Science.gov

Sample records for integrated plant information

  1. Plants integrate information about nutrients and neighbors.

    PubMed

    Cahill, James F; McNickle, Gordon G; Haag, Joshua J; Lamb, Eric G; Nyanumba, Samson M; St Clair, Colleen Cassady

    2010-06-25

    Animals regularly integrate information about the location of resources and the presence of competitors, altering their foraging behavior accordingly. We studied the annual plant Abutilon theophrasti to determine whether a plant can demonstrate a similarly complex response to two conditions: presence of a competitor and heterogeneous resource distributions. Individually grown plants fully explored the pot by using a broad and uniform rooting distribution regardless of soil resource distributions. Plants with competitors and uniform soil nutrient distributions exhibited pronounced reductions in rooting breadth and spatial soil segregation among the competing individuals. In contrast, plants with competitors and heterogeneous soil nutrient distributions reduced their root growth only modestly, indicating that plants integrate information about both neighbor and resource distributions in determining their root behavior.

  2. Nuclear plants gain integrated information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Villavicencio-Ramirez, A.; Rodriquez-Alvarez, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    With the objective of simplifying the complex mesh of computing devices employed within nuclear power plants, modern technology and integration techniques are being used to form centralized (but backed up) databases and distributed processing and display networks. Benefits are immediate as a result of the integration and the use of standards. The use of a unique data acquisition and database subsystem optimizes the high costs of engineering, as this task is done only once for the life span of the system. This also contributes towards a uniform user interface and allows for graceful expansion and maintenance. This article features an integrated information system, Sistema Integral de Informacion de Proceso (SIIP). The development of this system enabled the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power plant to fully use the already existing universe of signals and its related engineering during all plant conditions, namely, start up, normal operation, transient analysis, and emergency operation. Integrated systems offer many advantages over segregated systems, and this experience should benefit similar development efforts in other electric power utilities, not only for nuclear but also for other types of generating plants.

  3. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation.

    PubMed

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-03-10

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Information Integration and Communication in Plant Growth Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chaiwanon, Juthamas; Wang, Wenfei; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Plants are equipped with the capacity to respond to a large number of diverse signals, both internal ones and those emanating from the environment, that are critical to their survival and adaption as sessile organisms. These signals need to be integrated through highly structured intracellular networks to ensure coherent cellular responses, and in addition, spatiotemporal actions of hormones and peptides both orchestrate local cell differentiation and coordinate growth and physiology over long distances. Further, signal interactions and signaling outputs vary significantly with developmental context. This review discusses our current understanding of the integrated intracellular and intercellular signaling networks that control plant growth. PMID:26967291

  5. The integrated web service and genome database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information.

    PubMed

    Kim, Changkug; Park, Dongsuk; Seol, Youngjoo; Hahn, Jangho

    2011-01-01

    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) constructed an agricultural biology-based infrastructure and developed a Web based relational database for agricultural plants with biotechnology information. The NABIC has concentrated on functional genomics of major agricultural plants, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on genomics of major agricultural resources. This genome database provides annotated genome information from 1,039,823 records mapped to rice, Arabidopsis, and Chinese cabbage.

  6. Information Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the concept of Information Integrity, which is the detection and possible correction of information manipulation by any intermediary node in a communication system. As networks continue to grow in complexity, information theoretic security has failed to keep pace. As a result many parties whom want to communicate,…

  7. Information Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation introduces the concept of Information Integrity, which is the detection and possible correction of information manipulation by any intermediary node in a communication system. As networks continue to grow in complexity, information theoretic security has failed to keep pace. As a result many parties whom want to communicate,…

  8. GERMINATE. a generic database for integrating genotypic and phenotypic information for plant genetic resource collections.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer M; Davenport, Guy F; Marshall, David; Ellis, T H Noel; Ambrose, Michael J; Dicks, Jo; van Hintum, Theo J L; Flavell, Andrew J

    2005-10-01

    The extensive germplasm resource collections that are now available for major crop plants and their wild relatives will increasingly provide valuable biological and bioinformatics resources for plant physiologists and geneticists to dissect the molecular basis of key traits and to develop highly adapted plant material to sustain future breeding programs. A key to the efficient deployment of these resources is the development of information systems that will enable the collection and storage of biological information for these plant lines to be integrated with the molecular information that is now becoming available through the use of high-throughput genomics and post-genomics technologies. The GERMINATE database has been designed to hold a diverse variety of data types, ranging from molecular to phenotypic, and to allow querying between such data for any plant species. Data are stored in GERMINATE in a technology-independent manner, such that new technologies can be accommodated in the database as they emerge, without modification of the underlying schema. Users can access data in GERMINATE databases either via a lightweight Perl-CGI Web interface or by the more complex Genomic Diversity and Phenotype Connection software. GERMINATE is released under the GNU General Public License and is available at http://germinate.scri.sari.ac.uk/germinate/.

  9. GnpIS: an information system to integrate genetic and genomic data from plants and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Delphine; Alaux, Michael; Amselem, Joelle; Choisne, Nathalie; Durand, Sophie; Flores, Raphaël; Keliet, Aminah-Olivia; Kimmel, Erik; Lapalu, Nicolas; Luyten, Isabelle; Michotey, Célia; Mohellibi, Nacer; Pommier, Cyril; Reboux, Sébastien; Valdenaire, Dorothée; Verdelet, Daphné; Quesneville, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Data integration is a key challenge for modern bioinformatics. It aims to provide biologists with tools to explore relevant data produced by different studies. Large-scale international projects can generate lots of heterogeneous and unrelated data. The challenge is to integrate this information with other publicly available data. Nucleotide sequencing throughput has been improved with new technologies; this increases the need for powerful information systems able to store, manage and explore data. GnpIS is a multispecies integrative information system dedicated to plant and fungi pests. It bridges genetic and genomic data, allowing researchers access to both genetic information (e.g. genetic maps, quantitative trait loci, markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms, germplasms and genotypes) and genomic data (e.g. genomic sequences, physical maps, genome annotation and expression data) for species of agronomical interest. GnpIS is used by both large international projects and plant science departments at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Here, we illustrate its use. Database URL: http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/gnpis PMID:23959375

  10. GnpIS: an information system to integrate genetic and genomic data from plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Delphine; Alaux, Michael; Amselem, Joelle; Choisne, Nathalie; Durand, Sophie; Flores, Raphaël; Keliet, Aminah-Olivia; Kimmel, Erik; Lapalu, Nicolas; Luyten, Isabelle; Michotey, Célia; Mohellibi, Nacer; Pommier, Cyril; Reboux, Sébastien; Valdenaire, Dorothée; Verdelet, Daphné; Quesneville, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Data integration is a key challenge for modern bioinformatics. It aims to provide biologists with tools to explore relevant data produced by different studies. Large-scale international projects can generate lots of heterogeneous and unrelated data. The challenge is to integrate this information with other publicly available data. Nucleotide sequencing throughput has been improved with new technologies; this increases the need for powerful information systems able to store, manage and explore data. GnpIS is a multispecies integrative information system dedicated to plant and fungi pests. It bridges genetic and genomic data, allowing researchers access to both genetic information (e.g. genetic maps, quantitative trait loci, markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms, germplasms and genotypes) and genomic data (e.g. genomic sequences, physical maps, genome annotation and expression data) for species of agronomical interest. GnpIS is used by both large international projects and plant science departments at the French National Institute for Agricultural Research. Here, we illustrate its use. Database URL: http://urgi.versailles.inra.fr/gnpis.

  11. FUNCTION OF PHLOEM-BORNE INFORMATION MACROMOLECULES IN INTEGRATING PLANT GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    William J. Lucas

    2012-11-12

    Studies on higher plants have revealed the operation of cell-to-cell and long-distance communication networks that mediate the transport of information macromolecules, such as proteins and RNA. Based on the findings from this DOE-funded project and results from other groups, it is now well established that the enucleate sieve tube system of the angiosperms contains a complex set of proteins including RNA binding proteins as well as a unique population of RNA molecules, comprised of both mRNA and small RNA species. Hetero-grafting experiments demonstrated that delivery of such RNA molecules, into the scion, is highly correlated with changes in developmental phenotypes. Furthermore, over the course of this project, our studies showed that plasmodesmata and the phloem are intimately involved in the local and systemic spread of sequence-specific signals that underlie gene silencing in plants. Major advances were also made in elucidating the underlying mechanisms that operate to mediate the selective entry and exit of proteins and RNA into and out of the phloem translocation stream. Our pioneering studies identified the first plant protein with the capacity to both bind specifically to small RNA molecules (si-RNA) and mediate in the cell-to-cell movement of such siRNA. Importantly, studies conducted with support from this DOE program also yielded a detailed characterization of the first phloem-mobile RNP complex isolated from pumpkin, namely the CmRBP50-RNP complex. This RNP complex was shown to bind, in a sequence-specific manner, to a set of transcripts encoding for transcription factors. The remarkable stability of this CmRBP50-RNP complex allows for long-distance delivery of bound transcripts from mature leaves into developing tissues and organs. Knowledge gained from this project can be used to exert control over the long-distance signaling networks used by plants to integrate their physiological and developmental programs at a whole plant level. Eventually, this

  12. Effects of integrated designs of alarm and process information on diagnosis performance in digital nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaojun; She, Manrong; Li, Zhizhong; Song, Fei; Sang, Wei

    2017-06-09

    In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPPs), operators frequently switch between alarm displays and system-information displays to incorporate information from different screens. In this study, we investigated two integrated designs of alarm and process information - integrating alarm information into process displays (denoted as Alarm2Process integration) and integrating process information into alarm displays (denoted as Process2Alarm integration). To analyse the effects of the two integration approaches and time pressure on the diagnosis performance, a laboratory experiment was conducted with ninety-six students. The results show that compared with the non-integrated case, Process2Alarm integration yields better diagnosis performance in terms of diagnosis accuracy, time required to generate correct hypothesis and completion time. In contrast, the Alarm2Process integration leads to higher levels of workload, with no improvement in diagnosis performance. The diagnosis performance of Process2Alarm integration was consistently better than that of Alarm2Process integration, regardless of the levels of time pressure. Practitioner Summary: To facilitate operator's synthesis of NPP information when performing diagnosis tasks, we proposed to integrate process information into alarm displays. The laboratory validation shows that the integration approach significantly improves the diagnosis performance for both low and high time-pressure levels.

  13. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Rueda, Denisse; Caballero, Lorena; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R; Benítez, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes.

  14. Mechanical forces as information: an integrated approach to plant and animal development

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Valeria; Rueda, Denisse; Caballero, Lorena; Alvarez-Buylla, Elena R.; Benítez, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical forces such as tension and compression act throughout growth and development of multicellular organisms. These forces not only affect the size and shape of the cells and tissues but are capable of modifying the expression of genes and the localization of molecular components within the cell, in the plasma membrane, and in the plant cell wall. The magnitude and direction of these physical forces change with cellular and tissue properties such as elasticity. Thus, mechanical forces and the mesoscopic fields that emerge from their local action constitute important sources of positional information. Moreover, physical and biochemical processes interact in non-linear ways during tissue and organ growth in plants and animals. In this review we discuss how such mechanical forces are generated, transmitted, and sensed in these two lineages of multicellular organisms to yield long-range positional information. In order to do so we first outline a potentially common basis for studying patterning and mechanosensing that relies on the structural principle of tensegrity, and discuss how tensegral structures might arise in plants and animals. We then provide some examples of morphogenesis in which mechanical forces appear to act as positional information during development, offering a possible explanation for ubiquitous processes, such as the formation of periodic structures. Such examples, we argue, can be interpreted in terms of tensegral phenomena. Finally, we discuss the hypothesis of mechanically isotropic points as a potentially generic mechanism for the localization and maintenance of stem-cell niches in multicellular organisms. This comparative approach aims to help uncovering generic mechanisms of morphogenesis and thus reach a better understanding of the evolution and development of multicellular phenotypes, focusing on the role of physical forces in these processes. PMID:24959170

  15. Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences Plant Genome Resources. A Framework for Integrative and Comparative Analyses1[w

    PubMed Central

    Schoof, Heiko; Spannagl, Manuel; Yang, Li; Ernst, Rebecca; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haase, Dirk; Haberer, Georg; Mayer, Klaus F.X.

    2005-01-01

    With several plant genomes sequenced, the power of comparative genome analysis can now be applied. However, genome-scale cross-species analyses are limited by the effort for data integration. To develop an integrated cross-species plant genome resource, we maintain comprehensive databases for model plant genomes, including Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), Medicago truncatula, and rice (Oryza sativa). Integration of data and resources is emphasized, both in house as well as with external partners and databases. Manual curation and state-of-the-art bioinformatic analysis are combined to achieve quality data. Easy access to the data is provided through Web interfaces and visualization tools, bulk downloads, and Web services for application-level access. This allows a consistent view of the model plant genomes for comparative and evolutionary studies, the transfer of knowledge between species, and the integration with functional genomics data. PMID:16010004

  16. Information integration without awareness.

    PubMed

    Mudrik, Liad; Faivre, Nathan; Koch, Christof

    2014-09-01

    Information integration and consciousness are closely related, if not interdependent. But, what exactly is the nature of their relation? Which forms of integration require consciousness? Here, we examine the recent experimental literature with respect to perceptual and cognitive integration of spatiotemporal, multisensory, semantic, and novel information. We suggest that, whereas some integrative processes can occur without awareness, their scope is limited to smaller integration windows, to simpler associations, or to ones that were previously acquired consciously. This challenges previous claims that consciousness of some content is necessary for its integration; yet it also suggests that consciousness holds an enabling role in establishing integrative mechanisms that can later operate unconsciously, and in allowing wider-range integration, over bigger semantic, spatiotemporal, and sensory integration windows.

  17. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  18. Integrated Information Management (IIM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    AFRL-IF-RS-TM-2007-8 Final Technical Memorandum March 2007 INTEGRATED INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (IIM) NGI Systems, Inc... INFORMATION MANAGEMENT (IIM) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63789F/62384B 5d. PROJECT NUMBER IIMS 5e. TASK NUMBER NG 6. AUTHOR(S) Jason McIlvain...Data Relay (RDR), integrated information management systems 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON James F. Reilly a

  19. Integrated Analysis Platform: An Open-Source Information System for High-Throughput Plant Phenotyping1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Klukas, Christian; Chen, Dijun; Pape, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput phenotyping is emerging as an important technology to dissect phenotypic components in plants. Efficient image processing and feature extraction are prerequisites to quantify plant growth and performance based on phenotypic traits. Issues include data management, image analysis, and result visualization of large-scale phenotypic data sets. Here, we present Integrated Analysis Platform (IAP), an open-source framework for high-throughput plant phenotyping. IAP provides user-friendly interfaces, and its core functions are highly adaptable. Our system supports image data transfer from different acquisition environments and large-scale image analysis for different plant species based on real-time imaging data obtained from different spectra. Due to the huge amount of data to manage, we utilized a common data structure for efficient storage and organization of data for both input data and result data. We implemented a block-based method for automated image processing to extract a representative list of plant phenotypic traits. We also provide tools for build-in data plotting and result export. For validation of IAP, we performed an example experiment that contains 33 maize (Zea mays ‘Fernandez’) plants, which were grown for 9 weeks in an automated greenhouse with nondestructive imaging. Subsequently, the image data were subjected to automated analysis with the maize pipeline implemented in our system. We found that the computed digital volume and number of leaves correlate with our manually measured data in high accuracy up to 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. In summary, IAP provides a multiple set of functionalities for import/export, management, and automated analysis of high-throughput plant phenotyping data, and its analysis results are highly reliable. PMID:24760818

  20. PROBABILISTIC INFORMATION INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. BOOKER; M. MEYER; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    The Statistical Sciences Group at Los Alamos has successfully developed a structured, probabilistic, quantitative approach for the evaluation of system performance based on multiple information sources, called Information Integration Technology (IIT). The technology integrates diverse types and sources of data and information (both quantitative and qualitative), and their associated uncertainties, to develop distributions for performance metrics, such as reliability. Applications include predicting complex system performance, where test data are lacking or expensive to obtain, through the integration of expert judgment, historical data, computer/simulation model predictions, and any relevant test/experimental data. The technology is particularly well suited for tracking estimated system performance for systems under change (e.g. development, aging), and can be used at any time during product development, including concept and early design phases, prior to prototyping, testing, or production, and before costly design decisions are made. Techniques from various disciplines (e.g., state-of-the-art expert elicitation, statistical and reliability analysis, design engineering, physics modeling, and knowledge management) are merged and modified to develop formal methods for the data/information integration. The power of this technology, known as PREDICT (Performance and Reliability Evaluation with Diverse Information Combination and Tracking), won a 1999 R and D 100 Award (Meyer, Booker, Bement, Kerscher, 1999). Specifically the PREDICT application is a formal, multidisciplinary process for estimating the performance of a product when test data are sparse or nonexistent. The acronym indicates the purpose of the methodology: to evaluate the performance or reliability of a product/system by combining all available (often diverse) sources of information and then tracking that performance as the product undergoes changes.

  1. Plant design: Integrating Plant and Equipment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, David; Fiveland, Woody; Zitney, S.E.; Osawe, Maxwell

    2007-08-01

    Like power plant engineers, process plant engineers must design generating units to operate efficiently, cleanly, and profitably despite fluctuating costs for raw materials and fuels. To do so, they increasingly create virtual plants to enable evaluation of design concepts without the expense of building pilot-scale or demonstration facilities. Existing computational models describe an entire plant either as a network of simplified equipment models or as a single, very detailed equipment model. The Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) project (Figure 5) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) seeks to bridge the gap between models by integrating plant modeling and equipment modeling software. The goal of the effort is to provide greater insight into the performance of proposed plant designs. The software integration was done using the process-industry standard CAPE-OPEN (Computer Aided Process Engineering–Open), or CO interface. Several demonstration cases based on operating power plants confirm the viability of this co-simulation approach.

  2. New Challenges in Information Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Laura M.; Soffer, Aya

    Information integration is the cornerstone of modern business informatics. It is a pervasive problem; rarely is a new application built without an initial phase of gathering and integrating information. Information integration comes in a wide variety of forms. Historically, two major approaches were recognized: data federation and data warehousing. Today, we need new approaches, as information integration becomes more dynamic, while coping with growing volumes of increasingly dirty and diverse data. At the same time, information integration must be coupled more tightly with the applications and the analytics that will leverage the integrated results, to make the integration process more tractable and the results more consumable.

  3. Integration of design information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The overall concepts of the integrated programs for aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD) from the user's viewpoint are discussed. Also a top-level view of what the user requires from such a system is provided, and the interactions between the system and user are described. The four major components discussed are design process; data storage, management and manipulation; user interface; and project management. Although an outgrowth of aerospace production experience, the basic concepts discussed, and especially their emphasis on integration, are considered applicable to all problem solving. Thus, these concepts may offer a broad base for exploitation by industry in general. This is the first in a set of three papers, the other two being Future Integrated Design Process, by D. D. Mayer, and Requirements for Company-Wide Management of Engineering Information, by J. W. Southall. In addition to tying the three together, how project management can be handled in a computing environment and also the user interface needs are discussed in detail.

  4. Weaving an Integrated Information Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines Texas Christian University's integration of individual information systems used in various university departments into a single information backbone providing controlled levels of access to all interested audiences. Early results of the integration are discussed. (GR)

  5. Integrated Optical Information Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    dimensional processing to be performed with inherently one-dimensional signal processing devices. This permits the monolithic or hybrid integration of...effective time delays; 5. Selective partial waveguide outcoupling of channelized light from an integrated optical chip; 6. Potential monolithic ... integrated optical chip; 6. Potential monolithic integration of optical waveguides with two-dimensional opto- electronic detector technology. The integrated

  6. Application of Spatial Data Modeling Systems, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and Transportation Routing Optimization Methods for Evaluating Integrated Deployment of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations and Advanced Nuclear Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, Gary T; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Sacit M; Howard, Rob L; Liu, Cheng; Mueller, Don; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Peterson, Steven K; Scaglione, John M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this siting study work is to support DOE in evaluating integrated advanced nuclear plant and ISFSI deployment options in the future. This study looks at several nuclear power plant growth scenarios that consider the locations of existing and planned commercial nuclear power plants integrated with the establishment of consolidated interim spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs). This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights that inform the process for determining and optimizing candidate areas for new advanced nuclear power generation plants and consolidated ISFSIs to meet projected US electric power demands for the future.

  7. Ecological Consequences of Clonal Integration in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fenghong; Liu, Jian; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Clonal plants are widespread throughout the plant kingdom and dominate in diverse habitats. Spatiotemporal heterogeneity of environment is pervasive at multiple scales, even at scales relevant to individual plants. Clonal integration refers to resource translocation and information communication among the ramets of clonal plants. Due to clonal integration, clonal plant species possess a series of peculiar attributes: plasticity in response to local and non-local conditions, labor division with organ specialization for acquiring locally abundant resources, foraging behavior by selective placement of ramets in resource-rich microhabitats, and avoidance of intraclonal competition. Clonal integration has very profound ecological consequences for clonal plants. It allows them to efficiently cope with environmental heterogeneity, by alleviating local resource shortages, buffering environmental stresses and disturbances, influencing competitive ability, increasing invasiveness, and altering species composition and invasibility at the community level. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of research on the ecological consequences of plant clonal integration based on a large body of literature. We also attempt to propose perspectives for future research. PMID:27446093

  8. Integrating child health information systems.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Alan R; Eichwald, John; Linzer, Deborah; Saarlas, Kristin N

    2005-11-01

    The Health Resources and Services Administration and All Kids Count (a national technical assistance center fostering development of integrated child health information systems) have been working together to foster development of integrated child health information systems. Activities have included: identification of key elements for successful integration of systems; development of principles and core functions for the systems; a survey of state and local integration efforts; and a conference to develop a common vision for child health information systems to meet medical care and public health needs. We provide 1 state (Utah) as an example that is well on the way to development of integrated child health information systems.

  9. Integrating Child Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, Alan R.; Eichwald, John; Linzer, Deborah; Saarlas, Kristin N.

    2005-01-01

    The Health Resources and Services Administration and All Kids Count (a national technical assistance center fostering development of integrated child health information systems) have been working together to foster development of integrated child health information systems. Activities have included: identification of key elements for successful integration of systems; development of principles and core functions for the systems; a survey of state and local integration efforts; and a conference to develop a common vision for child health information systems to meet medical care and public health needs. We provide 1 state (Utah) as an example that is well on the way to development of integrated child health information systems. PMID:16195524

  10. Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data system that supports both management and programmatic requirements of the Enforcement and Compliance programs.

  11. Integrated Bibliographic Information System: Integrating Resources by Integrating Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Gladys A.; Hartt, Richard W.

    The Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), an organization charged with providing information services to the Department of Defense (DoD) scientific and technical community, actively seeks ways to promote resource sharing as a means for speeding access to information while reducing the costs of information processing throughout the technical…

  12. INTEGRATED CHEMICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A central regulatory mandate of the Environmental Protection Agency, spanning many Program Offices and issues, is to assess the potential health and environmental risks of large numbers of chemicals released into the environment, often in the absence of relevant test data. Models for predicting potential adverse effects of chemicals based primarily on chemical structure play a central role in prioritization and screening strategies yet are highly dependent and conditional upon the data used for developing such models. Hence, limits on data quantity, quality, and availability are considered by many to be the largest hurdles to improving prediction models in diverse areas of toxicology. Generation of new toxicity data for additional chemicals and endpoints, development of new high-throughput, mechanistically relevant bioassays, and increased generation of genomics and proteomics data that can clarify relevant mechanisms will all play important roles in improving future SAR prediction models. The potential for much greater immediate gains, across large domains of chemical and toxicity space, comes from maximizing the ability to mine and model useful information from existing toxicity data, data that represent huge past investment in research and testing expenditures. In addition, the ability to place newer “omics” data, data that potentially span many possible domains of toxicological effects, in the broader context of historical data is the means for opti

  13. Integrated Information and State Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, William; Gomez-Ramirez, Jaime; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Integrated information (Φ) is a measure of the cause-effect power of a physical system. This paper investigates the relationship between Φ as defined in Integrated Information Theory and state differentiation (D), the number of, and difference between potential system states. Here we provide theoretical justification of the relationship between Φ and D, then validate the results using a simulation study. First, we show that a physical system in a state with high Φ necessarily has many elements and specifies many causal relationships. Furthermore, if the average value of integrated information across all states is high, the system must also have high differentiation. Next, we explore the use of D as a proxy for Φ using artificial networks, evolved to have integrated structures. The results show a positive linear relationship between Φ and D for multiple network sizes and connectivity patterns. Finally we investigate the differentiation evoked by sensory inputs and show that, under certain conditions, it is possible to estimate integrated information without a direct perturbation of its internal elements. In concluding, we discuss the need for further validation on larger networks and explore the potential applications of this work to the empirical study of consciousness, especially concerning the practical estimation of Φ from neuroimaging data. PMID:27445896

  14. Ontology-Driven Information Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tissot, Florence; Menzel, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Ontology-driven information integration (ODII) is a method of computerized, automated sharing of information among specialists who have expertise in different domains and who are members of subdivisions of a large, complex enterprise (e.g., an engineering project, a government agency, or a business). In ODII, one uses rigorous mathematical techniques to develop computational models of engineering and/or business information and processes. These models are then used to develop software tools that support the reliable processing and exchange of information among the subdivisions of this enterprise or between this enterprise and other enterprises.

  15. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuxen, L.

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  16. Academic Integrity and Informational Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plowman, Travis S.

    2000-01-01

    Considers the impact of information technology on academic integrity. Highlights include machines versus man; honor codes and student cheating; copyrights for digital data; authoring versus writing; intuitive software; and an example and analysis of the use of AutoSummary in Microsoft Word 97 to create a summary of a published article. (Contains…

  17. Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, Jerome F.

    2012-05-07

    This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records

  18. An Integrated Chemical Information Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somerville, Arleen N.; Cardinal, Susan K.

    2003-05-01

    Chemical educators have long recognized the importance of teaching their students how to locate and use chemical information. Many articles have been written about stand-alone courses and about efforts that focus on teaching specific topics within a course or two. At the University of Rochester, however, chemical information instruction is integrated into courses throughout the undergraduate and graduate curriculum in a sequential manner. Students utilize their information-seeking skills in completing course work and then this information serves as the base on which to continuously build new skills. This article describes the program as implemented over four years, notes how the faculty and librarian work together in conjunction with student input, and depicts how the instruction contributes to the educational value of the courses.

  19. Architecture for hospital information integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Janariz, Daniel L.; Martinez, Ralph

    1999-07-01

    The ongoing integration of hospital information systems (HIS) continues. Data storage systems, data networks and computers improve, data bases grow and health-care applications increase. Some computer operating systems continue to evolve and some fade. Health care delivery now depends on this computer-assisted environment. The result is the critical harmonization of the various hospital information systems becomes increasingly difficult. The purpose of this paper is to present an architecture for HIS integration that is computer-language-neutral and computer- hardware-neutral for the informatics applications. The proposed architecture builds upon the work done at the University of Arizona on middleware, the work of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, and the American College of Radiology. It is a fresh approach to allowing applications engineers to access medical data easily and thus concentrates on the application techniques in which they are expert without struggling with medical information syntaxes. The HIS can be modeled using a hierarchy of information sub-systems thus facilitating its understanding. The architecture includes the resulting information model along with a strict but intuitive application programming interface, managed by CORBA. The CORBA requirement facilitates interoperability. It should also reduce software and hardware development times.

  20. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  1. Integrated Semiconductor/Optical Information Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen

    1989-01-01

    Optical information processors made of integrated three-dimensional devices which include optical, electro-optical, and electronic devices. Integration achieved by combination and extension of advanced semiconductor (integrated-circuit) and integrated-optics technology. In integrated device, spatial light modulator fabricated on surface of chip. Leads to miniaturization of sophisticated optical information-processing systems.

  2. Improved Measures of Integrated Information

    PubMed Central

    Tegmark, Max

    2016-01-01

    Although there is growing interest in measuring integrated information in computational and cognitive systems, current methods for doing so in practice are computationally unfeasible. Existing and novel integration measures are investigated and classified by various desirable properties. A simple taxonomy of Φ-measures is presented where they are each characterized by their choice of factorization method (5 options), choice of probability distributions to compare (3 × 4 options) and choice of measure for comparing probability distributions (7 options). When requiring the Φ-measures to satisfy a minimum of attractive properties, these hundreds of options reduce to a mere handful, some of which turn out to be identical. Useful exact and approximate formulas are derived that can be applied to real-world data from laboratory experiments without posing unreasonable computational demands. PMID:27870846

  3. PV integration into a CSP plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, Javier López; Barea, Jose M.; Barragan, Jose; Ortega, Carlos

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes a preliminary techno-economic analysis of the integration of a PV plant into an optimized Parabolic Trough Plant in order to reduce the online consumptions and thus, increase the net electricity injected into the grid. The idea is to assess the feasibility of such project and see what configuration would be the optimal. An extra effort has been made in terms of modelling as the analysis has to be done to the integrated CSP + PV plant instead of analyzing them independently. Two different technologies have been considered for the PV plant, fix and one-axis tracking. Additionally three different scenarios have been considered for the CSP plant auxiliary consumptions as they are essential for determining the optimal PV plant (the higher the auxiliary consumption the higher the optimal PV plant). As could be expected, the results for all cases with PV show an improvement in terms of electricity generation and also in terms of LCOE with respect to the CSP plant. Such improvement is slightly higher with tracking technology for this specific study. Although this exercise has been done to an already designed CSP plant (so only the PV plant had to be optimized), the methodology could be applied for the optimization of an integrated CSP + PV plant during the design phase.

  4. Informed consent and moral integrity.

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, G R

    1989-01-01

    Informed consent is required for any medical procedure although the situations in which it is given are beset by uncertainties and indeterminacies. These make medicolegal scrutiny of such situations very difficult. Although some people find the decision in the Sidaway case incomprehensible because of its continuing regard for a 'professional practice standard' in informed consent, I will argue that an important fact in many cases is the moral integrity of the doctor concerned and the pattern of his practice. This may provide the only morally principled and legally accessible evidence enabling a correct decision to be made in a difficult case. Although the epistemological significance of a professional practice standard is thereby defended the 'prudent patient standard' for what counts as consent is left intact. PMID:2795625

  5. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  6. Information Security and Integrity Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs from the Information Security and Integrity Systems seminar held at the University of Houston-Clear Lake on May 15-16, 1990 are presented. A tutorial on computer security is presented. The goals of this tutorial are the following: to review security requirements imposed by government and by common sense; to examine risk analysis methods to help keep sight of forest while in trees; to discuss the current hot topic of viruses (which will stay hot); to examine network security, now and in the next year to 30 years; to give a brief overview of encryption; to review protection methods in operating systems; to review database security problems; to review the Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria (Orange Book); to comment on formal verification methods; to consider new approaches (like intrusion detection and biometrics); to review the old, low tech, and still good solutions; and to give pointers to the literature and to where to get help. Other topics covered include security in software applications and development; risk management; trust: formal methods and associated techniques; secure distributed operating system and verification; trusted Ada; a conceptual model for supporting a B3+ dynamic multilevel security and integrity in the Ada runtime environment; and information intelligence sciences.

  7. Measuring Integrated Information from the Decoding Perspective.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi; Yanagawa, Toru; Fujii, Naotaka; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness. Empirical evaluation of this theory requires computing integrated information from neural data acquired from experiments, although difficulties with using the original measure Φ precludes such computations. Although some practical measures have been previously proposed, we found that these measures fail to satisfy the theoretical requirements as a measure of integrated information. Measures of integrated information should satisfy the lower and upper bounds as follows: The lower bound of integrated information should be 0 and is equal to 0 when the system does not generate information (no information) or when the system comprises independent parts (no integration). The upper bound of integrated information is the amount of information generated by the whole system. Here we derive the novel practical measure Φ* by introducing a concept of mismatched decoding developed from information theory. We show that Φ* is properly bounded from below and above, as required, as a measure of integrated information. We derive the analytical expression of Φ* under the Gaussian assumption, which makes it readily applicable to experimental data. Our novel measure Φ* can generally be used as a measure of integrated information in research on consciousness, and also as a tool for network analysis on diverse areas of biology.

  8. Measuring Integrated Information from the Decoding Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi; Yanagawa, Toru; Fujii, Naotaka; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the capacity to integrate information in the brain is a prerequisite for consciousness. Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of consciousness provides a mathematical approach to quantifying the information integrated in a system, called integrated information, Φ. Integrated information is defined theoretically as the amount of information a system generates as a whole, above and beyond the amount of information its parts independently generate. IIT predicts that the amount of integrated information in the brain should reflect levels of consciousness. Empirical evaluation of this theory requires computing integrated information from neural data acquired from experiments, although difficulties with using the original measure Φ precludes such computations. Although some practical measures have been previously proposed, we found that these measures fail to satisfy the theoretical requirements as a measure of integrated information. Measures of integrated information should satisfy the lower and upper bounds as follows: The lower bound of integrated information should be 0 and is equal to 0 when the system does not generate information (no information) or when the system comprises independent parts (no integration). The upper bound of integrated information is the amount of information generated by the whole system. Here we derive the novel practical measure Φ* by introducing a concept of mismatched decoding developed from information theory. We show that Φ* is properly bounded from below and above, as required, as a measure of integrated information. We derive the analytical expression of Φ* under the Gaussian assumption, which makes it readily applicable to experimental data. Our novel measure Φ* can generally be used as a measure of integrated information in research on consciousness, and also as a tool for network analysis on diverse areas of biology. PMID:26796119

  9. Viral sequences integrated into plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Harper, Glyn; Hull, Roger; Lockhart, Ben; Olszewski, Neil

    2002-01-01

    Sequences of various DNA plant viruses have been found integrated into the host genome. There are two forms of integrant, those that can form episomal viral infections and those that cannot. Integrants of three pararetroviruses, Banana streak virus (BSV), Tobacco vein clearing virus (TVCV), and Petunia vein clearing virus (PVCV), can generate episomal infections in certain hybrid plant hosts in response to stress. In the case of BSV and TVCV, one of the parents contains the integrant but is has not been seen to be activated in that parent; the other parent does not contain the integrant. The number of integrant loci is low for BSV and PVCV and high in TVCV. The structure of the integrants is complex, and it is thought that episomal virus is released by recombination and/or reverse transcription. Geminiviral and pararetroviral sequences are found in plant genomes although not so far associated with a virus disease. It appears that integration of viral sequences is widespread in the plant kingdom and has been occurring for a long period of time.

  10. Knowledge Signatures for Information Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, Judi; Cowell, Andrew J.; Paulson, Patrick R.; Butner, R. Scott; Whiting, Mark A.

    2003-10-25

    This paper introduces the notion of a knowledge signature: a concise, ontologically-driven representation of the semantic characteristics of data. Knowledge signatures provide programmatic access to data semantics while allowing comparisons to be made across different types of data such as text, images or video, enabling efficient, automated information integration. Through observation, which determines the degree of association between data and ontological concepts, and refinement, which uses the axioms and structure of the domain ontology to place the signature more accurately within the context of the domain, knowledge signatures can be created. A comparison of such signatures for two different pieces of data results in a measure of their semantic separation. This paper discusses the definition of knowledge signatures along with the design and prototype implementation of a knowledge signature generator.

  11. Integrating plant carbon dynamics with mutualism ecology.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Elizabeth G

    2016-04-01

    Plants reward microbial and animal mutualists with carbohydrates to obtain nutrients, defense, pollination, and dispersal. Under a fixed carbon budget, plants must allocate carbon to their mutualists at the expense of allocation to growth, reproduction, or storage. Such carbon trade-offs are indirectly expressed when a plant exhibits reduced growth or fecundity in the presence of its mutualist. Because carbon regulates the costs of all plant mutualisms, carbon dynamics are a common platform for integrating these costs in the face of ecological complexity and context dependence. The ecophysiology of whole-plant carbon allocation could thus elucidate the ecology and evolution of plant mutualisms. If mutualisms are costly to plants, then they must be important but frequently underestimated sinks in the terrestrial carbon cycle.

  12. Decentralized Multisensory Information Integration in Neural Systems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-hao; Chen, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    How multiple sensory cues are integrated in neural circuitry remains a challenge. The common hypothesis is that information integration might be accomplished in a dedicated multisensory integration area receiving feedforward inputs from the modalities. However, recent experimental evidence suggests that it is not a single multisensory brain area, but rather many multisensory brain areas that are simultaneously involved in the integration of information. Why many mutually connected areas should be needed for information integration is puzzling. Here, we investigated theoretically how information integration could be achieved in a distributed fashion within a network of interconnected multisensory areas. Using biologically realistic neural network models, we developed a decentralized information integration system that comprises multiple interconnected integration areas. Studying an example of combining visual and vestibular cues to infer heading direction, we show that such a decentralized system is in good agreement with anatomical evidence and experimental observations. In particular, we show that this decentralized system can integrate information optimally. The decentralized system predicts that optimally integrated information should emerge locally from the dynamics of the communication between brain areas and sheds new light on the interpretation of the connectivity between multisensory brain areas. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To extract information reliably from ambiguous environments, the brain integrates multiple sensory cues, which provide different aspects of information about the same entity of interest. Here, we propose a decentralized architecture for multisensory integration. In such a system, no processor is in the center of the network topology and information integration is achieved in a distributed manner through reciprocally connected local processors. Through studying the inference of heading direction with visual and vestibular cues, we show that

  13. MIPS plant genome information resources.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Haberer, Georg; Ernst, Rebecca; Schoof, Heiko; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2007-01-01

    The Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) has been involved in maintaining plant genome databases since the Arabidopsis thaliana genome project. Genome databases and analysis resources have focused on individual genomes and aim to provide flexible and maintainable data sets for model plant genomes as a backbone against which experimental data, for example from high-throughput functional genomics, can be organized and evaluated. In addition, model genomes also form a scaffold for comparative genomics, and much can be learned from genome-wide evolutionary studies.

  14. The renewable electric plant information system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  15. Integrated Information Services in University Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wykoff, Leslie W.

    2001-01-01

    Explores integration of information services at universities. Provides a history of integrated information services, details successful mergers, and explores professional and organizational issues that create conflict instead of collaboration. Discusses how newer, more flexible higher education environments may be more conducive to integration,…

  16. Enterprise Information System Integration Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tetsuo; Yumoto, Masaki; Itsuki, Rei

    In the current rapidly changing business environment, companies need to be efficient and agile to survive and thrive. That is why flexible systems integration is urgent and crucial concern for any enterprise. For the meanwhile, systems integration technology is getting more complicated, and middleware types are beginning blur for decades. We sort system integration into four different types, “Delayed Federation", “Real-time Federation", “Delayed Integration", and “Real-time Integration". We also outline appropriate technology and architecture for each type.

  17. DPTEdb, an integrative database of transposable elements in dioecious plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gu, Lian-Feng; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dioecious plants usually harbor ‘young’ sex chromosomes, providing an opportunity to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements frequently found in plants and are suggested to play important roles in plant sex chromosome evolution. The genomes of several dioecious plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the TE data. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of TEs in these dioecious plants is still lacking. In this study, we constructed a dioecious plant transposable element database (DPTEdb). DPTEdb is a specific, comprehensive and unified relational database and web interface. We used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches to identify TEs from the genome assemblies of previously published data, as well as our own. The database currently integrates eight dioecious plant species and a total of 31 340 TEs along with classification information. DPTEdb provides user-friendly web interfaces to browse, search and download the TE sequences in the database. Users can also use tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Cut sequence and JBrowse, to analyze TE data. Given the role of TEs in plant sex chromosome evolution, the database will contribute to the investigation of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the genome of dioecious plants. In addition, the database will supplement the research of sex diversification and sex chromosome evolution of dioecious plants. Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/DPTEdb/index.php PMID:27173524

  18. DPTEdb, an integrative database of transposable elements in dioecious plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gu, Lian-Feng; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dioecious plants usually harbor 'young' sex chromosomes, providing an opportunity to study the early stages of sex chromosome evolution. Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA elements frequently found in plants and are suggested to play important roles in plant sex chromosome evolution. The genomes of several dioecious plants have been sequenced, offering an opportunity to annotate and mine the TE data. However, comprehensive and unified annotation of TEs in these dioecious plants is still lacking. In this study, we constructed a dioecious plant transposable element database (DPTEdb). DPTEdb is a specific, comprehensive and unified relational database and web interface. We used a combination of de novo, structure-based and homology-based approaches to identify TEs from the genome assemblies of previously published data, as well as our own. The database currently integrates eight dioecious plant species and a total of 31 340 TEs along with classification information. DPTEdb provides user-friendly web interfaces to browse, search and download the TE sequences in the database. Users can also use tools, including BLAST, GetORF, HMMER, Cut sequence and JBrowse, to analyze TE data. Given the role of TEs in plant sex chromosome evolution, the database will contribute to the investigation of TEs in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of the genome of dioecious plants. In addition, the database will supplement the research of sex diversification and sex chromosome evolution of dioecious plants.Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/DPTEdb/index.php.

  19. Accelerating global access to plant diversity information.

    PubMed

    Lughadha, Eimear Nic; Miller, Chuck

    2009-11-01

    Botanic gardens play key roles in the development and dissemination of plant information resources. Drivers for change have included progress in information technology, growing public expectations of electronic access and international conservation policy. Great advances have been made in the quantity, quality and accessibility of plant information in digital form and the extent to which information from multiple providers can be accessed through a single portal. However, significant challenges remain to be addressed in making botanic gardens resources maximally accessible and impactful, not least the overwhelming volume of material which still awaits digitisation. The year 2010 represents an opportunity for botanic gardens to showcase their collaborative achievements in delivery of electronic plant information and reinforce their relevance to pressing environmental issues.

  20. Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

    2004-01-01

    A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

  1. Navy Collaborative Integrated Information Technology Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    simulation. The anticipated multiyear program will establish a Navy Collaborative Integrated Information Technology Initiative (NAVCIITI, pronounced "NAV city...34) by creating an Advanced Communication and Information Technology Center (ACITC), on campus at Virginia Tech, integrating the efforts of more than 60

  2. Integrating Formal and Informal Learning at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Lennart; Ellstrom, Per-Erik; Aberg, Carina

    2004-01-01

    A model for workplace learning is presented, which intends to integrate formal and informal learning with the use of e-learning. An important underlying assumption is that the integration of formal and informal learning is necessary in order to create desirable competencies, from both an individual and an organisational perspective. Two case…

  3. Bayesian Integration of Spatial Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ken; Shettleworth, Sara J.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Rieser, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial judgments and actions are often based on multiple cues. The authors review a multitude of phenomena on the integration of spatial cues in diverse species to consider how nearly optimally animals combine the cues. Under the banner of Bayesian perception, cues are sometimes combined and weighted in a near optimal fashion. In other instances…

  4. Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    confidential  information and then shared with USMA  and CSUSB.                  Appendix 3  Integrated Information  Technology  Policy Analysis Research, CSUSB  22...E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 12-10-2010 Annual / Final July 1, 2009 – June 30, 2010 Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis...Integrated Information Technology Policy Analysis Research 5500 University Parkway, San Bernardino, CA 92407 U.S. Army Research Laboratory Attn: Mr

  5. How exotic plants integrate into pollination networks

    PubMed Central

    Stouffer, Daniel B; Cirtwill, Alyssa R; Bascompte, Jordi; Bartomeus, Ignasi

    2014-01-01

    Summary There is increasing world-wide concern about the impact of the introduction of exotic species on ecological communities. Since many exotic plants depend on native pollinators to successfully establish, it is of paramount importance that we understand precisely how exotic species integrate into existing plant–pollinator communities. In this manuscript, we have studied a global data base of empirical pollination networks to determine whether community, network, species or interaction characteristics can help identify invaded communities. We found that a limited number of community and network properties showed significant differences across the empirical data sets – namely networks with exotic plants present are characterized by greater total, plant and pollinator richness, as well as higher values of relative nestedness. We also observed significant differences in terms of the pollinators that interact with the exotic plants. In particular, we found that specialist pollinators that are also weak contributors to community nestedness are far more likely to interact with exotic plants than would be expected by chance alone. Synthesis. By virtue of their interactions, it appears that exotic plants may provide a key service to a community's specialist pollinators as well as fill otherwise vacant ‘coevolutionary niches’. PMID:25558089

  6. Navy Collaborative Integrated Information Technology Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Technology Initiative (NAVCIITI, pronounced "NAV city") by creating an Advanced Communication and Information Technology Center (ACITC), on campus at Virginia Tech, integrating and leveraging the efforts of more than 60 investigators currently under contract to the Navy by providing equipment and facilities for their effort, and using the collective capabilities of NAVCIITI to support Navy initiatives in distributed computing, integrated services training, education, information dissemination, and simulation, especially for purposes

  7. RoBuST: An Integrated Resource of Genomics Information for Plants in the Root and Bulb Crop Families Apiaceae and Alliaceae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root and bulb vegetables (RBV) include carrots, celeriac (root celery), parsnips (Apiaceae), onions, garlic, and leek (Alliaceae) – food crops grown globally and consumed worldwide. Few data analysis platforms are currently available where data collection, annotation and integration initiatives are ...

  8. Integrating Electronic Information Sources into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Lori E.; And Others

    Integrating the use of technology-based library resources into the curriculum is necessary for students to acquire vital information-seeking skills. Learning to select and use electronic information sources found on CD-ROM, mainframe computers, and via the Internet enables students to function better in today's information society. This paper…

  9. Multidimensional biases, gaps and uncertainties in global plant occurrence information.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Carsten; Weigelt, Patrick; Kreft, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Plants are a hyperdiverse clade that plays a key role in maintaining ecological and evolutionary processes as well as human livelihoods. Biases, gaps and uncertainties in plant occurrence information remain a central problem in ecology and conservation, but these limitations remain largely unassessed globally. In this synthesis, we propose a conceptual framework for analysing gaps in information coverage, information uncertainties and biases in these metrics along taxonomic, geographical and temporal dimensions, and apply it to all c. 370 000 species of land plants. To this end, we integrated 120 million point-occurrence records with independent databases on plant taxonomy, distributions and conservation status. We find that different data limitations are prevalent in each dimension. Different metrics of information coverage and uncertainty are largely uncorrelated, and reducing taxonomic, spatial or temporal uncertainty by filtering out records would usually come at great costs to coverage. In light of these multidimensional data limitations, we discuss prospects for global plant ecological and biogeographical research, monitoring and conservation and outline critical next steps towards more effective information usage and mobilisation. Our study provides an empirical baseline for evaluating and improving global floristic knowledge, along with a conceptual framework that can be applied to study other hyperdiverse clades.

  10. Stalk It up to Integrated Learning: Using Foods We Eat and Informational Texts to Learn About Plant Parts and Their Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rachel; Bradbury, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The diet of many students consists of on-the-go processed food. As part of a larger school garden project, the authors wanted students to consider the relevance of plants in their own lives, both as food sources for us and for the animals that we eat. In this article, they present a mini-unit they taught in a third-grade classroom that helped…

  11. Stalk It up to Integrated Learning: Using Foods We Eat and Informational Texts to Learn About Plant Parts and Their Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rachel; Bradbury, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The diet of many students consists of on-the-go processed food. As part of a larger school garden project, the authors wanted students to consider the relevance of plants in their own lives, both as food sources for us and for the animals that we eat. In this article, they present a mini-unit they taught in a third-grade classroom that helped…

  12. Data integration for plant genomics--exemplars from the integration of Arabidopsis thaliana databases.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, Artem; Lysenko, Atem; Hindle, Matthew Morritt; Taubert, Jan; Saqi, Mansoor; Rawlings, Christopher John

    2009-11-01

    The development of a systems based approach to problems in plant sciences requires integration of existing information resources. However, the available information is currently often incomplete and dispersed across many sources and the syntactic and semantic heterogeneity of the data is a challenge for integration. In this article, we discuss strategies for data integration and we use a graph based integration method (Ondex) to illustrate some of these challenges with reference to two example problems concerning integration of (i) metabolic pathway and (ii) protein interaction data for Arabidopsis thaliana. We quantify the degree of overlap for three commonly used pathway and protein interaction information sources. For pathways, we find that the AraCyc database contains the widest coverage of enzyme reactions and for protein interactions we find that the IntAct database provides the largest unique contribution to the integrated dataset. For both examples, however, we observe a relatively small amount of data common to all three sources. Analysis and visual exploration of the integrated networks was used to identify a number of practical issues relating to the interpretation of these datasets. We demonstrate the utility of these approaches to the analysis of groups of coexpressed genes from an individual microarray experiment, in the context of pathway information and for the combination of coexpression data with an integrated protein interaction network.

  13. Integrated Primary Care Information Database (IPCI)

    Cancer.gov

    The Integrated Primary Care Information Database is a longitudinal observational database that was created specifically for pharmacoepidemiological and pharmacoeconomic studies, inlcuding data from computer-based patient records supplied voluntarily by general practitioners.

  14. Representation and Integration of Scientific Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The funding allowed us to work with researchers within NAS at the NASA Ames Research Center, to understand their information needs, and to work with them on integration strategies. Most organizations have a need to access and integrate information from multiple, disparate information sources that may include both structured as well as semi-structured information. At Stanford we have been working on an information integration project called Tsimmis, supported by DARPA. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability of deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The participants from NASA included Michael Cox and Peter Vanderbilt. The Stanford PI, and various students and Stanford staff members also participated. NASA researchers also participated in some of our regular Tsimmis meetings. As planned, our meetings discussed problems and solutions to various information integration problems.

  15. Representation and Integration of Scientific Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The funding allowed us to work with researchers within NAS at the NASA Ames Research Center, to understand their information needs, and to work with them on integration strategies. Most organizations have a need to access and integrate information from multiple, disparate information sources that may include both structured as well as semi-structured information. At Stanford we have been working on an information integration project called Tsimmis, supported by DARPA. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability of deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The participants from NASA included Michael Cox and Peter Vanderbilt. The Stanford PI, and various students and Stanford staff members also participated. NASA researchers also participated in some of our regular Tsimmis meetings. As planned, our meetings discussed problems and solutions to various information integration problems.

  16. Springfield Processing Plant (SPP) Facility Information

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Janice; Torres, Teresa M.

    2012-10-01

    The Springfield Processing Plant is a hypothetical facility. It has been constructed for use in training workshops. Information is provided about the facility and its surroundings, particularly security-related aspects such as target identification, threat data, entry control, and response force data.

  17. Integrated bioprocessing for plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Choi, J W; Cho, G H; Byun, S Y; Kim, D I

    2001-01-01

    Plant cell suspension culture has become the focus of much attention as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites including paclitaxel, a well-known anticancer agent. Recently, it has also been regarded as one of the host systems for the production of recombinant proteins. In order to produce phytochemicals using plant cell cultures, efficient processes must be developed with adequate bioreactor design. Most of the plant secondary metabolites are toxic to cells at the high concentrations required during culture. Therefore, if the product could be removed in situ during culture, productivity might be enhanced due to the alleviation of this toxicity. In situ removal or extractive bioconversion of such products can be performed by in situ extraction with various kinds of organic solvents. In situ adsorption using polymeric resins is another possibility. Using the fact that secondary metabolites are generally hydrophobic, various integrated bioprocessing techniques can be designed not only to lower toxicity, but also to enhance productivity. In this article, in situ extraction, in situ adsorption, utilization of cyclodextrins, and the application of aqueous two-phase systems in plant cell cultures are reviewed.

  18. An online database for genome information of agricultural plants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, ChangKug; Park, DongSuk; Seol, YoungJoo; Yoon, UngHan; Lee, GangSeob; Hahn, JangHo

    2012-01-01

    The integration-based genome database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that allows analysis of comparative genome for agricultural plants. We have concentrated on the functional bioinformatics of major agricultural resources, such as rice, Chinese cabbage, rice mutant lines, and microorganisms. The major functions are focused on functional genome analysis, including genome projects, gene expression analysis, gene markers with genetic map, analysis tools for comparative genome structure, and genome annotation in agricultural plants. Availability The database is available for free at http://nabic.naas.go.kr/ PMID:23275706

  19. Information Integration, Retention, and Levels of Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Irwin P.

    A combination of information integration methodology and measures of retention was used to investigate how subjects differentially attend to and weight information in judgmental tasks. Subjects were shown sets of test scores for hypothetical students and were asked to rate the performance of each student or predict each student's performance on a…

  20. Information presentation in power plant control rooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautto, A.

    1984-11-01

    The organization and presentation of information in a pressurized water reactor control room is discussed. Design of the alert function so as to reduce the number of alarms during plant shutdown, e.g., during the refuelling or maintenance period and during a disturbance, is considered. Validation of the Critical Function Monitoring System on a training simulator is described. Functional decomposition of information is shown to be helpful in designing displays. Criteria for designing displays, the structure of the information presentation system, and the main interactions are presented.

  1. Guest editorial. Integrated healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Ge, Ri-Li; Zhou, Shang-Ming; Valerdi, Ricardo

    2012-07-01

    The use of integrated information systems for healthcare has been started more than a decade ago. In recent years, rapid advances in information integration methods have spurred tremendous growth in the use of integrated information systems in healthcare delivery. Various techniques have been used for probing such integrated systems. These techniques include service-oriented architecture (SOA), EAI, workflow management, grid computing, and others. Many applications require a combination of these techniques, which gives rise to the emergence of enterprise systems in healthcare. Development of the techniques originated from different disciplines has the potential to significantly improve the performance of enterprise systems in healthcare. This editorial paper briefly introduces the enterprise systems in the perspective of healthcare informatics.

  2. Academic Information Systems: From Segregation to Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernbom, Gerald; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Through integration of administrative information systems across diverse technology platforms and opening access to institutional data, Indiana University has begun to expand the concept of academic information systems. The university's experience has resulted in conclusions and guidelines for other institutions to use in AIS planning and…

  3. Integrating Information & Communications Technologies into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Integrating Information & Communications Technologies Into the Classroom" examines topics critical to business, computer science, and information technology education, such as: school improvement and reform, standards-based technology education programs, data-driven decision making, and strategic technology education planning. This book also…

  4. Integrating Information & Communications Technologies into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Integrating Information & Communications Technologies Into the Classroom" examines topics critical to business, computer science, and information technology education, such as: school improvement and reform, standards-based technology education programs, data-driven decision making, and strategic technology education planning. This book also…

  5. Ensembl Plants: Integrating Tools for Visualizing, Mining, and Analyzing Plant Genomics Data.

    PubMed

    Bolser, Dan; Staines, Daniel M; Pritchard, Emily; Kersey, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ensembl Plants ( http://plants.ensembl.org ) is an integrative resource presenting genome-scale information for a growing number of sequenced plant species (currently 33). Data provided includes genome sequence, gene models, functional annotation, and polymorphic loci. Various additional information are provided for variation data, including population structure, individual genotypes, linkage, and phenotype data. In each release, comparative analyses are performed on whole genome and protein sequences, and genome alignments and gene trees are made available that show the implied evolutionary history of each gene family. Access to the data is provided through a genome browser incorporating many specialist interfaces for different data types, and through a variety of additional methods for programmatic access and data mining. These access routes are consistent with those offered through the Ensembl interface for the genomes of non-plant species, including those of plant pathogens, pests, and pollinators.Ensembl Plants is updated 4-5 times a year and is developed in collaboration with our international partners in the Gramene ( http://www.gramene.org ) and transPLANT projects ( http://www.transplantdb.org ).

  6. Ensembl Plants: Integrating Tools for Visualizing, Mining, and Analyzing Plant Genomic Data.

    PubMed

    Bolser, Dan M; Staines, Daniel M; Perry, Emily; Kersey, Paul J

    2017-01-01

    Ensembl Plants ( http://plants.ensembl.org ) is an integrative resource presenting genome-scale information for 39 sequenced plant species. Available data includes genome sequence, gene models, functional annotation, and polymorphic loci; for the latter, additional information including population structure, individual genotypes, linkage, and phenotype data is available for some species. Comparative data is also available, including genomic alignments and "gene trees," which show the inferred evolutionary history of each gene family represented in the resource. Access to the data is provided through a genome browser, which incorporates many specialist interfaces for different data types, through a variety of programmatic interfaces, and via a specialist data mining tool supporting rapid filtering and retrieval of bulk data. Genomic data from many non-plant species, including those of plant pathogens, pests, and pollinators, is also available via the same interfaces through other divisions of Ensembl.Ensembl Plants is updated 4-6 times a year and is developed in collaboration with our international partners in the Gramene ( http://www.gramene.org ) and transPLANT projects ( http://www.transplantdb.eu ).

  7. Process and information integration via hypermedia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Labasse, Daniel L.; Myers, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Success stories for advanced automation prototypes abound in the literature but the deployments of practical large systems are few in number. There are several factors that militate against the maturation of such prototypes into products. Here, the integration of advanced automation software into large systems is discussed. Advanced automation systems tend to be specific applications that need to be integrated and aggregated into larger systems. Systems integration can be achieved by providing expert user-developers with verified tools to efficiently create small systems that interface to large systems through standard interfaces. The use of hypermedia as such a tool in the context of the ground control centers that support Shuttle and space station operations is explored. Hypermedia can be an integrating platform for data, conventional software, and advanced automation software, enabling data integration through the display of diverse types of information and through the creation of associative links between chunks of information. Further, hypermedia enables process integration through graphical invoking of system functions. Through analysis and examples, researchers illustrate how diverse information and processing paradigms can be integrated into a single software platform.

  8. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry

    PubMed Central

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Amari, Shun-ichi

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner. PMID:27930289

  9. Unified framework for information integration based on information geometry.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, Masafumi; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2016-12-20

    Assessment of causal influences is a ubiquitous and important subject across diverse research fields. Drawn from consciousness studies, integrated information is a measure that defines integration as the degree of causal influences among elements. Whereas pairwise causal influences between elements can be quantified with existing methods, quantifying multiple influences among many elements poses two major mathematical difficulties. First, overestimation occurs due to interdependence among influences if each influence is separately quantified in a part-based manner and then simply summed over. Second, it is difficult to isolate causal influences while avoiding noncausal confounding influences. To resolve these difficulties, we propose a theoretical framework based on information geometry for the quantification of multiple causal influences with a holistic approach. We derive a measure of integrated information, which is geometrically interpreted as the divergence between the actual probability distribution of a system and an approximated probability distribution where causal influences among elements are statistically disconnected. This framework provides intuitive geometric interpretations harmonizing various information theoretic measures in a unified manner, including mutual information, transfer entropy, stochastic interaction, and integrated information, each of which is characterized by how causal influences are disconnected. In addition to the mathematical assessment of consciousness, our framework should help to analyze causal relationships in complex systems in a complete and hierarchical manner.

  10. EPRI tries to integrate utility information systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1995-04-01

    Utilities spent $5 billion on information technology in 1994, according to market research firm Newton Evans Research Co. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) estimates half was spent trying to integrate systems not designed to operate together. To solve this problem, EPRI has developed what it calls the Utility Communications Architecture (UCA). It was developed under the guidance of industry experts and utilities to provide a set of standards to integrate communications between utilities and systems.

  11. Integrating Nuclear Information to Enhance Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Suski, N; Dubrin, J; Scarbrough, J

    2001-10-01

    Implementation of the Strengthened Safeguards System provides many new opportunities and challenges for collecting; analyzing and archiving nuclear materials safeguards information. For the first time in the history of safeguards, the International Atomic Energy Agency will be required not only to verify the accuracy of declarations, but also the completeness. To successfully implement the new safeguards regime, new and innovative ways of collecting, analyzing and archiving large amounts of safeguards information will be required. A conceptual system design that utilizes a geographical information system for the integration and analysis of this safeguards information will be described and demonstrated.

  12. Space Station Information System integrated communications concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, J.; Bigham, J.; Whitelaw, V.; Marker, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrated communications within the Space Station Information System (SSIS). The SSIS is generally defined as the integrated set of space and ground information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The requirements used to develop the model are presented, and the various elements of the model described.

  13. Space Station Information System integrated communications concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, J.; Bigham, J.; Whitelaw, V.; Marker, W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a model for integrated communications within the Space Station Information System (SSIS). The SSIS is generally defined as the integrated set of space and ground information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The requirements used to develop the model are presented, and the various elements of the model described.

  14. Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Center for Integration of Natural Disaster Information (CINDI) is a research and operational facility that explores methods for collecting, integrating, and communicating information about the risks posed by natural hazards and the effects of natural disasters. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is mandated by the Robert Stafford Act to warn citizens of impending landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes. The USGS also coordinates with other Federal, State, and local disaster agencies to monitor threats to communities from floods, coastal storms, wildfires, geomagnetic storms, drought, and outbreaks of disease in wildlife populations.

  15. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Adam B.

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects. PMID:24550877

  16. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  17. CPMCnet: an integrated information and internet resource.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, R. M.; Molholt, P.; Zucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Network and Computer Systems department of the Health Sciences Library developed CPMCnet, an UNIX-based information and Internet server at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. The project linked Gopher and World-Wide Web protocols as well as clients into an integrated application, providing the advantages of both. Development and use of CPMCnet has opened new channels of communication among information providers and end-users. PMID:7950084

  18. Glutathione in plants: an integrated overview.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Graham; Mhamdi, Amna; Chaouch, Sejir; Han, Yi; Neukermans, Jenny; Marquez-Garcia, Belen; Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H

    2012-02-01

    Plants cannot survive without glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine) or γ-glutamylcysteine-containing homologues. The reasons why this small molecule is indispensable are not fully understood, but it can be inferred that glutathione has functions in plant development that cannot be performed by other thiols or antioxidants. The known functions of glutathione include roles in biosynthetic pathways, detoxification, antioxidant biochemistry and redox homeostasis. Glutathione can interact in multiple ways with proteins through thiol-disulphide exchange and related processes. Its strategic position between oxidants such as reactive oxygen species and cellular reductants makes the glutathione system perfectly configured for signalling functions. Recent years have witnessed considerable progress in understanding glutathione synthesis, degradation and transport, particularly in relation to cellular redox homeostasis and related signalling under optimal and stress conditions. Here we outline the key recent advances and discuss how alterations in glutathione status, such as those observed during stress, may participate in signal transduction cascades. The discussion highlights some of the issues surrounding the regulation of glutathione contents, the control of glutathione redox potential, and how the functions of glutathione and other thiols are integrated to fine-tune photorespiratory and respiratory metabolism and to modulate phytohormone signalling pathways through appropriate modification of sensitive protein cysteine residues. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. The fusion of information via fuzzy integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, James M.; Tahani, Hossein

    1992-01-01

    Multisensor fusion is becoming increasingly important in intelligent computer vision systems. In this paper we present the generalized fuzzy integral with respect to an S-decomposable measure as a tool for fusing information from multiple sensors in an object recognition problem. Results from an experiment with automatic target recognition imagery are provided.

  20. A Model Academic Integrated Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Carl; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses three configurations that were developed for the Integrated Information Center (IIC) at the University of Minnesota. These configurations--basic, intermediate, and advanced--represent increasing sophistication of support capabilities, increasing costs, and possible stages of implementation, depending on the requirements of the academic…

  1. Extracting Data From Integrated Student Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    An integrated student information system (ISIS) at Trinity University (Texas) is described with attention to how data are entered and how data are extracted for purposes of institutional research. The structure of the original ISIS files, the extract files, and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) files is examined. An outline is…

  2. Access to Research Information Using Integrated Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Susan M.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the schedules, preferences, and varied information needs of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine (Texas), a system of computer and telecommunications technologies was developed to facilitate research and project planning. The system integrates cellular phones, voice mail, facsimile publishing, distributed document delivery, and…

  3. Information Integration across Saccadic Eye Movements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, David E.

    1991-01-01

    The nature of memory storage and information integration across saccadic eye movements was studied in 6 experiments involving 12 college students. Results indicate that transsaccadic memory is an undetailed, limited-capacity long-lasting memory not strictly tied to absolute spatial position. Transsaccadic memory is very similar to visual…

  4. Integrating New Information into Prior Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chmielewski, Todd L.; Moreland, Jeremy L.; Dansereau, Donald F.

    Because knowledge is constantly in flux, it is important for individuals to accurately incorporate new information into previously developed knowledge structures. Some of the issues surrounding this development of thought are explored in this paper. Although the phenomenon of knowledge integration is relatively common, very little empirical…

  5. Plant Genome Resources at the National Center for Biotechnology Information

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, David L.; Smith-White, Brian; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Resenchuk, Sergei; Dombrowski, Susan M.; Pechous, Steven W.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Ostell, James

    2005-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) integrates data from more than 20 biological databases through a flexible search and retrieval system called Entrez. A core Entrez database, Entrez Nucleotide, includes GenBank and is tightly linked to the NCBI Taxonomy database, the Entrez Protein database, and the scientific literature in PubMed. A suite of more specialized databases for genomes, genes, gene families, gene expression, gene variation, and protein domains dovetails with the core databases to make Entrez a powerful system for genomic research. Linked to the full range of Entrez databases is the NCBI Map Viewer, which displays aligned genetic, physical, and sequence maps for eukaryotic genomes including those of many plants. A specialized plant query page allow maps from all plant genomes covered by the Map Viewer to be searched in tandem to produce a display of aligned maps from several species. PlantBLAST searches against the sequences shown in the Map Viewer allow BLAST alignments to be viewed within a genomic context. In addition, precomputed sequence similarities, such as those for proteins offered by BLAST Link, enable fluid navigation from unannotated to annotated sequences, quickening the pace of discovery. NCBI Web pages for plants, such as Plant Genome Central, complete the system by providing centralized access to NCBI's genomic resources as well as links to organism-specific Web pages beyond NCBI. PMID:16010002

  6. TeraGrid's integrated information service.

    SciTech Connect

    Liming, L.; Navarro, J.-P.; Blau, E.; Brechin, J.; Catlett, C.; Dahan, M.; Diehl, D.; Dooley, R.; Dwyer, M.; Ericson, K.; Foster, I.; Hanna, E.; Hart, D. L.; Jordan, C.; Light, R.; Martin, S.; McGee, J.; Pearlman, L.; Reilly, J.; Scavo, T.; Shapiro, M.; Smallen, S.; Smith, W.; Wilkins-Diehr, N.

    2009-01-01

    The NSF TeraGrid project has designed and constructed a federated integrated information service (IIS) to serve its capability publishing and discovery needs. This service has also proven helpful in automating TeraGrid's operational activities. We describe the requirements that motivated this work; IIS's system architecture, information architecture, and information content; processes that IIS currently supports; and how various layers of the system architecture are being used. We also review motivating use cases that have not yet been satisfied by IIS and outline approaches for future work.

  7. DSSTox EPA Integrated Risk Information System Structure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database was developed and is maintained by EPA's Office of Research and Developement, National Center for Environmental Assessment. IRIS is a database of human health effects that may result from exposure to various substances found in the environment. The information in IRIS is intended for those without extensive training in toxicology, but with some knowledge of sciences. IRIS chemical files contain descriptive and quantitative information in oral reference doses and inhalation reference concentrations and hazard identification, oral slope factors, and oral and inhalation unit risks for carcinogenic effects.

  8. On the bimanual integration of proprioceptive information.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Esther; De Havas, Jack; Silkoset, Emilie; Gomi, Hiroaki; Haggard, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Proprioception can be defined as the sense for body movement and position. While most sensory information can be successfully integrated across hemispheres, little is known about the bilateral integration of proprioceptive information. In two behavioural experiments, we investigated whether estimates of the position of one hand are influenced by simultaneous proprioceptive information from the other hand. We further investigated whether such putative bimanual proprioceptive integration would differ between expert dancers and non-dancer controls. Either one hand or both hands were passively moved to novel positions, and participants indicated the perceived location of the index finger tip of the designated target hand, by orienting a visible laser beam mounted on a cap. Synchronized bimanual movements compared to unimanual movements significantly improved proprioceptive position sense. In particular, we found a bias reduction to perceive the target hand's index finger tip as shifted away from the midline in the bimanual condition, compared to the unimanual condition. Expert dancers, in contrast, did not show this change in proprioceptive position sense after bimanual movements. We suggest that bimanual movements may improve proprioception due to interhemispheric integration in controls, but not in expert dancers.

  9. Integrate your plant`s pollution prevention plans

    SciTech Connect

    Gouchoe, S.; James, M.; Lynch, K.M.; Rose, M.F.; Usher, S.M.

    1996-11-01

    Chemical process industries (CPI) companies are subject to numerous disparate federal, state, and local regulations that require pollution prevention and the development of P2 plans. Some of these documents must address planned waste and emissions generation resulting from routine operations, whereas others address accidental releases and prevention measures. While the regulations have many very different requirements, there is often overlap. This article provides guidance on how a facility can integrate the P2 plans required under various federal and state laws into a single document. The guidance is also designed to encourage a broad perspective on pollution prevention to include opportunities to reduce both routine and accidental waste generation as well as energy and water usage. The guidance presented in this article is not intended to be extensive instruction for each step of the planning process. Rather, its purpose is to help industry determine what information or analysis must be considered or included in a comprehensive and integrated planning document--but is will describe how to do so in only a limited fashion.

  10. Plant hydraulics as a hub integrating plant and ecosystem function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant (i.e., “plant hydraulics”) affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits media...

  11. Integrating information literacy across a BSN curriculum.

    PubMed

    Flood, Lisa Sue; Gasiewicz, Nanci; Delpier, Terry

    2010-02-01

    Although research regarding effective informatics teaching strategies is sparse and informatics competencies have not yet been finalized, nurse educators have been challenged to include informatics throughout the curriculum. Nurse educators are confronted with how best to incorporate informatics into an already burgeoning curriculum. This article offers a systematic approach to incorporating information literacy, a vital component of informatics, across a baccalaureate of science in nursing curriculum. Motivated by the Institute of Medicine report, guided by the initial Technology Informatics Guiding Education Reform competency framework, and using the specific Quality and Safety Education for Nurses informatics competencies, the proposed integrated approach emphasizes clinical applications. The five assignments are designed to incrementally increase students' abilities to recognize the need for information (i.e., knowledge); advance students' abilities to locate, evaluate, and use information (i.e., skills); and foster a positive appreciation for information literacy (i.e., attitudes) when planning safe, effective patient care. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Integrated information systems: tools for affiliation.

    PubMed

    Katz, P A

    1995-05-01

    The development of healthcare information systems as tools to facilitate business success traditionally has focused on a single profit center. The cataclysmic changes that are reshaping American healthcare have accelerated the affiliation of provider entities to form systems that have broader geographic coverage, deliver a larger portion of the provider continuum of care, and are more attractive partners for purchasers of healthcare services. Integrated and/or standardized information system technologies can provide great benefit in containing costs and optimizing quality among partners resulting from healthcare mergers and acquisitions as the new entity positions itself to increase market share and enhance its bottom line. Graduate Health System (GHS) in the Philadelphia area has demonstrated the efficacy of its investment to build a system-wide information network that delivers multiple standardized, integrated systems for both the financial and operational advantage of all component institutions. Building on its patient information system as the centerpiece of its information strategy, GHS has deployed a variety of tools across its network infrastructure that have brought new capabilities and savings to its member hospitals. In light of some of GHS's successes, other hospitals and healthcare systems may be able to re-create similar savings and efficiencies by applying like strategies in cooperation with their affiliated partners.

  13. Information survey for microcomputer systems integration

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, K.A.

    1991-12-01

    One goal of the PM-AIM is to provide US Army Project Managers (PMs) and Project Executive Officers (PEOs) with a fundamental microcomputing resource to help perform acquisition information management and its concomitant reporting requirements. Providing key application software represents one means of accomplishing this goal. This workstation would furnish a broad range of capabilities needed in the PM and PEO office settings as well as software tools for specific project management and acquisition information. Although still in the conceptual phase, the practical result of this exercise in systems integration will likely be a system called the Project Manager`s Information System (PMIS) or the AIM workstation. It would include such software as, Project Manager`s System Software (PMSS), Defense Acquisition Executive Summary (DAES), and Consolidated Acquisition Reporting System (CARS) and would conform to open systems architecture as accepted by the Department of Defense. ORNL has assisted PM-AIM in the development of technology ideas for the PMIS workstation concept. This paper represents the compilation of information gained during this process. This information is presented as a body of knowledge (or knowledge domain) defining the complex technology of microcomputing. The concept of systems integration or tying together all hardware and software components reflects the nature of PM-AIM`s task in attempting to field a PMIS or AIM workstation.

  14. Information survey for microcomputer systems integration

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, K.A.

    1991-12-01

    One goal of the PM-AIM is to provide US Army Project Managers (PMs) and Project Executive Officers (PEOs) with a fundamental microcomputing resource to help perform acquisition information management and its concomitant reporting requirements. Providing key application software represents one means of accomplishing this goal. This workstation would furnish a broad range of capabilities needed in the PM and PEO office settings as well as software tools for specific project management and acquisition information. Although still in the conceptual phase, the practical result of this exercise in systems integration will likely be a system called the Project Manager's Information System (PMIS) or the AIM workstation. It would include such software as, Project Manager's System Software (PMSS), Defense Acquisition Executive Summary (DAES), and Consolidated Acquisition Reporting System (CARS) and would conform to open systems architecture as accepted by the Department of Defense. ORNL has assisted PM-AIM in the development of technology ideas for the PMIS workstation concept. This paper represents the compilation of information gained during this process. This information is presented as a body of knowledge (or knowledge domain) defining the complex technology of microcomputing. The concept of systems integration or tying together all hardware and software components reflects the nature of PM-AIM's task in attempting to field a PMIS or AIM workstation.

  15. Integrated Engineering Information Technology, FY93 accommplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, R.N.; Miller, D.K.; Neugebauer, G.L.; Orona, J.R.; Partridge, R.A.; Herman, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    The Integrated Engineering Information Technology (IEIT) project is providing a comprehensive, easy-to-use computer network solution or communicating with coworkers both inside and outside Sandia National Laboratories. IEIT capabilities include computer networking, electronic mail, mechanical design, and data management. These network-based tools have one fundamental purpose: to help create a concurrent engineering environment that will enable Sandia organizations to excel in today`s increasingly competitive business environment.

  16. Consciousness, information integration, and the brain.

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio

    2005-01-01

    Clinical observations have established that certain parts of the brain are essential for consciousness whereas other parts are not. For example, different areas of the cerebral cortex contribute different modalities and submodalities of consciousness, whereas the cerebellum does not, despite having even more neurons. It is also well established that consciousness depends on the way the brain functions. For example, consciousness is much reduced during slow wave sleep and generalized seizures, even though the levels of neural activity are comparable or higher than in wakefulness. To understand why this is so, empirical observations on the neural correlates of consciousness need to be complemented by a principled theoretical approach. Otherwise, it is unlikely that we could ever establish to what extent consciousness is present in neurological conditions such as akinetic mutism, psychomotor seizures, or sleepwalking, and to what extent it is present in newborn babies and animals. A principled approach is provided by the information integration theory of consciousness. This theory claims that consciousness corresponds to a system's capacity to integrate information, and proposes a way to measure such capacity. The information integration theory can account for several neurobiological observations concerning consciousness, including: (i) the association of consciousness with certain neural systems rather than with others; (ii) the fact that neural processes underlying consciousness can influence or be influenced by neural processes that remain unconscious; (iii) the reduction of consciousness during dreamless sleep and generalized seizures; and (iv) the time requirements on neural interactions that support consciousness.

  17. Communicative interactions involving plants: information, evolution, and ecology.

    PubMed

    Mescher, Mark C; Pearse, Ian S

    2016-08-01

    The role of information obtained via sensory cues and signals in mediating the interactions of organisms with their biotic and abiotic environments has been a major focus of work on sensory and behavioral ecology. Information-mediated interactions also have important implications for broader ecological patterns emerging at the community and ecosystem levels that are only now beginning to be explored. Given the extent to which plants dominate the sensory landscapes of terrestrial ecosystems, information-mediated interactions involving plants should be a major focus of efforts to elucidate these broader patterns. Here we explore how such efforts might be enhanced by a clear understanding of information itself-a central and potentially unifying concept in biology that has nevertheless been the subject of considerable confusion-and of its relationship to adaptive evolution and ecology. We suggest that information-mediated interactions should be a key focus of efforts to more fully integrate evolutionary biology and ecology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An information integration theory of consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Tononi, Giulio

    2004-01-01

    Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations concerning consciousness. As

  19. Information flow and work productivity through integrated information technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigand, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The work environment surrounding integrated office systems is reviewed. The known effects of automated office technologies is synthesized and their known impact on work efficiency is reviewed. These effects are explored with regard to their impact on networks, work flow/processes, as well as organizational structure and power. Particular emphasis is given to structural changes due to the introduction of newer information technologies in organizations. The new information technologies have restructed the average organization's middle banks and, as a consequence, they have shrunk drastically. Organizational pyramids have flattened with fewer levels since executives have realized that they can get ahold of the needed information via the new technologies quicker and directly and do not have to rely on middle-level managers. Power shifts are typically accompanied with the introduction of these technologies resulting in the generation of a new form of organizational power.

  20. Information flow and work productivity through integrated information technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigand, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The work environment surrounding integrated office systems is reviewed. The known effects of automated office technologies is synthesized and their known impact on work efficiency is reviewed. These effects are explored with regard to their impact on networks, work flow/processes, as well as organizational structure and power. Particular emphasis is given to structural changes due to the introduction of newer information technologies in organizations. The new information technologies have restructed the average organization's middle banks and, as a consequence, they have shrunk drastically. Organizational pyramids have flattened with fewer levels since executives have realized that they can get ahold of the needed information via the new technologies quicker and directly and do not have to rely on middle-level managers. Power shifts are typically accompanied with the introduction of these technologies resulting in the generation of a new form of organizational power.

  1. Qualia: the geometry of integrated information.

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-08-01

    According to the integrated information theory, the quantity of consciousness is the amount of integrated information generated by a complex of elements, and the quality of experience is specified by the informational relationships it generates. This paper outlines a framework for characterizing the informational relationships generated by such systems. Qualia space (Q) is a space having an axis for each possible state (activity pattern) of a complex. Within Q, each submechanism specifies a point corresponding to a repertoire of system states. Arrows between repertoires in Q define informational relationships. Together, these arrows specify a quale -- a shape that completely and univocally characterizes the quality of a conscious experience. Phi -- the height of this shape -- is the quantity of consciousness associated with the experience. Entanglement measures how irreducible informational relationships are to their component relationships, specifying concepts and modes. Several corollaries follow from these premises. The quale is determined by both the mechanism and state of the system. Thus, two different systems having identical activity patterns may generate different qualia. Conversely, the same quale may be generated by two systems that differ in both activity and connectivity. Both active and inactive elements specify a quale, but elements that are inactivated do not. Also, the activation of an element affects experience by changing the shape of the quale. The subdivision of experience into modalities and submodalities corresponds to subshapes in Q. In principle, different aspects of experience may be classified as different shapes in Q, and the similarity between experiences reduces to similarities between shapes. Finally, specific qualities, such as the "redness" of red, while generated by a local mechanism, cannot be reduced to it, but require considering the entire quale. Ultimately, the present framework may offer a principled way for translating

  2. Integrated condition monitoring of space information network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhilin; Li, Xinming; Li, Yachen; Yu, Shaolin

    2015-11-01

    In order to solve the integrated condition monitoring problem in space information network, there are three works finished including analyzing the characteristics of tasks process and system health monitoring, adopting the automata modeling method, and respectively establishing the models for state inference and state determination. The state inference model is a logic automaton and is gotten by concluding engineering experiences. The state determination model is a double-layer automaton, the lower automaton is responsible for parameter judge and the upper automaton is responsible for state diagnosis. At last, the system state monitoring algorithm has been proposed, which realizes the integrated condition monitoring for task process and system health, and can avoid the false alarm.

  3. Information management in an integrated space telerobot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dipippo, S.; Pasquariello, G.; Labini, G. Sylos

    1989-01-01

    The in-orbit operations, like space structures inspection, servicing and repairing, is expected to be one of the most significant technological area for application and development of Robotics and Automation in Space Station environment. The Italian National Space Plan (PSN) has started up its strategic programme SPIDER (Space Inspection Device for Extravehicular Repairs), which is scheduled in three phases, with the final goal of performing docking and precision repairing in the Space Station environment. SPIDER system is an autonomous integrated space robot, using mature Artificial Intelligence tools and technics for its operational control. The preliminary results of a study on the information architecture of the spacecraft are described.

  4. Integrating perioperative information from divergent sources.

    PubMed

    Frost, Elizabeth A M

    2012-01-01

    The enormous diversity of physician practices, including specialists, and patient requirements and comorbidities make integration of appropriate perioperative information difficult. Lack of communicating computer systems adds to the difficulty of assembling data. Meta analysis and evidence-based studies indicate that far too many tests are performed perioperatively. Guidelines for appropriate perioperative management have been formulated by several specialties. Education as to current findings and requirements should be better communicated to surgeons, consultants, and patients to improve healthcare needs and at the same time decrease costs. Means to better communication by interpersonal collaboration are outlined.

  5. Working toward integrated models of alpine plant distribution

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Bradley Z.; Randin, Christophe F.; Boulangeat, Isabelle; Lavergne, Sébastien; Thuiller, Wilfried; Choler, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have been frequently employed to forecast the response of alpine plants to global changes. Efforts to model alpine plant distribution have thus far been primarily based on a correlative approach, in which ecological processes are implicitly addressed through a statistical relationship between observed species occurrences and environmental predictors. Recent evidence, however, highlights the shortcomings of correlative SDMs, especially in alpine landscapes where plant species tend to be decoupled from atmospheric conditions in micro-topographic habitats and are particularly exposed to geomorphic disturbances. While alpine plants respond to the same limiting factors as plants found at lower elevations, alpine environments impose a particular set of scale-dependent and hierarchical drivers that shape the realized niche of species and that require explicit consideration in a modelling context. Several recent studies in the European Alps have successfully integrated both correlative and process-based elements into distribution models of alpine plants, but for the time being a single integrative modelling framework that includes all key drivers remains elusive. As a first step in working toward a comprehensive integrated model applicable to alpine plant communities, we propose a conceptual framework that structures the primary mechanisms affecting alpine plant distributions. We group processes into four categories, including multi-scalar abiotic drivers, gradient dependent species interactions, dispersal and spatial–temporal plant responses to disturbance. Finally, we propose a methodological framework aimed at developing an integrated model to better predict alpine plant distribution. PMID:24790594

  6. Integrating information for better environmental decisions.

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.; Morgan, K.; Newland, L.; Environmental Assessment; Texas Christian Univ.

    2002-01-01

    As more is learned about the complex nature and extent of environmental impacts from progressive human disturbance, scientists, policy analysts, decision makers, educators, and communicators are increasingly joining forces to develop strategies for preserving and protecting the environment. The Eco-Informa Foundation is an educational scientific organization dedicated to promoting the collaborative development and sharing of scientific information. The Foundation participated in a recent international conference on environmental informatics through a special symposium on integrating information for better environmental decisions. Presentations focused on four general themes: (1) remote sensing and data interpretation, including through new knowledge management tools; (2) risk assessment and communication, including for radioactively contaminated facilities, introduced biological hazards, and food safety; (3) community involvement in cleanup projects; and (4) environmental education. The general context for related issues, methods and applications, and results and recommendations from those discussions are highlighted here.

  7. Representation and Integration of Scientific Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this Joint Research Interchange with NASA-Ames was to investigate how the Tsimmis technology could be used to represent and integrate scientific information. The main goal of the Tsimmis project is to allow a decision maker to find information of interest from such sources, fuse it, and process it (e.g., summarize it, visualize it, discover trends). Another important goal is the easy incorporation of new sources, as well the ability to deal with sources whose structure or services evolve. During the Interchange we had research meetings approximately every month or two. The funds provided by NASA supported work that lead to the following two papers: Fusion Queries over Internet Databases; Efficient Query Subscription Processing in a Multicast Environment.

  8. Fluidic microchemomechanical integrated circuits processing chemical information.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Rinaldo; Allerdissen, Merle; Voigt, Andreas; Richter, Andreas

    2012-12-07

    Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has blossomed into a major new technology fundamentally influencing the sciences of life and nature. From a systemic point of view however, microfluidics is still in its infancy. Here, we present the concept of a microfluidic central processing unit (CPU) which shows remarkable similarities to early electronic Von Neumann microprocessors. It combines both control and execution units and, moreover, the complete power supply on a single chip and introduces the decision-making ability regarding chemical information into fluidic integrated circuits (ICs). As a consequence of this system concept, the ICs process chemical information completely in a self-controlled manner and energetically self-sustaining. The ICs are fabricated by layer-by-layer deposition of several overlapping layers based on different intrinsically active polymers. As examples we present two microchips carrying out long-term monitoring of critical parameters by around-the-clock sampling.

  9. Integrated network analysis and effective tools in plant systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nishida, Kozo

    2014-01-01

    One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1) network visualization tools, (2) pathway analyses, (3) genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4) the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms. PMID:25408696

  10. Information integration for public safety officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcourt, Scott A.; Datla, Pushpa; Chamberlin, Kent; McMahon, Benjamin

    2008-04-01

    Information enabled by technology is used to support good decision-making in the public safety arena. In the information age, the current implementation includes the installation of laptop computers and other mobile computing technology into mobile environments including ambulances, fire vehicles and police cruisers. Typically, these computing devices are equipped with various multi-purpose and custom software applications to replicate the public safety officers' headquarters work environment. In our analysis, we have found that there are large amounts of publiclyavailable datasets that are not available to the public safety officer in the field, but if made available in a real-time environment, could greatly assist the decision-making tasks of the officer and increase the safety of the public entrusted to the officer's watch. Information delivery and integration in the public safety environment are key elements required to maximize data support of public safety. Utilizing aspects of requirements engineering, we propose and develop a variety of applications that allow public safety officials to synthesize and interact with real-time data in the field. Information integration used to locate a topographic area map, satellite image, or immediate alert of the prevailing weather conditions assist in the timely decision-making process, especially in areas where such data is not available in the field. Public and private data sources are delivered according to agency protocols. Our environment takes advantage of the existing Project54 application and hardware, developed at the University of New Hampshire, as well as existing datacasting technology and other wireless mobile communications technologies.

  11. Breaking the rules in perceptual information integration.

    PubMed

    Bushmakin, Maxim A; Eidels, Ami; Heathcote, Andrew

    2017-04-06

    We develop a broad theoretical framework for modelling difficult perceptual information integration tasks under different decision rules. The framework allows us to compare coactive architectures, which combine information before it enters the decision process, with parallel architectures, where logical rules combine independent decisions made about each perceptual source. For both architectures we test the novel hypothesis that participants break the decision rules on some trials, making a response based on only one stimulus even though task instructions require them to consider both. Our models take account of not only the decisions made but also the distribution of the time that it takes to make them, providing an account of speed-accuracy tradeoffs and response biases occurring when one response is required more often than another. We also test a second novel hypothesis, that the nature of the decision rule changes the evidence on which choices are based. We apply the models to data from a perceptual integration task with near threshold stimuli under two different decision rules. The coactive architecture was clearly rejected in favor of logical-rules. The logical-rule models were shown to provide an accurate account of all aspects of the data, but only when they allow for response bias and the possibility for subjects to break those rules. We discuss how our framework can be applied more broadly, and its relationship to Townsend and Nozawa's (1995) Systems-Factorial Technology.

  12. Ontologies as integrative tools for plant science

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Ramona L.; Athreya, Balaji; Cooper, Laurel; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mungall, Christopher J.; Preece, Justin; Rensing, Stefan; Smith, Barry; Stevenson, Dennis W.

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study Bio-ontologies are essential tools for accessing and analyzing the rapidly growing pool of plant genomic and phenomic data. Ontologies provide structured vocabularies to support consistent aggregation of data and a semantic framework for automated analyses and reasoning. They are a key component of the semantic web. Methods This paper provides background on what bio-ontologies are, why they are relevant to botany, and the principles of ontology development. It includes an overview of ontologies and related resources that are relevant to plant science, with a detailed description of the Plant Ontology (PO). We discuss the challenges of building an ontology that covers all green plants (Viridiplantae). Key results Ontologies can advance plant science in four keys areas: (1) comparative genetics, genomics, phenomics, and development; (2) taxonomy and systematics; (3) semantic applications; and (4) education. Conclusions Bio-ontologies offer a flexible framework for comparative plant biology, based on common botanical understanding. As genomic and phenomic data become available for more species, we anticipate that the annotation of data with ontology terms will become less centralized, while at the same time, the need for cross-species queries will become more common, causing more researchers in plant science to turn to ontologies. PMID:22847540

  13. Ontologies as integrative tools for plant science.

    PubMed

    Walls, Ramona L; Athreya, Balaji; Cooper, Laurel; Elser, Justin; Gandolfo, Maria A; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mungall, Christopher J; Preece, Justin; Rensing, Stefan; Smith, Barry; Stevenson, Dennis W

    2012-08-01

    Bio-ontologies are essential tools for accessing and analyzing the rapidly growing pool of plant genomic and phenomic data. Ontologies provide structured vocabularies to support consistent aggregation of data and a semantic framework for automated analyses and reasoning. They are a key component of the semantic web. This paper provides background on what bio-ontologies are, why they are relevant to botany, and the principles of ontology development. It includes an overview of ontologies and related resources that are relevant to plant science, with a detailed description of the Plant Ontology (PO). We discuss the challenges of building an ontology that covers all green plants (Viridiplantae). Ontologies can advance plant science in four keys areas: (1) comparative genetics, genomics, phenomics, and development; (2) taxonomy and systematics; (3) semantic applications; and (4) education. Bio-ontologies offer a flexible framework for comparative plant biology, based on common botanical understanding. As genomic and phenomic data become available for more species, we anticipate that the annotation of data with ontology terms will become less centralized, while at the same time, the need for cross-species queries will become more common, causing more researchers in plant science to turn to ontologies.

  14. Information and image integration: project spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaine, G. James; Jost, R. Gilbert; Martin, Lori; Weiss, David A.; Lehmann, Ron; Fritz, Kevin

    1998-07-01

    The BJC Health System (BJC) and the Washington University School of Medicine (WUSM) formed a technology alliance with industry collaborators to develop and implement an integrated, advanced clinical information system. The industry collaborators include IBM, Kodak, SBC and Motorola. The activity, called Project Spectrum, provides an integrated clinical repository for the multiple hospital facilities of the BJC. The BJC System consists of 12 acute care hospitals serving over one million patients in Missouri and Illinois. An interface engine manages transactions from each of the hospital information systems, lab systems and radiology information systems. Data is normalized to provide a consistent view for the primary care physician. Access to the clinical repository is supported by web-based server/browser technology which delivers patient data to the physician's desktop. An HL7 based messaging system coordinates the acquisition and management of radiological image data and sends image keys to the clinical data repository. Access to the clinical chart browser currently provides radiology reports, laboratory data, vital signs and transcribed medical reports. A chart metaphor provides tabs for the selection of the clinical record for review. Activation of the radiology tab facilitates a standardized view of radiology reports and provides an icon used to initiate retrieval of available radiology images. The selection of the image icon spawns an image browser plug-in and utilizes the image key from the clinical repository to access the image server for the requested image data. The Spectrum system is collecting clinical data from five hospital systems and imaging data from two hospitals. Domain specific radiology imaging systems support the acquisition and primary interpretation of radiology exams. The spectrum clinical workstations are deployed to over 200 sites utilizing local area networks and ISDN connectivity.

  15. [Genetics of plant development: integrating data from different observations and experiments in databases].

    PubMed

    Omel'ianchuk, N A; Mironova, V V; Kolchanov, N A

    2009-11-01

    Genetics of plant development as a scientific discipline integrates experimental evidence from such different fields of biology as embryology, plant anatomy, molecular biology, and genetics, and studies their relationships with ontogeny. To date, traditional publication of scientific studies in form of articles is supplemented by presenting the results of extensive genome-scale experiments in genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and phenomics in databases. The information burst, cased both by genome-scale studies and growth in the number of publications, requires the development of general standards of annotating data from different sources for their integration and comparison. In this review, we present classification and analysis of existing databases, in which the user can find various kinds of information essential for studying developmental genetics of plants, and discuss problems of data integration both within the informational resources and among them.

  16. 300 MW combined-cycle plant with integrated coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Kehlhofer, R.H.

    1984-09-01

    The main obstacle to further expansion of the combined cycle principle is its lack of fuel flexibility. To this day, gas turbines are still limited to gaseous or liquid fuels. This paper shows a viable way to add a cheap solid fuel, coal, to the list. The plant system in question is a 2 X 150 MW combined-cycle plant of BBC Brown Boveri with integrated coal gasification plant of British Gas/Lurgi. The main point of interest is that All the individual components of the power plant described in this paper have proven their worth commercially. It is therefore not a pilot plant but a viable commercial proposition.

  17. Europlanet Integrated and Distributed Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, W.; Capria, M. T.; Chanteur, G.

    2009-04-01

    During the past decades the various disciplines in planetary sciences have developed to a very high international standard. But the collaboration between the different fields should be improved. To overcome the current fragmentation of the EU Planetary Science community and thereby to increase the scientific return of the related investment, the EU commission is funding via its Framework Program 7 the development of the "Europlanet Research Infrastructure -Europlanet RI". The Europlanet RI will consolidate the integration of the European Planetary Science community which started with Europlanet's FP6 project and will integrate major parts of the related distributed European infrastructure to be shared, fed and expanded by all planetary scientists. This infrastructure encompasses as diverse components as space exploration, ground-based observations, laboratory experiments and numerical modeling teams. Europlanet RI aims at bringing scientists from Europe and beyond together who are working in these fields, support the exchange of experts and ideas and make as many resources and data as possible available to the research community. A central part of Europlanet RI is the "Integrated and Distributed Information Service" or Europlanet-IDIS. The task of IDIS as central part of Europlanet is to provide an easy-to-use Web-based platform to locate teams and laboratories with special knowledge needed to support the own research activities, give access to the wealth of already available data, initiate new research activities needed to interpret accumulated data or to solve open questions, and to exploit synergies between space-based missions and capabilities of ground based observatories. It also offers to a wide range of teams and laboratories the possibility to share their data, advertise their capabilities and increase the scientific return by cooperation. IDIS is organized as an EU FP7 Support Activity, consisting of different access nodes which are connected by

  18. Successfully integrating information systems into healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wallhouse, R

    1992-01-01

    Many hospital managers are currently looking at implementing hospital information systems (HIS) for the first time, or planning replacement of their first HIS. This article is intended as a resume of 'best practice' in terms of how to approach the selection and implementation of an integrated HIS--a "Do's and Don'ts Guide" for hospital managers. Emphasis is placed on the importance of management assuming overall responsibility for the HIS as a vital communications tool to support the provision of healthcare. Since the HIS underpins the 'business aims' of the institution, these need to be clearly defined at the outset. How to evaluate the benefits of an HIS supplier and aspects such as encouraging an atmosphere of ownership of the HIS by all staff are reviewed in the article.

  19. Integration of language and sensor information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I.; Weijers, Bertus

    2003-04-01

    The talk describes the development of basic technologies of intelligent systems fusing data from multiple domains and leading to automated computational techniques for understanding data contents. Understanding involves inferring appropriate decisions and recommending proper actions, which in turn requires fusion of data and knowledge about objects, situations, and actions. Data might include sensory data, verbal reports, intelligence intercepts, or public records, whereas knowledge ought to encompass the whole range of objects, situations, people and their behavior, and knowledge of languages. In the past, a fundamental difficulty in combining knowledge with data was the combinatorial complexity of computations, too many combinations of data and knowledge pieces had to be evaluated. Recent progress in understanding of natural intelligent systems, including the human mind, leads to the development of neurophysiologically motivated architectures for solving these challenging problems, in particular the role of emotional neural signals in overcoming combinatorial complexity of old logic-based approaches. Whereas past approaches based on logic tended to identify logic with language and thinking, recent studies in cognitive linguistics have led to appreciation of more complicated nature of linguistic models. Little is known about the details of the brain mechanisms integrating language and thinking. Understanding and fusion of linguistic information with sensory data represent a novel challenging aspect of the development of integrated fusion systems. The presentation will describe a non-combinatorial approach to this problem and outline techniques that can be used for fusing diverse and uncertain knowledge with sensory and linguistic data.

  20. Data integration aids understanding of butterfly-host plant networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto-Fujita, Ai; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakazato, Takeru; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Natsushi; Kono, Mayo; Chubachi, Yuko; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Kotera, Masaaki

    2017-03-01

    Although host-plant selection is a central topic in ecology, its general underpinnings are poorly understood. Here, we performed a case study focusing on the publicly available data on Japanese butterflies. A combined statistical analysis of plant-herbivore relationships and taxonomy revealed that some butterfly subfamilies in different families feed on the same plant families, and the occurrence of this phenomenon more than just by chance, thus indicating the independent acquisition of adaptive phenotypes to the same hosts. We consequently integrated plant-herbivore and plant-compound relationship data and conducted a statistical analysis to identify compounds unique to host plants of specific butterfly families. Some of the identified plant compounds are known to attract certain butterfly groups while repelling others. The additional incorporation of insect-compound relationship data revealed potential metabolic processes that are related to host plant selection. Our results demonstrate that data integration enables the computational detection of compounds putatively involved in particular interspecies interactions and that further data enrichment and integration of genomic and transcriptomic data facilitates the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms involved in host plant selection.

  1. Data integration aids understanding of butterfly-host plant networks.

    PubMed

    Muto-Fujita, Ai; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakazato, Takeru; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Natsushi; Kono, Mayo; Chubachi, Yuko; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Kotera, Masaaki

    2017-03-06

    Although host-plant selection is a central topic in ecology, its general underpinnings are poorly understood. Here, we performed a case study focusing on the publicly available data on Japanese butterflies. A combined statistical analysis of plant-herbivore relationships and taxonomy revealed that some butterfly subfamilies in different families feed on the same plant families, and the occurrence of this phenomenon more than just by chance, thus indicating the independent acquisition of adaptive phenotypes to the same hosts. We consequently integrated plant-herbivore and plant-compound relationship data and conducted a statistical analysis to identify compounds unique to host plants of specific butterfly families. Some of the identified plant compounds are known to attract certain butterfly groups while repelling others. The additional incorporation of insect-compound relationship data revealed potential metabolic processes that are related to host plant selection. Our results demonstrate that data integration enables the computational detection of compounds putatively involved in particular interspecies interactions and that further data enrichment and integration of genomic and transcriptomic data facilitates the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms involved in host plant selection.

  2. TOMATOMICS: A Web Database for Integrated Omics Information in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Toru; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Terashima, Shin; Katayama, Minami; Ozaki, Soichi; Kanno, Maasa; Saito, Misa; Yokoyama, Koji; Ohyanagi, Hajime; Aoki, Koh; Kubo, Yasutaka; Yano, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) is an important agronomic crop and a major model fruit-producing plant. To facilitate basic and applied research, comprehensive experimental resources and omics information on tomato are available following their development. Mutant lines and cDNA clones from a dwarf cultivar, Micro-Tom, are two of these genetic resources. Large-scale sequencing data for ESTs and full-length cDNAs from Micro-Tom continue to be gathered. In conjunction with information on the reference genome sequence of another cultivar, Heinz 1706, the Micro-Tom experimental resources have facilitated comprehensive functional analyses. To enhance the efficiency of acquiring omics information for tomato biology, we have integrated the information on the Micro-Tom experimental resources and the Heinz 1706 genome sequence. We have also inferred gene structure by comparison of sequences between the genome of Heinz 1706 and the transcriptome, which are comprised of Micro-Tom full-length cDNAs and Heinz 1706 RNA-seq data stored in the KaFTom and Sequence Read Archive databases. In order to provide large-scale omics information with streamlined connectivity we have developed and maintain a web database TOMATOMICS (http://bioinf.mind.meiji.ac.jp/tomatomics/). In TOMATOMICS, access to the information on the cDNA clone resources, full-length mRNA sequences, gene structures, expression profiles and functional annotations of genes is available through search functions and the genome browser, which has an intuitive graphical interface.

  3. Importance of plant integrity in crop research, breeding, and production

    PubMed Central

    Pazderů, Kateřina; Bláha, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Plant integrity looks like a “very easy and expanded topic,” but the reality is totally different. Thanks to the very high specialization of scientists, we are losing a holistic view of plants and are making mistakes in our research due to this drawback. It is necessary to sense a plant in their whole complexity—in both roots and shoot, as well as throughout their life cycles. Only such an integrated approach can allow us to reach correct interpretations of our experimental results. PMID:24301201

  4. Integrated design of sewers and wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Vollertsen, J; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T; Ujang, Z; Talib, S A

    2002-01-01

    Sewer system design must be integrated with wastewater treatment plant design when moving towards a more sustainable urban wastewater management. This integration allows an optimization of the design of both systems to achieve a better and more cost-effective wastewater management. Hitherto integrated process design has not been an option because the tools to predict in-sewer wastewater transformations have been inadequate. In this study the WATS model--being a new and validated tool for in-sewer microbial process simulations--is presented and its application for integrated sewer and treatment plant design is exemplified. A case study on a Malaysian catchment illustrates this integration. The effects of centralization of wastewater treatment and the subsequently longer transport distances are addressed. The layout of the intercepting sewer is optimized to meet the requirements of different treatment scenarios.

  5. ITER Construction--Plant System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, E.; Matsuda, S.

    2009-02-19

    This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

  6. The flora phenotype ontology (FLOPO): tool for integrating morphological traits and phenotypes of vascular plants.

    PubMed

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Alshahrani, Mona; Gkoutos, Georgios V; Gosline, George; Groom, Quentin; Hamann, Thomas; Kattge, Jens; de Oliveira, Sylvia Mota; Schmidt, Marco; Sierra, Soraya; Smets, Erik; Vos, Rutger A; Weiland, Claus

    2016-11-14

    The systematic analysis of a large number of comparable plant trait data can support investigations into phylogenetics and ecological adaptation, with broad applications in evolutionary biology, agriculture, conservation, and the functioning of ecosystems. Floras, i.e., books collecting the information on all known plant species found within a region, are a potentially rich source of such plant trait data. Floras describe plant traits with a focus on morphology and other traits relevant for species identification in addition to other characteristics of plant species, such as ecological affinities, distribution, economic value, health applications, traditional uses, and so on. However, a key limitation in systematically analyzing information in Floras is the lack of a standardized vocabulary for the described traits as well as the difficulties in extracting structured information from free text. We have developed the Flora Phenotype Ontology (FLOPO), an ontology for describing traits of plant species found in Floras. We used the Plant Ontology (PO) and the Phenotype And Trait Ontology (PATO) to extract entity-quality relationships from digitized taxon descriptions in Floras, and used a formal ontological approach based on phenotype description patterns and automated reasoning to generate the FLOPO. The resulting ontology consists of 25,407 classes and is based on the PO and PATO. The classified ontology closely follows the structure of Plant Ontology in that the primary axis of classification is the observed plant anatomical structure, and more specific traits are then classified based on parthood and subclass relations between anatomical structures as well as subclass relations between phenotypic qualities. The FLOPO is primarily intended as a framework based on which plant traits can be integrated computationally across all species and higher taxa of flowering plants. Importantly, it is not intended to replace established vocabularies or ontologies, but rather

  7. Autonomous Preference-Aware Information Services Integration for High Response in Integrated Faded Information Field Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xiaodong; Mori, Kinji

    The market and users' requirements have been rapidly changing and diversified. Under these heterogeneous and dynamic situations, not only the system structure itself, but also the accessible information services would be changed constantly. To cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed, which is a agent-based distributed information service system architecture. In the case of a mono-service request, the system is designed to improve users' access time and preserve load balancing through the information structure. However, with interdependent requests of multi-service increasing, adaptability and timeliness have to be assured by the system. In this paper, the relationship that exists among the correlated services and the users' preferences for separate and integrated services is clarified. Based on these factors, the autonomous preference-aware information services integration technology to provide one-stop service for users multi-service requests is proposed. As compared to the conventional system, we show that proposed technology is able to reduce the total access time.

  8. Integration of social information by human groups

    PubMed Central

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M.; Sumpter, David; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The “wisdom of crowds” hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we study how individuals integrate social information when answering trivia questions with answers that range between 0 and 100% (e.g., ‘What percentage of Americans are left-handed?’). We find that, consistent with the wisdom of crowds hypothesis, average performance improves with group size. However, individuals show a consistent bias to produce estimates that are insufficiently extreme. We find that social information provides significant, albeit small, improvement to group performance. Outliers with answers far from the correct answer move towards the position of the group mean. Given that these outliers also tend to be nearer to 50% than do the answers of other group members, this move creates group polarization away from 50%. By looking at individual performance over different questions we find that some people are more likely to be affected by social influence than others. There is also evidence that people differ in their competence in answering questions, but lack of competence is not significantly correlated with willingness to change guesses. We develop a mathematical model based on these results that postulates a cognitive process in which people first decide whether to take into account peer guesses, and if so, to move in the direction of these guesses. The size of the move is proportional to the distance between their own guess and the average guess of the group. This model closely approximates the distribution of guess movements and shows how

  9. Integration of Social Information by Human Groups.

    PubMed

    Granovskiy, Boris; Gold, Jason M; Sumpter, David J T; Goldstone, Robert L

    2015-07-01

    We consider a situation in which individuals search for accurate decisions without direct feedback on their accuracy, but with information about the decisions made by peers in their group. The "wisdom of crowds" hypothesis states that the average judgment of many individuals can give a good estimate of, for example, the outcomes of sporting events and the answers to trivia questions. Two conditions for the application of wisdom of crowds are that estimates should be independent and unbiased. Here, we study how individuals integrate social information when answering trivia questions with answers that range between 0% and 100% (e.g., "What percentage of Americans are left-handed?"). We find that, consistent with the wisdom of crowds hypothesis, average performance improves with group size. However, individuals show a consistent bias to produce estimates that are insufficiently extreme. We find that social information provides significant, albeit small, improvement to group performance. Outliers with answers far from the correct answer move toward the position of the group mean. Given that these outliers also tend to be nearer to 50% than do the answers of other group members, this move creates group polarization away from 50%. By looking at individual performance over different questions we find that some people are more likely to be affected by social influence than others. There is also evidence that people differ in their competence in answering questions, but lack of competence is not significantly correlated with willingness to change guesses. We develop a mathematical model based on these results that postulates a cognitive process in which people first decide whether to take into account peer guesses, and if so, to move in the direction of these guesses. The size of the move is proportional to the distance between their own guess and the average guess of the group. This model closely approximates the distribution of guess movements and shows how outlying

  10. The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    1997-01-01

    of IT systems, 3) the Technical Architecture: a common, vendor-independent framework for design, integration and implementation of IT systems and 4) the Product Architecture: vendor=specific IT solutions. The Systems Architecture is effectively a description of the end-user "requirements". Generalized end-user requirements are discussed and subsequently organized into specific mission and project functions. The Technical Architecture depicts the framework, and relationship, of the specific IT components that enable the end-user functionality as described in the Systems Architecture. The primary components as described in the Technical Architecture are: 1) Applications: Basic Client Component, Object Creation Applications, Collaborative Applications, Object Analysis Applications, 2) Services: Messaging, Information Broker, Collaboration, Distributed Processing, and 3) Infrastructure: Network, Security, Directory, Certificate Management, Enterprise Management and File System. This Architecture also provides specific Implementation Recommendations, the most significant of which is the recognition of IT as core to NASA activities and defines a plan, which is aligned with the NASA strategic planning processes, for keeping the Architecture alive and useful.

  11. The NASA Integrated Information Technology Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldridge, Tim

    1997-01-01

    of IT systems, 3) the Technical Architecture: a common, vendor-independent framework for design, integration and implementation of IT systems and 4) the Product Architecture: vendor=specific IT solutions. The Systems Architecture is effectively a description of the end-user "requirements". Generalized end-user requirements are discussed and subsequently organized into specific mission and project functions. The Technical Architecture depicts the framework, and relationship, of the specific IT components that enable the end-user functionality as described in the Systems Architecture. The primary components as described in the Technical Architecture are: 1) Applications: Basic Client Component, Object Creation Applications, Collaborative Applications, Object Analysis Applications, 2) Services: Messaging, Information Broker, Collaboration, Distributed Processing, and 3) Infrastructure: Network, Security, Directory, Certificate Management, Enterprise Management and File System. This Architecture also provides specific Implementation Recommendations, the most significant of which is the recognition of IT as core to NASA activities and defines a plan, which is aligned with the NASA strategic planning processes, for keeping the Architecture alive and useful.

  12. Integration of hospital information systems, operative and peri-operative information systems, and operative equipment into a single information display.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Mark; Levine, Wilton C; Brzezinski, Philip; Robbins, Jeffrey; Lai, Fuji; Spitz, Gabriel; Sandberg, Warren S

    2005-01-01

    The integration of disparate information systems in the operative environment allows access to information that is typically unseen or unused. Through a collaborative effort, a variety of information systems and surgical equipment are being integrated. This provides improved context-sensitive information display and decision support and improved access to information to improve workflow, safety and visualization of information that was previously unattainable.

  13. Site-specific recombination for precise and clean transgene integration in plant genome. In: Touraev, A., Citovsky, V., Tzfira, T., Editors of book. Plant Transformation Technologies.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant Transformation Technologies is a comprehensive, authoritative book focusing on cutting-edge plant biotechnologies, offering in-depth, forward-looking information on methods for controlled and accurate genetic engineering. In response to ever-increasing pressure for precise and efficient integr...

  14. Integrating Information Technologies Into Large Organizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlich, Gretchen; Meyer, John M.; Nelson, Michael L.; Bianco, David J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center's product is aerospace research information. To this end, Langley uses information technology tools in three distinct ways. First, information technology tools are used in the production of information via computation, analysis, data collection and reduction. Second, information technology tools assist in streamlining business processes, particularly those that are primarily communication based. By applying these information tools to administrative activities, Langley spends fewer resources on managing itself and can allocate more resources for research. Third, Langley uses information technology tools to disseminate its aerospace research information, resulting in faster turn around time from the laboratory to the end-customer.

  15. The organizing vision of integrated health information systems.

    PubMed

    Ellingsen, Gunnar; Monteiro, Eric

    2008-09-01

    The notion of 'integration' in the context of health information systems is ill-defined yet in widespread use. We identify a variety of meanings ranging from the purely technical integration of information systems to the integration of services. This ambiguity (or interpretive flexibility), we argue, is inherent rather than accidental: it is a necessary prerequisite for mobilizing political and ideological support among stakeholders for integrated health information systems. Building on this, our aim is to trace out the career dynamics of the vision of 'integration/ integrated'. The career dynamics is the transformation of both the imaginary and the material (technological) realizations of the unfolding implementation of the vision of integrated care. Empirically we draw on a large, ongoing project at the University Hospital of North Norway (UNN) to establish an integrated health information system.

  16. Knowledge and information management for integrated water resource management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Watershed information systems that integrate data and analytical tools are critical enabling technologies to support Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) by converting data into information, and information into knowledge. Many factors bring people to the table to participate in an IWRM fra...

  17. Supervisory Presentation for Research, Information, Integration and Testing (SPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-29

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0049 SUPERVISORY PRESENTATION FOR RESEARCH, INFORMATION, INTEGRATION AND TESTING (SPRINT) Thomas Hughes Clayton...17 March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supervisory Presentation for Research, Information, Integration and Testing (SPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the ability of a single operator to simultaneously control multiple platforms, increased connectivity to net -centric information sources, and the

  18. Management/Technical Interaction in Integrated Information System Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Clarence H.; Gardner, Don E.

    The integrated information system element of the management information system concept has practical applications for management in the areas of both information analysis and decision-model building. Four basic options for achieving integration in operational data systems are: a default option, the coordinated file option, the distributed…

  19. Data integration aids understanding of butterfly–host plant networks

    PubMed Central

    Muto-Fujita, Ai; Takemoto, Kazuhiro; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Nakazato, Takeru; Tokimatsu, Toshiaki; Matsumoto, Natsushi; Kono, Mayo; Chubachi, Yuko; Ozaki, Katsuhisa; Kotera, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    Although host-plant selection is a central topic in ecology, its general underpinnings are poorly understood. Here, we performed a case study focusing on the publicly available data on Japanese butterflies. A combined statistical analysis of plant–herbivore relationships and taxonomy revealed that some butterfly subfamilies in different families feed on the same plant families, and the occurrence of this phenomenon more than just by chance, thus indicating the independent acquisition of adaptive phenotypes to the same hosts. We consequently integrated plant–herbivore and plant–compound relationship data and conducted a statistical analysis to identify compounds unique to host plants of specific butterfly families. Some of the identified plant compounds are known to attract certain butterfly groups while repelling others. The additional incorporation of insect–compound relationship data revealed potential metabolic processes that are related to host plant selection. Our results demonstrate that data integration enables the computational detection of compounds putatively involved in particular interspecies interactions and that further data enrichment and integration of genomic and transcriptomic data facilitates the unveiling of the molecular mechanisms involved in host plant selection. PMID:28262809

  20. Using functional–structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Theodore M.; Da Silva, David; Vos, Jan; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.

    2011-01-01

    Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explore and integrate relationships between a plant's structure and processes that underlie its growth and development. In recent years, the range of topics being addressed by scientists interested in functional–structural plant modelling has expanded greatly. FSPM techniques are now being used to dynamically simulate growth and development occurring at the microscopic scale involving cell division in plant meristems to the macroscopic scales of whole plants and plant communities. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum from algae to trees. FSPM is highly interdisciplinary and involves scientists with backgrounds in plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant morphology, mathematics, computer science, cellular biology, ecology and agronomy. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers that provide examples of comprehensive functional–structural models, models of key processes such as partitioning of resources, software for modelling plants and plant environments, data acquisition and processing techniques and applications of functional–structural plant models for agronomic purposes. PMID:22084818

  1. Regional Logistics Information Resources Integration Patterns and Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hui; Shangguan, Xu-ming

    Effective integration of regional logistics information resources can provide collaborative services in information flow, business flow and logistics for regional logistics enterprises, which also can reduce operating costs and improve market responsiveness. First, this paper analyzes the realistic significance on the integration of regional logistics information. Second, this paper brings forward three feasible patterns on the integration of regional logistics information resources, These three models have their own strengths and the scope of application and implementation, which model is selected will depend on the specific business and the regional distribution of enterprises. Last, this paper discusses the related countermeasures on the integration of regional logistics information resources, because the integration of regional logistics information is a systems engineering, when the integration is advancing, the countermeasures should pay close attention to the current needs and long-term development of regional enterprises.

  2. Academic Integrity: Information Systems Education Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHaney, Roger; Cronan, Timothy Paul; Douglas, David E.

    Academic integrity receives a great deal of attention in institutions of higher education. Universities and colleges provide specific honor codes or have administrative units to promote good behaviors and resolve dishonesty allegations. Students, faculty, and staff have stakes in maintaining high levels of academic integrity to ensure their…

  3. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

    2009-11-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM.

  4. Using functional–structural plant models to study, understand and integrate plant development and ecophysiology.

    PubMed

    DeJong, Theodore M; Da Silva, David; Vos, Jan; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

    2011-10-01

    Functional–structural plant models (FSPMs) explore and integrate relationships between a plant’s structure and processes that underlie its growth and development. In recent years, the range of topics being addressed by scientists interested in functional–structural plant modelling has expanded greatly. FSPM techniques are now being used to dynamically simulate growth and development occurring at the microscopic scale involving cell division in plant meristems to the macroscopic scales of whole plants and plant communities. The plant types studied also cover a broad spectrum from algae to trees. FSPM is highly interdisciplinary and involves scientists with backgrounds in plant physiology, plant anatomy, plant morphology, mathematics, computer science, cellular biology, ecology and agronomy. This special issue of Annals of Botany features selected papers that provide examples of comprehensive functional–structural models, models of key processes such as partitioning of resources, software for modelling plants and plant environments, data acquisition and processing techniques and applications of functional–structural plant models for agronomic purposes.

  5. Oryzabase. An integrated biological and genome information database for rice.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Nori; Yamazaki, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The aim of Oryzabase is to create a comprehensive view of rice (Oryza sativa) as a model monocot plant by integrating biological data with molecular genomic information (http://www.shigen.nig.ac.jp/rice/oryzabase/top/top.jsp). The database contains information about rice development and anatomy, rice mutants, and genetic resources, especially for wild varieties of rice. The anatomical description of rice development is unique and is the first known representation for rice. Developmental and anatomical descriptions include in situ gene expression data serving as stage and tissue markers. The systematic presentation of a large number of rice mutant and mutant trait genes is indispensable, as is description of research in wild strains, core collections, and their detailed characterization. Several genetic, physical, and expression maps with full genome and cDNA sequences are also combined with biological data in Oryzabase. These datasets, when pooled together, could provide a useful tool for gaining greater knowledge about the life cycle of rice, the relationship between phenotype and gene function, and rice genetic diversity. For exchanging community information, Oryzabase publishes the Rice Genetics Newsletter organized by the Rice Genetics Cooperative and provides a mailing service, rice-e-net/rice-net.

  6. Tuning of linear ADRC with known plant information.

    PubMed

    Fu, Caifen; Tan, Wen

    2016-11-01

    Linear active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) is known for its simplicity and its performance in disturbance attenuation. Currently, tuning of linear ADRC (LADRC) is via the bandwidth idea. In this paper, tuning of LADRC with known plant information is investigated. It is shown that there are limitations using only two bandwidths to tune the LADRC controllers. To take advantage of the known plant information, a generalized ADRC (GADRC) method is proposed. Then the intrinsic link between the conventional LADRC and GADRC is analyzed. It is shown that the available plant model information used in GADRC can be utilized in the designs of the observer gain and the controller gain of the conventional LADRC. Simulation results demonstrate that with known plant information incorporated, the performance of a conventional LADRC can indeed be improved, especially for unstable, time-delayed and non-minimum phase processes.

  7. Shelterwood-planted northern red oaks: integrated costs and options

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich; Daniel Dey; Paul. Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Tree biology, environmental site conditions, relative monetary costs, management options, and the competitive struggle between planted trees and other vegetation were integrated when underplanting northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings in Boston Mountain shelterwoods. This approach provides insight into the collective costs (...

  8. Environment, safety, and health information technology systems integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, David A.; Bayer, Gregory W.

    2006-02-01

    The ES&H Information Systems department, motivated by the numerous isolated information technology systems under its control, undertook a significant integration effort. This effort was planned and executed over the course of several years and parts of it still continue today. The effect was to help move the ES&H Information Systems department toward integration with the corporate Information Solutions and Services center.

  9. Integration framework for design information of electromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Sohail Mehboob

    The objective of this research is to develop a framework that can be used to provide an integrated view of electromechanical system design information. The framework is intended to provide a platform where various standard and pseudo standard information models such as STEP and IBIS can be integrated to provide an integrated view of design information beyond just part numbers, CAD drawings, or some specific geometry. A database application can make use of this framework to provide reuse of design information fragments including geometry, function, behavior, design procedures, performance specification, design rationale, project management, product characteristics, and configuration and version. An "Integration Core Model" is developed to provide the basis for the integration framework, and also facilitate integration of product and process data for the purpose of archiving integrated design history. There are two major subdivisions of the integration core model: product core model providing the high level structure needed to associate process information to the product data, and process core model providing the generic process information that is needed to capture and organize process information. The process core model is developed using a hybrid of structure-oriented and process-oriented approaches to process modeling. Using such a scheme the process core model is able to represent information such as hierarchies of processes, logical and temporal relationships between various design activities, and relationships between activities and the product data at various levels of abstraction. Based upon the integration core model, an integration methodology is developed to provide a systematic way of integrating various information models. Mapping theorems have been developed to methodically point out the problems that may be encountered during the integration of two information models. The integration core model is validated through a case study. Design information

  10. Predicting plant responses to mycorrhizae: integrating evolutionary history and plant traits.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Kurt O; Wilson, Gail W T; Rinella, Matthew J

    2012-07-01

    We assessed whether (1) arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization of roots (RC) and/or plant responses to arbuscular mycorrhizae (MR) vary with plant phylogeny and (2) MR and RC can be more accurately predicted with a phylogenetic predictor relative to a null model and models with plant trait and taxonomic predictors. In a previous study, MR and RC of 95 grassland species were measured. We constructed a phylogeny for these species and found it explained variation in MR and RC. Next, we used multiple regressions to identify the models that most accurately predicted plant MR. Models including either phylogenetic or phenotypic and taxonomic information similarly improved our ability to predict MR relative to a null model. Our study illustrates the complex evolutionary associations among species and constraints of using phylogenetic information, relative to plant traits, to predict how a plant species will interact with AMF.

  11. Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj): A Portal Website for the Integration of Plant Genome-Related Databases

    PubMed Central

    Asamizu, Erika; Ichihara, Hisako; Nakaya, Akihiro; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Ishii, Takahiro; Tamura, Takuro; Fukami-Kobayashi, Kaoru; Nakajima, Yukari; Tabata, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    The Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj, http://pgdbj.jp/?ln=en) is a portal website that aims to integrate plant genome-related information from databases (DBs) and the literature. The PGDBj is comprised of three component DBs and a cross-search engine, which provides a seamless search over the contents of the DBs. The three DBs are as follows. (i) The Ortholog DB, providing gene cluster information based on the amino acid sequence similarity. Over 500,000 amino acid sequences of 20 Viridiplantae species were subjected to reciprocal BLAST searches and clustered. Sequences from plant genome DBs (e.g. TAIR10 and RAP-DB) were also included in the cluster with a direct link to the original DB. (ii) The Plant Resource DB, integrating the SABRE DB, which provides cDNA and genome sequence resources accumulated and maintained in the RIKEN BioResource Center and National BioResource Projects. (iii) The DNA Marker DB, providing manually or automatically curated information of DNA markers, quantitative trait loci and related linkage maps, from the literature and external DBs. As the PGDBj targets various plant species, including model plants, algae, and crops important as food, fodder and biofuel, researchers in the field of basic biology as well as a wide range of agronomic fields are encouraged to perform searches using DNA sequences, gene names, traits and phenotypes of interest. The PGDBj will return the search results from the component DBs and various types of linked external DBs. PMID:24363285

  12. Plant hormone signaling lightens up: integrators of light and hormones.

    PubMed

    Lau, On Sun; Deng, Xing Wang

    2010-10-01

    Light is an important environmental signal that regulates diverse growth and developmental processes in plants. In these light-regulated processes, multiple hormonal pathways are often modulated by light to mediate the developmental changes. Conversely, hormone levels in plants also serve as endogenous cues in influencing light responsiveness. Although interactions between light and hormone signaling pathways have long been observed, recent studies have advanced our understanding by identifying signaling integrators that connect the pathways. These integrators, namely PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), PIF4, PIF3-LIKE 5 (PIL5)/PIF1 and LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), are key light signaling components and they link light signals to the signaling of phytohormones, such as gibberellin (GA), abscisic acid (ABA), auxin and cytokinin, in regulating seedling photomorphogenesis and seed germination. This review focuses on these integrators in illustrating how light and hormone interact.

  13. CMKb: a web-based prototype for integrating Australian Aboriginal customary medicinal plant knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Jitendra; Khanna, Varun; Vemulpad, Subramanyam; Jamie, Joanne; Kohen, Jim; Ranganathan, Shoba

    2008-01-01

    Background The customary medicinal plant knowledge possessed by the Australian Aboriginal people is a significant resource. Published information on it is scattered throughout the literature, in heterogeneous data formats, and is scattered among various Aboriginal communities across Australia, due to a multiplicity of languages. This ancient knowledge is at risk due to loss of biodiversity, cultural impact and the demise of many of its custodians. We have developed the Customary Medicinal Knowledgebase (CMKb), an integrated multidisciplinary resource, to document, conserve and disseminate this knowledge. Description CMKb is an online relational database for collating, disseminating, visualising and analysing initially public domain data on customary medicinal plants. The database stores information related to taxonomy, phytochemistry, biogeography, biological activities of customary medicinal plant species as well as images of individual species. The database can be accessed at . Known bioactive molecules are characterized within the chemoinformatics module of CMKb, with functions available for molecular editing and visualization. Conclusion CMKb has been developed as a prototype data resource for documenting, integrating, disseminating, analysing multidisciplinary customary medicinal plant data from Australia and to facilitate user-defined complex querying. Each species in CMKb is linked to online resources such as the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), NCBI Taxonomy, Australia's SpeciesLinks-Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) and Google images. The bioactive compounds are linked to the PubChem database. Overall, CMKb serves as a single knowledgebase for holistic plant-derived therapeutics and can be used as an information resource for biodiversity conservation, to lead discovery and conservation of customary medicinal knowledge. PMID:19091025

  14. Integration of Information Services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiwandamira, Lyn

    This paper discusses the integration of information services in the Parliament of Zimbabwe (PoZ). An organizational chart of the information systems at PoZ in 1999 is provided, and each of the four departments managing information services are described, i.e., the library, the research department, public relations, and information technology. An…

  15. Application of Information Integration Theory to Methodology of Theory Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanteau, James

    Information integration theory (IIT) seeks to develop a unified theory of judgment and behavior. This theory provides a conceptual framework that has been applied to a variety of research areas including personality impression formation and decision making. In these applications information integration theory has helped to resolve methodological…

  16. Development of an Integrated Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkin, Marvin C.

    A study was sponsored by the Office of the Chancellor of the California Community Colleges to: (1) document and analyze the information needs of various groups (e.g., the legislature, state agencies, and community colleges) with respect to the state's community colleges and to prepare a matrix of information needs and uses; (2) inventory the…

  17. Integrating information for community-based health care.

    PubMed

    Garets, D E

    1996-08-01

    Healthcare providers are increasingly faced with the need to develop comprehensive, clinically-oriented, community-focused information systems in order to remain financially viable and meet the information demands of healthcare consumers. Some providers interface and integrate their disparate information systems on their own. Others form integrated delivery systems that take advantage of economies of scale from an enterprise approach to information technology management. Still others form health information networks that allow them to pool information technology resources while pursuing independent business goals.

  18. Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, Phillip F

    2015-03-01

    Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Samples: Integrated Summary Report. Summaries of conclusions, analytical processes, and analytical results. Analysis of samples taken from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico in support of the WIPP Technical Assessment Team (TAT) activities to determine to the extent feasible the mechanisms and chemical reactions that may have resulted in the breach of at least one waste drum and release of waste material in WIPP Panel 7 Room 7 on February 14, 2014. This report integrates and summarizes the results contained in three separate reports, described below, and draws conclusions based on those results. Chemical and Radiochemical Analyses of WIPP Samples R-15 C5 SWB and R16 C-4 Lip; PNNL-24003, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, December 2014 Analysis of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Underground and MgO Samples by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); SRNL-STI-2014-00617; Savannah River National Laboratory, December 2014 Report for WIPP UG Sample #3, R15C5 (9/3/14); LLNL-TR-667015; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, January 2015 This report is also contained in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Technical Assessment Team Report; SRNL-RP-2015-01198; Savannah River National Laboratory, March 17, 2015, as Appendix C: Analysis Integrated Summary Report.

  19. Fully integrated safeguards and security for reprocessing plant monitoring.

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Ward, Rebecca; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear fuel reprocessing plants contain a wealth of plant monitoring data including material measurements, process monitoring, administrative procedures, and physical protection elements. Future facilities are moving in the direction of highly-integrated plant monitoring systems that make efficient use of the plant data to improve monitoring and reduce costs. The Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM) is an analysis tool that is used for modeling advanced monitoring systems and to determine system response under diversion scenarios. This report both describes the architecture for such a future monitoring system and present results under various diversion scenarios. Improvements made in the past year include the development of statistical tests for detecting material loss, the integration of material balance alarms to improve physical protection, and the integration of administrative procedures. The SSPM has been used to demonstrate how advanced instrumentation (as developed in the Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies campaign) can benefit the overall safeguards system as well as how all instrumentation is tied into the physical protection system. This concept has the potential to greatly improve the probability of detection for both abrupt and protracted diversion of nuclear material.

  20. Information in context: integrating information specialists into practice settings.

    PubMed

    Florance, Valerie; Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Ketchell, Debra S

    2002-01-01

    An information need (the problem) cannot be divorced from its context. The problem context determines the urgency, granularity of detail, authority, and level of certainty required for an acceptable answer and dictates the expertise and resources that can be brought to bear. The size and diversity of the sources that can be marshalled during clinical problem solving is cognitively unmanageable--too large and too complex for a single person to process effectively in a constrained timeframe. Can the clinical team, as currently constituted, collectively handle this information-processing task, or is there a need for special information expertise on the team? If there is such a need, what is the best way to prepare information specialists to participate in context-based problem solving? This article explores preparation for work in information-rich, problem-solving environments. The authors provide two case studies, one clinical and one bioscientific, that elucidate knowledge and training requirements for information specialists who work as peers in patient care and research settings.

  1. Integrating information systems in medicine: a reference model for middleware.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, P J; Bakker, A R; Groenewegen, L P

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of integrating healthcare information systems, from a technological viewpoint. We propose to take the concept of an ¿integration service' as an elementary concept in discussing the problem of integration. We then propose a taxonomy for grouping integration services according to their functionality and their domain specificity. The use of this taxonomy for decomposing an integration problem into (less complex) sub-problems is demonstrated. Finally, a sequence of steps to be taken in solving an integration problem is discussed.

  2. INTEGRATED TAXONOMIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (ITIS) - BACILLARIOPHYTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Access to consistent, scientifically credible taxomonic information is essential to many governmental activities. These activities include natural resource management for sustained use, land owner assistance, environmental regulation, and biotechnology development. As part of the...

  3. INTEGRATED TAXONOMIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (ITIS) - BACILLARIOPHYTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Access to consistent, scientifically credible taxomonic information is essential to many governmental activities. These activities include natural resource management for sustained use, land owner assistance, environmental regulation, and biotechnology development. As part of the...

  4. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information.

  5. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  6. Image analysis by integration of disparate information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoigne, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    Image analysis often starts with some preliminary segmentation which provides a representation of the scene needed for further interpretation. Segmentation can be performed in several ways, which are categorized as pixel based, edge-based, and region-based. Each of these approaches are affected differently by various factors, and the final result may be improved by integrating several or all of these methods, thus taking advantage of their complementary nature. In this paper, we propose an approach that integrates pixel-based and edge-based results by utilizing an iterative relaxation technique. This approach has been implemented on a massively parallel computer and tested on some remotely sensed imagery from the Landsat-Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor.

  7. Assessing stakeholder perspectives on invasive plants to inform risk analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conservation and land management decisions are often based primarily on natural science, but could be more successful if human influences were effectively integrated into decision-making. This is especially true for efforts to manage invasive plants, whose arrival is usually the product of delibera...

  8. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  9. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Jared M.; Cohen, Andrew L.; Shiffrin, Richard M.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects. PMID:26406323

  10. Information integration in a decision support system.

    PubMed

    Hudson, D L; Cohen, M E; Deedwania, P C

    1994-01-01

    Electronic medical records pose a challenge because of the complex types of data which are included. Decision support systems must be able to deal effectively with these data types. In the expert system demonstrated here, a diversity of data types are included. These data are processed by three different methods. However, the different methods of processing are transparent to the user. An overall rule-based interface integrates the different methods into one comprehensive system.

  11. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes. PMID:26904051

  12. Retrieving and Integrating Data from Multiple Information Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-30

    part of the report that provides the most NASA - See Handbook NHB 2200.2. meaningful and complete Information. When a NTIS - Leave blank. report is...axioms, but after the axioms.are built _ the domain model is no longer used or needed. In contrast, the domain model in SIMS is an integral part of the...intelligent information systems where, like SIMS, an explicit knowledge model is an integral part of an intelligent information agent. Some additional

  13. Integrated Information Systems. Course Six. Information Systems Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Sharon Lund; Everett, Donna R.

    This course is the sixth of seven in the Information Systems curriculum. The purpose of the course is to build on skills acquired in the earlier courses and to provide the student with skills that enable him/her to function as a resource person. Its focus is on concepts, applications, and skills as well as on equipment familiarity needed to…

  14. IMA (Information Mission Area) Integrated IC (Information Center) Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    Visual Information Division; and Wanda Bowman of the Administrative Management Branch. The consensus of the group was that in the future the IC should act...performed in the IC. Ms. Darlene Moore spoke about records management (RM) at FBH. RM includes electronic typewriters and copiers, and the acquisition

  15. Information Security Management - Part Of The Integrated Management System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manea, Constantin Adrian

    2015-07-01

    The international management standards allow their integrated approach, thereby combining aspects of particular importance to the activity of any organization, from the quality management systems or the environmental management of the information security systems or the business continuity management systems. Although there is no national or international regulation, nor a defined standard for the Integrated Management System, the need to implement an integrated system occurs within the organization, which feels the opportunity to integrate the management components into a cohesive system, in agreement with the purpose and mission publicly stated. The issues relating to information security in the organization, from the perspective of the management system, raise serious questions to any organization in the current context of electronic information, reason for which we consider not only appropriate but necessary to promote and implement an Integrated Management System Quality - Environment - Health and Operational Security - Information Security

  16. Integrating child health information systems in public health agencies.

    PubMed

    Bara, Debra; McPhillips-Tangum, Carol; Wild, Ellen L; Mann, Marie Y

    2009-01-01

    Public health agencies at state and local levels are integrating information systems to improve health outcomes for children. An assessment was conducted to describe the extent to which public health agencies are currently integrating child health information systems (CHIS). Using online technology information was collected, to assess completed and planned activities related to integration of CHIS, maturity of these systems, and factors that influence decisions by public health agencies to pursue integration activities. Of the 39 public health agencies that participated, 18 (46%) reported already integrating some or all of their CHIS, and 13 (33%) reported to be planning to integrate during the next 3 years. Information systems most commonly integrated include Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), immunization, vital records, and Newborn Dried Bloodspot Screening (NDBS). Given the high priority that has been placed on using technology to improve health status in the United States, the emphasis on expanding the capability for the electronic exchange of health information, and federal support for electronic health records by 2014, public health agencies should be encouraged and supported in their efforts to develop, implement, and maintain integrated CHIS to facilitate the electronic exchange of health information with the clinical healthcare sector.

  17. Integrated information theory of consciousness: an updated account.

    PubMed

    Tononi, G

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an updated account of integrated information theory of consciousness (liT) and some of its implications. /IT stems from thought experiments that lead to phenomenological axioms (existence, compositionality, information, integration, exclusion) and corresponding ontological postulates. The information axiom asserts that every experience is spec~fic - it is what it is by differing in its particular way from a large repertoire of alternatives. The integration axiom asserts that each experience is unified- it cannot be reduced to independent components. The exclusion axiom asserts that every experience is definite - it is limited to particular things and not others and flows at a particular speed and resolution. /IT formalizes these intuitions with postulates. The information postulate states that only "differences that make a difference" from the intrinsic perpective of a system matter: a mechanism generates cause-effect information if its present state has selective past causes and selective future effects within a system. The integration postulate states that only information that is irreducible matters: mechanisms generate integrated information only to the extent that the information they generate cannot be partitioned into that generated within independent components. The exclusion postulate states that only maxima of integrated information matter: a mechanism specifies only one maximally irreducible set of past causes and future effects - a concept. A complex is a set of elements specifying a maximally irreducible constellation of concepts, where the maximum is evaluated over elements and at the optimal spatiatemporal scale. Its concepts specify a maximally integrated conceptual information structure or quale, which is identical with an experience. Finally, changes in information integration upon exposure to the environment reflect a system's ability to match the causal structure of the world. After introducing an updated definition of

  18. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  19. Simulation of wastewater treatment plant within integrated urban wastewater models.

    PubMed

    Heusch, S; Kamradt, B; Ostrowski, M

    2010-01-01

    In the federal state of Hesse in Germany the application of an integrated software modelling framework is becoming part of the planning process to attain legal approval for the operation of combined sewer systems. The software allows for parallel simulation of flow and water quality routing in the sewer system and in receiving rivers. It combines existing pollution load model approaches with a simplified version of the River Water Quality Model No. 1 (RWQM1). Comprehensive simulation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is not considered yet. The paper analyses alternatives for the implementation of a WWTP module to model activated sludge plants. For both primary and secondary clarifiers as well as for the activated sludge process concepts for the integration into the existing software framework were developed. The activated sludge concept which uses a linearized version of the well known ASM1 model is presented in detail.

  20. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  1. A Kansas Integrated Commercialization Information Network (KICIN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, C.; And Others

    A consortium of Kansas economic development service providers is building a web of virtual satellite offices that will demonstrate the delivery of economic development services in all areas of Kansas. These "offices" will use the Internet and a novel information delivery system to reach small and medium-sized businesses and individuals…

  2. Integrated Information Systems: A Leading Edge Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, William L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Navy's Military Personnel Records System (MPRS), an updatable micrographics system that is evolving into a sophisticated and innovative optical data disk automated personnel information system for officers and enlisted personnel. Highlights include current and proposed systems, their evolution, operating characteristics, and project…

  3. Integrating Information, Education and Technology Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Linda; Sidorko, Peter

    The higher education environment is undergoing significant change as it enters a global knowledge-based economy. Technology now enables students to undertake studies that are time and place independent. To thrive in a networked learner environment, new strategic relationships must be created between library and information professionals,…

  4. Geography and Geographical Information Science: Interdisciplinary Integrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellul, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To understand how Geography and Geographical Information Science (GIS) can contribute to Interdisciplinary Research (IDR), it is relevant to articulate the differences between the different types of such research. "Multidisciplinary" researchers work in a "parallel play" mode, completing work in their disciplinary work streams…

  5. Integration of Information and Scientific Literacy: Promoting Literacy in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jason A.; Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy…

  6. Integration of Information and Scientific Literacy: Promoting Literacy in Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jason A.; Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy…

  7. A mobile agent approach for secure integrated medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Hui; Chung, Yu-Fang; Chiang, Te-Wei; Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Wang, Sheng-De

    2012-10-01

    Different patient-related information in medical organizations is the primary reference for medical personnel diagnosing, treating, and caring patients. With the rapid development of information technology, paper-based medical records have gradually been changed to electronic forms. However, different medical organizations present individual system specifications and data-saving formats so that the medical information of the same patient cannot be exchanged, shared, and securely accessed. In order not to largely change the present medical information systems as well as not to increase abundant costs, Virtual Integrated Medical-information Systems (VIMS) is proposed to assist various hospitals in information exchange. Furthermore, with Mobile Agent, the dispersed medical information can be securely integrated. It presents confidentiality, non-repudiation, source authentication, and integrity in network transmission. Virtual Integrated Medical-information Systems (VIMS) is a virtual electronic integration system combined with Mobile Agent technology. With the features of independence, adaptability, mobility, objectives, and autonomy, Mobile Agent is applied to overcome the problems from heterogeneous systems. With the features, the over-dispersed medical records can be integrated. Moreover, Mobile Agent can ensure the instantaneity and usability of medical records from which doctors can make the most appropriate evaluation and diagnoses. It will avoid the waste of medical resources, such as repetition medication, as well as become the reference of further consultation or health check. Not only can it improve the medical care quality, but it can be provided for medical research.

  8. Plant succession as an integrator of contrasting ecological time scales.

    PubMed

    Walker, Lawrence R; Wardle, David A

    2014-09-01

    Ecologists have studied plant succession for over a hundred years, yet our understanding of the nature of this process is incomplete, particularly in relation to its response to new human perturbations and the need to manipulate it during ecological restoration. We demonstrate how plant succession can be understood better when it is placed in the broadest possible temporal context. We further show how plant succession can be central to the development of a framework that integrates a spectrum of ecological processes, which occur over time scales ranging from seconds to millions of years. This novel framework helps us understand the impacts of human perturbations on successional trajectories, ecosystem recovery, and global environmental change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Flexible operation of thermal plants with integrated energy storage technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koytsoumpa, Efthymia Ioanna; Bergins, Christian; Kakaras, Emmanouil

    2017-08-01

    The energy system in the EU requires today as well as towards 2030 to 2050 significant amounts of thermal power plants in combination with the continuously increasing share of Renewables Energy Sources (RES) to assure the grid stability and to secure electricity supply as well as to provide heat. The operation of the conventional fleet should be harmonised with the fluctuating renewable energy sources and their intermittent electricity production. Flexible thermal plants should be able to reach their lowest minimum load capabilities while keeping the efficiency drop moderate as well as to increase their ramp up and down rates. A novel approach for integrating energy storage as an evolutionary measure to overcome many of the challenges, which arise from increasing RES and balancing with thermal power is presented. Energy storage technologies such as Power to Fuel, Liquid Air Energy Storage and Batteries are investigated in conjunction with flexible power plants.

  10. An integrated hospital information system in Geneva.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, J R; Baud, R H; Hochstrasser, D; Ratib, O

    1990-01-01

    Since the initial design phase from 1971 to 1973, the DIOGENE hospital information system at the University Hospital of Geneva has been treated as a whole and has retained its architectural unity, despite the need for modification and extension over the years. In addition to having a centralized patient database with the mechanisms for data protection and recovery of a transaction-oriented system, the DIOGENE system has a centralized pool of operators who provide support and training to the users; a separate network of remote printers that provides a telex service between the hospital buildings, offices, medical departments, and wards; and a three-component structure that avoids barriers between administrative and medical applications. In 1973, after a 2-year design period, the project was approved and funded. The DIOGENE system has led to more efficient sharing of costly resources, more rapid performance of administrative tasks, and more comprehensive collection of information about the institution and its patients.

  11. Integrated information theory of consciousness: an updated account.

    PubMed

    Tononi, G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an updated account of integrated information theory of consciousness (IIT) and some of its implications. IIT stems from thought experiments that lead to phenomenological axioms and ontological postulates. The information axiom asserts that every experience is one out of many, i.e. specific - it is what it is by differing in its particular way from a large repertoire of alternatives. The integration axiom asserts that each experience is one, i.e. unified - it cannot be reduced to independent components. The exclusion axiom asserts that every experience is definite - it is limited to particular things and not others and flows at a particular speed and resolution. IIT formalizes these intuitions with three postulates. The information postulate states that only "differences that make a difference" from the intrinsic perspective of a system matter: a mechanism generates cause-effect information if its present state has specific past causes and specific future effects within a system. The integration postulate states that only information that is irreducible matters: mechanisms generate integrated information only to the extent that the information they generate cannot be partitioned into that generated within independent components. The exclusion postulate states that only maxima of integrated information matter: a mechanism specifies only one maximally irreducible set of past causes and future effects - a concept. A complex is a set of elements specifying a maximally irreducible constellation of concepts, where the maximum is evaluated at the optimal spatio-temporal scale. Its concepts specify a maximally integrated conceptual information structure or quale, which is identical with an experience. Finally, changes in information integration upon exposure to the environment reflect a system's ability to match the causal structure of the world. After introducing an updated definition of information integration and related quantities, the article

  12. Invasive plant integration into native plant-pollinator networks across Europe.

    PubMed

    Vilà, Montserrat; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Dietzsch, Anke C; Petanidou, Theodora; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Stout, Jane C; Tscheulin, Thomas

    2009-11-07

    The structure of plant-pollinator networks has been claimed to be resilient to changes in species composition due to the weak degree of dependence among mutualistic partners. However, detailed empirical investigations of the consequences of introducing an alien plant species into mutualistic networks are lacking. We present the first cross-European analysis by using a standardized protocol to assess the degree to which a particular alien plant species (i.e. Carpobrotus affine acinaciformis, Impatiens glandulifera, Opuntia stricta, Rhododendron ponticum and Solanum elaeagnifolium) becomes integrated into existing native plant-pollinator networks, and how this translates to changes in network structure. Alien species were visited by almost half of the pollinator species present, accounting on average for 42 per cent of the visits and 24 per cent of the network interactions. Furthermore, in general, pollinators depended upon alien plants more than on native plants. However, despite the fact that invaded communities received more visits than uninvaded communities, the dominant role of alien species over natives did not translate into overall changes in network connectance, plant linkage level and nestedness. Our results imply that although supergeneralist alien plants can play a central role in the networks, the structure of the networks appears to be very permeable and robust to the introduction of invasive alien species into the network.

  13. An Integrated Korean Biodiversity and Genetic Information Retrieval System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeongheui; Bhak, Jong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Chang-Bae; Park, Yong-Ha; Paek, Woon Kee

    2008-01-01

    Background On-line biodiversity information databases are growing quickly and being integrated into general bioinformatics systems due to the advances of fast gene sequencing technologies and the Internet. These can reduce the cost and effort of performing biodiversity surveys and genetic searches, which allows scientists to spend more time researching and less time collecting and maintaining data. This will cause an increased rate of knowledge build-up and improve conservations. The biodiversity databases in Korea have been scattered among several institutes and local natural history museums with incompatible data types. Therefore, a comprehensive database and a nation wide web portal for biodiversity information is necessary in order to integrate diverse information resources, including molecular and genomic databases. Results The Korean Natural History Research Information System (NARIS) was built and serviced as the central biodiversity information system to collect and integrate the biodiversity data of various institutes and natural history museums in Korea. This database aims to be an integrated resource that contains additional biological information, such as genome sequences and molecular level diversity. Currently, twelve institutes and museums in Korea are integrated by the DiGIR (Distributed Generic Information Retrieval) protocol, with Darwin Core2.0 format as its metadata standard for data exchange. Data quality control and statistical analysis functions have been implemented. In particular, integrating molecular and genetic information from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases with NARIS was recently accomplished. NARIS can also be extended to accommodate other institutes abroad, and the whole system can be exported to establish local biodiversity management servers. Conclusion A Korean data portal, NARIS, has been developed to efficiently manage and utilize biodiversity data, which includes genetic resources. NARIS aims

  14. An integrated Korean biodiversity and genetic information retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeongheui; Bhak, Jong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Chang-Bae; Park, Yong-Ha; Paek, Woon Kee

    2008-12-12

    On-line biodiversity information databases are growing quickly and being integrated into general bioinformatics systems due to the advances of fast gene sequencing technologies and the Internet. These can reduce the cost and effort of performing biodiversity surveys and genetic searches, which allows scientists to spend more time researching and less time collecting and maintaining data. This will cause an increased rate of knowledge build-up and improve conservations. The biodiversity databases in Korea have been scattered among several institutes and local natural history museums with incompatible data types. Therefore, a comprehensive database and a nation wide web portal for biodiversity information is necessary in order to integrate diverse information resources, including molecular and genomic databases. The Korean Natural History Research Information System (NARIS) was built and serviced as the central biodiversity information system to collect and integrate the biodiversity data of various institutes and natural history museums in Korea. This database aims to be an integrated resource that contains additional biological information, such as genome sequences and molecular level diversity. Currently, twelve institutes and museums in Korea are integrated by the DiGIR (Distributed Generic Information Retrieval) protocol, with Darwin Core2.0 format as its metadata standard for data exchange. Data quality control and statistical analysis functions have been implemented. In particular, integrating molecular and genetic information from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases with NARIS was recently accomplished. NARIS can also be extended to accommodate other institutes abroad, and the whole system can be exported to establish local biodiversity management servers. A Korean data portal, NARIS, has been developed to efficiently manage and utilize biodiversity data, which includes genetic resources. NARIS aims to be integral in maximizing

  15. Information integration: its relevance to brain function and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Tononi, G

    2010-09-01

    A proper understanding of cognitive functions cannot be achieved without an understanding of consciousness, both at the empirical and at the theoretical level. This paper argues that consciousness has to do with a system's capacity for information integration. In this approach, every causal mechanism capable of choosing among alternatives generates information, and information is integrated to the extent that it is generated by a system above and beyond its parts. The set of integrated informational relationships generated by a complex of mechanisms--its quale--specify both the quantity and the quality of experience. As argued below, depending on the causal structure of a system, information integration can reach a maximum value at a particular spatial and temporal grain size. It is also argued that changes in information integration reflect a system's ability to match the causal structure of the world, both on the input and the output side. After a brief review suggesting that this approach is consistent with several experimental and clinical observations, the paper concludes with some prospective remarks about the relevance of understanding information integration for analyzing cognitive function, both normal and pathological.

  16. Mobile agent based online integration modeling for traffic information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingquan; Gao, Dequan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Lianying

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of urban economy and urbanization construction in China, traffic load rises sharply because of the larger vehicle occupancy within many urban areas, which has already led to serious traffic congestion problem. GIS-T is an efficient technological solution and core information infrastructure for solving modern urban transportation problems. High-level traffic systems must integrate real-time traffic information and spatial data of road to supply timely and efficient public services and guarantee a better orderly transportation. However, for traffic information is multisource, complex and massive, traffic information service must have fast, powerful capabilities for online integration processing. Online integration of traffic information emphasizes the traffic resources share and services optimization, and solve assignment, scheduling, monitoring and feedback of integration computing tasks in dynamic and distributed network. This paper firstly analyzes traffic data and existing problems of online integration, and then discusses mobile agent technology, and finally proposes a mobile agent based unified online integration model of traffic information. This model will achieve cooperative computing and more accessible, flexible and reliable traffic information services.

  17. Model choice considerations and information integration using analytical hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Langenbrunner, James R; Hemez, Francois M; Booker, Jane M; Ross, Timothy J.

    2010-10-15

    Using the theory of information-gap for decision-making under severe uncertainty, it has been shown that model output compared to experimental data contains irrevocable trade-offs between fidelity-to-data, robustness-to-uncertainty and confidence-in-prediction. We illustrate a strategy for information integration by gathering and aggregating all available data, knowledge, theory, experience, similar applications. Such integration of information becomes important when the physics is difficult to model, when observational data are sparse or difficult to measure, or both. To aggregate the available information, we take an inference perspective. Models are not rejected, nor wasted, but can be integrated into a final result. We show an example of information integration using Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), integrating theory, simulation output and experimental data. We used expert elicitation to determine weights for two models and two experimental data sets, by forming pair-wise comparisons between model output and experimental data. In this way we transform epistemic and/or statistical strength from one field of study into another branch of physical application. The price to pay for utilizing all available knowledge is that inferences drawn for the integrated information must be accounted for and the costs can be considerable. Focusing on inferences and inference uncertainty (IU) is one way to understand complex information.

  18. Marker-free site-specific gene integration in plants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vibha; Ow, David W

    2004-12-01

    For nearly 15 years, the use of site-specific recombination systems in plants has focused on the deletion or integration of DNA. Each of these applications offers practical solutions to two problems in biotechnology: the presence of unneeded DNA in the transgene locus and variation in the locus structure among independent transgenic lines. Given that each of these separate applications is becoming more practical for commercial use, it is time to consider combining them into an integrated technology. Here we propose a strategy for a "combined step" method that makes use of two site-specific recombination systems: one for integrating the DNA and a second for removing sequences that are not needed after DNA transfer. This strategy is based on published data and exemplifies the use of the Cre-lox, FLP-FRT and R-RS inducible systems.

  19. Using integrated information systems in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzálvez-Gallego, Nicolás; Molina-Castillo, Francisco-Jose; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Varajao, Joao; Trigo, Antonio

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically test not only the direct effects of information and communication technology (ICT) capabilities and integrated information systems (IS) on firm performance, but also the moderating role of IS integration along the supply chain in the relationship between ICT external and capabilities and business performance. Data collected from 102 large Iberian firms from Spain and Portugal are used to test the research model. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis is employed to test the direct effects and the moderating relationships proposed. Results show that external and internal ICT capabilities are important drivers of firm performance, while merely having integrated IS do not lead to better firm performance. In addition, a moderating effect of IS integration in the relationship between ICT capabilities and business performance is found, although this integration only contributes to firm performance when it is directed to connect with suppliers or customers rather than when integrating the whole supply chain.

  20. Integrated simulation of the Escatron PFBC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, L.M.; Cortes, C.; Martinez, D.

    1997-12-31

    The study of the phenomena in fluidized beds has a great importance for the knowledge and development of FBC technologies. But nowadays, and from an operational point of view, the interest lies not only in fluidized bed behavior, but also in the influence of fluidized bed variables in the rest of the power plant. Although there is a great variety of designs and studies on FBC power stations (AFBC, CFBC and PFBC, with different types of cycles and first and second generation fluidized beds), there is a lack of detailed studies considering the interactions between the bed variables and the performance of the cycles (steam and gas). In order to improve the knowledge from this particular standpoint, an integrated model of the Escatron PFBC 80 MWe power plant (Spain) has been developed. The model has been validated with actual plant data, being able to predict the behavior of the plant as a whole. To do this, it estimates the most important variables of the fluidized bed (i.e., bed temperature profiles, bed density, fuel feed rate, heat transfer, entrainment, gas and steam flow rates), as well as the operating parameters of the power cycles (i.e., steam and gas turbine loads, temperatures and pressures). A practical application of this model is the evaluation of operational and design changes affecting the response of the fluidized bed, the steam and gas cycles, and, in turn, the power plant efficiency and availability.

  1. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge.

  2. Information Integration Theory Applied to Attitudes About U. S. Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Norman H.

    1973-01-01

    Information integration theory is a unified general theory that covers several areas of psychology from psychophysics to clinical judgment. It rests on a mathematical basis that has had considerable success in some precise and demanding tests. (Author)

  3. Information Flow Integrity for Systems of Independently-Developed Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-22

    Finally, information flow integrity protections in general can be enforced by retrofitting the program to satisfy integrity constraints, as we have...integrity enforcing FreeBSD kernel. In addition, Samsung has deployed a version of a mechanism that restricts kernels to approved code that obeys our...successful defense must have both knowledge about 2 the system namespace and the program intent to eradicate such attacks. As a result, finding and fixing

  4. Concept of Integrated Information Systems of Rail Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław; Gago, Stanisław

    This paper will present a need to create integrated information systems of the rail transport and their links with other means of public transportation. IT standards will be discussed that are expected to create the integrated information systems of the rail transport. Also the main tasks will be presented of centralized information systems, the concept of their architecture, business processes and their implementation as well as the proposed measures to secure data. A method shall be proposed to implement a system to inform participants of rail transport in Polish conditions.

  5. A GIServices-based transportation information resources integration platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinxing; Ma, Qi; Wang, Yiru; Zhou, Jingyue

    2010-11-01

    With fast development of urban informationalization, digital city and digital traffic, cross-sectoral and inter-departmental cooperation become increasingly needed. It is of difficulty for GIS system construction to break the information fragmentation, realize the heterogeneous and multi-source geospatial related information integration, sharing and interoperability. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an effective solution to provide data access and application service by Web Services. The combination of GIS and SOA can help GIS business agility, change traditional GIS design, development and application patterns, which promote the conversion of visible GISystems to invisible GIServices. Based on the construction of dynamic transportation data exchange GIService and dynamic path planning GIService, and its integrated application of WebGIS transportation information service system, this paper presents the overall structure of the transportation information resources integration platform, which realizes transportation information resources integration, traffic block information submitting, information exchanging, traffic information query, dynamic traffic information publishing, and dynamic best path query, etc.. The application result proves that it is a better solution for transportation information resources sharing, and it also changes the traditional GIS design, development and application patterns.

  6. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  7. Information Systems Integration and Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) Adoption: A Case from Financial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Wing

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, organizations find that they need to integrate large number of information systems in order to support enterprise-wide business initiatives such as e-business, supply chain management and customer relationship management. To date, organizations have largely tended to address information systems (IS) integration in an ad-hoc manner.…

  8. Scrapping Patched Computer Systems: Integrated Data Processing for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Colleges and universities must find a way to streamline and integrate information management processes across the organization. The Georgia Institute of Technology responded to an acute problem of dissimilar operating systems with a campus-wide integrated administrative system using a machine independent relational database management system. (MSE)

  9. Integrating an Information Literacy Quiz into the Learning Management System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, M. Sara; Booth, Char; Tagge, Natalie; Stone, Sean

    2014-01-01

    The Claremont Colleges Library Instruction Services Department developed a quiz that could be integrated into the consortial learning management software to accompany a local online, open-source information literacy tutorial. The quiz is integrated into individual course pages, allowing students to receive a grade for completion and improving…

  10. Scrapping Patched Computer Systems: Integrated Data Processing for Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinson, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Colleges and universities must find a way to streamline and integrate information management processes across the organization. The Georgia Institute of Technology responded to an acute problem of dissimilar operating systems with a campus-wide integrated administrative system using a machine independent relational database management system. (MSE)

  11. Integrating SAP to Information Systems Curriculum: Design and Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Information Systems (IS) education is being transformed from the segmented applications toward the integrated enterprise-wide system software Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). ERP is a platform that integrates all business functions with its centralized data repository shared by all the business operations in the enterprise. This tremendous…

  12. Integration of Information Retrieval and Database Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deogun, Jitender S.; Raghavan, Vijay V.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the motivation for integrating information retrieval and database management systems, and proposes a probabilistic retrieval model in which records in a file may be composed of attributes (formatted data items) and descriptors (content indicators). The details and resolutions of difficulties involved in integrating such systems are…

  13. Standards to support information systems integration in anatomic pathology.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Christel; García Rojo, Marcial; Bourquard, Karima; Henin, Dominique; Schrader, Thomas; Della Mea, Vincenzo; Gilbertson, John; Beckwith, Bruce A

    2009-11-01

    Integrating anatomic pathology information- text and images-into electronic health care records is a key challenge for enhancing clinical information exchange between anatomic pathologists and clinicians. The aim of the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) international initiative is precisely to ensure interoperability of clinical information systems by using existing widespread industry standards such as Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) and Health Level Seven (HL7). To define standard-based informatics transactions to integrate anatomic pathology information to the Healthcare Enterprise. We used the methodology of the IHE initiative. Working groups from IHE, HL7, and DICOM, with special interest in anatomic pathology, defined consensual technical solutions to provide end-users with improved access to consistent information across multiple information systems. The IHE anatomic pathology technical framework describes a first integration profile, "Anatomic Pathology Workflow," dedicated to the diagnostic process including basic image acquisition and reporting solutions. This integration profile relies on 10 transactions based on HL7 or DICOM standards. A common specimen model was defined to consistently identify and describe specimens in both HL7 and DICOM transactions. The IHE anatomic pathology working group has defined standard-based informatics transactions to support the basic diagnostic workflow in anatomic pathology laboratories. In further stages, the technical framework will be completed to manage whole-slide images and semantically rich structured reports in the diagnostic workflow and to integrate systems used for patient care and those used for research activities (such as tissue bank databases or tissue microarrayers).

  14. Educators benefit from energy information centers at nuclear plant sites

    SciTech Connect

    Krcma-Olson, L.

    1994-12-31

    While issues like dry storage, low-level waste storage, radiation, and license extension are projects with a technical perspective that need to be planned and executed at nuclear power plants, more difficult is the political perspective-gaining public acceptance to allow these projects to proceed. And public perception is predicated on the way plant neighbors and community members understand, accept, and trust the plants. Community educators are a key audience. Annually, U.S. information centers host about one million visitors; roughly half of them are school children who will soon join the ranks of voters, taxpayers, utility customers, and employees. Programs for educators and their classes vary from tours of centers that include computer games and video programs on energy-related topics to audio-visual presentations by center personnel. Some facilities have environmental activities such as hatcheries or nature trails, while others offer plant tours to specific age groups.

  15. Articulation Management for Intelligent Integration of Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluf, David A.; Tran, Peter B.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    When combining data from distinct sources, there is a need to share meta-data and other knowledge about various source domains. Due to semantic inconsistencies and heterogeneity of representations, problems arise in combining multiple domains when the domains are merged. The knowledge that is irrelevant to the task of interoperation will be included, making the result unnecessarily complex. This heterogeneity problem can be eliminated by mediating the conflicts and managing the intersections of the domains. For interoperation and intelligent access to heterogeneous information, the focus is on the intersection of the knowledge, since intersection will define the required articulation rules. An algebra over domain has been proposed to use articulation rules to support disciplined manipulation of domain knowledge resources. The objective of a domain algebra is to provide the capability for interrogating many domain knowledge resources, which are largely semantically disjoint. The algebra supports formally the tasks of selecting, combining, extending, specializing, and modifying Components from a diverse set of domains. This paper presents a domain algebra and demonstrates the use of articulation rules to link declarative interfaces for Internet and enterprise applications. In particular, it discusses the articulation implementation as part of a production system capable of operating over the domain described by the IDL (interface description language) of objects registered in multiple CORBA servers.

  16. Optimal scheduling of heat-integrated multipurpose plants

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgiou, L.G.; Shah, N.; Pantelides, C.C. . Centre for Process Systems Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    A systematic mathematical framework for scheduling the operation of multipurpose batch/semicontinuous plants involving heat-integrated unit operations is presented. The approach advocated takes direct account of the trade-offs between maximal exploitation of heat integration and other scheduling objectives and constraints. Both direct and indirect heat integration are considered. In the former case, heat transfer takes place directly between the fluids undergoing processing in the heat-integrated unit operations, and therefore a degree of time overlap of these operations must be ensured. It is shown that this involves only relatively minor modifications to existing detailed scheduling formulations. Indirect heat integration utilizes a heat transfer medium (HTM) which acts as a mechanism both for transferring heat from one operation to another and for storing energy over time. This provides a degree of decoupling with respect to the timing of the operations involved. The mathematical formulation presented in this paper is based on a detailed characterization of the variation of the mass and energy holdups of HTM over time. In particular, it takes account of the limitations on energy storage due to heat loss to the environment. A modified branch-and-bound procedure is proposed for the solution of the resulting nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear programming problem.

  17. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R.

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Scope and Methods Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East–West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light–response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Conclusions. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the ‘photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis’ as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. PMID:26420201

  18. Phototropic solar tracking in sunflower plants: an integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Kutschera, Ulrich; Briggs, Winslow R

    2016-01-01

    One of the best-known plant movements, phototropic solar tracking in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), has not yet been fully characterized. Two questions are still a matter of debate. (1) Is the adaptive significance solely an optimization of photosynthesis via the exposure of the leaves to the sun? (2) Is shade avoidance involved in this process? In this study, these concepts are discussed from a historical perspective and novel insights are provided. Results from the primary literature on heliotropic growth movements led to the conclusion that these responses cease before anthesis, so that the flowering heads point to the East. Based on observations on 10-week-old plants, the diurnal East-West oscillations of the upper fifth of the growing stem and leaves in relation to the position of the sun (inclusive of nocturnal re-orientation) were documented, and photon fluence rates on the leaf surfaces on clear, cloudy and rainy days were determined. In addition, the light-response curve of net CO2 assimilation was determined on the upper leaves of the same batch of plants, and evidence for the occurrence of shade-avoidance responses in growing sunflower plants is summarized. Only elongating, vegetative sunflower shoots and the upper leaves perform phototropic solar tracking. Photon fluence response and CO2 assimilation measurements cast doubt on the 'photosynthesis-optimization hypothesis' as the sole explanation for the evolution of these plant movements. We suggest that the shade-avoidance response, which maximizes light-driven CO2 assimilation, plays a major role in solar tracking populations of competing sunflower plants, and an integrative scheme of these growth movements is provided. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Cross-modal information integration in category learning.

    PubMed

    Smith, J David; Johnston, Jennifer J R; Musgrave, Robert D; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C; Boomer, Joseph; Church, Barbara A; Ashby, F Gregory

    2014-07-01

    An influential theoretical perspective describes an implicit category-learning system that associates regions of perceptual space with response outputs by integrating information preattentionally and predecisionally across multiple stimulus dimensions. In this study, we tested whether this kind of implicit, information-integration category learning is possible across stimulus dimensions lying in different sensory modalities. Humans learned categories composed of conjoint visual-auditory category exemplars comprising a visual component (rectangles varying in the density of contained lit pixels) and an auditory component (in Exp. 1, auditory sequences varying in duration; in Exp. 2, pure tones varying in pitch). The categories had either a one-dimensional, rule-based solution or a two-dimensional, information-integration solution. Humans could solve the information-integration category tasks by integrating information across two stimulus modalities. The results demonstrated an important cross-modal form of sensory integration in the service of category learning, and they advance the field's knowledge about the sensory organization of systems for categorization.

  20. Broad knowledge of information technologies: a prerequisite for the effective management of the integrated information system

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, H.B.

    1980-09-01

    There is a trend towards the bringing together of various information technologies into integrated information systems. The managers of these total systems therefore must be familiar with each of the component technologies and how they may be combined into a total information system. To accomplish this, the effective manager should first define the overall system as an integrated flow of information with each step identified; then, the alternate technologies applicable to each step may be selected. Methods of becoming technologically aware are suggested and examples of integrated systems are discussed.

  1. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D.; Staines, Daniel M.; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species. PMID:26476449

  2. Method and system of integrating information from multiple sources

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Francine A.; Brinkerhoff, David L.

    2006-08-15

    A system and method of integrating information from multiple sources in a document centric application system. A plurality of application systems are connected through an object request broker to a central repository. The information may then be posted on a webpage. An example of an implementation of the method and system is an online procurement system.

  3. An Integrated Model of Information Literacy, Based upon Domain Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gary B.; Lathey, Johnathan W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Grounded in Alexander's model of domain learning, this study presents an integrated micro-model of information literacy. It is predicated upon the central importance of domain learning for the development of the requisite research skills by students. Method. The authors reviewed previous models of information literacy and…

  4. A Model of Information Integration for Jury Deliberation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Martin F.

    Several factors are included in judgment formation by a juror during a trial, including evaluating each piece of information received with respect to the judgment in question, weighting each piece of information according to its validity for the particular judgment and its reliability, and integrating the weighted scale values into a single…

  5. Integrated metabolomics for abiotic stress responses in plants.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-04-01

    Plants are considered to biosynthesize specialized (traditionally called secondary) metabolites to adapt to environmental stresses such as biotic and abiotic stresses. The majority of specialized metabolites induced by abiotic stress characteristically exhibit antioxidative activity in vitro, but their function in vivo is largely yet to be experimentally confirmed. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the identification of the role of abiotic stress-responsive specialized metabolites with an emphasis on flavonoids. Integrated 'omics' analysis, centered on metabolomics with a series of plant resources differing in their flavonoid accumulation, showed experimentally that flavonoids play a major role in antioxidation in vivo. In addition, the results also suggest the role of flavonoids in the vacuole. To obtain more in-depth insights, chemical and biological challenges need to be addressed for the identification of unknown specialized metabolites and their in vivo functions.

  6. [Information systems in health and health indicators: an integrating perspective].

    PubMed

    Canela-Soler, Jaume; Elvira-Martínez, David; Labordena-Barceló, María Jesús; Loyola-Elizondo, Enrique

    2010-02-01

    Health Information Systems (HIS) are the core support to decision-making in health organizations. Within HIS, health indicators (HI) reflect, numerically, events measured in the health-illness continuum. The integrated health information system is intended to standardize, integrate and organize all the information available in health information systems through an accessible and secure repository, and to conveniently distribute information for decision-making. To standardize information it is necessary to define standards and semantic information to enable us to identify concepts and relate them uniquely to each other. The definition of a catalog of entities (DEA) with concepts, attributes and domains will enable the configuration of the information system, so there will be a catalog of entities (concepts of information and domains). Based on operational systems, analytical systems enabling management and strategy in the management of organizations will be built. The maximum level of analysis is the Balanced Score Card (BSC), which is established as the strategic tool for managers. It is necessary for the organization an integrated information system to plan, manage, evaluate and therefore provide managers with a decision tool for strategic and tactical decision-making in short and medium term. 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybridization of Architectural Styles for Integrated Enterprise Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagusyte, Lina; Lupeikiene, Audrone

    Current enterprise systems engineering theory does not provide adequate support for the development of information systems on demand. To say more precisely, it is forming. This chapter proposes the main architectural decisions that underlie the design of integrated enterprise information systems. This chapter argues for the extending service-oriented architecture - for merging it with component-based paradigm at the design stage and using connectors of different architectural styles. The suitability of general-purpose language SysML for the modeling of integrated enterprise information systems architectures is described and arguments pros are presented.

  8. Practical measures of integrated information for time-series data.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K

    2011-01-20

    A recent measure of 'integrated information', Φ(DM), quantifies the extent to which a system generates more information than the sum of its parts as it transitions between states, possibly reflecting levels of consciousness generated by neural systems. However, Φ(DM) is defined only for discrete Markov systems, which are unusual in biology; as a result, Φ(DM) can rarely be measured in practice. Here, we describe two new measures, Φ(E) and Φ(AR), that overcome these limitations and are easy to apply to time-series data. We use simulations to demonstrate the in-practice applicability of our measures, and to explore their properties. Our results provide new opportunities for examining information integration in real and model systems and carry implications for relations between integrated information, consciousness, and other neurocognitive processes. However, our findings pose challenges for theories that ascribe physical meaning to the measured quantities.

  9. Development of an integrated medical supply information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Eric; Wermus, Marek; Blythe Bauman, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    The integrated medical supply inventory control system introduced in this study is a hybrid system that is shaped by the nature of medical supply, usage and storage capacity limitations of health care facilities. The system links demand, service provided at the clinic, health care service provider's information, inventory storage data and decision support tools into an integrated information system. ABC analysis method, economic order quantity model, two-bin method and safety stock concept are applied as decision support models to tackle inventory management issues at health care facilities. In the decision support module, each medical item and storage location has been scrutinised to determine the best-fit inventory control policy. The pilot case study demonstrates that the integrated medical supply information system holds several advantages for inventory managers, since it entails benefits of deploying enterprise information systems to manage medical supply and better patient services.

  10. PTGBase: an integrated database to study tandem duplicated genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jingyin; Ke, Tao; Tehrim, Sadia; Sun, Fengming; Liao, Boshou; Hua, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Tandem duplication is a wide-spread phenomenon in plant genomes and plays significant roles in evolution and adaptation to changing environments. Tandem duplicated genes related to certain functions will lead to the expansion of gene families and bring increase of gene dosage in the form of gene cluster arrays. Many tandem duplication events have been studied in plant genomes; yet, there is a surprising shortage of efforts to systematically present the integration of large amounts of information about publicly deposited tandem duplicated gene data across the plant kingdom. To address this shortcoming, we developed the first plant tandem duplicated genes database, PTGBase. It delivers the most comprehensive resource available to date, spanning 39 plant genomes, including model species and newly sequenced species alike. Across these genomes, 54 130 tandem duplicated gene clusters (129 652 genes) are presented in the database. Each tandem array, as well as its member genes, is characterized in complete detail. Tandem duplicated genes in PTGBase can be explored through browsing or searching by identifiers or keywords of functional annotation and sequence similarity. Users can download tandem duplicated gene arrays easily to any scale, up to the complete annotation data set for an entire plant genome. PTGBase will be updated regularly with newly sequenced plant species as they become available. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Information integrity and privacy for computerized medical patient records

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, J.; Hamilton, V.; Gaylor, T.; McCurley, K.; Meeks, T.

    1996-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Oceania, Inc. entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) in November 1993 to provide ``Information Integrity and Privacy for Computerized Medical Patient Records`` (CRADA No. SC93/01183). The main objective of the project was to develop information protection methods that are appropriate for databases of patient records in health information systems. This document describes the findings and alternative solutions that resulted from this CRADA.

  12. An Integrated Nursing Management Information System: From Concept to Reality

    PubMed Central

    Pinkley, Connie L.; Sommer, Patricia K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper addresses the transition from the conceptualization of a Nursing Management Information System (NMIS) integrated and interdependent with the Hospital Information System (HIS) to its realization. Concepts of input, throughout, and output are presented to illustrate developmental strategies used to achieve nursing information products. Essential processing capabilities include: 1) ability to interact with multiple data sources; 2) database management, statistical, and graphics software packages; 3) online, batch and reporting; and 4) interactive data analysis. Challenges encountered in system construction are examined.

  13. A strategy for curriculum integration of information skills instruction.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, S; Ginn, D S; Love, N; Williams, T L

    1989-01-01

    The ever increasing need of health professionals for information and the inclusion of active learning experiences in the medical school curriculum require that students learn the effective use of health information tools. Curriculum integration is gaining acceptance as an effective approach to teaching information skills in this setting. At the University of Miami School of Medicine, information skills components taught by library faculty are integrated into the Freshman Orientation Program and two sophomore curriculum courses. Beginning with a core set of skills and basic information management tools, more complex and subject-specific skills are introduced sequentially throughout the basic sciences curriculum. During the first two years, a wide range of information skills are taught, and students receive many opportunities to seek and identify information using both printed sources and computerized bibliographic databases. This paper describes how curriculum integration of information skills instruction was achieved and the many benefits of this approach. Included are a description of the information skills components, evaluation data, and future plans. PMID:2667671

  14. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    SciTech Connect

    B. Levine

    2006-01-27

    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  15. Performance analysis of an OTEC plant and a desalination plant using an integrated hybrid cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Uehara, Haruo; Miyara, Akio; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Nakaoka, Tsutomu

    1996-05-01

    A performance analysis of an OTEC plant using an integrated hybrid cycle (I-H OTEC Cycle) has been conducted. The I-H OTEC cycle is a combination of a closed-cycle OTEC plant and a spray flash desalination plant. In an I-H OTEC cycle, warm sea water evaporates the liquid ammonia in the OTEC evaporator, then enters the flash chamber and evaporates itself. The evaporated steam enters the desalination condenser and is condensed by the cold sea water passed through the OTEC condenser. The optimization of the I-H OTEC cycle is analyzed by the method of steepest descent. The total heat transfer area of heat exchangers per net power is used as an objective function. Numerical results are reported for a 10 MW I-H OTEC cycle with plate-type heat exchangers and ammonia as working fluid. The results are compared with those of a joint hybrid OTEC cycle (J-H OTEC Cycle).

  16. Plant-integrated measurement of greenhouse gas emissions from a municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroko; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2014-09-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) contribute to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its spatial and temporal variation in emissions, whole plant characterization of GHG emissions from WWTPs face a number of obstacles. In this study, a tracer dispersion method was applied to quantify plant-integrated, real-time emissions of methane and nitrous oxides. Two mobile cavity ring-down spectroscopy sampling devices were used to record downwind gas concentrations emitted from a municipal WWTP situated in Copenhagen, Denmark. This plant is equipped to remove biological nitrogen and employs anaerobic digestion for sludge stabilization. Over the course of nine measurement campaigns, a wide range of emissions were detected: methane from 4.99 kg h(-1) up to 92.3 kg h(-1) and nitrous oxide from below the detection limit (0.37 kg h(-1)) up to 10.5 kg h(-1). High emissions were observed during periods experiencing operational problems, such as during foaming events in anaerobic digesters and during sub-optimal operation of biological nitrogen removal in the secondary treatment of wastewater. Methane emissions detected during measurement campaigns corresponded to 2.07-32.7% of the methane generated in the plant. As high as 4.27% of nitrogen entering the WWTP was emitted as nitrous oxide under the sub-optimal operation of biological treatment processes. The study shows that the unit process configuration, as well as the operation of the WWTP, determines the rate of GHG emission. The applied plant-integrated emission measurement method could be used to ease the burden of quantifying GHG emissions from WWTPs for reporting purposes and could contribute to the development of more accurate depictions of environmental performance of WWTPs.

  17. An Integrative Model of "Information Visibility" and "Information Seeking" on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansourian, Yazdan; Ford, Nigel; Webber, Sheila; Madden, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to encapsulate the main procedure and key findings of a qualitative research on end-users' interactions with web-based search tools in order to demonstrate how the concept of "information visibility" emerged and how an integrative model of information visibility and information seeking on the web was constructed.…

  18. An Integrative Model of "Information Visibility" and "Information Seeking" on the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansourian, Yazdan; Ford, Nigel; Webber, Sheila; Madden, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to encapsulate the main procedure and key findings of a qualitative research on end-users' interactions with web-based search tools in order to demonstrate how the concept of "information visibility" emerged and how an integrative model of information visibility and information seeking on the web was constructed.…

  19. Integrating a priori information in edge-linking algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, Aly A.; Cao, Yu; Yeap, Yuen-Pin

    1992-09-01

    This research presents an approach to integrate a priori information to the path metric of the LINK algorithm. The zero-crossing contours of the $DEL2G are taken as a gross estimate of the boundaries in the image. This estimate of the boundaries is used to define the swath of important information, and to provide a distance measure for edge localization. During the linking process, a priori information plays important roles in (1) dramatically reducing the search space because the actual path lies within +/- 2 (sigma) f from the prototype contours ((sigma) f is the standard deviation of the Gaussian kernel used in the edge enhancement step); (2) breaking the ties when the search metrics give uncertain information; and (3) selecting the set of goal nodes for the search algorithm. We show that the integration of a priori information in the LINK algorithms provides faster and more accurate edge linking.

  20. Integrated control algorithms for plant environment in greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kanyu; Deng, Lujuan; Gong, Youmin; Wang, Shengxue

    2003-09-01

    In this paper a survey of plant environment control in artificial greenhouse was put forward for discussing the future development. Firstly, plant environment control started with the closed loop control of air temperature in greenhouse. With the emergence of higher property computer, the adaptive control algorithm and system identification were integrated into the control system. As adaptation control is more depending on observation of variables by sensors and yet many variables are unobservable or difficult to observe, especially for observation of crop growth status, so model-based control algorithm were developed. In order to evade modeling difficulty, one method is predigesting the models and the other method is utilizing fuzzy logic and neural network technology that realize the models by the black box and gray box theory. Studies on control method of plant environment in greenhouse by means of expert system (ES) and artificial intelligence (AI) have been initiated and developed. Nowadays, the research of greenhouse environment control focus on energy saving, optimal economic profit, enviornment protection and continualy develop.

  1. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2010-05-01

    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  2. Practical Measures of Integrated Information for Time-Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Adam B.; Seth, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    A recent measure of ‘integrated information’, ΦDM, quantifies the extent to which a system generates more information than the sum of its parts as it transitions between states, possibly reflecting levels of consciousness generated by neural systems. However, ΦDM is defined only for discrete Markov systems, which are unusual in biology; as a result, ΦDM can rarely be measured in practice. Here, we describe two new measures, ΦE and ΦAR, that overcome these limitations and are easy to apply to time-series data. We use simulations to demonstrate the in-practice applicability of our measures, and to explore their properties. Our results provide new opportunities for examining information integration in real and model systems and carry implications for relations between integrated information, consciousness, and other neurocognitive processes. However, our findings pose challenges for theories that ascribe physical meaning to the measured quantities. PMID:21283779

  3. Integrated computational and conceptual solutions for complex environmental information management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rückemann, Claus-Peter

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the recent results of the integration of computational and conceptual solutions for the complex case of environmental information management. The solution for the major goal of creating and developing long-term multi-disciplinary knowledge resources and conceptual and computational support was achieved by implementing and integrating key components. The key components are long-term knowledge resources providing required structures for universal knowledge creation, documentation, and preservation, universal multi-disciplinary and multi-lingual conceptual knowledge and classification, especially, references to Universal Decimal Classification (UDC), sustainable workflows for environmental information management, and computational support for dynamical use, processing, and advanced scientific computing with Integrated Information and Computing System (IICS) components and High End Computing (HEC) resources.

  4. Information Foraging in Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Boring

    2011-09-01

    nformation foraging theory articulates the role of the human as an 'informavore' that seeks information and follows optimal foraging strategies (i.e., the 'information scent') to find meaningful information. This paper briefly reviews the findings from information foraging theory outside the nuclear domain and then discusses the types of information foraging strategies operators employ for normal and off-normal operations in the control room. For example, operators may employ a predatory 'wolf' strategy of hunting for information in the face of a plant upset. However, during routine operations, the operators may employ a trapping 'spider' strategy of waiting for relevant indicators to appear. This delineation corresponds to information pull and push strategies, respectively. No studies have been conducted to determine explicitly the characteristics of a control room interface that is optimized for both push and pull information foraging strategies, nor has there been empirical work to validate operator performance when transitioning between push and pull strategies. This paper explores examples of control room operators as wolves vs. spiders and con- cludes by proposing a set of research questions to investigate information foraging in control room settings.

  5. Integrating hospital information systems in healthcare institutions: a mediation architecture.

    PubMed

    El Azami, Ikram; Cherkaoui Malki, Mohammed Ouçamah; Tahon, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have examined the integration of information systems into healthcare institutions, leading to several standards in the healthcare domain (CORBAmed: Common Object Request Broker Architecture in Medicine; HL7: Health Level Seven International; DICOM: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; and IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). Due to the existence of a wide diversity of heterogeneous systems, three essential factors are necessary to fully integrate a system: data, functions and workflow. However, most of the previous studies have dealt with only one or two of these factors and this makes the system integration unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a flexible, scalable architecture for Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Our main purpose is to provide a practical solution to insure HIS interoperability so that healthcare institutions can communicate without being obliged to change their local information systems and without altering the tasks of the healthcare professionals. Our architecture is a mediation architecture with 3 levels: 1) a database level, 2) a middleware level and 3) a user interface level. The mediation is based on two central components: the Mediator and the Adapter. Using the XML format allows us to establish a structured, secured exchange of healthcare data. The notion of medical ontology is introduced to solve semantic conflicts and to unify the language used for the exchange. Our mediation architecture provides an effective, promising model that promotes the integration of hospital information systems that are autonomous, heterogeneous, semantically interoperable and platform-independent.

  6. Integration of Surgery Management and Clinical Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Paul D.; Delaplaine, Kathy H.; Jensen, Ronald D.; Bird, Bruce; Evans, R. Scott; Cannon, Clawson Y.

    1987-01-01

    We describe a computer-based management system used in the Surgery deaprtment at LSD Hospital. In addition to the traditional management functions which are found in systems developed by others, our system was designed to collect and display clinical information about the surgical patient as part of a larger comprehensive clinical information system. The information derived from the surgery sub-system is integrated with information from other sources in the hospital for use in automated medical decision - making as well as departmental management.

  7. Malleable temporal integration of positional information for moving objects.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul A; Arnold, Derek H

    2015-06-01

    One of the primary functions of visual processing is to generate a spatial mapping of our immediate vicinity, in order to facilitate interaction. As yet it is unclear how this is achieved, but the process likely involves an accrual of information over time--a temporal integration of positional information (Eagleman & Sejnowski, 2000; Krekelberg et al., 2000). Temporal integration is a common computational process evident in diverse settings, such as electrical engineering (Bryson & Ho, 1975) and neural coding (Rao, Eagleman & Sejnowski, 2001; Usher & McClelland, 2001). In the later context it is sometimes assumed that integration dynamics are immobile, and consequently that they can be diagnostic of a sensory system (Arnold & Lipp, 2011; Krauskopf & Mollon, 1971; Snowden & Braddick, 1991). Other data suggest that integration times can be flexible, varying in concert with the properties of a stimulus (Bair & Movshon, 2004) or environment (Ossmy et al., 2013). Our data provide behavioral support for malleable integration times. We examine a motion-induced illusion of perceived position linked to temporal integration, and use prolonged exposure to motion of different speeds (sensory adaptation) to modulate the dynamics of neural activity. Results show that perceived position is governed by a weighted average of positional estimates from multiple channels with distinct, fixed integration times. Postadaptation channel contributions are reweighted, resulting in coding that is optimized to the dynamics of the prevailing environment. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Space Station Information System requirements for integrated communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marker, W.; Whitelaw, V.; Muratore, J.; Bigham, J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Space Station Information System (SSIS) requirements for integrated end-to-end communications are presented. The SSIS is defined as the integrated set of space and ground data and information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open System Interconnection (OSI). These SSIS requirements include grades of service, priority classifications, systems management, flow control, bandwidth allocation, and standard SSIS data services.

  9. Space Station Information System requirements for integrated communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marker, W.; Whitelaw, V.; Muratore, J.; Bigham, J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Space Station Information System (SSIS) requirements for integrated end-to-end communications are presented. The SSIS is defined as the integrated set of space and ground data and information systems and networks which will provide required data services to the Space Station flight crew, ground operations personnel, and customer communities. This model is based on the International Standards Organization (ISO) layered model for Open System Interconnection (OSI). These SSIS requirements include grades of service, priority classifications, systems management, flow control, bandwidth allocation, and standard SSIS data services.

  10. Bayesian Integration of Information in Hippocampal Place Cells

    PubMed Central

    Madl, Tamas; Franklin, Stan; Chen, Ke; Montaldi, Daniela; Trappl, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Accurate spatial localization requires a mechanism that corrects for errors, which might arise from inaccurate sensory information or neuronal noise. In this paper, we propose that Hippocampal place cells might implement such an error correction mechanism by integrating different sources of information in an approximately Bayes-optimal fashion. We compare the predictions of our model with physiological data from rats. Our results suggest that useful predictions regarding the firing fields of place cells can be made based on a single underlying principle, Bayesian cue integration, and that such predictions are possible using a remarkably small number of model parameters. PMID:24603429

  11. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    PubMed

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients.

  12. Integrated Information Systems Across the Weather-Climate Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulwarty, R. S.; Higgins, W.; Nierenberg, C.; Trtanj, J.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for well-organized (integrated) end-to-end research-based information has been highlighted in several National Academy studies, in IPCC Reports (such as the SREX and Fifth Assessment) and by public and private constituents. Such information constitutes a significant component of the "environmental intelligence" needed to address myriad societal needs for early warning and resilience across the weather-climate continuum. The next generation of climate research in service to the nation requires an even more visible, authoritative and robust commitment to scientific integration in support of adaptive information systems that address emergent risks and inform longer-term resilience strategies. A proven mechanism for resourcing such requirements is to demonstrate vision, purpose, support, connection to constituencies, and prototypes of desired capabilities. In this presentation we will discuss efforts at NOAA, and elsewhere, that: Improve information on how changes in extremes in key phenomena such as drought, floods, and heat stress impact management decisions for resource planning and disaster risk reduction Develop regional integrated information systems to address these emergent challenges, that integrate observations, monitoring and prediction, impacts assessments and scenarios, preparedness and adaptation, and coordination and capacity-building. Such systems, as illustrated through efforts such as NIDIS, have strengthened the integration across the foundational research enterprise (through for instance, RISAs, Modeling Analysis Predictions and Projections) by increasing agility for responding to emergent risks. The recently- initiated Climate Services Information System, in support of the WMO Global Framework for Climate Services draws on the above models and will be introduced during the presentation.

  13. PIFs: Systems Integrators in Plant Development[W

    PubMed Central

    Leivar, Pablo; Monte, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs) are members of the Arabidopsis thaliana basic helix-loop-helix family of transcriptional regulators that interact specifically with the active Pfr conformer of phytochrome (phy) photoreceptors. PIFs are central regulators of photomorphogenic development that act to promote stem growth, and this activity is reversed upon interaction with phy in response to light. Recently, significant progress has been made in defining the transcriptional networks directly regulated by PIFs, as well as the convergence of other signaling pathways on the PIFs to modulate growth. Here, we summarize and highlight these findings in the context of PIFs acting as integrators of light and other signals. We discuss progress in our understanding of the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of PIFs that illustrates the integration of light with hormonal pathways and the circadian clock, and we review seedling hypocotyl growth as a paradigm of PIFs acting at the interface of these signals. Based on these advances, PIFs are emerging as required factors for growth, acting as central components of a regulatory node that integrates multiple internal and external signals to optimize plant development. PMID:24481072

  14. Integrated Information in Discrete Dynamical Systems: Motivation and Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, φ, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, φ quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) φ varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) φ varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) φ varies as a function of network architecture. High φ values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high φ because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high φ but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, φ is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized to

  15. Integrated information in discrete dynamical systems: motivation and theoretical framework.

    PubMed

    Balduzzi, David; Tononi, Giulio

    2008-06-13

    This paper introduces a time- and state-dependent measure of integrated information, phi, which captures the repertoire of causal states available to a system as a whole. Specifically, phi quantifies how much information is generated (uncertainty is reduced) when a system enters a particular state through causal interactions among its elements, above and beyond the information generated independently by its parts. Such mathematical characterization is motivated by the observation that integrated information captures two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: (i) there is a large repertoire of conscious experiences so that, when one particular experience occurs, it generates a large amount of information by ruling out all the others; and (ii) this information is integrated, in that each experience appears as a whole that cannot be decomposed into independent parts. This paper extends previous work on stationary systems and applies integrated information to discrete networks as a function of their dynamics and causal architecture. An analysis of basic examples indicates the following: (i) phi varies depending on the state entered by a network, being higher if active and inactive elements are balanced and lower if the network is inactive or hyperactive. (ii) phi varies for systems with identical or similar surface dynamics depending on the underlying causal architecture, being low for systems that merely copy or replay activity states. (iii) phi varies as a function of network architecture. High phi values can be obtained by architectures that conjoin functional specialization with functional integration. Strictly modular and homogeneous systems cannot generate high phi because the former lack integration, whereas the latter lack information. Feedforward and lattice architectures are capable of generating high phi but are inefficient. (iv) In Hopfield networks, phi is low for attractor states and neutral states, but increases if the networks are optimized

  16. Integrated Medical Information Services: A Resource Management View of Automated Hospital Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Melrose, J. Peter; Ericson, R. Peter

    1981-01-01

    Rapid changes in information processing technology have made the problems of administrative and technical planning and integration difficult. Vendor-inspired terms such as “office of the future” have created confusion rather than clarification. However, the term “information resource management” (IRM) that has evolved in the private sector has potential merit. From the idea of IRM, the authors have developed the planning concept of Integrated Medical Information Services (IMIS) as a common administrative-technical basis for planning and implementing new information technology in the hospital environment.

  17. Integrating medical and research information: a big data approach.

    PubMed

    Tilve Álvarez, Carlos M; Ayora Pais, Alberto; Ruíz Romero, Cristina; Llamas Gómez, Daniel; Carrajo García, Lino; Blanco García, Francisco J; Vázquez González, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Most of the information collected in different fields by Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de A Coruña (INIBIC) is classified as unstructured due to its high volume and heterogeneity. This situation, linked to the recent requirement of integrating it to the medical information, makes it necessary to implant specific architectures to collect and organize it before it can be analysed. The purpose of this article is to present the Hadoop framework as a solution to the problem of integrating research information in the Business Intelligence field. This framework can collect, explore, process and structure the aforementioned information, which allow us to develop an equivalent function to a data mart in an Intelligence Business system.

  18. 76 FR 63941 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Business Transformation-Automated Integrated Operating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Transformation--Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE), New Information Collection; Comment Request... information collection request for the Automated Integrated Operating Environment (IOE). The comment period...

  19. Near-optimal integration of orientation information across saccades.

    PubMed

    Ganmor, Elad; Landy, Michael S; Simoncelli, Eero P

    2015-12-01

    We perceive a stable environment despite the fact that visual information is essentially acquired in a sequence of snapshots separated by saccadic eye movements. The resolution of these snapshots varies-high in the fovea and lower in the periphery-and thus the formation of a stable percept presumably relies on the fusion of information acquired at different resolutions. To test if, and to what extent, foveal and peripheral information are integrated, we examined human orientation-discrimination performance across saccadic eye movements. We found that humans perform best when an oriented target is visible both before (peripherally) and after a saccade (foveally), suggesting that humans integrate the two views. Integration relied on eye movements, as we found no evidence of integration when the target was artificially moved during stationary viewing. Perturbation analysis revealed that humans combine the two views using a weighted sum, with weights assigned based on the relative precision of foveal and peripheral representations, as predicted by ideal observer models. However, our subjects displayed a systematic overweighting of the fovea, relative to the ideal observer, indicating that human integration across saccades is slightly suboptimal.

  20. Integrated information and image management systems for the 90s.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, M J

    1990-08-01

    The rising number of implementations of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communications Systems) subsystems, specialized information systems (radiology, laboratory, pharmacy, and other ancillary departments), and increased interest in the role of optical storage systems hospitalwide, creates an environment that demands the integration of each of these systems if the hospital is to operate at maximum profitability levels. This has been recognized by several groups who have proposed standards for communication between vendors and systems, and their efforts, combined with the support of the hospitals, will hopefully allow the promise of a fully electronic hospital to become a reality. While the concept of a totally integrated fully electronic hospital has been with us for over a decade, only recently have medical vendors attempted to evolve from a conceptual phase to one of workable, cost-effective systems. Few will debate the fact that the fully integrated information and image management system is still several years away, yet many hospitals have recognized the importance of planning for use of the component technology available today. This planning stage is critical and, combined with the phased implementation of the existing technologies, it can provide significant advantages in the overall acceptance of this future technology. This paper addresses the role of the standards organizations in making this integration a reality, how conceptually a fully integrated information and image management system will work, new technologies and their potential uses in the hospital, and both the advantages the technology can bring in solving existing problems and hurdles that still need to be overcome.

  1. The integration of Information and Communication Technology into nursing.

    PubMed

    Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco; Hardey, Michael; Torrent, Joan; Ficapal, Pilar

    2011-02-01

    To identify and characterise different profiles of nurses' utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the Internet and to identify factors that can enhance or inhibit the use of these technologies within nursing. An online survey of the 13,588 members of the Nurses Association of Barcelona who had a registered email account in 2006 was carried out. Factor analysis, cluster analysis and binomial logit model was undertaken. Although most of the nurses (76.70%) are utilizing the Internet within their daily work, multivariate statistics analysis revealed two profiles of the adoption of ICT. The first profile (4.58%) represents those nurses who value ICT and the Internet so that it forms an integral part of their practice. This group is thus referred to as 'integrated nurses'. The second profile (95.42%) represents those nurses who place less emphasis on ICT and the Internet and are consequently labelled 'non-integrated nurses'. From the statistical modelling, it was observed that undertaking research activities an emphasis on international information and a belief that health information available on the Internet was 'very relevant' play a positive and significant role in the probability of being an integrated nurse. The emerging world of the 'integrated nurse' cannot be adequately understood without examining how nurses make use of ICT and the Internet within nursing practice and the way this is shaped by institutional, technical and professional opportunities and constraints. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Near-optimal integration of orientation information across saccades

    PubMed Central

    Ganmor, Elad; Landy, Michael S.; Simoncelli, Eero P.

    2015-01-01

    We perceive a stable environment despite the fact that visual information is essentially acquired in a sequence of snapshots separated by saccadic eye movements. The resolution of these snapshots varies—high in the fovea and lower in the periphery—and thus the formation of a stable percept presumably relies on the fusion of information acquired at different resolutions. To test if, and to what extent, foveal and peripheral information are integrated, we examined human orientation-discrimination performance across saccadic eye movements. We found that humans perform best when an oriented target is visible both before (peripherally) and after a saccade (foveally), suggesting that humans integrate the two views. Integration relied on eye movements, as we found no evidence of integration when the target was artificially moved during stationary viewing. Perturbation analysis revealed that humans combine the two views using a weighted sum, with weights assigned based on the relative precision of foveal and peripheral representations, as predicted by ideal observer models. However, our subjects displayed a systematic overweighting of the fovea, relative to the ideal observer, indicating that human integration across saccades is slightly suboptimal. PMID:26650193

  3. A Method of Integrated Description of Design Information for Reusability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumaya, Akira; Nagae, Masao; Wakamatsu, Hidefumi; Shirase, Keiichi; Arai, Eiji

    Much of product design is executed concurrently these days. For such concurrent design, the method which can share and ueuse varioud kind of design information among designers is needed. However, complete understanding of the design information among designers have been a difficult issue. In this paper, design process model with use of designers’ intention is proposed. A method to combine the design process information and the design object information is also proposed. We introduce how to describe designers’ intention by providing some databases. Keyword Database consists of ontological data related to design object/activities. Designers select suitable keyword(s) from Keyword Database and explain the reason/ideas for their design activities by the description with use of keyword(s). We also developed the integration design information management system architecture by using a method of integrated description with designers’ intension. This system realizes connections between the information related to design process and that related to design object through designers’ intention. Designers can communicate with each other to understand how others make decision in design through that. Designers also can re-use both design process information data and design object information data through detabase management sub-system.

  4. Integration of retinal and extraretinal information across eye movements.

    PubMed

    Ostendorf, Florian; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    Visual perception is burdened with a highly discontinuous input stream arising from saccadic eye movements. For successful integration into a coherent representation, the visuomotor system needs to deal with these self-induced perceptual changes and distinguish them from external motion. Forward models are one way to solve this problem where the brain uses internal monitoring signals associated with oculomotor commands to predict the visual consequences of corresponding eye movements during active exploration. Visual scenes typically contain a rich structure of spatial relational information, providing additional cues that may help disambiguate self-induced from external changes of perceptual input. We reasoned that a weighted integration of these two inherently noisy sources of information should lead to better perceptual estimates. Volunteer subjects performed a simple perceptual decision on the apparent displacement of a visual target, jumping unpredictably in sync with a saccadic eye movement. In a critical test condition, the target was presented together with a flanker object, where perceptual decisions could take into account the spatial distance between target and flanker object. Here, precision was better compared to control conditions in which target displacements could only be estimated from either extraretinal or visual relational information alone. Our findings suggest that under natural conditions, integration of visual space across eye movements is based upon close to optimal integration of both retinal and extraretinal pieces of information.

  5. The evolution of transgenerational integration of information in heterogeneous environments.

    PubMed

    Leimar, Olof; McNamara, John M

    2015-03-01

    An organism's phenotype can be influenced by maternal cues and directly perceived environmental cues, as well as by its genotype at polymorphic loci, which can be interpreted as a genetic cue. In fluctuating environments, natural selection favors organisms that efficiently integrate different sources of information about the likely success of phenotypic alternatives. In such situations, it can be beneficial to pass on maternal cues that offspring can respond to. A maternal cue could be based on environmental cues directly perceived by the mother but also partly on cues that were passed on by the grandmother. We have used a mathematical model to investigate how the passing of maternal cues and the integration of different sources of information evolve in response to qualitatively different kinds of temporal and spatial environmental fluctuations. The model shows that the passing of maternal cues and the transgenerational integration of sources of information readily evolve. Factors such as the degree of temporal autocorrelation, the predictive accuracy of different environmental cues, and the level of gene flow strongly influence the expression of adaptive maternal cues and the relative weights given to different sources of information. We outline the main features of the relation between the characteristics of environmental fluctuations and the adaptive systems of phenotype determination and compare these predictions with empirical studies on cue integration.

  6. Integrating Linguistic, Motor, and Perceptual Information in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Austin F.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers show remarkable adaptability in updating and correcting their utterances in response to changes in the environment. When an interlocutor raises an eyebrow or the AC kicks on and introduces ambient noise, it seems that speakers are able to quickly integrate this information into their speech plans and adapt appropriately. This ability to…

  7. Installing an Integrated Information System in a Centralized Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelson, Andrew D.

    1992-01-01

    Many schools are looking at ways to centralize the distribution and retrieval of video, voice, and data transmissions in an integrate information system (IIS). A centralized system offers greater control of hardware and software. Describes media network planning to retrofit an Illinois' high school with a fiber optic-based IIS. (MLF)

  8. Integration of Informal Music Technologies in Secondary School Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowell, Dan; Dixon, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Technologies such as YouTube, mobile phones and MP3 players are increasingly integrated into secondary school music in the UK. At the same time, the gap between formal and informal music learning is being bridged by the incorporation of students' preferred music into class activities. We conducted an ethnographic study in two secondary schools in…

  9. Integrating Information Technology Planning and Funding at the Institutional Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Susan J.; Hollowell, David E.

    1999-01-01

    Effective college information-technology (IT) planning must be integrated into institutional planning, mission, and goals. Topics discussed include key constructs for ensuring that the acquisition and implementation of IT furthers the institution's strategic plan, an inclusive governance structure and facility planning approach, funding…

  10. The Integrity of Digital Information: Mechanics and Definitional Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Clifford A.

    1994-01-01

    Considers issues regarding the migration of a system of literature into electronic formats. Highlights include integrity in an information distribution system; digest technology; tracings that permit detection of copied digital objects; verifying sources; digital signature technology and cryptography; electronic publishing; and intellectual…

  11. Integrating Future Information through Scenarios. AIR 1985 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentner, Rene D.

    The way that higher education planners can take into account changes in the post-industrial society is discussed. The scenario method is proposed as a method of integrating futures information. The planner can be provided with several probable futures, each of which can be incorporated in a scenario. An effective scenario provides the planner…

  12. Conducting Institutional Research Using an Integrated Student Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Michael

    The use of an integrated student information system (ISIS) to conduct institutional research at Trinity University is discussed. The types of data contained in the system, which has 59 files, include: student characteristics, recruitment, financial aid, registration, faculty load, and class scheduling. The data for students, faculty, departments,…

  13. Integrated health care management through comprehensive information systems.

    PubMed

    Henderson, M

    1995-01-01

    The true impact of a company's benefit strategy can be known only when relevant indicators can be adequately tracked, evaluated and brought together. An unparalleled opportunity exists to creatively apply computer technologies to address decision makers' needs for integrated health care information.

  14. Integrating Linguistic, Motor, and Perceptual Information in Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Austin F.

    2011-01-01

    Speakers show remarkable adaptability in updating and correcting their utterances in response to changes in the environment. When an interlocutor raises an eyebrow or the AC kicks on and introduces ambient noise, it seems that speakers are able to quickly integrate this information into their speech plans and adapt appropriately. This ability to…

  15. Integration of Informal Music Technologies in Secondary School Music Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowell, Dan; Dixon, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Technologies such as YouTube, mobile phones and MP3 players are increasingly integrated into secondary school music in the UK. At the same time, the gap between formal and informal music learning is being bridged by the incorporation of students' preferred music into class activities. We conducted an ethnographic study in two secondary schools in…

  16. Data Validity and Integrity Checking in Clinical Trials Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, A. Gouveia; Salgado, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Data validity and integrity checks in clinical trials (CT) databases have special procedures. We describe a new logic-driven system, coupled with a CT information system, which manages data anomalies found in CT databases. Q-GEM identifies data problems, and issues, emails to study sites, and tracks data discrepancy forms until their final resolution. PMID:16779352

  17. Integrating Future Information through Scenarios. AIR 1985 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentner, Rene D.

    The way that higher education planners can take into account changes in the post-industrial society is discussed. The scenario method is proposed as a method of integrating futures information. The planner can be provided with several probable futures, each of which can be incorporated in a scenario. An effective scenario provides the planner…

  18. Measuring Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Curriculum Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Romina M. J.; Watson, Glenice; Finger, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a trend toward the development of methodologies to measure Information and Communication Technology (ICT) curriculum integration and its resultant impact on student learning outcomes. Simplistic, negative correlations between numbers of classroom computers and standardized literacy and numeracy test results provide headlines for…

  19. Information Technology Integrated into Classroom Teaching and Its Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Chao-Chi; Chang, Dian-Fu; Chang, Li-Yun

    2011-01-01

    IT (information technology) has grown in popularity from increased use in different areas in the world. However, school teaching has usually been found to be a little late in following this step. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of IT when integrated into classroom teaching at primary and secondary schools in Taiwan. The data…

  20. Integration of Heterogeneous Bibliographic Information through Data Abstractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breazeal, Juliette Ow

    This study examines the integration of heterogeneous bibliographic information resources from geographically distributed locations in an automated, unified, and controlled way using abstract data types called "classes" through the Message-Object Model defined in Smalltalk-80 software. The concept of achieving data consistency by…

  1. Emerging Communities: Integrating Networked Information into Library Services (Book Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afifi, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    Reviews this collection of papers, edited by Ann P. Bishop, which present the current state of networking as it relates to libraries and the community. Recommends the book as a compendium of lessons, learned and to be learned, as networked information becomes an integral and necessary part of the library world. (JMV)

  2. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  3. PGSB/MIPS PlantsDB Database Framework for the Integration and Analysis of Plant Genome Data.

    PubMed

    Spannagl, Manuel; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Bader, Kai; Gundlach, Heidrun; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2017-01-01

    Plant Genome and Systems Biology (PGSB), formerly Munich Institute for Protein Sequences (MIPS) PlantsDB, is a database framework for the integration and analysis of plant genome data, developed and maintained for more than a decade now. Major components of that framework are genome databases and analysis resources focusing on individual (reference) genomes providing flexible and intuitive access to data. Another main focus is the integration of genomes from both model and crop plants to form a scaffold for comparative genomics, assisted by specialized tools such as the CrowsNest viewer to explore conserved gene order (synteny). Data exchange and integrated search functionality with/over many plant genome databases is provided within the transPLANT project.

  4. T-DNA integration in plants results from polymerase-θ-mediated DNA repair.

    PubMed

    van Kregten, Maartje; de Pater, Sylvia; Romeijn, Ron; van Schendel, Robin; Hooykaas, Paul J J; Tijsterman, Marcel

    2016-10-31

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a pathogenic bacterium, which transforms plants by transferring a discrete segment of its DNA, the T-DNA, to plant cells. The T-DNA then integrates into the plant genome. T-DNA biotechnology is widely exploited in the genetic engineering of model plants and crops. However, the molecular mechanism underlying T-DNA integration remains unknown(1). Here we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA integration critically depends on polymerase theta (Pol θ). We find that TEBICHI/POLQ mutant plants (which have mutated Pol θ), although susceptible to Agrobacterium infection, are resistant to T-DNA integration. Characterization of >10,000 T-DNA-plant genome junctions reveals a distinct signature of Pol θ action and also indicates that 3' end capture at genomic breaks is the prevalent mechanism of T-DNA integration. The primer-template switching ability of Pol θ can explain the molecular patchwork known as filler DNA that is frequently observed at sites of integration. T-DNA integration signatures in other plant species closely resemble those of Arabidopsis, suggesting that Pol-θ-mediated integration is evolutionarily conserved. Thus, Pol θ provides the mechanism for T-DNA random integration into the plant genome, demonstrating a potential to disrupt random integration so as to improve the quality and biosafety of plant transgenesis.

  5. Towards an integrated molecular model of plant-virus interactions.

    PubMed

    Elena, Santiago F; Rodrigo, Guillermo

    2012-12-01

    The application in recent years of network theory methods to the study of host-virus interactions is providing a new perspective to the way viruses manipulate the host to promote their own replication. An integrated molecular model of such pathosystems require three detailed maps describing, firstly, the interactions between viral elements, secondly, the interactions between host elements, and thirdly, the cross-interactions between viral and host elements. Here, we compile available information for Potyvirus infecting Arabidopsis thaliana. With an integrated model, it is possible to analyze the mode of virus action and how the perturbation of the virus targets propagates along the network. These studies suggest that viral pathogenicity results not only from the alteration of individual elements but it is a systemic property. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Signal integration on plant promoters: a case study in maize.

    PubMed

    Horst, Ina; Heimann, Louisa; Peterhansel, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    Gene promoters perceive numerous signals and integrate this information into a single response, the transcriptional activity of a gene. It was speculated that covalent modification of histones on the promoters might have an important function in storage and integration of signals. Using the genes for the core proteins of C4 metabolism in maize as a model, we associated the perception of specific signals with the establishment of individual histone modifications. Core elements of the histone code defined in these studies are conserved on all C4 genes and on other maize genes that respond to similar stimuli. Moreover, the code is used in independent C4 lineages. However, our data also advise caution because interpretation of histone modifications might differ dependent on the promoter position of the modification. The model provided here constitutes a starting point for genome-wide decoding of stimulus-modification pairs in epigenetic gene regulation.

  7. Integration of information and scientific literacy: promoting literacy in undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Porter, Jason A; Wolbach, Kevin C; Purzycki, Catherine B; Bowman, Leslie A; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement.

  8. An integration of Emergency Department Information and Ambulance Systems.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Nada; El-Masri, Samir; Saddik, Basema

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose an Emergency Department Information System that will be integrated with the ambulance system to improve the communication, enhance the quality of provided emergency services and facilitate information sharing. The proposed system utilizes new advanced technologies such as mobile web services that overcome the problems of interoperability between different systems, HL7 and GPS. The system is unique in that it allows ambulance officers to locate the nearest specialized hospital and allows access to the patient's electronic health record as well as providing the hospital with required information to prepare for the incoming patient.

  9. Integration of Information and Scientific Literacy: Promoting Literacy in Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Wolbach, Kevin C.; Purzycki, Catherine B.; Bowman, Leslie A.; Agbada, Eva; Mostrom, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    The Association of College and Research Libraries recommends incorporating information literacy (IL) skills across university and college curricula, for the goal of developing information literate graduates. Congruent with this goal, the Departments of Biological Sciences and Information Science developed an integrated IL and scientific literacy (SL) exercise for use in a first-year biology course. Students were provided the opportunity to access, retrieve, analyze, and evaluate primary scientific literature. By the completion of this project, student responses improved concerning knowledge and relevance of IL and SL skills. This project exposes students to IL and SL early in their undergraduate experience, preparing them for future academic advancement. PMID:21123700

  10. Asymmetrical integration of sensory information during mating decisions in grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Stefanie; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making processes, like all traits of an organism, are shaped by evolution; they thus carry a signature of the selection pressures associated with choice behaviors. The way sexual communication signals are integrated during courtship likely reflects the costs and benefits associated with mate choice. Here, we study the evaluation of male song by females during acoustic courtship in grasshoppers. Using playback experiments and computational modeling we find that information of different valence (attractive vs. nonattractive) is weighted asymmetrically: while information associated with nonattractive features has large weight, attractive features add little to the decision to mate. Accordingly, nonattractive features effectively veto female responses. Because attractive features have so little weight, the model suggests that female responses are frequently driven by integration noise. Asymmetrical weighting of negative and positive information may reflect the fitness costs associated with mating with a nonattractive over an attractive singer, which are also highly asymmetrical. In addition, nonattractive cues tend to be more salient and therefore more reliable. Hence, information provided by them should be weighted more heavily. Our findings suggest that characterizing the integration of sensory information during a natural behavior has the potential to provide valuable insights into the selective pressures shaping decision-making during evolution. PMID:25368152

  11. Asymmetrical integration of sensory information during mating decisions in grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Jan; Krämer, Stefanie; Ronacher, Bernhard

    2014-11-18

    Decision-making processes, like all traits of an organism, are shaped by evolution; they thus carry a signature of the selection pressures associated with choice behaviors. The way sexual communication signals are integrated during courtship likely reflects the costs and benefits associated with mate choice. Here, we study the evaluation of male song by females during acoustic courtship in grasshoppers. Using playback experiments and computational modeling we find that information of different valence (attractive vs. nonattractive) is weighted asymmetrically: while information associated with nonattractive features has large weight, attractive features add little to the decision to mate. Accordingly, nonattractive features effectively veto female responses. Because attractive features have so little weight, the model suggests that female responses are frequently driven by integration noise. Asymmetrical weighting of negative and positive information may reflect the fitness costs associated with mating with a nonattractive over an attractive singer, which are also highly asymmetrical. In addition, nonattractive cues tend to be more salient and therefore more reliable. Hence, information provided by them should be weighted more heavily. Our findings suggest that characterizing the integration of sensory information during a natural behavior has the potential to provide valuable insights into the selective pressures shaping decision-making during evolution.

  12. Integrating clinical information in National Biobank of Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hangchan; Yi, Byoung-Kee; Kim, Il Kon; Kwak, Yun Sik

    2011-08-01

    The National Biobank of Korea (NBK) is a government supported project that aims at consolidating various human-originated biomedical resources collected by individual hospitals nation-wide and integrating them with their donors' clinical information which researchers can take advantage of. In this paper, we present our experiences in developing the Clinical Information Integration System (CIIS) for NBK. The system automatically extracts clinical data from hospital information systems as much as possible to avoid errors from manual entry by human errors. It maintains the independence of individual hospitals by employing a two-layer approach, one of which takes care of all hospital-specific aspects. Interoperability is achieved by adopting HL7 v2.x messaging between the biobank and hospitals. We report the current status of the biobank and system deployments. We finally identify limitations and discuss how to improve them.

  13. Integration of freshwater environmental policies and wastewater treatment plant management.

    PubMed

    Corominas, Lluís; Acuña, Vicenç; Ginebreda, Antoni; Poch, Manel

    2013-02-15

    In the last decade the political awareness of river water quality issues has grown substantially over the world and legislation is accordingly adapting. In the European Union (EU), two different directives regulate separately the characteristics of the discharged water and the chemical status of the receiving freshwater ecosystem. On the one hand, the characteristics of the urban effluents are regulated by the EU Directive 91/271/EEC, which defines limits on different elements set in the form of both static emission limits and minimum percentage load reductions. On the other hand, the characteristics of the receiving freshwater ecosystems are described in the EU Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EEC), which sets minimum 'good' chemical and ecological status in water bodies that should be achieved by 2015, and aims for an ecosystem-based management. With the support of an example, we show that there is a gap in these EU environmental policies leading to non-integrated management, which may result on adverse environmental and economical consequences. We believe that these policies should be updated and tuned to account for an integrated perspective, allowing a more efficient and sustainable management of wastewater treatment plants, maximizing the ecological, economical and social benefits of the system as a whole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Information on the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this report provides information related to the design of the Oregon State University Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) test facility. Information provided in this report have been pulled from the following information sources: Reference 1: R. Nourgaliev and et.al, "Summary Report on NGSAC (Next-Generation Safety Analysis Code) Development and Testing," Idaho National Laboratory, 2011. Note that this is report has not been released as an external report. Reference 2: O. Stevens, Characterization of the Advanced Plant Experiment (APEX) Passive Residual Heat Removal System Heat Exchanger, Master Thesis, June 1996. Reference 3: J. Reyes, Jr., Q. Wu, and J. King, Jr., Scaling Assessment for the Design of the OSU APEX-1000 Test Facility, OSU-APEX-03001 (Rev. 0), May 2003. Reference 4: J. Reyes et al, Final Report of the NRC AP600 Research Conducted at Oregon State University, NUREG/CR-6641, July 1999. Reference 5: K. Welter et al, APEX-1000 Confirmatory Testing to Support AP1000 Design Certification (non-proprietary), NUREG-1826, August 2005.

  15. Integrating cell biology and proteomic approaches in plants.

    PubMed

    Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef

    2017-04-22

    Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science. Cell biology approaches are most frequently used in proteomic studies investigating subcellular and developmental proteomes, however, they were also employed in proteomic studies exploring abiotic and biotic stress responses, vesicular transport, cytoskeleton and protein posttranslational modifications. They are used either for detailed cellular or ultrastructural characterization of the object subjected to proteomic study, validation of proteomic results or to expand proteomic data. In this respect, a broad spectrum of methods is employed to support proteomic studies including ultrastructural electron microscopy studies, histochemical staining, immunochemical localization, in vivo imaging of fluorescently tagged proteins and visualization of protein-protein interactions. Thus, cell biological observations on fixed or living cell compartments, cells, tissues and organs are feasible, and in some cases fundamental for the validation and complementation of proteomic data. Validation of proteomic data by independent experimental methods requires development of new complementary approaches. Benefits of cell biology methods and techniques are not sufficiently highlighted in current proteomic studies. This encouraged us to review most popular cell biology methods used in proteomic studies and to evaluate their relevance and potential for proteomic data validation and enrichment of purely proteomic analyses. We also provide examples of

  16. Development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation, development of a plant-wide dynamic model of an advanced Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant with CO2 capture will be discussed. The IGCC reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power using Illinois No.6 coal as the feed. The plant includes an entrained, downflow, General Electric Energy (GEE) gasifier with a radiant syngas cooler (RSC), a two-stage water gas shift (WGS) conversion process, and two advanced 'F' class combustion turbines partially integrated with an elevated-pressure air separation unit (ASU). A subcritical steam cycle is considered for heat recovery steam generation. Syngas is selectively cleaned by a SELEXOL acid gas removal (AGR) process. Sulfur is recovered using a two-train Claus unit with tail gas recycle to the AGR. A multistage intercooled compressor is used for compressing CO2 to the pressure required for sequestration. Using Illinois No.6 coal, the reference plant generates 640 MWe of net power. The plant-wide steady-state and dynamic IGCC simulations have been generated using the Aspen Plus{reg_sign} and Aspen Plus Dynamics{reg_sign} process simulators, respectively. The model is generated based on the Case 2 IGCC configuration detailed in the study available in the NETL website1. The GEE gasifier is represented with a restricted equilibrium reactor model where the temperature approach to equilibrium for individual reactions can be modified based on the experimental data. In this radiant-only configuration, the syngas from the Radiant Syngas Cooler (RSC) is quenched in a scrubber. The blackwater from the scrubber bottom is further cleaned in the blackwater treatment plant. The cleaned water is returned back to the scrubber and also used for slurry preparation. The acid gas from the sour water stripper (SWS) is sent to the Claus plant. The syngas from the scrubber passes through a sour shift process. The WGS reactors are modeled as adiabatic plug flow reactors with rigorous kinetics based on the mid

  17. Integrated analysis of microarray data and gene function information.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Zhou, Mi; Wong, Wing Hung

    2004-01-01

    Microarray data should be interpreted in the context of existing biological knowledge. Here we present integrated analysis of microarray data and gene function classification data using homogeneity analysis. Homogeneity analysis is a graphical multivariate statistical method for analyzing categorical data. It converts categorical data into graphical display. By simultaneously quantifying the microarray-derived gene groups and gene function categories, it captures the complex relations between biological information derived from microarray data and the existing knowledge about the gene function. Thus, homogeneity analysis provides a mathematical framework for integrating the analysis of microarray data and the existing biological knowledge.

  18. 9 CFR 351.12 - Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plant operates. 351.12 Section 351.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Facilities and Operations § 351.12 Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates. The operator of each certified plant shall inform the circuit supervisor, in advance, when the plant's work schedule...

  19. 9 CFR 351.12 - Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... plant operates. 351.12 Section 351.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Facilities and Operations § 351.12 Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates. The operator of each certified plant shall inform the circuit supervisor, in advance, when the plant's work schedule...

  20. 9 CFR 351.12 - Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... plant operates. 351.12 Section 351.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Facilities and Operations § 351.12 Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates. The operator of each certified plant shall inform the circuit supervisor, in advance, when the plant's work schedule...

  1. 9 CFR 351.12 - Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plant operates. 351.12 Section 351.12 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Facilities and Operations § 351.12 Circuit supervisor to be informed when plant operates. The operator of each certified plant shall inform the circuit supervisor, in advance, when the plant's work schedule...

  2. Maximizing Information Diffusion in the Cyber-physical Integrated Network.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongliang; Lv, Shaohe; Jiao, Xianlong; Wang, Xiaodong; Liu, Juan

    2015-11-11

    Nowadays, our living environment has been embedded with smart objects, such as smart sensors, smart watches and smart phones. They make cyberspace and physical space integrated by their abundant abilities of sensing, communication and computation, forming a cyber-physical integrated network. In order to maximize information diffusion in such a network, a group of objects are selected as the forwarding points. To optimize the selection, a minimum connected dominating set (CDS) strategy is adopted. However, existing approaches focus on minimizing the size of the CDS, neglecting an important factor: the weight of links. In this paper, we propose a distributed maximizing the probability of information diffusion (DMPID) algorithm in the cyber-physical integrated network. Unlike previous approaches that only consider the size of CDS selection, DMPID also considers the information spread probability that depends on the weight of links. To weaken the effects of excessively-weighted links, we also present an optimization strategy that can properly balance the two factors. The results of extensive simulation show that DMPID can nearly double the information diffusion probability, while keeping a reasonable size of selection with low overhead in different distributed networks.

  3. Sustaining Engagements for Integrated Heat-Health Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trtanj, J.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme heat events are on the rise, evidenced by the record breaking heat in the summer of 2016 in the US, increased heat-related death toll in south Asia, and projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The impacts, responses and adaptation to extreme heat are inherently local or region in nature and require multisector engagement to manage current and future heat risks. Understanding the character of the information demand, who needs it, when and how it is needed, how it is used, and the remaining research questions, requires sustained engagement of multiple science and decision making communities. The construct of Integrated Information Systems provides the framework that sustains this dialogue, supports the production of useful information, and the translation of knowledge to action. The National Integrated Heat Health Information System (NIHHIS), a multi-agency collaboration, working at state, local and international levels, designed to facilitate an integrated approach to providing a suite of decision support services that reduce heat-related illness and death. NIHHIS sustains engagement across the public health, emergency management, disaster risk reduction, planning, housing, communication, climate, weather and other science communities. This presentation will highlight NIHHS sustained engagements in the Rio Grande Bravo region, other NIHHIS pilots, and international efforts building on the NIHHIS framework. NIHHIS, launched by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2015, now has over eight Federal partners and a burgeoning mix of pilots, projects and partners at state, local and international levels.

  4. Integrating Bayesian networks and geographic information systems: good practice examples.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sandra; Low-Choy, Sama; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2012-07-01

    Bayesian networks (BNs) are becoming increasingly common in problems with spatial aspects. The degree of spatial involvement may range from spatial mapping of BN outputs based on nodes in the BN that explicitly involve geographic features, to integration of different networks based on geographic information. In these situations, it is useful to consider how geographic information systems (GISs) could be used to enhance the conceptualization, quantification, and prediction of BNs. Here, we discuss some techniques that may be used to integrate GIS and BN models, with reference to some recent literature which illustrate these approaches. We then reflect on 2 case studies based on our own experience. The first involves the integration of GIS and a BN to assess the scientific factors associated with initiation of Lyngbya majuscula, a cyanobacterium that occurs in coastal waterways around the world. The 2nd case study involves the use of GISs as an aid for eliciting spatially informed expert opinion and expressing this information as prior distributions for a Bayesian model and as input into a BN. Elicitator, the prototype software package we developed for achieving this, is also briefly described. Whereas the 1st case study demonstrates a GIS-data driven specification of conditional probability tables for BNs with complete geographical coverage for all the data layers involved, the 2nd illustrates a situation in which we do not have complete coverage and we are forced to extrapolate based on expert judgement.

  5. Integration of forward-looking infrared (FLIR) and traffic information for moving obstacle detection with integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhen; Vana, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Uijt de Haag, Maarten

    2009-05-01

    This paper discusses the integration of Forward-looking Infrared (FLIR) and traffic information from, for example, the Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) or the Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B). The goal of this integration method is to obtain an improved state estimate of a moving obstacle within the Field-of-View of the FLIR with added integrity. The focus of the paper will be on the approach phase of the flight. The paper will address methods to extract moving objects from the FLIR imagery and geo-reference these objects using outputs of both the onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Inertial Navigation System (INS). The proposed extraction method uses a priori airport information and terrain databases. Furthermore, state information from the traffic information sources will be extracted and integrated with the state estimates from the FLIR. Finally, a method will be addressed that performs a consistency check between both sources of traffic information. The methods discussed in this paper will be evaluated using flight test data collected with a Gulfstream V in Reno, NV (GVSITE) and simulated ADS-B.

  6. A Review of Information for Managing Aging in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    WC Morgan; JV Livingston

    1995-09-01

    Age related degradation effects in safety related systems of nuclear power plants should be managed to prevent safety margins from eroding below the acceptable limits provided in plant design bases. The Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Pro- gram, conducted under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, and other related aging management programs are developing technical information on managing aging. The aging management process central to these efforts consists of three key elements: 1) selecting structures, systems, and components (SSCs) in which aging should be controlled; 2) understanding the mechanisms and rates of degradation in these SSCs; and 3) managing degradation through effective inspection, surveillance, condition monitoring, trending, record keeping, mainten- ance, refurbishment, replacement, and adjustments in the operating environment and service conditions. This document concisely reviews and integrates information developed under the NPAR Program and other aging management studies and other available information related to understanding and managing age-related degradation effects and provides specific refer- ences to more comprehensive information on the same subjects.

  7. Testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating competing information.

    PubMed

    Wahlheim, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Testing initially learned information before presenting new information has been shown to counteract the deleterious effects of proactive interference by segregating competing sources of information. The present experiments were conducted to demonstrate that testing can also have its effects in part by integrating competing information. Variations of classic A-B, A-D paired-associate learning paradigms were employed that included two lists of word pairs and a cued-recall test. Repeated pairs appeared in both lists (A-B, A-B), control pairs appeared in List 2 only (A-B, C-D), and changed pairs appeared with the same cue in both lists but with different responses (A-B, A-D). The critical manipulation was whether pairs were tested or restudied in an interpolated phase that occurred between Lists 1 and 2. On a final cued-recall test, participants recalled List 2 responses and then indicated when they recollected that responses had earlier changed between lists. The change recollection measure indexed the extent to which competing responses were integrated during List 2. Change was recollected more often for tested than for restudied pairs. Proactive facilitation was obtained in cued recall when change was recollected, whereas proactive interference was obtained when change was not recollected. These results provide evidence that testing counteracted proactive interference in part by making List 1 responses more accessible during List 2, thus promoting integration and increasing later recollection of change. These results have theoretical implications because they show that testing can counteract proactive interference by integrating or segregating competing information.

  8. MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana Database (MAtDB): an integrated biological knowledge resource for plant genomics.

    PubMed

    Schoof, Heiko; Ernst, Rebecca; Nazarov, Vladimir; Pfeifer, Lukas; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mayer, Klaus F X

    2004-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana is the most widely studied model plant. Functional genomics is intensively underway in many laboratories worldwide. Beyond the basic annotation of the primary sequence data, the annotated genetic elements of Arabidopsis must be linked to diverse biological data and higher order information such as metabolic or regulatory pathways. The MIPS Arabidopsis thaliana database MAtDB aims to provide a comprehensive resource for Arabidopsis as a genome model that serves as a primary reference for research in plants and is suitable for transfer of knowledge to other plants, especially crops. The genome sequence as a common backbone serves as a scaffold for the integration of data, while, in a complementary effort, these data are enhanced through the application of state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools. This information is visualized on a genome-wide and a gene-by-gene basis with access both for web users and applications. This report updates the information given in a previous report and provides an outlook on further developments. The MAtDB web interface can be accessed at http://mips.gsf.de/proj/thal/db.

  9. Transit light curves with finite integration time: Fisher information analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-10

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/∼eprice.

  10. Transit Light Curves with Finite Integration Time: Fisher Information Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Ellen M.; Rogers, Leslie A.

    2014-10-01

    Kepler has revolutionized the study of transiting planets with its unprecedented photometric precision on more than 150,000 target stars. Most of the transiting planet candidates detected by Kepler have been observed as long-cadence targets with 30 minute integration times, and the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite will record full frame images with a similar integration time. Integrations of 30 minutes affect the transit shape, particularly for small planets and in cases of low signal to noise. Using the Fisher information matrix technique, we derive analytic approximations for the variances and covariances on the transit parameters obtained from fitting light curve photometry collected with a finite integration time. We find that binning the light curve can significantly increase the uncertainties and covariances on the inferred parameters when comparing scenarios with constant total signal to noise (constant total integration time in the absence of read noise). Uncertainties on the transit ingress/egress time increase by a factor of 34 for Earth-size planets and 3.4 for Jupiter-size planets around Sun-like stars for integration times of 30 minutes compared to instantaneously sampled light curves. Similarly, uncertainties on the mid-transit time for Earth and Jupiter-size planets increase by factors of 3.9 and 1.4. Uncertainties on the transit depth are largely unaffected by finite integration times. While correlations among the transit depth, ingress duration, and transit duration all increase in magnitude with longer integration times, the mid-transit time remains uncorrelated with the other parameters. We provide code in Python and Mathematica for predicting the variances and covariances at www.its.caltech.edu/~eprice.

  11. Procedure and information displays in advanced nuclear control rooms: experimental evaluation of an integrated design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Gao, Qin; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Wang, Yufan

    2017-02-13

    In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants, operators frequently have to switch between procedure displays and system information displays. In this study, we proposed an operation-unit-based integrated design, which combines the two displays to facilitate the synthesis of information. We grouped actions that complete a single goal into operation units and showed these operation units on the displays of system states. In addition, we used different levels of visual salience to highlight the current unit and provided a list of execution history records. A laboratory experiment, with 42 students performing a simulated procedure to deal with unexpected high pressuriser level, was conducted to compare this design against an action-based integrated design and the existing separated-displays design. The results indicate that our operation-unit-based integrated design yields the best performance in terms of time and completion rate and helped more participants to detect unexpected system failures. Practitioner Summary: In current nuclear control rooms, operators frequently have to switch between procedure and system information displays. We developed an integrated design that incorporates procedure information into system displays. A laboratory study showed that the proposed design significantly improved participants' performance and increased the probability of detecting unexpected system failures.

  12. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    Activities and accomplishments of the first six months of the Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN's) 1992 technical program have focused on four main missions: (1) the development and implementation of plans for initiation of the Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) as part of the EOSDIS Program; (2) the pursuit and development of a broad-based global change information cooperative by providing systems analysis and integration between natural science and social science data bases held by numerous federal agencies and other sources; (3) the fostering of scientific research into the human dimensions of global change and providing integration between natural science and social science data and information; and (4) the serving of CIESIN as a gateway for global change data and information distribution through development of the Global Change Research Information Office and other comprehensive knowledge sharing systems.

  13. Picture archiving and communications systems for integrated healthcare information solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldburgh, Mitchell M.; Glicksman, Robert A.; Wilson, Dennis L.

    1997-05-01

    The rapid and dramatic shifts within the US healthcare industry have created unprecedented needs to implement changes in the delivery systems. These changes must not only address the access to healthcare, but the costs of delivery, and outcomes reporting. The resulting vision to address these needs has been called the Integrated Healthcare Solution whose core is the Electronic Patient Record. The integration of information by itself is not the issue, nor will it address the challenges in front of the healthcare providers. The process and business of healthcare delivery must adopt, apply and expand its use of technology which can assist in re-engineering the tools for healthcare. Imaging is becoming a larger part of the practice of healthcare both as a recorder of health status and as a defensive record for gatekeepers of healthcare. It is thus imperative that imaging specialists adopt technology which competitively integrates them into the process, reduces the risk, and positively effects the outcome.

  14. 76 FR 20003 - Privacy Act of 1974: Notice of New System of Records, Integrated Disbursement & Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974: Notice of New System of Records, Integrated Disbursement... System of Records, Integrated Disbursement & Information System (IDIS). SUMMARY: IDIS is an existing... Name: Integrated Disbursement & Information System (IDIS). System Location: Online at...

  15. Invasive alien plants benefit more from clonal integration in heterogeneous environments than natives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Jian; Müller-Schärer, Heinz; van Kleunen, Mark; Cai, Ai-Ming; Zhang, Ping; Yan, Rong; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-09-25

    What confers invasive alien plants a competitive advantage over native plants remains open to debate. Many of the world's worst invasive alien plants are clonal and able to share resources within clones (clonal integration), particularly in heterogeneous environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that clonal integration benefits invasive clonal plants more than natives and thus confers invasives a competitive advantage. We selected five congeneric and naturally co-occurring pairs of invasive alien and native clonal plants in China, and grew pairs of connected and disconnected ramets under heterogeneous light, soil nutrient and water conditions that are commonly encountered by alien plants during their invasion into new areas. Clonal integration increased biomass of all plants in all three heterogeneous resource environments. However, invasive plants benefited more from clonal integration than natives. Consequently, invasive plants produced more biomass than natives. Our results indicate that clonal integration may confer invasive alien clonal plants a competitive advantage over natives. Therefore, differences in the ability of clonal integration could potentially explain, at least partly, the invasion success of alien clonal plants in areas where resources are heterogeneously distributed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Gaining information advantage: an integrated approach to airborne mission recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundgren, Mats; Ljunggren, Lars

    1999-08-01

    Information advantage is the key success factor in all conflicts. In a modern combat aircraft the amount of available information is continuously increasing with new and more sophisticated sensor systems. By incorporating an integrated mission recording system the vast amount of information captured in a modern combat aircraft is recorded. Evaluating this information, whether for aircraft development, pilot training or in combat, will maximize the experience from each flight and enhance the efficiency of the following missions. All Lot 3 of the Swedish fighter JAS39 Gripen as well as the export versions will be equipped with a digital mission recording system. The system is called DiRECT and is used for video, audio and data recording on a direct access, solid- state memory.

  17. Project Integration Architecture: A Practical Demonstration of Information Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    One of the goals of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) effort is to provide the ability to propagate information between disparate applications. With this ability, applications may then be formed into an application graph constituting a super-application. Such a super-application would then provide all of the analysis appropriate to a given technical system. This paper reports on a small demonstration of this concept in which a Computer Aided Design (CAD) application was connected to an inlet analysis code and geometry information automatically propagated from one to the other. The majority of the work reported involved not the technology of information propagation, but rather the conversion of propagated information into a form usable by the receiving application.

  18. Moral judgment as information processing: an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Guglielmo, Steve

    2015-01-01

    How do humans make moral judgments about others’ behavior? This article reviews dominant models of moral judgment, organizing them within an overarching framework of information processing. This framework poses two distinct questions: (1) What input information guides moral judgments? and (2) What psychological processes generate these judgments? Information Models address the first question, identifying critical information elements (including causality, intentionality, and mental states) that shape moral judgments. A subclass of Biased Information Models holds that perceptions of these information elements are themselves driven by prior moral judgments. Processing Models address the second question, and existing models have focused on the relative contribution of intuitive versus deliberative processes. This review organizes existing moral judgment models within this framework and critically evaluates them on empirical and theoretical grounds; it then outlines a general integrative model grounded in information processing, and concludes with conceptual and methodological suggestions for future research. The information-processing framework provides a useful theoretical lens through which to organize extant and future work in the rapidly growing field of moral judgment. PMID:26579022

  19. Information integration for a sky survey by data warehousing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, A.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, Y.

    The virtualization service of data system for a sky survey LAMOST is very important for astronomers The service needs to integrate information from data collections catalogs and references and support simple federation of a set of distributed files and associated metadata Data warehousing has been in existence for several years and demonstrated superiority over traditional relational database management systems by providing novel indexing schemes that supported efficient on-line analytical processing OLAP of large databases Now relational database systems such as Oracle etc support the warehouse capability which including extensions to the SQL language to support OLAP operations and a number of metadata management tools have been created The information integration of LAMOST by applying data warehousing is to effectively provide data and knowledge on-line

  20. Integrating Records Management (RM) and Information Technology (IT)

    SciTech Connect

    NUSBAUM,ANNA W.; CUSIMANO,LINDA J.

    2000-03-02

    Records Managers are continually exploring ways to integrate their services with those offered by Information Technology-related professions to capitalize on the advantages of providing customers a total solution to managing their records and information. In this day and age, where technology abounds, there often exists a fear on the part of records management that this integration will result in a loss of identity and the focus of one's own mission - a fear that records management may become subordinated to the fast-paced technology fields. They need to remember there is strength in numbers and it benefits RM, IT, and the customer when they can bring together the unique offerings each possess to reach synergy for the benefit of all the corporations. Records Managers, need to continually strive to move ''outside the records management box'', network, expand their knowledge, and influence the IT disciplines to incorporate the concept of ''management'' into their customer solutions.

  1. Derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, M. A.

    1974-01-01

    A nonlinear stationary homogeneous digital filter DIRSIT (derivative information recovery by a selective integration technique) is investigated. The spectrum of a quasi-linear discrete describing function (DDF) to DIRSIT is obtained by a digital measuring scheme. A finite impulse response (FIR) approximation to the quasi-linearization is then obtained. Finally, DIRSIT is compared with its quasi-linear approximation and with a standard digital differentiating technique. Results indicate the effects of DIRSIT on a wide variety of practical signals.

  2. Towards A Topological Framework for Integrating Semantic Information Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Robinson, Michael

    2014-09-07

    In this position paper we argue for the role that topological modeling principles can play in providing a framework for sensor integration. While used successfully in standard (quantitative) sensors, we are developing this methodology in new directions to make it appropriate specifically for semantic information sources, including keyterms, ontology terms, and other general Boolean, categorical, ordinal, and partially-ordered data types. We illustrate the basics of the methodology in an extended use case/example, and discuss path forward.

  3. Integration of information and communication technologies in special relativity teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Rémi; Fleck, Sonia; Perriès, Stéphane; Ray, Cédric

    2005-09-01

    Integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in special relativity teaching may bring multiple and complementary methods for introducing either difficult or abstract counterintuitive concepts. This paper describes multimedia content developed at Lyon University to enhance the learning process of undergraduate students. Two categories of animated scenarios have been identified: real experiments and thought experiments. Both typical examples of these scenarios and their impacts on the teaching process are discussed.

  4. Attention modeled as information in learning multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Johannes; Magg, Sven; Wermter, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Top-down cognitive processes affect the way bottom-up cross-sensory stimuli are integrated. In this paper, we therefore extend a successful previous neural network model of learning multisensory integration in the superior colliculus (SC) by top-down, attentional input and train it on different classes of cross-modal stimuli. The network not only learns to integrate cross-modal stimuli, but the model also reproduces neurons specializing in different combinations of modalities as well as behavioral and neurophysiological phenomena associated with spatial and feature-based attention. Importantly, we do not provide the model with any information about which input neurons are sensory and which are attentional. If the basic mechanisms of our model-self-organized learning of input statistics and divisive normalization-play a major role in the ontogenesis of the SC, then this work shows that these mechanisms suffice to explain a wide range of aspects both of bottom-up multisensory integration and the top-down influence on multisensory integration.

  5. Information processing and signal integration in bacterial quorum sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Pankaj

    2009-03-01

    Bacteria communicate with each other using secreted chemical signaling molecules called autoinducers (AIs) in a process known as quorum sensing. Quorum sensing enables bacteria to collectively regulate their behavior depending on the number and/or species of bacteria present. The quorum-sensing network of the marine-bacteria Vibrio harveyi consists of three AIs encoding distinct ecological information, each detected by its own histidine-kinase sensor protein. The sensor proteins all phosphorylate a common response regulator and transmit sensory information through a shared phosphorelay that regulates expression of downstream quorum-sensing genes. Despite detailed knowledge of the Vibrio quorum-sensing circuit, it is still unclear how and why bacteria integrate information from multiple input signals to coordinate collective behaviors. Here we develop a mathematical framework for analyzing signal integration based on Information Theory and use it to show that bacteria must tune the kinase activities of sensor proteins in order to transmit information from multiple inputs. This is demonstrated within a quantitative model that allows us to quantify how much Vibrio's learn about individual inputs and explains experimentally measured input-output relations. Furthermore, we predicted and experimentally verified that bacteria manipulate the production rates of AIs in order to increase information transmission and argue that the quorum-sensing circuit is designed to coordinate a multi-cellular developmental program. Our results show that bacteria can successfully learn about multiple signals even when they are transmitted through a shared pathway and suggest that Information Theory may be a powerful tool for analyzing biological signaling networks.

  6. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level.

  7. An integrated and pragmatic approach: Global plant safety management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew

    1989-05-01

    The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening global business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting global safety management, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the global chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.

  8. Nucleobase and nucleoside transport and integration into plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Girke, Christopher; Daumann, Manuel; Niopek-Witz, Sandra; Möhlmann, Torsten

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is an essential process in all living organisms. Besides newly synthesized nucleotides, the recycling (salvage) of partially degraded nucleotides, i.e., nucleosides and nucleobases serves to keep the homeostasis of the nucleotide pool. Both types of metabolites are substrates of at least six families of transport proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) with a total of 49 members. In the last years several members of such transport proteins have been analyzed allowing to present a more detailed picture of nucleoside and nucleobase transport and the physiological function of these processes. Besides functioning in nucleotide metabolism it turned out that individual members of the before named transporters exhibit the capacity to transport a wide range of different substrates including vitamins and phytohormones. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on nucleobase and nucleoside transport processes in plants and integrate this into nucleotide metabolism in general. Thereby, we will focus on those proteins which have been characterized at the biochemical level. PMID:25250038

  9. Texas refiner optimizes by integrating units from idle plant

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-03-20

    In 1993, Phibro Energy USA Inc. purchased Dow Chemical Co.`s idle 200,000 b/d refinery at Freeport, TX. The Dow facility, known as the Oyster Creek refinery, was incapable of producing gasoline, and therefore was somewhat incomplete as a stand-alone refinery. By relocating and integrating units from the Dow plant with Phibro`s 130,700 b/d refinery at Texas City, TX, and adding a new residual oil solvent extraction (ROSE) unit, Phibro will optimize its Texas refinery operations. The dismantling, movement, and re-erection phases of the project are all but finished, and installation of piping and new instrumentation for the major relocated units is well under way. When the project is complete, Phibro will drastically reduce fuel oil production at Texas City and increase output of middle distillate. Resid, which the company now produces in excess, will be converted to a heavy fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) feedstock. Most of this stream will be fed to the oversized FCC unit at Phibro`s 71,000 b/d Houston refinery, thus eliminating Phibro`s reliance on purchased FCC feed. The paper discusses the Oyster Creek refinery, the decision to reduce residual fuel oil production company-wide, building versus moving equipment, dismantling and transport, construction, products, operational changes, utilities, process wastes, regulations, preparations, and future prospects. The remaining equipment at Oyster Creek was sold to a South Korean refinery.

  10. Surveillance to Inform Control of Emerging Plant Diseases: An Epidemiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Stephen; van den Bosch, Frank; Gottwald, Tim; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2017-08-04

    The rise in emerging pathogens and strains has led to increased calls for more effective surveillance in plant health. We show how epidemiological insights about the dynamics of disease spread can improve the targeting of when and where to sample. We outline some relatively simple but powerful statistical approaches to inform surveillance and describe how they can be adapted to include epidemiological information. This enables us to address questions such as: Following the first report of an invading pathogen, what is the likely incidence of disease? If no cases of disease have been found, how certain can we be that the disease was not simply missed by chance? We illustrate the use of spatially explicit stochastic models to optimize targeting of surveillance and control resources. Finally, we discuss how modern detection and diagnostic technologies as well as information from passive surveillance networks (e.g., citizen science) can be integrated into surveillance strategies.

  11. Performance measurement integrated information framework in e-Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teran, Hilaida; Hernandez, Juan Carlos; Vizán, Antonio; Ríos, José

    2014-11-01

    The implementation of Internet technologies has led to e-Manufacturing technologies becoming more widely used and to the development of tools for compiling, transforming and synchronising manufacturing data through the Web. In this context, a potential area for development is the extension of virtual manufacturing to performance measurement (PM) processes, a critical area for decision making and implementing improvement actions in manufacturing. This paper proposes a PM information framework to integrate decision support systems in e-Manufacturing. Specifically, the proposed framework offers a homogeneous PM information exchange model that can be applied through decision support in e-Manufacturing environment. Its application improves the necessary interoperability in decision-making data processing tasks. It comprises three sub-systems: a data model, a PM information platform and PM-Web services architecture. A practical example of data exchange for measurement processes in the area of equipment maintenance is shown to demonstrate the utility of the model.

  12. CARGO: a web portal to integrate customized biological information

    PubMed Central

    Cases, Ildefonso; Pisano, David G.; Andres, Eduardo; Carro, Angel; Fernández, José M.; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Vera, Jaime F.; Valencia, Alfonso; Rojas, Ana M.

    2007-01-01

    There is a huge quantity of information generated in Life Sciences, and it is dispersed in many databases and repositories. Despite the broad availability of the information, there is a great demand for methods that are able to look for, gather and display distributed data in a standardized and friendly way. CARGO (Cancer And Related Genes Online) is a configurable biological web portal designed as a tool to facilitate, integrate and visualize results from Internet resources, independently of their native format or access method. Through the use of small agents, called widgets, supported by a Rich Internet Application (RIA) paradigm based on AJAX, CARGO provides pieces of minimal, relevant and descriptive biological information. The tool is designed to be used by experimental biologists with no training in bioinformatics. In the current state, the system presents a list of human cancer genes. Available at http://cargo.bioinfo.cnio.es PMID:17483515

  13. CARGO: a web portal to integrate customized biological information.

    PubMed

    Cases, Ildefonso; Pisano, David G; Andres, Eduardo; Carro, Angel; Fernández, José M; Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Rodriguez, Jose M; Vera, Jaime F; Valencia, Alfonso; Rojas, Ana M

    2007-07-01

    There is a huge quantity of information generated in Life Sciences, and it is dispersed in many databases and repositories. Despite the broad availability of the information, there is a great demand for methods that are able to look for, gather and display distributed data in a standardized and friendly way. CARGO (Cancer And Related Genes Online) is a configurable biological web portal designed as a tool to facilitate, integrate and visualize results from Internet resources, independently of their native format or access method. Through the use of small agents, called widgets, supported by a Rich Internet Application (RIA) paradigm based on AJAX, CARGO provides pieces of minimal, relevant and descriptive biological information. The tool is designed to be used by experimental biologists with no training in bioinformatics. In the current state, the system presents a list of human cancer genes. Available at http://cargo.bioinfo.cnio.es.

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Information System (Public Access)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a DOE facility located in the desert outside Carlsbad, New Mexico. Its mission is to safely dispose of defense-related transuranic radioactive waste. Disposal ôroomsö are carved out of the Permian Salt Formation deep below the desertÆs surface. The WIPP Waste Information Service (WWIS) was established in accordance with an Agreement between the United States Department of Energy and the New Mexico Environment Department, dated February 11, 2005, Docket Number HWB 04-07 (CO). The service provides information the containers emplaced at WIPP and the waste products they hold. The public may query by shipment number, location of waste stream or location of the container after it is placed at WIPP, date placed, and Haz Codes or other information about the waste stream profiles. For example, choosing the waste stream identified as ID-SDA-SLUDGE reveals that it may contain more than 20 chemical waste products, including arsenic, spent halogenated solvents, potassium cyanide, and chloroform. The system then tells you each numbered container that has this kind of sludge. Container data is available within 14 days after the containerÆs emplacement in the WIPP Repository.

  15. Integrating Botany with Chemistry & Art to Improve Elementary School Children's Awareness of Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach…

  16. Integrating Botany with Chemistry & Art to Improve Elementary School Children's Awareness of Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çil, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Students need to be aware of plants in order to learn about, appreciate, care for, and protect them. However, research has found that many children are not aware of the plants in their environment. A way to address this issue might be integration of plants with various disciplines. I investigated the effectiveness of an instructional approach…

  17. Operator Serves as Integral Member of Plant Design Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dan P.; Collins, Floyd W.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that plant operators can be useful in designing sewage treatment plants. The advantages of this cooperative arrangement to the consulting engineers and the city, and the pitfalls, are discussed. (BB)

  18. Operator Serves as Integral Member of Plant Design Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dan P.; Collins, Floyd W.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that plant operators can be useful in designing sewage treatment plants. The advantages of this cooperative arrangement to the consulting engineers and the city, and the pitfalls, are discussed. (BB)

  19. The PlaNet Consortium: A Network of European Plant Databases Connecting Plant Genome Data in an Integrated Biological Knowledge Resource

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, R.; Mayer, K. F. X.

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the Arabidopsis genome and the large collections of other plant sequences generated in recent years have sparked extensive functional genomics efforts. However, the utilization of this data is inefficient, as data sources are distributed and heterogeneous and efforts at data integration are lagging behind. PlaNet aims to overcome the limitations of individual efforts as well as the limitations of heterogeneous, independent data collections. PlaNet is a distributed effort among European bioinformatics groups and plant molecular biologists to establish a comprehensive integrated database in a collaborative network. Objectives are the implementation of infrastructure and data sources to capture plant genomic information into a comprehensive, integrated platform. This will facilitate the systematic exploration of Arabidopsis and other plants. New methods for data exchange, database integration and access are being developed to create a highly integrated, federated data resource for research. The connection between the individual resources is realized with BioMOBY. BioMOBY provides an architecture for the discovery and distribution of biological data through web services. While knowledge is centralized, data is maintained at its primary source without a need for warehousing. To standardize nomenclature and data representation, ontologies and generic data models are defined in interaction with the relevant communities.Minimal data models should make it simple to allow broad integration, while inheritance allows detail and depth to be added to more complex data objects without losing integration. To allow expert annotation and keep databases curated, local and remote annotation interfaces are provided. Easy and direct access to all data is key to the project. PMID:18629059

  20. The PlaNet Consortium: a network of European plant databases connecting plant genome data in an integrated biological knowledge resource.

    PubMed

    Schoof, H; Ernst, R; Mayer, K F X

    2004-01-01

    The completion of the Arabidopsis genome and the large collections of other plant sequences generated in recent years have sparked extensive functional genomics efforts. However, the utilization of this data is inefficient, as data sources are distributed and heterogeneous and efforts at data integration are lagging behind. PlaNet aims to overcome the limitations of individual efforts as well as the limitations of heterogeneous, independent data collections. PlaNet is a distributed effort among European bioinformatics groups and plant molecular biologists to establish a comprehensive integrated database in a collaborative network. Objectives are the implementation of infrastructure and data sources to capture plant genomic information into a comprehensive, integrated platform. This will facilitate the systematic exploration of Arabidopsis and other plants. New methods for data exchange, database integration and access are being developed to create a highly integrated, federated data resource for research. The connection between the individual resources is realized with BioMOBY. BioMOBY provides an architecture for the discovery and distribution of biological data through web services. While knowledge is centralized, data is maintained at its primary source without a need for warehousing. To standardize nomenclature and data representation, ontologies and generic data models are defined in interaction with the relevant communities.Minimal data models should make it simple to allow broad integration, while inheritance allows detail and depth to be added to more complex data objects without losing integration. To allow expert annotation and keep databases curated, local and remote annotation interfaces are provided. Easy and direct access to all data is key to the project.

  1. A Survey Of Ai Approaches To The Integration Of Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Thomas D.

    1987-09-01

    The integration of information is a central issue for Artificial Intelligence research and development. The inference process in AI is the fundamental mechanism for combining information, and a significant aspect of most AT systems is the means by which they manage their overall workload by focusing processing attention and controlling which inferences are drawn and when it is appropriate to draw them. Several perspectives on the control of inferential processes and their access to information have evolved. One view of the problem treats the task as a goal-driven perceptual process, where specific information is explicitly sought from the world through selected sensor modalities, translated into a common "vocabulary," fused with other relevant information, and finally translated back into an understanding of critical aspects of the environment. Another view, centers on a flexible structure known as the blackboard architecture for enforcing control and communication activities. In this paper, we first review briefly a variety of AI inference techniques, focusing primarily on logical inference and uncertain reasoning methods. We conclude with a survey of approaches used to control inference processes, to mediate their access to real world information, and to schedule their activities.

  2. The impact of IAIMS on the work of information experts. Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ash, J

    1995-01-01

    Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) programs differ but have certain characteristics in common. Technological and organizational integration are universal goals. As integration takes place, what happens to those implementing the vision? A survey of 125 staff members, or information experts, involved in information or informatics at an IAIMS-funded institution was conducted during the last year of the implementation phase. The purpose was to measure the impact of IAIMS on the jobs of those in the library and related service units, and the computing, telecommunications, and health informatics divisions. The researchers used newly developed scales measuring levels of integration (knowledge of and involvement with other departments), customer orientation (focus on the user), and informatedness (changes in the nature of work beyond automation of former routines). Ninety-four percent of respondents indicated that their jobs had changed a great deal; the changes were similar regardless of division. To further investigate the impact of IAIMS on librarians in particular, a separate skills survey was conducted. The IAIMS librarians indicated that technology and training skills are especially needed in the new, integrated environment. PMID:8547905

  3. The impact of IAIMS on the work of information experts. Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems.

    PubMed

    Ash, J

    1995-10-01

    Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) programs differ but have certain characteristics in common. Technological and organizational integration are universal goals. As integration takes place, what happens to those implementing the vision? A survey of 125 staff members, or information experts, involved in information or informatics at an IAIMS-funded institution was conducted during the last year of the implementation phase. The purpose was to measure the impact of IAIMS on the jobs of those in the library and related service units, and the computing, telecommunications, and health informatics divisions. The researchers used newly developed scales measuring levels of integration (knowledge of and involvement with other departments), customer orientation (focus on the user), and informatedness (changes in the nature of work beyond automation of former routines). Ninety-four percent of respondents indicated that their jobs had changed a great deal; the changes were similar regardless of division. To further investigate the impact of IAIMS on librarians in particular, a separate skills survey was conducted. The IAIMS librarians indicated that technology and training skills are especially needed in the new, integrated environment.

  4. Integration of contour and surface information in shape detection.

    PubMed

    Machilsen, Bart; Wagemans, Johan

    2011-01-01

    In studies of shape perception, the detection of contours and the segregation of regions enclosed by these contours have mostly been treated in isolation. However, contours and surfaces somehow need to be combined to create a stable perception of shape. In this study, we used a 2AFC task with arrays of oriented Gabor elements to determine whether and to what extent human observers integrate information from the contour and from the interior surface of a shape embedded in this array. The saliency of the shapes depended on the alignment of Gabors along the shape outline and on the isolinearity of Gabors inside the shape. In two experiments we measured detectability of shapes defined by the contour cue, by the surface cue, and by the combination of both cues. As a first step, we matched performance in the two single-cue conditions. We then compared shape detectability in the double-cue condition with the two equally detectable single-cue conditions. Our results show a clear double-cue benefit: Participants used both cues to detect the shapes. Next, we compared performance in the double-cue condition with the performance predicted by two models of sensory cue combination: a minimum rule (probability summation) and an integration rule (information summation). Results from Experiment 2 indicate that participants applied a combination rule that was better than mere probability summation. We found no evidence against the integration rule.

  5. Information space models for data integration, and entity resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Reid; Collins, Linn; Powell, James; Rivenburgh, Reid

    2012-06-01

    Geospatial information systems provide a unique frame of reference to bring together a large and diverse set of data from a variety of sources. However, automating this process remains a challenge since: 1) data (particularly from sensors) is error prone and ambiguous, 2) analysis and visualization tools typically expect clean (or exact) data, and 3) it is difficult to describe how different data types and modalities relate to each other. In this paper we describe a data integration approach that can help address some of these challenges. Specifically we propose a light weight ontology for an Information Space Model (ISM). The ISM is designed to support functionality that lies between data catalogues and domain ontologies. Similar to data catalogues, the ISM provides metadata for data discovery across multiple, heterogeneous (often legacy) data sources e.g. maps servers, satellite images, social networks, geospatial blogs. Similar to domain ontologies, the ISM describes the functional relationship between these systems with respect to entities relevant to an application e.g. venues, actors and activities. We suggest a minimal set of ISM objects, and attributes for describing data sources and sensors relevant to data integration. We present a number of statistical relational learning techniques to represent and leverage the combination of deterministic and probabilistic dependencies found within the ISM. We demonstrate how the ISM provides a flexible language for data integration where unknown or ambiguous relationships can be mitigated.

  6. Strengthening Rehabilitation in Health Systems Worldwide by Integrating Information on Functioning in National Health Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Stucki, Gerold; Bickenbach, Jerome; Melvin, John

    2016-12-15

    A complete understanding of the experience of health requires information relevant not merely to the health indicators of mortality and morbidity but also to functioning-that is, information about what it means to live in a health state, "the lived experience of health." Not only is functioning information relevant to healthcare and the overall objectives of person-centered healthcare but to the successful operation of all components of health systems.In light of population aging and major epidemiological trends, the health strategy of rehabilitation, whose aim has always been to optimize functioning and minimize disability, will become a key health strategy. The increasing prominence of the rehabilitative strategy within the health system drives the argument for the integration of functioning information as an essential component in national health information systems.Rehabilitation professionals and researchers have long recognized in WHO's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health the best prospect for an internationally recognized, sufficiently complete and powerful information reference for the documentation of functioning information. This paper opens the discussion of the promise of integrating the ICF as an essential component in national health systems to secure access to functioning information for rehabilitation, across health systems and countries.

  7. A Proposal for Establishing a Free Market Basis for Plant Genome Information Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Slezak, T.

    2001-09-26

    The current situation of genomics information exchange is reminiscent of some Third World cities, where residents despair they will ever get official utility service and therefore tap into power, phone, and gas sources with makeshift connections. Thus, each genomics grant spawns yet another idiosyncratic Web site, with makeshift links to whatever random Web sites the PI is most familiar with. There are few standards for semantics of data, and fewer standards for automating the interchange or integration of these autonomous Web sites. The US Plant Genome Initiative (PGI) has been enthusiastic contributor to this proliferation of chaotic Web sites, but to its credit it appears to be the first major program to attempt to find a solution. Some of us from the earliest days of the Human Genome Program have been acutely aware of the problems of genomic data integration, since long before the Web appeared and made the problem exponentially harder to resolve. We have seen large scale attempts, and subsequent failures or inadequacies, of many potential solution approaches (i.e., database federation, classical data warehousing, centralized data, etc.) and believe we know at least some of the reasons they still remain inadequate. It is our opinion that the only solution that has a chance of succeeding is one that considers the overall economics of genomics data production, sharing, and integration. We believe that attempting to create a kind of Free Market for data created under the Plant Genome Initiative will represent the most practical, powerful, and cost-effective approach to dealing with the broad range of plant genome information that has been unleashed.

  8. Unifying Kohlberg with Information Integration: The Moral Algebra of Recompense and of Kohlbergian Moral Informers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hommers, Wilfried; Lee, Wha-Yong

    2010-01-01

    In order to unify two major theories of moral judgment, a novel task is employed which combines elements of Kohlberg's stage theory and of the theory of information integration. In contrast to the format of Kohlberg's moral judgment interview, a nonverbal and quantitative response which makes low demands on verbal facility was used. Moral…

  9. Crossmodal integration between visual linguistic information and flavour perception.

    PubMed

    Razumiejczyk, Eugenia; Macbeth, Guillermo; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Noguchi, Kimihiro

    2015-08-01

    Many studies have found processing interference in working memory when complex information that enters the cognitive system from different modalities has to be integrated to understand the environment and promote adjustment. Here, we report on a Stroop study that provides evidence concerned with the crossmodal processing of flavour perception and visual language. We found a facilitation effect in the congruency condition. Acceleration was observed for incomplete words and anagrams compared to complete words. A crossmodal completion account is presented for such findings. It is concluded that the crossmodal integration between flavour and visual language perception requires the active participation of top-down and bottom-up processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of Uncertainty Information into Power System Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Samaan, Nader A.; Huang, Zhenyu; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Hafen, Ryan P.; Diao, Ruisheng; Lu, Ning

    2011-10-10

    Contemporary power systems face uncertainties coming from multiple sources, including forecast errors of load, wind and solar generation, uninstructed deviation and forced outage of traditional generators, loss of transmission lines, and others. With increasing amounts of wind and solar generation being integrated into the system, these uncertainties have been growing significantly. It is critical important to build knowledge of major sources of uncertainty, learn how to simulate them, and then incorporate this information into the decision-making processes and power system operations, for better reliability and efficiency. This paper gives a comprehensive view on the sources of uncertainty in power systems, important characteristics, available models, and ways of their integration into system operations. It is primarily based on previous works conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL).

  11. Information Integration and Energy Expenditure in Gene Regulation.

    PubMed

    Estrada, Javier; Wong, Felix; DePace, Angela; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2016-06-30

    The quantitative concepts used to reason about gene regulation largely derive from bacterial studies. We show that this bacterial paradigm cannot explain the sharp expression of a canonical developmental gene in response to a regulating transcription factor (TF). In the absence of energy expenditure, with regulatory DNA at thermodynamic equilibrium, information integration across multiple TF binding sites can generate the required sharpness, but with strong constraints on the resultant "higher-order cooperativities." Even with such integration, there is a "Hopfield barrier" to sharpness; for n TF binding sites, this barrier is represented by the Hill function with the Hill coefficient n. If, however, energy is expended to maintain regulatory DNA away from thermodynamic equilibrium, as in kinetic proofreading, this barrier can be breached and greater sharpness achieved. Our approach is grounded in fundamental physics, leads to testable experimental predictions, and suggests how a quantitative paradigm for eukaryotic gene regulation can be formulated.

  12. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  13. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  14. Learning to integrate versus inhibiting information is modulated by age.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Pikkat, Helen; Upstill, Emily; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Walsh, Vincent

    2015-02-04

    Cognitive training aiming at improving learning is often successful, but what exactly underlies the observed improvements and how these differ across the age spectrum are currently unknown. Here we asked whether learning in young and older people may reflect enhanced ability to integrate information required to perform a cognitive task or whether it may instead reflect the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information for successful task performance. We trained 30 young and 30 aging human participants on a numerosity discrimination task known to engage the parietal cortex and in which cue-integration and inhibitory abilities can be distinguished. We coupled training with parietal, motor, or sham transcranial random noise stimulation, known for modulating neural activity. Numerosity discrimination improved after training and was maintained long term, especially in the training + parietal stimulation group, regardless of age. Despite the quantitatively similar improvement in the two age groups, the content of learning differed remarkably: aging participants improved more in inhibitory abilities, whereas younger subjects improved in cue-integration abilities. Moreover, differences in the content of learning were reflected in different transfer effects to untrained but related abilities: in the younger group, improvements in cue integration paralleled improvements in continuous quantity (time and space), whereas in the elderly group, improvements in numerosity-based inhibitory abilities generalized to other measures of inhibition and corresponded to a decline in space discrimination, possibly because conflicting learning resources are used in numerosity and continuous quantity processing. These results indicate that training can enhance different, age-dependent cognitive processes and highlight the importance of identifying the exact processes underlying learning for effective training programs.

  15. Recommendations for a Cockpit Display that Integrates Weather Information with Traffic Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comerford, Doreen A.

    2004-01-01

    This effort was supported by the System-Wide Accident Prevention element of NASA s Aviation Safety Program. This document may serve as a first step toward the goal of integrating traffic, weather, and terrain information; it provides recommendations for a cockpit display that integrates weather information with traffic information. While some of the recommendations are general enough to be used for any type of operations, these recommendations are targeted for Federal Aviation Regulations Part 121 Operations. The document is organized in the following manner. First, weather information is discussed as an independent subject matter, and recommendations are presented for presenting weather in the cockpit. Second, traffic is discussed independently, but this discussion essentially reviews work on the display of traffic in the cockpit. Third, recommendations for the cockpit integration of weather and traffic information are discussed. Fourth, several research groups are recognized for their efforts in developing systems that are relevant to the current discussion. Finally, closing remarks provide suggestions for future efforts.

  16. An integrated healthcare enterprise information portal and healthcare information system framework.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S L; Lai, Feipei; Cheng, P H; Chen, J L; Lee, H H; Tsai, W N; Weng, Y C; Hsieh, S H; Hsu, K P; Ko, L F; Yang, T H; Chen, C H

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated, distributed Healthcare Enterprise Information Portal (HEIP) and Hospital Information Systems (HIS) framework over wireless/wired infrastructure at National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). A single sign-on solution for the hospital customer relationship management (CRM) in HEIP has been established. The outcomes of the newly developed Outpatient Information Systems (OIS) in HIS are discussed. The future HEIP blueprints with CRM oriented features: e-Learning, Remote Consultation and Diagnosis (RCD), as well as on-Line Vaccination Services are addressed. Finally, the integrated HEIP and HIS architectures based on the middleware technologies are proposed along with the feasible approaches. The preliminary performance of multi-media, time-based data exchanges over the wireless HEIP side is collected to evaluate the efficiency of the architecture.

  17. Integrating digital information for coastal and marine sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.; Caruso, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot distributed geolibrary, the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB), was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to scientific information about oceans, coasts, and lakes. The MRIB is composed of a categorization scheme, a metadata database, and a specialized software backend, capable of drawing together information from remote sources without modifying their original format or content. Twelve facets are used to classify information: location, geologic time, feature type, biota, discipline, research method, hot topics, project, agency, author, content type, and file type. The MRIB approach allows easy and flexible organization of large or growing document collections for which centralized repositories would be impractical. Geographic searching based on the gazetteer and map interface is the centerpiece of the MRIB distributed geolibrary. The MRIB is one of a very few digital libraries that employ georeferencing -- a fundamentally different way to structure information from the traditional author/title/subject/keyword approach employed by most digital libraries. Lessons learned in developing the MRIB will be useful as other digital libraries confront the challenges of georeferencing.

  18. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T. ); Korkmaz, M. )

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m[mu] for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  19. Integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant: Conceptual design and costing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, E.T.; Paul, A.D.; Bartis, J.T.; Korkmaz, M.

    1992-12-01

    At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, a study was conducted to provide DOE with a reliable, documented estimate of the cost of producing coal-water fuel (CWF). The approach to the project was to specify a plant capacity and location, identify and analyze a suitable coal, and develop a conceptual design for an integrated coal preparation and CWF processing plant. Using this information, a definitive costing study was then conducted, on the basis of which an economic and sensitivity analysis was performed utilizing a financial evaluation model to determine a price for CWF in 1992. The design output of the integrated plant is 200 tons of coal (dry basis) per hour. Operating at a capacity factor of 83 percent, the baseline design yields approximately 1.5 million tons per year of coal on a dry basis. This is approximately equivalent to the fuel required to continuously generate 500 MW of electric power. The CWF produced by the plant is intended as a replacement for heavy oil or gas in electric utility and large industrial boilers. The particle size distribution, particularly the top size, and the ash content of the coal in the CWF are specified at significantly lower levels than is commonly found in typical pulverized coal grinds. The particle top size is 125 microns (vs typically 300m{mu} for pulverized coal) and the coal ash content is 3.8 percent. The lower top size is intended to promote complete carbon burnout at less derating in boilers that are not designed for coal firing. The reduced mineral matter content will produce ash of very fine particle size during combustion, which leads to less impaction and reduced fouling of tubes in convective passages.

  20. A power information user (PIU) model to promote information integration in Tennessee's public health community.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Nila A; Lee, Patricia; Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli

    2004-10-01

    Observation and immersion in the user community are critical factors in designing and implementing informatics solutions; such practices ensure relevant interventions and promote user acceptance. Libraries can adapt these strategies to developing instruction and outreach. While needs assessment is typically a core facet of library instruction, sustained, iterative assessment underlying the development of user-centered instruction is key to integrating resource use into the workflow. This paper describes the Eskind Biomedical Library's (EBL's) recent work with the Tennessee public health community to articulate a training model centered around developing power information users (PIUs). PIUs are community-based individuals with an advanced understanding of information seeking and resource use and are committed to championing information integration. As model development was informed by observation of PIU workflow and information needs, it also allowed for informal testing of the applicability of assessment via domain immersion in library outreach. Though the number of PIUs involved in the project was small, evaluation indicated that the model was useful for promoting information use in PIU workgroups and that the concept of domain immersion was relevant to library-related projects. Moreover, EBL continues to employ principles of domain understanding inherent in the PIU model to develop further interventions for the public health community and library users.

  1. PRIMe Update: innovative content for plant metabolomics and integration of gene expression and metabolite accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Yamada, Yutaka; Sawada, Yuji; Matsuda, Fumio; Akiyama, Kenji; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Saito, Kazuki

    2013-02-01

    PRIMe (http://prime.psc.riken.jp/), the Platform for RIKEN Metabolomics, is a website that was designed and implemented to support research and analyses ranging from metabolomics to transcriptomics. To achieve functional genomics and annotation of unknown metabolites, we established the following PRIMe contents: MS2T, a library comprising >1 million entries of untargeted tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data of plant metabolites; AtMetExpress LC-MS, a database of transcriptomics and metabolomics approaches in Arabidopsis developmental stages (AtMetExpress Development LC-MS) and a data set of the composition of secondary metabolites among 20 Arabidopsis ecotypes (AtMetExpress 20 ecotypes LC-MS); and ReSpect, hybrid reference MS/MS data resources (acquisitions and literature). PRIMeLink is a new web application that allows access to the innovative data resources of PRIMe. The MS2T library was generated from a set of MS/MS spectra acquired using the automatic data acquisition function of mass spectrometry. To increase the understanding of mechanisms driving variations in metabolic profiles among plant tissues, we further provided the AtMetExpress Development LC-MS database in PRIMe, facilitating the investigation of relationships between gene expression and metabolite accumulation. This information platform therefore provides an integrative analysis resource by linking Arabidopsis transcriptome and metabolome data. Moreover, we developed the ReSpect database, a plant-specific MS/MS data resource, which allows users to identify candidate structures from the suite of complex phytochemical structures. Finally, we integrated the three databases into PRIMeLink and established a walk-through link between transcriptome and metabolome information. PRIMeLink offers a bi-directional searchable function, from the gene and the metabolite perspective, to search for targets seamlessly and effectively.

  2. Project Integration Architecture: Inter-Application Propagation of Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    A principal goal of the Project Integration Architecture (PIA) is to facilitate the meaningful inter-application transfer of application-value-added information. Such exchanging applications may be largely unrelated to each other except through their applicability to an overall project; however, the PIA effort recognizes as fundamental the need to make such applications cooperate despite wide disparaties either in the fidelity of the analyses carried out, or even the disciplines of the analysis. This paper discusses the approach and techniques applied and anticipated by the PIA project in treating this need.

  3. Two theories of consciousness: Semantic pointer competition vs. information integration.

    PubMed

    Thagard, Paul; Stewart, Terrence C

    2014-11-01

    Consciousness results from three mechanisms: representation by firing patterns in neural populations, binding of representations into more complex representations called semantic pointers, and competition among semantic pointers to capture the most important aspects of an organism's current state. We contrast the semantic pointer competition (SPC) theory of consciousness with the hypothesis that consciousness is the capacity of a system to integrate information (IIT). We describe computer simulations to show that SPC surpasses IIT in providing better explanations of key aspects of consciousness: qualitative features, onset and cessation, shifts in experiences, differences in kinds across different organisms, unity and diversity, and storage and retrieval. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Design principles for achieving integrated healthcare information systems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-03-01

    Achieving integrated healthcare information systems has become a common goal for many countries in their pursuit of obtaining coordinated and comprehensive healthcare services. This article focuses on how a small local project termed 'Standardized pull of patient data' expanded and is now used on a large scale providing a majority of hospitals, general practitioners and citizens across Denmark with the possibility of accessing healthcare data from different electronic patient record systems and other systems. I build on design theory for information infrastructures, as presented by Hanseth and Lyytinen, to examine the design principles that facilitated this smallscale project to expand and become widespread. As a result of my findings, I outline three lessons learned that emphasize: (i) principles of flexibility, (ii) expansion from the installed base through modular strategies and (iii) identification of key healthcare actors to provide them with immediate benefits.

  5. Monitoring diseases across borders: African regional integrative information systems.

    PubMed

    Simbini, Tungamirirai; Foster, Rosemary; Nesara, Paul; Hullin Lucay Cossio, Carola

    2010-01-01

    In African countries, communicable diseases remain the chief cause of a heavy disease burden. Regional economic, political and social integration bring new challenges in the management of these diseases, many of which are treatable. Information Communication Technology (ICT) applied through electronic health systems has the potential to strengthen healthcare service delivery and disease surveillance within these countries. This paper discusses the importance of well-defined e-Health strategies within countries and, in addition, proposes that countries within regions collaborate in planning for health information exchange across borders. It is suggested that particular attention be paid to technical and data standards enabling interoperability, and also to issues of security, patient privacy and governance.

  6. Developing an integrated information system in a modern aluminum smelter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbin, Ph.

    1994-05-01

    The developments in the aluminum markets demand that more use be made of the information available within a smelter. Quality must be made measurable and verifiable; the organization continually must be optimized, and the production processes must be steadily improved. Costs have to be supervised, deviations immediately reported, countermeasures taken at once. These elements offer protection against the pressure of the market and allow competitive high-tech products to be produced and timely investments to be targeted and made. With the help of information technology, it is ever more possible to keep up with these demands. This article describes the design and realization of a completely integrated data transmission system in a modern aluminum smelter operated by VAW Aluminium AG. Several examples of practical implementation are given.

  7. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  8. Towards a Unified Approach to Information Integration - A review paper on data/information fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Posse, Christian; Lei, Xingye C.

    2005-10-14

    Information or data fusion of data from different sources are ubiquitous in many applications, from epidemiology, medical, biological, political, and intelligence to military applications. Data fusion involves integration of spectral, imaging, text, and many other sensor data. For example, in epidemiology, information is often obtained based on many studies conducted by different researchers at different regions with different protocols. In the medical field, the diagnosis of a disease is often based on imaging (MRI, X-Ray, CT), clinical examination, and lab results. In the biological field, information is obtained based on studies conducted on many different species. In military field, information is obtained based on data from radar sensors, text messages, chemical biological sensor, acoustic sensor, optical warning and many other sources. Many methodologies are used in the data integration process, from classical, Bayesian, to evidence based expert systems. The implementation of the data integration ranges from pure software design to a mixture of software and hardware. In this review we summarize the methodologies and implementations of data fusion process, and illustrate in more detail the methodologies involved in three examples. We propose a unified multi-stage and multi-path mapping approach to the data fusion process, and point out future prospects and challenges.

  9. Quantifying biological integrity of California sage scrub communities using plant life-form cover.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Y.; Stow, D. A.; Franklin, J.

    2010-01-01

    The California sage scrub (CSS) community type in California's Mediterranean-type ecosystems supports a large number of rare, threatened, and endangered species, and is critically degraded and endangered. Monitoring ecological variables that provide information about community integrity is vital to conserving these biologically diverse communities. Fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herbaceous vegetation, and bare ground should fill information gaps between generalized vegetation type maps and detailed field-based plot measurements of species composition and provide an effective means for quantifying CSS community integrity. Remote sensing is the only tool available for estimating spatially comprehensive fractional cover over large extent, and fractional cover of plant life-form types is one of the measures of vegetation state that is most amenable to remote sensing. The use of remote sensing does not eliminate the need for either field surveying or vegetation type mapping; rather it will likely require a combination of approaches to reliably estimate life-form cover and to provide comprehensive information for communities. According to our review and synthesis, life-form fractional cover has strong potential for providing ecologically meaningful intermediate-scale information, which is unattainable from vegetation type maps and species-level field measurements. Thus, we strongly recommend incorporating fractional cover of true shrub, subshrub, herb, and bare ground in CSS community monitoring methods. Estimating life-form cover at a 25 m x 25 m spatial scale using remote sensing would be an appropriate approach for initial implementation. Investigation of remote sensing techniques and an appropriate spatial scale; collaboration of resource managers, biologists, and remote sensing specialists, and refinement of protocols are essential for integrating life-form fractional cover mapping into strategies for sustainable long-term CSS community management.

  10. Integrating information from different senses in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew J; Walker, Kerry M M

    2012-12-01

    Multisensory integration was once thought to be the domain of brain areas high in the cortical hierarchy, with early sensory cortical fields devoted to unisensory processing of inputs from their given set of sensory receptors. More recently, a wealth of evidence documenting visual and somatosensory responses in auditory cortex, even as early as the primary fields, has changed this view of cortical processing. These multisensory inputs may serve to enhance responses to sounds that are accompanied by other sensory cues, effectively making them easier to hear, but may also act more selectively to shape the receptive field properties of auditory cortical neurons to the location or identity of these events. We discuss the new, converging evidence that multiplexing of neural signals may play a key role in informatively encoding and integrating signals in auditory cortex across multiple sensory modalities. We highlight some of the many open research questions that exist about the neural mechanisms that give rise to multisensory integration in auditory cortex, which should be addressed in future experimental and theoretical studies.

  11. Ensemble-type numerical uncertainty information from single model integrations

    SciTech Connect

    Rauser, Florian Marotzke, Jochem; Korn, Peter

    2015-07-01

    We suggest an algorithm that quantifies the discretization error of time-dependent physical quantities of interest (goals) for numerical models of geophysical fluid dynamics. The goal discretization error is estimated using a sum of weighted local discretization errors. The key feature of our algorithm is that these local discretization errors are interpreted as realizations of a random process. The random process is determined by the model and the flow state. From a class of local error random processes we select a suitable specific random process by integrating the model over a short time interval at different resolutions. The weights of the influences of the local discretization errors on the goal are modeled as goal sensitivities, which are calculated via automatic differentiation. The integration of the weighted realizations of local error random processes yields a posterior ensemble of goal approximations from a single run of the numerical model. From the posterior ensemble we derive the uncertainty information of the goal discretization error. This algorithm bypasses the requirement of detailed knowledge about the models discretization to generate numerical error estimates. The algorithm is evaluated for the spherical shallow-water equations. For two standard test cases we successfully estimate the error of regional potential energy, track its evolution, and compare it to standard ensemble techniques. The posterior ensemble shares linear-error-growth properties with ensembles of multiple model integrations when comparably perturbed. The posterior ensemble numerical error estimates are of comparable size as those of a stochastic physics ensemble.

  12. The Plant Organelles Database 3 (PODB3) update 2014: integrating electron micrographs and new options for plant organelle research.

    PubMed

    Mano, Shoji; Nakamura, Takanori; Kondo, Maki; Miwa, Tomoki; Nishikawa, Shuh-ichi; Mimura, Tetsuro; Nagatani, Akira; Nishimura, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    The Plant Organelles Database 2 (PODB2), which was first launched in 2006 as PODB, provides static image and movie data of plant organelles, protocols for plant organelle research and external links to relevant websites. PODB2 has facilitated plant organellar research and the understanding of plant organelle dynamics. To provide comprehensive information on plant organelles in more detail, PODB2 was updated to PODB3 (http://podb.nibb.ac.jp/Organellome/). PODB3 contains two additional components: the electron micrograph database and the perceptive organelles database. Through the electron micrograph database, users can examine the subcellular and/or suborganellar structures in various organs of wild-type and mutant plants. The perceptive organelles database provides information on organelle dynamics in response to external stimuli. In addition to the extra components, the user interface for access has been enhanced in PODB3. The data in PODB3 are directly submitted by plant researchers and can be freely downloaded for use in further analysis. PODB3 contains all the information included in PODB2, and the volume of data and protocols deposited in PODB3 continue to grow steadily. We welcome contributions of data from all plant researchers to enhance the utility and comprehensiveness of PODB3.

  13. Development of Integrated Programs for Aerospace-vehicle design (IPAD): Integrated information processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Southall, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The engineering-specified requirements for integrated information processing by means of the Integrated Programs for Aerospace-Vehicle Design (IPAD) system are presented. A data model is described and is based on the design process of a typical aerospace vehicle. General data management requirements are specified for data storage, retrieval, generation, communication, and maintenance. Information management requirements are specified for a two-component data model. In the general portion, data sets are managed as entities, and in the specific portion, data elements and the relationships between elements are managed by the system, allowing user access to individual elements for the purpose of query. Computer program management requirements are specified for support of a computer program library, control of computer programs, and installation of computer programs into IPAD.

  14. Integrated multi-port circulators for unidirectional optical information transport.

    PubMed

    Aleahmad, Parinaz; Khajavikhan, Mercedeh; Christodoulides, Demetrios; LiKamWa, Patrick

    2017-05-18

    On-chip photonic networks hold great promise for enabling next-generation high speed computation and communication systems. It is currently envisioned that future integrated photonic networks will be capable of processing dense digital information on a single monolithic platform by involving a multitude of optical components ranging from lasers to modulators, to routers, interconnects and detectors. Among the possible functionalities to be incorporated in such arrangements is the ability to route information in a unidirectional way among N-ports - a capability typically afforded through the use of optical circulators. Yet, in many settings, what is basically needed is re-routing information in a unidirectional fashion without necessarily invoking optical isolation. Of interest would be to devise strategies through which miniaturized optical devices can be monolithically fabricated on light-emitting semiconductors by solely relying on physical properties that are indigenous to the material itself. By exploiting the interplay between non-Hermiticity and nonlinearity, here we demonstrate a new class of chip-scale information transport devices on spatially modified III-V quantum well systems. These unidirectional structures are broadband (over 2.5 THz) at 1550 nm, effectively loss-free, color-preserving, and in proof-of-principle demonstrations have provided 23 dB isolation when used under pulsed-mode conditions at milliwatt (mW) power levels.

  15. The integration of cartographic information into a content management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furnari, Mario M.; Noviello, Carmine

    2006-01-01

    A corporate information system needs to be as accessible as library content, which implies to organize the content in a logical structure, categorizing it, and using the categories to add metadata to the information. Content Management System (CMS) are an emerging kind software component that manages content, usually making a large use of the web technologies, whose main goals are to allow easy creation, publishing and retrieval of content to fit business needs. The focus of this paper is to describe how we integrated "map" metaphor into a CMS. Where maps are symbolic information and rely on the use of a graphic sign language. A characteristic feature of maps is that their design has traditionally been constrained by the need to create one model of reality for a variety of purposes. The map's primary role as a communication medium involves the application of processes such as selection, classification, displacement, symbolization and graphic exaggeration. A model of the infrastructure is presented and the current prototype of the model is briefly discussed together the currently deployed environment for the cultural heritage information dissemination.

  16. Final Report: RPP-WTP Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M. R.; Adamson, D. J.; Calloway, T. B.; Fowley, M. D.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steimke, J. L.; Williams, M. R.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2005-06-01

    In August 2004 the last of the SIPP task testing ended--a task that formally began with the issuance of the RPP-WTP Test Specification in June 2003. The planning for the task was a major effort in itself and culminated with the input of all stakeholders, DOE, Bechtel National, Inc., Washington Group International, in October 2003 at Hanford, WA (Appendix A). This report documents the activities carried out as a result of that planning. Campaign IV, the fourth and final step towards the Semi-Integrated Pilot Plant (SIPP) task, conducted by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) at the Savannah River Site, was to take the several recycle streams produced in Campaign III, the third step of the task, and combine them with other simulated recycle and chosen waste streams. (Campaign III was fed recycles from Campaign II, as Campaign II was fed by Campaign I.) The combined stream was processed in a fashion that mimicked the pretreatment operations of the DOE River Protection Project--Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) with the exception of the Ion Exchange Process. The SIPP task is considered semi-integrated because it only deals with the pretreatment operations of the RPP-WTP. That is, the pilot plant starts by receiving waste from the tank farm and ends when waste is processed to the point of being sent for vitrification. The resulting pretreated LAW and HLW simulants produced by the SIPP were shipped to VSL (Vitreous State Laboratory) and successfully vitrified in pilot WTP melters. Within the SIPP task these steps are referred to as Campaigns and there were four Campaigns in all. Campaign I, which is completely different than other campaigns, subjected a simulant of Hanford Tank 241-AY-102/C-106 (AY102) waste to cross-flow ultrafiltration only and in that process several important recycle streams were produced as a result of washing the simulant and cleaning the cross-flow filter. These streams were fed to subsequent campaigns and that work was

  17. Broadcasting GPS integrity information using Loran-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Sherman Chih

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will adopt the Global Positioning System (GPS) as its primary navigation systems for aviation as stated by the Federal Radionavigation Plans (FRP) of 1996 and 1999. The FRP also proposes the reduction or termination of some existing radionavigation system in favor of GPS and satellite navigation. It may be beneficial to retain some of these existing terrestrial navigation systems if they can provide increased safety and redundancy to the GPS based architecture. One manner in which this can be done is by using or creating a data link on these existing radionavigation systems. These systems thus can provide both navigation and an additional broadcast of GPS integrity information. This thesis examines the use of terrestrial data links to provide Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) based GPS integrity information for aviation. The thesis focuses on using Loran-C to broadcast WAAS data. Analysis and experimental results demonstrating the capabilities of these designs are also discussed. Using Loran for this purpose requires increasing its data capacity. Many Loran modulation schemes are developed and analyzed. The data rates developed significantly increased the Loran data capacity. However, retaining compatibility with Loran legacy users resulted in data rates below the WARS data rate of 250 bps. As a result, this thesis also examines means of reducing the data requirements for WAAS information. While higher data rates offer improved performance and compatibility with WAAS, this thesis demonstrates that higher rates incur greater interference. Therefore, this work develops and considers a 108 bps and 167 bps Loran GPS integrity channel (LOGIC) design. The performance of the two designs illustrates some of the advantages and disadvantages of using a higher data rate. Analysis demonstrated means of maintaining integrity with these low data rate systems and determined the theoretical capabilities of the systems. The

  18. Integrating Studies on Plant-Pollinator and Plant-Herbivore Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Barbosa, Dani

    2016-02-01

    Research on herbivore-induced plant defence and research on pollination ecology have had a long history of separation. Plant reproduction of most angiosperm species is mediated by pollinators, and the effects of herbivore-induced plant defences on pollinator behaviour have been largely neglected. Moreover, there is expected to be a trade-off between plant reproductive strategies and defence mechanisms. To investigate this trade-off, it is essential to study herbivore-induced plant resistance and allocation of resources by plants, within the same system, and to test if indirect plant resistance can conflict with pollinator attraction. Here, I review the key literature highlighting connection between plant defence and reproduction, and propose to exploit natural variation among plant species to assess the ecological costs of plant responses to herbivores and pollinators.

  19. Software Requirements Specification of A Proposed Plant Property Management Information System for the Naval Postgraduate School.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    information system (MIS) to support Plant Account equipment related functions could eliminate data handling redundancy and improved Plant Account...system users and accountability for more than 2000 individual equipment items worth over seven million dollars. Implementation of a management

  20. 9 CFR 355.19 - Inspector to be informed when plant operates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Procedure § 355.19 Inspector to be informed when plant operates. The management of an inspected plant...

  1. An Integrated Information System for Supporting Quality Management Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, N.; Helmreich, W.

    2004-08-01

    In a competitive environment, well defined processes become the strategic advantage of a company. Hence, targeted Quality Management ensures efficiency, trans- parency and, ultimately, customer satisfaction. In the particular context of a Space Test Centre, a num- ber of specific Quality Management standards have to be applied. According to the revision of ISO 9001 dur- ing 2000, and due to the adaptation of ECSS-Q20-07, process orientation and data analysis are key tasks for ensuring and evaluating the efficiency of a company's processes. In line with these requirements, an integrated management system for accessing the necessary infor- mation to support Quality Management and other proc- esses has been established. Some of its test-related fea- tures are presented here. Easy access to the integrated management system from any work place at IABG's Space Test Centre is ensured by means of an intranet portal. It comprises a full set of quality-related process descriptions, information on test facilities, emergency procedures, and other relevant in- formation. The portal's web interface provides direct access to a couple of external applications. Moreover, easy updating of all information and low cost mainte- nance are features of this integrated information system. The timely and transparent management of non- conformances is covered by a dedicated NCR database which incorporates full documentation capability, elec- tronic signature and e-mail notification of concerned staff. A search interface allows for queries across all documented non-conformances. Furthermore, print ver- sions can be generated at any stage in the process, e.g. for distribution to customers. Feedback on customer satisfaction is sought through a web-based questionnaire. The process is initiated by the responsible test manager through submission of an e- mail that contains a hyperlink to a secure website, ask- ing the customer to complete the brief online form, which is directly fed to a database

  2. The evolution of water transport in plants: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Pittermann, J

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the evolution of the plant vascular system from its beginnings in the green algae to modern arborescent plants, highlighting the recent advances in developmental, organismal, geochemical and climatological research that have contributed to our understanding of the evolution of xylem. Hydraulic trade-offs in vascular structure-function are discussed in the context of canopy support and drought and freeze-thaw stress resistance. This qualitative and quantitative neontological approach to palaeobotany may be useful for interpreting the water-transport efficiencies and hydraulic limits in fossil plants. Large variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are recorded in leaf stomatal densities, and may have had profound impacts on the water conservation strategies of ancient plants. A hypothesis that links vascular function with stomatal density is presented and examined in the context of the evolution of wood and/or vessels. A discussion of the broader impacts of plant transport on hydrology and climate concludes this review.

  3. Integration of Acoustical Information in the Perception of Impacted Sound Sources: The Role of Information Accuracy and Exploitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Rocchesso, Davide; McAdams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Sound sources are perceived by integrating information from multiple acoustical features. The factors influencing the integration of information are largely unknown. We measured how the perceptual weighting of different features varies with the accuracy of information and with a listener's ability to exploit it. Participants judged the hardness of…

  4. Integration of Acoustical Information in the Perception of Impacted Sound Sources: The Role of Information Accuracy and Exploitability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Bruno L.; Rocchesso, Davide; McAdams, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Sound sources are perceived by integrating information from multiple acoustical features. The factors influencing the integration of information are largely unknown. We measured how the perceptual weighting of different features varies with the accuracy of information and with a listener's ability to exploit it. Participants judged the hardness of…

  5. 78 FR 16259 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Integrated Postsecondary Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System... of Collection: Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) 2013-2016. OMB Control Number... Number of Annual Burden Hours: 954,030. Abstract: The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data...

  6. Information Technology Management: The Development of the Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Information Technology Management Department of Defense Office of the Inspector General March 12, 2003 AccountabilityIntegrityQuality The...from... to) - Title and Subtitle Information Technology Management : The Development of the Navy Standard Integrated Personnel System Contract

  7. Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2010-11-18

    Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group-a halide-is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore seem to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts.

  8. An integrated metagenome and -proteome analysis of the microbial community residing in a biogas production plant.

    PubMed

    Ortseifen, Vera; Stolze, Yvonne; Maus, Irena; Sczyrba, Alexander; Bremges, Andreas; Albaum, Stefan P; Jaenicke, Sebastian; Fracowiak, Jochen; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-08-10

    To study the metaproteome of a biogas-producing microbial community, fermentation samples were taken from an agricultural biogas plant for microbial cell and protein extraction and corresponding metagenome analyses. Based on metagenome sequence data, taxonomic community profiling was performed to elucidate the composition of bacterial and archaeal sub-communities. The community's cytosolic metaproteome was represented in a 2D-PAGE approach. Metaproteome databases for protein identification were compiled based on the assembled metagenome sequence dataset for the biogas plant analyzed and non-corresponding biogas metagenomes. Protein identification results revealed that the corresponding biogas protein database facilitated the highest identification rate followed by other biogas-specific databases, whereas common public databases yielded insufficient identification rates. Proteins of the biogas microbiome identified as highly abundant were assigned to the pathways involved in methanogenesis, transport and carbon metabolism. Moreover, the integrated metagenome/-proteome approach enabled the examination of genetic-context information for genes encoding identified proteins by studying neighboring genes on the corresponding contig. Exemplarily, this approach led to the identification of a Methanoculleus sp. contig encoding 16 methanogenesis-related gene products, three of which were also detected as abundant proteins within the community's metaproteome. Thus, metagenome contigs provide additional information on the genetic environment of identified abundant proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MEGANTE: a web-based system for integrated plant genome annotation.

    PubMed

    Numa, Hisataka; Itoh, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    The recent advancement of high-throughput genome sequencing technologies has resulted in a considerable increase in demands for large-scale genome annotation. While annotation is a crucial step for downstream data analyses and experimental studies, this process requires substantial expertise and knowledge of bioinformatics. Here we present MEGANTE, a web-based annotation system that makes plant genome annotation easy for researchers unfamiliar with bioinformatics. Without any complicated configuration, users can perform genomic sequence annotations simply by uploading a sequence and selecting the species to query. MEGANTE automatically runs several analysis programs and integrates the results to select the appropriate consensus exon-intron structures and to predict open reading frames (ORFs) at each locus. Functional annotation, including a similarity search against known proteins and a functional domain search, are also performed for the predicted ORFs. The resultant annotation information is visualized with a widely used genome browser, GBrowse. For ease of analysis, the results can be downloaded in Microsoft Excel format. All of the query sequences and annotation results are stored on the server side so that users can access their own data from virtually anywhere on the web. The current release of MEGANTE targets 24 plant species from the Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Musaceae, Poaceae, Salicaceae, Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Vitaceae families, and it allows users to submit a sequence up to 10 Mb in length and to save up to 100 sequences with the annotation information on the server. The MEGANTE web service is available at https://megante.dna.affrc.go.jp/.

  10. Calcium Signals: The Lead Currency of Plant Information Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kudla, Jörg; Batistič, Oliver; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ signals are core transducers and regulators in many adaptation and developmental processes of plants. Ca2+ signals are represented by stimulus-specific signatures that result from the concerted action of channels, pumps, and carriers that shape temporally and spatially defined Ca2+ elevations. Cellular Ca2+ signals are decoded and transmitted by a toolkit of Ca2+ binding proteins that relay this information into downstream responses. Major transduction routes of Ca2+ signaling involve Ca2+-regulated kinases mediating phosphorylation events that orchestrate downstream responses or comprise regulation of gene expression via Ca2+-regulated transcription factors and Ca2+-responsive promoter elements. Here, we review some of the remarkable progress that has been made in recent years, especially in identifying critical components functioning in Ca2+ signal transduction, both at the single-cell and multicellular level. Despite impressive progress in our understanding of the processing of Ca2+ signals during the past years, the elucidation of the exact mechanistic principles that underlie the specific recognition and conversion of the cellular Ca2+ currency into defined changes in protein–protein interaction, protein phosphorylation, and gene expression and thereby establish the specificity in stimulus response coupling remain to be explored. PMID:20354197

  11. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  12. How chimpanzees integrate sensory information to select figs

    PubMed Central

    Yeakel, Justin D.; Bhat, Uttam; Ramsden, Lawrence; Wrangham, Richard W.; Lucas, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    Figs are keystone resources that sustain chimpanzees when preferred fruits are scarce. Many figs retain a green(ish) colour throughout development, a pattern that causes chimpanzees to evaluate edibility on the basis of achromatic accessory cues. Such behaviour is conspicuous because it entails a succession of discrete sensory assessments, including the deliberate palpation of individual figs, a task that requires advanced visuomotor control. These actions are strongly suggestive of domain-specific information processing and decision-making, and they call attention to a potential selective force on the origin of advanced manual prehension and digital dexterity during primate evolution. To explore this concept, we report on the foraging behaviours of chimpanzees and the spectral, chemical and mechanical properties of figs, with cutting tests revealing ease of fracture in the mouth. By integrating the ability of different sensory cues to predict fructose content in a Bayesian updating framework, we quantified the amount of information gained when a chimpanzee successively observes, palpates and bites the green figs of Ficus sansibarica. We found that the cue eliciting ingestion was not colour or size, but fig mechanics (including toughness estimates from wedge tests), which relays higher-quality information on fructose concentrations than colour vision. This result explains why chimpanzees evaluate green figs by palpation and dental incision, actions that could explain the adaptive origins of advanced manual prehension. PMID:27274803

  13. 76 FR 54228 - Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' (EPA/635/R... Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' is available... AGENCY Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the...

  14. 76 FR 38387 - Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System... Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)'' is available primarily via the Internet on the... AGENCY Draft Toxicological Review of Acrylonitrile: In Support of Summary Information on the...

  15. 45 CFR 61.12 - Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Integrity and Protection Data Bank. 61.12 Section 61.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION... Integrity and Protection Data Bank § 61.12 Requesting information from the Healthcare Integrity and...

  16. Clonal Integration Enhances the Performance of a Clonal Plant Species under Soil Alkalinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Juanjuan; Chen, Jishan; Zhang, Yingjun

    2015-01-01

    Clonal plants have been shown to successfully survive in stressful environments, including salinity stress, drought and depleted nutrients through clonal integration between original and subsequent ramets. However, relatively little is known about whether clonal integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. We investigated the effect of clonal integration on the performance of a typical rhizomatous clonal plant, Leymus chinensis, using a factorial experimental design with four levels of alkalinity and two levels of rhizome connection treatments, connected (allowing integration) and severed (preventing integration). Clonal integration was estimated by comparing physiological and biomass features between the rhizome-connected and rhizome-severed treatments. We found that rhizome-connected treatment increased the biomass, height and leaf water potential of subsequent ramets at highly alkalinity treatments but did not affect them at low alkalinity treatments. However, rhizome-connected treatment decreased the root biomass of subsequent ramets and did not influence the photosynthetic rates of subsequent ramets. The biomass of original ramets was reduced by rhizome-connected treatment at the highest alkalinity level. These results suggest that clonal integration can increase the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. Rhizome-connected plants showed dramatically increased survival of buds with negative effects on root weight, indicating that clonal integration influenced the resource allocation pattern of clonal plants. A cost-benefit analysis based on biomass measures showed that original and subsequent ramets significantly benefited from clonal integration in highly alkalinity stress, indicating that clonal integration is an important adaptive strategy by which clonal plants could survive in local alkalinity soil. PMID:25790352

  17. Clonal integration enhances the performance of a clonal plant species under soil alkalinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Yang, Gaowen; Sun, Juanjuan; Chen, Jishan; Zhang, Yingjun

    2015-01-01

    Clonal plants have been shown to successfully survive in stressful environments, including salinity stress, drought and depleted nutrients through clonal integration between original and subsequent ramets. However, relatively little is known about whether clonal integration can enhance the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. We investigated the effect of clonal integration on the performance of a typical rhizomatous clonal plant, Leymus chinensis, using a factorial experimental design with four levels of alkalinity and two levels of rhizome connection treatments, connected (allowing integration) and severed (preventing integration). Clonal integration was estimated by comparing physiological and biomass features between the rhizome-connected and rhizome-severed treatments. We found that rhizome-connected treatment increased the biomass, height and leaf water potential of subsequent ramets at highly alkalinity treatments but did not affect them at low alkalinity treatments. However, rhizome-connected treatment decreased the root biomass of subsequent ramets and did not influence the photosynthetic rates of subsequent ramets. The biomass of original ramets was reduced by rhizome-connected treatment at the highest alkalinity level. These results suggest that clonal integration can increase the performance of clonal plants under alkalinity stress. Rhizome-connected plants showed dramatically increased survival of buds with negative effects on root weight, indicating that clonal integration influenced the resource allocation pattern of clonal plants. A cost-benefit analysis based on biomass measures showed that original and subsequent ramets significantly benefited from clonal integration in highly alkalinity stress, indicating that clonal integration is an important adaptive strategy by which clonal plants could survive in local alkalinity soil.

  18. Application of integrative information system improves the quality and effectiveness of cancer case management.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Yi; Chang, Tsue-Rung

    2015-01-01

    Cancer case management provides consecutive care during the entire process through diagnosis to treatment and follow-up. We established an integrative information system with integration of the health information system. This integrative information system shortened the time spent on case screening, follow-up data management, and monthly data summarization of case managers. It also promoted the case follow-up rate. This integrative information system may improve the quality and effectiveness for cancer case management, one important part of cancer nursing.

  19. [Development method of healthcare information system integration based on business collaboration model].

    PubMed

    Li, Shasha; Nie, Hongchao; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2015-02-01

    Integration of heterogeneous systems is the key to hospital information construction due to complexity of the healthcare environment. Currently, during the process of healthcare information system integration, people participating in integration project usually communicate by free-format document, which impairs the efficiency and adaptability of integration. A method utilizing business process model and notation (BPMN) to model integration requirement and automatically transforming it to executable integration configuration was proposed in this paper. Based on the method, a tool was developed to model integration requirement and transform it to integration configuration. In addition, an integration case in radiology scenario was used to verify the method.

  20. Earth science information: Planning for the integration and use of global change information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lousma, Jack R.

    1992-01-01

    The Consortium for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) was founded in 1989 as a non-profit corporation dedicated to facilitating access to, use and understanding of global change information worldwide. The Consortium was created to cooperate and coordinate with organizations and researchers throughout the global change community to further access the most advanced technology, the latest scientific research, and the best information available for critical environmental decision making. CIESIN study efforts are guided by Congressional mandates to 'convene key present and potential users to assess the need for investment in integration of earth science information,' to 'outline the desirable pattern of interaction with the scientific and policy community,' and to 'develop recommendations and draft plans to achieve the appropriate level of effort in the use of earth science data for research and public policy purposes.' In addition, CIESIN is tasked by NASA to develop a data center that would extend the benefits of Earth Observing System (EOS) to the users of global change information related to human dimensions issues. For FY 1991, CIESIN focused on two main objectives. The first addressed the identification of information needs of global change research and non-research user groups worldwide. The second focused on an evaluation of the most efficient mechanisms for making this information available in usable forms.

  1. Development and realization of the concept of an integrated system for the improvement of steam turbine plant reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murmanskii, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Main works performed when implementing the concept of an integrated approach to the improvement of the steam turbine plant (STP) reliability were stated. The technique of an integrated approach to the collection and processing of data on the STP equipment reliability was presented. This technique is based on the information on damages resulting in equipment failures, damages revealed during the routine equipment maintenance, and on data concerning equipment faults occurred when operating the STP. There is an implementation example for the technique of defining main elements specifying the reliability of a specific unit based on the statistical analysis of STP operating data.

  2. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  3. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  4. Integration and scaling of UV-B radiation effects on plants: from molecular interactions to whole plant responses.

    PubMed

    Suchar, Vasile Alexandru; Robberecht, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    A process based model integrating the effects of UV-B radiation to molecular level processes and their consequences to whole plant growth and development was developed from key parameters in the published literature. Model simulations showed that UV-B radiation induced changes in plant metabolic and/or photosynthesis rates can result in plant growth inhibitions. The costs of effective epidermal UV-B radiation absorptive compounds did not result in any significant changes in plant growth, but any associated metabolic costs effectively reduced the potential plant biomass. The model showed significant interactions between UV-B radiation effects and temperature and any factor leading to inhibition of photosynthetic production or plant growth during the midday, but the effects were not cumulative for all factors. Vegetative growth were significantly delayed in species that do not exhibit reproductive cycles during a growing season, but vegetative growth and reproductive yield in species completing their life cycle in one growing season did not appear to be delayed more than 2-5 days, probably within the natural variability of the life cycles for many species. This is the first model to integrate the effects of increased UV-B radiation through molecular level processes and their consequences to whole plant growth and development.

  5. A framework integrating plant growth with hormones and nutrients.

    PubMed

    Krouk, Gabriel; Ruffel, Sandrine; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Gojon, Alain; Crawford, Nigel M; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Lacombe, Benoît

    2011-04-01

    It is well known that nutrient availability controls plant development. Moreover, plant development is finely tuned by a myriad of hormonal signals. Thus, it is not surprising to see increasing evidence of coordination between nutritional and hormonal signaling. In this opinion article, we discuss how nitrogen signals control the hormonal status of plants and how hormonal signals interplay with nitrogen nutrition. We further expand the discussion to include other nutrient-hormone pairs. We propose that nutrition and growth are linked by a multi-level, feed-forward cycle that regulates plant growth, development and metabolism via dedicated signaling pathways that mediate nutrient and hormonal regulation. We believe this model will provide a useful concept for past and future research in this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Material protection, control and accounting cooperation at the Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP), Novouralsk, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    McAllister, S., LLNL

    1998-07-15

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is one of the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy`s nuclear material production sites participating in the US Department of Energy`s Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC&A) Program. The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant is Russia`s largest uranium enrichment facility and blends tons of high-enriched uranium into low enriched uranium each year as part of the US high-enriched uranium purchase. The Electrochemical Integrated Plant and six participating national laboratories are cooperating to implement a series of enhancements to the nuclear material protection, control, and accountability systems at the site This paper outlines the overall objectives of the MPC&A program at Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant and the work completed as of the date of the presentation.

  7. Neural correlates of audiovisual integration of semantic category information.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonghua; Zhang, Ruiling; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have found a late frontal-central audiovisual interaction during the time period about 150-220 ms post-stimulus. However, it is unclear to which process is this audiovisual interaction related: to processing of acoustical features or to classification of stimuli? To investigate this question, event-related potentials were recorded during a words-categorization task with stimuli presented in the auditory-visual modality. In the experiment, congruency of the visual and auditory stimuli was manipulated. Results showed that within the window of about 180-210 ms post-stimulus more positive values were elicited by category-congruent audiovisual stimuli than category-incongruent audiovisual stimuli. This indicates that the late frontal-central audiovisual interaction is related to audiovisual integration of semantic category information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancers as information integration hubs in development: lessons from genomics

    PubMed Central

    Buecker, Christa; Wysocka, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are the primary determinants of tissue-specific gene expression. Although the majority of our current knowledge of enhancer elements comes from detailed analyses of individual loci, recent progress in epigenomics has led to the development of methods for comprehensive and conservation-independent annotation of cell type-specific enhancers. Here, we discuss the advantages and limitations of different genomic approaches to enhancer mapping and summarize observations that have been afforded by the genome-wide views of enhancer landscapes, with a focus on development. We propose that enhancers serve as information integration hubs, at which instructions encoded by the genome are read in the context of a specific cellular state, signaling milieu and chromatin environment, allowing for exquisitely precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression during embryogenesis. PMID:22487374

  9. 48 CFR 9.104-6 - Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Performance and Integrity Information System. 9.104-6 Section 9.104-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contractors 9.104-6 Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System. (a) Before awarding a... Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), (available at www.ppirs.gov,...

  10. 48 CFR 9.104-6 - Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Performance and Integrity Information System. 9.104-6 Section 9.104-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contractors 9.104-6 Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System. (a) Before awarding a... Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), (available at www.ppirs.gov,...

  11. 48 CFR 9.104-6 - Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Performance and Integrity Information System. 9.104-6 Section 9.104-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Contractors 9.104-6 Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System. (a) Before awarding a... Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), (available at www.ppirs.gov,...

  12. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) Floodplain Mapping Based on a Lidar Derived Data Set.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-05

    0-A193 971 IEMIS (INTEGRATED EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM ) FLOODPLRIN MAP.. (U) ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG HS J...illustrate the application of the automated mapping capabilities of the Integrated Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS) to FISs. Unclassified...mapping capabilities of the Integrated Emergency Management Information System (IEMIS) to FISs. II. BACKGROUND The concept of mounting laser ranging

  13. Urban plants as genetic reservoirs or threats to the integrity of bushland plant populations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David G; Ayre, David J; Whelan, Robert J

    2007-06-01

    Remnant plants in urban fringes and native plants in gardens have the potential to contribute to the conservation of threatened plants by increasing genetic diversity, effective size of populations, and levels of genetic connectedness. But they also pose a threat through the disruption of locally adapted gene pools. At Hyams Beach, New South Wales, Australia, four bushland stands of the rare shrub, Grevillea macleayana McGillivray, surround an urban area containing remnant and cultivated specimens of this species. Numbers of inflorescences per plant, fruits per plant, and visits by pollinators were similar for plants in urban gardens and bushland. Urban plants represented a substantial but complex genetic resource, displaying more genetic diversity than bushland plants judged byH(e), numbers of alleles per locus, and number of private alleles. Of 27 private alleles in urban plants, 17 occurred in a set of 19 exotic plants. Excluding the exotic plants, all five stands displayed a moderate differentiation (F(ST)= 0.14 +/- 0.02), although the urban remnants clustered with two of the bushland stands. These patterns may be explained by high levels of selfing and inbreeding in this species and by long-distance dispersal (several seeds in the urban stand were fathered by plants in other stands). Genetic leakage (gene flow) from exotic plants to 321 seeds on surrounding remnant or bushland plants has not occurred. Our results demonstrate the conservation value of this group of urban plants, which are viable, productive, genetically diverse, and interconnected with bushland plants. Gene flow has apparently not yet led to genetic contamination of bushland populations, but high levels of inbreeding would make this a rare event and difficult to detect.

  14. Digital Crust: Information architecture for heterogeneous data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, S. M.; Zaslavsky, I.; Fan, Y.; Bristol, S.; Peters, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Digital Crust EarthCube Building block is addressing the issue of multiple, heterogeneous but related datasets characteristic of field and sample based research using a 'loose-schema' approach, with linked entity and attribute definitions in an information model (ontology) registry (IMR). Various data entities (RDA 'data types') are defined by mapping entity and attribute definitions to definitions in the IMR. Inclusion (loading) of new data at the simplest level can bring in entities that are not registered, but these will not be 'integratable' with other data until someone does the schema matching into the IMR. New datasets can be designed using registered entity and attributes that will from the beginning be integrated into the system (similar to the approach used by the National Information Exchange Model). The fundamental abstract components in this system are 1) a data repository that allows storage of key-value structured data objects; and 2) a registry that documents information models-- the base data types, attributes and entities -- and mappings from the registered types in the datastore to the registered items. This constitutes the data repository subsystem. Data access is enabled by caching views of aggregated data from the datastore (aggregated based on the semantics of the registered items in the IMR) and creating indexes based on the registered items in the IMR. Contributing data to this system will be greatly facilitated by using existing, documented information models. It can accept datasets that are not 'standardized' as well, but the consequence is that those data will not be integratable with other existing data until the work is done to document the entities and attributes in the data and to map those into existing registered types.

  15. Integrated optics architecture for trapped-ion quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kielpinski, D.; Volin, C.; Streed, E. W.; Lenzini, F.; Lobino, M.

    2016-12-01

    Standard schemes for trapped-ion quantum information processing (QIP) involve the manipulation of ions in a large array of interconnected trapping potentials. The basic set of QIP operations, including state initialization, universal quantum logic, and state detection, is routinely executed within a single array site by means of optical operations, including various laser excitations as well as the collection of ion fluorescence. Transport of ions between array sites is also routinely carried out in microfabricated trap arrays. However, it is still not possible to perform optical operations in parallel across all array sites. The lack of this capability is one of the major obstacles to scalable trapped-ion QIP and presently limits exploitation of current microfabricated trap technology. Here we present an architecture for scalable integration of optical operations in trapped-ion QIP. We show theoretically that diffractive mirrors, monolithically fabricated on the trap array, can efficiently couple light between trap array sites and optical waveguide arrays. Integrated optical circuits constructed from these waveguides can be used for sequencing of laser excitation and fluorescence collection. Our scalable architecture supports all standard QIP operations, as well as photon-mediated entanglement channels, while offering substantial performance improvements over current techniques.

  16. Impaired Information Integration Contributes to Communication Difficulty in Corticobasal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Rachel G.; Ash, Sharon; McMillan, Corey T.; Gunawardena, Delani; Powers, Chivon; Libon, David J.; Moore, Peachie; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cognitive and neural correlates of discourse impairment in corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Background Difficulty communicating is a frequent clinical manifestation in patients with CBS. However, the mechanisms underlying this disabling problem are not well understood. Methods Twenty patients with CBS and 8 healthy seniors narrated a picture story. Narratives were analyzed for maintenance of the narrative theme, identification of the overall point of the story (global connectedness), and connectedness between consecutive events (local connectedness). Discourse measures were correlated with performance on cognitive tasks and with cortical atrophy as determined by magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry. Results Patients with CBS referred to the narrative theme significantly less frequently than controls. Global connectedness was intact in only 6 of 20 CBS patients (30%), but preserved in all controls. Local connectedness was significantly diminished in patients relative to controls. Discourse performance in CBS was related to tasks requiring higher-order integration of visual material, but not to basic visuospatial/visuoperceptual, language, or memory function. Discourse impairment was directly related to atrophy in the right parietal lobe and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions Our findings suggest that impaired information integration in CBS, related to parieto-frontal disease, interferes with patients’ ability to narrate a coherent story. PMID:20299856

  17. Integrated multimedia information system on interactive CATV network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Huang; Chang, Shin-Hung

    1998-10-01

    In the current CATV system architectures, they provide one- way delivery of a common menu of entertainment to all the homes through the cable network. Through the technologies evolution, the interactive services (or two-way services) can be provided in the cable TV systems. They can supply customers with individualized programming and support real- time two-way communications. With a view to the service type changed from the one-way delivery systems to the two-way interactive systems, `on demand services' is a distinct feature of multimedia systems. In this paper, we present our work of building up an integrated multimedia system on interactive CATV network in Shih Chien University. Besides providing the traditional analog TV programming from the cable operator, we filter some channels to reserve them as our campus information channels. In addition to the analog broadcasting channel, the system also provides the interactive digital multimedia services, e.g. Video-On- Demand (VOD), Virtual Reality, BBS, World-Wide-Web, and Internet Radio Station. These two kinds of services are integrated in a CATV network by the separation of frequency allocation for the analog broadcasting service and the digital interactive services. Our ongoing work is to port our previous work of building up a VOD system conformed to DAVIC standard (for inter-operability concern) on Ethernet network into the current system.

  18. Modular multiple sensors information management for computer-integrated surgery.

    PubMed

    Vaccarella, Alberto; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Momi, Elena De

    2012-09-01

    In the past 20 years, technological advancements have modified the concept of modern operating rooms (ORs) with the introduction of computer-integrated surgery (CIS) systems, which promise to enhance the outcomes, safety and standardization of surgical procedures. With CIS, different types of sensor (mainly position-sensing devices, force sensors and intra-operative imaging devices) are widely used. Recently, the need for a combined use of different sensors raised issues related to synchronization and spatial consistency of data from different sources of information. In this study, we propose a centralized, multi-sensor management software architecture for a distributed CIS system, which addresses sensor information consistency in both space and time. The software was developed as a data server module in a client-server architecture, using two open-source software libraries: Image-Guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK) and OpenCV. The ROBOCAST project (FP7 ICT 215190), which aims at integrating robotic and navigation devices and technologies in order to improve the outcome of the surgical intervention, was used as the benchmark. An experimental protocol was designed in order to prove the feasibility of a centralized module for data acquisition and to test the application latency when dealing with optical and electromagnetic tracking systems and ultrasound (US) imaging devices. Our results show that a centralized approach is suitable for minimizing synchronization errors; latency in the client-server communication was estimated to be 2 ms (median value) for tracking systems and 40 ms (median value) for US images. The proposed centralized approach proved to be adequate for neurosurgery requirements. Latency introduced by the proposed architecture does not affect tracking system performance in terms of frame rate and limits US images frame rate at 25 fps, which is acceptable for providing visual feedback to the surgeon in the OR. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Predicting plant responses to mycorrhizal: integrating evolutionary history and plant traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of mycorrhizae to most individual plant species is unknown, and responses to mycorrhizal fungi are known to vary among plant species. This complicates interpreting the extent that mycorrhizae affect plant populations, communities, and ecosystems and contributes to their underutilizat...

  20. Case Studies of Ecological Integrative Information Systems: The Luquillo and Sevilleta Information Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Gil, Inigo; White, Marshall; Melendez, Eda; Vanderbilt, Kristin

    The thirty-year-old United States Long Term Ecological Research Network has developed extensive metadata to document their scientific data. Standard and interoperable metadata is a core component of the data-driven analytical solutions developed by this research network Content management systems offer an affordable solution for rapid deployment of metadata centered information management systems. We developed a customized integrative metadata management system based on the Drupal content management system technology. Building on knowledge and experience with the Sevilleta and Luquillo Long Term Ecological Research sites, we successfully deployed the first two medium-scale customized prototypes. In this paper, we describe the vision behind our Drupal based information management instances, and list the features offered through these Drupal based systems. We also outline the plans to expand the information services offered through these metadata centered management systems. We will conclude with the growing list of participants deploying similar instances.

  1. Instructional Integration of Disciplines for Promoting Children's Positive Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çìl, Emine

    2016-01-01

    Plants are an integral part of nature. Many plant species in almost any part of the world are under serious threats due to various reasons such as deforestation, pollution--of air, water and soil--caused by industrialisation, overgrazing and rapid population growth. It is likely that people have strong positive attitudes towards conservation of…

  2. Instructional Integration of Disciplines for Promoting Children's Positive Attitudes towards Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çìl, Emine

    2016-01-01

    Plants are an integral part of nature. Many plant species in almost any part of the world are under serious threats due to various reasons such as deforestation, pollution--of air, water and soil--caused by industrialisation, overgrazing and rapid population growth. It is likely that people have strong positive attitudes towards conservation of…

  3. [Service Middleware of Medical Information Integration and Exchange Based on HL7 and DICOM].

    PubMed

    Huang, Mian; Liu, Lijun; Xiong, Xin; Fan, Hongbo; Jia, Lianyin; Tang, Shouguo

    2015-08-01

    Medical information exchange and integration is the effective method to solve the interoperability and medical information island, and is the basis of medical information sharing. In this paper, we take medical texts and medical images as the basic integrated objects, DICOM, HL7 messages and datasets as the integrated units, efficient DI-COM, HL7 message construction and parsing methods as basis, design and realize a universal medical information integration and exchange service middleware. Experimental results show that the prototype system could perform medical information integration and exchange among relational database, HL7 and DICOM message, provide a feasible scheme to solve the medical information island and lay a good foundation for establishing the unified medical information integration and sharing platform. The middleware has been applied in the project named "development and demonstration of opened medical information integration system".

  4. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling – based on spin systems – has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis–Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy – based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs – which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions.

  5. Information Integration to Support Model-Based Policy Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher L.; Eubank, Stephen; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pan, Zhengzheng; Swarup, Samarth

    2011-01-01

    The complexities of social and technological policy domains, such as the economy, the environment, and public health present challenges that require a new approach to modeling and decision making. The information required for effective policy and decision making in these complex domains is massive in scale, fine-grained in resolution, and distributed over many data sources. Thus, one of the key challenges in building systems to support policy informatics is information integration. We describe our approach to this problem, and how we are building a multi-theory, multi-actor, multi-perspective system that supports continual data uptake, state assessment, decision analysis, and action assignment based on large-scale high-performance computing infrastructures. Our simulation-based approach allows rapid course-of-action analysis to bound variances in outcomes of policy interventions, which in turn allows the short time-scale planning required in response to emergencies such as epidemic outbreaks. We present the rationale and design of our methodology and discuss several areas of actual and potential application. PMID:22337756

  6. IFIM: a database of integrated fitness information for microbial genes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen; Ye, Yuan-Nong; Luo, Sen; Deng, Yan-Yan; Lin, Dan; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of an organism’s fitness for survival is important for a complete understanding of microbial genetics and effective drug design. Current essential gene databases provide only binary essentiality data from genome-wide experiments. We therefore developed a new database that Integrates quantitative Fitness Information for Microbial genes (IFIM). The IFIM database currently contains data from 16 experiments and 2186 theoretical predictions. The highly significant correlation between the experiment-derived fitness data and our computational simulations demonstrated that the computer-generated predictions were often as reliable as the experimental data. The data in IFIM can be accessed easily, and the interface allows users to browse through the gene fitness information that it contains. IFIM is the first resource that allows easy access to fitness data of microbial genes. We believe this database will contribute to a better understanding of microbial genetics and will be useful in designing drugs to resist microbial pathogens, especially when experimental data are unavailable. Database URL: http://cefg.uestc.edu.cn/ifim/ or http://cefg.cn/ifim/ PMID:24923821

  7. CRHunter: integrating multifaceted information to predict catalytic residues in enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jun; Wang, Jia; Xiong, Dan; Hu, Jian; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    A variety of algorithms have been developed for catalytic residue prediction based on either feature- or template-based methodology. However, no studies have systematically compared these two strategies and further considered whether their combination could improve the prediction performance. Herein, we developed an integrative algorithm named CRHunter by simultaneously using the complementarity between feature- and template-based methodologies and that between structural and sequence information. Several novel structural features were generated by the Delaunay triangulation and Laplacian transformation of enzyme structures. Combining these features with traditional descriptors, we invented two support vector machine feature predictors based on both structural and sequence information. Furthermore, we established two template predictors using structure and profile alignments. Evaluated on datasets with different levels of homology, our feature predictors achieve relatively stable performance, whereas our template predictors yield poor results when the homological relationships become weak. Nevertheless, the hybrid algorithm CRHunter consistently achieves optimal performance among all our predictors. We also illustrate that our methodology can be applied to the predicted structures of enzymes. Compared with state-of-the-art methods, CRHunter yields comparable or better performance on various datasets. Finally, the application of this algorithm to structural genomics targets sheds light on solved protein structures with unknown functions. PMID:27665935

  8. Complete integrability of information processing by biochemical reactions

    PubMed Central

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Dello Schiavo, Lorenzo; Moro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Statistical mechanics provides an effective framework to investigate information processing in biochemical reactions. Within such framework far-reaching analogies are established among (anti-) cooperative collective behaviors in chemical kinetics, (anti-)ferromagnetic spin models in statistical mechanics and operational amplifiers/flip-flops in cybernetics. The underlying modeling – based on spin systems – has been proved to be accurate for a wide class of systems matching classical (e.g. Michaelis–Menten, Hill, Adair) scenarios in the infinite-size approximation. However, the current research in biochemical information processing has been focusing on systems involving a relatively small number of units, where this approximation is no longer valid. Here we show that the whole statistical mechanical description of reaction kinetics can be re-formulated via a mechanical analogy – based on completely integrable hydrodynamic-type systems of PDEs – which provides explicit finite-size solutions, matching recently investigated phenomena (e.g. noise-induced cooperativity, stochastic bi-stability, quorum sensing). The resulting picture, successfully tested against a broad spectrum of data, constitutes a neat rationale for a numerically effective and theoretically consistent description of collective behaviors in biochemical reactions. PMID:27812018

  9. Informing pest prevention efforts through Sentinel Plant Monitoring

    Treesearch

    K.O. Britton

    2010-01-01

    Botanic gardens with international collections provide a unique opportunity to help detect potential invasive threats to forest health. Nursery stock is well-recognized as a major pathway for the introduction of invasive insects and pathogens to native ecosystems. Plant health regulators need help knowing what pests attack host plants abroad so they can develop ways to...

  10. Plants in silico: why, why now and what?--an integrative platform for plant systems biology research.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Lynch, Jonathan P; LeBauer, David S; Millar, Andrew J; Stitt, Mark; Long, Stephen P

    2016-05-01

    A paradigm shift is needed and timely in moving plant modelling from largely isolated efforts to a connected community endeavour that can take full advantage of advances in computer science and in mechanistic understanding of plant processes. Plants in silico (Psi) envisions a digital representation of layered dynamic modules, linking from gene networks and metabolic pathways through to cellular organization, tissue, organ and whole plant development, together with resource capture and use efficiency in dynamic competitive environments, ultimately allowing a mechanistically rich simulation of the plant or of a community of plants in silico. The concept is to integrate models or modules from different layers of organization spanning from genome to phenome to ecosystem in a modular framework allowing the use of modules of varying mechanistic detail representing the same biological process. Developments in high-performance computing, functional knowledge of plants, the internet and open-source version controlled software make achieving the concept realistic. Open source will enhance collaboration and move towards testing and consensus on quantitative theoretical frameworks. Importantly, Psi provides a quantitative knowledge framework where the implications of a discovery at one level, for example, single gene function or developmental response, can be examined at the whole plant or even crop and natural ecosystem levels.

  11. Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

  12. Integration of photosynthesis, development and stress as an opportunity for plant biology.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Battchikova, Natalia; Brosché, Mikael; Fujii, Hiroaki; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Mulo, Paula; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Nieminen, Kaisa; Overmyer, Kirk; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Wrzaczek, Michael

    2015-11-01

    With the tremendous progress of the past decades, molecular plant science is becoming more unified than ever. We now have the exciting opportunity to further connect subdisciplines and understand plants as whole organisms, as will be required to efficiently utilize them in natural and agricultural systems to meet human needs. The subfields of photosynthesis, plant developmental biology and plant stress are used as examples to discuss how plant science can become better integrated. The challenges, strategies and rich opportunities for the integration of the plant sciences are discussed. In recent years, more and more overlap between various subdisciplines has been inadvertently discovered including tradeoffs that may occur in plants engineered for biotechnological applications. Already important, bioinformatics and computational modelling will become even more central to structuring and understanding the ever growing amounts of data. The process of integrating and overlapping fields in plant biology research is advancing, but plant science will benefit from dedicating more effort and urgency to reach across its boundaries. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Report: Valorsul integrated waste management: waste incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, João P; Nascimento, António; Penha, Ana; Vidal, Diogo; Torres, Anália; Correia, Vera

    2003-02-01

    Valorsul, SA, is responsible for the management of waste produced in 5 municipalities in the area of Lisbon. Due to the high density production, a multi-municipal waste management was implemented in which the primary unit is an incineration plant, built in 1999, that produces almost 2% of the national energy demand. This paper describes the main characteristics of this plant, in particular the treatment of gases and waste management. Apart from that, and because of environmental concern of this type of unit, the monitoring program established one year before the start of the operation is described.

  14. 33 CFR Appendix B to Part 273 - Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports B Appendix B to Part 273 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL Pt. 273, App. B Appendix B to Part 273—Information Requirements for Aquatic Plant Control Program Reports 1. Location and...

  15. In unison: First- and second-order information combine for integration of shape information.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken W S; Dickinson, J Edwin; Badcock, David R

    2016-09-01

    The modulation of orientation around radial frequency (RF) patterns and RF textures is globally processed in both cases. This psychophysical study investigates whether the combination-a textured RF path obtained by applying an RF texture to an RF contour-is processed like a texture or a contour when making judgements about shape. Unlike RF textures, the impression of a closed flow was not required for global integration of textured RF paths, suggesting that these paths were processed as second-order, or contrast-defined contours. Luminance-defined (LD) RF paths were shown to globally integrate but with thresholds approximately half of those for the proposed second-order textured paths. The next experiment investigated whether this benefit was due to LD stimuli possessing double the amount of information (first- and second-order information). A mixed three-part contour composed of two different second-order texture components and an LD component was then employed to determine how the different cues combined. The mixed path thresholds matched predictions derived from a linear combination of first- and second-order cues. The conclusion is that the shape of isolated contours is processed using both first- and second-order information equally and that the contribution of texture is to carry additional second-order signal.

  16. Information integration in health care organizations: The case of a European health system.

    PubMed

    Calciolari, Stefano; Buccoliero, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Information system integration is an important dimension of a company's information system maturity and plays a relevant role in meeting information needs and accountability targets. However, no generalizable evidence exists about whether and how the main integrating technologies influence information system integration in health care organizations. This study examined how integrating technologies are adopted in public health care organizations and chief information officers' (CIOs) perceptions about their influence on information system integration. We used primary data on integrating technologies' adoption and CIOs' perception regarding information system integration in public health care organizations. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multinomial logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between CIOs' perception about information system integration and the adopted technologies. Data from 90 health care organizations were available for analyses. Integrating technologies are relatively diffused in public health care organizations, and CIOs seem to shape information system toward integrated architectures. There is a significant positive (although modest, .3) correlation between the number of integrating technologies adopted and the CIO's satisfaction with them. However, regression analysis suggests that organizations covering a broader spectrum of these technologies are less likely to have their CIO reporting main problems concerning integration in the administrative area of the information system compared with the clinical area and where the two areas overlap. Integrating technologies are associated with less perceived problems in the information system administrative area rather than in other areas. Because CIOs play the role of information resource allocators, by influencing information system toward integrated architecture, health care organization leaders should foster cooperation between CIOs and medical staff to enhance information system

  17. Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buizer, James; Goddard, Lisa; Guido, Zackry

    2015-04-01

    An integrated multi-disciplinary team of researchers from the University of Arizona and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society at Columbia University have joined forces with communities and institutions in the Caribbean, South Asia and West Africa to develop relevant, usable climate information and connect it to real decisions and development challenges. The overall objective of the "Integrating Climate Information and Decision Processes for Regional Climate Resilience" program is to build community resilience to negative impacts of climate variability and change. We produce and provide science-based climate tools and information to vulnerable peoples and the public, private, and civil society organizations that serve them. We face significant institutional challenges because of the geographical and cultural distance between the locale of climate tool-makers and the locale of climate tool-users and because of the complicated, often-inefficient networks that link them. To use an accepted metaphor, there is great institutional difficulty in coordinating the supply of and the demand for useful climate products that can be put to the task of building local resilience and reducing climate vulnerability. Our program is designed to reduce the information constraint and to initiate a linkage that is more demand driven, and which provides a set of priorities for further climate tool generation. A demand-driven approach to the co-production of appropriate and relevant climate tools seeks to meet the direct needs of vulnerable peoples as these needs have been canvassed empirically and as the benefits of application have been adequately evaluated. We first investigate how climate variability and climate change affect the livelihoods of vulnerable peoples. In so doing we assess the complex institutional web within which these peoples live -- the public agencies that serve them, their forms of access to necessary information, the structural constraints

  18. Programmable logic controller implementation of an auto-tuned predictive control based on minimal plant information.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Palomo, G; Rossiter, J A

    2011-01-01

    This paper makes two key contributions. First, it tackles the issue of the availability of constrained predictive control for low-level control loops. Hence, it describes how the constrained control algorithm is embedded in an industrial programmable logic controller (PLC) using the IEC 61131-3 programming standard. Second, there is a definition and implementation of a novel auto-tuned predictive controller; the key novelty is that the modelling is based on relatively crude but pragmatic plant information. Laboratory experiment tests were carried out in two bench-scale laboratory systems to prove the effectiveness of the combined algorithm and hardware solution. For completeness, the results are compared with a commercial proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller (also embedded in the PLC) using the most up to date auto-tuning rules.

  19. ENEL overall PWR plant models and neutronic integrated computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pedroni, G.; Pollachini, L.; Vimercati, G.; Cori, R.; Pretolani, F.; Spelta, S.

    1987-01-01

    To support the design activity of the Italian nuclear energy program for the construction of pressurized water reactors, the Italian Electricity Board (ENEL) needs to verify the design as a whole (that is, the nuclear steam supply system and balance of plant) both in steady-state operation and in transient. The ENEL has therefore developed two computer models to analyze both operational and incidental transients. The models, named STRIP and SFINCS, perform the analysis of the nuclear as well as the conventional part of the plant (the control system being properly taken into account). The STRIP model has been developed by means of the French (Electricite de France) modular code SICLE, while SFINCS is based on the Italian (ENEL) modular code LEGO. STRIP validation was performed with respect to Fessenheim French power plant experimental data. Two significant transients were chosen: load step and total load rejection. SFINCS validation was performed with respect to Saint-Laurent French power plant experimental data and also by comparing the SFINCS-STRIP responses.

  20. How plants communicate using the underground information superhighway.

    PubMed

    Bais, Harsh Pal; Park, Sang-Wook; Weir, Tiffany L; Callaway, Ragan M; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2004-01-01

    The rhizosphere is a densely populated area in which plant roots must compete with invading root systems of neighboring plants for space, water, and mineral nutrients, and with other soil-borne organisms, including bacteria and fungi. Root-root and root-microbe communications are continuous occurrences in this biologically active soil zone. How do roots manage to simultaneously communicate with neighboring plants, and with symbiotic and pathogenic organisms within this crowded rhizosphere? Increasing evidence suggests that root exudates might initiate and manipulate biological and physical interactions between roots and soil organisms, and thus play an active role in root-root and root-microbe communication.

  1. DLA Information Systems Technology Integration Guide for the Fiscal Year of 1991

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    AD-A231 576/ 3MAR 05 1991~DL - DL INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION GUIDE Apovad fm p-anbc r o; JANUARY 1991 91 2 28 011 DLA INFORMATION...SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION GUIDE for the FISCAL YEAR of 1991 TABLE OF CONTENTS A. INTRODUCTION ................ . ......... 2 B. ARCHITECTURAL... INTEGRATION GUIDE for the FISCAL YEAR of 1991 DLA INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY INTEGRATION GUIDE for the FISCAL YEAR of 1991 A. INTRODUCTION. The purpose of

  2. Using epidemiological information to develop effective integrated virus disease management strategies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roger A C

    2004-03-01

    Virus diseases cause serious losses in yield and quality of cultivated plants worldwide. These losses and the resulting financial damage can be limited by controlling epidemics using measures that minimise virus infection sources or suppress virus spread. For each combination of virus, cultivated plant and production system, there is an 'economic threshold' above which the financial damage is sufficient to justify using such measures. However, individual measures used alone may bring only small benefits and they may become ineffective, especially over the long term. When diverse control measures that act in different ways are combined and used together, their effects are complementary resulting in far more effective overall control. Such experiences have led to the development of integrated management concepts for virus diseases that combine available host resistance, cultural, chemical and biological control measures. Selecting the ideal mix of measures for each pathosystem and production situation requires detailed knowledge of the epidemiology of the causal virus and the mode of action of each individual control measure so that diverse responses can be devised to meet the unique features of each of the different scenarios considered. The strategies developed must be robust and necessitate minimal extra expense, labour demands and disruption to standard practices. Examples of how epidemiological information can be used to develop effective integrated disease management (IDM) strategies for diverse situations are described. They involve circumstances where virus transmission from plant-to-plant occurs in four different ways: by contact, non-persistently or persistently by insect vectors, and by root-infecting fungi. The examples are: Subterranean clover mottle virus (SCMoV) (contact-transmitted) and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) (non-persistently aphid-transmitted) in annually self-regenerating clover pasture; three seed-borne viruses (all non-persistently aphid

  3. Integrated operation and management system for a 700MW combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shiroumaru, I. ); Iwamiya, T. ); Fukai, M. )

    1992-03-01

    Yanai Power Plant of the Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. (Yamaguchi Pref., Japan) is in the process of constructing a 1400MW state-of-the-art combined cycle power plant. The first phase, a 350MW power plant, started operation on a commercial basis in November, 1990. This power plant has achieved high efficiency and high operability, major features of a combined cycle power plant. The integrated operation and management system of the power plant takes care of operation, maintenance, control of general business, etc., and was built using the latest computer and digital control and communication technologies. This paper reports that it is expected that this system will enhance efficient operation and management for the power plant.

  4. An integrated plant/control design method and application in hard disk drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tingting; Du, Chunling; Sun, Weijie; Xie, Lihua

    2016-02-01

    One approach in servo control to achieve a high track density in hard disk drives is to minimise the H2 norm from disturbances to position error signal. The H2 performance optimisation is then deemed as a matter of great significance. This paper presents an integrated design method involving plant modification and controller design sequentially to achieve the H2 performance requirement. A linear matrix inequality-based approach is developed for the plant damping ratio modification using the plant output. The proposed model modification method is then applied to the voice coil motor plant in hard disk drives, followed by the optimal H2 controller design using the Riccati equation method with the modified plant. It turns out that the modified plant leads to better H2 performance, stability margins than the original plant.

  5. Integrated signaling networks in plant responses to sedentary endoparasitic nematodes: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijuan; Rashotte, Aaron M; Singh, Narendra K; Weaver, David B; Lawrence, Kathy S; Locy, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary plant endoparasitic nematodes can cause detrimental yield losses in crop plants making the study of detailed cellular, molecular, and whole plant responses to them a subject of importance. In response to invading nematodes and nematode-secreted effectors, plant susceptibility/resistance is mainly determined by the coordination of different signaling pathways including specific plant resistance genes or proteins, plant hormone synthesis and signaling pathways, as well as reactive oxygen signals that are generated in response to nematode attack. Crosstalk between various nematode resistance-related elements can be seen as an integrated signaling network regulated by transcription factors and small RNAs at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and/or translational levels. Ultimately, the outcome of this highly controlled signaling network determines the host plant susceptibility/resistance to nematodes.

  6. The energy trilogy: An integrated sustainability model to bridge wastewater treatment plant energy and emissions gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Talibi, A. Adhim

    An estimated 4% of national energy consumption is used for drinking water and wastewater services. Despite the awareness and optimization initiatives for energy conservation, energy consumption is on the rise owing to population and urbanization expansion and to commercial and industrial business advancement. The principal concern is since energy consumption grows, the higher will be the energy production demand, leading to an increase in CO2 footprints and the contribution to global warming potential. This research is in the area of energy-water nexus, focusing on wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) energy trilogy -- the group of three related entities, which includes processes: (1) consuming energy, (2) producing energy, and (3) the resulting -- CO2 equivalents. Detailed and measurable energy information is not readily obtained for wastewater facilities, specifically during facility preliminary design phases. These limitations call for data-intensive research approach on GHG emissions quantification, plant efficiencies and source reduction techniques. To achieve these goals, this research introduced a model integrating all plant processes and their pertinent energy sources. In a comprehensive and "Energy Source-to-Effluent Discharge" pattern, this model is capable of bridging the gaps of WWTP energy, facilitating plant designers' decision-making for meeting energy assessment, sustainability and the environmental regulatory compliance. Protocols for estimating common emissions sources are available such as for fuels, whereas, site-specific emissions for other sources have to be developed and are captured in this research. The dissertation objectives were met through an extensive study of the relevant literature, models and tools, originating comprehensive lists of processes and energy sources for WWTPs, locating estimation formulas for each source, identifying site specific emissions factors, and linking the sources in a mathematical model for site specific CO2 e

  7. The plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism-concepts for organization and mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Thorsten

    2015-02-01

    One of the main differences between plant and animal cells are the walls surrounding plant cells providing structural support during development and protection like an adaptive armor against biotic and abiotic stress. During recent years it has become widely accepted that plant cells use a dedicated system to monitor and maintain the functional integrity of their walls. Maintenance of integrity is achieved by modifying the cell wall and cellular metabolism in order to permit tightly controlled changes in wall composition and structure. While a substantial amount of evidence supporting the existence of the mechanism has been reported, knowledge regarding its precise mode of action is still limited. The currently available evidence suggests similarities of the plant mechanism with respect to both design principles and molecular components involved to the very well characterized system active in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There the system has been implicated in cell morphogenesis as well as response to abiotic stresses such as osmotic challenges. Here the currently available knowledge on the yeast system will be reviewed initially to provide a framework for the subsequent discussion of the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism. The review will then end with a discussion on possible design principles for the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism and the function of the plant turgor pressure in this context. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A summary of the Illinois flora based on the Illinois plant information network

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Anantha M. Prasad; David M. Ketzner

    1997-01-01

    The Illinois Plant Information Network (ILPIN), a species-based database on the flora of Illinois, is useful for assessing botanical diversity in Illinois and surrounding states. All known vascular plant taxa from Illinois (more than 3,200) are included. It contains county distributions (totaling nearly 90,000) for each taxon and information on the taxonomy, ecology,...

  9. Study on integration potential of gas turbines and gas engines into parabolic trough power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Tobias; Oeljeklaus, Gerd; Görner, Klaus

    2017-06-01

    Hybrid power plants represent an important intermediate step on the way to an energy supply structure based substantially on renewable energies. Natural gas is the preferred fossil fuel for hybridization of solar thermal power plants, due to its low specific CO2-emission and technical advantages by means of integration into the power plant process. The power plant SHAMS ONE serves as an exemplary object of this study. In order to facilitate peaker gas turbines in an economical way to a combined cycle approach, with the SGT-400 an industrial gas turbine of the 10-20 MWel class have been integrated into the base case power plant. The concept has been set up, to make use of the gas turbine waste heat for power generation and increasing the overall power plant efficiency of the hybrid power plant at the same time. This concept represents an alternative to the widely used concept of combined cycle power plants with solar heat integration. Supplementary, this paper also dedicates the alternative to use gas engines instead of gas turbines.

  10. Integrated Pilot Plant for a Large Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Do Quang, R.; Jensen, A.; Prod'homme, A.; Fatoux, R.; Lacombe, J.

    2002-02-26

    COGEMA has been vitrifying high-level liquid waste produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing on an industrial scale for over 20 years, with two main objectives: containment of the long lived fission products and reduction of the final volume of waste. Research performed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) in the 1950s led to the selection of borosilicate glass as the most suitable containment matrix for waste from spent nuclear fuel and to the development of the induction melter technology. This was followed by the commissioning of the Marcoule Vitrification Facility (AVM) in 1978. The process was implemented at a larger scale in the late 1980s in the R7 and T7 facilities of the La Hague reprocessing plant. COGEMA facilities have produced more than 11,000 high level glass canisters, representing more than 4,500 metric tons of glass and 4.5 billion curies. To further improve the performance of the vitrification lines in the R7 and T7 facilities, the CEA and COGEMA have been developing the Cold Crucible Melter (CCM) technology since the 1980s. This technology benefits from the 20 years of COGEMA HLW vitrification experience and ensures a virtually unlimited equipment service life and extensive flexibility in dealing with different types of waste. The high specific power directly transferred by induction to the melt allows high operating temperatures without any impact on the process equipment. In addition, the mechanical stirring of the melter significantly reduces operating constraints. COGEMA is already providing the CCM technology to international customers for nuclear and non-nuclear applications and plans to implement it in the La Hague vitrification plant for the vitrification of highly concentrated and corrosive solutions produced by uranium/molybdenum fuel reprocessing. The paper presents the CCM project that led to the building and start-up of this evolutionary and flexible pilot plant. It also describes the plant's technical characteristics and

  11. Down syndrome screening information in midwifery practices in the Netherlands: Strategies to integrate biomedical information.

    PubMed

    Rosman, Sophia

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse counselling with regard to prenatal screening in midwifery consultations in the Netherlands where a national prenatal screening programme has only existed since 2007, after years of social and political debates. The methodology is based on in situ observations of 25 counselling consultations in four midwifery practices in two main cities in the Netherlands. The results of this study show that, since midwives are obliged to offer information on Down syndrome screening to all pregnant women (2007), they have to deal with the communication of medical screening information using biostatistical concepts to explain risks, calculations, probabilities and chromosomal anomalies. In order to avoid the risk of medicalization of their consultation, midwives develop strategies that allow them to integrate this new biomedical discourse while maintaining their low medicalized approach of midwife-led care. One of their main strategies is to switch from 'alarming' biomedical messages to 'reassuring words' in order to manage the anxiety induced by the information and to keep the control over their low medicalized consultation. They also tend to distance themselves from the obligation to talk about screening. The way midwives handle these counselling consultations allows them to respect their obligation to propose information, and to remain faithful to their struggle to protect the natural process of pregnancy as well as their professional autonomy.

  12. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Andrew; Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Bursteinas, Borisas; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd; Martin, Maria

    2017-04-05

    The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to 'talk' to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc).

  13. An Information Integration Perspective on the Data Conservancy (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Data Conservancy is one of two current awards through the NSF's DataNet program. The Data Conservancy (DC) embraces a shared vision: scientific data curation is a means to collect, organize, validate and preserve data so that scientists can find new ways to address the grand research challenges that face society. The Data Conservancy will research, design, implement, deploy and sustain data curation infrastructure for cross-disciplinary discovery with an emphasis on observational data. One of the key concepts of the DC is provenance particularly as it relates to preservation of data and understanding of associated context. Even in this early stage, DC has explored the potential for using the Open Archives Initiative - Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) protocol to understand connections and provenance for compound scientific objects. By identifying in a persistent manner actions upon data by both humans and machines, an OAI-ORE based approach for data curation may provide important mechanisms for information integration and increased transparency within science.

  14. The Proteins API: accessing key integrated protein and genome information

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Ricardo; Alpi, Emanuele; Gonzales, Leonardo; Liu, Wudong; Luo, Jie; Qi, Guoying; Turner, Edd

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Proteins API provides searching and programmatic access to protein and associated genomics data such as curated protein sequence positional annotations from UniProtKB, as well as mapped variation and proteomics data from large scale data sources (LSS). Using the coordinates service, researchers are able to retrieve the genomic sequence coordinates for proteins in UniProtKB. This, the LSS genomics and proteomics data for UniProt proteins is programmatically only available through this service. A Swagger UI has been implemented to provide documentation, an interface for users, with little or no programming experience, to ‘talk’ to the services to quickly and easily formulate queries with the services and obtain dynamically generated source code for popular programming languages, such as Java, Perl, Python and Ruby. Search results are returned as standard JSON, XML or GFF data objects. The Proteins API is a scalable, reliable, fast, easy to use RESTful services that provides a broad protein information resource for users to ask questions based upon their field of expertise and allowing them to gain an integrated overview of protein annotations available to aid their knowledge gain on proteins in biological processes. The Proteins API is available at (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/proteins/api/doc). PMID:28383659

  15. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Mushegian, Arcady R.; Elena, Santiago F.

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  16. Integrated Land Information System - a relevant step for development of information background for PEEX?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Baklanov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    PEEX, as a long-term multidisciplinary integrated study, needs a systems design of a relevant information background. The idea of development of an Integrated Land Information System (ILIS) for the region as an initial step of future advanced integrated observing systems is considered as a promising way. The ILIS could serve (1) for introduction of a unified system of classification and quantification of environment, ecosystems and landscapes; (2) as a benchmark for tracing the dynamics of land use - land cover and ecosystems parameters, particularly for forests; (3) as a systems background for empirical assessment of indicators of an interest (e.g., components of biogeochemical cycles); (4) comparisons, harmonizing and mutual constraints of the results obtained by different methods; (5) for parameterization of surface fluxes for the 'atmosphere-land' system; (6) for use in divers models and for models' validation; (7) for downscaling of available information to a required scale; (8) for understanding of gradients for up-scaling of "point" data, etc. The ILIS is presented in form of multi-layer and multi-scale GIS that includes a hybrid land cover (HLC) by a definite date and corresponding legends and attributive databases. The HLC is based on relevant combination of a "multi" remote sensing concept that includes sensors of different type and resolution and ground data. The ILIS includes inter alia (1) general geographical and biophysical description of the territory (landscapes, soil, vegetation, hydrology, bioclimatic zones, permafrost etc.); (2) diverse datasets of measurements in situ; (3) sets of empirical and semi-empirical aggregation and auxiliary models, (4) data on different inventories and surveys (forest inventory, land account, results of forest monitoring); (5) spatial and temporal description of anthropogenic and natural disturbances; (5) climatic data with relevant temporal resolution etc. The ILIS should include only the data with known

  17. 77 FR 52739 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Integrity of Unit Prices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Integrity of Unit Prices AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... collection requirement concerning Integrity of Unit Prices. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 9000- 0080, Integrity of Unit Prices by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov...

  18. Heterogeneous databases integration in a hospital information systems environment: a bottom-up approach.

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, M. N.; Zviran, M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the problem of heterogeneous databases, discusses the need for an integrated hospital information system and provides a five-step method for integrating heterogeneous databases in the hospital environment. The scope of this method facilitates the integration of medical, administrative and fiscal information elements of a hospital into a unified environment. PMID:1807623

  19. 45 CFR 61.14 - Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Confidentiality of Healthcare Integrity and... GENERAL ADMINISTRATION HEALTHCARE INTEGRITY AND PROTECTION DATA BANK FOR FINAL ADVERSE INFORMATION ON HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS, SUPPLIERS AND PRACTITIONERS Disclosure of Information by the Healthcare Integrity...

  20. An update on receptor-like kinase involvement in the maintenance of plant cell wall integrity.

    PubMed

    Engelsdorf, Timo; Hamann, Thorsten

    2014-10-01

    Plant cell walls form the interface between the cells and their environment. They perform different functions, such as protecting cells from biotic and abiotic stress and providing structural support during development. Maintenance of the functional integrity of cell walls during these different processes is a prerequisite that enables the walls to perform their particular functions. The available evidence suggests that an integrity maintenance mechanism exists in plants that is capable of both detecting wall integrity impairment caused by cell wall damage and initiating compensatory responses to maintain functional integrity. The responses involve 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), jasmonic acid, reactive oxygen species and calcium-based signal transduction cascades as well as the production of lignin and other cell wall components. Experimental evidence implicates clearly different signalling molecules, but knowledge regarding contributions of receptor-like kinases to this process is less clear. Different receptor-like kinase families have been considered as possible sensors for perception of cell wall damage; however, strong experimental evidence that provides insights into functioning exists for very few kinases. This review examines the involvement of cell wall integrity maintenance in different biological processes, defines what constitutes plant cell wall damage that impairs functional integrity, clarifies which stimulus perception and signal transduction mechanisms are required for integrity maintenance and assesses the available evidence regarding the functions of receptor-like kinases during cell wall integrity maintenance. The review concludes by discussing how the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism could form an essential component of biotic stress responses and of plant development, functions that have not been fully recognized to date. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  1. The potential of text mining in data integration and network biology for plant research: a case study on Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Van Landeghem, Sofie; De Bodt, Stefanie; Drebert, Zuzanna J; Inzé, Dirk; Van de Peer, Yves

    2013-03-01

    Despite the availability of various data repositories for plant research, a wealth of information currently remains hidden within the biomolecular literature. Text mining provides the necessary means to retrieve these data through automated processing of texts. However, only recently has advanced text mining methodology been implemented with sufficient computational power to process texts at a large scale. In this study, we assess the potential of large-scale text mining for plant biology research in general and for network biology in particular using a state-of-the-art text mining system applied to all PubMed abstracts and PubMed Central full texts. We present extensive evaluation of the textual data for Arabidopsis thaliana, assessing the overall accuracy of this new resource for usage in plant network analyses. Furthermore, we combine text mining information with both protein-protein and regulatory interactions from experimental databases. Clusters of tightly connected genes are delineated from the resulting network, illustrating how such an integrative approach is essential to grasp the current knowledge available for Arabidopsis and to uncover gene information through guilt by association. All large-scale data sets, as well as the manually curated textual data, are made publicly available, hereby stimulating the application of text mining data in future plant biology studies.

  2. Pivoting from Arabidopsis to wheat to understand how agricultural plants integrate responses to biotic stress.

    PubMed

    Harris, M O; Friesen, T L; Xu, S S; Chen, M S; Giron, D; Stuart, J J

    2015-02-01

    In this review, we argue for a research initiative on wheat's responses to biotic stress. One goal is to begin a conversation between the disparate communities of plant pathology and entomology. Another is to understand how responses to a variety of agents of biotic stress are integrated in an important crop. We propose gene-for-gene interactions as the focus of the research initiative. On the parasite's side is an Avirulence (Avr) gene that encodes one of the many effector proteins the parasite applies to the plant to assist with colonization. On the plant's side is a Resistance (R) gene that mediates a surveillance system that detects the Avr protein directly or indirectly and triggers effector-triggered plant immunity. Even though arthropods are responsible for a significant proportion of plant biotic stress, they have not been integrated into important models of plant immunity that come from plant pathology. A roadblock has been the absence of molecular evidence for arthropod Avr effectors. Thirty years after this evidence was discovered in a plant pathogen, there is now evidence for arthropods with the cloning of the Hessian fly's vH13 Avr gene. After reviewing the two models of plant immunity, we discuss how arthropods could be incorporated. We end by showing features that make wheat an interesting system for plant immunity, including 479 resistance genes known from agriculture that target viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, insects, and mites. It is not likely that humans will be subsisting on Arabidopsis in the year 2050. It is time to start understanding how agricultural plants integrate responses to biotic stress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Seabloom, Eric W.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Adler, Peter B.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M.; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Davies, Kendi F.; Fay, Philip A.; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S.; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M. H.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Morgan, John W.; Orrock, John L.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Smith, Melinda D.

    2016-01-01

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  4. Small scale spatial gradients of outdoor and indoor benzene in proximity of an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Licen, Sabina; Tolloi, Arianna; Briguglio, Sara; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Adami, Gianpiero; Barbieri, Pierluigi

    2016-05-15

    Benzene is known as a human carcinogen, whose annual mean concentration exceeded the EU limit value (5 μg/m(3)) only in very few locations in Europe during 2012. Nevertheless 10% to 12% of the EU-28 urban population was still exposed to benzene concentrations above the WHO reference level of 1.7 μg/m(3). WHO recommended a wise choice of monitoring stations positioning in proximity of "hot spots" to define and assess the representativeness of each site paying attention to micro-scale conditions. In this context benzene and other VOCs of health concern (toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes) concentrations have been investigated, with weekly passive sampling for one year, both in outdoor and indoor air in inhabited buildings in close proximity (180 m far up to 1100 m) of an integrated steel plant in NE of Italy. Even though the outdoor mean annual benzene concentration was below the EU limit in every site, in the site closest to the works the benzene concentration was above 5 μg/m(3) in 14 weeks. These events were related to a benzene over toluene ratio above one, which is diagnostic for the presence of an industrial source, and to meteorological factors. These information pointed at the identification of the coke ovens of the plant as the dominant outdoor source of benzene. Benzene gradients with the increasing distance from coke ovens have been found for both outdoor and indoor air. Linear models linking outdoor to indoor benzene concentrations have been then identified, allowing to estimate indoor exposure from ambient air benzene data. In the considered period, a narrow area of about 250 m appeared impacted at a higher degree than the other sites both considering outdoor and indoor air. Passive BTEX sampling permits to collect information on both ambient air and daily life settings, allowing to assemble a valuable data support for further environmental cost-benefit analyses.

  5. Plant responses to precipitation in desert ecosystems: integrating functional types, pulses, thresholds, and delays.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kiona; Reynolds, James F

    2004-10-01

    The 'two-layer' and 'pulse-reserve' hypotheses were developed 30 years ago and continue to serve as the standard for many experiments and modeling studies that examine relationships between primary productivity and rainfall variability in aridlands. The two-layer hypothesis considers two important plant functional types (FTs) and predicts that woody and herbaceous plants are able to co-exist in savannas because they utilize water from different soil layers (or depths). The pulse-reserve model addresses the response of individual plants to precipitation and predicts that there are 'biologically important' rain events that stimulate plant growth and reproduction. These pulses of precipitation may play a key role in long-term plant function and survival (as compared to seasonal or annual rainfall totals as per the two-layer model). In this paper, we re-evaluate these paradigms in terms of their generality, strengths, and limitations. We suggest that while seasonality and resource partitioning (key to the two-layer model) and biologically important precipitation events (key to the pulse-reserve model) are critical to understanding plant responses to precipitation in aridlands, both paradigms have significant limitations. Neither account for plasticity in rooting habits of woody plants, potential delayed responses of plants to rainfall, explicit precipitation thresholds, or vagaries in plant phenology. To address these limitations, we integrate the ideas of precipitation thresholds and plant delays, resource partitioning, and plant FT strategies into a simple 'threshold-delay' model. The model contains six basic parameters that capture the nonlinear nature of plant responses to pulse precipitation. We review the literature within the context of our threshold-delay model to: (i) develop testable hypotheses about how different plant FTs respond to pulses; (ii) identify weaknesses in the current state-of-knowledge; and (iii) suggest future research directions that will

  6. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  7. On the question of the integration of exogenous bacterial DNA into plant DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhofs, A; Eden, F C; Chilton, M D; Bendich, A J

    1975-01-01

    Extensive studies with pea, tomato, and barley failed to confirm the evidence presented by previous investigators for integration or replication of exogenously applied bacterial DNA in these plants. Labeled DNA of buoyant density in CsCl intermediate between that of high density donor bacterial DNA and of plant DNA was never observed with axenic plants. Intermediate peaks, similar to those used as evidence for recombination by earlier investigators, were observed only when the plants were contaminated with bacteria. Plant DNA prepared by a published procedure [Ledoux, L. & Huart, R. (1969) J. Mol. Biol. 43, 243-262] was found to be contaminated with unidentified impurities. Such DNA was partially protected from the action of DNase and produced aberrant banding patterns in CsCl after shearing. Much of the published evidence for integration of foreign DNA in plants is based upon experiments with plant DNA prepared by this procedure. We conclude that contamination is the likely explanation for what has been interpreted as evidence for integration. PMID:809769

  8. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOEpatents

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  9. Network information security in a phase III Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS).

    PubMed Central

    Shea, S.; Sengupta, S.; Crosswell, A.; Clayton, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    The developing Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center provides data sharing links between two separate corporate entities, namely Columbia University Medical School and The Presbyterian Hospital, using a network-based architecture. Multiple database servers with heterogeneous user authentication protocols are linked to this network. "One-stop information shopping" implies one log-on procedure per session, not separate log-on and log-off procedures for each server or application used during a session. These circumstances provide challenges at the policy and technical levels to data security at the network level and insuring smooth information access for end users of these network-based services. Five activities being conducted as part of our security project are described: (1) policy development; (2) an authentication server for the network; (3) Kerberos as a tool for providing mutual authentication, encryption, and time stamping of authentication messages; (4) a prototype interface using Kerberos services to authenticate users accessing a network database server; and (5) a Kerberized electronic signature. PMID:1336414

  10. An integrated lake geographical information system on the third pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Lu, A.

    2016-12-01

    Alpine lakes on the Third Pole (TP) have been used as an indicator for knowing hydrologic process, evaluating water resources and understanding climate change. However, the main driving forces and climate-driven mechanisms of lake variations still remain debate. One of a reason that limits these researches is lack of the understanding of the lake hydrological characteristics. In this study, we created a lake inventory on TP, and for the first time, we established a comprehensive hydrological network for each lake mainly based on 246 scenes Landsat series images, 236 Chinese topographic maps, and SRTM DEM. According to the lake's location in the hydrological network, the lakes can be classified as closed lake, upstream lake or outflow lake. The closed lake has only inlet with no outlet. Water in the closed lake does not leave the basin by the surface runoff. The upstream lake has inlet and outlet, and the runoff will finally flow into a closed lake. The outflow lake has inlet and outlet, while the runoff will join into rivers and may eventually join into the ocean. These three kinds of lakes have different drainage modes, so their intensity and forms affected by climate change may not the same. It's necessary to distinguish them and consider them separately. The results show that there are 396 closed lakes, 472 supplying lakes and 312 outflow lakes on TP in 2010, with the area of 35,498.2 km2, 7,301.6km2, and 3,373.6 km2, respectively. Meanwhile, we determined the relationship between lakes and their supplying glaciers. What's more, an integrated lake geographical information system on the third pole has been build. This system realizes the information visualization and mainly includes two functions. If you click any lake, you can know the catchment of this lake, the streams how the runoff inputs a lake, and how a lake is connected to another lake or river. And you also can know if there are glaciers supply the lake or not, and the location and area of these

  11. Developing an Integrated Information System for the Food Sector. Agricultural Economic Report No. 575.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Alden

    This document proposes an information system for the food sector that integrates measures of prices, quantities, and values. It suggests that such an integrated information system provides more information about many developments in the food sector than a system that separately measures prices, quantities, or values. Concepts and approaches…

  12. Spatial Factors in the Integration of Speed Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We reported that, for a 21FC task with multiple Gabor patches in each interval, thresholds for speed discrimination decreased with the number of patches, while simply increasing the area of a single patch produced no such effect. This result could be explained by multiple patches reducing spatial uncertainty. However, the fact that thresholds decrease with number even when the patches are in fixed positions argues against this explanation. We therefore performed additional experiments to explore the lack of an area effect. Three observers did a 21FC speed discrimination task with 6 Gabor patches in each interval, and were asked to pick the interval in which the gratings moved faster. The 50% contrast patches were placed on a circle at 4 deg. eccentricity, either equally spaced and maximally separated (hexagonal array), or closely-spaced, in consecutive positions (string of pearls). For the string-of-pearls condition, the grating phases were either random, or consistent with a full-field grating viewed through multiple Gaussian windows. When grating phases were random, the thresholds for the hexagonal and string-of-pearls layouts were indistinguishable. For the string-of-pearls layout, thresholds in the consistent-phase condition were higher by 15 +/- 6% than in the random-phase condition. (Thresholds increased by 57 +/- 7% in going from 6 patches to a single patch of equivalent area.). For random-phase patches, the lower thresholds for 6 patches does not depend on a specific spacing or spatial layout. Multiple, closely-spaced, consistent-phase patches that can be interpreted as a single grating, result in thresholds closer to that produced by a single patch. Together, our results suggest that object segmentation may play a role in the integration of speed information.

  13. Approaches to cancer assessment in EPA's Integrated Risk Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Gehlhaus, Martin W.; Gift, Jeffrey S.; Hogan, Karen A.; Kopylev, Leonid; Schlosser, Paul M.; Kadry, Abdel-Razak

    2011-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Program develops assessments of health effects that may result from chronic exposure to chemicals in the environment. The IRIS database contains more than 540 assessments. When supported by available data, IRIS assessments provide quantitative analyses of carcinogenic effects. Since publication of EPA's 2005 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, IRIS cancer assessments have implemented new approaches recommended in these guidelines and expanded the use of complex scientific methods to perform quantitative dose-response assessments. Two case studies of the application of the mode of action framework from the 2005 Cancer Guidelines are presented in this paper. The first is a case study of 1,2,3-trichloropropane, as an example of a chemical with a mutagenic mode of carcinogenic action thus warranting the application of age-dependent adjustment factors for early-life exposure; the second is a case study of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, as an example of a chemical with a carcinogenic action consistent with a nonlinear extrapolation approach. The use of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to quantify interindividual variability and account for human parameter uncertainty as part of a quantitative cancer assessment is illustrated using a case study involving probabilistic PBPK modeling for dichloromethane. We also discuss statistical issues in assessing trends and model fit for tumor dose-response data, analysis of the combined risk from multiple types of tumors, and application of life-table methods for using human data to derive cancer risk estimates. These issues reflect the complexity and challenges faced in assessing the carcinogenic risks from exposure to environmental chemicals, and provide a view of the current trends in IRIS carcinogenicity risk assessment.

  14. Spatial Factors in the Integration of Speed Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We reported that, for a 21FC task with multiple Gabor patches in each interval, thresholds for speed discrimination decreased with the number of patches, while simply increasing the area of a single patch produced no such effect. This result could be explained by multiple patches reducing spatial uncertainty. However, the fact that thresholds decrease with number even when the patches are in fixed positions argues against this explanation. We therefore performed additional experiments to explore the lack of an area effect. Three observers did a 21FC speed discrimination task with 6 Gabor patches in each interval, and were asked to pick the interval in which the gratings moved faster. The 50% contrast patches were placed on a circle at 4 deg. eccentricity, either equally spaced and maximally separated (hexagonal array), or closely-spaced, in consecutive positions (string of pearls). For the string-of-pearls condition, the grating phases were either random, or consistent with a full-field grating viewed through multiple Gaussian windows. When grating phases were random, the thresholds for the hexagonal and string-of-pearls layouts were indistinguishable. For the string-of-pearls layout, thresholds in the consistent-phase condition were higher by 15 +/- 6% than in the random-phase condition. (Thresholds increased by 57 +/- 7% in going from 6 patches to a single patch of equivalent area.). For random-phase patches, the lower thresholds for 6 patches does not depend on a specific spacing or spatial layout. Multiple, closely-spaced, consistent-phase patches that can be interpreted as a single grating, result in thresholds closer to that produced by a single patch. Together, our results suggest that object segmentation may play a role in the integration of speed information.

  15. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  16. Performance evaluation of a full-scale coke oven wastewater treatment plant in an integrated steel plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N; Shivaraman, N; Bal, A S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater generated during coke-oven gas cleaning operations in the integrated steel plant contains phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate, and also oil and grease. Although the activated sludge process is widely practiced for biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater, it was observed during the evaluation of performance of full scale coke-oven wastewater treatment plant that oil contamination and poor sludge settleability had resulted in poor maintenance of the activated sludge process. Keeping these aspects in view, treatability studies were conducted and an alternative treatment process is proposed. With these corrective measures the coke-oven wastewater treatment plant will give desired performance. In this paper we present results of the performance evaluation, data on treatability studies and alternative treatment process scheme.

  17. GoMapMan: integration, consolidation and visualization of plant gene annotations within the MapMan ontology

    PubMed Central

    Ramšak, Živa; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Korbar, Matej; Mozetič, Igor; Usadel, Björn; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    GoMapMan (http://www.gomapman.org) is an open web-accessible resource for gene functional annotations in the plant sciences. It was developed to facilitate improvement, consolidation and visualization of gene annotations across several plant species. GoMapMan is based on the MapMan ontology, organized in the form of a hierarchical tree of biological concepts, which describe gene functions. Currently, genes of the model species Arabidopsis and three crop species (potato, tomato and rice) are included. The main features of GoMapMan are (i) dynamic and interactive gene product annotation through various curation options; (ii) consolidation of gene annotations for different plant species through the integration of orthologue group information; (iii) traceability of gene ontology changes and annotations; (iv) integration of external knowledge about genes from different public resources; and (v) providing gathered information to high-throughput analysis tools via dynamically generated export files. All of the GoMapMan functionalities are openly available, with the restriction on the curation functions, which require prior registration to ensure traceability of the implemented changes. PMID:24194592

  18. GoMapMan: integration, consolidation and visualization of plant gene annotations within the MapMan ontology.

    PubMed

    Ramsak, Živa; Baebler, Špela; Rotter, Ana; Korbar, Matej; Mozetic, Igor; Usadel, Björn; Gruden, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    GoMapMan (http://www.gomapman.org) is an open web-accessible resource for gene functional annotations in the plant sciences. It was developed to facilitate improvement, consolidation and visualization of gene annotations across several plant species. GoMapMan is based on the MapMan ontology, organized in the form of a hierarchical tree of biological concepts, which describe gene functions. Currently, genes of the model species Arabidopsis and three crop species (potato, tomato and rice) are included. The main features of GoMapMan are (i) dynamic and interactive gene product annotation through various curation options; (ii) consolidation of gene annotations for different plant species through the integration of orthologue group information; (iii) traceability of gene ontology changes and annotations; (iv) integration of external knowledge about genes from different public resources; and (v) providing gathered information to high-throughput analysis tools via dynamically generated export files. All of the GoMapMan functionalities are openly available, with the restriction on the curation functions, which require prior registration to ensure traceability of the implemented changes.

  19. Flowrate targeting for threshold problems and plant-wide integration for water network synthesis.

    PubMed

    Foo, Dominic Chwan Yee

    2008-07-01

    Water reuse/recycle has gained much attention in recent years for environmental sustainability reasons, as well as the rising costs of fresh water and effluent treatment. Process integration techniques for the synthesis of water network have been widely accepted as a promising tool to reduce fresh water and wastewater flowrates via in-plant water reuse/recycle. To date, the focus in this area has been on water network synthesis problems, with little attention dedicated to the rare but realistic cases of so-called threshold problems. In this work, targeting for threshold problems in a water network is addressed using the recently developed numerical tool of water cascade analysis (WCA). Targeting for plant-wide integration is then addressed. By sending water sources across different geographical zones in plant-wide integration, the overall fresh water and wastewater flowrates are reduced simultaneously.

  20. An integrated approach to demonstrating the ANR pathway of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qing-Zhong; Zhu, Yue; Liu, Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu

    2012-09-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomers or polymers of plant flavan-3-ols and are important to plant adaptation in extreme environmental conditions. The characterization of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) has demonstrated the different biogenesis of four stereo-configurations of flavan-3-ols. It is important to understand whether ANR and the ANR pathway widely occur in the plant kingdom. Here, we report an integrated approach to demonstrate the ANR pathway in plants. This includes different methods to extract native ANR from different tissues of eight angiosperm plants (Lotus corniculatus, Desmodium uncinatum, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Vitis vinifera, Vitis bellula, Parthenocissus heterophylla, and Cerasus serrulata) and one fern plant (Dryopteris pycnopteroides), a general enzymatic analysis approach to demonstrate the ANR activity, high-performance liquid chromatography-based fingerprinting to demonstrate (-)-epicatechin and other flavan-3-ol molecules, and phytochemical analysis of PAs. Results demonstrate that in addition to leaves of M. sativa, tissues of other eight plants contain an active ANR pathway. Particularly, the leaves, flowers and pods of D. uncinatum, which is a model plant to study LAR and the LAR pathways, are demonstrated to express an active ANR pathway. This finding suggests that the ANR pathway involves PA biosynthesis in D. uncinatum. In addition, a sequence BLAST analysis reveals that ANR homologs have been sequenced in plants from both gymnosperms and angiosperms. These data show that the ANR pathway to PA biosynthesis occurs in both seed and seedless vascular plants.