinions on rodenticide regulations as they relate to PMPs. An online survey was sent to PMP companies across Massachusetts, USA, between October and November 2015. Thirty-five responses were obtained, a 20 % response rate. The preferred rodent control method among responding PMP companies was chemical rodenticides, specifically the SGAR bromadiolone. Respondents varied in their level of concern regarding the impact of chemical rodenticides on non-target species and showed a low level of awareness regarding SGAR potency and half-life. All responding companies reported using integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, with nearly all utilizing chemical rodenticides at some point. Enhanced education focused on SGAR potency, bioaccumulation potential, exposure routes, and negative impacts on non-target wildlife may improve efforts made by PMPs to minimize risk to wildlife and decrease dependence on chemical rodenticide use. Future studies evaluating use of anticoagulant rodenticide (ARs) by PMPs and the association with AR residues found in non-target wildlife is necessary to determine if current EPA regulations need to be modified to effectively reduce the risk of SGARs to non-target wildlife.

  5. Insect pest densities across site-specific management zones of irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Silas A; Peairs, Frank B; Khosla, Rajiv

    2007-06-01

    The ability to manage insect pests in a site-specific manner is hindered by the costs and time required to describe pest densities and distributions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether insect pest distributions are related to site-specific management zones (SSMZs). Site-specific management zones, as described in this study, delineate fields into three zones of similar yield potential: high, medium, and low productivity. If insect densities vary across SSMZs, it is possible that management decisions could be made at the SSMZ level instead of treating the whole field. This research was conducted during summers 2001 and 2002 on cooperators' farms in northeastern Colorado. Surveys were conducted within corn, Zea mays L., fields, so that densities of three common insect pests of Colorado corn could be compared across SSMZ. The three insect pests were western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (HiAbner); and western bean cutworm, Richia albicosta (Smith). D. v. virgifera larvae and adults were most common in the high-productivity SSMZ. O. nubilalis larval abundance was similar at three fields, whereas in a fourth field the larvae were most common in the high-productivity SSMZ. In one field that contained substantial numbers of R. albicosta, egg abundance was similar across SSMZs, whereas larvae were most common in the high-productivity SSMZ. Site-specific management zones seemed to correlate well with the abundance of some insect pests and might prove useful for managing insects in a site-specific manner.

  6. Integrated Information Management (IIM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TM-2007-8 Final Technical Memorandum March 2007 INTEGRATED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (IIM) NGI Systems, Inc... INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (IIM) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63789F/62384B 5d. PROJECT NUMBER IIMS 5e. TASK NUMBER NG 6. AUTHOR(S) Jason McIlvain...Data Relay (RDR), integrated information management systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON James F. Reilly a

  7. Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Morrison, Neil I; Walker, Adam S; Marubbi, Thea; Yao, Ju; Collins, Hilda L; Gorman, Kevin; Davies, T G Emyr; Alphey, Nina; Warner, Simon; Shelton, Anthony M; Alphey, Luke

    2015-07-16

    Development and evaluation of new insect pest management tools is critical for overcoming over-reliance upon, and growing resistance to, synthetic, biological and plant-expressed insecticides. For transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis ('Bt crops') emergence of resistance is slowed by maintaining a proportion of the crop as non-Bt varieties, which produce pest insects unselected for resistance. While this strategy has been largely successful, multiple cases of Bt resistance have now been reported. One new approach to pest management is the use of genetically engineered insects to suppress populations of their own species. Models suggest that released insects carrying male-selecting (MS) transgenes would be effective agents of direct, species-specific pest management by preventing survival of female progeny, and simultaneously provide an alternative insecticide resistance management strategy by introgression of susceptibility alleles into target populations. We developed a MS strain of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, a serious global pest of crucifers. MS-strain larvae are reared as normal with dietary tetracycline, but, when reared without tetracycline or on host plants, only males will survive to adulthood. We used this strain in glasshouse-cages to study the effect of MS male P. xylostella releases on target pest population size and spread of Bt resistance in these populations. Introductions of MS-engineered P. xylostella males into wild-type populations led to rapid pest population decline, and then elimination. In separate experiments on broccoli plants, relatively low-level releases of MS males in combination with broccoli expressing Cry1Ac (Bt broccoli) suppressed population growth and delayed the spread of Bt resistance. Higher rates of MS male releases in the absence of Bt broccoli were also able to suppress P. xylostella populations, whereas either low-level MS male releases or Bt broccoli

  8. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  9. Utilization of pheromones in the population management of moth pests.

    PubMed Central

    Cardé, R T

    1976-01-01

    Pheromones are substances emitted by one individual of a species and eliciting a specific response in a second individual of the same species. In moths (Lepidoptera) generally females lure males for mating by emission of a sex attractant pheromone comprised of either one or more components. Since 1966 the identification of the pheromone blends of many moth pests has allowed investigations into the use of these messengers for population manipulation. Pheromone-baited traps may be used both to detect pest presence and to estimate population density, so that conventional control tactics can be employed only as required and timed precisely for maximum effectiveness. Attractant traps also can be utilized for direct population suppression when the traps are deployed at a density effective in reducing mating success sufficiently to achieve control. A third use pattern of pheromones and related compounds is disruption of pheromone communication via atmospheric permeation with synthetic disruptants. The behavioral modifications involved in disruption of communication may include habituation of the normal response sequence (alteration of the pheromone response threshold) and "confusion" (inability of the organism to perceive and orient to the naturally emitted lure). Disruption of communication employing the natural pheromone components as the disruptant has been most successful, although nonattractant behavioral modifiers structurally similar to the pheromone components also may prove useful. Possible future resistance to direct pheromone manipulation may be expected to involve the evolution of behavioral and sensory changes that minimize the informational overlap between the natural pheromone system and the pheromone control technique. PMID:789060

  10. Pest management programmes in vineyards using male mating disruption.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ally R; Zahavi, Tirtza; Gordon, Dvora; Anshelevich, Leonid; Harel, Miriam; Ovadia, Shmulik; Dunkelblum, Ezra

    2007-08-01

    Israeli vine growers have been reluctant to adopt the mating disruption technique for control of the European vine moth, Lobesia botrana Den. & Schiff. Since the chemically controlled honeydew moth, Cryptoblabes gnidiella Mill., coexists with the European vine moth, growers have maintained that the use of mating disruption would fail to bring about a significant reduction in pesticide use. In this study, the efficacy of mating disruption techniques against C. gnidiella was tested, as well as the effect of these methods on pesticide use and damage to clusters when the method was employed against both of the pests in wine grapes. Comparisons were made between plots treated with (1) L. botrana mating disruption pheromone, (2) L. botrana and C. gnidiella mating disruption pheromones and (3) control plots. A significant difference in the number of clusters infested with the developmental stages of the moths was seen between pheromone-treated plots and controls, while no such difference was observed between plots treated with one versus two pheromones. A similar pattern was observed in the number of insecticide applications; the greatest number of applications was used in control plots, followed by plots treated with L. botrana mating disruption pheromone and by plots treated with pheromones against both pests, in which no pesticides were applied.

  11. Equilibrium control of nonlinear verticum-type systems, applied to integrated pest control.

    PubMed

    Molnár, S; Gámez, M; López, I; Cabello, T

    2013-08-01

    Linear verticum-type control and observation systems have been introduced for modelling certain industrial systems, consisting of subsystems, vertically connected by certain state variables. Recently the concept of verticum-type observation systems and the corresponding observability condition have been extended by the authors to the nonlinear case. In the present paper the general concept of a nonlinear verticum-type control system is introduced, and a sufficient condition for local controllability to equilibrium is obtained. In addition to a usual linearization, the basic idea is a decomposition of the control of the whole system into the control of the subsystems. Starting from the integrated pest control model of Rafikov and Limeira (2012) and Rafikov et al. (2012), a nonlinear verticum-type model has been set up an equilibrium control is obtained. Furthermore, a corresponding bioeconomical problem is solved minimizing the total cost of integrated pest control (combining chemical control with a biological one).

  12. Integrated sensor-based monitoring system for pest and disease control in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Suciu, Laura; Sumălan, R; Moga, D

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and pests are a problem even in greenhouse crops, problem which has to be solved without threatening the plant. Crop protection requires frequent updates in information and therefore sensor networks that are real time monitoring systems are the ones that can deliver such information. The purpose of this paper is to present a way of preventing the appearance of diseases and pests in a greenhouse by using a monitoring system composed of an integrated sensor network. Our sensor system is doing a real time monitoring of the following parameters in the greenhouse: light intensity, soil moisture and temperature, air temperature and humidity and air temperature at canopy level; all of the data being stored using a software made by "Tedelco". A real time monitoring camera is also used for pest and disease detection. A pot experiment, using beans, was established inside the greenhouse to test the applicability of the system. In order to assure the optimal conditions for the inhibition of pests, the greenhouse is also equipped with an artificial lighting system specially designed for greenhouses, an irrigation system and an artificial fog system. Sensor systems are the ideal support for preventive monitoring and at the same time it offers all the support data necessary for decision making regarding crops development.

  13. Pest management through Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in a tea-silkworm ecosystem: status and potential prospects.

    PubMed

    Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Somnath; Nagpal, Akanksha; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Flood, Julie; Prasad, Anjali Km; Khetarpal, Ravinder; Neave, Suzanne; Muraleedharan, N

    2017-03-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a soil bacterium that forms spores containing crystals comprising one or more Cry or Cyt proteins having potential and specific insecticidal activity. Different strains of Bt produce different types of toxins, affecting a narrow taxonomic group of insects. Therefore, it is used in non-chemical pest management, including inherent pest resistance through GM crops. The specificity of action of Bt toxins reduces the concern of adverse effects on non-target species, a concern which remains with chemical insecticides as well. To make use of Bt more sustainable, new strains expressing novel toxins are actively being sought globally. Since Bt is successfully used against many pests including the lepidopteran pests in different crop groups, the insecticidal activity against Samia cynthia (Drury) (Eri silkworm) and Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Muga silkworm) becomes a concern in the state of Assam in India which is a predominantly tea- and silk-producing zone. Though Bt can be used as an effective non-chemical approach for pest management for tea pests in the same geographical region, yet, it may potentially affect the silk industry which depends on silkworm. There is a need to identify the potentially lethal impact (through evaluating their mortality potential) of local Bt strains on key silkworm species in North Eastern India. This will allow the use of existing Bt for which the silkworms have natural resistance. Through this review, the authors aim to highlight recent progress in the use of Bt and its insecticidal toxins in tea pest control and the potential sensitivity for tea- and silk-producing zone of Assam in India.

  14. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  15. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  16. Managing for Organizational Integrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paine, Lynn Sharp

    1994-01-01

    Compliance-based ethics programs focus on prevention, detection, and punishment. Companies should adopt an integrity-based approach to ethics management that combines a concern for the law with an emphasis on managerial responsibility for ethical behavior. (JOW)

  17. RNA interference: Applications and advances in insect toxicology and insect pest management.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Ho; Soumaila Issa, Moustapha; Cooper, Anastasia M W; Zhu, Kun Yan

    2015-05-01

    Since its discovery, RNA interference (RNAi) has revolutionized functional genomic studies due to its sequence-specific nature of post-transcriptional gene silencing. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the recent literature and summarize the current knowledge and advances in the applications of RNAi technologies in the field of insect toxicology and insect pest management. Many recent studies have focused on identification and validation of the genes encoding insecticide target proteins, such as acetylcholinesterases, ion channels, Bacillus thuringiensis receptors, and other receptors in the nervous system. RNAi technologies have also been widely applied to reveal the role of genes encoding cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, carboxylesterases, and glutathione S-transferases in insecticide detoxification and resistance. More recently, studies have focused on understanding the mechanism of insecticide-mediated up-regulation of detoxification genes in insects. As RNAi has already shown great potentials for insect pest management, many recent studies have also focused on host-induced gene silencing, in which several RNAi-based transgenic plants have been developed and tested as proof of concept for insect pest management. These studies indicate that RNAi is a valuable tool to address various fundamental questions in insect toxicology and may soon become an effective strategy for insect pest management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Can Pesticide Delivery Methods Play a Role in Sustainable Pest Management?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conventional insecticides continue to play an important role in greenhouse pest management programs. Penetrating a dense plant canopy can be difficult with a handgun, and there is some evidence that boom sprayers or broadcast applications result in a more uniform deposition than handguns. A large-...

  19. Directional flow of aeration to manage insect pests in stored wheat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using low-volume ambient air to cool stored grain is a common management practice in the southern plains, but little research has been done recently to determine if the direction of airflow makes a difference regarding the cooling and insect pest populations. We conducted a study by using suction ae...

  20. Effect of pest management system on 'Empire' apple leaf phyllosphere populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phyllosphere of plant tissues is varied and dynamic. Pest management, time of sampling, proximity to immigration sources, tissue and tissue status such as leaf/fruit age and location within the canopy, and other environmental and biological factors interact to influence the composition and abun...

  1. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-10-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores.

  2. Fitness trade-offs in pest management and intercropping with colour: an evolutionary framework and potential application

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, Timothy E

    2015-01-01

    An important modern goal of plant science research is to develop tools for agriculturalists effective at curbing yield losses to insect herbivores, but resistance evolution continuously threatens the efficacy of pest management strategies. The high-dose/refuge strategy has been employed with some success to curb pest adaptation, and has been shown to be most effective when fitness costs (fitness trade-offs) of resistance are high. Here, I use eco-evolutionary reasoning to demonstrate the general importance of fitness trade-offs for pest control, showing that strong fitness trade-offs mitigate the threat of pest adaptation, even if adaptation were to occur. I argue that novel pest management strategies evoking strong fitness trade-offs are the most likely to persist in the face of unbridled pest adaptation, and offer the manipulation of crop colours as a worked example of one potentially effective strategy against insect herbivores. PMID:26495038

  3. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (ΦST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed.

  4. Methyl bromide: effective pest management tool and environmental threat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, W B

    1996-12-01

    Methyl bromide is used extensively on a global basis as a pesticide against nematodes, weeds, insects, fungi, bacteria, and rodents. As a soil fumigant, it is used in significant quantities in the production of strawberry and tomato, as well as other agriculture commodities. Grain, fresh fruit, forestry products, and other materials are fumigated with methyl bromide to control pest infestations during transport and storage. Structures also are treated with this chemical to control wood-destroying insects and rodents. However, methyl bromide has been identified as a significant ozone-depleting substance, resulting in regulatory actions being taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the United Nations Environment Program (Montreal Protocol). The science linking methyl bromide to ozone depletion is strong and was reinforced by the 1994 UNEP Montreal Protocol Science Assessment on Ozone Depletion, which states, "Methyl bromide continues to be viewed as a significant ozone-depleting compound." Identifying efficacious and viable alternatives in the near term is critical.

  5. Methyl Bromide: Effective Pest Management Tool and Environmental Threat

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, W. B.

    1996-01-01

    Methyl bromide is used extensively on a global basis as a pesticide against nematodes, weeds, insects, fungi, bacteria, and rodents. As a soil fumigant, it is used in significant quantities in the production of strawberry and tomato, as well as other agriculture commodities. Grain, fresh fruit, forestry products, and other materials are fumigated with methyl bromide to control pest infestations during transport and storage. Structures also are treated with this chemical to control wood-destroying insects and rodents. However, methyl bromide has been identified as a significant ozone-depleting substance, resulting in regulatory actions being taken by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the United Nations Environment Program (Montreal Protocol). The science linking methyl bromide to ozone depletion is strong and was reinforced by the 1994 UNEP Montreal Protocol Science Assessment on Ozone Depletion, which states, "Methyl bromide continues to be viewed as a significant ozone-depleting compound." Identifying efficacious and viable alternatives in the near term is critical. PMID:19277178

  6. Weed manipulation for insect pest management in corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, M. A.; Whitcomb, W. H.

    1980-11-01

    Populations of insect pests and associated predaceous arthropods were sampled by direct observation and other relative methods in simple and diversified corn habitats at two sites in north Florida during 1978 and 1979. Through various cultural manipulations, characteristic weed communities were established selectively in alternate rows within corn plots. Fall armyworm ( Spodoptera frugiperda J. E. Smith) incidence was consistently higher in the weed-free habitats than in the corn habitats containing natural weed complexes or selected weed associations. Corn earworm ( Heliothis zea Boddie) damage was similar in all weed-free and weedy treatments, suggesting that this insect is not affected greatly by weed diversity. Only the diversification of corn with a strip of soybean significantly reduced corn earworm damage. In one site, distance between plots was reduced. Because predators moved freely between habitats, it was difficult to identify between-treatment differences in the composition of predator communities. In the other site, increased distances between plots minimized such migrations, resulting in greater population densities and diversity of common foliage insect predators in the weed-manipulated corn systems than in the weed-free plots. Trophic relationships in the weedy habitats were more complex than food webs in monocultures. Predator diversity (measured as mean number of species per area) and predator density was higher in com plots surrounded by mature, complex vegetation than at those surrounded by annual crops. This suggests that diverse adjacent areas to crops provide refuge for predators, thus acting as colonization sources.

  7. Integrated work management system.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Edward J., Jr.; Henry, Karen Lynne

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories develops technologies to: (1) sustain, modernize, and protect our nuclear arsenal (2) Prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction; (3) Provide new capabilities to our armed forces; (4) Protect our national infrastructure; (5) Ensure the stability of our nation's energy and water supplies; and (6) Defend our nation against terrorist threats. We identified the need for a single overarching Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) that would enable us to focus on customer missions and improve FMOC processes. Our team selected highly configurable commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) software with out-of-the-box workflow processes that integrate strategic planning, project management, facility assessments, and space management, and can interface with existing systems, such as Oracle, PeopleSoft, Maximo, Bentley, and FileNet. We selected the Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) from Tririga, Inc. Facility Management System (FMS) Benefits are: (1) Create a single reliable source for facility data; (2) Improve transparency with oversight organizations; (3) Streamline FMOC business processes with a single, integrated facility-management tool; (4) Give customers simple tools and real-time information; (5) Reduce indirect costs; (6) Replace approximately 30 FMOC systems and 60 homegrown tools (such as Microsoft Access databases); and (7) Integrate with FIMS.

  8. Integrated flood management.

    PubMed

    Grabs, W; Tyagi, A C; Hyodo, M

    2007-01-01

    While there have been a number of international initiatives centred around hydrological sciences and technical approaches, the social, economic, environmental, and legal and institutional aspects of flood management have been dealt with sporadically and in a limited manner. WMO and the Global Water Partnership have established the Associated Programme on Flood Management (APFM) to address these issues and developed a concept of Integrated Flood Management (IFM) in 2002. This article is the result of the integrated flood management approaches through pilot projects and multi-disciplinary approaches launched by the initiative since the establishment of the IFM concept. This approach seeks to integrate land- and water-resources development in a river basin, within the context of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and aims at maximizing the benefits from floodplains and at the same time reducing loss of life from flooding. This approach identified the key elements of IFM and recommended that these can be put in place by: adopting a basin approach to flood management; adopting a multi-disciplinary approach in flood management; reducing vulnerability to and risks from flooding; enabling community participation; and preserving ecosystems; and addressing climate change and variability, supported by enabling mechanism through appropriate legislation and regulations.

  9. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Management of environmental factors, such as temperature, light, humidity, atmosphere, and air circulation... controls including but not limited to traps, light, or sound; or (2) Lures and repellents...

  10. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Management of environmental factors, such as temperature, light, humidity, atmosphere, and air circulation... controls including but not limited to traps, light, or sound; or (2) Lures and repellents...

  11. The Secretary of Defense Awards for Natural Resources and Environmental Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-15

    state, and local outdoor recreation agencies. 6. Pest management . Applications of integrated pest management that sup- port and improve the...management. c. Environmental restoration program. 7. Pest Management a. Elements of and management techniques used in the integrated pest management program

  12. Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests.

    PubMed

    Peck, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that handling the inherent complexity found in ecological systems is an essential task for finding ways to control insect pests of tropical livestock such as tsetse flies, and old and new world screwworms. In particular, challenging multivalent management programs, such as Area Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM), face daunting problems of complexity at multiple spatial scales, ranging from landscape level processes to those of smaller scales such as the parasite loads of individual animals. Daunting temporal challenges also await resolution, such as matching management time frames to those found on ecological and even evolutionary temporal scales. How does one deal with representing processes with models that involve multiple spatial and temporal scales? Agent-based models (ABM), combined with geographic information systems (GIS), may allow for understanding, predicting and managing pest control efforts in livestock pests. This paper argues that by incorporating digital ecologies in our management efforts clearer and more informed decisions can be made. I also point out the power of these models in making better predictions in order to anticipate the range of outcomes possible or likely. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interacting Agricultural Pests and Their Effect on Crop Yield: Application of a Bayesian Decision Theory Approach to the Joint Management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Ilai N.; Menalled, Fabian D.; Weaver, David K.; Robison-Cox, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass) and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the necessity of

  14. Knowing your enemies: Integrating molecular and ecological methods to assess the impact of arthropod predators on crop pests.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    The importance of natural enemies as the foundation of integrated pest management (IPM) is widely accepted, but few studies conduct the manipulative field experiments necessary to directly quantify their impact on pest populations in this context. This is particularly true for predators. Studying arthropod predator-prey interactions is inherently difficult: prey items are often completely consumed, individual predator-prey interactions are ephemeral (rendering their detection difficult) and the typically fluid or soft-bodied meals cannot be easily identified visually within predator guts. Serological techniques have long been used in arthropod predator gut-contents analysis, and current enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are highly specific and sensitive. Recently, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for gut-contents analysis have developed rapidly and they now dominate the diagnostic methods used for gut-contents analysis in field-based research. This work has identified trophic linkages within food webs, determined predator diet breadth and preference, demonstrated the importance of cannibalism and intraguild predation within and between certain taxa, and confirmed the benefits (predator persistence) and potential disadvantages (reduced feeding on pest species) of the availability of alternative nonpest prey. Despite considerable efforts to calibrate gut-contents assays, these methods remain qualitative. Available techniques for predator gut-contents analysis can provide rapid, accurate, cost-effective identification of predation events. As such, they perfectly compliment the ecological methods developed to directly assess predator impacts on prey populations but which are imperfect at identifying the key predators. These diagnostic methods for gut-contents analysis are underexploited in agricultural research and they are almost never applied in unison with the critical field experiments to measure predator impact. This paper stresses the need for a

  15. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  16. Intercropping for management of insect pests of castor, Ricinus communis, in the semi-arid tropics of India.

    PubMed

    Rao, M Srinivasa; Rama Rao, C A; Srinivas, K; Pratibha, G; Vidya Sekhar, S M; Sree Vani, G; Venkateswarlu, B

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On-farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi-arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop.

  17. Origin and phylogeography of the wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera : Cephidae): implications for pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    he wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage by this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are not very effective and uncertainties regarding its origin and i...

  18. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    PubMed

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and soil borne pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD; also referred to as Biological Soil Disinfestation (BSD)) is a pre-plant soil treatment method developed to control plant disease and manage yield decline in many crop production systems. The practice involves induction of anaerobic soil conditions by increasing m...

  20. The role of databases in areawide pest management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A database is a comprehensive collection of related data organized for convenient access, generally in a computer. The evolution of computer software and the need to distinguish the specialized computer systems for storing and manipulating data, stimulated development of database management systems...

  1. Integrated Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sharon; Cossarin, Mary; Doxsee, Harry; Schwartz, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Four integrated learning management packages were reviewed: "CentraOne", "IntraLearn", "Lyceum", and "Silicon Chalk". These products provide different combinations of synchronous and asynchronous tools. The current report examines the products in relation to their specific value for distance educators and students.

  2. Potential of "lure and kill" in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, A M; Suckling, D M; Byers, J A; Jang, E B; Wearing, C H

    2009-06-01

    "Lure and kill" technology has been used for several decades in pest management and eradication of invasive species. In lure and kill, the insect pest attracted by a semiochemical lure is not "entrapped" at the source of the attractant as in mass trapping, but instead the insect is subjected to a killing agent, which eliminates affected individuals from the population after a short period. In past decades, a growing scientific literature has been published on this concept. This article provides the first review on the potential of lure and kill in long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species. We present a summary of lure and kill, either when used as a stand-alone control method or in combination with other methods. We discuss its efficacy in comparison with other control methods. Several case studies in which lure and kill has been used with the aims of long-term pest management (e.g., pink bollworm, Egyptian cotton leafworm, codling moth, apple maggot, biting flies, and bark beetles) or the eradication of invasive species (e.g., tephritid fruit flies and boll weevils) are provided. Subsequently, we identify essential knowledge required for successful lure and kill programs that include lure competitiveness with natural odor source; lure density; lure formulation and release rate; pest population density and risk of immigration; and biology and ecology of the target species. The risks associated with lure and kill, especially when used in the eradication programs, are highlighted. We comment on the cost-effectiveness of this technology and its strengths and weaknesses, and list key reasons for success and failure. We conclude that lure and kill can be highly effective in controlling small, low-density, isolated populations, and thus it has the potential to add value to long-term pest management. In the eradication of invasive species, lure and kill offers a major advantage in effectiveness by its being inverse density dependent and it provides

  3. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae).

    PubMed

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance.

  4. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e.g., reduction in photosynthesis and aesthetic value by honeydew and sooty mold). Variations in life cycle, reproduction, fecundity, and behavior exist among congenerics due to host, environmental, climatic, and geographical variations. Sampling of soft scale pests involves sighting the insects or their damage, and assessing their abundance. Crawlers of most univoltine species emerge in the spring and the summer. Degree-day models and plant phenological indicators help determine the initiation of sampling and treatment against crawlers (the life stage most vulnerable to contact insecticides). The efficacy of cultural management tactics, such as fertilization, pruning, and irrigation, in reducing soft scale abundance is poorly documented. A large number of parasitoids and predators attack soft scale populations in the field; therefore, natural enemy conservation by using selective insecticides is important. Systemic insecticides provide greater flexibility in application method and timing, and have longer residual longevity than contact insecticides. Application timing of contact insecticides that coincides with crawler emergence is most effective in reducing soft scale abundance. PMID:26823990

  5. Integrated groundwater data management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitch, Peter; Brodaric, Boyan; Stenson, Matt; Booth, Nathaniel; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Barreteau, Olivier; Hunt, Randall J.; Rinaudo, Jean-Daniel; Ross, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The goal of a data manager is to ensure that data is safely stored, adequately described, discoverable and easily accessible. However, to keep pace with the evolution of groundwater studies in the last decade, the associated data and data management requirements have changed significantly. In particular, there is a growing recognition that management questions cannot be adequately answered by single discipline studies. This has led a push towards the paradigm of integrated modeling, where diverse parts of the hydrological cycle and its human connections are included. This chapter describes groundwater data management practices, and reviews the current state of the art with enterprise groundwater database management systems. It also includes discussion on commonly used data management models, detailing typical data management lifecycles. We discuss the growing use of web services and open standards such as GWML and WaterML2.0 to exchange groundwater information and knowledge, and the need for national data networks. We also discuss cross-jurisdictional interoperability issues, based on our experience sharing groundwater data across the US/Canadian border. Lastly, we present some future trends relating to groundwater data management.

  6. Pest and Disease Management: Why We Shouldn't Go against the Grain

    PubMed Central

    Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A.; Garrett, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal (‘humpbacked’) relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness. PMID:24098739

  7. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Implications for Pest Management

    PubMed Central

    Lesieur, Vincent; Martin, Jean-François; Weaver, David K.; Hoelmer, Kim A.; Smith, David R.; Morrill, Wendell L.; Kadiri, Nassera; Peairs, Frank B.; Cockrell, Darren M.; Randolph, Terri L.; Waters, Debra K.; Bon, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management. PMID:27959958

  8. Phylogeography of the Wheat Stem Sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Lesieur, Vincent; Martin, Jean-François; Weaver, David K; Hoelmer, Kim A; Smith, David R; Morrill, Wendell L; Kadiri, Nassera; Peairs, Frank B; Cockrell, Darren M; Randolph, Terri L; Waters, Debra K; Bon, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), is a key pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America, and damage resulting from this species has recently expanded southward. Current pest management practices are inadequate and uncertainty regarding geographic origin, as well as limited data on population structure and dynamics across North America impede progress towards more informed management. We examined the genetic divergence between samples collected in North America and northeastern Asia, the assumed native range of C. cinctus using two mitochondrial regions (COI and 16S). Subsequently, we characterized the structure of genetic diversity in the main wheat producing areas in North America using a combination of mtDNA marker and microsatellites in samples collected both in wheat fields and in grasses in wildlands. The strong genetic divergence observed between North American samples and Asian congeners, in particular the synonimized C. hyalinatus, did not support the hypothesis of a recent American colonization by C. cinctus. Furthermore, the relatively high genetic diversity both with mtDNA and microsatellite markers offered additional evidence in favor of the native American origin of this pest. The genetic diversity of North American populations is structured into three genetic clusters and these are highly correlated with geography. Regarding the recent southern outbreaks in North America, the results tend to exclude the hypothesis of recent movement of damaging wheat stem sawfly populations from the northern area. The shift in host plant use by local populations appears to be the most likely scenario. Finally, the significance of these findings is discussed in the context of pest management.

  9. Pest and disease management: why we shouldn't go against the grain.

    PubMed

    Skelsey, Peter; With, Kimberly A; Garrett, Karen A

    2013-01-01

    Given the wide range of scales and mechanisms by which pest or disease agents disperse, it is unclear whether there might exist a general relationship between scale of host heterogeneity and spatial spread that could be exploited by available management options. In this model-based study, we investigate the interaction between host distributions and the spread of pests and diseases using an array of models that encompass the dispersal and spread of a diverse range of economically important species: a major insect pest of coniferous forests in western North America, the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae); the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, one of the most-widespread and best-studied bacterial plant pathogens; the mosquito Culex erraticus, an important vector for many human and animal pathogens, including West Nile Virus; and the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, the causal agent of potato late blight. Our model results reveal an interesting general phenomenon: a unimodal ('humpbacked') relationship in the magnitude of infestation (an index of dispersal or population spread) with increasing grain size (i.e., the finest scale of patchiness) in the host distribution. Pest and disease management strategies targeting different aspects of host pattern (e.g., abundance, aggregation, isolation, quality) modified the shape of this relationship, but not the general unimodal form. This is a previously unreported effect that provides insight into the spatial scale at which management interventions are most likely to be successful, which, notably, do not always match the scale corresponding to maximum infestation. Our findings could provide a new basis for explaining historical outbreak events, and have implications for biosecurity and public health preparedness.

  10. Cry1F resistance among lepidopteran pests: a model for improved resistance management?

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ana M; Vellichirammal, Neetha Nanoth; Jurat-Fuentes, Juan Luis; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-06-01

    The Cry1Fa protein from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is known for its potential to control lepidopteran pests, especially through transgenic expression in maize and cotton. The maize event TC1507 expressing the cry1Fa toxin gene became commercially available in the United States in 2003 for the management of key lepidopteran pests including the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. A high-dose/refuge strategy has been widely adopted to delay evolution of resistance to event TC1507 and other transgenic Bt crops. Efficacy of this strategy depends on the crops expressing a high dose of the Bt toxin to targeted pests and adjacent refuges of non-Bt host plants serving as a source of abundant susceptible insects. While this strategy has proved effective in delaying O. nubilalis resistance, field-evolved resistance to event TC1507 has been reported in S. frugiperda populations in Puerto Rico, Brazil, and the southeastern United States. This paper examines available information on resistance to Cry1Fa in O. nubilalis and S. frugiperda and discusses how this information identifies opportunities to refine resistance management recommendations for Bt maize. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Farmers' perceptions, knowledge, and management of coffee pests and diseases and their natural enemies in Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Segura, H R; Barrera, J F; Morales, H; Nazar, A

    2004-10-01

    Small farmers' perceptions of coffee Coffea arabica L. herbivores and their natural enemies, how those perceptions relate to field infestation levels, and pest management practices being implemented by members from two organic and nonorganic coffee grower organizations in the Soconusco region, southeastern Mexico, were analyzed through an interview survey, diagnostic workshops, and field sampling. The terms pest, disease, and damage were commonly used as synonyms. The major phytophagous species, as perceived by the interviewees, were Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), and to a lesser extent the fungi Corticium koleroga Cooke (Höhnel) and Hemileia vastatrix Berkeley & Broome. Among the nonorganic farmers, other nonpest-related constraints were regarded as more important. Awareness of the existence of natural enemies was low, despite more organic farmers have used the ectoparasitoid bethylid Cephalonomia stephanoderis Betrem against H. hampei. Labor supplied by household members was most frequent for pest control; only organic farmers exchanged labor for this purpose. The levels of infestation by H. hampei, Leucoptera coffeella Guérin-Méneville, and C. koleroga were lower within the organic coffee stands. However, a low effectiveness for pest control was commonly perceived, probably due to a feeling, among the organic farmers, of a low impact of their pest management extension service, whereas a lack of motivation was prevalent among the nonorganic farmers, shown by a concern with their low coffee yields and the emigration of youth. The importance of understanding farmers' perceptions and knowledge of pests and their natural enemies and the need for participatory pest management approaches, are discussed.

  12. Ecological and pest-management implications of sex differences in scarab landing patterns on grape vines.

    PubMed

    González-Chang, Mauricio; Boyer, Stéphane; Lefort, Marie-Caroline; Nboyine, Jerry; Wratten, Steve D

    2017-01-01

    Melolonthinae beetles, comprising different white grub species, are a globally-distributed pest group. Their larvae feed on roots of several crop and forestry species, and adults can cause severe defoliation. In New Zealand, the endemic scarab pest Costelytra zealandica (White) causes severe defoliation on different horticultural crops, including grape vines (Vitis vinifera). Understanding flight and landing behaviours of this pest can help inform pest management decisions. Adult beetles were counted and then removed from 96 grape vine plants from 21:30 until 23:00 h, every day from October 26 until December 2, during 2014 and 2015. Also, adults were removed from the grape vine foliage at dusk 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min after flight started on 2015. Statistical analyses were performed using generalised linear models with a beta-binomial distribution to analyse proportions and with a negative binomial distribution for beetle abundance. By analysing C. zealandica sex ratios during its entire flight season, it is clear that the proportion of males is higher at the beginning of the season, gradually declining towards its end. When adults were successively removed from the grape vines at 5-min intervals after flight activity begun, the mean proportion of males ranged from 6-28%. The male proportion suggests males were attracted to females that had already landed on grape vines, probably through pheromone release. The seasonal and daily changes in adult C. zealandica sex ratio throughout its flight season are presented for the first time. Although seasonal changes in sex ratio have been reported for other melolonthines, changes during their daily flight activity have not been analysed so far. Sex-ratio changes can have important consequences for the management of this pest species, and possibly for other melolonthines, as it has been previously suggested that C. zealandica females land on plants that produce a silhouette against the sky. Therefore, long-term management

  13. Integrated Financial Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pho, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Having worked in the Employees and Commercial Payments Branch of the Financial Management Division for the past 3 summers, I have seen the many changes that have occurred within the NASA organization. As I return each summer, I find that new programs and systems have been adapted to better serve the needs of the Center and of the Agency. The NASA Agency has transformed itself the past couple years with the implementation of the Integrated Financial Management Program (IFMP). IFMP is designed to allow the Agency to improve its management of its Financial, Physical, and Human Resources through the use of multiple enterprise module applications. With my mentor, Joseph Kan, being the branch chief of the Employees and Commercial Payments Branch, I have been exposed to several modules, such as Travel Manager, WebTads, and Core Financial/SAP, which were implemented in the last couple of years under the IFMP. The implementation of these agency-wide systems has sometimes proven to be troublesome. Prior to IFMP, each NASA Center utilizes their own systems for Payroll, Travel, Accounts Payable, etc. But with the implementation of the Integrated Financial Management Program, all the "legacy" systems had to be eliminated. As a result, a great deal of enhancement and preparation work is necessary to ease the transformation from the old systems to the new. All this work occurs simultaneously; for example, e-Payroll will "go live" in several months, but a system like Travel Manager will need to have information upgraded within the system to meet the requirements set by Headquarters. My assignments this summer have given me the opportunity to become involved with such work. So far, I have been given the opportunity to participate in projects resulting from a congressional request, several bankcard reconciliations, updating routing lists for Travel Manager, updating the majordomo list for Travel Manager approvers and point of contacts, and a NASA Headquarters project involving

  14. Wildlife as valuable natural resources vs. intolerable pests: A suburban wildlife management model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Deblinger, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Management of wildlife in suburban environments involves a complex set of interactions between both human and wildlife populations. Managers need additional tools, such as models, that can help them assess the status of wildlife populations, devise and apply management programs, and convey this information to other professionals and the public. We present a model that conceptualizes how some wildlife populations can fluctuate between extremely low (rare, threatened, or endangered status) and extremely high (overabundant) numbers over time. Changes in wildlife abundance can induce changes in human perceptions, which continually redefine species as a valuable resource to be protected versus a pest to be controlled. Management programs thatincorporate a number of approaches and promote more stable populations of wildlife avoid the problems of the resource versus pest transformation, are less costly to society, and encourage more positive and less negative interactions between humans and wildlife. We presenta case example of the beaver Castor canadensis in Massachusetts to illustrate how this model functions and can be applied. ?? 2005 Springer Science + Business Media, Inc.

  15. Integrated care management.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J

    Some clinicians are at the leading edge of good practice in the introduction of integrated care management (ICM) (Wilson, 1996) based on partnership, quality and driven by performance. The new Government White Paper (Department of Health, 1997) outlines proposals for integrated care with all care planners and providers working collaboratively. A number of health and social care organizations have worked collaboratively to develop care programmes based on patient-centred care. One of the vehicles is multidisciplinary pathways of care (MPCs) which is the risk management tool for monitoring jointly agreed quality and patient outcome criteria from the performance of planning and providing individual patient care. ICM views the multidisciplinary approaches to collaborating care delivery by activity, cost and quality, and using a process approach to problem- and outcome-based care delivery. Involving patients and their carers in determining the process and outcomes of care provides a route to better communication, patient and staff satisfaction and the overall quality of care. This article deals with the use of ICM through the monitoring system of multidisciplinary pathways of care (MPCs) as a tool for minimizing risk and improving the continuous quality improvement of patient care. MPCs are one of the components of ICM which need to incorporate clinical guidelines, protocols, interdisciplinary standards, evidenced-based practice and clinical outcomes which are continuously monitored across all sectors of care.

  16. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    PubMed

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  17. A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Guoping; Chen, Lansun; Xu, Weijian; Fu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semi-continuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained.

  18. Connecting scales: achieving in-field pest control from areawide and landscape ecology studies.

    PubMed

    Schellhorn, Nancy A; Parry, Hazel R; Macfadyen, Sarina; Wang, Yongmo; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-02-01

    Areawide management has a long history of achieving solutions that target pests, however, there has been little focus on the areawide management of arthropod natural enemies. Landscape ecology studies that show a positive relationship between natural enemy abundance and habitat diversity demonstrate landscape-dependent pest suppression, but have not yet clearly linked their findings to pest management or to the suite of pests associated with crops that require control. Instead the focus has often been on model systems of single pest species and their natural enemies. We suggest that management actions to capture pest control from natural enemies may be forth coming if: (i) the suite of response and predictor variables focus on pest complexes and specific management actions; (ii) the contribution of "the landscape" is identified by assessing the timing and numbers of natural enemies immigrating and emigrating to and from the target crop, as well as pests; and (iii) pest control thresholds aligned with crop development stages are the benchmark to measure impact of natural enemies on pests, in turn allowing for comparison between study regions, and generalizations. To achieve pest control we will need to incorporate what has been learned from an ecological understanding of model pest and natural enemy systems and integrate areawide landscape management with in-field pest management.

  19. Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.

    PubMed

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2009-04-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field.

  20. Emerging pests and diseases of South-east Asian cassava: a comprehensive evaluation of geographic priorities, management options and research needs.

    PubMed

    Graziosi, Ignazio; Minato, Nami; Alvarez, Elizabeth; Ngo, Dung Tien; Hoat, Trinh Xuan; Aye, Tin Maung; Pardo, Juan Manuel; Wongtiem, Prapit; Wyckhuys, Kris Ag

    2016-06-01

    Cassava is a major staple, bio-energy and industrial crop in many parts of the developing world. In Southeast Asia, cassava is grown on >4 million ha by nearly 8 million (small-scale) farming households, under (climatic, biophysical) conditions that often prove unsuitable for many other crops. While SE Asian cassava has been virtually free of phytosanitary constraints for most of its history, a complex of invasive arthropod pests and plant diseases has recently come to affect local crops. We describe results from a region-wide monitoring effort in the 2014 dry season, covering 429 fields across five countries. We present geographic distribution and field-level incidence of the most prominent pest and disease invaders, introduce readily-available management options and research needs. Monitoring work reveals that several exotic mealybug and (red) mite species have effectively colonised SE Asia's main cassava-growing areas, occurring in respectively 70% and 54% of fields, at average field-level incidence of 27 ± 2% and 16 ± 2%. Cassava witches broom (CWB), a systemic phytoplasma disease, was reported from 64% of plots, at incidence levels of 32 ± 2%. Although all main pests and diseases are non-natives, we hypothesise that accelerating intensification of cropping systems, increased climate change and variability, and deficient crop husbandry are aggravating both organism activity and crop susceptibility. Future efforts need to consolidate local capacity to tackle current (and future) pest invaders, boost detection capacity, devise locally-appropriate integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, and transfer key concepts and technologies to SE Asia's cassava growers. Urgent action is needed to mobilise regional as well as international scientific support, to effectively tackle this phytosanitary emergency and thus safeguard the sustainability and profitability of one of Asia's key agricultural commodities. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016

  1. Integrated risk management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunsucker, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to first present a basis or foundation for the building of an integrated risk management plan and them to present the plan. The integration referred to is across both the temporal and the hierarchical dimensions. Complexity, consequence, and credibility seem to be driving the need for the consideration of risk. Reduction of personal bias and reproducibility of the decision making process seem to be driving the consideration of a formal risk plan. While risk can be used as either a selection tool or a control tool, this paper concentrates on the selection usage. Risk relies on stated purpose. The tightness of the definition of purpose and success is directly reflected in the definition and control of risk. Much of a risk management plan could be designed by the answers to the questions of why, what, who, when, and where. However, any plan must provide the following information about a threat or risk: likelihood, consequence, predictability, reliability, and reproducibility. While the environment at NASA is seen as warm, but not hot, for the introduction of a risk program, some encouragement is seen if the following problems are addressed: no champion, no commitment of resource, confused definitions, lack of direction and focus, a hard sell, NASA culture, many choices of assessment methods, and cost. The plan is designed to follow the normal method of doing work and is structured to follow either the work break down structure or a functional structure very well. The parts of the plan include: defining purpose and success, initial threat assessment, initial risk assessment, reconciling threats and parameters, putting part of the information down and factoring the information back into the decision process as it comes back up, and developing inferences. Two major suggestions are presented. One is to build an office of risk management to be used as a resource by managers in doing the risk process. Another is to form a pilot program to try

  2. Expanding Integrated Pest Management Capacity: Rwanda Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baributsa, Dieudonne; Flores, Luis; Rukazambuga, Daniel; Wise, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rwanda is developing its agricultural capacity to meet the needs of national food security while addressing food demands and requirements of regional and international markets. The Rwanda Horticultural Export Standards Initiative was developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources in collaboration with Michigan State…

  3. Controlling Bed Bugs Using Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Several non-chemical methods can help control an infestation, such as heat treatment or freezing, or mattress and box spring encasements. When using a pesticide, follow label directions carefully and check for EPA registration.

  4. EPA’s Approach for Integrated Pest Management in Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency vision is for all children to be covered by a verifiable and ongoing School IPM program. Learn about this mission and how EPA will work with partners to achieve it.

  5. ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS ENTOMOPHAGA MAIMAIGA AND INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT IN SERBIA.

    PubMed

    Tabaković-Tosić, Mara

    2015-01-01

    During the latest outbreak of the gypsy moth in Serbia (2009-2014), some areas of Central Serbia were particularly endangered, and one of them was Krusevac region, where the forests give way to orchards in the pattern resembling the tiger's skin. Since the number of the laid egg masses in the autumn 2013 guaranteed the defoliation of both forest tree species and agricultural crops, and the presence of E. maimaigo, in Central Serbia had already been determined, at 30 selected plots the assisted spread of it was performed, through the introduction of the infectious inoculum in the beech and oak forests which border the orchards. Since there was dealt with the living organism--fungus, which is particularly susceptible to the weather conditions (temperature and air humidity, as well as the precipitation), and under the conditions of the global warming and great drought, the special recipe for the preparation of inoculum was made. In the following year the mass epizootic of the gypsy moth caterpillars, of the younger instars (L2 and L3), occurred, which implies that E. maimaiga caused the crash of the outbreak of this most harmful species of the defoliating insects of the forests and orchards.

  6. Integrated pest management:concepts,tactics, strategies and case studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fire ants, Solenopsis richteri and Solenopsis invicta, entered the United States before the mid 1930’s and have spread within the country to over 129.5 million ha. The rapid and extensive spread of these stinging ants resulted in drastic attempts to eliminate or control the problem quickly. Initia...

  7. Integrating insect-resistant GM Crops in pest management systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2006, GM cotton and maize with insect resistance were grown on 12.1 and 20.1 million hectares in 9 and 13 countries, respectively. These insect resistant GM crops produce various Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and provide highly selective and effective control of lepidopteran and col...

  8. Computer simulation for integrated pest management of spruce budworms

    Treesearch

    Carroll B. Williams; Patrick J. Shea

    1982-01-01

    Some field studies of the effects of various insecticides on the spruce budworm (Choristoneura sp.) and their parasites have shown severe suppression of host (budworm) populations and increased parasitism after treatment. Computer simulation using hypothetical models of spruce budworm-parasite systems based on these field data revealed that (1)...

  9. Expanding Integrated Pest Management Capacity: Rwanda Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baributsa, Dieudonne; Flores, Luis; Rukazambuga, Daniel; Wise, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rwanda is developing its agricultural capacity to meet the needs of national food security while addressing food demands and requirements of regional and international markets. The Rwanda Horticultural Export Standards Initiative was developed by the Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources in collaboration with Michigan State…

  10. EPA Releases Update to Popular School Integrated Pest Management Publication

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An updated version reflects recent innovations in school IPM, provides links to new information, and has been redesigned into an easily printable format. It provides an overview of IPM and details the steps a school can follow to establish an IPM program.

  11. Integrating pests and pathogens into the climate change/food security debate.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Peter J; Johnson, Scott N; Newton, Adrian C; Ingram, John S I

    2009-01-01

    While many studies have demonstrated the sensitivities of plants and of crop yield to a changing climate, a major challenge for the agricultural research community is to relate these findings to the broader societal concern with food security. This paper reviews the direct effects of climate on both crop growth and yield and on plant pests and pathogens and the interactions that may occur between crops, pests, and pathogens under changed climate. Finally, we consider the contribution that better understanding of the roles of pests and pathogens in crop production systems might make to enhanced food security. Evidence for the measured climate change on crops and their associated pests and pathogens is starting to be documented. Globally atmospheric [CO(2)] has increased, and in northern latitudes mean temperature at many locations has increased by about 1.0-1.4 degrees C with accompanying changes in pest and pathogen incidence and to farming practices. Many pests and pathogens exhibit considerable capacity for generating, recombining, and selecting fit combinations of variants in key pathogenicity, fitness, and aggressiveness traits that there is little doubt that any new opportunities resulting from climate change will be exploited by them. However, the interactions between crops and pests and pathogens are complex and poorly understood in the context of climate change. More mechanistic inclusion of pests and pathogen effects in crop models would lead to more realistic predictions of crop production on a regional scale and thereby assist in the development of more robust regional food security policies.

  12. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  13. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems. PMID:19424439

  14. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    PubMed

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers.

  15. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  16. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  17. Avocado pests in Florida: Not what you expected

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Avocado, Persea americana Mill., is Florida's second most important fruit crop after citrus. Until recently, the complex of spider mite and insect pests that affected avocado in south Florida was under a 20 year Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. The recent invasion of avocado orchards by a...

  18. Tea: Biological control of insect and mite pests in China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea is one of the most economically important crops in China. To secure its production and quality conservation biological control within the context of integrated pest management (IPM) has been widely popularized for better control of arthropod pests on tea with less chemical insecticide usage and ...

  19. Integrated Pest Management of Sunflower Insect Pests in the Northern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sunflowers are native to North America and include 50 species in the genus Helianthus. Thus, associated insects have coevolved with the plants for centuries. A number of these insect species have made the transition from the wild plants to the cultivated plant to feed and develop. These species affe...

  20. Provisioning floral resources to attract aphidophagous hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) useful for pest management in central Spain.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Uña, A; Martín, J M; Fernández-Quintanilla, C; Dorado, J

    2013-12-01

    Noncrop plant communities present on the boundaries or within crop fields are essential for the maintenance of functional biodiversity, affecting beneficial insect numbers and ecological fitness. Habitat manipulation is an increasingly studied strategy aimed at enhancing natural enemies of agricultural pests by providing feeding and shelter resources. In this study, six plant species selected from preliminary work were tested for their potential attractiveness to four common aphidophagous hoverflies species. Potential attractiveness was evaluated through observation of hoverfly feeding visits to replicated flower plots distributed in a randomized design. The combination of the selected species covered a 2-mo full-bloom period. Sphaerophoria scripta L. and Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedeman) were the dominant hoverflies present throughout the sampling period, whereas Eupeodes corollae (F.) and Episyrphus balteatus (DeGeer) visits were less abundant and appeared only in the early season. Potential attractiveness varied among plant species. Calendula arvensis L. and Coriandrum sativum L. were the most visited species. C. arvensis received a high number of visits throughout a long period, whereas the visits to Co. sativum were concentrated in a short blooming period. These results suggest that habitat management by using these plant species may increase the abundance of hoverflies and could improve the biological control of aphid pests typical of spring-summer crops in open Mediterranean environments.

  1. Sublethal Effects in Pest Management: A Surrogate Species Perspective on Fruit Fly Control.

    PubMed

    Banks, John E; Vargas, Roger I; Ackleh, Azmy S; Stark, John D

    2017-07-29

    Tephritid fruit flies are economically important orchard pests globally. While much effort has focused on controlling individual species with a combination of pesticides and biological control, less attention has been paid to managing assemblages of species. Although several tephritid species may co-occur in orchards/cultivated areas, especially in mixed-cropping schemes, their responses to pesticides may be highly variable. Furthermore, predictive efforts about toxicant effects are generally based on acute toxicity, with little or no regard to long-term population effects. Using a simple matrix model parameterized with life history data, we quantified the responses of several tephritid species to the sublethal effects of a toxicant acting on fecundity. Using a critical threshold to determine levels of fecundity reduction below which species are driven to local extinction, we determined that threshold levels vary widely for the three tephritid species. In particular, Bactrocera dorsalis was the most robust of the three species, followed by Ceratitis capitata, and then B. cucurbitae, suggesting individual species responses should be taken into account when planning for area-wide pest control. The rank-order of susceptibility contrasts with results from several field/lab studies testing the same species, suggesting that considering a combination of life history traits and individual species susceptibility is necessary for understanding population responses of species assemblages to toxicant exposure.

  2. Population genetics of Ceratitis capitata in South Africa: implications for dispersal and pest management.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Minette; van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Barnaud, Adeline; Terblanche, John S

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is one of the major agricultural and economical pests globally. Understanding invasion risk and mitigation of medfly in agricultural landscapes requires knowledge of its population structure and dispersal patterns. Here, estimates of dispersal ability are provided in medfly from South Africa at three spatial scales using molecular approaches. Individuals were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and a subset of individuals were also sequenced for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. Our results show that South African medfly populations are generally characterized by high levels of genetic diversity and limited population differentiation at all spatial scales. This suggests high levels of gene flow among sampling locations. However, natural dispersal in C. capitata has been shown to rarely exceed 10 km. Therefore, documented levels of high gene flow in the present study, even between distant populations (>1600 km), are likely the result of human-mediated dispersal or at least some form of long-distance jump dispersal. These findings may have broad applicability to other global fruit production areas and have significant implications for ongoing pest management practices, such as the sterile insect technique.

  3. Evaluation of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat for management of lepidoptera pests.

    PubMed

    Forehand, L M; Orr, D B; Linker, H M

    2006-06-01

    A field study was conducted in 2003 and 2004 at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, NC, to evaluate the effectiveness of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat in decreasing pest caterpillar populations in organically managed tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., plots. Six pairs of tomato plots were established and a commercial beneficial insect habitat seed mix (Peaceful Valley's Good Bug Blend) transplanted around the perimeter of treatment plots, whereas a brown-top millet, Brachiaria ramose (L.) Stapf., border was planted around control plots. Egg predation, egg parasitism by trichogrammatid wasps, and larval parasitism by braconid wasps was monitored throughout the growing season to determine whether habitat increased their activity. In both years of this study, the density of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Manduca spp. eggs was not significantly different between treatment and control plots. Although parasitism was the most important component of egg mortality (19-49%), parasitism was not significantly different between habitat types. Identifiable predation was a minor component (3-9%) of egg fate; it is possible that unidentified predation may be part of the approximately 35-52% of eggs that met unknown fates. Larval parasitism levels ranged from approximately 10 to 90% but was not significantly influenced by the presence of beneficial insect habitat in either year of the study. These results demonstrate that natural enemy activity in organic tomatoes was not amplified, and pest populations were not reduced by the presence of a commercially available beneficial insect habitat.

  4. New opportunities for the integration of microorganisms into biological pest control systems in greenhouse crops.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Tkaczuk, Cezary; Dinu, Mihaela Monica; Fiedler, Żaneta; Vidal, Stefan; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Messelink, Gerben J

    Biological pest control with mass-produced arthropod natural enemies is well developed in greenhouse crops and has often resulted in the evolution of complex ecosystems with persistent populations of multiple arthropod natural enemy species. However, there are cases where arthropod natural enemies are either not effective enough, not available, or their use is rather costly. For these reasons, biological control based on microorganisms, also referred to as 'microbials', represents a complementary strategy for further development. Although commercially available microbials have been around for quite some time, research on and the applied use of combinations of arthropod natural enemies and microbials have remained relatively under explored. Here, we review current uses of entomopathogenic fungi, bacteria and viruses, and their possible direct and indirect effects on arthropod natural enemies in European greenhouses. We discuss how microbials might be combined with arthropod natural enemies in the light of new methodologies and technologies such as conservation biological control, greenhouse climate management, and formulation and delivery. Furthermore, we explore the possibilities of using other microorganisms for biological control, such as endophytes, and the need to understand the effect of insect-associated microorganisms, or symbionts, on the success of biological control. Finally, we suggest future research directions to optimize the combined use of microbials and arthropod natural enemies in greenhouse production.

  5. Thermal biology, population fluctuations and implications of temperature extremes for the management of two globally significant insect pests.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Weldon, Christopher W; Chown, Steven L; le Roux, Peter C; Terblanche, John S

    2013-12-01

    The link between environmental temperature, physiological processes and population fluctuations is a significant aspect of insect pest management. Here, we explore how thermal biology affects the population abundance of two globally significant pest fruit fly species, Ceratitis capitata (medfly) and C. rosa (Natal fruit fly), including irradiated individuals and those expressing a temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutation that are used in the sterile insect technique. Results show that upper and lower lethal temperatures are seldom encountered at the field sites, while critical minimum temperatures for activity and lower developmental thresholds are crossed more frequently. Estimates of abundance revealed that C. capitata are active year-round, but abundance declines markedly during winter. Temporal autocorrelation of average fortnightly trap captures and of development time, estimated from an integrated model to calculate available degree days, show similar seasonal lags suggesting that population increases in early spring occur after sufficient degree-days have accumulated. By contrast, population collapses coincide tightly with increasing frequency of low temperature events that fall below critical minimum temperatures for activity. Individuals of C. capitata expressing the tsl mutation show greater critical thermal maxima and greater longevity under field conditions than reference individuals. Taken together, this evidence suggests that low temperatures limit populations in the Western Cape, South Africa and likely do so elsewhere. Increasing temperature extremes and warming climates generally may extend the season over which these species are active, and could increase abundance. The sterile insect technique may prove profitable as climates change given that laboratory-reared tsl flies have an advantage under warmer conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J Kenneth

    2013-04-15

    Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by "exciting students about science", who perceived increases in "student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts" and/or students as "more interested in termites after participating in this project" were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula.

  7. A Pest Management Approach to the Control of Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Gundy, S. D.; Perez B., J. G.; Stolzy, L. H.; Thomason, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, was clearly demonstrated as a parasite of wheat. It reduced plant stands and stunted plants in the field under the environmental conditions found in Sonora, Mexico. Other soil organisms also may have contributed to the problem. The nematode is widely distributed throughout the wheat-growing region, and may be a problem each growing season. Nematicides controlled the nematode and increased yields, but they were not economical. No resistance was found in existing commercial wheat cultivars. A pest management approach using variety selection, nitrogen fertilizer, planting in cool soil (15 C) and a crop rotation avoiding wheat after wheat was the most practical solution to this problem on a commercial scale. PMID:19308110

  8. A survey of phytotoxic microbial and plant metabolites as potential natural products for pest management.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Kevin K; Andolfi, Anna; Cantrell, Charles L; Cimmino, Alessio; Duke, Stephen O; Osbrink, Weste; Wedge, David E; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Phytotoxic microbial metabolites produced by certain phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria, and a group of phytotoxic plant metabolites including Amaryllidacea alkaloids and some derivatives of these compounds were evaluated for algicide, bactericide, insecticide, fungicide, and herbicide activities in order to discover natural compounds for potential use in the management and control of several important agricultural and household structural pests. Among the various compounds evaluated: i) ophiobolin A was found to be the most promising for potential use as a selective algicide; ii) ungeremine was discovered to be bactericidal against certain species of fish pathogenic bacteria; iii) cycasin caused significant mortality in termites; iv) cavoxin, ophiobolin A, and sphaeropsidin A were most active towards species of plant pathogenic fungi; and v) lycorine and some of its analogues (1-O-acetyllycorine and lycorine chlorohydrate) were highly phytotoxic in the herbicide bioassay. Our results further demonstrated that plants and microbes can provide a diverse and natural source of compounds with potential use as pesticides.

  9. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  10. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  11. The IUPAC International Congresses of Pesticide Chemistry (1963-2014) and Pest Management Science: a half-century of progress.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Gerald T

    2014-08-01

    As we approach the 2014 San Francisco IUPAC Pesticide Chemistry Congress, we reflect on the 51 years of such congresses every 4 years since 1963. Meanwhile, our journal, Pesticide Science/Pest Management Science, has in parallel continually published relevant science for nearly as long (44 years from 1970).

  12. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  13. Integrative Medicine and Case Management.

    PubMed

    Powell, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the integration of health care modalities has changed. The National Institutes of Health founded office of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the early 1990s to investigate integrative therapies through scientific research. In December 2014, the name and mission were updated to the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Case managers, the coordinators of health care, must understand the changes to "integrative medicine" and the allure of the alternative modalities.

  14. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    PubMed

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects.

  15. Development of a precision areawide pest management decision system for cotton - Preliminary study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop models simulate growth and development, and provide relevant information for the routine management of the crop. Integrating crop models with other information technologies such as geographic information systems (GIS), variable rate technology, remote sensing, and global positioning systems (G...

  16. Incorporating carbon storage into the optimal management of forest insect pests: a case study of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands.

    PubMed

    Niemiec, Rebecca M; Lutz, David A; Howarth, Richard B

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  17. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  18. Integrating management strategies for the mountain pine beetle with multiple-resource management of lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    Mark D. McGregor; Dennis M. Cole

    1985-01-01

    Provides guidelines for integrating practices for managing mountain pine beetle populations with silvicultural practices for enhancing multiple resource values of lodgepole pine forests. Summarizes published and unpublished technical information and recent research on the ecology of pest and host and presents visual and classification criteria for recognizing...

  19. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Laurel leaf extracts for honeybee pest and disease management: antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and acaricidal activity.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Natalia; Fernández, Natalia J; Porrini, Martín P; Gende, Liesel B; Álvarez, Estefanía; Buffa, Franco; Brasesco, Constanza; Maggi, Matías D; Marcangeli, Jorge A; Eguaras, Martín J

    2014-02-01

    A diverse set of parasites and pathogens affects productivity and survival of Apis mellifera honeybees. In beekeeping, traditional control by antibiotics and molecules of synthesis has caused problems with contamination and resistant pathogens. In this research, different Laurus nobilis extracts are tested against the main honeybee pests through an integrated point of view. In vivo effects on bee survival are also evaluated. The ethanol extract showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 208 to 416 μg/mL, having the best antimicrobial effect on Paenibacillus larvae among all substances tested. Similarly, this leaf extract showed a significant antiparasitic activity on Varroa destructor, killing 50 % of mites 24 h after a 30-s exposure, and on Nosema ceranae, inhibiting the spore development in the midgut of adult bees ingesting 1 × 10(4) μg/mL of extract solution. Both ethanol extract and volatile extracts (essential oil, hydrolate, and its main component) did not cause lethal effects on adult honeybees. Thus, the absence of topical and oral toxicity of the ethanol extract on bees and the strong antimicrobial, microsporicidal, and miticidal effects registered in this study place this laurel extract as a promising integrated treatment of bee diseases and stimulates the search for other bioactive phytochemicals from plants.

  1. Expanding Integrated Vector Management to promote healthy environments.

    PubMed

    Lizzi, Karina M; Qualls, Whitney A; Brown, Scott C; Beier, John C

    2014-08-01

    Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategies are intended to protect communities from pathogen transmission by arthropods. These strategies target multiple vectors and different ecological and socioeconomic settings, but the aggregate benefits of IVM are limited by the narrow focus of its approach; IVM strategies aim only to control arthropod vectors. We argue that IVM should encompass environmental modifications at early stages - for instance, infrastructural development and sanitation services - to regulate not only vectors but also nuisance biting arthropods. An additional focus on nuisance biting arthropods will improve public health and quality of life and minimize social-disparity issues fostered by pests. Optimally, IVM could incorporate environmental awareness and promotion of control methods proactively to reduce threats of serious pest situations.

  2. Expanding integrated vector management to promote healthy environments

    PubMed Central

    Lizzi, Karina M.; Qualls, Whitney A.; Brown, Scott C.; Beier, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategies are intended to protect communities from pathogen transmission by arthropods. These strategies target multiple vectors and different ecological and socioeconomic settings, but the aggregate benefits of IVM are limited by the narrow focus of its approach; IVM strategies only aim to control arthropod vectors. We argue that IVM should encompass environmental modifications at early stages, for instance, infrastructural development and sanitation services, to regulate not only vectors but also nuisance-biting arthropods. An additional focus on nuisance-biting arthropods will improve public health, quality of life, and minimize social disparity issues fostered by pests. Optimally, IVM could incorporate environmental awareness and promotion of control methods in order to proactively reduce threats of serious pest situations. PMID:25028090

  3. Intensive olive orchards on sloping land: good water and pest management are essential.

    PubMed

    Metzidakis, I; Martinez-Vilela, A; Castro Nieto, G; Basso, B

    2008-11-01

    There is intensive cultivation of olives on sloping land in Jaen-Granada (Spain), Basilicata (Italy) and Western Crete (Greece). The intensive olive groves here are characterised by a tree density of about 250treesha(-1), yearly fertilisation and pruning, several chemical sprays for pest control, soil tillage once to thrice per year and irrigation up to 2700m3ha(-1)yr(-1). Intensive management results in high yields of 3600-6500kgha(-1) but also higher labour costs of 1154-1590euroha(-1)yr(-1), varying per area. The major environmental concerns in this system are related to chemical residues in the fruit, the extinction of useful insects, the depletion of groundwater resources, the pollution of soil and water and the erosion of soil. This paper describes the impact of intensive orchard management on natural resources and gives recommendations for soil and water conservation, reduction of chemicals use and biodiversity enhancement. The specific recommendations for the relevant stakeholders--farmers, technicians, agricultural services and policy makers--are based on the experimental evaluation of different agricultural practices and a socio-economic analysis of local and global production and markets.

  4. Insect resistance management for stored product pests: a case study of cowpea weevil (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W

    2013-12-01

    The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.

  5. Efficacy of silk channel injections with insecticides for management of Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The primary Lepidopteran pests of sweet corn in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). Control of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers fre...

  6. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  7. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  8. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  9. Paladin Integrated Management (PIM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network...contractor support to Production Qualification Testing, Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E) and the Logistics Demonstration. In the FY 2015 PB...LRIP testing and the planned Logistics Demonstration. This reduced contractor support increases schedule risk for IOT &E and First Unit Equipped

  10. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices.

  11. The Role of Pest Control Advisers in Preventative Management of Grapevine Trunk Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Doll, David; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards with trunk diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback) can have negative returns in the long run. Minimizing economic impacts depends on effective management, but adopting a preventative practice after infection occurs may not improve yields. Pest control advisers may reduce grower uncertainty about the efficacy of and need for prevention, which often entails future and unobservable benefits. Here, we surveyed advisers in California to examine their influence over grower decision-making, in the context of trunk diseases, which significantly limit grape production and for which curative practices are unavailable. Our online survey revealed adviser awareness of high disease incidence, and reduced yields and vineyard lifespan. Advisers rated both preventative and postinfection practices positively. Despite higher cost estimates given to postinfection practices, advisers did not recommend preventative practices at higher rates. High recommendation rates were instead correlated with high disease incidence for both preventative and postinfection practices. Recommendation rates declined with increasing cost for preventative, but not for postinfection, practices. Our findings suggest that even when advisers acknowledge the risks of trunk diseases, they may not recommend preventative practices before infection occurs. This underscores the importance of clear outreach, emphasizing both the need for prevention and its long-term cost efficacy.

  12. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry.

  13. The population genetics of using homing endonuclease genes in vector and pest management.

    PubMed

    Deredec, Anne; Burt, Austin; Godfray, H C J

    2008-08-01

    Homing endonuclease genes (HEGs) encode proteins that in the heterozygous state cause double-strand breaks in the homologous chromosome at the precise position opposite the HEG. If the double-strand break is repaired using the homologous chromosome, the HEG becomes homozygous, and this represents a powerful genetic drive mechanism that might be used as a tool in managing vector or pest populations. HEGs may be used to decrease population fitness to drive down population densities (possibly causing local extinction) or, in disease vectors, to knock out a gene required for pathogen transmission. The relative advantages of HEGs that target viability or fecundity, that are active in one sex or both, and whose target is expressed before or after homing are explored. The conditions under which escape mutants arise are also analyzed. A different strategy is to place HEGs on the Y chromosome that cause one or more breaks on the X chromosome and so disrupt sex ratio. This strategy can cause severe sex-ratio biases with efficiencies that depend on the details of sperm competition and zygote mortality. This strategy is probably less susceptible to escape mutants, especially when multiple X shredders are used.

  14. The Invasive Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae): Understanding Its Pest Status and Management Globally

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer, Sonja J.; Visser, Diedrich; Valladares, Graciela; Soares Correa, Alberto; Shepard, B. Merle; Rauf, Aunu; Murphy, Sean T.; Mujica, Norma; MacVean, Charles; Kroschel, Jürgen; Kishinevsky, Miriam; Joshi, Ravindra C.; Johansen, Nina S.; Hallett, Rebecca H.; Civelek, Hasan S.; Chen, Bing; Metzler, Helga Blanco

    2017-01-01

    Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) is native to South America but has expanded its range and invaded many regions of the world, primarily on flowers and to a lesser extent on horticultural product shipments. As a result of initial invasion into an area, damage caused is usually significant but not necessarily sustained. Currently, it is an economic pest in selected native and invaded regions of the world. Adults cause damage by puncturing abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces for feeding and egg laying sites. Larvae mine the leaf parenchyma tissues which can lead to leaves drying and wilting. We have recorded 365 host plant species from 49 families and more than 106 parasitoid species. In a subset of the Argentinian data, we found that parasitoid community composition attacking L. huidobrensis differs significantly in cultivated and uncultivated plants. No such effect was found at the world level, probably due to differences in collection methods in the different references. We review the existing knowledge as a means of setting the context for new and unpublished data. The main objective is to provide an update of widely dispersed and until now unpublished data, evaluate dispersion of the leafminer and management strategies in different regions of the world, and highlight the need to consider the possible effects of climate change on further regional invasions or expansions. PMID:28423426

  15. Teacher Characteristics and Perceptions of Pest Management Curricula: Clues to Adoption and Continuation

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Makena; Aihara-Sasaki, Maria; Grace, J. Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Educate to Eradicate is a K-12 curriculum project using termite biology and control as the basis for science education that has been implemented in over 350 Hawaii public school classrooms. To encourage sustained implementation of the project, we aimed to identify factors that influence the adoption and continuation of pest management curricula in public school classrooms. Regression analysis of teacher survey data were used to create predictive models of teacher continuation. Teachers motivated by “exciting students about science”, who perceived increases in “student understanding and comprehension of major termite knowledge concepts” and/or students as “more interested in termites after participating in this project” were more likely to continue curriculum. Teachers who had worked at their current school over 21 years at the time of curriculum adoption, and/or who identified having subject specialties not listed on the survey were less likely to continue curriculum. Additionally, teachers servicing lower socioeconomic level students were less likely to continue the curricula. PMID:26464383

  16. Evaluating environmental and economic consequences of alternative pest management strategies: results of modeling workshops

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Richard L.; Andrews, Austin K.; Auble, Gregor T.L.; Ellison, Richard A.; Hamilton, David B.; Roelle, James E.; McNamee, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The model conceptualized at the first workshop simulates the effect of corn agrecosystem decisions on crop production, economic returns, and environmental indicators. The model is composed of five interacting submodels: 1) a Production Strategies submodel which makes decisions concerning tillage, planting, fertilizer and pesticide applications, and harvest; 2) a Hydrology/Chemical Transport submodel which represents soil hydrology, erosion, and concentrations of fertilizers and pesticides in the soil, runoff, surface waters, and percolation; 3) a Vegetation submodel which simulates growth of agricultural crops (corns and soybeans) and weeds; 4) a Pests submodel which calculates pest population levels and resulting crop damage; and 5) an Environmental Effects submodel which calculates indicators of potential fish kills, human health effects, and wildlife habitat. The most persistent data gaps encountered in quantifying the model were coefficients to relate environmental consequences to alternative pest management strategies. While the model developed in the project is not yet accurate enough to be used for real-world decisions about the use of pesticides on corn, it does contain the basic structure upon which such a model could be built. More importantly at this stage of development, the project has shown that very complex systems can be modeled in short periods of time and that the process of building such models increases understanding among disciplinary specialists and between diverse institutional interests. This process can be useful to EPA as the agency cooperates with other institutions to meet its responsibilities in less costly ways. Activities at the second 2 1/2-day workshop included a review of the model, incorporation of necessary corrections, simulation of policy scenarios, and examination of techniques to address remaining institutional conflicts. Participants were divided into three groups representing environmental, production or industry, and

  17. Integrated fuel management system

    SciTech Connect

    Barbeau, D.E.

    1987-09-29

    An aircraft fuel management system to regulate fuel from an airframe reservoir is described. The system comprises: an aircraft turbine engine having a combustor providing propulsion for the aircraft; a fuel pump receiving fuel from the reservoir and supplying fuel to the turbine engine; a motor controlling the pump so as to provide fuel to the turbine engine; means for sensing at least one engine condition; means responsive to the sensing means for controlling fuel flow to the turbine engine, and wherein the pump and the motor are of the constant speed type and further comprising valve means for controlling the fuel flow rate to the turbine engine and wherein the controlling means modulates the position of the valve means.

  18. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    PubMed

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low.

  19. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  20. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Home, Yard, and Garden. Circular 900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication lists certain insecticides to control insect pests of food, fabrics, structures, man and animals, lawns, shrubs, trees, flowers and vegetables. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to combat infestation. (CS)

  1. Agroecological management of a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Nboyine, Jerry Asalma; Boyer, Stephane; Saville, David J; Wratten, Stephen David

    2016-11-28

    The efficacy of different combinations of undervine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over 2 seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The undervine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans [Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)], plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with 10 replicates. Data were collected on weta densities, damage to beans and components of yield. The latter were numbers of bud laid down per vine, shoots per bud, clusters per shoot, grape bunches per vine, bunch weight and yield. The undervine treatments significantly affected all variables except the number of shoots per bud. In contrast, none of the variables was significantly affected by the inter-row treatments or their interaction with undervine treatments, apart from weta density. At the end of the experiment, weta density in the shell treatment was about 58% lower than in the control. As a result, there was about 39% significant yield increase in that treatment compared to the control. Although the undervine beans and sleeves treatments increased yield, there were no reductions in weta density. With undervine beans, the insect fed on the bean plants instead of vine buds. Thus, yield in that treatment was approximately 28% higher than in the control. These results demonstrate that simple agroecological management approaches can reduce above-ground damage by soil-dwelling insects.

  2. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    PubMed

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying.

  3. Biological control of livestock pests : Parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), are common pests on livestock, poultry, and equine facilities. Biological control of filth flies with pupal parasitoids can be used in conjunction with other control methods as part of an integrated fly management program. ...

  4. Biology and Management of Insect Pests in North American Intensively Managed Hardwood Forest Systems

    Treesearch

    David R. Coyle; T. Evan Nebeker; Elwood R. Hart; William J. Mattson

    2005-01-01

    Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS...

  5. Integration for sustainable catchment management.

    PubMed

    Macleod, Christopher J A; Scholefield, David; Haygarth, Philip M

    2007-02-15

    Sustainable catchment management requires increased levels of integration between groups of natural and social scientists, land and water users, land and water managers, planners and policy makers across spatial scales. Multiple policy drivers, covering urban and rural communities and their relationships with land and water use, have resulted in the need for an integrated decision making framework that operates from the strategic national scale to the local catchment scale. Large gaps in integration between policies are resulting in uncertain outcomes of conflicting and competing policy measures. The need for further integration is illustrated by little or no reductions in nitrate and phosphate levels in surface and ground waters in England and Wales. There is a requirement for natural scientists to consider the socio-economic setting and implications of their research. Moreover, catchment system level science requires natural and social scientists to work more closely, to provide robust analysis of the state of the environment that fully considers the bio-physical, social, political and economic settings. The combined use of spatial technologies, scenarios, indicators and multicriteria analysis are increasingly being used to enable improved integration for sustainable catchment management.

  6. Automatic monitoring of insect pests in stored grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Manual sampling of insects in stored grain is a laborious and time consuming process. Automation of grain sampling should help to increase the adoption of stored-grain integrated pest management. To make accurate insect management decisions, managers need to know both the insect species and numbers ...

  7. Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.

    PubMed

    Cassells, Alan C

    2012-01-01

    The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures

  8. Pest management in traditional maize stores in West Africa: a farmer's perspective.

    PubMed

    Meikle, W G; Markham, R H; Nansen, C; Holst, N; Degbey, P; Azoma, K; Korie, S

    2002-10-01

    Farmers in the Republic of Benin have few resources to invest in protection of stored maize, and prophylactic pesticide application is often recommended by extension and development agencies. Neither the efficacy nor profitability of such an application in traditional maize storage facilities has been addressed quantitatively. In this study, existing management options for stored maize were evaluated monthly over 6 mo in central and southern Benin with respect to their effects on grain injury and on densities of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) and Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. P. truncatus infested 54% of the experimental stores in the study even though Teretrius nigrescens (Lewis), a natural enemy introduced against P. truncatus, was well established in the region. S. zeamais was the most common pest, found in 85% of the experimental storage facilities. Prophylactically treated maize was, on average, worth more than untreated maize for month 1 through 5 in southern Benin, after taking into account market price, pesticide costs, percentage grain damage and weight loss, but maize storage was not profitable overall. No difference was observed between treatments in central Benin. After 6 mo treated storage facilities were not significantly different from untreated storage facilities in terms of either percentage damage or profit in either region. A rapid scouting plan intended to provide farmers with a means for identifying storage facilities at greatest risk of severe P. truncatus infestation was field validated. Given that unsafe pesticide use is prevalent in Benin, research and extension services should clearly state the limitations to prophylactic treatment and increase the effort to educate farmers on appropriate pesticide use, store monitoring and marketing.

  9. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  10. Practical Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Pesticide Runoff for Argentine Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Les; Rust, Michael K; Richards, Jaben; Wu, Xiaoqin; Kabashima, John; Wilen, Cheryl; Gan, Jay; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to involve pest management professionals in the design of application techniques and strategies that would be efficacious and also reduce insecticide runoff. Our study involved measuring both the efficacy of treatments for the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the concurrent runoff of fipronil and pyrethroids. Two collaborating companies used low-impact protocols for controlling ants while minimizing runoff. Protocol 1 involved bimonthly treatments, while Protocol 2 was monthly. Both protocols involved an initial treatment with a fipronil spray around the foundation. At the garage door-driveway interface, the fipronil application was done as a pin stream for Protocol 1, and as a crack and crevice application in the expansion joint near the garage for Protocol 2. Protocol 1 replaced most pyrethroid sprays with bifenthrin granules placed around bushes and away from the driveway. For the next treatment on day 63, Protocol 1 also included cyfluthrin spray treatments around the house foundation and crack and crevice applications around the edge of the driveway. For the first treatment in Protocol 2, the fipronil spray was supplemented with spot treatments of cyfluthrin. For subsequent Protocol 2 treatments, botanical insecticides were applied. For weeks 1 and 2 posttreatment combined, Protocol 1 had significantly higher reductions in ant numbers compared with Protocol 2. Thereafter there were no significant differences between the protocols. Runoff of bifenthrin from the granules used with Protocol 1 was much lower than in previous trials involving bifenthrin sprays. Day 1 fipronil runoff for Protocol 2 was significantly lower than that for Protocol 1. This difference may be because of the crack and crevice application applied in Protocol 2. Cyfluthrin runoff was minimal for Protocol 2, which involved spot treatments to supplement the fipronil on day 1, or the botanical insecticides for subsequent treatments. Protocol 1 had a

  11. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ana M.; Fishilevich, Elane; Matz, Natalie; Storer, Nicholas P.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    Parental RNAi (pRNAi) is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR) via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a successful pRNAi response in WCR for the genes brahma and hunchback. The parameters tested included a concentration response, duration of the dsRNA exposure, timing of the dsRNA exposure with respect to the mating status in WCR females, and the effects of pRNAi on males. Results indicate that all of the above parameters affect the strength of pRNAi phenotype in females. Results are interpreted in terms of how this technology will perform in the field and the potential role for pRNAi in pest and resistance management strategies. More broadly, the described approaches enable examination of the dynamics of RNAi response in insects beyond pRNAi and crop pests. PMID:28029123

  12. Parameters for Successful Parental RNAi as An Insect Pest Management Tool in Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ana M; Fishilevich, Elane; Matz, Natalie; Storer, Nicholas P; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-12-24

    Parental RNAi (pRNAi) is an RNA interference response where the gene knockdown phenotype is observed in the progeny of the treated organism. pRNAi has been demonstrated in female western corn rootworms (WCR) via diet applications and has been described as a potential approach for rootworm pest management. However, it is not clear if plant-expressed pRNAi can provide effective control of next generation WCR larvae in the field. In this study, we evaluated parameters required to generate a successful pRNAi response in WCR for the genes brahma and hunchback. The parameters tested included a concentration response, duration of the dsRNA exposure, timing of the dsRNA exposure with respect to the mating status in WCR females, and the effects of pRNAi on males. Results indicate that all of the above parameters affect the strength of pRNAi phenotype in females. Results are interpreted in terms of how this technology will perform in the field and the potential role for pRNAi in pest and resistance management strategies. More broadly, the described approaches enable examination of the dynamics of RNAi response in insects beyond pRNAi and crop pests.

  13. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  14. Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

  15. Integrated Insect Control May Alter Pesticide Use Pattern

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Ward

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of predators, parasites, bacteria, viruses, hormones, pheromones, and sterile-male release and insect-resistance imparting techniques in pest control. Concludes with comments from chemical pesticide companies as popular attitudes toward the integrated pest management. (CC)

  16. Genetic identification of an unknown Rhagoletis fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Chinese crabapple: implications for apple pest management.

    PubMed

    St Jean, Gilbert; Egan, Scott P; Yee, Wee L; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2013-06-01

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious introduced quarantine pest in the apple (Malus spp.)-growing regions of central Washington and Oregon. In August 2011, seven fly larvae of unknown origin were discovered infesting fruit of an exotic Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Aiton) Borkhausen, in Kennewick, Benton County, WA. If confirmed, Chinese crabapple would have represented a new host for R. pomonella in Washington and triggered quarantine measures in a surrounding three-county region of the state. Here, we establish, based on five microsatellite loci, the identity of the crabapple-infesting larvae as the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, representing a new host record for the fly. Morphological analysis of six flies reared to adulthood confirmed the genetic identification. The results demonstrate the utility of integrating rapid genetic identification methods with field surveys of economic pests, which decreased detection times by months, and avoided enacting costly quarantine measures that saved local and federal bodies > US$0.5 million in monitoring, inspection, and control costs. We discuss current ongoing efforts to develop rapid, accurate, and inexpensive on site DNA-based detection tools for R. pomonella that would have general applicability for the control of pest insects.

  17. Inclusion of Specialist and Generalist Stimuli in Attract-and-Kill Programs: Their Relative Efficacy in Apple Maggot Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Pest Management.

    PubMed

    Morrison, William R; Lee, Doo-Hyung; Reissig, W Harvey; Combs, David; Leahy, Kathleen; Tuttle, Arthur; Cooley, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C

    2016-08-01

    Investigating the chemical ecology of agricultural systems continues to be a salient part of integrated pest management programs. Apple maggot fly, a key pest of apple in eastern North America, is a visual specialist with attraction to host fruit-mimicking cues. These cues have been incorporated into red spherical traps used for both monitoring and behaviorally based management. Incorporating generalist or specialist olfactory cues can potentially increase the overall success of this management system. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of a generalist olfactory cue, ammonium carbonate, and the specialist olfactory cue, a five-component apple volatile blend, when included as a component of a red attracticidal sphere system. Secondly, we assessed how critical it was to maintain minimal deviation from the optimal, full-round specialist visual stimulus provided by red spheres. Finally, attracticidal spheres were deployed with specialist olfactory cues in commercial apple orchards to evaluate their potential for effective management of apple maggot. Ammonium carbonate did not increase residency, feeding time, or mortality in the laboratory-based trials. Field deployment of specialist olfactory cues increased apple maggot captures on red spheres, while the generalist cue did not. Apple maggot tolerated some deviation from the optimal visual stimulus without reducing captures on red spheres. Attracticidal spheres hung in perimeter trees in orchards resulted in acceptable and statistically identical levels of control compared with standard insecticide programs used by growers. Overall, our study contributes valuable information for developing a reliable attract-and-kill system for apple maggot. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  18. Towards a Collaborative Research: A Case Study on Linking Science to Farmers' Perceptions and Knowledge on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases and Its Management.

    PubMed

    Liebig, Theresa; Jassogne, Laurence; Rahn, Eric; Läderach, Peter; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Kucel, Patrick; Van Asten, Piet; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has recognized the importance of integrating farmer's perceptions and knowledge (FPK) for the development of sustainable pest and disease management strategies. However, the knowledge gap between indigenous and scientific knowledge still contributes to misidentification of plant health constraints and poor adoption of management solutions. This is particularly the case in the context of smallholder farming in developing countries. In this paper, we present a case study on coffee production in Uganda, a sector depending mostly on smallholder farming facing a simultaneous and increasing number of socio-ecological pressures. The objectives of this study were (i) to examine and relate FPK on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases (CPaD) to altitude and the vegetation structure of the production systems; (ii) to contrast results with perceptions from experts and (iii) to compare results with field observations, in order to identify constraints for improving the information flow between scientists and farmers. Data were acquired by means of interviews and workshops. One hundred and fifty farmer households managing coffee either at sun exposure, under shade trees or inter-cropped with bananas and spread across an altitudinal gradient were selected. Field sampling of the two most important CPaD was conducted on a subset of 34 plots. The study revealed the following findings: (i) Perceptions on CPaD with respect to their distribution across altitudes and perceived impact are partially concordant among farmers, experts and field observations (ii) There are discrepancies among farmers and experts regarding management practices and the development of CPaD issues of the previous years. (iii) Field observations comparing CPaD in different altitudes and production systems indicate ambiguity of the role of shade trees. According to the locality-specific variability in CPaD pressure as well as in FPK, the importance of developing spatially variable and relevant

  19. Towards a Collaborative Research: A Case Study on Linking Science to Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases and Its Management

    PubMed Central

    Liebig, Theresa; Läderach, Peter; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Kucel, Patrick; Van Asten, Piet; Avelino, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The scientific community has recognized the importance of integrating farmer’s perceptions and knowledge (FPK) for the development of sustainable pest and disease management strategies. However, the knowledge gap between indigenous and scientific knowledge still contributes to misidentification of plant health constraints and poor adoption of management solutions. This is particularly the case in the context of smallholder farming in developing countries. In this paper, we present a case study on coffee production in Uganda, a sector depending mostly on smallholder farming facing a simultaneous and increasing number of socio-ecological pressures. The objectives of this study were (i) to examine and relate FPK on Arabica Coffee Pests and Diseases (CPaD) to altitude and the vegetation structure of the production systems; (ii) to contrast results with perceptions from experts and (iii) to compare results with field observations, in order to identify constraints for improving the information flow between scientists and farmers. Data were acquired by means of interviews and workshops. One hundred and fifty farmer households managing coffee either at sun exposure, under shade trees or inter-cropped with bananas and spread across an altitudinal gradient were selected. Field sampling of the two most important CPaD was conducted on a subset of 34 plots. The study revealed the following findings: (i) Perceptions on CPaD with respect to their distribution across altitudes and perceived impact are partially concordant among farmers, experts and field observations (ii) There are discrepancies among farmers and experts regarding management practices and the development of CPaD issues of the previous years. (iii) Field observations comparing CPaD in different altitudes and production systems indicate ambiguity of the role of shade trees. According to the locality-specific variability in CPaD pressure as well as in FPK, the importance of developing spatially variable and

  20. Multilevel integrated flood management aproach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilly, Mitja; Rusjan, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The optimal solution for complex flood management is integrated approach. Word »integration« used very often when we try to put something together, but should distinguish full multiple integrated approach of integration by parts when we put together and analyse only two variables. In doing so, we lost complexity of the phenomenon. Otherwise if we try to put together all variables we should take so much effort and time and we never finish the job properly. Solution is in multiple integration captures the essential factors, which are different on a case-by-case (Brilly, 2000). Physical planning is one of most important activity in which flood management should be integrated. The physical planning is crucial for vulnerability and its future development and on other hand our structural measures must be incorporate in space and will very often dominated in. The best solution is if space development derived on same time with development of structural measures. There are good examples with such approach (Vienna, Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana). Problems stared when we try incorporating flood management in already urbanised area or we would like to decrease risk to some lower level. Looking to practice we learn that middle Ages practices were much better than to day. There is also »disaster by design« when hazard increased as consequence of upstream development or in stream construction or remediation. In such situation we have risk on areas well protected in the past. Good preparation is essential for integration otherwise we just lost time what is essential for decision making and development. We should develop clear picture about physical characteristics of phenomena and possible solutions. We should develop not only the flood maps; we should know how fast phenomena could develop, in hour, day or more. Do we need to analyse ground water - surface water relations, we would like to protected area that was later flooded by ground water. Do we need to take care about