Science.gov

Sample records for integrated safety assessment

  1. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Leahy

    2010-06-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated “toolkit” consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  2. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; Rychkov, Valentin

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs and activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).

  3. Integrated deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis for safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Di Maio, Francesco; Zio, Enrico; Smith, Curtis; ...

    2015-07-06

    The present special issue contains an overview of the research in the field of Integrated Deterministic and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (IDPSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Traditionally, safety regulation for NPPs design and operation has been based on Deterministic Safety Assessment (DSA) methods to verify criteria that assure plant safety in a number of postulated Design Basis Accident (DBA) scenarios. Referring to such criteria, it is also possible to identify those plant Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) and activities that are most important for safety within those postulated scenarios. Then, the design, operation, and maintenance of these “safety-related” SSCs andmore » activities are controlled through regulatory requirements and supported by Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA).« less

  4. Ames Laboratory integrated safety management self-assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The implementation of Integrated Safety Management (ISM) at Ames Laboratory began with the signing of the ISM Implementation Charter on February 24, 1997 (see Appendix A). The first step toward implementation of ISM at Ames Laboratory is the performance of a Self-Assessment (SA). In preparation for the SA, a workshop on ISM was provided to the Laboratory`s Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Coordinators, Safety Review Committee members, and the Environment, Safety, Health and Assurance (ESH&A) staff. In addition, a briefing was given to the Laboratory`s Executive Council and Program Directors. Next, an SA Team was organized. The Team was composed of four Ames Laboratory and four Department of Energy-Chicago Operations Office (DOE-CH) staff members. The purpose of this SA was to determine the current status of ES&H management within Ames Laboratory, as well as to identify areas which need to be improved during ISM implementation. The SA was conducted by reviewing documents, interviewing Ames Laboratory management and staff, and performing walkthroughs of Laboratory areas. At the conclusion of this SA, Ames Laboratory management was briefed on the strengths, weaknesses, and the areas of improvement which will assist in the implementation of ISM.

  5. Criticality safety evaluations - a {open_quotes}stalking horse{close_quotes} for integrated safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Columbia Fuel Fabrication Facility of the Westinghouse Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division manufactures low-enriched uranium fuel and associated components for use in commercial pressurized water power reactors. To support development of a comprehensive integrated safety assessment (ISA) for the facility, as well as to address increasing U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expectations regarding such a facility`s criticality safety assessments, a project is under way to complete criticality safety evaluations (CSEs) of all plant systems used in processing nuclear materials. Each CSE is made up of seven sections, prepared by a multidisciplinary team of process engineers, systems engineers, safety engineers, maintenance representatives, and operators. This paper provides a cursory outline of the type of information presented in a CSE.

  6. Need for an "integrated safety assessment" of GMOs, linking food safety and environmental considerations.

    PubMed

    Haslberger, Alexander G

    2006-05-03

    information. An integrated assessment might help to focus and save capacities in highly technical areas such as molecular characterization or profiling, which are often necessary for both assessments. In the area of establishing international standards for traded foods, such as for the newly created Standards in Trade and Development Facility (STDF), an integrated assessment might help in the consideration of important environmental aspects involved in health and food safety. Furthermore, an established integrated view on GMOs may create greater consumer confidence in the technology.

  7. Food for Thought … Integrated Testing Strategies for Safety Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Thomas; Luechtefeld, Tom; Maertens, Alexandra; Kleensang, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Summary Despite the fact that toxicology uses many stand-alone tests, a systematic combination of several information sources very often is required: Examples include: when not all possible outcomes of interest (e.g., modes of action), classes of test substances (applicability domains), or severity classes of effect are covered in a single test; when the positive test result is rare (low prevalence leading to excessive false-positive results); when the gold standard test is too costly or uses too many animals, creating a need for prioritization by screening. Similarly, tests are combined when the human predictivity of a single test is not satisfactory or when existing data and evidence from various tests will be integrated. Increasingly, kinetic information also will be integrated to make an in vivo extrapolation from in vitro data. Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) offer the solution to these problems. ITS have been discussed for more than a decade, and some attempts have been made in test guidance for regulations. Despite their obvious potential for revamping regulatory toxicology, however, we still have little guidance on the composition, validation, and adaptation of ITS for different purposes. Similarly, Weight of Evidence and Evidence-based Toxicology approaches require different pieces of evidence and test data to be weighed and combined. ITS also represent the logical way of combining pathway-based tests, as suggested in Toxicology for the 21st Century. This paper describes the state of the art of ITS and makes suggestions as to the definition, systematic combination, and quality assurance of ITS. PMID:23338803

  8. Integrating Safety Assessment Methods using the Risk Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis Smith; Diego Mandelli

    2013-03-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of nuclear power plants (NPPs). As the current light water reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of systems, structures, and components (SSC) degradations or failures that initiate safety significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated primarily based on engineering judgment backed by a set of conservative engineering calculations. The ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin is important to improved decision making about LWR design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margin management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. In addition, as research and development (R&D) in the LWR Sustainability (LWRS) Program and other collaborative efforts yield new data, sensors, and improved scientific understanding of physical processes that govern the aging and degradation of plant SSCs needs and opportunities to better optimize plant safety and performance will become known. To support decision making related to economics, readability, and safety, the RISMC Pathway provides methods and tools that enable mitigation options known as margins management strategies. The purpose of the RISMC Pathway R&D is to support plant decisions for risk

  9. Integrated safety assessment of an oxygen reduction project at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power's Haddam Neck plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aubrey, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (CYAPCo) has implemented an Integrated Safety Assessment Program (ISAP) for the integrated evaluation and prioritization of plant-specific licensing issues, regulatory policy issues, and plant improvement projects. As part of the ISAP process, probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is utilized to evaluate the net safety impact of plant modification projects. On a few occasions, implementation of this approach has resulted in the identification of projects with negative safety impacts that could not be quantified via the normal design review and 10CFR50.59 safety evaluation process. An example is a plant modification that was proposed to reduce the oxygen in the Haddam Neck plant's demineralized water storage tank (DWST). The project involved the design and installation of a nitrogen blanketing system on the DWST. The purpose of the project was to reduce the oxygen content on the secondary side, consistent with recommendations from the Electric Power Research Institute Steam Generator Owners Group. Oxygen is one of the contributors to the corrosion process in systems in contact with the feedwater and can cause damage to associated components if not controlled.

  10. Integrated assessment of pedestrian head impact protection in testing secondary safety and autonomous emergency braking.

    PubMed

    Searson, D J; Anderson, R W G; Hutchinson, T P

    2014-02-01

    Pedestrian impact testing is used to provide information to the public about the relative level of protection provided by different vehicles to a struck pedestrian. Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) is a relatively new technology that aims to reduce the impact speed of such crashes. It is expected that vehicles with AEB will pose less harm to pedestrians, and that the benefit will come about through reductions in the number of collisions and a change in the severity of impacts that will still occur. In this paper, an integration of the assessment of AEB performance and impact performance is proposed based on average injury risk. Average injury risk is calculated using the result of an impact test and a previously published distribution of real world crash speeds. A second published speed distribution is used that accounts for the effects of AEB, and reduced average risks are implied. This principle allows the effects of AEB systems and secondary safety performance to be integrated into a single measure of safety. The results are used to examine the effect of AEB on Euro NCAP and ANCAP assessments using previously published results on the likely effect of AEB. The results show that, given certain assumptions about AEB performance, the addition of AEB is approximately the equivalent of increasing Euro NCAP test performance by one band, which corresponds to an increase in the score of 25% of the maximum.

  11. Experimental assessment of computer codes used for safety analysis of integral reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Falkov, A.A.; Kuul, V.S.; Samoilov, O.B.

    1995-09-01

    Peculiarities of integral reactor thermohydraulics in accidents are associated with presence of noncondensable gas in built-in pressurizer, absence of pumped ECCS, use of guard vessel for LOCAs localisation and passive RHRS through in-reactor HX`s. These features defined the main trends in experimental investigations and verification efforts for computer codes applied. The paper reviews briefly the performed experimental investigation of thermohydraulics of AST-500, VPBER600-type integral reactors. The characteristic of UROVEN/MB-3 code for LOCAs analysis in integral reactors and results of its verification are given. The assessment of RELAP5/mod3 applicability for accident analysis in integral reactor is presented.

  12. A practical profile of integrated safety assessment of near-surface disposal of radwaste at PINSTECH.

    PubMed

    Jan, F; Ahmad, S S; Hasany, S M; Aslam, M

    2007-06-01

    Near-surface or shallow land disposal of radioactive waste has been the primary practice at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). The adopted choice of this mode of disposal has been based on a study of the site and the quality and quantity of waste generated at the 5 MW reactor with HEU fuel. Specific measures regarding the radiation safety of the workers and environmental protection have been adopted. The waste disposal operations are conducted to meet local regulatory requirements, IAEA recommendations and internationally endorsed principles such as ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable - economic, social and other relevant factors being considered). The data obtained through the years of operational and management experience have manifested the robustness of the disposal system and reliability of the disposal criterion, and have also served to further refine the latter. Consequently, confidence in the current shallow-land-burial practices has increased. Radiological safety of these practices has been assessed by addressing different aspects of the safety and disposal system. These parameters, as indices of a non-exclusive and operational safety model, are presented.

  13. Integrated Safety Analysis Tiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shackelford, Carla; McNairy, Lisa; Wetherholt, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Commercial partnerships and organizational constraints, combined with complex systems, may lead to division of hazard analysis across organizations. This division could cause important hazards to be overlooked, causes to be missed, controls for a hazard to be incomplete, or verifications to be inefficient. Each organization s team must understand at least one level beyond the interface sufficiently enough to comprehend integrated hazards. This paper will discuss various ways to properly divide analysis among organizations. The Ares I launch vehicle integrated safety analyses effort will be utilized to illustrate an approach that addresses the key issues and concerns arising from multiple analysis responsibilities.

  14. Integrate genome-based assessment of safety for probiotic strains: Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 as a case study.

    PubMed

    Salvetti, Elisa; Orrù, Luigi; Capozzi, Vittorio; Martina, Alessia; Lamontanara, Antonella; Keller, David; Cash, Howard; Felis, Giovanna E; Cattivelli, Luigi; Torriani, Sandra; Spano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Probiotics are microorganisms that confer beneficial effects on the host; nevertheless, before being allowed for human consumption, their safety must be verified with accurate protocols. In the genomic era, such procedures should take into account the genomic-based approaches. This study aims at assessing the safety traits of Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 integrating the most updated genomics-based procedures and conventional phenotypic assays. Special attention was paid to putative virulence factors (VF), antibiotic resistance (AR) genes and genes encoding enzymes responsible for harmful metabolites (i.e. biogenic amines, BAs). This probiotic strain was phenotypically resistant to streptomycin and kanamycin, although the genome analysis suggested that the AR-related genes were not easily transferrable to other bacteria, and no other genes with potential safety risks, such as those related to VF or BA production, were retrieved. Furthermore, no unstable elements that could potentially lead to genomic rearrangements were detected. Moreover, a workflow is proposed to allow the proper taxonomic identification of a microbial strain and the accurate evaluation of risk-related gene traits, combining whole genome sequencing analysis with updated bioinformatics tools and standard phenotypic assays. The workflow presented can be generalized as a guideline for the safety investigation of novel probiotic strains to help stakeholders (from scientists to manufacturers and consumers) to meet regulatory requirements and avoid misleading information.

  15. Integrated Safety Analysis Teams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jonathan C.

    2008-01-01

    Today's complex systems require understanding beyond one person s capability to comprehend. Each system requires a team to divide the system into understandable subsystems which can then be analyzed with an Integrated Hazard Analysis. The team must have both specific experiences and diversity of experience. Safety experience and system understanding are not always manifested in one individual. Group dynamics make the difference between success and failure as well as the difference between a difficult task and a rewarding experience. There are examples in the news which demonstrate the need to connect the pieces of a system into a complete picture. The Columbia disaster is now a standard example of a low consequence hazard in one part of the system; the External Tank is a catastrophic hazard cause for a companion subsystem, the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The interaction between the hardware, the manufacturing process, the handling, and the operations contributed to the problem. Each of these had analysis performed, but who constituted the team which integrated this analysis together? This paper will explore some of the methods used for dividing up a complex system; and how one integration team has analyzed the parts. How this analysis has been documented in one particular launch space vehicle case will also be discussed.

  16. Safety Auditing and Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald (Ronnie)

    2005-01-01

    Safety professionals typically do not engage in audits and independent assessments with the vigor as do our quality brethren. Taking advantage of industry and government experience conducting value added Independent Assessments or Audits benefits a safety program. Most other organizations simply call this process "internal audits." Sources of audit training are presented and compared. A relation of logic between audit techniques and mishap investigation is discussed. An example of an audit process is offered. Shortcomings and pitfalls of auditing are covered.

  17. Safety assurance of complex integrated systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrignani, Vincent A.; Jordan, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Interface hazard analysis (IHA) is used as a 'tool' to systematically assess safety for the integration of a diverse set of experiments and payload hardware into the Spacelab carrier which flies in the Space Shuttle's Orbiter cargo bay. The IHA when performed by a thorough analysis provides safety assurance of complex integrated systems by systematically linking analysis efforts performed by the organizations thus providing the respective elements to be integrated into an objective, unique analysis. Particular attention is given to verification methods of the safety assurance of the Spacelab carrier and its experiment payload for which the IHA was performed.

  18. Safety Assessment of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Boyle, Robert J.; Margolles, Abelardo; Frias, Rafael; Gueimonde, Miguel

    Viable microbes have been a natural part of human diet throughout the history of mankind. Today, different fermented foods and other foods containing live microbes are consumed around the world, including industrialized countries, where the diet has become increasingly sterile during the last decades. By definition, probiotics are viable microbes with documented beneficial effects on host health. Probiotics have an excellent safety record, both in humans and in animals. Despite the wide and continuously increasing consumption of probiotics, adverse events related to probiotic use are extremely rare. Many popular probiotic strains such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria can be considered as components of normal healthy intestinal microbiota, and thus are not thought to pose a risk for the host health - in contrast, beneficial effects on health are commonly reported. Nevertheless, the safety of probiotics is an important issue, in particular in the case of new potential probiotics which do not have a long history of safe use, and of probiotics belonging to species for which general assumption of safety cannot be made. Furthermore, safety of probiotics in high-risk populations such as critically ill patients and immunocompromized subjects deserves particular attention, as virtually all reported cases of bacteremia and fungemia associated with probiotic use, involve subjects with underlying diseases, compromised immune system or compromised intestinal integrity.

  19. Korean research project on the integrated exposure assessment of hazardous substances for food safety

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ji-Ae; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ho; Oh, Se Young; Kim, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sang-Ah; Park, Jung-Duck; Hong, Young-Seoub; Sohn, Seok-Joon; Pyo, Heesoo; Park, Kyung Su; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Yong Dae; Jun, Sangil; Hwang, Myung Sil

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This survey was designed to conduct the first nationwide dietary exposure assessment on hazardous substances including the intakes of functional food and herbal medicine. In this paper, we introduced the survey design and the results of the dietary exposure status and internal exposure levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg). Methods: We selected 4867 subjects of all ages throughout Korea. We conducted a food survey, dietary survey, biomonitoring, and health survey. Results: Pb and Cd were the highest (median value) in the seaweed (94.2 μg/kg for Pb; 594 μg/kg for Cd), and Hg was the highest in the fish (46.4 μg/kg). The dietary exposure level (median value) of Pb was 0.14 μg/kg body weight (bw)/d, 0.18 μg/kg bw/d for Cd, and 0.07 μg/kg bw/d for Hg. Those with a blood Pb level of less than 5.00 μg/dL (US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, reference value for those 1 to 5 years of age) were 99.0% of all the subjects. Those with a blood Cd level with less than 0.30 μg/L (German Federal Environmental Agency, reference value for non-smoking children) were 24.5%. For those with a blood Hg level with less than 5.00 μg/L (human biomonitoring I, references value for children and adults, German Federal Environmental Agency) was 81.0 % of all the subjects. Conclusions: The main dietary exposure of heavy metals occurs through food consumed in a large quantity and high frequency. The blood Hg level and dietary exposure level of Hg were both higher than those in the European Union. PMID:26184046

  20. Risk assessment for safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadlock, Charles R.; Glaser, Peter E.

    The application of probabilistic risk-assessment techniques to space missions is discussed, with a focus on the International Space Station. The types of hazards likely to be caused by random events; design, operational, and management errors; and intentional intervention are examined along with their secondary effects; and the top-level safety requirements defined by NASA are considered. It is suggested that such qualitative stipulations be supplemented with more quantitative measures such as used in the nuclear-power industry; the major features of such quantitative methods are reviewed.

  1. [Agricultural biotechnology safety assessment].

    PubMed

    McClain, Scott; Jones, Wendelyn; He, Xiaoyun; Ladics, Gregory; Bartholomaeus, Andrew; Raybould, Alan; Lutter, Petra; Xu, Haibin; Wang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first introduced to farmers in 1995 with the intent to provide better crop yield and meet the increasing demand for food and feed. GM crops have evolved to include a thorough safety evaluation for their use in human food and animal feed. Safety considerations begin at the level of DNA whereby the inserted GM DNA is evaluated for its content, position and stability once placed into the crop genome. The safety of the proteins coded by the inserted DNA and potential effects on the crop are considered, and the purpose is to ensure that the transgenic novel proteins are safe from a toxicity, allergy, and environmental perspective. In addition, the grain that provides the processed food or animal feed is also tested to evaluate its nutritional content and identify unintended effects to the plant composition when warranted. To provide a platform for the safety assessment, the GM crop is compared to non-GM comparators in what is typically referred to as composition equivalence testing. New technologies, such as mass spectrometry and well-designed antibody-based methods, allow better analytical measurements of crop composition, including endogenous allergens. Many of the analytical methods and their intended uses are based on regulatory guidance documents, some of which are outlined in globally recognized documents such as Codex Alimentarius. In certain cases, animal models are recommended by some regulatory agencies in specific countries, but there is typically no hypothesis or justification of their use in testing the safety of GM crops. The quality and standardization of testing methods can be supported, in some cases, by employing good laboratory practices (GLP) and is recognized in China as important to ensure quality data. Although the number of recommended, in some cases, required methods for safety testing are increasing in some regulatory agencies, it should be noted that GM crops registered to date have been shown to be

  2. HSE's safety assessment principles for criticality safety.

    PubMed

    Simister, D N; Finnerty, M D; Warburton, S J; Thomas, E A; Macphail, M R

    2008-06-01

    The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) published its revised Safety Assessment Principles for Nuclear Facilities (SAPs) in December 2006. The SAPs are primarily intended for use by HSE's inspectors when judging the adequacy of safety cases for nuclear facilities. The revised SAPs relate to all aspects of safety in nuclear facilities including the technical discipline of criticality safety. The purpose of this paper is to set out for the benefit of a wider audience some of the thinking behind the final published words and to provide an insight into the development of UK regulatory guidance. The paper notes that it is HSE's intention that the Safety Assessment Principles should be viewed as a reflection of good practice in the context of interpreting primary legislation such as the requirements under site licence conditions for arrangements for producing an adequate safety case and for producing a suitable and sufficient risk assessment under the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1999 (SI1999/3232 www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/uksi_19993232_en.pdf).

  3. Integral fast reactor safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Cahalan, J.E.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Mueller, C.J.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Wade, D.C.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an advanced liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. In addition to liquid metal cooling, the principal design features that distinguish the IFR are: (1) a pool-type primary system, (2) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (3) an integral fuel cycle with on-site fuel reprocessing and fabrication. This paper focuses on the technical aspects of the improved safety margins available in the IFR concept. This increased level of safety is made possible by (1) the liquid metal (sodium) coolant and pool-type primary system layout, which together facilitate passive decay heat removal, and (2) a sodium-bonded metallic fuel pin design with thermal and neutronic properties that provide passive core responses which control and mitigate the consequences of reactor accidents.

  4. Safety in Schools: An Integral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gairin, Joaquin; Castro, Diego

    2011-01-01

    The present paper summarizes a research project into integral safety in schools. The aims of this particular research are, firstly, to evaluate the degree of integral safety in schools, secondly, to propose means for improving prevention and integral safety systems and thirdly, to identify the characteristics of safety culture. The field work was…

  5. A Synthetic Vision Preliminary Integrated Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemm, Robert; Houser, Scott

    2001-01-01

    This report documents efforts to analyze a sample of aviation safety programs, using the LMI-developed integrated safety analysis tool to determine the change in system risk resulting from Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) technology implementation. Specifically, we have worked to modify existing system safety tools to address the safety impact of synthetic vision (SV) technology. Safety metrics include reliability, availability, and resultant hazard. This analysis of SV technology is intended to be part of a larger effort to develop a model that is capable of "providing further support to the product design and development team as additional information becomes available". The reliability analysis portion of the effort is complete and is fully documented in this report. The simulation analysis is still underway; it will be documented in a subsequent report. The specific goal of this effort is to apply the integrated safety analysis to SV technology. This report also contains a brief discussion of data necessary to expand the human performance capability of the model, as well as a discussion of human behavior and its implications for system risk assessment in this modeling environment.

  6. Integrated Safety Assessment of 2′-O-Methoxyethyl Chimeric Antisense Oligonucleotides in NonHuman Primates and Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Crooke, Stanley T; Baker, Brenda F; Kwoh, T Jesse; Cheng, Wei; Schulz, Dan J; Xia, Shuting; Salgado, Nelson; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Hart, Christopher E; Burel, Sebastien A; Younis, Husam S; Geary, Richard S; Henry, Scott P; Bhanot, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The common chemical and biological properties of antisense oligonucleotides provide the opportunity to identify and characterize chemical class effects across species. The chemical class that has proven to be the most versatile and best characterized is the 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotides. In this report we present an integrated safety assessment of data obtained from controlled dose-ranging studies in nonhuman primates (macaques) and healthy human volunteers for 12 unique 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotides. Safety was assessed by the incidence of safety signals in standardized laboratory tests for kidney and liver function, hematology, and complement activation; as well as by the mean test results as a function of dose level over time. At high doses a number of toxicities were observed in nonhuman primates. However, no class safety effects were identified in healthy human volunteers from this integrated data analysis. Effects on complement in nonhuman primates were not observed in humans. Nonhuman primates predicted safe doses in humans, but over predicted risk of complement activation and effects on platelets. Although limited to a single chemical class, comparisons from this analysis are considered valid and accurate based on the carefully controlled setting for the specified study populations and within the total exposures studied. PMID:27357629

  7. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance in Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cianciola, Chris; Crane, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes how the Ares Projects are learning from the successes and failures of previous launch systems in order to maximize safety and reliability while maintaining fiscal responsibility. The Ares Projects are integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into design activities and embracing independent assessments by Quality experts in thorough reviews of designs and processes. Incorporating Lean thinking into the design process, Ares is also streamlining existing processes and future manufacturing flows which will yield savings during production. Understanding the value of early involvement of Quality experts, the Ares Projects are leading launch vehicle development into the 21st century.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF SAFETY CULTURE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Spitalnik, J.

    2004-10-06

    Safety Management has lately been considered by some Nuclear Regulatory agencies as the tool on which to concentrate their efforts to implement modern regulation structures, because Safety Culture was said to be difficult to monitor. However, Safety Culture can be assessed and monitored even if it is problematical to make Safety Culture the object of regulation. This paper stresses the feasibility and importance of Safety Culture Assessment based on self-assessment applications performed in several nuclear organizations in Latin America. Reasons and ownership for assessing Safety Culture are discussed, and relevant aspects considered for setting up and programming such an assessment are shown. Basic principles that were taken into account, as well as financial and human resources used in actual self-assessments are reviewed, including the importance of adequate statistical analyses and the necessity of proper feed-back of results. The setting up of action plans to enhance Safety Culture is the final step of the assessment program that once implemented will enable to establish a Safety Culture monitoring process within the organization.

  9. The EOP Visualization Module Integrated into the Plasma On-Line Nuclear Power Plant Safety Monitoring and Assessment System

    SciTech Connect

    Hornaes, Arne; Hulsund, John Einar; Vegh, Janos; Major, Csaba; Horvath, Csaba; Lipcsei, Sandor; Kapocs, Gyoergy

    2001-08-15

    An ambitious project to replace the unit information systems (UISs) at the Hungarian Paks nuclear power plant was started in 1998-99. The basic aim of the reconstruction project is to install a modern, distributed UIS architecture on all four Paks VVER-440 units. The new UIS includes an on-line plant safety monitoring and assessment system (PLASMA), which contains a critical safety functions monitoring module and provides extensive operator support during the execution of the new, symptom-oriented emergency operating procedures (EOPs). PLASMA includes a comprehensive EOP visualization module, based on the COPMA-III procedure-handling software developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Halden Reactor Project. Intranet technology is applied for the presentation of the EOPs with the use of a standard hypertext markup language (HTML) browser as a visualization tool. The basic design characteristics of the system, with a detailed description of its user interface and functions of the new EOP display module, are presented.

  10. [Risk assessment and safety evaluation using system normative indexes integration method for non-point source pollution on watershed scale].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Chang; Yan, Yan; Liu, Feng; Ding, Ding; Zhao, Ming

    2008-03-01

    Decision-makers take non-point source pollution under control as well as possible results from enough information of risk trend of nonpoint source pollution on watershed scale. System normative indexes integration evaluation method about system risk trend was developed when focusing on that the probability values of some elements attributing to some trend of the system were more than one, and that the system evaluation needed a formula from the system structure. On the basis of analysis on aspects and characteristics of the system risk normalization, a new valuation method, the relationship between the normalization values of the system and the factors was established. The Lugu Lake Watershed in Southwest China was selected as study area to assess the risk of non-point source loss to surface water using this method. The results indicate that 1) the wholly risk of non-point source loss to surface water in this watershed is in a high level; 2) the system indexes integration evaluation method is an universal method to evaluate a quality or a trend of any system and shows a great power in comparing several systems; 3) the method is helpful to attain an effective and integrated assessment on a system when it is combined with other methods.

  11. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  12. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  13. Ares I Integrated Vehicle System Safety Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; McNairy, Lisa; Shackelford, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Complex systems require integrated analysis teams which sometimes are divided into subsystem teams. Proper division of the analysis in to subsystem teams is important. Safety analysis is one of the most difficult aspects of integration.

  14. Why the Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission Policy on Safety Nets and Risk Assessment is Wrong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooker, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Current Eurocontrol Safety Regulation Commission (SRC) policy says that the Air Traffic Management (ATM) system (including safety minima) must be demonstrated through risk assessments to meet the Target Level of Safety (TLS) without needing to take safety nets (such as Short Term Conflict Alert) into account. This policy is wrong. The policy is invalid because it does not build rationally and consistently from ATM's firm foundations of TLS and hazard analysis. The policy is bad because it would tend to retard safety improvements. Safety net policy must rest on a clear and rational treatment of integrated ATM system safety defences. A new safety net policy, appropriate to safe ATM system improvements, is needed, which recognizes that safety nets are an integrated part of ATM system defences. The effects of safety nets in reducing deaths from mid-air collisions should be fully included in hazard analysis and safety audits in the context of the TLS for total system design.

  15. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  16. Correlation between safety climate and contractor safety assessment programs in construction

    PubMed Central

    Sparer, EH1; Murphy, LA; Taylor, KM; Dennerlein, Jt

    2015-01-01

    Background Contractor safety assessment programs (CSAPs) measure safety performance by integrating multiple data sources together; however, the relationship between these measures of safety performance and safety climate within the construction industry is unknown. Methods 401 construction workers employed by 68 companies on 26 sites and 11 safety managers employed by 11 companies completed brief surveys containing a nine-item safety climate scale developed for the construction industry. CSAP scores from ConstructSecure, Inc., an online CSAP database, classified these 68 companies as high or low scorers, with the median score of the sample population as the threshold. Spearman rank correlations evaluated the association between the CSAP score and the safety climate score at the individual level, as well as with various grouping methodologies. In addition, Spearman correlations evaluated the comparison between manager-assessed safety climate and worker-assessed safety climate. Results There were no statistically significant differences between safety climate scores reported by workers in the high and low CSAP groups. There were, at best, weak correlations between workers’ safety climate scores and the company CSAP scores, with marginal statistical significance with two groupings of the data. There were also no significant differences between the manager-assessed safety climate and the worker-assessed safety climate scores. Conclusions A CSAP safety performance score does not appear to capture safety climate, as measured in this study. The nature of safety climate in construction is complex, which may be reflective of the challenges in measuring safety climate within this industry. PMID:24038403

  17. Safety assessment of genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S L

    2001-12-01

    The development of novel foods produced through agricultural biotechnology is a complex three-stage process: gene discovery, line selection, and product advancement to commercialization. The safety of genetically modified foods is an integral part of the overall developmental process throughout all of the stages. In the discovery stage, the safety of the gene, its source, and the gene products must be considered. If any questions arise at this stage, these questions must be answered later in the developmental process. During the line selection stage, the genetically modified seed progresses through a variety of greenhouse and field trials. At this stage, the biological and agronomic equivalence of the genetically modified crop to its traditional counterpart must be compared. While the evaluations made during this stage are not specifically directed toward a safety assessment, many potential products with unusual characteristics are eliminated during this stage of development. However, the elimination of products with unusual agronomic or biological characteristics enhances the likelihood that a safe product will be generated. Finally, in the pre-commercialization stage, the genetically modified product undergoes a detailed safety assessment process. This process focuses on the safety of the gene products associated with the introduced gene and any other likely toxicological or anti-nutrient factors associated with the source of the novel gene and the crop to which it was introduced. The safety of the genetically modified product for both food and feed uses is considered. Thus far, all of the genetically modified products brought into the marketplace have been subjected to such an intensive safety assessment. The safety assessment data have been reviewed by regulatory authorities around the world. The current generation of genetically modified products are quite safe for human and feed animal consumption.

  18. HANFORD SAFETY ANALYSIS & RISK ASSESSMENT HANDBOOK (SARAH)

    SciTech Connect

    EVANS, C B

    2004-12-21

    The purpose of the Hanford Safety Analysis and Risk Assessment Handbook (SARAH) is to support the development of safety basis documentation for Hazard Category 2 and 3 (HC-2 and 3) U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities to meet the requirements of 10 CFR 830, ''Nuclear Safety Management''. Subpart B, ''Safety Basis Requirements.'' Consistent with DOE-STD-3009-94, Change Notice 2, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'' (STD-3009), and DOE-STD-3011-2002, ''Guidance for Preparation of Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) Documents'' (STD-3011), the Hanford SARAH describes methodology for performing a safety analysis leading to development of a Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) and derivation of Technical Safety Requirements (TSR), and provides the information necessary to ensure a consistently rigorous approach that meets DOE expectations. The DSA and TSR documents, together with the DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Report (SER), are the basic components of facility safety basis documentation. For HC-2 or 3 nuclear facilities in long-term surveillance and maintenance (S&M), for decommissioning activities, where source term has been eliminated to the point that only low-level, residual fixed contamination is present, or for environmental remediation activities outside of a facility structure, DOE-STD-1120-98, ''Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health into Facility Disposition Activities'' (STD-1120), may serve as the basis for the DSA. HC-2 and 3 environmental remediation sites also are subject to the hazard analysis methodologies of this standard.

  19. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  20. Integrated assessment briefs

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Integrated assessment can be used to evaluate and clarify resource management policy options and outcomes for decision makers. The defining characteristics of integrated assessment are (1) focus on providing information and analysis that can be understood and used by decision makers rather than for merely advancing understanding and (2) its multidisciplinary approach, using methods, styles of study, and considerations from a broader variety of technical areas than would typically characterize studies produced from a single disciplinary standpoint. Integrated assessment may combine scientific, social, economic, health, and environmental data and models. Integrated assessment requires bridging the gap between science and policy considerations. Because not everything can be valued using a single metric, such as a dollar value, the integrated assessment process also involves evaluating trade-offs among dissimilar attributes. Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recognized the importance and value of multidisciplinary approaches to solving environmental problems early on and have pioneered the development of tools and methods for integrated assessment over the past three decades. Major examples of ORNL`s experience in the development of its capabilities for integrated assessment are given.

  1. Bibliography for computer security, integrity, and safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    A bibliography of computer security, integrity, and safety issues is given. The bibliography is divided into the following sections: recent national publications; books; journal, magazine articles, and miscellaneous reports; conferences, proceedings, and tutorials; and government documents and contractor reports.

  2. INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SAFETY CULTURE IMPROVEMENT INITIATIVE

    SciTech Connect

    MCDONALD JA JR

    2009-01-16

    In 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) identified safety culture as one of their top Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) related priorities. A team was formed to address this issue. The team identified a consensus set of safety culture principles, along with implementation practices that could be used by DOE, NNSA, and their contractors. Documented improvement tools were identified and communicated to contractors participating in a year long pilot project. After a year, lessons learned will be collected and a path forward determined. The goal of this effort was to achieve improved safety and mission performance through ISMS continuous improvement. The focus of ISMS improvement was safety culture improvement building on operating experience from similar industries such as the domestic and international commercial nuclear and chemical industry.

  3. Advances in assessing ingredient safety.

    PubMed

    Dourson, Michael L; York, Raymond G

    2016-08-01

    The safety of food ingredients will be assessed in the 21st century by mixture of traditional methods, such as the "safe" dose concept, which is thought to be an accurate but imprecise estimation of dose below the population threshold for adverse effect, and contemporary methods, such as the Benchmark Dose (BMD), Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF), physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models, and biologically-informed dose response modeling. New research on the horizon related to toxicology 21 may also improve these risk assessment methods, or suggest new ones. These traditional, contemporary and new methods and research will be briefly described.

  4. Integrated Science Assessments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Integrated Science Assessments are reports that represent a concise evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science for reviewing the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for the six principal pollutants.

  5. Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behar, Joseph V.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Integrated Exposure Assessment Monitoring is the coordination of environmental (air, water, land, and crops) monitoring networks to collect systematically pollutant exposure data for a specific receptor, usually man. (Author/BB)

  6. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : gap analysis for high fidelity and performance assessment code development.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon H.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Webb, Stephen Walter; Dewers, Thomas A.; Mariner, Paul E.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Fuller, Timothy J.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.; Wang, Yifeng

    2011-03-01

    This report describes a gap analysis performed in the process of developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with rigorous verification, validation, and software quality requirements. The gap analyses documented in this report were are performed during an initial gap analysis to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC, and during follow-on activities that delved into more detailed assessments of the various codes that were acquired, studied, and tested. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. The gap analysis indicates that significant capabilities may already exist in the existing THC codes although there is no single code able to fully account for all physical and chemical processes involved in a waste disposal system. Large gaps exist in modeling chemical processes and their couplings with other processes. The coupling of chemical processes with flow transport and mechanical deformation remains challenging. The data for extreme environments (e.g., for elevated temperature and high ionic strength media) that are

  7. iTOUGH2-IFC: An Integrated Flow Code in Support of Nagra's Probabilistic Safety Assessment:--User's Guide and Model Description

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, Stefan A.

    2009-01-02

    This document describes the development and use of the Integrated Flow Code (IFC), a numerical code and related model to be used for the simulation of time-dependent, two-phase flow in the near field and geosphere of a gas-generating nuclear waste repository system located in an initially fully water-saturated claystone (Opalinus Clay) in Switzerland. The development of the code and model was supported by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (Nagra), Wettingen, Switzerland. Gas generation (mainly H{sub 2}, but also CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) may affect repository performance by (1) compromising the engineered barriers through excessive pressure build-up, (2) displacing potentially contaminated pore water, (3) releasing radioactive gases (e.g., those containing {sup 14}C and {sup 3}H), (4) changing hydrogeologic properties of the engineered barrier system and the host rock, and (5) altering the groundwater flow field and thus radionuclide migration paths. The IFC aims at providing water and gas flow fields as the basis for the subsequent radionuclide transport simulations, which are performed by the radionuclide transport code (RTC). The IFC, RTC and a waste-dissolution and near-field transport model (STMAN) are part of the Integrated Radionuclide Release Code (IRRC), which integrates all safety-relevant features, events, and processes (FEPs). The IRRC is embedded into a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) computational tool that (1) evaluates alternative conceptual models, scenarios, and disruptive events, and (2) performs Monte-Carlo sampling to account for parametric uncertainties. The preliminary probabilistic safety assessment concept and the role of the IFC are visualized in Figure 1. The IFC was developed based on Nagra's PSA concept. Specifically, as many phenomena as possible are to be directly simulated using a (simplified) process model, which is at the core of the IRRC model. Uncertainty evaluation (scenario uncertainty

  8. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis. 70.62... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each licensee or applicant shall establish and maintain a safety program that demonstrates compliance with...

  9. Integral fast reactor concept inherent safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFT development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: 1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, 2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, 3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and 4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS).

  10. Integral Fast Reactor concept inherent safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: (1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, (2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, (3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS).

  11. Safety assessment of cre recombinase.

    PubMed

    Hileman, Ronald E; Bonner, Heather K S; Kaempfe, Terry A; Hammond, Bruce G; Glenn, Kevin C

    2006-11-01

    Cre recombinase, when used as a tool in agricultural biotechnology, can precisely excise DNA sequences that may be useful in the introduction of a new trait but are not needed in the commercial product. Although the cre genetic material would not be present in the final product, the present studies were performed to assess the safety of Cre recombinase to provide confirmatory evidence of the safe use of Cre-lox technology in agricultural biotechnology. Cre recombinase shares no relevant sequence similarity to known allergens or toxins. When Cre recombinase was exposed to a pH 1.2 solution of simulated gastric fluid lacking pepsin, CD spectroscopy showed that there was a loss of secondary structure and that the protein was no longer active in a functional assay. Cre recombinase was degraded rapidly when exposed to pepsin in a standardized gastric digestion model; therefore, Cre recombinase would not survive the harsh gastric environment. When orally administered to mice as an acute dosage of 53 mg/kg of body weight, no treatment-related adverse findings were observed. These data support the conclusion that human and animal dietary exposure to Cre recombinase pose no known safety concerns; consistent with the fact that bacteriophage P1, the source of the cre gene and expressed protein, is commonly encountered in the environment and in normal enteric bacteria without reports of adverse consequences.

  12. K West integrated water treatment system subproject safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    SEMMENS, L.S.

    1999-02-24

    This Accident Analysis evaluates unmitigated accident scenarios, and identifies Safety Significant and Safety Class structures, systems, and components for the K West Integrated Water Treatment System.

  13. FRAPCON-3: Integral assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, D.D.; Berna, G.A.; Berna, G.A.

    1997-12-01

    An integral assessment has been performed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the predictive capabilities of FRAPCON-3, a steady-state fuel behavior code designed to analyze fuel behavior from beginning-of-life to burnup levels of 65 GWd/MTU. FRAPCON-3 code calculations are shown to compare satisfactorily to a pre-selected set of experimental data with steady-state operating conditions. 30 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  14. [Ecological safety assessment of Manas River Basin oasis, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Ling, Hong-bo; Xu, Hai-liang; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Qing-qing

    2009-09-01

    By using analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, an index system for ecological safety assessment was built, and 18 indices in the aspects of water resource, environment, and social economy were selected to assess the ecological safety of Manas River Basin oasis in 2006. In the study area, the ecological situation in 2006 was basically safe, with the membership degree being 0. 3347 and the integrated evaluation score being 0. 551. The water resource safety index, social economy index, and environmental safety index were in the levels of relatively safe, extremely safe, and unsafe, respectively. Water resource index could represent the sustainable development degree of oasis, while social economy index and environment safety index could indicate the oasis development level and environment situation, respectively. These three indices could most reflect the ecological safety level of the oasis.

  15. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... have experience in nuclear criticality safety, radiation safety, fire safety, and chemical process... administrative controls and control systems that are identified as items relied on for safety pursuant to § 70.61... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis....

  16. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... have experience in nuclear criticality safety, radiation safety, fire safety, and chemical process... administrative controls and control systems that are identified as items relied on for safety pursuant to § 70.61... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety program and integrated safety analysis....

  17. Integrating thermal storage and life safety systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, M. )

    1991-05-01

    Recently, the city of Los Angeles responded to growing concerns over fire safety in tall buildings by mandating that all buildings over 75 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection systems, and all buildings over 150 ft tall must be built or retrofitted with fire protection storage tanks (Los Angeles 1988). Approximately 380 buildings in the Los Angeles area are affected. This paper reports on integrating thermal storage and life safety systems. This presents an opportunity for HVAC engineers to consider the combination of thermal storage and fire water storage systems. This exciting possibility also helps address two obstacles that affect each system: first-cost and available tank location space. Thermal storage often yields an attractive payback on its own merits. Combining sprinklers with thermal storage permits the life safety system to be part of a system that enhances cash flow.

  18. T-2 Mod Safety and Airworthiness Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    Presentation 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) N/A 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE T-2 MOD SAFETY AND AIRWORTHINESS ASSESSMENTS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N...AFTC), and how the hazards and corresponding mitigations are assessed with respect to modification safety and airworthiness. The presentation...Modification, Airworthiness, Safety 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE

  19. Integrating quality, safety, and environment management systems.

    PubMed

    Winder, C

    1997-01-01

    Internationally consistent ISO standards are in use, or are being developed, for quality systems, environmental management, and occupational health and safety. These standards outline a model for the management of quality, environment or safety. In many respects the process of developing management systems for these matters contains a number of common elements, including obtaining commitment from senior management; instituting consultative mechanisms; developing a policy; identifying components of the management program; resourcing, implementing, and reviewing the program; and integrating the program into the organization's strategic plan. The necessity of developing separate management systems for different organizational aspects is wasteful and inefficient. Better management systems will be developed if they are integrated into a single management structure.

  20. Integrated Approaches to Occupational Health and Safety: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Cooklin, A; Joss, N; Husser, E; Oldenburg, B

    2016-01-05

    Objective . The study objective was to conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of integrated workplace interventions that combine health promotion with occupational health and safety. Data Source . Electronic databases (n = 8), including PsychInfo and MEDLINE, were systematically searched. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria . Studies included were those that reported on workplace interventions that met the consensus definition of an "integrated approach," published in English, in the scientific literature since 1990. Data Extraction . Data extracted were occupation, worksite, country, sample size, intervention targets, follow-up period, and results reported. Quality was assessed according to American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice Guidelines. Data Synthesis . Heterogeneity precluded formal meta-analyses. Results were classified according to the outcome(s) assessed into five categories (health promotion, injury prevention, occupational health and safety management, psychosocial, and return-on-investment). Narrative synthesis of outcomes was performed. Results . A total of 31 eligible studies were identified; 23 (74%) were (quasi-)experimental trials. Effective interventions were most of those aimed at improving employee physical or mental health. Less consistent results were reported from integrated interventions targeting occupational health and safety management, injury prevention, or organizational cost savings. Conclusion . Integrated approaches have been posed as comprehensive solutions to complex issues. Empirical evidence, while still emerging, provides some support for this. Continuing investment in, and evaluation of, integrated approaches are worthwhile.

  1. SAFEGUARDS AND SECURITY INTEGRATION WITH SAFETY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Hearn, J; James Lightner, J

    2007-04-13

    The objective of this paper is to share the Savannah River Site lessons learned on Safeguards and Security (S&S) program integration with K-Area Complex (KAC) safety basis. The KAC Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), is managed by the Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC), and the S&S program, managed by Wackenhut Services, Incorporated--Savannah River Site (WSI-SRS). WSRC and WSI-SRS developed a contractual arrangement to recognize WSI-SRS requirements in the KAC safety analysis. Design Basis Threat 2003 (DBT03) security upgrades required physical modifications and operational changes which included the availability of weapons which could potentially impact the facility safety analysis. The KAC DSA did not previously require explicit linkage to the S&S program to satisfy the safety analysis. WSI-SRS have contractual requirements with the Department of Energy (DOE) which are separate from WSRC contract requirements. The lessons learned will include a discussion on planning, analysis, approval of the controls and implementation issues.

  2. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS FROM AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety and international partners have developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks and four case studies. An international workshop was convened to consider how ecological and health risk assess...

  3. Building Safer Communities: The Integrated Community Safety Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, Ricky Lee; Kerr, Thomas A; Jordan, Steven Albert

    2001-03-01

    This paper discusses an integrated community safety approach to creating safer communities. It defines community broadly to include two categories of community members: “industry” and “neighbors.” Potential community members within the “industry” category include facilities, government/regulators, customers, stockholders, and suppliers. Within the “neighbors” category are towns, cities, counties, states; people/commodity flow systems; news media and special interest groups; environment; and families of employees. Each of these potential community members and its characteristics are discussed. The integrated community safety approach consists of three major activities: (1) define the boundaries of the community; (2) facilitate the sense of community; and (3) address the needs of the community. Defining the boundaries of the community includes determining the geographical and social boundaries; this is accomplished through conducting a hazard analysis and community involvement to identify all of the community members. Facilitating the sense of community includes conducting a capability/needs assessment and continuing community involvement to identify the issues and concerns of community members. Addressing the needs of the community involves master planning to consider safety issues in all community development actions and continuing community education and involvement. The integrated community safety approach is a workable approach for existing industries and their neighbors as well as new projects that industries and their neighbors might be considering. By using this socio-technical approach to integrating industry and all of its neighbors into a safer community, the integrated community safety approach will better assure the viability and safety of industry and its neighbors while maintaining or improving the overall quality of life.

  4. Integrated Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Kim, Son H.; Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2012-10-31

    This paper discusses the role of Integrated Assessment models (IAMs) in climate change research. IAMs are an interdisciplinary research platform, which constitutes a consistent scientific framework in which the large-scale interactions between human and natural Earth systems can be examined. In so doing, IAMs provide insights that would otherwise be unavailable from traditional single-discipline research. By providing a broader view of the issue, IAMs constitute an important tool for decision support. IAMs are also a home of human Earth system research and provide natural Earth system scientists information about the nature of human intervention in global biogeophysical and geochemical processes.

  5. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 1 - guideword applicability and method description.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    Layout planning plays a key role in the inherent safety performance of process plants since this design feature controls the possibility of accidental chain-events and the magnitude of possible consequences. A lack of suitable methods to promote the effective implementation of inherent safety in layout design calls for the development of new techniques and methods. In the present paper, a safety assessment approach suitable for layout design in the critical early phase is proposed. The concept of inherent safety is implemented within this safety assessment; the approach is based on an integrated assessment of inherent safety guideword applicability within the constraints typically present in layout design. Application of these guidewords is evaluated along with unit hazards and control devices to quantitatively map the safety performance of different layout options. Moreover, the economic aspects related to safety and inherent safety are evaluated by the method. Specific sub-indices are developed within the integrated safety assessment system to analyze and quantify the hazard related to domino effects. The proposed approach is quick in application, auditable and shares a common framework applicable in other phases of the design lifecycle (e.g. process design). The present work is divided in two parts: Part 1 (current paper) presents the application of inherent safety guidelines in layout design and the index method for safety assessment; Part 2 (accompanying paper) describes the domino hazard sub-index and demonstrates the proposed approach with a case study, thus evidencing the introduction of inherent safety features in layout design.

  6. How EPA Assesses Chemical Safety

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  7. A police education programme to integrate occupational safety and HIV prevention: protocol for a modified stepped-wedge study design with parallel prospective cohorts to assess behavioural outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Arredondo, Jaime; Rocha, Teresita; Abramovitz, Daniela; Rolon, Maria Luisa; Patiño Mandujano, Efrain; Rangel, Maria Gudelia; Olivarria, Horcasitas Omar; Gaines, Tommi; Patterson, Thomas L; Beletsky, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Policing practices are key drivers of HIV among people who inject drugs (PWID). This paper describes the protocol for the first study to prospectively examine the impact of a police education programme (PEP) to align law enforcement and HIV prevention. PEPs incorporating HIV prevention (including harm reduction programmes like syringe exchange) have been successfully piloted in several countries but were limited to brief pre–post assessments; the impact of PEPs on policing behaviours and occupational safety is unknown. Objectives Proyecto ESCUDO (SHIELD) aims to evaluate the efficacy of the PEP on uptake of occupational safety procedures, as assessed through the incidence of needle stick injuries (NSIs) (primary outcome) and changes in knowledge of transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV and viral hepatitis; attitudes towards PWID, adverse behaviours that interfere with HIV prevention and protective behaviours (secondary outcomes). Methods/analysis ESCUDO is a hybrid type I design that simultaneously tests an intervention and an implementation strategy. Using a modified stepped-wedge design involving all active duty street-level police officers in Tijuana (N=∼1200), we will administer one 3 h PEP course to groups of 20–50 officers until the entire force is trained. NSI incidence and geocoded arrest data will be assessed from department-wide de-identified data. Of the consenting police officers, a subcohort (N=500) will be randomly sampled from each class to undergo pre-PEP and post-PEP surveys with a semiannual follow-up for 2 years to assess self-reported NSIs, attitudes and behaviour changes. The impact on PWIDs will be externally validated through a parallel cohort of Tijuana PWIDs. Ethics/dissemination Research ethics approval was obtained from the USA and Mexico. Findings will be disseminated through open access to protocol materials through the Law Enforcement and HIV Network. Trial registration number NCT02444403. PMID:26260350

  8. APPROACHES FOR INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recognizing the need to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of risk assessments globally, the WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the European Commission, and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development form...

  9. Food Safety Assessment and Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Gary D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A 1990 Wisconsin extension survey (n=1,549) was followed up in 1993 (n=1,135). In 1993, the top three concerns about food safety were food-borne illnesses, government role, and pesticides/chemicals; in 1990, they were pesticides, drugs in food, and manufacturing standards. In both surveys, preferred information sources were radio, television, and…

  10. Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) Model for Safety Technology Portfolio Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancel, Ersin; Shih, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) develops and advances methodologies and technologies to improve air transportation safety. The Safety Analysis and Integration Team (SAIT) conducts a safety technology portfolio assessment (PA) to analyze the program content, to examine the benefits and risks of products with respect to program goals, and to support programmatic decision making. The PA process includes systematic identification of current and future safety risks as well as tracking several quantitative and qualitative metrics to ensure the program goals are addressing prominent safety risks accurately and effectively. One of the metrics within the PA process involves using quantitative aviation safety models to gauge the impact of the safety products. This paper demonstrates the role of aviation safety modeling by providing model outputs and evaluating a sample of portfolio elements using the Flightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP) model. The model enables not only ranking of the quantitative relative risk reduction impact of all portfolio elements, but also highlighting the areas with high potential impact via sensitivity and gap analyses in support of the program office. Although the model outputs are preliminary and products are notional, the process shown in this paper is essential to a comprehensive PA of NASA's safety products in the current program and future programs/projects.

  11. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... this safety program; namely, process safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management... conclusion of each failure investigation of an item relied on for safety or management measure. (b) Process... to the technology of the process, and information pertaining to the equipment in the process....

  12. INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT - RESULTS OF AN INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The UNEP/ILO/WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration of assessment approaches to ...

  13. INTEGRATION OF HUMAN HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration of assessment approaches to evaluate ...

  14. FRAMEWORK FOR THE INTEGRATION OF HEALTH AND ECOLOIGCAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Health Organization's International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have developed a collaborative partnership to foster integration; of assessment approa...

  15. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  16. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G; Crull, E W; Streit, R D

    2009-04-24

    Lightning is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a lightning strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) lightning strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality of the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme lightning strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday-cage type

  17. Assessment of safety culture maturity in a hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Law, Madelyn P; Zimmerman, Rosanne; Baker, G Ross; Smith, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The Manchester Patient Safety Culture Assessment Tool (MaPSCAT) was used to examine the levels of safety culture maturity in four programs across one large healthcare organization. The MaPSCAT is based on a theoretical framework that was developed in the United Kingdom through extensive literature reviews and expert input. It provides a view of safety culture on 10 dimensions (continuous improvement, priority given to safety, system errors and individual responsibility, recording incidents, evaluating incidents, learning and effecting change, communication, personnel management, staff education and teamwork) at five progressive levels of safety maturity. These levels are pathological ("Why waste our time on safety?"), reactive ("We do something when we have an incident"), bureaucratic ("We have systems in place to manage safety"), proactive ("We are always on alert for risks") and generative ("Risk management is an integral part of everything we do"). This article highlights the use of a new tool, the results of a study completed with this tool and how the results can be used to advance safety culture.

  18. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are more focused, concentrating on ES H management, ES H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.'' In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  19. Supporting Fernald Site Closure with Integrated Health and Safety Plans as Documented Safety Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, S.; Brown, T.; Fisk, P.; Krach, F.; Klein, B.

    2004-03-01

    At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). These integrated DSAs employ Integrated Safety Management methodology in support of simplified restoration and remediation activities that, so far, have resulted in the decontamination and demolition (D&D) of over 200 structures, including eight major nuclear production plants. There is one of twelve nuclear facilities still remaining (Silos containing uranium ore residues) with its own safety basis documentation. This paper presents the status of the FCP's safety basis documentation program, illustrating that all of the former nuclear facilities and activities have now replaced. Basis of Interim Operations (BIOs) with I-HASPs as their safety basis during the closure process.

  20. Integrating process safety with molecular modeling-based risk assessment of chemicals within the REACH regulatory framework: benefits and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Amanda; Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Fishtik, Ilie; Wilcox, Jennifer

    2007-04-11

    Registration, evaluation and authorization of chemicals (REACH) represents a recent regulatory initiative by the European union commission to protect human health and the environment from potentially hazardous chemicals. Under REACH, all stakeholders must submit (thermo)physical, thermochemical, and toxicological data for certain chemicals. The commission's impact assessment studies estimate that the costs of REACH will be approximately 3-5 billion Euros. The present study advocates the systematic incorporation of computational chemistry and computer-assisted chemical risk assessment methods into REACH to reduce regulatory compliance costs. Currently powerful computer-aided ab initio techniques can be used to generate predictions of key properties of broad classes of chemicals, without resorting to costly experimentation and potentially hazardous testing. These data could be integrated into a centralized IT decision and compliance support system, and stored in a retrievable, easily communicable manner should new regulatory and/or production requirements necessitate the introduction of different uses of chemicals under different conditions. For illustration purposes, ab initio calculations are performed on heterocyclic nitrogen-containing compounds which currently serve as high energy density materials in the chemical industry. Since investigations of these compounds are still in their infancy, stability studies are imperative regarding their safe handling and storage, as well as registration under REACH.

  1. Risk assessment strategies for Europe: integrated safety strategy or final product control: Example of Listeria monocytogenes in processed products from pork meat industry.

    PubMed

    Salvat, G; Fravalo, P

    2004-08-01

    The European regulation 2160/2003 of November 17th, 2003 clearly shows the European strategy of zoonosis monitoring and control as an integrated approach, including the entire food production chain with a first application to Salmonella control in different animal species. This regulation is the consequence of a risk assessment performed with a "farm to fork" philosophy. European strategy is scarcely different from the American strategy, despite the fact that both were achieved by a quantitative risk assessment, as for instance, in the USA the control of Salmonella in eggs is supposed to be completed by refrigeration. Nevertheless, the EU will still have a final product control approach towards future regulations on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. The final production monitoring and control with HACCP (93/43/EC) and microbiological criteria is the only one available for L. monocytogenes in foodstuffs. The purpose of this paper is to discuss alternative control strategies for L. monocytogenes in pig production including integrated risk assessment. In France, most of the food-borne outbreaks associated with L. monocytogenes in delicatessen were due to one particular group of strains belonging to serovar 4b and presenting a particular RFLP/PFGE (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism/Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis) profile. The outbreak itself is always associated with the initial contamination of a RTE ("ready to eat") product and re-contamination by inappropriate handling after cooking. Consequently, in most cases the RTE product is subject to inadequate refrigeration during an excessive shelf-life. The responsibility of the food industry and the consumer is clearly engaged during this scenario of foodborne diseases. The question is how to avoid the introduction of this particular strain of L. monocytogenes in the food chain. In a study we tried to evaluate the risk of pig carcass contamination at slaughterhouse level and to identify the main risk

  2. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  3. Safety assessment of high consequence robotics system

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.G.; Atcitty, C.B.

    1996-08-01

    This paper outlines the use of a failure modes and effects analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, the weigh and leak check system, is to replace a manual process for weight and leakage of nuclear materials at the DOE Pantex facility. Failure modes and effects analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the systems have been met. Due to the flexible nature of the robot configuration, traditional failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) were not applicable. In addition, the primary focus of safety assessments of robotics systems has been the protection of personnel in the immediate area. In this application, the safety analysis must account for the sensitivities of the payload as well as traditional issues. A unique variation on the classical FMEA was developed that permits an organized and quite effective tool to be used to assure that safety was adequately considered during the development of the robotic system. The fundamental aspects of the approach are outlined in the paper.

  4. Assessing the integrity of spillway foundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Keng-Tsang; Chiang, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Chia-Chi

    2017-02-01

    The erosion under a spillway can be a long-term issue that threatens the structural integrity of a water reservoir. The spillways under investigation were suspected to be defective after they had been commissioned in 1987 and 1939, respectively. Potholes and subsurface cavities were confirmed in the safety assessment using various NDT techniques including ground penetrating radar and impact echo. The GPR inspection was able to differentiate the intact region from the cavities under concrete slabs. The impact echo results and associated analyses provided further evidence of inferior condition in the soil under the concrete slabs. The engineering team designed and executed the repair projects based on the conclusion of the integrity assessment. Repetitive GPR scans were also carried out after the rehabilitation of spillways. Not only the quality of repair can be evaluated, the scans also provided a baseline record for long-term condition assessment of the spillway and the reservoir in the future.

  5. Assessing integrity of insect RNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing total RNA integrity is important for the success of downstream RNA applications. The 2100 Bioanalyzer system with the RNA Integrity Number (RIN) provides a quantitative measure of RNA degradation. Although RINs may not be ascertained for RNA from all organisms, namely those with unusual or...

  6. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 70.62 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR... Nuclear Material § 70.62 Safety program and integrated safety analysis. (a) Safety program. (1) Each... performed by a team with expertise in engineering and process operations. The team shall include at...

  7. Addressing Uniqueness and Unison of Reliability and Safety for a Better Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2016-01-01

    Over time, it has been observed that Safety and Reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and, sometimes, counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address this situation to help Reliability and Safety disciplines improve their effectiveness and efficiency. The paper poses an important question to address, "Safety and Reliability - Are they unique or unisonous?" To answer the question, the paper reviewed several most commonly used analyses from each of the disciplines, namely, FMEA, reliability allocation and prediction, reliability design involvement, system safety hazard analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, and Probabilistic Risk Assessment. The paper pointed out uniqueness and unison of Safety and Reliability in their respective roles, requirements, approaches, and tools, and presented some suggestions for enhancing and improving the individual disciplines, as well as promoting the integration of the two. The paper concludes that Safety and Reliability are unique, but compensating each other in many aspects, and need to be integrated. Particularly, the individual roles of Safety and Reliability need to be differentiated, that is, Safety is to ensure and assure the product meets safety requirements, goals, or desires, and Reliability is to ensure and assure maximum achievability of intended design functions. With the integration of Safety and Reliability, personnel can be shared, tools and analyses have to be integrated, and skill sets can be possessed by the same person with the purpose of providing the best value to a product development.

  8. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps

    PubMed Central

    Sliney, David H.; Gilbert, David W.; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315–400 nm), “black-light,” electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV “Black-light” ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products. PMID:27043058

  9. Gaseous-fuel safety assessment. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Krupka, M.C.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Bartlit, J.R.; Williamson, K.D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory, in support of studies sponsored by the Office of Vehicle and Engine Research and Development in the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a safety assessment of selected gaseous fuels for use in light automotive transportation. The purpose is to put into perspective the hazards of these fuels relative to present day fuels and delineated criteria for their safe handling. Fuels include compressed and liquified natural gas (CNG and LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and for reference gasoline and diesel. This paper is a program status report. To date, physicochemical property data and general petroleum and transportation information were compiled; basic hazards defined; alternative fuels were safety-ranked based on technical properties alone; safety data and vehicle accident statistics reviewed; and accident scenarios selected for further analysis. Methodology for such analysis is presently under consideration.

  10. Ultraviolet safety assessments of insect light traps.

    PubMed

    Sliney, David H; Gilbert, David W; Lyon, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet (UV-A: 315-400 nm), "black-light," electric lamps were invented in 1935 and ultraviolet insect light traps (ILTs) were introduced for use in agriculture around that time. Today ILTs are used indoors in several industries and in food-service as well as in outdoor settings. With recent interest in photobiological lamp safety, safety standards are being developed to test for potentially hazardous ultraviolet emissions. A variety of UV "Black-light" ILTs were measured at a range of distances to assess potential exposures. Realistic time-weighted human exposures are shown to be well below current guidelines for human exposure to ultraviolet radiation. These UV-A exposures would be far less than the typical UV-A exposure in the outdoor environment. Proposals are made for realistic ultraviolet safety standards for ILT products.

  11. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2010 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas J. Haney

    2010-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory completes an annual Integrated Safety Management System effectiveness review per 48 CFR 970.5223-1 “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assesses ISMS effectiveness, provides feedback to maintain system integrity, and helps identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for the following year. Using one of the three Department of Energy (DOE) descriptors in DOE M 450.4-1 regarding the state of ISMS effectiveness during Fiscal Year (FY) 2010, the information presented in this review shows that INL achieved “Effective Performance.”

  12. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use

    PubMed Central

    Akkermans, Louis MA; Haller, Dirk; Hammerman, Cathy; Heimbach, James; Hörmannsperger, Gabriele; Huys, Geert; Levy, Dan D; Lutgendorff, Femke; Mack, David; Phothirath, Phoukham; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria; Vaughan, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The safety of probiotics is tied to their intended use, which includes consideration of potential vulnerability of the consumer or patient, dose and duration of consumption, and both the manner and frequency of administration. Unique to probiotics is that they are alive when administered, and unlike other food or drug ingredients, possess the potential for infectivity or in situ toxin production. Since numerous types of microbes are used as probiotics, safety is also intricately tied to the nature of the specific microbe being used. The presence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes, which comprises a theoretical risk of transfer to a less innocuous member of the gut microbial community, must also be considered. Genetic stability of the probiotic over time, deleterious metabolic activities, and the potential for pathogenicity or toxicogenicity must be assessed depending on the characteristics of the genus and species of the microbe being used. Immunological effects must be considered, especially in certain vulnerable populations, including infants with undeveloped immune function. A few reports about negative probiotic effects have surfaced, the significance of which would be better understood with more complete understanding of the mechanisms of probiotic interaction with the host and colonizing microbes. Use of readily available and low cost genomic sequencing technologies to assure the absence of genes of concern is advisable for candidate probiotic strains. The field of probiotic safety is characterized by the scarcity of studies specifically designed to assess safety contrasted with the long history of safe use of many of these microbes in foods. PMID:21327023

  13. An integrated and pragmatic approach: Global plant safety management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Jack; Gross, Andrew

    1989-05-01

    The Bhopal disaster in India in 1984 has compelled manufacturing companies to review their operations in order to minimize their risk exposure. Much study has been done on the subject of risk assessment and in refining safety reviews of plant operations. However, little work has been done to address the broader needs of decision makers in the multinational environment. The corporate headquarters of multinational organizations are concerned with identifying vulnerable areas to assure that appropriate risk-minimization measures are in force or will be taken. But the task of screening global business units for safety prowess is complicated and time consuming. This article takes a step towards simplifying this process by presenting the decisional model developed by the authors. Beginning with an overview of key issues affecting global safety management, the focus shifts to the multinational vulnerability model developed by the authors, which reflects an integration of approaches. The article concludes with a discussion of areas for further research. While the global chemical industry and major incidents therein are used for illustration, the procedures and solutions suggested here are applicable to all manufacturing operations.

  14. Simplifying documentation while approaching site closure: integrated health & safety plans as documented safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Tulanda

    2003-06-01

    At the Fernald Closure Project (FCP) near Cincinnati, Ohio, environmental restoration activities are supported by Documented Safety Analyses (DSAs) that combine the required project-specific Health and Safety Plans, Safety Basis Requirements (SBRs), and Process Requirements (PRs) into single Integrated Health and Safety Plans (I-HASPs). By isolating any remediation activities that deal with Enriched Restricted Materials, the SBRs and PRs assure that the hazard categories of former nuclear facilities undergoing remediation remain less than Nuclear. These integrated DSAs employ Integrated Safety Management methodology in support of simplified restoration and remediation activities that, so far, have resulted in the decontamination and demolition (D&D) of over 150 structures, including six major nuclear production plants. This paper presents the FCP method for maintaining safety basis documentation, using the D&D I-HASP as an example.

  15. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Loizou, George D

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential "seismic" shift from the current "healthcare" model to a "wellness" paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human "data poor" to a human "data rich" environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm.

  16. Animal-Free Chemical Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Loizou, George D.

    2016-01-01

    The exponential growth of the Internet of Things and the global popularity and remarkable decline in cost of the mobile phone is driving the digital transformation of medical practice. The rapidly maturing digital, non-medical world of mobile (wireless) devices, cloud computing and social networking is coalescing with the emerging digital medical world of omics data, biosensors and advanced imaging which offers the increasingly realistic prospect of personalized medicine. Described as a potential “seismic” shift from the current “healthcare” model to a “wellness” paradigm that is predictive, preventative, personalized and participatory, this change is based on the development of increasingly sophisticated biosensors which can track and measure key biochemical variables in people. Additional key drivers in this shift are metabolomic and proteomic signatures, which are increasingly being reported as pre-symptomatic, diagnostic and prognostic of toxicity and disease. These advancements also have profound implications for toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of pharmaceuticals and environmental chemicals. An approach based primarily on human in vivo and high-throughput in vitro human cell-line data is a distinct possibility. This would transform current chemical safety assessment practice which operates in a human “data poor” to a human “data rich” environment. This could also lead to a seismic shift from the current animal-based to an animal-free chemical safety assessment paradigm. PMID:27493630

  17. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 129 International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Policy statement. SUMMARY: This statement describes a policy change to the FAA's International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA)...

  18. Safety assessment of hydrogenated starch hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Modderman, J P

    1993-08-01

    Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSH) are mixtures of polyhydric alcohols such as sorbitol, maltitol, and higher-order sugar alcohols. They are important food ingredients because of their sweetness, low cariogenic potential, and useful functional properties. These traits permit HSH products to be used as viscosity or bodying agents, humectants, crystallization modifiers, and rehydration aids. A substantial body of safety information is available for HSH products and their individual chemical components. Based on this information, the substances have received favorable evaluations from international expert safety organizations such as the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and European Community's Scientific Committee for Food. This same information has been submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as part of the petitioning process to affirm the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of these substances. Some of the animal feeding studies important to a full safety assessment for HSH substances, while long available to international safety expert organizations and governmental organizations, have never been published in the literature. Three of these studies, i.e., a chronic (24-month) feeding study, a multigeneration reproduction study, and a teratology study, are reported on this article, together with metabolic information. The results of this evaluation establish HSH substances as safe food ingredients.

  19. Public Safety Core. Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This document, which lists the public safety core competencies that are part of the Integrated Academic and Technical Competencies (ITAC) in Ohio, is intended to assist individuals and organizations develop a course to provide students with knowledge and skills applicable to public safety careers, including but not limited to firefighter,…

  20. Software for the occupational health and safety integrated management system

    SciTech Connect

    Vătăsescu, Mihaela

    2015-03-10

    This paper intends to present the design and the production of a software for the Occupational Health and Safety Integrated Management System with the view to a rapid drawing up of the system documents in the field of occupational health and safety.

  1. Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

  2. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System 2011 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2011-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an annual Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) effectiveness review per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223-1, 'Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.' The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and helped identify target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2012. The information presented in this review of FY 2011 shows that the INL has performed many corrective actions and improvement activities, which are starting to show some of the desired results. These corrective actions and improvement activities will continue to help change culture that will lead to better implementation of defined programs, resulting in moving the Laboratory's performance from the categorization of 'Needs Improvement' to the desired results of 'Effective Performance.'

  3. AN ADVANCED TOOL FOR APPLIED INTEGRATED SAFETY MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Potts, T. Todd; Hylko, James M.; Douglas, Terence A.

    2003-02-27

    WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety and Health (ES&H) Department had previously assessed that a lack of consistency, poor communication and using antiquated communication tools could result in varying operating practices, as well as a failure to capture and disseminate appropriate Integrated Safety Management (ISM) information. To address these issues, the ES&H Department established an Activity Hazard Review (AHR)/Activity Hazard Analysis (AHA) process for systematically identifying, assessing, and controlling hazards associated with project work activities during work planning and execution. Depending on the scope of a project, information from field walkdowns and table-top meetings are collected on an AHR form. The AHA then documents the potential failure and consequence scenarios for a particular hazard. Also, the AHA recommends whether the type of mitigation appears appropriate or whether additional controls should be implemented. Since the application is web based, the information is captured into a single system and organized according to the >200 work activities already recorded in the database. Using the streamlined AHA method improved cycle time from over four hours to an average of one hour, allowing more time to analyze unique hazards and develop appropriate controls. Also, the enhanced configuration control created a readily available AHA library to research and utilize along with standardizing hazard analysis and control selection across four separate work sites located in Kentucky and Tennessee. The AHR/AHA system provides an applied example of how the ISM concept evolved into a standardized field-deployed tool yielding considerable efficiency gains in project planning and resource utilization. Employee safety is preserved through detailed planning that now requires only a portion of the time previously necessary. The available resources can then be applied to implementing appropriate engineering, administrative and personal protective equipment

  4. Integrated Disposal Facility Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MANN, F. M.

    2003-06-03

    An environmental risk assessment associated with the disposal of projected Immobilized Low-Activity Waste, solid wastes and failed or decommissioned melters in an Integrated Disposal Facility was performed. Based on the analyses all performance objectives associated with the groundwater, air, and intruder pathways were met.

  5. Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Miller, W.O.; Unal, C.; Fujita, R.K.

    1995-01-13

    This safety assessment addresses the proposed action to install, operate, and remove a Retained Gas Sampler (RGS) in Tank 101-SY at Hanford. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents. The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space.

  6. Safety assessment of DME fuel. Addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Paas, M.

    1998-12-31

    This report is an addendum to an earlier report that provided a general assessment of the use of dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. The report reviews additional reference material submitted by Amoco Corporation and Azko Nobel as it relates to the safety, health, or environmental aspects of DME when used as a vehicle fuel. It includes new information on DME fuel properties, occupational exposure and health risks, environmental and operational factors, and issues relating to vehicle fuel systems and the dispensing of DME.

  7. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  8. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  9. Living up to safety values in health care: the effect of leader behavioral integrity on occupational safety.

    PubMed

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Leroy, Hannes; Dierynck, Bart; Simons, Tony; Savage, Grant T; McCaughey, Deirdre; Leon, Matthew R

    2013-10-01

    While previous research has identified that leaders' safety expectations and safety actions are important in fostering occupational safety, research has yet to demonstrate the importance of leader alignment between safety expectations and actions for improving occupational safety. We build on safety climate literature and theory on behavioral integrity to better understand the relationship between the leader's behavioral integrity regarding safety and work-related injuries. In a time-lagged study of 658 nurses, we find that behavioral integrity for high safety values is positively associated with greater reporting of fewer and less severe occupational injuries. The effects of behavioral integrity regarding safety can be better understood through the mediating mechanisms of safety compliance and psychological safety toward one's supervisor. We discuss the implications of our findings for future research on safety climate.

  10. A System for Integrated Reliability and Safety Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Peter; Shapiro, Gerald; Hanson, Dave; Kolitz, Stephan; Leong, Frank; Rosch, Gene; Coumeri, Marc; Scheidler, Peter, Jr.; Bonesteel, Charles

    1999-01-01

    We present an integrated reliability and aviation safety analysis tool. The reliability models for selected infrastructure components of the air traffic control system are described. The results of this model are used to evaluate the likelihood of seeing outcomes predicted by simulations with failures injected. We discuss the design of the simulation model, and the user interface to the integrated toolset.

  11. Integrated Assessment Systems for Chemical Warfare Material

    SciTech Connect

    A. M. Snyder; D. A. Verrill; G. L. Thinnes; K. D. Watts; R. J. McMorland

    1999-05-27

    The US Army must respond to a variety of situations involving suspect discovered, recovered, stored, and buried chemical warfare materiel (CWM). In some cases, the identity of the fill materiel and the status of the fusing and firing train cannot be visually determined due to aging of the container, or because the item is contained in an over-pack. In these cases, non-intrusive assessments are required to provide information to allow safe handling, storage, and disposal of the materiel. This paper will provide an overview of the integrated mobile and facility-based CWM assessment system prototypes that have been, and are being developed, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the US Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Project. In addition, this paper will discuss advanced sensors being developed to enhance the capability of the existing and future assessment systems. The Phase I Mobile Munitions Assessment System (MMAS) is currently being used by the Army's Technical Escort Unit (TEU) at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah. This system includes equipment for non-intrusively identifying the munitions fill materiel and for assessing the condition and stability of the fuzes, firing trains, and other potential safety hazards. The system provides a self-contained, integrated command post including an on-board computer system, communications equipment, video and photographic equipment, weather monitoring equipment, and miscellaneous safety-related equipment. The Phase II MMAS is currently being tested and qualified for use by the INEEL and the US Army. The Phase II system contains several new assessment systems that significantly enhance the ability to assess CWM. A facility-based munitions assessment system prototype is being developed for the assessment of CWM stored in igloos at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Arkansas. This system is currently in the design and fabrication stages. Numerous CWM advanced sensors are being developed and tested, and

  12. Assessment of Integrated Nozzle Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, H. H.; Mizukami, M.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation highlights the activities that researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) have been and will be involved in to assess integrated nozzle performance. Three different test activities are discussed. First, the results of the Propulsion Airframe Integration for High Speed Research 1 (PAIHSR1) study are presented. The PAIHSR1 experiment was conducted in the LeRC 9 ft x l5 ft wind tunnel from December 1991 to January 1992. Second, an overview of the proposed Mixer/ejector Inlet Distortion Study (MIDIS-E) is presented. The objective of MIDIS-E is to assess the effects of applying discrete disturbances to the ejector inlet flow on the acoustic and aero-performance of a mixer/ejector nozzle. Finally, an overview of the High-Lift Engine Aero-acoustic Technology (HEAT) test is presented. The HEAT test is a cooperative effort between the propulsion system and high-lift device research communities to assess wing/nozzle integration effects. The experiment is scheduled for FY94 in the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40 ft x 80 ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT).

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2012 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2012-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for fiscal year (FY) 2013. Results of the FY 2012 annual effectiveness review demonstrated that the INL’s ISMS program was significantly strengthened. Actions implemented by the INL demonstrate that the overall Integrated Safety Management System is sound and ensures safe and successful performance of work while protecting workers, the public, and environment. This report also provides several opportunities for improvement that will help further strengthen the ISM Program and the pursuit of safety excellence. Demonstrated leadership and commitment, continued surveillance, and dedicated resources have been instrumental in maturing a sound ISMS program. Based upon interviews with personnel, reviews of assurance activities, and analysis of ISMS process implementation, this effectiveness review concludes that ISM is institutionalized and is “Effective”.

  14. 78 FR 56268 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process, Comment Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process, Comment Extension AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT... Register a notice announcing a public workshop on ``Integrity Verification Process'' which took place...

  15. 77 FR 34123 - Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Meeting on Integrity Management of Gas Distribution Pipelines AGENCY: Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice; public meeting. SUMMARY: The Pipeline and Hazardous...

  16. Microgravity Experiments Safety and Integration Requirements Document Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Jean M.

    1995-01-01

    This report is a document tree of the safety and integration documents required to develop a space experiment. Pertinent document information for each of the top level (tier one) safety and integration documents, and their applicable and reference (tier two) documents has been identified. This information includes: document title, revision level, configuration management, electronic availability, listed applicable and reference documents, source for obtaining the document, and document owner. One of the main conclusions of this report is that no single document tree exists for all safety and integration documents, regardless of the Shuttle carrier. This document also identifies the need for a single point of contact for customers wishing to access documents. The data in this report serves as a valuable information source for the NASA Lewis Research Center Project Documentation Center, as well as for all developers of space experiments.

  17. Use of global sensitivity analysis in quantitative microbial risk assessment: application to the evaluation of a biological time temperature integrator as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon.

    PubMed

    Ellouze, M; Gauchi, J-P; Augustin, J-C

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to apply a global sensitivity analysis (SA) method in model simplification and to evaluate (eO)®, a biological Time Temperature Integrator (TTI) as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon (CSS). Models were thus developed to predict the evolutions of Listeria monocytogenes and the indigenous food flora in CSS and to predict TTIs endpoint. A global SA was then applied on the three models to identify the less important factors and simplify the models accordingly. Results showed that the subset of the most important factors of the three models was mainly composed of the durations and temperatures of two chill chain links, out of the control of the manufacturers: the domestic refrigerator and the retail/cabinet links. Then, the simplified versions of the three models were run with 10(4) time temperature profiles representing the variability associated to the microbial behavior, to the TTIs evolution and to the French chill chain characteristics. The results were used to assess the distributions of the microbial contaminations obtained at the TTI endpoint and at the end of the simulated profiles and proved that, in the case of poor storage conditions, the TTI use could reduce the number of unacceptable foods by 50%.

  18. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL, HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK ASSESSMENT ON THE INTEGRATION OF A PROCESS UTILIZING LOW-ENERGY SOLVENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE ENABLED BY A COMBINATION OF ENZYMES AND VACUUM REGENERATION WITH A SUBCRITICAL PC POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, David; Vidal, Rafael; Russell, Tania; Babcock, Doosan; Freeman, Charles; Bearden, Mark; Whyatt, Greg; Liu, Kun; Frimpong, Reynolds; Lu, Kunlei; Salmon, Sonja; House, Alan; Yarborough, Erin

    2014-12-31

    The results of the preliminary environmental, health and safety (EH&S) risk assessment for an enzyme-activated potassium carbonate (K2CO3) solution post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) plant, integrated with a subcritical pulverized coal (PC) power plant, are presented. The expected emissions during normal steady-state operation have been estimated utilizing models of the PCC plant developed in AspenTech’s AspenPlus® software, bench scale test results from the University of Kentucky, and industrial experience of emission results from a slipstream PCC plant utilizing amine based solvents. A review of all potential emission species and their sources was undertaken that identified two credible emission sources, the absorber off-gas that is vented to atmosphere via a stack and the waste removed from the PCC plant in the centrifuge used to reclaim enzyme and solvent. The conditions and compositions of the emissions were calculated and the potential EH&S effects were considered as well as legislative compliance requirements. Potential mitigation methods for emissions during normal operation have been proposed and solutions to mitigate uncontrolled releases of species have been considered. The potential emissions were found to pose no significant EH&S concerns and were compliant with the Federal legislation reviewed. The limitations in predicting full scale plant performance from bench scale tests have been noted and further work on a larger scale test unit is recommended to reduce the level of uncertainty.

  19. Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (Project W-296) Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, D.L.

    1994-08-01

    This Safety Assessment is based on information derived from the Conceptual Design Report for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (DOE/RL 1994) and ancillary documentation developed during the conceptual design phase of Project W-296. The Safety Assessment has been prepared to support the Solid Waste Burial Ground Interim Safety Basis document. The purpose of the Safety Assessment is to provide an evaluation of the design to determine if the process, as proposed, will comply with US Department of Energy (DOE) Limits for radioactive and hazardous material exposures and be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint. The evaluation considered affects on the worker, onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  20. Assessing Hmong Farmers’ Safety and Health

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, A. B.; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants’ own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group. PMID:24806037

  1. Assessing Hmong farmers' safety and health.

    PubMed

    de Castro, A B; Krenz, Jennifer; Neitzel, Richard L

    2014-05-01

    This pilot project investigated agricultural-related safety and health issues among Hmong refugees working on family-operated farms. Novel approaches, namely participatory rural appraisal and photovoice, were used to conduct a qualitative occupational hazard assessment with a group of Hmong farmers in Washington State. These two methods were useful in gathering participants' own perspectives about priority concerns. Several identified problems were related to musculoskeletal disorders, handling and operating heavy machinery, heat and cold stress, respiratory exposures, pest management, and socioeconomic and language concerns. Findings from this study provide insight into the work-related challenges that Hmong refugee farmers encounter and can serve as a basis for occupational health professionals to develop interventions to assist this underserved group.

  2. 76 FR 74723 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 575 RIN 2127-AK51 New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department...

  3. Neuropsychological Assessment of Hippocampal Integrity.

    PubMed

    Saury, Jean-Michel; Emanuelson, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    Finding methods to describe subcortical processes assisting cognition is an important concern for clinical neuropsychological practice. In this study, we reviewed the literature concerning the relationship between a neuropsychological instrument and the underlying neural substructure. We examined evidence indicating that one of the oldest neuropsychological tests still in use, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), includes reliable indicators of hippocampal integrity. We reviewed studies investigating the neural structures underlying seven tasks generated by the RAVLT, from the perspective of whether the performance of these tasks is dependent on the hippocampus. We found support for our hypothesis in five cases: learning capacity, proactive interference, immediate recall, delayed recall, and delayed recognition. No support for our hypothesis was found with regard to short-term memory and retroactive interference. The RAVLT appears to be a reliable tool for assessing the integrity of the hippocampus and for the early detection of dysfunction. There is a need for such assessments, due to the crucial role of the hippocampus in cognition, for instance, in terms of predicting future outcomes.

  4. Safety management practices and safety behaviour: assessing the mediating role of safety knowledge and motivation.

    PubMed

    Vinodkumar, M N; Bhasi, M

    2010-11-01

    Safety management practices not only improve working conditions but also positively influence employees' attitudes and behaviours with regard to safety, thereby reducing accidents in workplace. This study measured employees' perceptions on six safety management practices and self-reported safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation by conducting a survey using questionnaire among 1566 employees belonging to eight major accident hazard process industrial units in Kerala, a state in southern part of India. The reliability and unidimesionality of all the scales were found acceptable. Path analysis using AMOS-4 software showed that some of the safety management practices have direct and indirect relations with the safety performance components, namely, safety compliance and safety participation. Safety knowledge and safety motivation were found to be the key mediators in explaining these relationships. Safety training was identified as the most important safety management practice that predicts safety knowledge, safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation. These findings provide valuable guidance for researchers and practitioners for identifying the mechanisms by which they can improve safety of workplace.

  5. 75 FR 56112 - Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration Development-Cooperative Agreement With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Integrated Food Safety System Online Collaboration... information sharing in the development of an integrated food safety system, and the development and... House Food Safety Working Group Objectives to integrate the food safety system at all levels....

  6. Integrating Safeguards and Security with Safety into Design

    SciTech Connect

    Robert S. Bean; John W. Hockert; David J. Hebditch

    2009-05-01

    There is a need to minimize security risks, proliferation hazards, and safety risks in the design of new nuclear facilities in a global environment of nuclear power expansion, while improving the synergy of major design features and raising operational efficiency. In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) launched the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) covering many safeguards areas. One of these, launched by NNSA with support of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, was a multi-laboratory project, led by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), to develop safeguards by design. The proposed Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) process has been developed as a structured approach to ensure the timely, efficient, and cost effective integration of international safeguards and other nonproliferation barriers with national material control and accountability, physical security, and safety objectives into the overall design process for the nuclear facility lifecycle. A graded, iterative process was developed to integrate these areas throughout the project phases. It identified activities, deliverables, interfaces, and hold points covering both domestic regulatory requirements and international safeguards using the DOE regulatory environment as exemplar to provide a framework and guidance for project management and integration of safety with security during design. Further work, reported in this paper, created a generalized SBD process which could also be employed within the licensed nuclear industry and internationally for design of new facilities. Several tools for integrating safeguards, safety, and security into design are discussed here. SBD appears complementary to the EFCOG TROSSI process for security and safety integration created in 2006, which focuses on standardized upgrades to enable existing DOE facilities to meet a more severe design basis threat. A collaborative approach is suggested.

  7. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  8. Safety Assessment of Dialkyl Malates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 6 dialkyl malate compounds used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as skin-conditioning agents-emollients. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to the ingredients along with a previous safety assessment of malic acid. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these dialkyl maleate compounds are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  9. Safety Assessment of Synthetic Fluorphlogopite as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (the Panel) reviewed the safety of synthetic fluorphlogopite as used in cosmetics. Synthetic fluorphlogopite functions as a bulking agent and a viscosity-increasing agent. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to this ingredient along with a previous safety assessment of other magnesium silicates. The Panel concluded that synthetic fluorphlogopite was safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  10. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.C.

    1983-10-15

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  11. How 3 Rural Safety Net Clinics Integrate Care for Patients

    PubMed Central

    Derrett, Sarah; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Nocon, Robert S.; Quinn, Michael T.; Coleman, Katie; Daniel, Donna M.; Wagner, Edward H.; Chin, Marshall H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrated care focuses on care coordination and patient centeredness. Integrated care supports continuity of care over time, with care that is coordinated within and between settings and is responsive to patients’ needs. Currently, little is known about care integration for rural patients. Objective To examine challenges to care integration in rural safety net clinics and strategies to address these challenges. Research Design Qualitative case study. Participants Thirty-six providers and staff from 3 rural clinics in the Safety Net Medical Home Initiative. Methods Interviews were analyzed using the framework method with themes organized within 3 constructs: Team Coordination and Empanelment, External Coordination and Partnerships, and Patient-centered and Community-centered Care. Results Participants described challenges common to safety net clinics, including limited access to specialists for Medicaid and uninsured patients, difficulty communicating with external providers, and payment models with limited support for care integration activities. Rurality compounded these challenges. Respondents reported benefits of empanelment and team-based care, and leveraged local resources to support care for patients. Rural clinics diversified roles within teams, shared responsibility for patient care, and colocated providers, as strategies to support care integration. Conclusions Care integration was supported by 2 fundamental changes to organize and deliver care to patients—(1) empanelment with a designated group of patients being cared for by a provider; and (2) a multidisciplinary team able to address rural issues. New funding and organizational initiatives of the Affordable Care Act may help to further improve care integration, although additional solutions may be necessary to address particular needs of rural communities. PMID:25310637

  12. Integrated assessment of biological invasions.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Ines; Diez, Jeffrey M; Miller, Luke P; Olden, Julian D; Sorte, Cascade J B; Blumenthal, Dana M; Bradley, Bethany A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Dukes, Jeffrey S; Early, Regan I; Grosholz, Edwin D; Lawler, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    As the main witnesses of the ecological and economic impacts of invasions on ecosystems around the world, ecologists seek to provide the relevant science that informs managers about the potential for invasion of specific organisms in their region(s) of interest. Yet, the assorted literature that could inform such forecasts is rarely integrated to do so, and further, the diverse nature of the data available complicates synthesis and quantitative prediction. Here we present a set of analytical tools for synthesizing different levels of distributional and/or demographic data to produce meaningful assessments of invasion potential that can guide management at multiple phases of ongoing invasions, from dispersal to colonization to proliferation. We illustrate the utility of data-synthesis and data-model assimilation approaches with case studies of three well-known invasive species--a vine, a marine mussel, and a freshwater crayfish--under current and projected future climatic conditions. Results from the integrated assessments reflect the complexity of the invasion process and show that the most relevant climatic variables can have contrasting effects or operate at different intensities across habitat types. As a consequence, for two of the study species climate trends will increase the likelihood of invasion in some habitats and decrease it in others. Our results identified and quantified both bottlenecks and windows of opportunity for invasion, mainly related to the role of human uses of the landscape or to disruption of the flow of resources. The approach we describe has a high potential to enhance model realism, explanatory insight, and predictive capability, generating information that can inform management decisions and optimize phase-specific prevention and control efforts for a wide range of biological invasions.

  13. Performance-based standards: safety instrumented functions and safety integrity levels.

    PubMed

    Stavrianidis, P; Bhimavarapu, K

    2000-01-07

    This paper discusses two international performance-based standards, ANSI/ISA S84.01 and IEC d61508 and the requirements they place upon companies that rely on electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems to perform safety functions. Performance-based regulations are also discussed and common safety elements between the standards and regulations are identified. Several risk analysis techniques that can be used to comply with the aforementioned requirements are discussed and a simple example is used to illustrate the use, advantages and disadvantages of the techniques. The evaluation of safety integrity level (SIL) of the Safety Instrumented System (SIS) in terms of the probability to fail to function is outside the scope of this paper.

  14. Safety assessment of chromium by exposure from cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Myungsil; Yoon, Eun Kyung; Kim, Ja Young; Son, Bo Kyung; Yang, Seong Jun; Yun, Mi Ok; Choi, Sang Sook; Jang, Dong Deuk; Yoo, Tae Moo

    2009-02-01

    Low level impurities often reside in cosmetic products. The aim of the present study was to estimate the human exposure to chromium from cosmetic products purchased at a local market in South Korea, and to assess the risk on public health. Hexavalent chromium is an impurity substance that contaminates cosmetic products during manufacture. The potential for chromium to induce and elicit allergic contact dermatitis, as well as the degree of chromium exposure from cosmetic products, were assessed. Chromium exposure was estimated using the chromium concentrations found in cosmetic samples taken from the local market along with the expected user pattern data that was taken from the literature. Of the cosmetics we tested and available for purchase on the Korean market, seven had chromium contents above the detection limit of 0.1 ppm (0.1 microg/mL), ranging from 0.2 to 3.15 ppm. In risk assessment, scientifically defensible dose-response relationships must be established for the end points of concern. In the case of chromium contaminated cosmetic products, this includes conducting dose-response assessments for allergic contact dermatitis following dermal exposure. This dose-response information can then be integrated with site-specific exposure assessments to regulate consumer safety by use of these products. We found that dermal exposure to chromium concentrations ranging from 0.0002 to 0.003 microg/cm(2) does not appear to cause concern for eliciting allergic contact dermatitis.

  15. 49 CFR 244.11 - Contents of a Safety Integration Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Integration Plan. Each Safety Integration Plan shall contain the following information for each subject matter... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of a Safety Integration Plan. 244.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING...

  16. 49 CFR 244.11 - Contents of a Safety Integration Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Integration Plan. Each Safety Integration Plan shall contain the following information for each subject matter... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of a Safety Integration Plan. 244.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING...

  17. 49 CFR 244.11 - Contents of a Safety Integration Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Integration Plan. Each Safety Integration Plan shall contain the following information for each subject matter... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of a Safety Integration Plan. 244.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING...

  18. 49 CFR 244.11 - Contents of a Safety Integration Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Integration Plan. Each Safety Integration Plan shall contain the following information for each subject matter... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of a Safety Integration Plan. 244.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING...

  19. 49 CFR 244.11 - Contents of a Safety Integration Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Integration Plan. Each Safety Integration Plan shall contain the following information for each subject matter... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents of a Safety Integration Plan. 244.11... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING...

  20. Advanced korean industrial safety and health policy with risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuckmyun; Cho, Jae Hyun; Moon, Il; Choi, Jaewook; Park, Dooyong; Lee, Youngsoon

    2010-09-01

    This article describes a systematic roadmap master plan for advanced industrial safety and health policy in Korea, with an emphasis on. Since Korean industries had first emergence of industrial safety and health policy in 1953, enormous efforts have been made on upgrading the relevant laws in order to reflect real situation of industrial work environment in accordance with rapid changes of Korean and global business over three decades. Nevertheless, current policy has major defects; too much techniques-based articles, diverged contents in less organization, combined enforcement and punishments and finally enforcing regulations full of commands and control. These deficiencies have make it difficult to accommodate changes of social, industrial and employment environment in customized fashion. The approach to the solution must be generic at the level of paradigm-shift rather than local modifications and enhancement. The basic idea is to establish a new system integrated with a risk assessment scheme, which encourages employers to apply to their work environment under comprehensive responsibility. The risk assessment scheme is designed to enable to inspect employers' compliances afterwards. A project comprises four yearly phases based on applying zones; initially designating and operating a specified risk zone, gradually expanding the special zones during a period of 3 years (2010-2012) and the final zone expanded to entire nation. In each phase, the intermediate version of the system is updated through a process of precise and unbiased validation in terms of its operability, feasibility and sustainability with building relevant infrastructures as needed.

  1. Patient Safety Culture Assessment in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mandhari, Ahmed; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al-Kindi, Moosa; Tawilah, Jihane; Dorvlo, Atsu S.S.; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the patient safety culture in Oman as gleaned via 12 indices of patient safety culture derived from the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) and to compare the average positive response rates in patient safety culture between Oman and the USA, Taiwan, and Lebanon. Methods This was a cross-sectional research study employed to gauge the performance of HSPSC safety indices among health workers representing five secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the northern region of Oman. The participants (n=398) represented different professional designations of hospital staff. Analyses were performed using univariate statistics. Results The overall average positive response rate for the 12 patient safety culture dimensions of the HSPSC survey in Oman was 58%. The indices from HSPSC that were endorsed the highest included ‘organizational learning and continuous improvement’ while conversely, ‘non-punitive response to errors’ was ranked the least. There were no significant differences in average positive response rates between Oman and the United States (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666), Taiwan (58% vs. 64%; p=0.386), and Lebanon (58% vs. 61%; p=0.666). Conclusion This study provides the first empirical study on patient safety culture in Oman which is similar to those rates reported elsewhere. It highlights the specific strengths and weaknesses which may stem from the specific milieu prevailing in Oman. PMID:25170407

  2. Assessment of herbal medicinal products: Challenges, and opportunities to increase the knowledge base for safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Scott A.; Cunningham, David G.; Marles, Robin J.

    2010-03-01

    Although herbal medicinal products (HMP) have been perceived by the public as relatively low risk, there has been more recognition of the potential risks associated with this type of product as the use of HMPs increases. Potential harm can occur via inherent toxicity of herbs, as well as from contamination, adulteration, plant misidentification, and interactions with other herbal products or pharmaceutical drugs. Regulatory safety assessment for HMPs relies on both the assessment of cases of adverse reactions and the review of published toxicity information. However, the conduct of such an integrated investigation has many challenges in terms of the quantity and quality of information. Adverse reactions are under-reported, product quality may be less than ideal, herbs have a complex composition and there is lack of information on the toxicity of medicinal herbs or their constituents. Nevertheless, opportunities exist to capitalise on newer information to increase the current body of scientific evidence. Novel sources of information are reviewed, such as the use of poison control data to augment adverse reaction information from national pharmacovigilance databases, and the use of more recent toxicological assessment techniques such as predictive toxicology and omics. The integration of all available information can reduce the uncertainty in decision making with respect to herbal medicinal products. The example of Aristolochia and aristolochic acids is used to highlight the challenges related to safety assessment, and the opportunities that exist to more accurately elucidate the toxicity of herbal medicines.

  3. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of... fitness for service processes. At this workshop, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  4. Recent developments in Topaz II reactor safety assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-07-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate Nuclear Electric Propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment, involving selected safety analyses, was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes the preliminary safety assessment results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP).

  5. Interruptions of nurses' activities and patient safety: an integrative literature review1

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Cintia; Avelar, Ariane Ferreira Machado; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: to identify characteristics related to the interruption of nurses in professional practice, as well as to assess the implications of interruptions for patient safety. METHOD: integrative literature review. The following databases were searched: Pubmed/Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, using the descriptors interruptions and patient safety. An initial date was not established, but the final date was December 31, 2013. A total of 29 papers met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: all the papers included describe interruptions as a harmful factor for patient safety. Data analysis revealed three relevant categories: characteristics of interruptions, implications for patient safety, and interventions to minimize interruptions. CONCLUSION: interruptions favor the occurrence of errors in the health field. Therefore, there is a need for further studies to understand such a phenomenon and its effects on clinical practice. PMID:25806646

  6. Safety characteristics of the integral fast reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Cahalan, J.E.; Sevy, R.H.; Wright, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is an innovative approach to liquid metal reactor design which is being studied by Argonne National Laboratory. Two of the key features of the IFR design are a metal fuel core design, based on the fuel technology developed at EBR-II, and an integral fuel cycle with a colocated fuel cycle facility based on the compact and simplified process steps made possible by the use of metal fuel. The paper presents the safety characteristics of the IFR concept which derive from the use of metal fuel. Liquid metal reactors, because of the low pressure coolant operating far below its boiling point, the natural circulation capability, and high system heat capacities, possess a high degree of inherent safety. The use of metallic fuel allows the reactor designer to further enhance the system capability for passive accommodation of postulated accidents.

  7. Safety characteristics of the integral fast reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Cahalan, J.E.; Sevy, R.H.; Wright, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is an innovative approach to liquid metal reactor design which is being studied by Argonne National Laboratory. Two of the key features of the IFR design are a metal fuel core design, based on the fuel technology developed at EBR-II, and an integral fuel cycle with a co-located fuel cycle facility based on the compact and simplified process steps made possible by the use of the metal fuel. This paper presents the safety characteristics of the IFR concept which derive from the use of metal fuel. Liquid metal reactors, because of the low pressure coolant operating far below its boiling point, the natural circulation capability, and high system heat capacities possess a high degree of inherent safety. The use of metallic fuel allows the reactor designer to further enhance the system capability for passive accommodation of postulated accidents.

  8. Integrated Environmental Modeling: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discusses the need for microbial assessments and presents a road map associated with quantitative microbial risk assessments, through an integrated environmental modeling approach. A brief introduction and the strengths of the current knowledge are illustrated. W...

  9. 49 CFR 1106.3 - Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is... TRANSPORTATION BOARD CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL § 1106.3 Actions for which Safety Integration Plan is required. A...

  10. A hybrid simulation approach for integrating safety behavior into construction planning: An earthmoving case study.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yang Miang; Askar Ali, Mohamed Jawad

    2016-08-01

    One of the key challenges in improving construction safety and health is the management of safety behavior. From a system point of view, workers work unsafely due to system level issues such as poor safety culture, excessive production pressure, inadequate allocation of resources and time and lack of training. These systemic issues should be eradicated or minimized during planning. However, there is a lack of detailed planning tools to help managers assess the impact of their upstream decisions on worker safety behavior. Even though simulation had been used in construction planning, the review conducted in this study showed that construction safety management research had not been exploiting the potential of simulation techniques. Thus, a hybrid simulation framework is proposed to facilitate integration of safety management considerations into construction activity simulation. The hybrid framework consists of discrete event simulation (DES) as the core, but heterogeneous, interactive and intelligent (able to make decisions) agents replace traditional entities and resources. In addition, some of the cognitive processes and physiological aspects of agents are captured using system dynamics (SD) approach. The combination of DES, agent-based simulation (ABS) and SD allows a more "natural" representation of the complex dynamics in construction activities. The proposed hybrid framework was demonstrated using a hypothetical case study. In addition, due to the lack of application of factorial experiment approach in safety management simulation, the case study demonstrated sensitivity analysis and factorial experiment to guide future research.

  11. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  12. AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT: A MULTISECTOR APPROACH TO THE MODERNIZATION OF HUMAN SAFETY REQUIREMENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Better understanding of toxicological mechanisms, enhanced testing capabilities, and demands for more sophisticated data for safety and health risk assessment have generated international interest in improving the current testing paradigm for agricultural chemicals. To address th...

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Integrated Safety Management System FY 2013 Effectiveness Review and Declaration Report

    SciTech Connect

    Farren Hunt

    2013-12-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed an Annual Effectiveness Review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), per 48 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 970.5223 1, “Integration of Environment, Safety and Health into Work Planning and Execution.” The annual review assessed Integrated Safety Management (ISM) effectiveness, provided feedback to maintain system integrity, and identified target areas for focused improvements and assessments for Fiscal Year (FY) 2014. Results of the FY 2013 annual effectiveness review demonstrate that the INL’s ISMS program is “Effective” and continually improving and shows signs of being significantly strengthened. Although there have been unacceptable serious events in the past, there has also been significant attention, dedication, and resources focused on improvement, lessons learned and future prevention. BEA’s strategy of focusing on these improvements includes extensive action and improvement plans that include PLN 4030, “INL Sustained Operational Improvement Plan, PLN 4058, “MFC Strategic Excellence Plan,” PLN 4141, “ATR Sustained Excellence Plan,” and PLN 4145, “Radiological Control Road to Excellence,” and the development of LWP 20000, “Conduct of Research.” As a result of these action plans, coupled with other assurance activities and metrics, significant improvement in operational performance, organizational competence, management oversight and a reduction in the number of operational events is being realized. In short, the realization of the fifth core function of ISMS (feedback and continuous improvement) and the associated benefits are apparent.

  14. Ensuring the quality of occupational safety risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Abel; Ribeiro, Rita A; Nunes, Isabel L

    2013-03-01

    In work environments, the main aim of occupational safety risk assessment (OSRA) is to improve the safety level of an installation or site by either preventing accidents and injuries or minimizing their consequences. To this end, it is of paramount importance to identify all sources of hazards and assess their potential to cause problems in the respective context. If the OSRA process is inadequate and/or not applied effectively, it results in an ineffective safety prevention program and inefficient use of resources. An appropriate OSRA is an essential component of the occupational safety risk management process in industries. In this article, we performed a survey to elicit the relative importance for identified OSRA tasks to enable an in-depth evaluation of the quality of risk assessments related to occupational safety aspects on industrial sites. The survey involved defining a questionnaire with the most important elements (tasks) for OSRA quality assessment, which was then presented to safety experts in the mining, electrical power production, transportation, and petrochemical industries. With this work, we expect to contribute to the main question of OSRA in industries: "What constitutes a good occupational safety risk assessment?" The results obtained from the questionnaire showed that experts agree with the proposed OSRA process decomposition in steps and tasks (taxonomy) and also with the importance of assigning weights to obtain knowledge about OSRA task relevance. The knowledge gained will enable us, in the near future, to build a framework to evaluate OSRA quality for industrial sites.

  15. Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Batandjieva, B.; Torres-Vidal, C.

    2002-02-26

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Coordinated research program ''Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities'' (ISAM) has developed improved safety assessment methodology for near surface disposal facilities. The program has been underway for three years and has included around 75 active participants from 40 countries. It has also provided examples for application to three safety cases--vault, Radon type and borehole radioactive waste disposal facilities. The program has served as an excellent forum for exchange of information and good practices on safety assessment approaches and methodologies used worldwide. It also provided an opportunity for reaching broad consensus on the safety assessment methodologies to be applied to near surface low and intermediate level waste repositories. The methodology has found widespread acceptance and the need for its application on real waste disposal facilities has been clearly identified. The ISAM was finalized by the end of 2000, working material documents are available and an IAEA report will be published in 2002 summarizing the work performed during the three years of the program. The outcome of the ISAM program provides a sound basis for moving forward to a new IAEA program, which will focus on practical application of the safety assessment methodologies to different purposes, such as licensing radioactive waste repositories, development of design concepts, upgrading existing facilities, reassessment of operating repositories, etc. The new program will also provide an opportunity for development of guidance on application of the methodology that will be of assistance to both safety assessors and regulators.

  16. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment.

  17. Teaching Technology by Assessing Vehicle Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaros, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    According to the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among Americans aged 2-34. Many states have adopted periodic motor vehicle inspection (PMVI) to ensure the safety of the highways, and states that have adopted PMVI report a reduction in highway fatalities. Deaths and injuries…

  18. Safety assessment of adjuvanted vaccines: Methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Fernanda Tavares; Di Pasquale, Alberta; Yarzabal, Juan P; Garçon, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Adjuvants mainly interact with the innate immune response and are used to enhance the quantity and quality of the downstream adaptive immune response to vaccine antigens. Establishing the safety of a new adjuvant-antigen combination is achieved through rigorous evaluation that begins in the laboratory, and that continues throughout the vaccine life-cycle. The strategy for the evaluation of safety pre-licensure is guided by the disease profile, vaccine indication, and target population, and it is also influenced by available regulatory guidelines. In order to allow meaningful interpretation of clinical data, clinical program methodology should be optimized and standardized, making best use of all available data sources. Post-licensure safety activities are directed by field experience accumulated pre- and post-licensure clinical trial data and spontaneous adverse event reports. Continued evolution of safety evaluation processes that keep pace with advances in vaccine technology and updated communication of the benefit-risk profile is necessary to maintain public confidence in vaccines. PMID:26029975

  19. Office of River Protection Integrated Safety Management System Description

    SciTech Connect

    CLARK, D.L.

    1999-08-09

    Revision O was never issued. Finding safe and environmentally sound methods of storage and disposal of 54 million gallons of highly radioactive waste contained in 177 underground tanks is the largest challenge of Hanford cleanup. TWRS was established in 1991 and continues to integrate all aspects of the treatment and management of the high-level radioactive waste tanks. In fiscal Year 1997, program objectives were advanced in a number of areas. RL TWRS refocused the program toward retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the tank wastes, while maintaining safety as first priority. Moving from a mode of storing the wastes to getting the waste out of the tanks will provide the greatest cleanup return on the investment and eliminate costly mortgage continuance. There were a number of safety-related achievements in FY1997. The first high priority safety issue was resolved with the removal of 16 tanks from the ''Wyden Watch List''. The list, brought forward by Senator Ron Wyden of Oregon, identified various Hanford safety issues needing attention. One of these issues was ferrocyanide, a chemical present in 24 tanks. Although ferrocyanide can ignite at high temperature, analysis found that the chemical has decomposed into harmless compounds and is no longer a concern.

  20. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document outlining the basic steps and criteria used in developing the Integrated Science Assessments (ISA). Previously included as part of the ISA, it will now be referenced by each ISA as...

  1. Selected component failure rate values from fusion safety assessment tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  2. Selected Component Failure Rate Values from Fusion Safety Assessment Tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles

    1998-09-01

    This report is a compilation of component failure rate and repair rate values that can be used in magnetic fusion safety assessment tasks. Several safety systems are examined, such as gas cleanup systems and plasma shutdown systems. Vacuum system component reliability values, including large vacuum chambers, have been reviewed. Values for water cooling system components have also been reported here. The report concludes with the examination of some equipment important to personnel safety, atmospheres, combustible gases, and airborne releases of radioactivity. These data should be useful to system designers to calculate scoping values for the availability and repair intervals for their systems, and for probabilistic safety or risk analysts to assess fusion systems for safety of the public and the workers.

  3. Safety assessment of modified terephthalate polymers as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The safety of 6 modified terephthalate polymers as cosmetic ingredients was assessed. These ingredients mostly function as exfoliants, bulking agents, hair fixatives, and viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is used in leave-on products up to 100% and in rinse-off products up to 2%. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) considered that the PET used in cosmetics is chemically equivalent to that used in medical devices. The Panel determined that the Food and Drug Administration's determination of safety of PET in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, can be used as the basis for the determination of safety of PET and related polymers used in cosmetics. Use studies of cosmetic eye products that contain PET demonstrated no ocular irritation or dermal sensitization. The Panel concluded that modified terephthalate polymers were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  4. Savannah River Site K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Bailey, R.T.; Baker, W.H.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; O`Kula, K.R.; Wittman, R.S.; Woody, N.D.; Amos, C.N.; Weingardt, J.J.

    1992-12-01

    This report gives the results of a Savannah River Site (SRS) K-Reactor Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). Measures of adverse consequences to health and safety resulting from representations of severe accidents in SRS reactors are presented. In addition, the report gives a summary of the methods employed to represent these accidents and to assess the resultant consequences. The report is issued to provide useful information to the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the risk of operation of SRS reactors, for insights into severe accident phenomena that contribute to this risk, and in support of improved bases for other DOE programs in Heavy Water Reactor safety.

  5. Safety Assessment of Pentaerythrityl Tetraesters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds as used in cosmetics. These ingredients mostly function as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and binders, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, viscosity-increasing agents-nonaqueous, and skin-conditioning agents-emollient. The Panel reviewed the available animal and human data related to these ingredients and previous safety assessments of the fatty acid moieties. The Panel concluded that pentaerythrityl tetraisostearate and the other pentaerythrityl tetraester compounds were safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  6. Foundational development of an advanced nuclear reactor integrated safety code.

    SciTech Connect

    Clarno, Kevin; Lorber, Alfred Abraham; Pryor, Richard J.; Spotz, William F.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Belcourt, Kenneth; Hooper, Russell Warren; Humphries, Larry LaRon

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the activities and results of a Sandia LDRD project whose objective was to develop and demonstrate foundational aspects of a next-generation nuclear reactor safety code that leverages advanced computational technology. The project scope was directed towards the systems-level modeling and simulation of an advanced, sodium cooled fast reactor, but the approach developed has a more general applicability. The major accomplishments of the LDRD are centered around the following two activities. (1) The development and testing of LIME, a Lightweight Integrating Multi-physics Environment for coupling codes that is designed to enable both 'legacy' and 'new' physics codes to be combined and strongly coupled using advanced nonlinear solution methods. (2) The development and initial demonstration of BRISC, a prototype next-generation nuclear reactor integrated safety code. BRISC leverages LIME to tightly couple the physics models in several different codes (written in a variety of languages) into one integrated package for simulating accident scenarios in a liquid sodium cooled 'burner' nuclear reactor. Other activities and accomplishments of the LDRD include (a) further development, application and demonstration of the 'non-linear elimination' strategy to enable physics codes that do not provide residuals to be incorporated into LIME, (b) significant extensions of the RIO CFD code capabilities, (c) complex 3D solid modeling and meshing of major fast reactor components and regions, and (d) an approach for multi-physics coupling across non-conformal mesh interfaces.

  7. Ride Motion Simulator Safety Assessment Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    many seat comfort tests in the laboratory. Figure 5-4 Z-axis position command vs. feedback during playback of a drive file 2013-MBT-SAR-RMS...resistant base material • design safety factor >> 4 • redundant attachment fasteners platform Seat attach plate • high strength aluminum base...freedom (DOF), single occupant motion base designed to recreate the ?ride? of nearly any ground vehicle with high precision and accuracy. The simulator

  8. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A.; Garcia, Michael P.; Corley, Douglas A.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P.; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems. We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level income The study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings. Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care. PMID:28296752

  9. Racial/ethnic differences in obesity and comorbidities between safety-net- and non safety-net integrated health systems.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Bijal A; Garcia, Michael P; Corley, Douglas A; Doubeni, Chyke A; Haas, Jennifer S; Kamineni, Aruna; Quinn, Virginia P; Wernli, Karen; Zheng, Yingye; Skinner, Celette Sugg

    2017-03-01

    Previous research shows that patients in integrated health systems experience fewer racial disparities compared with more traditional healthcare systems. Little is known about patterns of racial/ethnic disparities between safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems.We evaluated racial/ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and the Charlson comorbidity index from 3 non safety-net- and 1 safety-net integrated health systems in a cross-sectional study. Multinomial logistic regression modeled comorbidity and BMI on race/ethnicity and health care system type adjusting for age, sex, insurance, and zip-code-level incomeThe study included 1.38 million patients. Higher proportions of safety-net versus non safety-net patients had comorbidity score of 3+ (11.1% vs. 5.0%) and BMI ≥35 (27.7% vs. 15.8%). In both types of systems, blacks and Hispanics were more likely than whites to have higher BMIs. Whites were more likely than blacks or Hispanics to have higher comorbidity scores in a safety net system, but less likely to have higher scores in the non safety-nets. The odds of comorbidity score 3+ and BMI 35+ in blacks relative to whites were significantly lower in safety-net than in non safety-net settings.Racial/ethnic differences were present within both safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems, but patterns differed. Understanding patterns of racial/ethnic differences in health outcomes in safety-net and non safety-net integrated health systems is important to tailor interventions to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care.

  10. AN ASSESSMENT OF INTEGRATED RISK ASSESSMENT (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to promote international understanding and acceptance of the integrated risk assessment process, the WHO/IPCS, in collaboration with the U.S. EPA and the OECD, initiated a number of activities related to integrated risk assessment. In this project, WHO/IPCS defines inte...

  11. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for ...

  12. Electronic availability of microgravity experiments safety and integration requirements documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Jean M.

    1995-01-01

    This follow-on to NASA Contractor Report 195447, Microgravity Experiments Safety and Integration Requirements Document Tree, provides the details for accessing the systems that contain the official, electronic versions of the documents initially researched in NASA Contractor Report 195447. The data in this report serves as a valuable information source for the NASA Lewis Research Center Project Documentation Center (PDC), as well as for all developers of space experiments. The PDC has acquired the hardware, software, ID's, and passwords necessary to access most of these systems and is now able to provide customers with current document information as well as immediate delivery of available documents in either electronic or hard copy format.

  13. Integrating Windblown Dust Forecasts with Public Safety and Health Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprigg, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments in real-time prediction of desert dust emissions and downstream plume concentrations (~ 3.5 km near-surface spatial resolution) succeed to the point of challenging public safety and public health services to beta test a dust storm warning and advisory system in lowering risks of highway and airline accidents and illnesses such as asthma and valley fever. Key beta test components are: high-resolution models of dust emission, entrainment and diffusion, integrated with synoptic weather observations and forecasts; satellite-based detection and monitoring of soil properties on the ground and elevated above; high space and time resolution for health surveillance and transportation advisories.

  14. A method to prevent excessive numbers of Markov states in Markov models for quantitative safety and reliability assessment.

    PubMed

    Knegtering, B; Brombacher, A C

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method that will drastically reduce the calculation effort required to obtain quantitative safety and reliability assessments to determine safety integrity levels for applications in the process industry. The method described combines all benefits of Markov modeling with the practical benefits of reliability block diagrams.

  15. Integrated indicator to evaluate vehicle performance across: Safety, fuel efficiency and green domains.

    PubMed

    Torrao, G; Fontes, T; Coelho, M; Rouphail, N

    2016-07-01

    In general, car manufacturers face trade-offs between safety, efficiency and environmental performance when choosing between mass, length, engine power, and fuel efficiency. Moreover, the information available to the consumers makes difficult to assess all these components at once, especially when aiming to compare vehicles across different categories and/or to compare vehicles in the same category but across different model years. The main objective of this research was to develop an integrated tool able to assess vehicle's performance simultaneously for safety and environmental domains, leading to the research output of a Safety, Fuel Efficiency and Green Emissions (SEG) indicator able to evaluate and rank vehicle's performance across those three domains. For this purpose, crash data was gathered in Porto (Portugal) for the period 2006-2010 (N=1374). The crash database was analyzed and crash severity prediction models were developed using advanced logistic regression models. Following, the methodology for the SEG indicator was established combining the vehicle's safety and the environmental evaluation into an integrated analysis. The obtained results for the SEG indicator do not show any trade-off between vehicle's safety, fuel consumption and emissions. The best performance was achieved for newer gasoline passenger vehicles (<5year) with a smaller engine size (<1400cm(3)). According to the SEG indicator, a vehicle with these characteristics can be recommended for a safety-conscious profile user, as well as for a user more interested in fuel economy and/or in green performance. On the other hand, for larger engine size vehicles (>2000cm(3)) the combined score for safety user profile was in average more satisfactory than for vehicles in the smaller engine size group (<1400cm(3)), which suggests that in general, larger vehicles may offer extra protection. The achieved results demonstrate that the developed SEG integrated methodology can be a helpful tool for

  16. To the Point: Integrating Patient Safety Education Into the Obstetrics and Gynecology Undergraduate Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jodi F; Pradhan, Archana; Buery-Joyner, Samantha; Casey, Petra M; Chuang, Alice; Dugoff, Lorraine; Dalrymple, John L; Forstein, David A; Hampton, Brittany S; Hueppchen, Nancy A; Kaczmarczyk, Joseph M; Katz, Nadine T; Nuthalapaty, Francis S; Page-Ramsey, Sarah; Wolf, Abigail; Cullimore, Amie J

    2016-07-26

    This article is part of the To the Point Series prepared by the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics Undergraduate Medical Education Committee. Principles and education in patient safety have been well integrated into academic obstetrics and gynecology practices, although progress in safety profiles has been frustratingly slow. Medical students have not been included in the majority of these ambulatory practice or hospital-based initiatives. Both the Association of American Medical Colleges and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education have recommended incorporating students into safe practices. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education milestone 1 for entering interns includes competencies in patient safety. We present data and initiatives in patient safety, which have been successfully used in undergraduate and graduate medical education. In addition, this article demonstrates how using student feedback to assess sentinel events can enhance safe practice and quality improvement programs. Resources and implementation tools will be discussed to provide a template for incorporation into educational programs and institutions. Medical student involvement in the culture of safety is necessary for the delivery of both high-quality education and high-quality patient care. It is essential to incorporate students into the ongoing development of patient safety curricula in obstetrics and gynecology.

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project Integrated Safety Management System phase I and II Verification Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    CARTER, R.P.

    1999-11-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commits to accomplishing its mission safely. To ensure this objective is met, DOE issued DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and incorporated safety management into the DOE Acquisition Regulations ([DEAR] 48 CFR 970.5204-2 and 90.5204-78). Integrated Safety Management (ISM) requires contractors to integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions are achieved while protecting the public, the worker, and the environment. The contractor is required to describe the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) to be used to implement the safety performance objective.

  18. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition.

    PubMed

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-08-01

    The development and marketing of 'novel' genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed.

  19. Safety assessment of genetically modified plants with deliberately altered composition

    PubMed Central

    Halford, Nigel G; Hudson, Elizabeth; Gimson, Amy; Weightman, Richard; Shewry, Peter R; Tompkins, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The development and marketing of ‘novel’ genetically modified (GM) crops in which composition has been deliberately altered poses a challenge to the European Union (EU)'s risk assessment processes, which are based on the concept of substantial equivalence with a non-GM comparator. This article gives some examples of these novel GM crops and summarizes the conclusions of a report that was commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority on how the EU's risk assessment processes could be adapted to enable their safety to be assessed. PMID:24735114

  20. INTERPRETING SPONTANEOUS RENAL LESIONS IN SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interpreting Spontaneous Renal Lesions in Safety and Risk Assessment
    Douglas C. Wolf, D.V.M., Ph.D.

    Introduction

    Risk assessment is a process whereby the potential adverse health effects from exposure to a xenobiotic are predicted after evaluation of the availab...

  1. Pharmacy Educators’ Knowledge of Medication Safety and Their Perception Toward Its Integration into the Doctor of Pharmacy Curriculum in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bustami, Rami; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M.; Almodaimegh, Hind; Alghamdi, Sahar; Alharbi, Shemylan; Khalidi, Nabil; Murphy, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy educators’ knowledge of medication safety and their perception toward its integration into the PharmD curriculum in Saudi Arabia. Methods. A survey was administered to pharmacy educators at a college of pharmacy and its affiliate hospital. Knowledge, training, and perception toward integrating medication safety into the PharmD curriculum were evaluated. Results. More than 50% of respondents indicated that medication safety should be covered within selected courses, and 65% indicated that such courses should be mandatory. Pharmacy practice educators had significantly higher levels of knowledge about medication safety than their nonpractice counterparts. Perceptions toward medication safety integration into the curriculum varied significantly by general discipline, academic degree, years of experience, and gender. Conclusion. Pharmacy educators in Saudi Arabia understand the importance of medication safety and its integration into the curriculum. Further studies are needed to guide curricular change to achieve this integration. PMID:28381890

  2. Environment, Safety, and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP)

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven Arvid; Thomas Wierman

    2003-12-01

    The Environment, Safety and Health Risk Assessment Program (ESHRAP) models human safety and health risk resulting from waste management and environmental restoration activities. Human safety and health risks include those associated with storing, handling, processing, transporting, and disposing of radionuclides and chemicals. Exposures to these materials, resulting from both accidents and normal, incident-free operation, are modeled. In addition, standard industrial risks (falls, explosions, transportation accidents, etc.) are evaluated. Finally, human safety and health impacts from cleanup of accidental releases of radionuclides and chemicals to the environment are estimated. Unlike environmental impact statements and safety analysis reports, ESHRAP risk predictions are meant to be best estimate, rather than bounding or conservatively high. Typically, ESHRAP studies involve risk predictions covering the entire waste management or environmental restoration program, including such activities as initial storage, handling, processing, interim storage, transportation, and final disposal. ESHRAP can be used to support complex environmental decision-making processes and to track risk reduction as activities progress.

  3. International Harmonization of Food Safety Assessment of Pesticide Residues.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Árpád

    2016-01-13

    This paper summarizes the development of principles and methods applied within the program of the FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius during the past 50 years for the safety assessment of pesticide residues in food and feed and establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) to promote free international trade and assure the safety of consumers. The role of major international organizations in this process, the FAO capacity building activities, and some problematic areas that require special attention are briefly described.

  4. Safety Assessment of Galactomannans as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 16 galactomannans as used in cosmetics. These ingredients are legume polysaccharides that function mostly as hair/skin-conditioning agents and viscosity-increasing agents in cosmetic products. Their substantial molecular sizes suggest that skin penetration of these ingredients would be unlikely. The Panel concluded that these galactomannans are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.

  5. Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  6. EMERGY METHODS: VALUABLE INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NHEERL's Atlantic Ecology Division is investigating emergy methods as tools for integrated assessment in several projects evaluating environmental impacts, policies, and alternatives for remediation and intervention. Emergy accounting is a methodology that provides a quantitative...

  7. From Here to There: Lessons from an Integrative Patient Safety Project in Rural Health Care Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    Pilot Safety Culture Assessment, developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs; an Error Tool Survey and a Patient Safety Staff Survey that were...Safety Culture Assessment, completed by all the team members, assessed attitudes and beliefs relative to the recognition, reporting, and disclosing...College to revisit, reconsider, and revise. Admittedly this methodology is time- consuming for the researchers and the research participants

  8. Integrated modular engine - Reliability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsley, R. C.; Ward, T. B.

    1992-07-01

    A major driver in the increased interest in integrated modular engine configurations is the desire for ultra reliability for future rocket propulsion systems. The concept of configuring multiple sets of turbomachinery networked to multiple thrust chamber assemblies has been identified as an approach with potential to achieve significant reliability enhancement. This paper summarizes the results of a reliability study comparing networked systems vs. discrete engine installations, both with and without major module and engine redundancy. The study was conducted for gas generator, expander, and staged combustion cycles. The results are representative of either booster or upper-stage applications and are indicative of either plug or nonplug installation philosophies.

  9. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 1O-Point Initiative to strengthen environment,safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at involved conducting DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points independent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This volume contains appendices to the Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment Manual.

  10. [Risk assessment and chemical safety under REACH].

    PubMed

    Foth, Heidi

    2008-12-01

    Under the new European chemical legislation REACH (EG 1907/2006), dangerous properties of chemical substances will be evaluated and data gaps will be closed. This information is needed for other regulations, such as safety at the working place or for the safe handling of products. Existing knowledge on chemical compounds must be broadened because previous regulations have focused on high production volume compounds. The evaluation procedures needed too much time, and for the majority of non-evaluated substances a new strategy is needed. REACH places the duty for registration of substances with the producers and importers. Data gaps for risk evaluation will be closed. Competent authorities will be relieved from the primary risk evaluation of most substances. Alternative strategies of evaluation using previous information and non-animal testing approaches will be supported to avoid animal testing where appropriate. The new European chemical agency ECHA will use the provided information in order to identify very dangerous chemical substances which should be controlled by authorization of its use and the circumstances thereof.

  11. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-10-21

    This analysis examines activities associated with the installation of isolation barriers in the K Basins at the Hanford Reservation. This revision adds evaluation of barrier drops on stored fuel and basin floor, identifies fuel which will be moved and addresses criticality issues with sludge. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

  12. [Safety assessment of foods derived from genetically modified plants].

    PubMed

    Pöting, A; Schauzu, M

    2010-06-01

    The placing of genetically modified plants and derived food on the market falls under Regulation (EC) No. 1829/2003. According to this regulation, applicants need to perform a safety assessment according to the Guidance Document of the Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which is based on internationally agreed recommendations. This article gives an overview of the underlying legislation as well as the strategy and scientific criteria for the safety assessment, which should generally be based on the concept of substantial equivalence and carried out in relation to an unmodified conventional counterpart. Besides the intended genetic modification, potential unintended changes also have to be assessed with regard to potential adverse effects for the consumer. All genetically modified plants and derived food products, which have been evaluated by EFSA so far, were considered to be as safe as products derived from the respective conventional plants.

  13. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Esters as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 237 alkyl esters for use in cosmetics. The alkyl esters included in this assessment have a variety of reported functions in cosmetics, with skin-conditioning agent being the most common function. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data in making its determination of safety on these ingredients, and where there were data gaps, similarity in structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  14. 49 CFR 244.15 - Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration Plan not involving an amalgamation of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS ON SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS GOVERNING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS OF CONTROL Safety Integration Plans § 244.15 Subjects to be addressed in a Safety Integration...

  15. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) : FY10 development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Sassani, David Carl; Arguello, Jose Guadalupe, Jr.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Bouchard, Julie F.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Wang, Yifeng; Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the progress in fiscal year 2010 in developing the Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Campaign. The goal of the Waste IPSC is to develop an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive waste storage or disposal system. The Waste IPSC will provide this simulation capability (1) for a range of disposal concepts, waste form types, engineered repository designs, and geologic settings, (2) for a range of time scales and distances, (3) with appropriate consideration of the inherent uncertainties, and (4) in accordance with robust verification, validation, and software quality requirements. Waste IPSC activities in fiscal year 2010 focused on specifying a challenge problem to demonstrate proof of concept, developing a verification and validation plan, and performing an initial gap analyses to identify candidate codes and tools to support the development and integration of the Waste IPSC. The current Waste IPSC strategy is to acquire and integrate the necessary Waste IPSC capabilities wherever feasible, and develop only those capabilities that cannot be acquired or suitably integrated, verified, or validated. This year-end progress report documents the FY10 status of acquisition, development, and integration of thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical (THCM) code capabilities, frameworks, and enabling tools and infrastructure.

  16. Exploration on the safety assessment of nanomaterials in China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xin-Li; Wang, Qiangbin; Hu, Kun; Wang, Xiu-Mei

    2012-01-01

    More and more applications of nanomaterials have been achieved in the biomedicine field. Numerous nanomedical devices, such as bone grafts with nano-hydroxyapatite and the silver-based anti-bacteria products, have been developed and have been trying to enter into the Chinese market. The State Food and Drug Administration of China (SFDA) is facing a critical challenge of how to explore and supervise the safety assessment of the nanomedical products. This paper briefly introduces the approval status of nanomedical products and the current advances of the safety assessment of nanomaterials in China. PMID:23741614

  17. Environment, safety and health progress assessment manual. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    On June 27, 1989, the Secretary of Energy announced a 10-Point Initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES&H) programs, and waste management activities at DOE production, research, and testing facilities. One of the points involved conducting dent Tiger Team Assessments of DOE operating facilities. The Office of Special independent Projects (OSP), EH-5, in the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health, EH-1, was assigned the responsibility to conduct the Tiger Team Assessments. Through June 1992, a total of 35 Tiger Team Assessments were completed. The Secretary directed that Corrective Action Plans be developed and implemented to address the concerns identified by the Tiger Teams. In March 1991, the Secretary approved a plan for assessments that are ``more focused, concentrating on ES&H management, ES&H corrective actions, self-assessment programs, and root-cause related issues.`` In July 1991, the Secretary approved the initiation of ES&H Progress Assessments, as a followup to the Tiger Team Assessments, and in the continuing effort to institutionalize the self-assessment process and line management accountability in the ES&H areas. This manual documents the processes to be used to perform the ES&H Progress Assessments. It was developed based upon the lessons learned from Tiger Team Assessments, the two pilot Progress Assessments, and Progress Assessments that have been completed. The manual will be updated periodically to reflect lessons learned or changes in policy.

  18. Integrating quality and safety education into clinical nursing education through a dedicated education unit.

    PubMed

    Masters, Kelli

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine and American Association of Colleges of Nursing are calling for curriculum redesign that prepares nursing students with the requisite knowledge and skills to provide safe, high quality care. The purpose of this project was to improve nursing students' knowledge of quality and safety by integrating Quality and Safety Education for Nurses into clinical nursing education through development of a dedicated education unit. This model, which pairs nursing students with front-line nursing staff for clinical experiences, was implemented on a medical floor in an acute care hospital. Prior to implementation, nurses and students were educated about the dedicated education unit and quality and safety competencies. During each clinical rotation, students collaborated with their nurses on projects related to these competencies. Students' knowledge was assessed using questions related to quality and safety. Students who participated in the dedicated education unit had higher scores than those with traditional clinical rotations. Focus groups were held mid-semester to assess nurses' perceptions of the experience. Five themes emerged from the qualitative data including thirsting for knowledge, building teamwork and collaboration, establishing trust and decreasing anxiety, mirroring organization and time management skills, and evolving confidence in the nursing role.

  19. Safety assessment methodology in management of spent sealed sources.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Narmine Salah

    2005-02-14

    Environmental hazards can be caused from radioactive waste after their disposal. It was therefore important that safety assessment methodologies be developed and established to study and estimate the possible hazards, and institute certain safety methodologies that lead and prevent the evolution of these hazards. Spent sealed sources are specific type of radioactive waste. According to IAEA definition, spent sealed sources are unused sources because of activity decay, damage, misuse, loss, or theft. Accidental exposure of humans from spent sealed sources can occur at the moment they become spent and before their disposal. Because of that reason, safety assessment methodologies were tailored to suit the management of spent sealed sources. To provide understanding and confidence of this study, validation analysis was undertaken by considering the scenario of an accident that occurred in Egypt, June 2000 (the Meet-Halfa accident from an iridium-192 source). The text of this work includes consideration related to the safety assessment approaches of spent sealed sources which constitutes assessment context, processes leading an active source to be spent, accident scenarios, mathematical models for dose calculations, and radiological consequences and regulatory criteria. The text also includes a validation study, which was carried out by evaluating a theoretical scenario compared to the real scenario of Meet-Halfa accident depending on the clinical assessment of affected individuals.

  20. A Framework for Assessment of Aviation Safety Technology Portfolios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon M.; Reveley, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The programs within NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) conduct research and development to improve the national air transportation system so that Americans can travel as safely as possible. NASA aviation safety systems analysis personnel support various levels of ARMD management in their fulfillment of system analysis and technology prioritization as defined in the agency's program and project requirements. This paper provides a framework for the assessment of aviation safety research and technology portfolios that includes metrics such as projected impact on current and future safety, technical development risk and implementation risk. The paper also contains methods for presenting portfolio analysis and aviation safety Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) output results to management using bubble charts and quantitative decision analysis techniques.

  1. Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M.; Richman, E.E.; Sullivan, G.P.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.

  2. Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Keller, J.M.

    1993-02-01

    The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.

  3. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gareth

    2005-09-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

  4. Safety assessment of novel foods and strategies to determine their safety in use

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Gareth . E-mail: gareth.edwards@novelfoods.co.uk

    2005-09-01

    Safety assessment of novel foods requires a different approach to that traditionally used for the assessment of food chemicals. A case-by-case approach is needed which must be adapted to take account of the characteristics of the individual novel food. A thorough appraisal is required of the origin, production, compositional analysis, nutritional characteristics, any previous human exposure and the anticipated use of the food. The information should be compared with a traditional counterpart of the food if this is available. In some cases, a conclusion about the safety of the food may be reached on the basis of this information alone, whereas in other cases, it will help to identify any nutritional or toxicological testing that may be required to further investigate the safety of the food. The importance of nutritional evaluation cannot be over-emphasised. This is essential for the conduct of toxicological studies in order to avoid dietary imbalances, etc., that might lead to interpretation difficulties, but also in the context of its use as food and to assess the potential impact of the novel food on the human diet. The traditional approach used for chemicals, whereby an acceptable daily intake (ADI) is established with a large safety margin relative to the expected exposure, cannot be applied to foods. The assessment of safety in use should be based upon a thorough knowledge of the composition of the food, evidence from nutritional, toxicological and human studies, expected use of the food and its expected consumption. Safety equates to a reasonable certainty that no harm will result from intended uses under the anticipated conditions of consumption.

  5. A Mechanistic, Model-Based Approach to Safety Assessment in Clinical Development

    PubMed Central

    Lippert, J; Brosch, M; von Kampen, O; Meyer, M; Siegmund, H.-U; Schafmayer, C; Becker, T; Laffert, B; Görlitz, L; Schreiber, S; Neuvonen, P J; Niemi, M; Hampe, J; Kuepfer, L

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the safety of pharmacotherapies is a primary goal of clinical trials in drug development. The low frequency of relevant side effects, however, often poses a significant challenge for risk assessment. Methodologies allowing robust extrapolation of safety statistics based on preclinical data and information from clinical trials with limited numbers of patients are hence needed to further improve safety and efficacy in the drug development process. Here, we present a generic systems pharmacology approach integrating prior physiological and pharmacological knowledge, preclinical data, and clinical trial results, which allows predicting adverse event rates related to drug exposure. Possible fields of application involve high-risk populations, novel drug candidates, and different dosing scenarios. As an example, the approach is applied to simvastatin and pravastatin and the prediction of myopathy rates in a population with a genotype leading to a significantly increased myopathy risk. PMID:23835795

  6. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted.

  7. Current issues and perspectives in food safety and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Eisenbrand, G

    2015-12-01

    In this review, current issues and opportunities in food safety assessment are discussed. Food safety is considered an essential element inherent in global food security. Hazard characterization is pivotal within the continuum of risk assessment, but it may be conceived only within a very limited frame as a true alternative to risk assessment. Elucidation of the mode of action underlying a given hazard is vital to create a plausible basis for human toxicology evaluation. Risk assessment, to convey meaningful risk communication, must be based on appropriate and reliable consideration of both exposure and mode of action. New perspectives, provided by monitoring human exogenous and endogenous exposure biomarkers, are considered of great promise to support classical risk extrapolation from animal toxicology.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF ADME DATA IN AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENTS
    Pastoor, Timothy1, Barton, Hugh2
    1 Syngenta Crop Protection, Greensboro, NC, USA.
    2 EPA, Office of Research and Development-NHEERL, RTP, NC, USA.

    A multi-stakeholder series of discussions d...

  9. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school,safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research...

  10. Assessing the Food Safety Knowledge of University of Maine Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferk, Chelsea C.; Calder, Beth L.; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a global public health issue. Young adults may work in foodservice while they are university students, and their habits may later shape the practices and well-being of their children. The objective of this study was to establish baseline data and assess the food safety knowledge of 18- to 26-year-old Univ. of Maine students.…

  11. A National Estimate of Performance: Statewide Highway Safety Program Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    A nationwide systematic approach to assess the developments and achievements of highway safety activities was conducted to measure program outputs from 1969 through 1974 using key indicators of performance such as ratios and percentages. A sample of 10 states was selected with overall sample of 105 local jurisdictions which would provide estimated…

  12. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  13. Recent Use of Covariance Data for Criticality Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rearden, Bradley T; Mueller, Don

    2008-01-01

    The TSUNAMI codes of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory SCALE code system were applied to a burnup credit application to demonstrate the use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis with recent cross section covariance data for criticality safety code and data validation. The use of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis provides for the assessment of a defensible computational bias, bias uncertainty, and gap analysis for a complex system that otherwise could be assessed only through the use of expert judgment and conservative assumptions.

  14. Different sets of reliability data and success criteria in a probabilistic safety assessment for a plant producing nitroglycol.

    PubMed

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2009-03-15

    The lack of plant-specific reliability data for probabilistic safety assessments usually makes it necessary to use generic reliability data. Justifiably different assessments of plant behaviour (success criteria) lead to different models of plant systems. Both affect the numerical results of a probabilistic safety assessment. It is shown how these results change, if different sets of reliability data and different choices of success criteria for the safety system are employed. Differences in results may influence decisions taken on their basis and become especially important if compliance with a safety goal has to be proved, e.g. a safety integrity level. For the purpose of demonstration an accident sequence from a probabilistic safety assessment of a plant producing nitroglycol is used. The analysis relies on plant-specific reliability data so that it provides a good yardstick for comparing it with results obtained using generic data. The superiority of plant-specific data, which should of course be acquired, cannot be doubted. Nevertheless, plant safety can be improved even if generic data are used. However, the assignment to a safety integrity level may be affected by differences in both data and success criteria.

  15. Structural observation of long-span suspension bridges for safety assessment: implementation of an optical displacement measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages Martins, L.; Rebordão, J. M.; Silva Ribeiro, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses the implementation of an optical displacement measurement system in the observation scenario of a long-span suspension bridge and its contribution for structural safety assessment. The metrological background required for quality assurance of the measurements is described, namely, the system's intrinsic parameterization and integration in the SI dimensional traceability chain by calibration, including its measurement uncertainty assessment.

  16. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Geotrichum candidum.

    PubMed

    Pottier, Ivannah; Gente, Stéphanie; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Guéguen, Micheline

    2008-09-01

    Geotrichum candidum is a ubiquitous filamentous yeast-like fungus commonly isolated from soil, air, water, milk, silage, plant tissues, digestive tract in humans and other mammals. This species is widely used as adjunct culture in the maturation of cheese. The genus Geotrichum is composed of 18 species. A recent taxonomic revision concluded that the old Galactomyces geotrichum/G. candidum complex contained four separate species of which Galactomyces candidus sp. nov./G. candidum. M13 primer can be used for identifying species of the Geotrichum genus. Used in combination, RAPD-PCR and RAM-PCR permit strains to be differentiated. The species can be unambiguous differentiated from the two species most frequently described in human pathology: Geotrichum clavatum (reclassified Saprochaete clavata) and Geotrichum capitatum (reclassified Magnusiomyces capitatus/Saprochaete capitata). Sources of exposure are food ingestion--cheese consumption playing a major role--inhalation and contact. A bibliographic survey was conducted to assess corresponding hazards and risks. G. candidum infections (mainly pulmonary or bronchopulmonary, but also cutaneous, oral, disseminates) are very rare: fewer than 100 cases reported between 1842 and 2006. Moreover, cases were not all confirmed by repeated isolations and demonstration of the fungus' presence in tissues, a prerequisite to establish a true diagnosis of geotrichosis. Immunocompromised population was recently shown as a target for opportunistic infection. The most effective treatments include either azole drogs as ketonazole, iconazole and clotrimazole, or polyene antibiotics as amphotericin B, nystatin and pimaricin, or voriconazole-amphotericin B association. Less than 1 case/year of disease was possibly caused by G. candidum and it never included dairy products or foodborne infection. The risk of developing an infection due to G. candidum in connection with its technological use and consumption of dairy products is virtually nil

  17. [Study on method on post-marketing traditonal Chinese medicine safety assessment].

    PubMed

    Kou, Qiuai; Zhao, Suping; Feng, Guoshuang; Xie, Yanming

    2011-10-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) safety assessment is an important content of post-marketing Chinese herbal medicine assessment and the primary question. It includes safety monitoring and safety evaluation. China has established the elementary system for the TCM safety monitoring, but did few things on safety evaluation. People have knew that the methods of pharmacoepidemiology have good practicability on drug safety assessment in recent years. This article analyzed three methods of pharmacoepidemiology used in post-marketing Chinese herbal medicine safety assessment. There are three examples that may give some suggestions to fellow doctors working for safety monitoring and evaluation of TCM.

  18. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  19. Uncertainty in Integrated Assessment Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Mort Webster

    2005-10-17

    The determination of climate policy is a decision under uncertainty. The uncertainty in future climate change impacts is large, as is the uncertainty in the costs of potential policies. Rational and economically efficient policy choices will therefore seek to balance the expected marginal costs with the expected marginal benefits. This approach requires that the risks of future climate change be assessed. The decision process need not be formal or quantitative for descriptions of the risks to be useful. Whatever the decision procedure, a useful starting point is to have as accurate a description of climate risks as possible. Given the goal of describing uncertainty in future climate change, we need to characterize the uncertainty in the main causes of uncertainty in climate impacts. One of the major drivers of uncertainty in future climate change is the uncertainty in future emissions, both of greenhouse gases and other radiatively important species such as sulfur dioxide. In turn, the drivers of uncertainty in emissions are uncertainties in the determinants of the rate of economic growth and in the technologies of production and how those technologies will change over time. This project uses historical experience and observations from a large number of countries to construct statistical descriptions of variability and correlation in labor productivity growth and in AEEI. The observed variability then provides a basis for constructing probability distributions for these drivers. The variance of uncertainty in growth rates can be further modified by expert judgment if it is believed that future variability will differ from the past. But often, expert judgment is more readily applied to projected median or expected paths through time. Analysis of past variance and covariance provides initial assumptions about future uncertainty for quantities that are less intuitive and difficult for experts to estimate, and these variances can be normalized and then applied to mean

  20. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  1. Safety analysis and review system (SARS) assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, E.T.

    1981-03-01

    Under DOE Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System for DOE Operations, safety analyses are required for DOE projects in order to ensure that: (1) potential hazards are systematically identified; (2) potential impacts are analyzed; (3) reasonable measures have been taken to eliminate, control, or mitigate the hazards; and (4) there is documented management authorization of the DOE operation based on an objective assessment of the adequacy of the safety analysis. This report is intended to provide the DOE Office of Plans and Technology Assessment (OPTA) with an independent evaluation of the adequacy of the ongoing safety analysis effort. As part of this effort, a number of site visits and interviews were conducted, and FE SARS documents were reviewed. The latter included SARS Implementation Plans for a number of FE field offices, as well as safety analysis reports completed for certain FE operations. This report summarizes SARS related efforts at the DOE field offices visited and evaluates the extent to which they fulfill the requirements of DOE 5481.1.

  2. Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER) peer review report.

    SciTech Connect

    Heimdahl, Olaf E. R.; LaHoud, Paul; Chapman, Leon Darrel

    2004-08-01

    At the direction of the Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB), a Peer Review Team was established to review the status of development of the risk-based explosives safety siting process and criteria as currently implemented in the software 'Safety Assessment for Explosive Risk (SAFER)' Version 2.1. The objective of the Peer Review Team was to provide an independent evaluation of the components of the SAFER model, the ongoing development of the model and the risk assessment process and criteria. This peer review report addressed procedures; protocols; physical and statistical science algorithms; related documents; and software quality assurance, validation and verification. Overall, the risk-based method in SAFER represents a major improvement in the Department of Defense (DoD) approach to explosives safety management. The DDESB and Risk Based Explosives Safety Criteria Team (RBESCT) have made major strides in developing a methodology, which over time may become a worldwide model. The current status of all key areas of the SAFER code has been logically developed and is defensible. Continued improvement and refinement can be expected as implementation proceeds. A consistent approach to addressing and refining uncertainty in each of the primary areas (probability of event, consequences of event and exposure) will be a very beneficial future activity.

  3. Risk assessment prioritization in the Office of Pipeline Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, G.J.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) of the Research and Special Programs Administration (RSPA), US Department of Transportation, is developing and implementing a process of Risk Assessment Prioritization (RAP). The objective of RAP is to use pipeline safety resources to yield the greatest improvement to pipeline safety and protection of the environment without unduly burdening industry, government, or the public. The RAP process involves extensive participation by stakeholders outside of OPS who have interests in pipeline safety and environmental protection. The process will be used to calculate a numeric value as the basis for prioritization of pipeline safety activity, whether by rulemaking or other alternatives, such as compliance emphasis, education, research, information dissemination, and interactive external relations. The RAP process will identify pipeline safety issues and their multiple solutions. A panel of experts will rate each solution for its effect on the probability and consequence of accident occurrence, and the cost to implement the solution. Using the ratings, OPS will calculate a risk reduction value for each solution. Resources will be assigned to implementing the solutions having the highest risk reduction values. OPS management will establish an action plan aimed at implementing solutions having the highest risk reduction value, while continuing action on those solutions mandated by law.

  4. PROFILE: Integrating Sustainability and Environmental Impact Assessment

    PubMed

    LAWRENCE

    1997-01-01

    / Environmental impact assessment (EIA) has been identified as an important instrument for facilitating sustainability. However, to do so requires the integration of sustainability into EIA theory and practice. The sustainability concept is a valid and important environmental management perspective. However, many issues and obstacles need to be addressed further if the concept is to be translated into practical strategies. Sustainability can potentially infuse EIA with a clearer sense of direction, an ethical foundation, a mechanism for establishing priorities and assessing choices, and a means of linking EIA to other environmental management instruments. Conceptually, EIA and sustainability can be integrated, but frameworks should be refined, adpated to context, and linked to related initiatives. Sustainability should be explicitly incorporated into EIA legislation, guidelines, and institutional arrangements. An experimental approach to testing, assessing, and sharing experiences is suggested.A framework is first presented that defines and characterizes the sustainability concept. A further framework is then described for integrating sustainability into EIA at the conceptual level. The integration of sustainability and EIA at the regulatory level is next addressed through an overview of sustainability initiatives in EIA requirements in Canada. The Canadian examples include many promising initiatives but these and other experiences will need to be monitored, shared, and integrated into comprehensive environmental management strategies. Finally, means of incorporating sustainability into each activity in the EIA planning process are identified.KEY WORDS: Sustainability; Environmental impact assessment

  5. Validity of instruments to assess students' travel and pedestrian safety

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Safe Routes to School (SRTS) programs are designed to make walking and bicycling to school safe and accessible for children. Despite their growing popularity, few validated measures exist for assessing important outcomes such as type of student transport or pedestrian safety behaviors. This research validated the SRTS school travel survey and a pedestrian safety behavior checklist. Methods Fourth grade students completed a brief written survey on how they got to school that day with set responses. Test-retest reliability was obtained 3-4 hours apart. Convergent validity of the SRTS travel survey was assessed by comparison to parents' report. For the measure of pedestrian safety behavior, 10 research assistants observed 29 students at a school intersection for completion of 8 selected pedestrian safety behaviors. Reliability was determined in two ways: correlations between the research assistants' ratings to that of the Principal Investigator (PI) and intraclass correlations (ICC) across research assistant ratings. Results The SRTS travel survey had high test-retest reliability (κ = 0.97, n = 96, p < 0.001) and convergent validity (κ = 0.87, n = 81, p < 0.001). The pedestrian safety behavior checklist had moderate reliability across research assistants' ratings (ICC = 0.48) and moderate correlation with the PI (r = 0.55, p =< 0.01). When two raters simultaneously used the instrument, the ICC increased to 0.65. Overall percent agreement (91%), sensitivity (85%) and specificity (83%) were acceptable. Conclusions These validated instruments can be used to assess SRTS programs. The pedestrian safety behavior checklist may benefit from further formative work. PMID:20482778

  6. Integrated Safety Management System Phase I Verification for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) [VOL 1 & 2

    SciTech Connect

    SETH, S.S.

    2000-01-10

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Policy 450.4, Safety Management System Policy commits to institutionalizing an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) throughout the DOE complex as a means of accomplishing its missions safely. DOE Acquisition Regulation 970.5204-2 requires that contractors manage and perform work in accordance with a documented safety management system.

  7. An integrated safety analysis of intravenous ibuprofen (Caldolor®) in adults

    PubMed Central

    Southworth, Stephen R; Woodward, Emily J; Peng, Alex; Rock, Amy D

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous (IV) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as IV ibuprofen are increasingly used as a component of multimodal pain management in the inpatient and outpatient settings. The safety of IV ibuprofen as assessed in ten sponsored clinical studies is presented in this analysis. Overall, 1,752 adult patients have been included in safety and efficacy trials over 11 years; 1,220 of these patients have received IV ibuprofen and 532 received either placebo or comparator medication. The incidence of adverse events (AEs), serious AEs, and changes in vital signs and clinically significant laboratory parameters have been summarized and compared to patients receiving placebo or active comparator drug. Overall, IV ibuprofen has been well tolerated by hospitalized and outpatient patients when administered both prior to surgery and postoperatively as well as for nonsurgical pain or fever. The overall incidence of AEs is lower in patients receiving IV ibuprofen as compared to those receiving placebo in this integrated analysis. Specific analysis of hematological and renal effects showed no increased risk for patients receiving IV ibuprofen. A subset analysis of elderly patients suggests that no dose adjustment is needed in this higher risk population. This integrated safety analysis demonstrates that IV ibuprofen can be safely administered prior to surgery and continued in the postoperative period as a component of multimodal pain management. PMID:26604816

  8. Framework for Integrating Safety, Operations, Security, and Safeguards in the Design and Operation of Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Darby, John L.; Horak, Karl Emanuel; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Tolk, Keith Michael; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne

    2007-10-01

    The US is currently on the brink of a nuclear renaissance that will result in near-term construction of new nuclear power plants. In addition, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) ambitious new Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program includes facilities for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and reactors for transmuting safeguards material. The use of nuclear power and material has inherent safety, security, and safeguards (SSS) concerns that can impact the operation of the facilities. Recent concern over terrorist attacks and nuclear proliferation led to an increased emphasis on security and safeguard issues as well as the more traditional safety emphasis. To meet both domestic and international requirements, nuclear facilities include specific SSS measures that are identified and evaluated through the use of detailed analysis techniques. In the past, these individual assessments have not been integrated, which led to inefficient and costly design and operational requirements. This report provides a framework for a new paradigm where safety, operations, security, and safeguards (SOSS) are integrated into the design and operation of a new facility to decrease cost and increase effectiveness. Although the focus of this framework is on new nuclear facilities, most of the concepts could be applied to any new, high-risk facility.

  9. Safety Assessment of Dimethicone Crosspolymers as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 62 dimethicone crosspolymer ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as absorbents, bulking agents, film formers, hair-conditioning agents, emollient skin-conditioning agents, slip modifiers, surface modifiers, and nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data related to these polymers and addressed the issue of residual monomers. The Panel concluded that these dimethicone crosspolymer ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  10. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    SciTech Connect

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-02-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable.

  11. Safety Assessment of Alkyl Ethylhexanoates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 16 alkyl ethylhexanoates for use in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentrations when formulated to be nonirritating. The alkyl ethylhexanoates primarily function as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetics. The highest concentration of use reported for any of the alkyl ethylhexanoates is 77.3% cetyl ethylhexanoate in rinse-off formulations used near the eye, and the highest leave-on use reported is 52% cetyl ethylhexanoate in lipstick formulations. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data related to these ingredients, and the similarities in structure, properties, functions, and uses of ingredients from previous CIR assessments on constituent alcohols that allowed for extrapolation of the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group.

  12. Mobile augmented reality in support of building damage and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Kerle, N.; Gerke, M.

    2016-02-01

    Rapid and accurate assessment of the state of buildings in the aftermath of a disaster event is critical for an effective and timely response. For rapid damage assessment of buildings, the utility of remote sensing (RS) technology has been widely researched, with focus on a range of platforms and sensors. However, RS-based approaches still have limitations to assess structural integrity and the specific damage status of individual buildings. Structural integrity refers to the ability of a building to hold the entire structure. Consequently, ground-based assessment conducted by structural engineers and first responders is still required. This paper demonstrates the concept of mobile augmented reality (mAR) to improve performance of building damage and safety assessment in situ. Mobile AR provides a means to superimpose various types of reference or pre-disaster information (virtual data) on actual post-disaster building data (real buildings). To adopt mobile AR, this study defines a conceptual framework based on the level of complexity (LOC). The framework consists of four LOCs, and for each of these, the data types, required processing steps, AR implementation and use for damage assessment are described. Based on this conceptualization we demonstrate prototypes of mAR for both indoor and outdoor purposes. Finally, we conduct a user evaluation of the prototypes to validate the mAR approach for building damage and safety assessment.

  13. System Safety Hazards Assessment in Conceptual Program Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eben, Dennis M.; Saemisch, Michael K.

    2003-01-01

    Providing a program in the concept development phase with a method of determining system safety benefits of potential concepts has always been a challenge. Lockheed Martin Space and Strategic Missiles has developed a methodology for developing a relative system safety ranking using the potential hazards of each concept. The resulting output supports program decisions with system safety as an evaluation criterion with supporting data for evaluation. This approach begins with a generic hazards list that has been tailored for the program being studied and augmented with an initial hazard analysis. Each proposed concept is assessed against the list of program hazards and ranked in three derived areas. The hazards can be weighted to show those that are of more concern to the program. Sensitivities can be also be determined to test the robustness of the conclusions

  14. The use of integrated management systems assessments for continuous improvement of EHS programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, T.L.; Frew, J.; Hammond, D.R.; Rafn, C.L.S.

    1996-12-31

    Texaco`s Tartan Platform located in the British North Sea and the onshore support organization located in Aberdeen provide a case study illustrating how environment, health and safety (EHS) management systems assessments can provide an effective mechanism for continuous improvement of EHS programs. A baseline health and safety assessment of Tartan evaluated the degree of management control in place in 1992. A three-year improvement plan was prepared and implemented using the assessment format as a structure. In 1995, Texaco developed an integrated EHS management systems assessment (EHS MSA) program and conducted an environment, health and safety assessment of Tartan. The EHS MSA results documented the efforts made in the management of health and safety issues since 1992 and form the basis for ongoing improvement efforts that include environmental issues. A discussion of how the MSA methodology addresses the emerging ISO 14001 standard concludes the paper.

  15. Hanford patrol firing range complex safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    BENDIXSEN, R.B.

    2001-09-19

    The Hanford Patrol conducts firearms training at the Hanford Patrol Training Academy located on the Hanford Site. The firearms safety training program is a requirement mandated by DOE 0 440.1A. The Order has been issued to provide standards and procedures for the safe use of firearms by DOE and contractor personnel involved in performing DOE activities at DOE installations. Additionally, DOE 0 440.1A requires that a safety analysis be prepared on the facilities and the operations of each live-fire range. Armed protective forces are required at those DOE Security areas that represent a target for radiological or toxicological sabotage (DOE Order 473.2, Protective Force Program). Hanford Patrol personnel are required to be proficient in the basic tactics necessary to engage and neutralize armed adversaries (DOE Manual 473.2-2). In particular, Special Response Teams (SRTs) must be able to operate as mobile, disciplined response teams in order to engage and defeat adversaries with advanced capabilities. The TTF will provide the necessary facilities to support this mandated training and periodic requalification of Security Police Officer III personnel onsite, reducing the costs associated with frequent travel to an offsite facility. The TTF is designed to simulate the structure of a facility or office building. The facility will be used by selected personnel in safely developing and maintaining precision shooting and tactical movement skills through the firing of live ammunition within a discriminatory target environment. This assessment is qualitative and focuses on the established controls that ensure the safe operation of the TTF. These controls include (1) design features of the TTF; (2 ) policies; (3) procedures; (4) training, qualification, and certification requirements; and (5) management oversight. This qualitative approach is consistent with safety analyses conducted for similar facilities at the DOE Central Training Academy (Kolman 1989, A Selective Safety

  16. Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the 2015 Preamble Report The Preamble to the Integrated Science Assessments, or "Preamble", is an overview document o...

  17. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26690169

  18. Portable Nanoparticle-Based Sensors for Food Safety Assessment.

    PubMed

    Bülbül, Gonca; Hayat, Akhtar; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-12-05

    The use of nanotechnology-derived products in the development of sensors and analytical measurement methodologies has increased significantly over the past decade. Nano-based sensing approaches include the use of nanoparticles (NPs) and nanostructures to enhance sensitivity and selectivity, design new detection schemes, improve sample preparation and increase portability. This review summarizes recent advancements in the design and development of NP-based sensors for assessing food safety. The most common types of NPs used to fabricate sensors for detection of food contaminants are discussed. Selected examples of NP-based detection schemes with colorimetric and electrochemical detection are provided with focus on sensors for the detection of chemical and biological contaminants including pesticides, heavy metals, bacterial pathogens and natural toxins. Current trends in the development of low-cost portable NP-based technology for rapid assessment of food safety as well as challenges for practical implementation and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Development of Risk Assessment Matrix for NASA Engineering and Safety Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.; Moses, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a study, which had as its principal goal the development of a sufficiently detailed 5 x 5 Risk Matrix Scorecard. The purpose of this scorecard is to outline the criteria by which technical issues can be qualitatively and initially prioritized. The tool using this score card has been proposed to be one of the information resources the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) takes into consideration when making decisions with respect to incoming information on safety concerns across the entire NASA agency. The contents of this paper discuss in detail each element of the risk matrix scorecard, definitions for those elements and the rationale behind the development of those definitions. This scorecard development was performed in parallel with the tailoring of the existing Futron Corporation Integrated Risk Management Application (IRMA) software tool. IRMA was tailored to fit NESC needs for evaluating incoming safety concerns and was renamed NESC Assessment Risk Management Application (NAFMA) which is still in developmental phase.

  20. Real-time safety risk assessment based on a real-time location system for hydropower construction sites.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hanchen; Lin, Peng; Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns.

  1. Real-Time Safety Risk Assessment Based on a Real-Time Location System for Hydropower Construction Sites

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qixiang; Qiang, Maoshan

    2014-01-01

    The concern for workers' safety in construction industry is reflected in many studies focusing on static safety risk identification and assessment. However, studies on real-time safety risk assessment aimed at reducing uncertainty and supporting quick response are rare. A method for real-time safety risk assessment (RTSRA) to implement a dynamic evaluation of worker safety states on construction site has been proposed in this paper. The method provides construction managers who are in charge of safety with more abundant information to reduce the uncertainty of the site. A quantitative calculation formula, integrating the influence of static and dynamic hazards and that of safety supervisors, is established to link the safety risk of workers with the locations of on-site assets. By employing the hidden Markov model (HMM), the RTSRA provides a mechanism for processing location data provided by the real-time location system (RTLS) and analyzing the probability distributions of different states in terms of false positives and negatives. Simulation analysis demonstrated the logic of the proposed method and how it works. Application case shows that the proposed RTSRA is both feasible and effective in managing construction project safety concerns. PMID:25114958

  2. CP-50 calibration facility radiological safety assessment document

    SciTech Connect

    Chilton, M.W.; Hill, R.L.; Eubank, B.F.

    1980-03-01

    The CP-50 Calibration Facility Radiological Safety Assessment document, prepared at the request of the Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy to satisfy provisions of ERDA Manual Chapter 0531, presents design features, systems controls, and procedures used in the operation of the calibration facility. Site and facility characteristics and routine and non-routine operations, including hypothetical incidents or accidents are discussed and design factors, source control systems, and radiation monitoring considerations are described.

  3. 2010 Final Assessment: Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this document i...

  4. Safety and immunotoxicity assessment of immunomodulatory monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Laura Dill; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Kiessling, Andrea; Allenspach, Roy; Hey, Adam; Muller, Patrick Y; Frings, Werner; Sims, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Most therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) licensed for human use or in clinical development are indicated for treatment of patients with cancer and inflammatory/autoimmune disease and as such, are designed to directly interact with the immune system. A major hurdle for the development and early clinical investigation of many of these immunomodulatory mAbs is their inherent risk for adverse immune-mediated drug reactions in humans such as infusion reactions, cytokine storms, immunosuppression and autoimmunity. A thorough understanding of the immunopharmacology of a mAb in humans and animals is required to both anticipate the clinical risk of adverse immunotoxicological events and to select a safe starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) clinical studies. This review summarizes the most common adverse immunotoxicological events occurring in humans with immunomodulatory mAbs and outlines non-clinical strategies to define their immunopharmacology and assess their immunotoxic potential, as well as reduce the risk of immunotoxicity through rational mAb design. Tests to assess the relative risk of mAb candidates for cytokine release syndrome, innate immune system (dendritic cell) activation and immunogenicity in humans are also described. The importance of selecting a relevant and sensitive toxicity species for human safety assessment in which the immunopharmacology of the mAb is similar to that expected in humans is highlighted, as is the importance of understanding the limitations of the species selected for human safety assessment and supplementation of in vivo safety assessment with appropriate in vitro human assays. A tiered approach to assess effects on immune status, immune function and risk of infection and cancer, governed by the mechanism of action and structural features of the mAb, is described. Finally, the use of immunopharmacology and immunotoxicity data in determining a minimum anticipated biologic effect Level (MABEL) and in the selection of safe human

  5. 49 CFR 192.937 - What is a continual process of evaluation and assessment to maintain a pipeline's integrity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.937 What is a..., or stress corrosion cracking. An operator must conduct the direct assessment in accordance with...

  6. Safety assessment for hair-spray resins: risk assessment based on rodent inhalation studies.

    PubMed

    Carthew, Philip; Griffiths, Heather; Keech, Stephen; Hartop, Peter

    2002-04-01

    The methods involved in the safety assessment of resins used in hair-spray products have received little peer review, or debate in the published literature, despite their widespread use, in both hairdressing salons and the home. The safety assessment for these resins currently involves determining the type of lung pathology that can be caused in animal inhalation exposure studies, and establishing the no-observable-effect level (NOEL) for these pathologies. The likely human consumer exposure is determined by techniques that model the simulated exposure under "in use" conditions. From these values it is then possible to derive the likely safety factors for human exposure. An important part of this process would be to recognize the intrinsic differences between rodents and humans in terms of the respiratory doses that each species experiences during inhalation exposures, for the purpose of the safety assessment. Interspecies scaling factors become necessary when comparing the exposure doses experienced by rats, compared to humans, because of basic differences between species in lung clearance rates and the alveolar area in the lungs. The rodent inhalation data and modeled human exposure to Resin 6965, a resin polymer that is based on vinyl acetate, has been used to calculate the safety factor for human consumer exposure to this resin, under a range of "in use" exposure conditions. The use of this safety assessment process clearly demonstrates that Resin 6965 is acceptable for human consumer exposure under the conditions considered in this risk assessment.

  7. Worker health and safety training: assessing impact among responders.

    PubMed

    Weidner, B L; Gotsch, A R; Delnevo, C D; Newman, J B; McDonald, B

    1998-03-01

    A mail survey was conducted among emergency responders who received training at the New Jersey/New York Hazardous Materials Worker Training Center. Responses indicate that technical topics are extremely important (i.e., decontamination, personal protection); that the vast preponderance of trainees felt confident in their ability to recall specific critical concepts in a crisis; and that 42% of respondents (75) had experienced an incident that would have resulted in injury or death without training. Phone surveys for details of specific incidents reported by 43 of the 75 mail survey respondents revealed that anecdotal data provide powerful evidence of the value of training; that extensive and uniform training is needed across jurisdictions; that training should emphasize the technical aspects of health and safety, and should include demonstration and hands-on techniques; and that integrated organizational support for implementation of health and safety practices is critical.

  8. Assessment of cognitive safety in clinical drug development

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Jonathan P.; Nathan, Pradeep J.; Mander, Adrian P.; Adusei, Gabriel; Zavitz, Kenton H.; Blackwell, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognised as an important potential adverse effect of medication. However, many drug development programmes do not incorporate sensitive cognitive measurements. Here, we review the rationale for cognitive safety assessment, and explain several basic methodological principles for measuring cognition during clinical drug development, including study design and statistical analysis, from Phase I through to postmarketing. The crucial issue of how cognition should be assessed is emphasized, especially the sensitivity of measurement. We also consider how best to interpret the magnitude of any identified effects, including comparison with benchmarks. We conclude by discussing strategies for the effective communication of cognitive risks. PMID:26610416

  9. Post-earthquake building safety assessments for the Canterbury Earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, J.; Barnes, J.; Gould, N.; Jaiswal, K.; Lizundia, B.; Swanson, David A.; Turner, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the post-earthquake building assessment program that was utilized in Christchurch, New Zealand following the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes beginning with the Magnitude (Mw.) 7.1 Darfield event in September 2010. The aftershocks or triggered events, two of which exceeded Mw 6.0, continued with events in February and June 2011 causing the greatest amount of damage. More than 70,000 building safety assessments were completed following the February event. The timeline and assessment procedures will be discussed including the use of rapid response teams, selection of indicator buildings to monitor damage following aftershocks, risk assessments for demolition of red-tagged buildings, the use of task forces to address management of the heavily damaged downtown area and the process of demolition. Through the post-event safety assessment program that occurred throughout the Canterbury Sequence of earthquakes, many important lessons can be learned that will benefit future response to natural hazards that have potential to damage structures.

  10. Safety net integration: a shared strategy for becoming providers of choice.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Julia; Ko, Michelle; Kizer, Kenneth W; Bindman, Andrew B

    2015-04-01

    With the expansion of coverage as a result of federal health care reform, safety net providers are confronting a challenge to care for the underserved while also competing as a provider of choice for the newly insured. Safety net institutions may be able to achieve these goals by pursuing greater delivery system integration. We interviewed safety net hospital and community health center (CHCs) leaders in five US cities to determine what strategies these organizations are employing to promote care integration in the safety net. Although there is some experimentation with payment reform and health information exchange, safety net providers identify significant policy and structural barriers to integrating service delivery. The enhanced Medicaid payments for CHCs and the federal requirement that CHCs retain independent boards discourage these organizations from integrating with other safety net providers. Current policies are not mobilizing safety net providers to pursue integration as a way to deliver more efficient and effective care. Medicaid and other policies at the federal and state level could be revised to overcome known fragmentation in the health care safety net. This includes addressing the conflicts in financing and governance arrangements that are encouraging providers to resist integration to preserve their independence.

  11. Application of Framework for Integrating Safety, Security and Safeguards (3Ss) into the Design Of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Badwan, Faris M.; Demuth, Scott F

    2015-01-06

    Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Research and Development develops options to the current commercial fuel cycle management strategy to enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy while minimizing proliferation risks by conducting research and development focused on used nuclear fuel recycling and waste management to meet U.S. needs. Used nuclear fuel is currently stored onsite in either wet pools or in dry storage systems, with disposal envisioned in interim storage facility and, ultimately, in a deep-mined geologic repository. The safe management and disposition of used nuclear fuel and/or nuclear waste is a fundamental aspect of any nuclear fuel cycle. Integrating safety, security, and safeguards (3Ss) fully in the early stages of the design process for a new nuclear facility has the potential to effectively minimize safety, proliferation, and security risks. The 3Ss integration framework could become the new national and international norm and the standard process for designing future nuclear facilities. The purpose of this report is to develop a framework for integrating the safety, security and safeguards concept into the design of Used Nuclear Fuel Storage Facility (UNFSF). The primary focus is on integration of safeguards and security into the UNFSF based on the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approach to addressing the safety/security interface (10 CFR 73.58 and Regulatory Guide 5.73) for nuclear power plants. The methodology used for adaptation of the NRC safety/security interface will be used as the basis for development of the safeguards /security interface and later will be used as the basis for development of safety and safeguards interface. Then this will complete the integration cycle of safety, security, and safeguards. The overall methodology for integration of 3Ss will be proposed, but only the integration of safeguards and security will be applied to the design of the

  12. Curriculum: Integrating Health and Safety Into Engineering Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talty, John T.

    1985-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health instituted a project in 1980 to encourage engineering educators to focus on occupational safety and health issues in engineering curricula. Progress to date is outlined, considering specific results in curriculum development, engineering society interaction, and formation of a teaching…

  13. Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

    2012-08-01

    The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

  14. Radiation safety assessment of a system of small reactors for distributed energy.

    PubMed

    Odano, N; Ishida, T

    2005-01-01

    A passively safe small reactor for a distributed energy system, PSRD, is an integral type of light-water reactor with a thermal output of 100 or 300 MW aimed to be used for supplying district heat, electricity to small grids, and so on. Candidate locations for the PSRD as a distributed energy source are on-ground, deep underground, and in a seaside pit in the vicinity of the energy consumption area. Assessments of the radiation safety of a PSRD were carried out for three cases corresponding to normal operation, shutdown and a hypothetical postulated accident for several siting candidates. Results of the radiation safety assessment indicate that the PSRD design has sufficient shielding performance and capability and that the exposure to the general public is very low in the case of a hypothetical accident.

  15. ATD-1 Operational Integration Assessment Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzberger, Kevin E.; Sharma, Shivanjli; Martin, Lynn Hazel; Wynnyk, Mitch; McGarry, Katie

    2015-01-01

    The FAA and NASA conducted an Operational Integration Assessment (OIA) of a prototype Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (formerly TSS, now TSAS) system at the FAA's William J. Hughes Technical Center (WJHTC). The OIA took approximately one year to plan and execute, culminating in a formal data collection, referred to as the Run for Record, from May 12-21, 2015. This report presents quantitative and qualitative results from the Run for Record.

  16. Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach (CARMINA).

    PubMed

    Tricarico, Pierfrancesco; Tardivo, Stefano; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Moretti, Francesca; Poletti, Piera; Fiore, Alberto; Monturano, Massimo; Mura, Ida; Privitera, Gaetano; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-08-08

    Purpose - The European Union recommendations for patient safety calls for shared clinical risk management (CRM) safety standards able to guide organizations in CRM implementation. The purpose of this paper is to develop a self-evaluation tool to measure healthcare organization performance on CRM and guide improvements over time. Design/methodology/approach - A multi-step approach was implemented including: a systematic literature review; consensus meetings with an expert panel from eight Italian leader organizations to get to an agreement on the first version; field testing to test instrument feasibility and flexibility; Delphi strategy with a second expert panel for content validation and balanced scoring system development. Findings - The self-assessment tool - Clinical Assessment of Risk Management: an INtegrated Approach includes seven areas (governance, communication, knowledge and skills, safe environment, care processes, adverse event management, learning from experience) and 52 standards. Each standard is evaluated according to four performance levels: minimum; monitoring; outcomes; and improvement actions, which resulted in a feasible, flexible and valid instrument to be used throughout different organizations. Practical implications - This tool allows practitioners to assess their CRM activities compared to minimum levels, monitor performance, benchmarking with other institutions and spreading results to different stakeholders. Originality/value - The multi-step approach allowed us to identify core minimum CRM levels in a field where no consensus has been reached. Most standards may be easily adopted in other countries.

  17. An integrated approach to safety-driven and ICT-enabled process reengineering: methodological advice and a case study.

    PubMed

    Langer, M; Castellari, R; Locatelli, P; Sini, E; Torresani, M; Facchini, R; Moser, R

    2014-01-01

    Patient safety is a central concern inside any healthcare environment. With the progress of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), new solutions have become available to support care and management processes. Analyzing process risks helps identifying areas of improvement and provides ICT-solutions design with indications on what portions of the process need primary interventions. Understanding the link between process reengineering, technology assessment of enabling technologies and risk management allows user acceptance and patient safety improvements. Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (INT), offers a good example of process reengineering driven by the purpose of increasing patient safety, enabled by new technologies. A pillar of the evolution of ICT process support at INT is based on Radio Frequency Identification technologies, implemented to identify and trace items and people across processes. This paper will present an integrated approach, based on process reengineering methodologies and risk assessment studies, and methodological advice applied to a case of surgical kits management procedures.

  18. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for CO. The recently completed CO ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current CO NAAQS. The integrated Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (U.S. EPA, 2008, 193995) identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this assessment of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS for CO and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes, presents, and integrates the scientific evidence which is considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations to help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address these questions during the NAAQS review.

  19. Cyber/Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Clements, Samuel L.; Patrick, Scott W.; Perkins, Casey J.; Muller, George; Lancaster, Mary J.; Hutton, William J.

    2013-02-28

    Securing high value and critical assets is one of the biggest challenges facing this nation and others around the world. In modern integrated systems, there are four potential modes of attack available to an adversary: • physical only attack, • cyber only attack, • physical-enabled cyber attack, • cyber-enabled physical attack. Blended attacks involve an adversary working in one domain to reduce system effectiveness in another domain. This enables the attacker to penetrate further into the overall layered defenses. Existing vulnerability assessment (VA) processes and software tools which predict facility vulnerabilities typically evaluate the physical and cyber domains separately. Vulnerabilities which result from the integration of cyber-physical control systems are not well characterized and are often overlooked by existing assessment approaches. In this paper, we modified modification of the timely detection methodology, used for decades in physical security VAs, to include cyber components. The Physical and Cyber Risk Analysis Tool (PACRAT) prototype illustrates an integrated vulnerability assessment that includes cyber-physical interdependencies. Information about facility layout, network topology, and emplaced safeguards is used to evaluate how well suited a facility is to detect, delay, and respond to attacks, to identify the pathways most vulnerable to attack, and to evaluate how often safeguards are compromised for a given threat or adversary type. We have tested the PACRAT prototype on critical infrastructure facilities and the results are promising. Future work includes extending the model to prescribe the recommended security improvements via an automated cost-benefit analysis.

  20. Safety assessment in plant layout design using indexing approach: implementing inherent safety perspective. Part 2-Domino Hazard Index and case study.

    PubMed

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul; Cozzani, Valerio

    2008-12-15

    The design of layout plans requires adequate assessment tools for the quantification of safety performance. The general focus of the present work is to introduce an inherent safety perspective at different points of the layout design process. In particular, index approaches for safety assessment and decision-making in the early stages of layout design are developed and discussed in this two-part contribution. Part 1 (accompanying paper) of the current work presents an integrated index approach for safety assessment of early plant layout. In the present paper (Part 2), an index for evaluation of the hazard related to the potential of domino effects is developed. The index considers the actual consequences of possible escalation scenarios and scores or ranks the subsequent accident propagation potential. The effects of inherent and passive protection measures are also assessed. The result is a rapid quantification of domino hazard potential that can provide substantial support for choices in the early stages of layout design. Additionally, a case study concerning selection among various layout options is presented and analyzed. The case study demonstrates the use and applicability of the indices developed in both parts of the current work and highlights the value of introducing inherent safety features early in layout design.

  1. Fine-tuning Food Safety Objectives and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Havelaar, Arie H; Nauta, Maarten J; Jansen, Jaap T

    2004-05-15

    Food Safety Objectives (FSOs) have been proposed as a practical tool to translate public health targets for food safety into tolerable levels of pathogens in a food product. The FSO concept is subject to intensive debate, and has not been developed in detail. We evaluate the proposed definition of FSOs and their implementation from the perspective of Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). The relationship between QMRA and FSOs is illustrated by a model for the public health risk of Shiga-producing Escherichia coli in steak tartare. We conclude that the proposed definition of FSOs needs to be modified to properly account for variability in and uncertainty about the contamination of food with pathogenic microorganisms and emphasize that both prevalence and concentration of pathogens must be considered. For this purpose, we propose the P-D equivalence curve, a simple graphical tool to separate "tolerable" from "non-tolerable" combinations of prevalence and concentration (dose).

  2. Mobile Augmented Reality in support of building damage and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Kerle, N.; Gerke, M.

    2015-04-01

    Rapid and accurate assessment of the state of buildings in the aftermath of a disaster event is critical for an effective and timely response. For rapid damage assessment of buildings, the utility of remote sensing (RS) technology has been widely researched, with focus on a range of platforms and sensors. However, RS-based approach still have limitations to assess structural integrity and the specific damage status of individual buildings. Consequently, ground-based assessment conducted by structural engineers and first responders is still required. This paper demonstrates the concept of mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) to improve performance of building damage and safety assessment in situ. Mobile AR provides a means to superimpose various types of reference or pre-disaster information (virtual data) on actual post-disaster building data (real building). To adopt mobile AR, this study defines a conceptual framework based on Level of Complexity (LOC). The framework consists of four LOCs, and for each of these the data types, required processing steps, AR implementation, and use for damage assessment, are described. Based on this conceptualization we demonstrate prototypes of mAR for both indoor and outdoor purposes. Finally, we conduct a user evaluation of the prototypes to validate the mAR approach for building damage and safety assessment.

  3. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  4. Pain assessment scales in newborns: integrative review

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Gleicia Martins; Lélis, Ana Luíza Paula de Aguiar; de Moura, Alline Falconieri; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; da Silva, Viviane Martins

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze studies on methods used to assess pain in newborns. DATA SOURCES: Integrative review study of articles published from 2001 to 2012, carried out in the following databases: Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, LILACS and Cochrane. The sample consisted of 13 articles with level of evidence 5. DATA SYNTHESIS: 29 pain assessment scales in newborns, including 13 one-dimensional and 16 multidimensional, that assess acute and prolonged pain in preterm and full-term infants were available in scientific publications. CONCLUSION: Based on the characteristics of scales, one cannot choose a single one as the most appropriate scale, as this choice will depend on gestational age, type of painful stimulus and the environment in which the infant is inserted. It is suggested the use of multidimensional or one-dimensional scales; however, they must be reliable and validated. PMID:25511005

  5. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kleter, Gijs A; Noteborn, Hub P J M; Kok, Esther J

    2002-12-27

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism.

  6. Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Report, Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Chernowski, John

    2009-02-27

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program ensures that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contract Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The functions of the program are to ensure that work is conducted safely, and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. The Self-Assessment Program is also the mechanism used to institute continuous improvements to the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The program is described in LBNL/PUB 5344, Environment, Safety, and Health Self-Assessment Program and is composed of four distinct assessments: the Division Self-Assessment, the Management of Environment, Safety, and Health (MESH) review, ES&H Technical Assurance, and the Appendix B Self-Assessment. The Division Self-Assessment uses the five core functions and seven guiding principles of ISM as the basis of evaluation. Metrics are created to measure performance in fulfilling ISM core functions and guiding principles, as well as promoting compliance with applicable regulations. The five core functions of ISM are as follows: (1) Define the Scope of Work; (2) Identify and Analyze Hazards; (3) Control the Hazards; (4) Perform the Work; and (5) Feedback and Improvement. The seven guiding principles of ISM are as follows: (1) Line Management Responsibility for ES&H; (2) Clear Roles and Responsibilities; (3) Competence Commensurate with Responsibilities; (4) Balanced Priorities; (5) Identification of ES&H Standards and Requirements; (6) Hazard Controls Tailored to the Work Performed; and (7) Operations Authorization. Performance indicators are developed by consensus with OCA, representatives from each division, and Environment, Health, and Safety (EH&S) Division program managers. Line management of each division performs the Division Self-Assessment

  7. Integrated Technology Assessment Center (ITAC) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. L.; Neely, M. A.; Curran, F. M.; Christensen, E. R.; Escher, D.; Lovell, N.; Morris, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Integrated Technology Assessment Center (ITAC) has developed a flexible systems analysis framework to identify long-term technology needs, quantify payoffs for technology investments, and assess the progress of ASTP-sponsored technology programs in the hypersonics area. For this, ITAC has assembled an experienced team representing a broad sector of the aerospace community and developed a systematic assessment process complete with supporting tools. Concepts for transportation systems are selected based on relevance to the ASTP and integrated concept models (ICM) of these concepts are developed. Key technologies of interest are identified and projections are made of their characteristics with respect to their impacts on key aspects of the specific concepts of interest. Both the models and technology projections are then fed into the ITAC's probabilistic systems analysis framework in ModelCenter. This framework permits rapid sensitivity analysis, single point design assessment, and a full probabilistic assessment of each concept with respect to both embedded and enhancing technologies. Probabilistic outputs are weighed against metrics of interest to ASTP using a multivariate decision making process to provide inputs for technology prioritization within the ASTP. ITAC program is currently finishing the assessment of a two-stage-to-orbit (TSTO), rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) concept and a TSTO turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) concept developed by the team with inputs from NASA. A baseline all rocket TSTO concept is also being developed for comparison. Boeing has recently submitted a performance model for their Flexible Aerospace System Solution for Tomorrow (FASST) concept and the ISAT program will provide inputs for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) TBCC based concept in the near-term. Both of these latter concepts will be analyzed within the ITAC framework over the summer. This paper provides a status update of the ITAC program.

  8. Priority ranking of safety-related systems for structural enhancement assessment at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, G.C.; Daugherty, W.L.; Barnes, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    In order to extend the service life of safety related structures and systems in a logical manner, a Structural Enhancement Program was initiated to evaluate the structural integrity of eight (8) systems, namely: Cooling Water System, Emergency Cooling System, Moderator Recovery System supplementary Safety System, Water Removal System, Service Raw Water System, Service Clarified Water System, and River Water System. Since the level of importance of each system to reactor operations varies from one system to another, the scope of structural integrity evaluation for each system should be prioritized accordingly. This paper presents the assessment of system priority for structural evaluation based on a ranking methodology and specifies the level of structural evaluation consistent with the established priority. The effort was undertaken by a five-member panel representing four (4) major disciplines, including. structures, reactor engineering/operations, risk management and materials. The above systems were divided into a total of thirty-five (35) subsystem. These subsystems were then ranked with six (6) attributes, namely: Safety Classification, Degradation Mechanisms, Difficulty of Replacement, Failure Mode, Radiation Dose to Workers and Consequence of Failure. Each attribute was assigned a set of consequences or events with corresponding weighting scores. The results of the ranking process yielded two groups of subsystems, categorized as Priority I and II subsystems. The level of structural assessment was then formulated accordingly. The prioritized approach will allow more efficient allocation of resources, so that the Structural Enhancement Program can be implemented in a cost-effective and efficient manner.

  9. Environment, Safety and Health Self-Assessment Report Fiscal Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Scott

    2011-03-23

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program was established to ensure that Integrated Safety Management (ISM) is implemented institutionally and by all divisions. The ES&H Self-Assessment Program, managed by the Office of Contractor Assurance (OCA), provides for an internal evaluation of all ES&H programs and systems at LBNL. The primary objective of the program is to ensure that work is conducted safely and with minimal negative impact to workers, the public, and the environment. Self-assessment follows the five core functions and guiding principles of ISM. Self-assessment is the mechanism used to promote the continuous improvement of the Laboratory's ES&H programs. The process is described in the Environment, Safety, and Health Assurance Plan (PUB-5344) and is composed of three types of self-assessments: Division ES&H Self-Assessment, ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment, and Division ES&H Peer Review. The Division ES&H Self-Assessment Manual (PUB-3105) provides the framework by which divisions conduct formal ES&H self-assessments to systematically identify program deficiencies. Issue-specific assessments are designed and implemented by the divisions and focus on areas of interest to division management. They may be conducted by teams and involve advance planning to ensure that appropriate resources are available. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Manual (PUB-913E) provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs and processes. The ES&H Technical Assurance Program Assessment is designed to evaluate whether ES&H programs and processes are compliant with guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented by LBNL divisions. The Division ES&H Peer Review Manual provides the framework by which division ISM systems are evaluated and improved. Peer Reviews are conducted by teams under the direction of senior division management and focus on higher-level management

  10. Quantitative assessment of building fire risk to life safety.

    PubMed

    Guanquan, Chu; Jinhua, Sun

    2008-06-01

    This article presents a quantitative risk assessment framework for evaluating fire risk to life safety. Fire risk is divided into two parts: probability and corresponding consequence of every fire scenario. The time-dependent event tree technique is used to analyze probable fire scenarios based on the effect of fire protection systems on fire spread and smoke movement. To obtain the variation of occurrence probability with time, Markov chain is combined with a time-dependent event tree for stochastic analysis on the occurrence probability of fire scenarios. To obtain consequences of every fire scenario, some uncertainties are considered in the risk analysis process. When calculating the onset time to untenable conditions, a range of fires are designed based on different fire growth rates, after which uncertainty of onset time to untenable conditions can be characterized by probability distribution. When calculating occupant evacuation time, occupant premovement time is considered as a probability distribution. Consequences of a fire scenario can be evaluated according to probability distribution of evacuation time and onset time of untenable conditions. Then, fire risk to life safety can be evaluated based on occurrence probability and consequences of every fire scenario. To express the risk assessment method in detail, a commercial building is presented as a case study. A discussion compares the assessment result of the case study with fire statistics.

  11. Assessing community child passenger safety efforts in three Northwest Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M; Berger, L

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To identify strengths and weaknesses in community based child passenger safety programs by developing a scoring instrument and conducting observations of child restraint use in three Native American communities. Setting: The three communities are autonomous Tribal reservations in the Pacific Northwest. Their per capita incomes and rates of unemployment are comparable. Methods: In each community, 100 children under 5 years old were observed for car seat use. A six item community assessment tool (100 points maximum) awarded points for such items as the type (primary or secondary) and enforcement of child restraint laws; availability of car seats from distribution programs; extent of educational programs; and access to data on vehicle injuries. Results: For children from birth to 4 years, the car seat use rate ranged from 12%–21%. Rates for infants (71%–80%) far exceeded rates for 1–4 year old children (5%–14%). Community scores ranged from 0 to 31.5 points. There was no correlation between scores and observed car seat use. One reason was the total lack of enforcement of restraint laws. Conclusions: A community assessment tool can highlight weaknesses in child passenger efforts. Linking such a tool with an objective measure of impact can be applied to other injury problems, such as fire safety or domestic violence. The very process of creating and implementing a community assessment can enhance agency collaboration and publicize evidence based "best practices" for injury prevention. Further study is needed to address methodologic issues and to examine crash and medical data in relation to community child passenger safety scores. PMID:12460964

  12. Safety Assessment of Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Yoshinobu; Takada, Satomi; Murata, Kosei; Ozawa, Daisaku; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Nakamura, Yasuhiro

    2010-09-01

    We are reporting summary of preliminary safety assessment for Multi Purpose Small Payload Rack(MSPR), which is one of the micro gravity experiment facilities that are being developed for the 2nd phase JEM utilization(JEM: Japanese Experiment Module) that will be launched on H-II Transfer Vehicle(HTV) 2nd flight in 2011. MSPR is used for multi-purpose micro-g experiment providing experimental spaces and work stations. MSPR has three experimental spaces; first, there is a space called Work Volume(WV) with capacity volume of approximately 350 litters, in which multiple resources including electricity, communication, and moving image functions can be used. Within this space, installation of devices can be done by simple, prompt attachment by Velcro and pins with high degree of flexibility. Second, there is Small Experiment Area(SEA), with capacity volume of approximately 70 litters, in which electricity, communication, and moving image functions can also be used in the same way as WV. These spaces protect experiment devices and specimens from contingent loads by the crewmembers. Third, there is Work Bench with area of 0.5 square meters, on which can be used for maintenance, inspection and data operations of installed devices, etc. This bench can be stored in the rack during contingency. Chamber for Combustion Experiment(CCE) that is planned to be installed in WV is a pressure-resistant experimental container that can be used to seal hazardous materials from combustion experiments. This CCE has double sealing design in chamber itself, which resist gas leakage under normal the temperature and pressure. Electricity, communication, moving image function can be used in the same way as WV. JAXA Phase 2 Safety Review Panel(SRP) has been held in April, 2010. For safety analysis of MSPR, hazards were identified based on Fault Tree Analysis methodology and then these hazards were classified into either eight ISS standard-type hazards or eight unique-type hazards that requires

  13. Integrated safety of levodopa‐carbidopa intestinal gel from prospective clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Ramon L.; Boyd, James T.; Chouinard, Sylvain; Zadikoff, Cindy; Espay, Alberto J.; Slevin, John T.; Fernandez, Hubert H.; Lew, Mark F.; Stein, David A.; Odin, Per; Fung, Victor S.C.; Klostermann, Fabian; Fasano, Alfonso; Draganov, Peter V.; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Robieson, Weining Z.; Eaton, Susan; Chatamra, Krai; Benesh, Janet A.; Dubow, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Continuous administration of levodopa‐carbidopa intestinal gel (carbidopa‐levodopa enteral suspension) through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy is a treatment option for advanced Parkinson disease (PD) patients with motor fluctuations resistant to standard oral medications. Safety data from 4 prospective studies were integrated to assess the safety of this therapy. Methods Safety data from 4 studies were summarized using 2 overlapping data sets, permitting the separation of procedure/device–associated (n = 395) from non‐procedure/device adverse events (n = 412). Results At the data cutoff, median exposure to levodopa‐carbidopa intestinal gel was 911 days (range, 1‐1980 days) with 963 total patient‐years of exposure. Procedure/device adverse events occurred in 300 patients (76%), and serious adverse events occurred in 68 (17%); most frequently reported procedure/device adverse events and serious adverse events were complications of device insertion (41% and 8%, respectively) and abdominal pain (36% and 4%, respectively). Non‐procedure/device adverse events occurred in 92% (379), with most frequently reported being insomnia (23%) and falls (23%); 42% (171) had non‐procedure/device serious adverse events, with most frequently reported being pneumonia (5%) and PD symptoms (2%). Adverse events led to discontinuation in 17% (72), most frequently because of complication of device insertion (2.4%). There were 34 treatment‐emergent deaths (8.3%) in the overlapping data sets, 2 of which (0.5%) were considered “possibly related” to the treatment system. Conclusion In the largest collection of levodopa‐carbidopa intestinal gel safety data from prospective clinical studies, procedure/device events were frequently reported and occasionally life threatening. Most non‐procedure/device events were typical for levodopa treatment and an elderly population. These factors combined with high treatment efficacy led to a

  14. Safety assessment document for the dynamic test complex (Building 836)

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-11-24

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 836 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (H) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire.

  15. 75 FR 12123 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Standards; Side Impact Protection; Fuel System Integrity; Electric-Powered Vehicles: Electrolyte Spillage and Electrical Shock Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA.... (Toyota), American Honda Motor Co., Inc. (Honda), Nissan North America, Inc. (Nissan), Porsche Cars...

  16. Integrated care: an Information Model for Patient Safety and Vigilance Reporting Systems.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Souvignet, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Quality management information systems for safety as a whole or for specific vigilances share the same information types but are not interoperable. An international initiative tries to develop an integrated information model for patient safety and vigilance reporting to support a global approach of heath care quality.

  17. Integration of Behaviour-Based Safety Programme into Engineering Laboratories and Workshops Conceptually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Kean Eng; Zain, Ahmad Nurulazam Md; Zainal, Siti Rohaida Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual research framework is to develop and integrate a safety training model using a behaviour-based safety training programme into laboratories for young adults, during their tertiary education, particularly in technical and vocational education. Hence, this research will be investigating the outcome of basic safety…

  18. Use of the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool (HSSAT) within Community Health Education to Improve Home Safety.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Beverly P; Almonte, Tiffany; Vasil, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    This exploratory research examined the benefits of a health education program utilizing the Home Safety Self-Assessment Tool (HSSAT) to increase perceived knowledge of home safety, recognition of unsafe activities, ability to safely perform activities, and develop home safety plans of 47 older adults. Focus groups in two senior centers explored social workers' perspectives on use of the HSSAT in community practice. Results for the health education program found significant differences between reported knowledge of home safety (p = .02), ability to recognize unsafe activities (p = .01), safely perform activities (p = .04), and develop a safety plan (p = .002). Social workers identified home safety as a major concern and the HSSAT a promising assessment tool. Research has implications for reducing environmental fall risks.

  19. Technology assessment in Catalonia: integrating economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Granados, A; Borràs, J M

    1994-06-01

    A brief description of the evolution and role of the Catalan Office for Health Technology Assessment (COHTA) into the framework of the Catalan Health Care Service are presented. Methodological approaches used by COHTA range from synthesis of scientific evidence to the collection of primary data. Regarding the integration of economic appraisal into technology assessment, the main approaches are the following: integration into clinical trials funded by the COHTA and in the reimbursement policies of the Catalan Health Service. COHTA participates in the process of purchasing medical technologies, especially expensive ones, and in the establishment of reimbursement policies of medical technologies. The particular characteristics of COHTA as a regional agency for Technology Assessment and its position into the framework of the Department of Health are discussed. Among the advantages of this position are the knowledge of the relevant questions for policy makers and the potential influence in the process. Among the disadvantages are the possibility of losing autonomy. Regional agencies that are closely related to the regional health services could provide a better understanding of the real problems in clinical practice and in the utilization of health technologies.

  20. Advancing human health risk assessment: Integrating recent advisory committee recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Richard A.; Haber, Lynne T.; Pottenger, Lynn H.; Bredfeldt, Tiffany; Fenner-Crisp, Penelope A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last dozen years, many national and international expert groups have considered specific improvements to risk assessment. Many of their stated recommendations are mutually supportive, but others appear conflicting, at least in an initial assessment. This review identifies areas of consensus and difference and recommends a practical, biology-centric course forward, which includes: (1) incorporating a clear problem formulation at the outset of the assessment with a level of complexity that is appropriate for informing the relevant risk management decision; (2) using toxicokinetics and toxicodynamic information to develop Chemical Specific Adjustment Factors (CSAF); (3) using mode of action (MOA) information and an understanding of the relevant biology as the key, central organizing principle for the risk assessment; (4) integrating MOA information into dose–response assessments using existing guidelines for non-cancer and cancer assessments; (5) using a tiered, iterative approach developed by the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety (WHO/IPCS) as a scientifically robust, fit-for-purpose approach for risk assessment of combined exposures (chemical mixtures); and (6) applying all of this knowledge to enable interpretation of human biomonitoring data in a risk context. While scientifically based defaults will remain important and useful when data on CSAF or MOA to refine an assessment are absent or insufficient, assessments should always strive to use these data. The use of available 21st century knowledge of biological processes, clinical findings, chemical interactions, and dose–response at the molecular, cellular, organ and organism levels will minimize the need for extrapolation and reliance on default approaches. PMID:23844697

  1. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. The Integrated Plan for Review of the NAAQS for CO {U.S. EPA, 2008 #8615} identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this review of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS, and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes and presents the scientific evidence such that it, when considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations, will help the EPA address these questions during the NAAQS review:

  2. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Second ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (Pb) has been made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA’s decision regarding whether the current standards for Pb sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Lead (Pb) is one of six principal (or criteria) pollutants for which EPA has established NAAQS

  3. INTEGRATION OF HEALTH AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT - CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATIONS AND IMPLEMENTATION NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The WHO International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), together with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has developed a framework for integrated assessment of human health and ecological risks. Four case stu...

  4. Integrating Health Information Technology Safety into Nursing Informatics Competencies.

    PubMed

    Borycki, Elizabeth M; Cummings, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre W; Saranto, Kaija

    2017-01-01

    Nursing informatics competencies are constantly changing in response to advances in the health information technology (HIT) industry and research emerging from the fields of nursing and health informatics. In this paper we build off the work of Staggers and colleagues in defining nursing informatics competencies at five levels: the beginning nurse, the experienced nurse, the nursing informatics specialist, the nursing informatics innovator and the nursing informatics researcher in the area of HIT safety. The work represents a significant contribution to the literature in the area of nursing informatics competency development as it extends nursing informatics competencies to include those focused on the area of technology-induced errors and HIT safety.

  5. Food Safety Practices Assessment Tool: An Innovative Way to Test Food Safety Skills among Individuals with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Elena T.; Scarpati, Stanley E.; Pivarnik, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an innovative assessment tool designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a food safety skills curriculum for learners receiving special education services. As schools respond to the increased demand for training students with special needs about food safety, the need for effective curricula and tools is also increasing. A…

  6. Stalking: A Multidimensional Framework for Assessment and Safety Planning.

    PubMed

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2015-09-03

    Despite the high prevalence of stalking and the risk of harm it poses to victims, arrest rates, prosecutions, and convictions for stalking continue to be low in the United States. The overall goal of this article is to introduce a multidimensional framework of stalking that adds to the current literature by (1) providing a conceptual framework consistent with legal elements of many stalking statutes to facilitate assessment, communication, documentation, and safety planning for stalking several victims; (2) introducing a more systematic way of assessing course of conduct and the context of fear in stalking situations in order to increase the understanding of cumulative fear for stalking victims; (3) emphasizing the aspects of stalking harm that go beyond violence and that show how harm from stalking accumulates over time including life sabotage; and (4) discussing 12 risk factors derived from the overall multidimensional framework that can be used to describe the big picture of stalking and to facilitate safety planning for victims. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. 78 FR 38318 - Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., ``Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075F). The document was prepared by the National... available on or around June 26, 2013. ADDRESSES: The ``Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' will be...

  8. 77 FR 5247 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., ``Second External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075B). The document... Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' will be available primarily via the Internet on...

  9. CYBER/PHYSICAL SECURITY VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT INTEGRATION

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Key, Brad; Clements, Samuel L.; Hutton, William J.; Craig, Philip A.; Patrick, Scott W.; Crawford, Cary E.

    2011-07-17

    This internally funded Laboratory-Directed R&D project by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in conjunction with QinetiQ North America, is intended to identify and properly assess areas of overlap (and interaction) in the vulnerability assessment process between cyber security and physical protection. Existing vulnerability analysis (VA) processes and software tools exist, and these are heavily utilized in the determination of predicted vulnerability within the physical and cyber security domains. These determinations are normally performed independently of one another, and only interact on a superficial level. Both physical and cyber security subject matter experts have come to realize that though the various interactive elements exist, they are not currently quantified in most periodic security assessments. This endeavor aims to evaluate both physical and cyber VA techniques and provide a strategic approach to integrate the interdependent relationships of each into a single VA capability. This effort will also transform the existing suite of software currently utilized in the physical protection world to more accurately quantify the risk associated with a blended attack scenario. Performance databases will be created to support the characterization of the cyber security elements, and roll them into prototype software tools. This new methodology and software capability will enable analysts to better identify and assess the overall risk during a vulnerability analysis.

  10. Development of a methodology for assessing the safety of embedded software systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, C. J.; Guarro, S. B.; Apostolakis, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    A Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) based on an integrated approach to modeling and analyzing the behavior of software-driven embedded systems for assessing and verifying reliability and safety is discussed. DFM is based on an extension of the Logic Flowgraph Methodology to incorporate state transition models. System models which express the logic of the system in terms of causal relationships between physical variables and temporal characteristics of software modules are analyzed to determine how a certain state can be reached. This is done by developing timed fault trees which take the form of logical combinations of static trees relating the system parameters at different point in time. The resulting information concerning the hardware and software states can be used to eliminate unsafe execution paths and identify testing criteria for safety critical software functions.

  11. RECENT ADDITIONS OF CRITICALITY SAFETY RELATED INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA TO THE ICSBEP AND IRPHEP HANDBOOKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Sartori

    2009-09-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Benchmark data have been added to these two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee (September 2005). This paper highlights these additions.

  12. Integration of functional safety systems on the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Timothy R.; Hubbard, Robert P.; Shimko, Steve

    2016-07-01

    The Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) was envisioned from an early stage to incorporate a functional safety system to ensure the safety of personnel and equipment within the facility. Early hazard analysis showed the need for a functional safety system. The design used a distributed approach in which each major subsystem contains a PLC-based safety controller. This PLC-based system complies with the latest international standards for functional safety. The use of a programmable controller also allows for flexibility to incorporate changes in the design of subsystems without adversely impacting safety. Various subsystems were built by different contractors and project partners but had to function as a piece of the overall control system. Using distributed controllers allows project contractors and partners to build components as standalone subsystems that then need to be integrated into the overall functional safety system. Recently factory testing was concluded on the major subsystems of the facility. Final integration of these subsystems is currently underway on the site. Building on lessons learned in early factory tests, changes to the interface between subsystems were made to improve the speed and ease of integration of the entire system. Because of the distributed design each subsystem can be brought online as it is delivered and assembled rather than waiting until the entire facility is finished. This enhances safety during the risky period of integration and testing. The DKIST has implemented a functional safety system that has allowed construction of subsystems in geographically diverse locations but that function cohesively once they are integrated into the facility currently under construction.

  13. An Integrated Intervention for Increasing Clinical Nurses' Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-Related Occupational Safety.

    PubMed

    He, Liping; Lu, Zhiyan; Huang, Jing; Zhou, Yiping; Huang, Jian; Bi, Yongyi; Li, Jun

    2016-11-07

    Background: Approximately 35 new HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV) cases and at least 1000 serious infections are transmitted annually to health care workers. In China, HIV prevalence is increasing and nursing personnel are encountering these individuals more than in the past. Contaminated needle-stick injuries represent a significant occupational burden for nurses. Evidence suggests that nurses in China may not fully understand HIV/AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and HIV-related occupational safety. At this time, universal protection precautions are not strictly implemented in Chinese hospitals. Lack of training may place nurses at risk for occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of integrated interventions on nurses' knowledge improvement about reducing the risk of occupationally acquired HIV infection. Methods: We audited integrated interventions using 300 questionnaires collected from nurses at the Affiliated Hospital of Xiangnan University, a public polyclinic in Hunan Province. The intervention studied was multifaceted and included appropriate and targeted training content for hospital, department and individual levels. After three months of occupational safety integrated interventions, 234 participants who completed the program were assessed. Results: Of the subjects studied, 94.3% (283/300) were injured one or more times by medical sharp instruments or splashed by body fluids in the last year and 95.3% considered their risk of occupational exposure high or very high. After the intervention, awareness of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge improved significantly (χ² = 86.34, p = 0.00), and correct answers increased from 67.9% to 82.34%. Correct answers regarding risk perception were significantly different between pre-test (54.4%) and post-test (66.6%) (χ² = 73.2, p = 0.00). When coming into contact with patient body fluids and blood only 24.0% of subjects used gloves regularly. The pre

  14. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2016-06-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  15. Mines Systems Safety Improvement Using an Integrated Event Tree and Fault Tree Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ranjan; Ghosh, Achyuta Krishna

    2017-04-01

    Mines systems such as ventilation system, strata support system, flame proof safety equipment, are exposed to dynamic operational conditions such as stress, humidity, dust, temperature, etc., and safety improvement of such systems can be done preferably during planning and design stage. However, the existing safety analysis methods do not handle the accident initiation and progression of mine systems explicitly. To bridge this gap, this paper presents an integrated Event Tree (ET) and Fault Tree (FT) approach for safety analysis and improvement of mine systems design. This approach includes ET and FT modeling coupled with redundancy allocation technique. In this method, a concept of top hazard probability is introduced for identifying system failure probability and redundancy is allocated to the system either at component or system level. A case study on mine methane explosion safety with two initiating events is performed. The results demonstrate that the presented method can reveal the accident scenarios and improve the safety of complex mine systems simultaneously.

  16. A Geospatial Mixed Methods Approach to Assessing Campus Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hites, Lisle S.; Fifolt, Matthew; Beck, Heidi; Su, Wei; Kerbawy, Shatomi; Wakelee, Jessica; Nassel, Ariann

    2013-01-01

    Background: While there is no panacea for alleviating campus safety concerns, safety experts agree that one of the key components to an effective campus security plan is monitoring the environment. Despite previous attempts to measure campus safety, quantifying perceptions of fear, safety, and risk remains a challenging issue. Since perceptions of…

  17. Occupational Therapy and Sensory Integration for Children with Autism: A Feasibility, Safety, Acceptability and Fidelity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Roseann C.; Benevides, Teal W.; Kelly, Donna; Mailloux-Maggio, Zoe

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the feasibility, safety, and acceptability of a manualized protocol of occupational therapy using sensory integration principles for children with autism. Methods: Ten children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder ages 4-8 years received intensive occupational therapy intervention using sensory integration principles…

  18. 76 FR 28336 - Domestic Licensing of Source Material-Amendments/Integrated Safety Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 40 and 150 RIN 3150-AI50 Domestic Licensing of Source Material--Amendments/Integrated...). The proposed amendments would require such licensees to conduct integrated safety analyses (ISAs... System (ADAMS): Publicly available documents created or received at the NRC are available online in...

  19. Critical Assessment Issues in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferns, Sonia; Zegwaard, Karsten E.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment has long been a contentious issue in work-integrated learning (WIL) and cooperative education. Despite assessment being central to the integrity and accountability of a university and long-standing theories around best practice in assessment, enacting quality assessment practices has proven to be more difficult. Authors in this special…

  20. Assessment of Contributions to Patient Safety Knowledge by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-Funded Patient Safety Projects

    PubMed Central

    Sorbero, Melony E S; Ricci, Karen A; Lovejoy, Susan; Haviland, Amelia M; Smith, Linda; Bradley, Lily A; Hiatt, Liisa; Farley, Donna O

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the activities of projects funded in Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)' patient safety portfolio and assess their aggregate potential to contribute to knowledge development. Data Sources Information abstracted from proposals for projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio, information on safety practices from the AHRQ Evidence Report on Patient Safety Practices, and products produced by the projects. Study Design This represented one part of the process evaluation conducted as part of a longitudinal evaluation based on the Context–Input–Process–Product model. Principal Findings The 234 projects funded through AHRQ' patient safety portfolio examined a wide variety of patient safety issues and extended their work beyond the hospital setting to less studied parts of the health care system. Many of the projects implemented and tested practices for which the patient safety evidence report identified a need for additional evidence. The funded projects also generated a substantial body of new patient safety knowledge through a growing number of journal articles and other products. Conclusions The projects funded in AHRQ' patient safety portfolio have the potential to make substantial contributions to the knowledge base on patient safety. The full value of this new knowledge remains to be confirmed through the synthesis of results. PMID:21456108

  1. Climate change and coastal vulnerability assessment: Scenarios for integrated assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, R.J.; Wong, P.P.; Burkett, V.; Woodroffe, C.D.; Hay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments still focus mainly on sea-level rise, with less attention paid to other dimensions of climate change. The influence of non-climatic environmental change or socio-economic change is even less considered, and is often completely ignored. Given that the profound coastal changes of the twentieth century are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission, which may overstate the importance of climate change, and may also miss significant interactions of climate change with other non-climate drivers. To better support climate and coastal management policy development, more integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the significant non-climatic changes. This paper explores the development of relevant climate and non-climate drivers, with an emphasis on the non-climate drivers. While these issues are applicable within any scenario framework, our ideas are illustrated using the widely used SRES scenarios, with both impacts and adaptation being considered. Importantly, scenario development is a process, and the assumptions that are made about future conditions concerning the coast need to be explicit, transparent and open to scientific debate concerning their realism and likelihood. These issues are generic across other sectors. ?? Integrated Research System for Sustainability Science and Springer 2008.

  2. 2015 Estimation of Hospitals Safety from Disasters in I.R.Iran: The Results from the Assessment of 421 Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Kandi Keleh, Maryam; Saberinia, Amin; Khorasani-Zavareh, Davoud; Khankeh, Hamidreza; Miadfar, Jafar; Maleknia, Samaneh; Mobini, Atieh; Mehranamin, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Iran’s health system has developed a Farsi edition of the Hospital Safety Index (HSI) and has integrated the related assessment program into the health information system. This article presents the results of the 2015 estimation of hospital safety from disasters in I.R.Iran using HSI. Methods We analyzed data from 421 hospitals that had submitted a complete HSI assessment form on the Ministry of Health and Medical Education Portal System. Data collection was based on the self-assessments of the hospital disaster committees. HSI includes 145 items categorized in three components including, structural, non-structural and functional capacity. For each item, safety status was categorized into three levels: not safe (0), average safety (1) and high safety (2). A normalized scoring scheme on a 100-point scale was developed. Hospitals were classified to three safety classes according to their normalized total score: low (≤34.0), average (34.01–66.0) and high (>66.0). Results The average score of all safety components were 43.0 out of 100 (± 11.0). Eighty-two hospitals (19.4%) were classified as not safe, and 339 hospitals (80.6%) were classified in the average safety category. No hospital was placed in the high safety category. Average safety scores were 41.0, 47.0, and 42.0 for functional capacity, non-structural safety, and structural safety respectively. The average safety score increased between 2012 and 2015, from 34.0 to 43.0. Conclusions Hospital safety in the event of disasters has improved in Iran in recent years and more hospitals have joined the HSI program. This is a result of continuous efforts invested in capacity building programs and promotion of the 2012 HSI estimation. The HSI should be maintained to monitor the progress of Iran’s health system in regards to hospital safety in the case of disasters. It is recommended that WHO continue advocacy of HSI, establish a HSI monitoring system, and add it to country profiles on

  3. Integrating safety and health during deactiviation: With lessons learned from PUREX

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-29

    This report summarizes an integrated safety and health approach used during facility deactivation activities at the Department of Energy (DOE) Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Facility in Hanford, Washington. Resulting safety and health improvements and the potential, complex-wide application of this approach are discussed in this report through a description of its components and the impacts, or lessons-learned, of its use during the PUREX deactivation project. As a means of developing and implementing the integrated safety and health approach, the PUREX technical partnership was established in 1993 among the Office of Environment, Safety and Health`s Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5); the Office of Environmental Management`s Offices of Nuclear Material and Facility Stabilization (EM-60) and Compliance and Program Coordination (EM-20); the DOE Richland Operations Office; and the Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is believed that this report will provide guidance for instituting an integrated safety and health approach not only for deactivation activities, but for decommissioning and other clean-up activities as well. This confidence is based largely upon the rationality of the approach, often termed as common sense, and the measurable safety and health and project performance results that application of the approach produced during actual deactivation work at the PUREX Facility.

  4. Integrated Ecosystem Assessment: Lake Ontario Water Management

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Mark B.; Singkran, Nuanchan; Mills, Katherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Ecosystem management requires organizing, synthesizing, and projecting information at a large scale while simultaneously addressing public interests, dynamic ecological properties, and a continuum of physicochemical conditions. We compared the impacts of seven water level management plans for Lake Ontario on a set of environmental attributes of public relevance. Methodology and Findings Our assessment method was developed with a set of established impact assessment tools (checklists, classifications, matrices, simulations, representative taxa, and performance relations) and the concept of archetypal geomorphic shoreline classes. We considered each environmental attribute and shoreline class in its typical and essential form and predicted how water level change would interact with defining properties. The analysis indicated that about half the shoreline of Lake Ontario is potentially sensitive to water level change with a small portion being highly sensitive. The current water management plan may be best for maintaining the environmental resources. In contrast, a natural water regime plan designed for greatest environmental benefits most often had adverse impacts, impacted most shoreline classes, and the largest portion of the lake coast. Plans that balanced multiple objectives and avoided hydrologic extremes were found to be similar relative to the environment, low on adverse impacts, and had many minor impacts across many shoreline classes. Significance The Lake Ontario ecosystem assessment provided information that can inform decisions about water management and the environment. No approach and set of methods will perfectly and unarguably accomplish integrated ecosystem assessment. For managing water levels in Lake Ontario, we found that there are no uniformly good and bad options for environmental conservation. The scientific challenge was selecting a set of tools and practices to present broad, relevant, unbiased, and accessible information to guide

  5. Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Safety Assessment Document

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, K.K.; Kendall, E.W.; Brown, J.J.

    1980-02-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Safety Assessment Document evaluates site characteristics, facilities and operating practices which contribute to the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes at the Nevada Test Site. Physical geography, cultural factors, climate and meteorology, geology, hydrology (with emphasis on radionuclide migration), ecology, natural phenomena, and natural resources are discussed and determined to be suitable for effective containment of radionuclides. Also considered, as a separate section, are facilities and operating practices such as monitoring; storage/disposal criteria; site maintenance, equipment, and support; transportation and waste handling; and others which are adequate for the safe handling and storage/disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion, the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site is suitable for radioactive waste handling and storage/disposal for a maximum of twenty more years at the present rate of utilization.

  6. Safety Assessment of Boron Nitride as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of boron nitride which functions in cosmetics as a slip modifier (ie, it has a lubricating effect). Boron nitride is an inorganic compound with a crystalline form that can be hexagonal, spherical, or cubic; the hexagonal form is presumed to be used in cosmetics. The highest reported concentration of use of boron nitride is 25% in eye shadow formulations. Although boron nitride nanotubes are produced, boron nitride is not listed as a nanomaterial used in cosmetic formulations. The Panel reviewed available chemistry, animal data, and clinical data and concluded that this ingredient is safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetic formulations.

  7. Industrial ecology in integrated assessment models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Arvesen, Anders; Stadler, Konstantin; Hertwich, Edgar G.

    2017-01-01

    Technology-rich integrated assessment models (IAMs) address possible technology mixes and future costs of climate change mitigation by generating scenarios for the future industrial system. Industrial ecology (IE) focuses on the empirical analysis of this system. We conduct an in-depth review of five major IAMs from an IE perspective and reveal differences between the two fields regarding the modelling of linkages in the industrial system, focussing on AIM/CGE, GCAM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, and REMIND. IAMs ignore material cycles and recycling, incoherently describe the life-cycle impacts of technology, and miss linkages regarding buildings and infrastructure. Adding IE system linkages to IAMs adds new constraints and allows for studying new mitigation options, both of which may lead to more robust and policy-relevant mitigation scenarios.

  8. Integrated Operations Architecture Technology Assessment Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    As part of NASA's Integrated Operations Architecture (IOA) Baseline, NASA will consolidate all communications operations. including ground-based, near-earth, and deep-space communications, into a single integrated network. This network will make maximum use of commercial equipment, services and standards. It will be an Internet Protocol (IP) based network. This study supports technology development planning for the IOA. The technical problems that may arise when LEO mission spacecraft interoperate with commercial satellite services were investigated. Commercial technology and services that could support the IOA were surveyed, and gaps in the capability of existing technology and techniques were identified. Recommendations were made on which gaps should be closed by means of NASA research and development funding. Several findings emerged from the interoperability assessment: in the NASA mission set, there is a preponderance of small. inexpensive, low data rate science missions; proposed commercial satellite communications services could potentially provide TDRSS-like data relay functions; and. IP and related protocols, such as TCP, require augmentation to operate in the mobile networking environment required by the space-to-ground portion of the IOA. Five case studies were performed in the technology assessment. Each case represented a realistic implementation of the near-earth portion of the IOA. The cases included the use of frequencies at L-band, Ka-band and the optical spectrum. The cases also represented both space relay architectures and direct-to-ground architectures. Some of the main recommendations resulting from the case studies are: select an architecture for the LEO/MEO communications network; pursue the development of a Ka-band space-qualified transmitter (and possibly a receiver), and a low-cost Ka-band ground terminal for a direct-to-ground network, pursue the development of an Inmarsat (L-band) space-qualified transceiver to implement a global, low

  9. Integration of safety engineering into a cost optimized development program.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A six-segment management model is presented, each segment of which represents a major area in a new product development program. The first segment of the model covers integration of specialist engineers into 'systems requirement definition' or the system engineering documentation process. The second covers preparation of five basic types of 'development program plans.' The third segment covers integration of system requirements, scheduling, and funding of specialist engineering activities into 'work breakdown structures,' 'cost accounts,' and 'work packages.' The fourth covers 'requirement communication' by line organizations. The fifth covers 'performance measurement' based on work package data. The sixth covers 'baseline requirements achievement tracking.'

  10. Technology Assessments within NASA's Integrated Technology Assessment Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. L.; Neely, M. A.; Curran, F. M.; Christensen, E. R.; Escher, D.; Lovell, N.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) founded the Integrated Technology Assessment Center (ITAC) to provide a comprehensive, systematic approach to identify long-term technology needs, to quantify payoffs for technology investments, and to assess the progress of ASTP-sponsored technology programs in the hypersonics/Earth-to-orbit area. To accomplish these goals, the ITAC has assembled an experienced team representing a broad sector of the aerospace community and developed a systematic assessment process complete with supporting tools. In the ITAC approach, concepts for transportation systems are first selected based on relevance to the ASTP. Models of these concepts are then developed and data on advanced technologies are collected. Projections of key technology characteristics with respect to the specific concepts of interest are made. Both the models and technology projections are then fed into the ITAC's probabilistic systems analysis framework. The probabilistic outputs are weighed against metrics of interest to ASTP and a multivariate decision making process is used to provide inputs for technology prioritization within the ASTP. At present, the ITAC program is working to evaluate a variety of technologies for three two-stage hypersonic vehicle concepts. Concepts include an all rocket, vertical take off-horizontal landing (VTHL) system, a horizontal takeoff-horizontal landing (HTHL) RBCC-propelled first stage/all rocket second stage system, and an HTHL turbine-based first stage/all rocket second stage system. This paper will provide a status update of the ITAC program including current results and plans.

  11. Technology Assessments within NASA's Integrated Technology Assessment Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, J. L.; Neely, M. A.; Curran, F. M.; Christensen, E. R.; Escher, D.; Lovell, N.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) founded the Integrated Technology Assessment Center (ITAC) to provide a comprehensive, systematic approach to identify long-term technology needs, to quantify payoffs for technology investments, and to assess the progress of ASTP-sponsored technology programs in the hypersonics/Earth-to-orbit area. To accomplish these goals, the ITAC has assembled an experienced team representing a broad sector of the aerospace community and developed a systematic assessment process complete with supporting tools. In the ITAC approach, concepts for transportation systems are first selected based on relevance to the ASTP. Models of these concepts are then developed and data on advanced technologies are collected. Projections of key technology characteristics with respect to the specific concepts of interest are made. Both the models and technology projections are then fed into the ITAC's probabilistic systems analysis framework. The probabilistic outputs are weighed against metrics of interest to ASTP and a multivariate decision making process is used to provide inputs for technology prioritization within the ASTP. At present, the ITAC program is working to evaluate a variety of technologies for three two-stage hypersonic vehicle concepts. Concepts include an all rocket, vertical take off-horizontal landing (VTHL) system, a horizontal take-off-horizontal landing (HTHL) RBCC-propelled first stage/all rocket second stage system, and an HTHL turbine-based first stage/all rocket second stage system. This paper will provide a status update of the ITAC program including current results and plans.

  12. Integrating Safety and Mission Assurance into Systems Engineering Modeling Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Sean; Darpel, Scott

    2015-01-01

    During the early development of products, flight, or experimental hardware, emphasis is often given to the identification of technical requirements, utilizing such tools as use case and activity diagrams. Designers and project teams focus on understanding physical and performance demands and challenges. It is typically only later, during the evaluation of preliminary designs that a first pass, if performed, is made to determine the process, safety, and mission quality assurance requirements. Evaluation early in the life cycle, though, can yield requirements that force a fundamental change in design. This paper discusses an alternate paradigm for using the concepts of use case or activity diagrams to identify safety hazard and mission quality assurance risks and concerns using the same systems engineering modeling tools being used to identify technical requirements. It contains two examples of how this process might be used in the development of a space flight experiment, and the design of a Human Powered Pizza Delivery Vehicle, along with the potential benefits to decrease development time, and provide stronger budget estimates.

  13. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  14. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  15. Preliminary safety assessment of a membrane-bound delta 9 desaturase candidate protein for transgenic oilseed crops.

    PubMed

    Madduri, Krishna M; Schafer, Barry W; Hasler, James M; Lin, Gaofeng; Foster, Mendy L; Embrey, Shawna K; Sastry-Dent, Lakshmi; Song, Ping; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Gachotte, Daniel J; Herman, Rod A

    2012-10-01

    A gene encoding delta 9 desaturase (D9DS), an integral membrane protein, is being considered for incorporation into oilseed crops to reduce saturated fatty acids and thus improve human nutritional value. Typically, a safety assessment for transgenic crops involves purifying heterologously produced transgenic proteins in an active form for use in safety studies. Membrane-bound proteins have been very difficult to isolate in an active form due to their inherent physicochemical properties. Described here are methods used to derive enriched preparations of the active D9DS protein for use in early stage safety studies. Results of these studies, in combination with bioinformatic results and knowledge of the mode of action of the protein, along with a history of safe consumption of related proteins, provides a weight of evidence supporting the safety of the D9DS protein in food and feed.

  16. Fluor Hanford Integrated Safety Management System Phase II Verification Vol 1 & Vol 2

    SciTech Connect

    PARSONS, J.E.

    2000-07-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to conducting work efficiently and in a manner that ensures protection of the workers, public, and environment. DOE policy mandates that safety management systems be used to systematically integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels while accomplishing mission goals in an effective and efficient manner. The purpose of the Fluor Hanford (FH) Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) verification was to determine whether FH's ISM system and processes are sufficiently implemented to accomplish the goal of ''Do work safely.'' The purpose of the DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) verification was to determine whether RL has established processes that adequately describe RL's role in safety management and if those processes are sufficiently implemented.

  17. Application of total uncertainty theory in radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, Francisco Luiz de; Ross, Timothy; Sullivan, Terry

    2007-07-01

    Safety assessment requires the interaction of a large number of disciplines to model the environmental phenomena necessary to evaluate the safety of the disposal system. In this complex process, the identification and quantification of both types of uncertainties, random and epistemic, plays a very important role for confidence building. In this work an application of the concept of total uncertainty to radioactive waste disposal facilities safety assessment is proposed. By combining both types of uncertainty, aleatory and epistemic, in the same framework, this approach ultimately aims to assess the confidence one can pose in the safety-assessment decisions. (authors)

  18. Including safety-net providers in integrated delivery systems: issues and options for policymakers.

    PubMed

    Witgert, Katherine; Hess, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    Health care reform legislation has spurred efforts to develop integrated health care delivery systems that seek to coordinate the continuum of health services. These systems may be of particular benefit to patients who face barriers to accessing care or have multiple health conditions. But it remains to be seen how safety-net providers, including community health centers and public hospitals--which have long experience in caring for these vulnerable populations--will be included in integrated delivery systems. This issue brief explores key considerations for incorporating safety-net providers into integrated delivery systems and discusses the roles of state and federal agencies in sup­porting and testing models of integrated care delivery. The authors conclude that the most important principles in creating integrated delivery systems for vulnerable populations are: (1) an emphasis on primary care; (2) coordination of all care, including behavioral, social, and public health services; and (3) accountability for population health outcomes.

  19. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  20. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  1. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  2. 48 CFR 970.5223-1 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment... Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. As prescribed in 970.2303-3(b), insert the following clause: Integration of Environment, Safety, and Health Into Work Planning...

  3. Integrating Safety with Science,Technology and Innovation at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rich, Bethany M

    2012-04-02

    The mission of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is to develop and apply science, technology and engineering solutions to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the U.S. nuclear deterrent; reduce global threats; and solve emerging national security challenges. The most important responsibility is to direct and conduct efforts to meet the mission with an emphasis on safety, security, and quality. In this article, LANL Environmental, Safety, and Health (ESH) trainers discuss how their application and use of a kinetic learning module (learn by doing) with a unique fall arrest system is helping to address one the most common industrial safety challenges: slips and falls. A unique integration of Human Performance Improvement (HPI), Behavior Based Safety (BBS) and elements of the Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) combined with an interactive simulator experience is being used to address slip and fall events at Los Alamos.

  4. System interface for an integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) for vehicle applications.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Mahammad A; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  5. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS) for Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Hannan, Mahammad A.; Hussain, Aini; Samad, Salina A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS) that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS) and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS). A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications. PMID:22205861

  6. Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular system toxicity: A case for telemetry.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Hoay Yan; Kiew, Lik Voon; Lee, Hong Boon; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina; Vicent, Marίa J; Hoe, See Ziau; Chung, Lip Yong

    2017-02-06

    While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Time to accelerate integration of human factors and ergonomics in patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Ayse P; Ozok, A Ant; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Progress toward improving patient safety has been slow despite engagement of the health care community in improvement efforts. A potential reason for this sluggish pace is the inadequate integration of human factors and ergonomics principles and methods in these efforts. Patient safety problems are complex and rarely caused by one factor or component of a work system. Thus, health care would benefit from human factors and ergonomics evaluations to systematically identify the problems, prioritize the right ones, and develop effective and practical solutions. This paper gives an overview of the discipline of human factors and ergonomics and describes its role in improving patient safety. We provide examples of how human factors and ergonomics principles and methods have improved both care processes and patient outcomes. We provide five major recommendations to better integrate human factors and ergonomics in patient safety improvement efforts: build capacity among health care workers to understand human factors and ergonomics, create market forces that demand the integration of human factors and ergonomics design principles into medical technologies, increase the number of human factors and ergonomic practitioners in health care organizations, expand investments in improvement efforts informed by human factors and ergonomics, and support interdisciplinary research to improve patient safety. In conclusion, human factors and ergonomics must play a more prominent role in health care if we want to increase the pace in improving patient safety.

  8. DOE standard: Integration of environment, safety, and health into facility disposition activities. Volume 1: Technical standard

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    This Department of Energy (DOE) technical standard (referred to as the Standard) provides guidance for integrating and enhancing worker, public, and environmental protection during facility disposition activities. It provides environment, safety, and health (ES and H) guidance to supplement the project management requirements and associated guidelines contained within DOE O 430.1A, Life-Cycle Asset Management (LCAM), and amplified within the corresponding implementation guides. In addition, the Standard is designed to support an Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), consistent with the guiding principles and core functions contained in DOE P 450.4, Safety Management System Policy, and discussed in DOE G 450.4-1, Integrated Safety Management System Guide. The ISMS guiding principles represent the fundamental policies that guide the safe accomplishment of work and include: (1) line management responsibility for safety; (2) clear roles and responsibilities; (3) competence commensurate with responsibilities; (4) balanced priorities; (5) identification of safety standards and requirements; (6) hazard controls tailored to work being performed; and (7) operations authorization. This Standard specifically addresses the implementation of the above ISMS principles four through seven, as applied to facility disposition activities.

  9. High-Throughput Toxicity Testing: New Strategies for Assessing Chemical Safety

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, the food industry has made progress in improving safety testing methods focused on microbial contaminants in order to promote food safety. However, food industry toxicologists must also assess the safety of food-relevant chemicals including pesticides, direct add...

  10. Report of Safety Survey: Human Integration of Approach Charts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    Question No. E24 Survey Number: 0796 All useable data for aircraft operation should be uniform & standarized such as the "T" instrument panel has...gather specific data , user information and comments regarding the needs for improved human integration of terminal ap- proach procedures and approach...was developed to gather specific data , end-user information and comments regarding these terminal approach proce- dures and approach charts. This

  11. Addressing Unison and Uniqueness of Reliability and Safety for Better Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Zhaofeng; Safie, Fayssal

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, both in theory and in practice, safety and reliability have not been clearly differentiated, which leads to confusion, inefficiency, and sometime counter-productive practices in executing each of these two disciplines. It is imperative to address the uniqueness and the unison of these two disciplines to help both disciplines become more effective and to promote a better integration of the two for enhancing safety and reliability in our products as an overall objective. There are two purposes of this paper. First, it will investigate the uniqueness and unison of each discipline and discuss the interrelationship between the two for awareness and clarification. Second, after clearly understanding the unique roles and interrelationship between the two in a product design and development life cycle, we offer suggestions to enhance the disciplines with distinguished and focused roles, to better integrate the two, and to improve unique sets of skills and tools of reliability and safety processes. From the uniqueness aspect, the paper identifies and discusses the respective uniqueness of reliability and safety from their roles, accountability, nature of requirements, technical scopes, detailed technical approaches, and analysis boundaries. It is misleading to equate unreliable to unsafe, since a safety hazard may or may not be related to the component, sub-system, or system functions, which are primarily what reliability addresses. Similarly, failing-to-function may or may not lead to hazard events. Examples will be given in the paper from aerospace, defense, and consumer products to illustrate the uniqueness and differences between reliability and safety. From the unison aspect, the paper discusses what the commonalities between reliability and safety are, and how these two disciplines are linked, integrated, and supplemented with each other to accomplish the customer requirements and product goals. In addition to understanding the uniqueness in

  12. Safety assessment document for the Dynamic Test Complex B854

    SciTech Connect

    Odell, B.N.; Pfeifer, H.E.

    1981-12-11

    A safety assessment was performed to determine if potential accidents at the 854 Complex at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. These were earthquake, extreme wind (including missiles), lightning, flood, criticality, high explosive (HE) detonation that disperses uranium and beryllium, spontaneous oxidation of plutonium, explosions due to finely divided particles, and a fire. Seismic and extreme wind (including missiles) analyses indicate that the buildings are basically sound. The lightning protection system is in the process of being upgraded to meet AMCR 385-100. These buildings are located high above the dry creek bed so that a flood is improbable. The probability of high explosive detonation involving plutonium is very remote since the radioactive materials are encased and plutonium and HE are not permitted concurrently in the same area at Site 300. (The exception to this policy is that explosive actuating devices are sometimes located in assemblies containing fissile materials. However, an accidental actuation will not affect the safe containment of the plutonium within the assembly.) There is a remote possibility of an HE explosion involving uranium and beryllium since these are permitted in the same area.The possibility of a criticality accident is very remote since the fissile materials are doubly encased in stout metal containers. All operations involving these materials are independently reviewed and inspected by the Criticality Safety Office. It was determined that a fire was unlikely due to the low fire loading and the absence of ignition sources. It was also determined that the consequences of any accidents were reduced by the remote location of these facilities, their design, and by administrative controls.

  13. The use of meta-analytical tools in risk assessment for food safety.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis

    2011-06-01

    This communication deals with the use of meta-analysis as a valuable tool for the synthesis of food safety research, and in quantitative risk assessment modelling. A common methodology for the conduction of meta-analysis (i.e., systematic review and data extraction, parameterisation of effect size, estimation of overall effect size, assessment of heterogeneity, and presentation of results) is explained by reviewing two meta-analyses derived from separate sets of primary studies of Salmonella in pork. Integrating different primary studies, the first meta-analysis elucidated for the first time a relationship between the proportion of Salmonella-carrier slaughter pigs entering the slaughter lines and the resulting proportion of contaminated carcasses at the point of evisceration; finding that the individual studies on their own could not reveal. On the other hand, the second application showed that meta-analysis can be used to estimate the overall effect of a critical process stage (chilling) on the incidence of the pathogen under study. The derivation of a relationship between variables and a probabilistic distribution is illustrations of the valuable quantitative information synthesised by the meta-analytical tools, which can be incorporated in risk assessment modelling. Strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis within the context of food safety are also discussed.

  14. Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarro, Sergio B.

    2010-01-01

    This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  15. Applications of Trajectory Solid Angle for Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Po Kee; Wong, Adam E.; Wong, Anita

    2002-07-01

    In 1974, a well-known research problem in Statistical Mechanics entitled 'To determine and define the probability function P.sub.2 of a particle hitting a predetermined area, given all its parameters of generation and ejection' was openly solicited for its solution from research and development organizations in U.S.A. One of many proposed solutions of the problem, initiated at that time, is by means of the Trajectory Solid Angle (TSA). TSA is defined as the integral of the dot product of the unit tangent of the particle's trajectory to the vector area divided by the square of the position vector connecting between the point of ejection and that of the surface to be hit. The invention provides: (1) The precise and the unique solution of a previously unsolved P.sub.2 problem: (2) Impacts to the governmental NRC safety standards and DOD weapon systems and many activities in the Department of Energy; (3) Impacts to update the contents of text books of physics and mathematics of all levels; (4) Impacts to the scientific instruments with applications in high technologies. The importance of Trajectory Solid Angle can be quoted from a letter by the late Institute Professor P. M. Morse of MIT who reviewed the DOE proposal P7900450 (reference No. 7) in 1979 and addressed to the inventor. 'If the Trajectory Solid Angle is correct it will provide a revolutionary concept in physics'. (authors)

  16. Assessment of structural integrity of wooden poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craighead, Ian A.; Thackery, Steve; Redstall, Martin; Thomas, Matthew R.

    2000-05-01

    Despite recent advances in the development of new materials, wood continues to be used globally for the support of overhead cable networks used by telecommunications and electrical utility companies. As a natural material, wood is subject to decay and will eventually fail, causing disruption to services and danger to public and company personnel. Internal decay, due to basidomycetes fungi or attack by termites, can progress rapidly and is often difficult to detect by casual inspection. The traditional method of testing poles for decay involves hitting them with a hammer and listening to the sound that results. However, evidence suggests that a large number of poles are replaced unnecessarily and a significant number of poles continue to fail unexpectedly in service. Therefore, a more accurate method of assessing the structural integrity of wooden poles is required. Over the last 25 years there have been a number of attempts at improving decay detection. Techniques such as ultrasound, drilling X rays etc. have been developed but have generally failed to improve upon the practicality and accuracy of the traditional testing method. The paper describes the use of signal processing techniques to analyze the acoustic response of the pole and thereby determine the presence of decay. Development of a prototype meter is described and the results of initial tests on several hundred poles are presented.

  17. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  18. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Section 108(a) of the Clean Air Act directs the EPA Administrator to identify certain pollutants that “cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare” and to issue air quality criteria for them. These air quality criteria are to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air….” Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant for which EPA has issued criteria. Section 109(d) of the Act requires periodic review and, if appropriate, revision of existing air quality criteria to reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the pollutant on public health or welfare. EPA is also to revise the NAAQS, if appropriate, based on the revised air quality criteria.

  19. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services.

  20. Development and methodology of level 1 probability safety assessment at PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Lanyau, Tonny Anak; Saad, Mohamad Fauzi; Ismail, Ahmad Razali; Abu, Mohamad Puad Haji; Brayon, Fedrick Charlie Matthew; Mohamed, Faizal

    2014-02-12

    As a consequence of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the safety aspects of the one and only research reactor (31 years old) in Malaysia need be reviewed. Based on this decision, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in collaboration with Atomic Energy Licensing Board and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia develop a Level-1 Probability Safety Assessment on this research reactor. This work is aimed to evaluate the potential risks of incidents in RTP and at the same time to identify internal and external hazard that may cause any extreme initiating events. This report documents the methodology in developing a Level 1 PSA performed for the RTP as a complementary approach to deterministic safety analysis both in neutronics and thermal hydraulics. This Level-1 PSA work has been performed according to the procedures suggested in relevant IAEA publications and at the same time numbers of procedures has been developed as part of an Integrated Management System programme implemented in Nuclear Malaysia.

  1. Impact of biomarker development on drug safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marrer, Estelle; Dieterle, Frank

    2010-03-01

    Drug safety has always been a key aspect of drug development. Recently, the Vioxx case and several cases of serious adverse events being linked to high-profile products have increased the importance of drug safety, especially in the eyes of drug development companies and global regulatory agencies. Safety biomarkers are increasingly being seen as helping to provide the clarity, predictability, and certainty needed to gain confidence in decision making: early-stage projects can be stopped quicker, late-stage projects become less risky. Public and private organizations are investing heavily in terms of time, money and manpower on safety biomarker development. An illustrative and 'door opening' safety biomarker success story is the recent recognition of kidney safety biomarkers for pre-clinical and limited translational contexts by FDA and EMEA. This milestone achieved for kidney biomarkers and the 'know how' acquired is being transferred to other organ toxicities, namely liver, heart, vascular system. New technologies and molecular-based approaches, i.e., molecular pathology as a complement to the classical toolbox, allow promising discoveries in the safety biomarker field. This review will focus on the utility and use of safety biomarkers all along drug development, highlighting the present gaps and opportunities identified in organ toxicity monitoring. A last part will be dedicated to safety biomarker development in general, from identification to diagnostic tests, using the kidney safety biomarkers success as an illustrative example.

  2. Safety assessment of Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 24 Vitis vinifera (grape)-derived ingredients and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics. These ingredients function in cosmetics mostly as skin-conditioning agents, but some function as antioxidants, flavoring agents, and/or colorants. The Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Additionally, some constituents of grapes have been assessed previously for safety as cosmetic ingredients by the Panel, and others are compounds that have been discussed in previous Panel safety assessments.

  3. Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: second status report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    This document is arranged in three volumes and reports on progress in the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels (LGF) Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program made in fiscal Year (FY)-1979 and early FY-1980. Volume 3 contains reports from 6 government contractors on LPG, anhydrous ammonia, and hydrogen energy systems. Report subjects include: simultaneous boiling and spreading of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on water; LPG safety research; state-of-the-art of release prevention and control technology in the LPG industry; ammonia: an introductory assessment of safety and environmental control information; ammonia as a fuel, and hydrogen safety and environmental control assessment.

  4. Final Action Plan to Tiger Team. Environmental, safety and health assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-28

    This document presents planned actions, and their associated costs, for addressing the findings in the Environmental, Safety and Health Tiger Team Assessment of the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, May 1991, hereafter called the Assessment. This Final Action Plan should be read in conjunction with the Assessment to ensure full understanding of the findings addressed herein. The Assessment presented 353 findings in four general categories: (1)Environmental (82 findings); (2) Safety and Health (243 findings); (3) Management and Organization (18 findings); and (4) Self-Assessment (10 findings). Additionally, 436 noncompliance items with Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards were addressed during and immediately after the Tiger Team visit.

  5. Integration of Occupational Safety to Contractors` or Subcontractors` Performance Evaluation in Construction Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovská, Mária; Struková, Zuzana

    2013-06-01

    Several factors should be considered by the owner and general contractor in the process of contractors` and subcontractors` selection and evaluation. The paper reviews the recent models addressed to guide general contractors in subcontractors' selection process and in evaluation of different contractors during the execution of the project. Moreover the paper suggests the impact of different contractors' performance to the overall level of occupational health and safety culture at the sites. It deals with the factors influencing the safety performance of contractors during construction and analyses the methods for assessing the safety performance of construction contractors. The results of contractors' safety performance evaluation could be a useful tool in motivating contractors to achieve better safety outcomes or could have effect on owners` or general contractors' decision making about contractors suitability for future contracting works.

  6. The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M.

    2008-07-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide

  7. The TRIPOD e-learning Platform for the Training of Earthquake Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Coppari, S.; Di Pasquale, G.; Goretti, A.; Papa, F.; Papa, S.; Paoli, G.; Pizza, A. G.; Severino, M.

    2008-07-08

    The paper summarizes the results of the in progress EU Project titled TRIPOD (Training Civil Engineers on Post-Earthquake Safety Assessment of Damaged Buildings), funded under the Leonardo Da Vinci program. The main theme of the project is the development of a methodology and a learning platform for the training of technicians involved in post-earthquake building safety inspections. In the event of a catastrophic earthquake, emergency building inspections constitute a major undertaking with severe social impact. Given the inevitable chaotic conditions and the urgent need of a great number of specialized individuals to carry out inspections, past experience indicates that inspection teams are often formed in an adhoc manner, under stressful conditions, at a varying levels of technical expertise and experience, sometime impairing the reliability and consistency of the inspection results. Furthermore each Country has its own building damage and safety assessment methodology, developed according to its experience, laws, building technology and seismicity. This holds also for the partners participating to the project (Greece, Italy, Turkey, Cyprus), that all come from seismically sensitive Mediterranean countries. The project aims at alleviating the above shortcomings by designing and developing a training methodology and e-platform, forming a complete training program targeted at inspection engineers, specialized personnel and civil protection agencies. The e-learning platform will provide flexible and friendly authoring mechanisms, self-teaching and assessment capabilities, course and trainee management, etc. Courses will be also made available as stand-alone multimedia applications on CD and in the form of a complete pocket handbook. Moreover the project will offer the possibility of upgrading different experiences and practices: a first step towards the harmonization of methodologies and tools of different Countries sharing similar problems. Finally, through wide

  8. Safety assessment for nanotechnology and nanomedicine: concepts of nanotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Oberdörster, G

    2010-01-01

    made mandatory to prevent exposure by appropriate precautionary measures/regulations and practicing best industrial hygiene to avoid future horror scenarios from environmental or occupational exposures. Similarly, safety assessment for medical applications as key contribution of nanotoxicology to nanomedicine relies heavily on nano-specific toxicological concepts and findings and on a multidisciplinary collaborative approach involving material scientists, physicians and toxicologists.

  9. Ozone (O3) Standards - Integrated Science Assessments from Current Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The integrated science assessment (ISA) is a comprehensive review, synthesis, and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science, including key science judgments that are important to inform the development of the risk and exposure assessments, and more.

  10. A hierarchical network modeling method for railway tunnels safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jin; Xu, Weixiang; Guo, Xin; Liu, Xumin

    2017-02-01

    Using network theory to model risk-related knowledge on accidents is regarded as potential very helpful in risk management. A large amount of defects detection data for railway tunnels is collected in autumn every year in China. It is extremely important to discover the regularities knowledge in database. In this paper, based on network theories and by using data mining techniques, a new method is proposed for mining risk-related regularities to support risk management in railway tunnel projects. A hierarchical network (HN) model which takes into account the tunnel structures, tunnel defects, potential failures and accidents is established. An improved Apriori algorithm is designed to rapidly and effectively mine correlations between tunnel structures and tunnel defects. Then an algorithm is presented in order to mine the risk-related regularities table (RRT) from the frequent patterns. At last, a safety assessment method is proposed by consideration of actual defects and possible risks of defects gained from the RRT. This method cannot only generate the quantitative risk results but also reveal the key defects and critical risks of defects. This paper is further development on accident causation network modeling methods which can provide guidance for specific maintenance measure.

  11. Safety assessment of a hydroethanolic extract of Caralluma fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Odendaal, Antoinette Y; Deshmukh, Narendra S; Marx, Tennille K; Schauss, Alexander G; Endres, John R; Clewell, Amy E

    2013-01-01

    This toxicological assessment evaluated the safety of a hydroethanolic extract prepared from Caralluma fimbriata (CFE), a dietary supplement marketed worldwide as an appetite suppressant. Studies included 2 in vitro genotoxicity assays, a repeated dose oral toxicity study, and a developmental study in rats. No evidence of in vitro mutagenicity or clastogenicity surfaced in the in vitro studies at concentrations up to 5000 μg of extract/plate (Ames test) or 5000 μg of extract/mL (chromosomal aberration test). No deaths or treatment-related toxicity were seen in the 6-month chronic oral toxicity study in Sprague-Dawley rats conducted at 3 doses (100, 300, and 1000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/d). The no observed effect level for CFE in this study was considered to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d. A prenatal developmental toxicity study conducted at 3 doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bw/d) in female Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in no treatment-related external, visceral, or skeletal fetal abnormalities, and no treatment-related maternal or pregnancy alterations were seen at and up to the maximum dose tested. CFE was not associated with any toxicity or adverse events.

  12. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-05

    Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  13. Soft Mathematical Aggregation in Safety Assessment and Decision Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J. Arlin

    1999-06-10

    This paper improves on some of the limitations of conventional safety assessment and decision analysis methods. It develops a top-down mathematical method for expressing imprecise individual metrics as possibilistic or fuzzy numbers and shows how they may be combined (aggregated) into an overall metric, also portraying the inherent uncertainty. Both positively contributing and negatively contributing factors are included. Metrics are weighted according to significance of the attribute and evaluated as to contribution toward the attribute. Aggregation is performed using exponential combination of the metrics, since the accumulating effect of such factors responds less and less to additional factors. This is termed soft mathematical aggregation. Dependence among the contributing factors is accounted for by incorporating subjective metrics on overlap of the factors and by correspondingly reducing the overall contribution of these combinations to the overall aggregation. Decisions corresponding to the meaningfulness of the results are facilitated in several ways. First, the results are compared to a soft threshold provided by a sigmoid function. Second, information is provided on input ''Importance'' and ''Sensitivity,'' in order to know where to place emphasis on controls that may be necessary. Third, trends in inputs and outputs are tracked in order to add important information to the decision process. The methodology has been implemented in software.

  14. Safety assessment of DHA-rich microalgae from Schizochytrium sp.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B G; Mayhew, D A; Robinson, K; Mast, R W; Sander, W J

    2001-06-01

    Schizochytrium sp. dried microalgae (DRM) contains oil rich in highly unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA n-3) is the most abundant PUFA component of the oil. DHA-rich oil extracted from Schizochytrium sp. is intended for use as a nutritional ingredient in foods. As part of a comprehensive safety assessment program, the reproductive toxicity of DRM was examined in Sprague-Dawley-derived rats Crl:CD(SD)BR (30/sex/group) provided DRM in the diet at concentrations of 0, 0.6, 6.0, and 30%. These dietary levels corresponded to overall average dosages of approximately 400, 3900, and 17,800 mg/kg/day for F0 males (premating) and 480, 4600, and 20,700 mg/kg/day for F0 females, respectively. Prior to mating, males and females of the F0 generation were treated for 10 and 2 weeks, respectively. Treatment of males continued throughout mating and until termination (approximately 3 weeks after mating). Treatment of the females was continued throughout gestation and through lactation day 21. The females were killed after raising their young to weaning at 21 days of age. Food consumption was measured weekly throughout the study (except during mating) and body weights were recorded at least weekly during premating, gestation, and lactation. Reproductive parameters including estrus cycle duration, mating performance, fertility, gestation length, parturition, and gestation index were evaluated. Litter size and offspring body weights were recorded, offspring viability indices were calculated, and physical development (vaginal opening and preputial separation) was assessed for the F1 generation. All adult F0 and F1 animals were subjected to a detailed necropsy. DRM treatment had no effect on estrus cycles or reproductive performance including mating performance, fertility, gestation length, parturition, or gestation index. Litter size, sex ratio, and offspring viability indices were similarly unaffected and there were no effects of DRM treatment on the physical

  15. 76 FR 39811 - International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety (the petitioners) requested that...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service International Center for Technology Assessment and the Center for Food Safety; Noxious Weed Status of Kentucky Bluegrass Genetically...

  16. A TIERED APPROACH TO LIFE STAGES TESTING FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL SAFETY ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A proposal has been developed by the Agricultural Chemical Safety Assessment (ACSA) Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) for an improved approach to assessing the safety of crop protection chemicals. The goal is to ensure that studie...

  17. Integrated Framework for Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency in Healthcare Facilities Retrofit Projects.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Atefeh; Anumba, Chimay J; Messner, John I

    2016-07-01

    There is a growing focus on enhancing energy efficiency in healthcare facilities, many of which are decades old. Since replacement of all aging healthcare facilities is not economically feasible, the retrofitting of these facilities is an appropriate path, which also provides an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures. In undertaking energy efficiency retrofits, it is vital that the safety of the patients in these facilities is maintained or enhanced. However, the interactions between patient safety and energy efficiency have not been adequately addressed to realize the full benefits of retrofitting healthcare facilities. To address this, an innovative integrated framework, the Patient Safety and Energy Efficiency (PATSiE) framework, was developed to simultaneously enhance patient safety and energy efficiency. The framework includes a step -: by -: step procedure for enhancing both patient safety and energy efficiency. It provides a structured overview of the different stages involved in retrofitting healthcare facilities and improves understanding of the intricacies associated with integrating patient safety improvements with energy efficiency enhancements. Evaluation of the PATSiE framework was conducted through focus groups with the key stakeholders in two case study healthcare facilities. The feedback from these stakeholders was generally positive, as they considered the framework useful and applicable to retrofit projects in the healthcare industry.

  18. Integrating animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J A; Silva, P

    2013-08-01

    Surveillance at the slaughterhouse level for animal health and food safety purposes encompasses examination for the presence of pathology, pathogens, drug residues, chemical contaminants and antimicrobial resistance. Government, industry and academia are the primary proponents of such surveillance. A variety of policies and policy instruments from voluntary to legislative may be applied to promote or obligate participation. Efforts to integrate data across such diverse organisations encounter significant legal, logistical and financial challenges. Enhancement of policies to encourage effective integration of animal health and food safety surveillance data from slaughterhouse control should promote: a long-term approach; collaboration among government, industry and academia; application of a risk-based scheme; and transparent public access to data, with generation of consumer-oriented communications derived from the data. A strong case can be made that the complementary pursuit of both sustainable animal health and food safety can continue to be aided by surveillance at the slaughterhouse level.

  19. Knowledge integrated visual analysis system for in-depth management of bridge safety and maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Dou, Wenwen; Vatcha, Rashna; Liu, Wanqiu; Chen, Shen-En; Lee, Seok-Won; Chang, Remco; Ribarsky, William

    2009-05-01

    Infrastructure safety affects millions of U.S citizens in many ways. Among all the infrastructures, the bridge plays a significant role in providing substantial economy and public safety. Nearly 600,000 bridges across the U.S are mandated to be inspected every twenty-four months. Although these inspections could generate great amount of rich data for bridge engineers to make critical maintenance decisions, processing these data has become challenging due to the low efficiency from those traditional bridge management systems. In collaboration with North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT) and other regional DOT collaborators, we present our knowledge integrated visual analytics bridge management system. Our system aims to provide bridge engineers a highly interactive data exploration environment as well as knowledge pools for corresponding bridge information. By integrating the knowledge structure with visualization system, our system could provide comprehensive understandings of the bridge assets and enables bridge engineers to investigate potential bridge safety issues and make maintenance decisions.

  20. Integration of occupational health and safety, environmental and quality management system standards.

    PubMed

    Stromsvag, A; Winder, C

    1997-01-01

    Occupational health and safety, environmental, and quality (SEQ) issues are commonly managed by three separate departments within organizations. Because of a number of commonalities in the three management systems, there could be a degree of overlap that might lead to inefficiencies. By integrating these three management systems into one SEQ system, the duplication of effort could be minimized and the health and safety, environmental, and quality issues could be managed by one common proactive approach. The draft Australian standard for an occupational health and safety (OHS) management system and the internationally accepted standards for environmental (ISO 14001) and quality (ISO 9001) management systems were analyzed to identify all requirements of the three management systems and integrate this into one SEQ management system standard.

  1. Assessing the relationship between patient safety culture and EHR strategy.

    PubMed

    Ford, Eric W; Silvera, Geoffrey A; Kazley, Abby S; Diana, Mark L; Huerta, Timothy R

    2016-07-11

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between hospitals' electronic health record (EHR) adoption characteristics and their patient safety cultures. The "Meaningful Use" (MU) program is designed to increase hospitals' adoption of EHR, which will lead to better care quality, reduce medical errors, avoid unnecessary cost, and promote a patient safety culture. To reduce medical errors, hospital leaders have been encouraged to promote safety cultures common to high-reliability organizations. Expecting a positive relationship between EHR adoption and improved patient safety cultures appears sound in theory, but it has yet to be empirically demonstrated. Design/methodology/approach - Providers' perceptions of patient safety culture and counts of patient safety incidents are explored in relationship to hospital EHR adoption patterns. Multi-level modeling is employed to data drawn from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's surveys on patient safety culture (level 1) and the American Hospital Association's survey and healthcare information technology supplement (level 2). Findings - The findings suggest that the early adoption of EHR capabilities hold a negative association to the number of patient safety events reported. However, this relationship was not present in providers' perceptions of overall patient safety cultures. These mixed results suggest that the understanding of the EHR-patient safety culture relationship needs further research. Originality/value - Relating EHR MU and providers' care quality attitudes is an important leading indicator for improved patient safety cultures. For healthcare facility managers and providers, the ability to effectively quantify the impact of new technologies on efforts to change organizational cultures is important for pinpointing clinical areas for process improvements.

  2. An Assessment of Integrated Health Management Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Lybeck, Nancy; Coble, Jamie B.; Tawfik, Magdy; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-05-18

    In order to meet the ever increasing demand for energy, the United States nuclear industry is turning to life extension of existing nuclear power plants (NPPs). Economically ensuring the safe, secure, and reliable operation of aging NPPs presents many challenges. The 2009 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop identified online monitoring of active and structural components as essential to better understanding and management of the challenges posed by aging NPPs. Additionally, there is increasing adoption of condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components in NPPs. These techniques provide a foundation upon which a variety of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic, and prognostic techniques can be deployed to continuously monitor and assess the health of NPP systems and components. The next step in the development of advanced online monitoring is to move beyond CBM to estimating the remaining useful life of active components using prognostic tools. Deployment of prognostic health management (PHM) on the scale of an NPP requires the use of an integrated health management (IHM) framework - a software product (or suite of products) used to manage the necessary elements needed for a complete implementation of online monitoring and prognostics. This paper provides a thoughtful look at the desirable functions and features of IHM architectures. A full PHM system involves several modules, including data acquisition, system modeling, fault detection, fault diagnostics, system prognostics, and advisory generation (operations and maintenance planning). The standards applicable to PHM applications are indentified and summarized. A list of evaluation criteria for PHM software products, developed to ensure scalability of the toolset to an environment with the complexity of an NPP, is presented. Fourteen commercially available PHM software products are identified and classified into four groups: research tools, PHM system development tools, deployable architectures

  3. The integral fast reactor (IFR) concept: Physics of operation and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, D.C.; Chang, Y.I.

    1987-01-01

    The IFR concept employs a pool layout, a U/Pu/Zr metal alloy fuel and a closed fuel cycle based on pyrometallurgical reprocessing and injection casting refabrication. The reactor physics issues of designing for inherent safety and for a closed fissile self-sufficient integral fuel cycle with uranium startup and potential actinide transmutation are discussed.

  4. Assessing Natural Product-Drug Interactions: An End-to-End Safety Framework.

    PubMed

    Roe, Amy L; Paine, Mary F; Gurley, Bill J; Brouwer, Kenneth R; Jordan, Scott; Griffiths, James C

    2016-04-01

    The use of natural products (NPs), including herbal medicines and other dietary supplements, by North Americans continues to increase across all age groups. This population has access to conventional medications, with significant polypharmacy observed in older adults. Thus, the safety of the interactions between multi-ingredient NPs and drugs is a topic of paramount importance. Considerations such as history of safe use, literature data from animal toxicity and human clinical studies, and NP constituent characterization would provide guidance on whether to assess NP-drug interactions experimentally. The literature is replete with reports of various NP extracts and constituents as potent inhibitors of drug metabolizing enzymes, and transporters. However, without standard methods for NP characterization or in vitro testing, extrapolating these reports to clinically-relevant NP-drug interactions is difficult. This lack of a clear definition of risk precludes clinicians and consumers from making informed decisions about the safety of taking NPs with conventional medications. A framework is needed that describes an integrated robust approach for assessing NP-drug interactions; and, translation of the data into formulation alterations, dose adjustment, labelling, and/or post-marketing surveillance strategies. A session was held at the 41st Annual Summer Meeting of the Toxicology Forum in Colorado Springs, CO, to highlight the challenges and critical components that should be included in a framework approach.

  5. Pesticide exposure, safety issues, and risk assessment indicators.

    PubMed

    Damalas, Christos A; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G

    2011-05-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  6. Integrating life cycle assessment into managing potential EHS risks of engineered nanomaterials: reviewing progress to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, William C.; Bosso, Christopher J.; Eckelman, Matthew; Isaacs, Jacqueline A.; Pourzahedi, Leila

    2015-08-01

    The 2011 National Nanotechnology Initiative's Environmental Health and Safety Research Strategy stressed the need for research to integrate life cycle considerations into risk management and, then, to better integrate risk assessment into decisionmaking on environmental, health, and safety (EHS) dimensions of nanomanufacturing. This paper reviews scholarly articles published 2010-2015 that in some way apply life cycle analysis to nanotechnology to assess the extent to which current research reflects the priorities lain out in the NNI report. As the NNI's focus was primarily on the "responsible development of nanotechnology" we also focus our examination on the ways in which LCA, in concert with other methodologies, can provide utility to decision makers facing the challenge of implementing that broad goal. We explore some of the challenges and opportunities inherent in using LCA, a tool built to optimize manufacturing decisions, as a guide for policy formulation or tool for policy implementation.

  7. Assessing Rural Coalitions That Address Safety and Health Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgus, Shari; Schwab, Charles; Shelley, Mack

    2012-01-01

    Community coalitions can help national organizations meet their objectives. Farm Safety 4 Just Kids depends on coalitions of local people to deliver farm safety and health educational programs to children and their families. These coalitions are called chapters. An evaluation was developed to identify individual coalition's strengths and…

  8. 76 FR 45453 - New Car Assessment Program (NCAP); Safety Labeling

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... resistance ratings. This final rule amends NHTSA's regulation on vehicle labeling of safety rating... Administration (NHTSA) subjects vehicles to frontal crash, side crash, and rollover resistance tests and, based... rollover resistance tests (whether or not such automobile has been assigned a safety rating for such...

  9. The application of integrated knowledge-based systems for the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Karin C.; Ly, Bebe; Webster, Laurie; Verlander, James; Taylor, Gerald R.; Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris

    1992-01-01

    One of NASA's goals for long duration space flight is to maintain acceptable levels of crew health, safety, and performance. One way of meeting this goal is through BRAIN, an integrated network of both human and computer elements. BRAIN will function as an advisor to mission managers by assessing the risk of inflight biomedical problems and recommending appropriate countermeasures. Described here is a joint effort among various NASA elements to develop BRAIN and the Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) prototype. The implementation of this effort addresses the technological aspects of knowledge acquisition, integration of IDRA components, the use of expert systems to automate the biomedical prediction process, development of a user friendly interface, and integration of IDRA and ExerCISys systems. Because C language, CLIPS and the X-Window System are portable and easily integrated, they were chosen ss the tools for the initial IDRA prototype.

  10. Assessing Knowledge Integration in Science: Construct, Measures, and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Lee, Hee-Sun; Hofstetter, Carolyn; Linn, Marcia C.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the demand for sound science assessments, this article presents the development of a latent construct called knowledge integration as an effective measure of science inquiry. Knowledge integration assessments ask students to link, distinguish, evaluate, and organize their ideas about complex scientific topics. The article focuses on…

  11. Testing Natureserve's ecological integrity assessment model in Michigan and Indiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    NatureServe, in partnership with member programs from the Natural Heritage Network and federal agencies, has developed an assessment of ecosystems condition, structured around the concept of ecological integrity. Our multi-metric approach for our Ecological Integrity Assessment m...

  12. 76 FR 38650 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075A). The original Federal Register notice... Development as part of the review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Lead. DATES:...

  13. 77 FR 70776 - Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... AGENCY Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., ``Third External Review Draft Integrated Science Assessment for Lead'' (EPA/600/R-10/075C). The document... lead (Pb). EPA is releasing this draft document to seek review by the Clean Air Scientific...

  14. 75 FR 4815 - Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of a final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Carbon Monoxide'' (EPA/600/R-09... standards (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide. DATES: The document will be available on January 29, 2010....

  15. 2013 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Lead

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA released the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Lead (...

  16. 2009 Final Report: Integrated Science Assessment for Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cover of the <span class=Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Particulate Matter" vspace = "5" hspace="5" align="right" border="1" /> EPA has released the final Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for P...

  17. 75 FR 8934 - Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Pb)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Lead (Pb) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) as part of the review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards... Project Section 108 (a) of the Clean Air Act directs the Administrator to identify pollutants that...

  18. Using technology in assessing integrated science and mathematics learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    1995-03-01

    Drawing from current models, research, and science and mathematics education reform documents, this article first defines and/or delimits three broad domains of education: integrated school science and mathematics, assessment, and technology. Based upon this three-tiered discussion, a list of characteristics is then distilled to guide in the development of assessment for integrated school science and mathematics using technology. Two integrated school science and mathematics activities are provided to illustrate the alignment of instruction and assessment and the systematic integration of technology into both.

  19. Integrated assurance assessment of a reconfigurable digital flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ness, W. G.; Davis, R. M.; Benson, J. W.; Smith, M. K.; Eldredge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated application of reliability, failure effects and system simulator methods in establishing the airworthiness of a flight critical digital flight control system (DFCS) is demonstrated. The emphasis was on the mutual reinforcement of the methods in demonstrating the system safety.

  20. Safety Lead Optimization and Candidate Identification: Integrating New Technologies into Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Dambach, Donna M; Misner, Dinah; Brock, Mathew; Fullerton, Aaron; Proctor, William; Maher, Jonathan; Lee, Dong; Ford, Kevin; Diaz, Dolores

    2016-04-18

    Discovery toxicology focuses on the identification of the most promising drug candidates through the development and implementation of lead optimization strategies and hypothesis-driven investigation of issues that enable rational and informed decision-making. The major goals are to [a] identify and progress the drug candidate with the best overall drug safety profile for a therapeutic area, [b] remove the most toxic drugs from the portfolio prior to entry into humans to reduce clinical attrition due to toxicity, and [c] establish a well-characterized hazard and translational risk profile to enable clinical trial designs. This is accomplished through a framework that balances the multiple considerations to identify a drug candidate with the overall best drug characteristics and provides a cogent understanding of mechanisms of toxicity. The framework components include establishing a target candidate profile for each program that defines the qualities of a successful candidate based on the intended therapeutic area, including the risk tolerance for liabilities; evaluating potential liabilities that may result from engaging the therapeutic target (pharmacology-mediated or on-target) and that are chemical structure-mediated (off-target); and characterizing identified liabilities. Lead optimization and investigation relies upon the integrated use of a variety of technologies and models (in silico, in vitro, and in vivo) that have achieved a sufficient level of qualification or validation to provide confidence in their use. We describe the strategic applications of various nonclinical models (established and new) for a holistic and integrated risk assessment that is used for rational decision-making. While this review focuses on strategies for small molecules, the overall concepts, approaches, and technologies are generally applicable to biotherapeutics.

  1. Timing of Formal Phase Safety Reviews for Large-Scale Integrated Hazard Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, Michael J.; Morris, A. Terry

    2010-01-01

    Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is a process used to identify and control unacceptable risk. As such, it does not occur in a vacuum. IHA approaches must be tailored to fit the system being analyzed. Physical, resource, organizational and temporal constraints on large-scale integrated systems impose additional direct or derived requirements on the IHA. The timing and interaction between engineering and safety organizations can provide either benefits or hindrances to the overall end product. The traditional approach for formal phase safety review timing and content, which generally works well for small- to moderate-scale systems, does not work well for very large-scale integrated systems. This paper proposes a modified approach to timing and content of formal phase safety reviews for IHA. Details of the tailoring process for IHA will describe how to avoid temporary disconnects in major milestone reviews and how to maintain a cohesive end-to-end integration story particularly for systems where the integrator inherently has little to no insight into lower level systems. The proposal has the advantage of allowing the hazard analysis development process to occur as technical data normally matures.

  2. Bringing Water into an Integrated Assessment Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Izaurralde, Roberto C.; Thomson, Allison M.; Sands, Ronald; Pitcher, Hugh M.

    2010-11-30

    We developed a modeling capability to understand how water is allocated within a river basin and examined present and future water allocations among agriculture, energy production, other human requirements, and ecological needs. Water is an essential natural resource needed for food and fiber production, household and industrial uses, energy production, transportation, tourism and recreation, and the functioning of natural ecosystems. Anthropogenic climate change and population growth are anticipated to impose unprecedented pressure on water resources during this century. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers have pioneered the development of integrated assessment (IA) models for the analysis of energy and economic systems under conditions of climate change. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort led to the development of a modeling capability to evaluate current and future water allocations between human requirements and ecosystem services. The Water Prototype Model (WPM) was built in STELLA®, a computer modeling package with a powerful interface that enables users to construct dynamic models to simulate and integrate many processes (biological, hydrological, economics, sociological). A 150,404-km2 basin in the United States (U.S.) Pacific Northwest region served as the platform for the development of the WPM. About 60% of the study basin is in the state of Washington with the rest in Oregon. The Columbia River runs through the basin for 874 km, starting at the international border with Canada and ending (for the purpose of the simulation) at The Dalles dam. Water enters the basin through precipitation and from streamflows originating from the Columbia River at the international border with Canada, the Spokane River, and the Snake River. Water leaves the basin through evapotranspiration, consumptive uses (irrigation, livestock, domestic, commercial, mining, industrial, and off-stream power generation), and streamflow

  3. Assessing risk: the role of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in patient safety improvement.

    PubMed

    Wreathall, J; Nemeth, C

    2004-06-01

    Morbidity and mortality due to "medical errors" compel better understanding of health care as a system. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been used to assess the designs of high hazard, low risk systems such as commercial nuclear power plants and chemical manufacturing plants and is now being studied for its potential in the improvement of patient safety. PRA examines events that contribute to adverse outcomes through the use of event tree analysis and determines the likelihood of event occurrence through fault tree analysis. It complements tools already in use in patient safety such as failure modes and effects analyses (FMEAs) and root cause analyses (RCAs). PRA improves on RCA by taking account of the more complex causal interrelationships that are typical in health care. It also enables the analyst to examine potential solution effectiveness by direct graphical representations. However, PRA simplifies real world complexity by forcing binary conditions on events, and it lacks adequate probability data (although recent developments help to overcome these limitations). Its reliance on expert assessment calls for deep domain knowledge which has to come from research performed at the "sharp end" of acute care.

  4. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  5. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  6. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  7. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  8. 48 CFR 952.223-71 - Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning and execution. 952.223-71 Section 952.223-71 Federal Acquisition... Provisions and Clauses 952.223-71 Integration of environment, safety, and health into work planning...

  9. Recent developments in Topaz-II reactor safety assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. )

    1993-01-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of a US launch of a Russian Topaz-II space nuclear power system. The primary mission goal would be to demonstrate and evaluate nuclear electric propulsion technology to establish a capability for future civilian and military missions. A preliminary nuclear safety analysis was initiated to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. This paper describes preliminary safety analysis results and the nuclear safety program now being established for the NEP space test (NEPST).

  10. Safety pharmacology: an essential interface of pharmacology and toxicology in the non-clinical assessment of new pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Claude, Jean-Roger; Claude, Nancy

    2004-06-15

    Safety pharmacology studies are defined as the studies that investigate the potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects of a substance on physiological functions in relation to exposure. In consequence, these studies are an integral part of the non-clinical safety assessment of new pharmaceuticals, in association with toxicological studies. A retrospective shows the evolution of the discipline in these last years. Safety pharmacology studies are of special interest, and some drawbacks and pitfalls must be considered (i.e. invasive methods, difficulties related to GLP (good laboratory practices) requirements, choice of a strategy). In the future, some priority should be given to education, promotion of scientific activities, reinforcement of the links between pharmacologists and toxicologists and implementation of relevant guidelines.

  11. Approaches in the risk assessment of genetically modified foods by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority.

    PubMed

    Varzakas, Theodoros H; Chryssochoidis, G; Argyropoulos, D

    2007-04-01

    Risk analysis has become important to assess conditions and take decisions on control procedures. In this context it is considered a prerequisite in the evaluation of GM food. Many consumers worldwide worry that food derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be unhealthy and hence regulations on GMO authorisations and labelling have become more stringent. Nowadays there is a higher demand for non-GM products and these products could be differentiated from GM products using the identity preservation system (IP) that could apply throughout the grain processing system. IP is the creation of a transparent communication system that encompasses HACCP, traceability and related systems in the supply chain. This process guarantees that certain characteristics of the lots of food (non-GM origin) are maintained "from farm to fork". This article examines the steps taken by the Hellenic Food Safety Authority to examine the presence of GMOs in foods. The whole integrated European legislation framework currently in place still needs to be implemented in Greece. Penalties should be enforced to those who import, process GMOs without special licence and do not label those products. Similar penalties should be enforced to those companies that issue false certificates beyond the liabilities taken by the food enterprises for farmers' compensation. We argue that Greece has no serious reasons to choose the use of GMOs due to the fact that the structural and pedologic characteristics of the Greek agriculture favour the biological and integrated cultivation more. Greece is not in favour of the politics behind coexistence of conventional and GM plants and objects to the use of GMOs in the food and the environment because the processor has a big burden in terms of money, time and will suffer a great deal in order to prove that their products are GMO free or that any contamination is adventitious or technically unavoidable. Moreover, Greece owns a large variety of genetic

  12. Bayesian-network-based safety risk assessment for steel construction projects.

    PubMed

    Leu, Sou-Sen; Chang, Ching-Miao

    2013-05-01

    There are four primary accident types at steel building construction (SC) projects: falls (tumbles), object falls, object collapse, and electrocution. Several systematic safety risk assessment approaches, such as fault tree analysis (FTA) and failure mode and effect criticality analysis (FMECA), have been used to evaluate safety risks at SC projects. However, these traditional methods ineffectively address dependencies among safety factors at various levels that fail to provide early warnings to prevent occupational accidents. To overcome the limitations of traditional approaches, this study addresses the development of a safety risk-assessment model for SC projects by establishing the Bayesian networks (BN) based on fault tree (FT) transformation. The BN-based safety risk-assessment model was validated against the safety inspection records of six SC building projects and nine projects in which site accidents occurred. The ranks of posterior probabilities from the BN model were highly consistent with the accidents that occurred at each project site. The model accurately provides site safety-management abilities by calculating the probabilities of safety risks and further analyzing the causes of accidents based on their relationships in BNs. In practice, based on the analysis of accident risks and significant safety factors, proper preventive safety management strategies can be established to reduce the occurrence of accidents on SC sites.

  13. Extended time-to-collision measures for road traffic safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Minderhoud, M M; Bovy, P H

    2001-01-01

    This article describes two new safety indicators based on the time-to-collision notion suitable for comparative road traffic safety analyses. Such safety indicators can be applied in the comparison of a do-nothing case with an adapted situation, e.g. the introduction of intelligent driver support systems. In contrast to the classical time-to-collision value, measured at a cross section, the improved safety indicators use vehicle trajectories collected over a specific time horizon for a certain roadway segment to calculate the overall safety indicator value. Vehicle-specific indicator values as well as safety-critical probabilities can easily be determined from the developed safety measures. Application of the derived safety indicators is demonstrated for the assessment of the potential safety impacts of driver support systems from which it appears that some Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) designs are more safety-critical than the reference case without these systems. It is suggested that the indicator threshold value to be applied in the safety assessment has to be adapted when advanced AICC-systems with safe characteristics are introduced.

  14. Major food safety episodes in Taiwan: implications for the necessity of international collaboration on safety assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Li, Jih-Heng; Yu, Wen-Jing; Lai, Yuan-Hui; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2012-07-01

    The major food safety episodes that occurred in Taiwan during the past decade are briefly reviewed in this paper. Among the nine major episodes surveyed, with the exception of a U.S. beef (associated with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease)-related incident, all the others were associated with chemical toxicants. The general public, which has a layperson attitude of zero tolerance toward food safety, may panic over these food-safety-associated incidents. However, the health effects and impacts of most incidents, with the exception of the melamine incident, were essentially not fully evaluated. The mass media play an important role in determining whether a food safety concern becomes a major incident. A well-coordinated and harmonized system for domestic and international collaboration to set up standards and regulations is critical, as observed in the incidents of pork with ractopamine, Chinese hairy crab with nitrofuran antibiotics, and U.S. wheat with malathion. In the future, it can be anticipated that food safety issues will draw more attention from the general public. For unknown new toxicants or illicit adulteration of food, the establishment of a more proactive safety assessment system to monitor potential threats and provide real-time information exchange is imperative.

  15. Safety Assessment of PowerBeam Flywheel Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, J Michael; Hansen, James Gerald

    2009-11-01

    The greatest technical challenge facing the developer of vehicular flywheel systems is the issue of safety. The PowerBeam flywheel system concept, developed by HyKinesys Inc., employs a pair of high aspect ratio, counter-rotating flywheels to provide surge power for hybrid vehicle applications. The PowerBeam approach to safety is to design flywheels conservatively so as to avoid full rotor burst failure modes. A conservative point design was sized for use in a mid-size sedan such as a Chevrolet Malibu. The PowerBeam rotor rims were designed with a steel tube covered by a carbon fiber reinforced composite tube. ORNL conducted rotor design analyses using both nested ring and finite element analysis design codes. The safety factor of the composite material was 7, while that of the steel was greater than 3. The design exceeded the PNGV recommendation for a safety factor of at least 4 for composite material to prevent flywheel burst.

  16. In Vitro Assessment of Gamete Integrity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drug and xenobiotics can compromise reproductive function by impairing gamete physiology and thereby blocking fertilization, or by damaging gamete DNA or chromatin and thereby causing pregnancy failure or birth defects. tandard measures of gamete integrity, such as morphology, mo...

  17. Computer Aided Method for System Safety and Reliability Assessments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information...aspects of safety within the constraints of operational effectiveness, time and cost throughout all phases of the system life cycle.” Often there...contributes to systems engineering objectives by applying a set of safety design requirements throughout all life cycle phases of a system, whether

  18. Modelling and Assessing Air-Surface Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    2011), Qu?c City , Qu?c, Canada, June 21-23, 2011. U.S. Government or Federal Rights License. 14. ABSTRACT Air-Surface Integration (ASI) is an...structure capability and identifies socio-technical issues in the ASI system for capability designers . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...for capability designers . 1. Introduction Air Surface Integration (ASI) has been conducted by forces in a variety of operations dating back to

  19. Fluor Daniel Hanford Inc. integrated safety management system phase 1 verification final report

    SciTech Connect

    PARSONS, J.E.

    1999-10-28

    The purpose of this review is to verify the adequacy of documentation as submitted to the Approval Authority by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH). This review is not only a review of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) System Description documentation, but is also a review of the procedures, policies, and manuals of practice used to implement safety management in an environment of organizational restructuring. The FDH ISMS should support the Hanford Strategic Plan (DOE-RL 1996) to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy waste; deploy science and technology while incorporating the ISMS theme to ''Do work safely''; and protect human health and the environment.

  20. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation activities. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-11-08

    This revision adds a section addressing impacts of dropping surfacing tool and rack cutter on the basin floor, and corrects typographical errors. The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparisons of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions was made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classifications.

  1. The Challenge of Assessing Professional Competence in Work Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental aspect of work integrated learning (WIL) is the development of professional competence, the ability of students to perform in the workplace. Alignment theory therefore suggests that the assessment of WIL should include an assessment of students' demonstration of professional competence in the workplace. The assessment of professional…

  2. Integration of Mobile AR Technology in Performance Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo-Hung, Chao; Kuo-En, Chang; Chung-Hsien, Lan; Kinshuk; Yao-Ting, Sung

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring how to use augmented reality (AR) technology to enhance the effect of performance assessment (PA). A mobile AR performance assessment system (MARPAS) was developed by integrating AR technology to reduce the limitations in observation and assessment during PA. This system includes three modules: Authentication, AR…

  3. Development of safety concept of electric wheelchair driving support system based on assessment of risk.

    PubMed

    Kurozumi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Toru; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we pay attention to the electric wheelchair driving support. We look at the functional safety of the electric wheelchair. Based on intrinsically-safe electric wheelchair, we add driving support system to increase functional safety. The driving support system processes the environmental information sensor data including the 3D laser Range scanner and biological monitoring sensor data including electrooculogram, and assists avoidance of dangerous objects. We have developed safety concept that based on assessment of risk.

  4. Integrating Student Voice: Assessment for Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper charts the development of a conceptual model for student involvement in assessment practice. This development seeks, through an exploration of literature in the field, to locate pedagogy that: (1) supports partnerships in assessment that lead to empowered autonomous learners; and (2) provides opportunities for student voice that support…

  5. Implications of Monte Carlo Statistical Errors in Criticality Safety Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, Ronald E.

    2005-09-15

    Most criticality safety calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques because of Monte Carlo's ability to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. For Monte Carlo calculations, the more histories sampled, the lower the standard deviation of the resulting estimates. The common intuition is, therefore, that the more histories, the better; as a result, analysts tend to run Monte Carlo analyses as long as possible (or at least to a minimum acceptable uncertainty). For Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses, however, the optimization situation is complicated by the fact that procedures usually require that an extra margin of safety be added because of the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculations. This additional safety margin affects the impact of the choice of the calculational standard deviation, both on production and on safety. This paper shows that, under the assumptions of normally distributed benchmarking calculational errors and exact compliance with the upper subcritical limit (USL), the standard deviation that optimizes production is zero, but there is a non-zero value of the calculational standard deviation that minimizes the risk of inadvertently labeling a supercritical configuration as subcritical. Furthermore, this value is shown to be a simple function of the typical benchmarking step outcomes--the bias, the standard deviation of the bias, the upper subcritical limit, and the number of standard deviations added to calculated k-effectives before comparison to the USL.

  6. Ocular Health and Safety Assessment among Mechanics of the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Boadi-Kusi, Samuel Bert; Opuni, Prince Quarcoo; Kyei, Samuel; Owusu-Ansah, Andrew; Darko-Takyi, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct an ocular health and safety assessment among mechanics in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study included 500 mechanics using multistage sampling. All participants filled a structured questionnaire on demographic data, occupational history and ocular health history. Study participants underwent determination of visual acuity (VA) using LogMAR chart, external eye examination with a handheld slit lamp biomicroscope, dilated fundus examination, applanation tonometry and refraction. Results: Out of 500 mechanics, 433 were examined (response rate, 87%) comprised of 408 (94.2%) male and 25 (5.8%) female subjects. The prevalence of visual impairment (i.e. presenting VA < 6/18) among the respondents was 2.1%. Eye injuries were reported in 171 (39.5%) mechanics probably due to the large number of workers, 314 (72.5%), who did not use eye protective devices. Mechanics in the auto welding category were at the highest risk of sustaining an eye injury (odds ratio [OR], 13.4; P < 0.001). Anterior segment ocular disorders were mostly pterygia while posterior segment eye disorders included glaucoma suspects and retinochoroidal lesions. The development of pterygia was associated with the number of years a mechanic stayed on the job. Eye care seeking behavior among the participants was poor. Conclusion: Eye injuries were prevalent among the mechanics as the use of eye protection was low. Eye safety should be made an integral part of the public health agenda in the Cape Coast Metropolis. PMID:27195090

  7. Lessons in Nuclear Safety, Panel on Integration of People and Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkston, David

    2015-02-24

    Four slides present a historical perspective on the evolution of nuclear safety, a description of systemic misalignment (available resources do not match expectations, demographic cliff developing, promulgation of increased expectations and new requirements proceeds unabated), and needs facing nuclear safety (financial stability, operational stability, and succession planning). The following conclusions are stated under the heading "Nuclear Safety - 'The System'": the current universe of requirements is too large for the resource pool available; the current universe of requirements has too many different sources of interpretation; there are so many indicators that it’s hard to know what is leading (or important); and the net result can come to defy integrated comprehension at the worker level.

  8. A risk characterization of safety research areas for Integral Fast Reactor program planning

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, C.J.; Cahalan, J.E.; Hill, D.J.; Kramer, J.M.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Pedersen, D.R.; Sevy, R.H.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wei, T.Y.; Wright, A.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper characterizes the areas of Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) safety research in terms of their importance in addressing the risk of core disruption sequences for innovative designs. Such sequences have traditionally been determined to constitute the primary risk to public health and safety. All core disruption sequences are folded into four fault categories: classic unprotected (unscrammed) events; loss of decay heat; local fault propagation; and failure of critical reactor structures. Event trees are used to describe these sequences and the areas in the IFR Safety and related Base Technology research programs are discussed with respect to their relevance in addressing the key issues in preventing or delimiting core disruptive sequences. Thus a measure of potential for risk reduction is obtained for guidance in establishing research priorites.

  9. Integrating Safety in the Aviation System: Interdepartmental Training for Pilots and Maintenance Technicians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, Marifran; Petrin, Donald A.; Young, John P.

    2001-01-01

    The study of human factors has had a decisive impact on the aviation industry. However, the entire aviation system often is not considered in researching, training, and evaluating human factors issues especially with regard to safety. In both conceptual and practical terms, we argue for the proactive management of human error from both an individual and organizational systems perspective. The results of a multidisciplinary research project incorporating survey data from professional pilots and maintenance technicians and an exploratory study integrating students from relevant disciplines are reported. Survey findings suggest that latent safety errors may occur during the maintenance discrepancy reporting process because pilots and maintenance technicians do not effectively interact with one another. The importance of interdepartmental or cross-disciplinary training for decreasing these errors and increasing safety is discussed as a primary implication.

  10. Integrated resource assessment and sustainable land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Yongyuan; Pierce, John T.

    1993-05-01

    Decision makers and planners in resource sectors recognize, at least in theory, the multiple uses of land, reflecting possible choices and options for society, and the need to evaluate the economic, social, and environmental implications of these choices. As such, the need for integrated resource management is now widely accepted in resource planning. This article contributes to the understanding of sustainable resource development through a specific case study. An integrated analytical system is developed and applied to the Peace River Region, British Columbia, Canada, to examine the impacts of a wide range of land-use options and policies upon the achievement of multiple resource use goals. The results indicate that an integrated approach in land resource analysis is not only possible but a necessary step in the move to develop procedures for assisting public decision makers in integrating the diverse functions of the land resource base and to revise demands or develop alternative strategies in order to move society closer to sustainable outcomes.

  11. [Integral assessment of learning subjects difficulties].

    PubMed

    Grebniak, N P; Shchudro, S A

    2010-01-01

    The integral criterion for subject difficulties in senior classes is substantiated in terms of progress in studies, variation coefficient, and subjective and expert appraisals of the difficulty of subjects. The compiled regression models adequately determine the difficulty of academic subjects. According to the root-mean-square deviation, all subjects were found to have 3 degrees of difficulty.

  12. Assessment of Native Languages for Food Safety Training Programs for Meat Industry Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sherrlyn S.; Cordray, Joseph C.; Sapp, Stephen; Sebranek, Joseph G.; Anderson, Barbara; Wenger, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Challenges arise when teaching food safety to culturally diverse employees working in meatpacking and food manufacturing industries. A food safety training program was developed in English, translated into Spanish, and administered to 1,265 adult learners. Assessments were conducted by comparing scores before and immediately following training.…

  13. Assessment of Food Safety Knowledge of High School and Transition Teachers of Special Needs Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Richard, Nicole Leydon; Gable, Robert K.; Hirsch, Diane Wright; Madaus, Joseph; Scarpati, Stan; Carbone, Elena

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents with disabilities require access to general education and life skills instruction. Knowledge of food safety for this audience is important for health and valuable for work placement. The objective was to implement a survey to assess high school and transition special education teachers in RI, CT, and MA for food safety knowledge and…

  14. ANALYSIS OF SEQUENTIAL FAILURES FOR ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY AND SAFETY OF MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS. (R828541)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment of reliability and safety of a manufacturing system with sequential failures is an important issue in industry, since the reliability and safety of the system depend not only on all failed states of system components, but also on the sequence of occurrences of those...

  15. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers.

  16. Rosetta lander Philae - Landing performance and touchdown safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, Lars; Roll, Reinhard; Biele, Jens; Ulamec, Stephan; Jurado, Eric

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the simulation and analysis work on Rosetta lander Philae's touchdown dynamics which was done to support its Landing Site Selection Process. The simulation part consists of a numerical multi-body simulation to describe Philae's touchdown dynamics. Suitable performance metrics in conjunction with Monte Carlo trajectory data from the flight dynamics analysis yields landing area specific landing gear performance and safety figures. These were then incorporated into the site selection process with regard to landing system performance margins and touchdown safety. While Philae finally made a nearly successful landing the actual flight data were used to review and discuss the applicability of the presented simulation and analysis scheme.

  17. Integrating Ecosystem Services Into Health Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Impact Assessment (HIA) provides a methodology for incorporating considerations of public health into planning and decision-making processes. HIA promotes interdisciplinary action, stakeholder participation, and timeliness and takes into account equity, sustainability, and...

  18. Safeguard By Design Lessons Learned from DOE Experience Integrating Safety into Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hockert, John; Burbank, Roberta L.

    2010-04-13

    This paper identifies the lessons to be learned for the institutionalization of Safeguards by Design (SBD) from the Department of Energy (DOE) experience developing and implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008, Integration of Safety into the Design Process. The experience is valuable because of the similarity of the challenges of integrating safety and safeguards into the design process. The paper reviews the content and development of DOE-STD-1189-2008 from its initial concept in January 2006 to its issuance in March 2008. Lessons learned are identified in the areas of the development and structure of requirements for the SBD process; the target audience for SBD requirements and guidance, the need for a graded approach to SBD, and a possible strategy for development and implementation of SBD within DOE.

  19. An integrative approach to assessment supervision.

    PubMed

    Yalof, Jed; Abraham, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Psychological assessment supervision requires the application of technical, conceptual, and interpersonal interventions that address the supervisee's skills, knowledge, and ethical competencies. This article discusses assessment domains that are fundamental to helping trainees refine technical and reasoning skills, and utilizes Jacob, David, and Meyer's (1995) application of Johnson-Laird's (1988) typology of thought as a supervisory technique that encourages the supervisee's inductive, associative, creative, and self-reflective thinking in response to clinical situations. A clinical illustration is presented.

  20. Measuring Safety Levels in Playgrounds Using Environment Assessment Scales: The Issue of Playground Safety in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botsoglou, Kafenia; Hrisikou, Spyridoula; Kakana, Domna Mika

    2011-01-01

    Playgrounds beget an unrivalled context which, through play activity, can foster children's growth. The foremost function of all playgrounds is to provide for safety. In the present study, our primary focus is to determine the degree of adequacy as far as playground equipment is concerned, including estimates of imminent dangers and the level of…

  1. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz 2) space reactor program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. C.

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 2 space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz 2 activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as the following: neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz 2 system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  2. Preliminary nuclear safety assessment of the NEPST (Topaz II) space reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    The United States (US) Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary nuclear safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary nuclear safety assessment included a number of deterministic analyses, such as; neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, an analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment to date, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with a modification to preclude water flooded criticality. A full scale safety program is now underway.

  3. Screening stress factors survey in an institute of advanced studies: health and safety integrated plans.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, C S; Gomes, C N; Barros, F S

    2012-01-01

    The current paper presents the study of organizational stressors survey carried out in a military institute, responsible for researches of high demand on aerospace technology. The study considered the theoretical framework of Organizational Ergonomics, combined with the technical guidelines of Psychology applied to Work Safety. The participatory approach was used on daily work assessment and decision making, aiming the adoption of corrective and preventive measures, considering possible distortions and imbalances between prescribed and actual activities. Thus, it was sought to engage and encourage the participation of the Institute's workers in the reflection/creation of better solutions to daily problems and to achieve productivity, without prejudice in the occupational health and safety.

  4. Flibe Use in Fusion Reactors - An Initial Safety Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, Lee Charles; Longhurst, Glen Reed

    1999-04-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF2) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  5. Flibe use in fusion reactors -- An initial safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    This report is an initial effort to identify and evaluate safety issues associated with the use of Flibe (LiF-BeF{sub 2}) as a molten salt coolant for nuclear fusion power plant applications. Flibe experience in the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment is briefly reviewed. Safety issues identified include chemical toxicity, radiological issues resulting from neutron activation, and the operational concerns of handling a high temperature coolant. Beryllium compounds and fluorine pose be toxicological concerns. Some controls to protect workers are discussed. Since Flibe has been handled safely in other applications, its hazards appear to be manageable. Some safety issues that require further study are pointed out. Flibe salt interaction with strong magnetic fields should be investigated. Evolution of Flibe constituents and activation products at high temperature (i.e., will Fluorine release as a gas or remain in the molten salt) is an issue. Aerosol and tritium release from a Flibe spill requires study, as does neutronics analysis to characterize radiological doses. Tritium migration from Flibe into the cooling system is also a safety concern. Investigation of these issues will help determine the extent to which Flibe shows promise as a fusion power plant coolant or plasma-facing material.

  6. An Assessment Framework for Inclusive Education: Integrating Assessment Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourke, Roseanna; Mentis, Mandia

    2014-01-01

    Teachers committed to inclusive education have the potential to revolutionise pedagogical and assessment practices within regular classrooms simply because students with high needs challenge traditional assumptions about what it means "to learn" and "to assess". This creates opportunities for teachers to find creative ways to…

  7. Integrated Modeling for Environmental Assessment of Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses environmental models to inform rulemaking and policy decisions at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In this study, several sophisticated modeling technologies are seamlessly integrated to facilitate a baseline assessment of the re...

  8. INCORPORATING CATASTROPHES INTO INTEGRATED ASSESSMENT: SCIENCE, IMPACTS, AND ADAPTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incorporating potential catastrophic consequences into integrated assessment models of climate change has been a top priority of policymakers and modelers alike. We review the current state of scientific understanding regarding three frequently mentioned geophysical catastrophes,...

  9. Rodent model for assessing the long term safety and performance of peripheral nerve recording electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Srikanth; Patel, Kunal; Welle, Cristin

    2017-02-01

    Objective. In the US alone, there are approximately 185 000 cases of limb amputation annually, which can reduce the quality of life for those individuals. Current prosthesis technology could be improved by access to signals from the nervous system for intuitive prosthesis control. After amputation, residual peripheral nerves continue to convey motor signals and electrical stimulation of these nerves can elicit sensory percepts. However, current technology for extracting information directly from peripheral nerves has limited chronic reliability, and novel approaches must be vetted to ensure safe long-term use. The present study aims to optimize methods to establish a test platform using rodent model to assess the long term safety and performance of electrode interfaces implanted in the peripheral nerves. Approach. Floating Microelectrode Arrays (FMA, Microprobes for Life Sciences) were implanted into the rodent sciatic nerve. Weekly in vivo recordings and impedance measurements were performed in animals to assess performance and physical integrity of electrodes. Motor (walking track analysis) and sensory (Von Frey) function tests were used to assess change in nerve function due to the implant. Following the terminal recording session, the nerve was explanted and the health of axons, myelin and surrounding tissues were assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The explanted electrodes were visualized under high magnification using scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) to observe any physical damage. Main results. Recordings of axonal action potentials demonstrated notable session-to-session variability. Impedance of the electrodes increased upon implantation and displayed relative stability until electrode failure. Initial deficits in motor function recovered by 2 weeks, while sensory deficits persisted through 6 weeks of assessment. The primary cause of failure was identified as lead wire breakage in all of animals. IHC indicated myelinated and unmyelinated axons

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    lymphoma assay at up to 0.51 mu g/ml, was equivocal in that assay when tested with S9, and was also equivocal in a sister-chromatid exchange assay using Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells with and without S9. Mice ingesting 80,000 ppm Trichloroethane in their drinking water had an increase in the frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes. A peripheral blood micronucleus test in female mice was negative. Trichloroethane was not carcinogenic to rats when administered 1500 mg/kg by oral gavage 5 days/week for 78 weeks or in mice administered 6000 mg/kg. Exposure to 1500 ppm Trichloroethane vapor for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 2 years likewise gave no indications of oncogenic effects in rats or mice. People who have been exposed to Trichloroethane have reported dizziness, lassitude, unconsciousness, respiratory depression, peripheral vascular collapse, impaired postural control, mild encephalopathy, perioral tingling, burning on the tongue and discomfort in the hands and feet. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel recognizes that Trichloroethane (1,1,1-Trichloroethane) has been declared a Class I ozone-depleting substance by the EPA and its use is limited to essential products. The FDA has determined that use of Trichloroethane in aerosol cosmetic products is considered nonessential. At issue for this assessment is the safety of direct exposure to individuals as a result of exposure to cosmetic products that may contain Trichloroethane. The Expert Panel found the available data to be sufficient to support the safety of Trichloroethane as a solvent in cosmetic products.

  11. Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for California, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. California's vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive ecosystems and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, ecosystem services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in California's present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern California Along California coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in California are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.

  12. Cyber / Physical Security Vulnerability Assessment Integration

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Douglas G.; Simpkins, Bret E.

    2012-07-28

    Abstract Both physical protection and cyber security domains offer solutions for the discovery of vulnerabilities through the use of various assessment processes and software tools. Each vulnerability assessment (VA) methodology provides the ability to identify and categorize vulnerabilities, and quantifies the risks within their own areas of expertise. Neither approach fully represents the true potential security risk to a site and/or a facility, nor comprehensively assesses the overall security posture. The technical approach to solving this problem was to identify methodologies and processes that blend the physical and cyber security assessments, and develop tools to accurately quantify the unaccounted for risk. SMEs from both the physical and the cyber security domains developed the blending methodologies, and cross trained each other on the various aspects of the physical and cyber security assessment processes. A local critical infrastructure entity volunteered to host a proof of concept physical/cyber security assessment, and the lessons learned have been leveraged by this effort. The four potential modes of attack an adversary can use in approaching a target are; Physical Only Attack, Cyber Only Attack, Physical Enabled Cyber Attack, and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack. The Physical Only and the Cyber Only pathway analysis are two of the most widely analyzed attack modes. The pathway from an off-site location to the desired target location is dissected to ensure adversarial activity can be detected and neutralized by the protection strategy, prior to completion of a predefined task. This methodology typically explores a one way attack from the public space (or common area) inward towards the target. The Physical Enabled Cyber Attack and the Cyber Enabled Physical Attack are much more intricate. Both scenarios involve beginning in one domain to affect change in the other, then backing outward to take advantage of the reduced system effectiveness, before

  13. 241-AN Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-09-21

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-AN double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.

  14. 241-AZ Double Shell Tanks (DST) Integrity Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    JENSEN, C.E.

    1999-09-21

    This report presents the results of the integrity assessment of the 241-A2 double-shell tank farm facility located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. The assessment included the design evaluation and integrity examinations of the tanks and concluded that the facility is adequately designed, is compatible with the waste, and is fit for use. Recommendations including subsequent examinations, are made to ensure the continued safe operation of the tanks.

  15. Integrated Model to Assess Cloud Deployment Effectiveness When Developing an IT-strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razumnikov, S.; Prankevich, D.

    2016-04-01

    Developing an IT-strategy of cloud deployment is a complex issue since even the stage of its formation necessitates revealing what applications will be the best possible to meet the requirements of a company business-strategy, evaluate reliability and safety of cloud providers and analyze staff satisfaction. A system of criteria, as well an integrated model to assess cloud deployment effectiveness is offered. The model makes it possible to identify what applications being at the disposal of a company, as well as new tools to be deployed are reliable and safe enough for implementation in the cloud environment. The data on practical use of the procedure to assess cloud deployment effectiveness by a provider of telecommunication services is presented. The model was used to calculate values of integral indexes of services to be assessed, then, ones, meeting the criteria and answering the business-strategy of a company, were selected.

  16. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    were genotoxic in bacterial assays. Coal Tar was genotoxic in a mammalian genotoxicity assay and induced DNA adducts in various tissue types. Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found. Coal Tar was comedogenic in three small clinical studies. Folliculitis is associated with the prolonged use of some tars. Several published reports describe cases of contact sensitivity to Coal Tar. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which make up Coal Tar, are photosensitizers and cause phototoxicity by an oxygen-dependent mechanism. A retrospective study of the reproductive toxicity of Coal Tar in humans compared exposed women to controls and found little difference in spontaneous abortion and congenital disorders. Cancer epidemiology studies of patients who have received Coal Tar therapy of one form or other have failed to link treatment with an increase in the risk of cancer. Although the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel believes that Coal Tar use as an antidandruff ingredient in OTC drug preparations is adequately addressed by the FDA regulations, the Panel also believes that the appropriate concentration of use of Coal Tar in cosmetic formulations should be that level that does not have a biological effect in the user. Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  17. Using Technology in Assessing Integrated Science and Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    Drawing from current models, research, and science and mathematics education reform documents, this article first defines and/or delimits three broad domains of education: integrated school science and mathematics, assessment, and technology. A list of characteristics is derived, and two integrated school science and mathematics activities are…

  18. Towards an Integrated Academic Assessment: Closing Employers' Expectations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Ngat-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to showcase that the integration of academic assessment with workplace performance appraisal practices can help to address the gap between graduate employability skills and employers' requirements. Employability refers to learning of transferable skills. Design/Methodology/Approach: The integrated assessment…

  19. Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education in Science, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Discusses safety issues in science, including: allergic reactions to peanuts used in experiments; explosions in lead/acid batteries; and inspection of pressure vessels, such as pressure cookers or model steam engines. (MKR)

  20. Study of damage safety assessment for a ship carrying radioactive waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dongkon; Choi, Jin; Park, Beom Jin; Kang, Hee Jin; Lim, Suknam

    2012-06-01

    Ship damage caused by maritime casualties leads to marine pollution and loss of life and property. To prevent serious damage from maritime casualties, several types of safety regulations are applied in ship design. Damage stability regulation is one of the most important safety issues. Designs of ships for long international voyages must comply with these regulations. Current regulations, however, do not consider the characteristics of the operating route of each ship and reflect only ship size and type of cargo. In this paper, a damage safety assessment was undertaken for a ship carrying radioactive waste in actual wave conditions. Damage cases for safety assessment were constructed on the basis of safety regulations and related research results. Hull form, internal arrangement, loading condition and damage condition were modeled for damage safety simulation. The safety simulation was performed and analyzed for 10 damage cases with various wave heights, frequency and angle of attack on an operating route. Based on evaluation results, a design alternative was generated, and it was also simulated. These results confirmed that damage safety analysis is highly important in the design stage in consideration of the operating route characteristics by simulation. Thus a ship designer can improve safety from damage in this manner.

  1. Integrating Exposure into Chemical Alternatives Assessment ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Most alternatives assessments (AA) published to date are largely hazard-based rankings, and as such may not represent a fully informed consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of possible alternatives. With an assessment goal of identifying an alternative chemical that is more sustainable, other attributes beyond hazard are also important, including exposure, risk, life-cycle impacts, performance, cost, and social responsibility. Building on the 2014 recommendations by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences to improve AA decisions by including comparative exposure assessment, the HESISustainable Chemical Alternatives Technical Committee, which consists of scientists from academia, industry, government, and NGOs, has developed a qualitative comparative exposure approach. Conducting such a comparison can screen for alternatives that are expected to have a higher exposure potential, which could trigger a higher-tiered, more quantitative exposure assessment on the alternatives being considered. This talk will demonstrate an approach for including chemical- and product-related exposure information in a qualitative AA comparison. Starting from existing hazard AAs, a series of four chemical-product application scenarios were examined to test the concept, to understand the effort required, and to determine the value of exposure data in AA decision-making. The group has developed a classification approach for ingredient and product parameters to support compariso

  2. The Application of Integrated Knowledge-based Systems for the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Karin C.; Ly, Bebe; Webster, Laurie; Verlander, James; Taylor, Gerald R.; Riley, Gary; Culbert, Chris; Holden, Tina; Rudisill, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    One of NASA's goals for long duration space flight is to maintain acceptable levels of crew health, safety, and performance. One way of meeting this goal is through the Biomedical Risk Assessment Intelligent Network (BRAIN), an integrated network of both human and computer elements. The BRAIN will function as an advisor to flight surgeons by assessing the risk of in-flight biomedical problems and recommending appropriate countermeasures. This paper describes the joint effort among various NASA elements to develop BRAIN and an Infectious Disease Risk Assessment (IDRA) prototype. The implementation of this effort addresses the technological aspects of the following: (1) knowledge acquisition; (2) integration of IDRA components; (3) use of expert systems to automate the biomedical prediction process; (4) development of a user-friendly interface; and (5) integration of the IDRA prototype and Exercise Countermeasures Intelligent System (ExerCISys). Because the C Language, CLIPS (the C Language Integrated Production System), and the X-Window System were portable and easily integrated, they were chosen as the tools for the initial IDRA prototype. The feasibility was tested by developing an IDRA prototype that predicts the individual risk of influenza. The application of knowledge-based systems to risk assessment is of great market value to the medical technology industry.

  3. The integrated assessment of occupational risks in a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Attaianese, Erminia; Duca, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical plants are usually characterized by workplaces with quality levels generally higher than in other manufactoring sectors since healthcare products need to be produced in special conditions, keeping under a strong control hygiene, chemical and biological contaminants, and giving a particular emphasis on equipment maintenance. Limited physical work load, a low rate of injuries and work related pathologies together with a high level of quality process control contribute to consider pharma work conditions as generally light and safe. In this kind of contexts risk assessment cannot be based on factors individually considered, neither work load can be essentially measured on material handling and physical effort. Risk assessment and work environment improvements, on the contrary, have to be studied by an integrated view point. The paper presents methodologies and results of the applied research project IntegrARE (INTEGRated Assessment of Risks within Ergonomics) aimed at analyzing, in a big solid forms pharmaceutical plant, three different risk categories - architectural, ergonomic and active pharmaceutical ingredients risks - in order to highlight possible interactions on workers health, safety and wellbeing. After a detailed risk situations survey, singularly analyzed by a number of ad-hoc procedures, the study presents a methodology for integrated assessment of risks, aimed at identifying and evaluating integrated effects increasing or triggering risk situations for workers.

  4. [An integrated eutrophication assessment for lakes and reservoirs].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Feng; Mao, Jing-Qiao

    2011-11-01

    An integrated eutrophication assessment framework is developed for lakes and reservoirs based on an ecogeographical classification method and an artificial neural network model. Using the USEPA Nutrient Criteria Database as the basic reference and considering the ecogeographical characteristics of Chinese lakes and reservoirs, a simple eutrophication assessment criterion considering the ecogeographical characteristics is proposed for the first time. This criterion places the emphasis on the determination of critical values of key parameters for various regions. Moreover, an artificial neural network (ANN) assessment model is developed, considering the complexity and nonlinearity of eutrophication process. It is found that this ANN assessment model offers the advantage to assess with more accuracy the trophic status in nitrogen-limited water bodies. Integrating such two assessment methods can establish a simple but general eutrophication assessment framework; verification with 30 lakes and reservoirs shows that it can be served as a reliable and cost-effective tool for aquatic environmental management.

  5. Urban transport safety assessment in akure based on corresponding performance indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oye, Adedamola; Aderinlewo, Olufikayo; Croope, Silvana

    2013-03-01

    The level of safety of the transportation system in Akure, Nigeria was assessed by identifying the associated road safety problems and developing the corresponding safety performance indicators. These indicators were analysed with respect to accidents that occurred within the city from the year 2005 to 2009 based on the corresponding attributable risk measures. The results of the analysis showed the state of existing safety programs in Akure town. Six safety performance indicators were identified namely alcohol and drug use, excessive speeds, protection system (use of seat belts and helmets), use of day time running lights, state of vehicles (passive safety) and road condition. These indicators were used to determine the percentage of injury accidents as follows: 83.33% and 86.36% for years 2005 and 2006 respectively, 81.46% for year 2007 while years 2008 and 2009 had 82.86% and 78.12% injury accidents respectively.

  6. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC): Integrated Treatment of Aleatory and Epistemic Uncertainty in Safety Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Youngblood

    2010-10-01

    The concept of “margin” has a long history in nuclear licensing and in the codification of good engineering practices. However, some traditional applications of “margin” have been carried out for surrogate scenarios (such as design basis scenarios), without regard to the actual frequencies of those scenarios, and have been carried out with in a systematically conservative fashion. This means that the effectiveness of the application of the margin concept is determined in part by the original choice of surrogates, and is limited in any case by the degree of conservatism imposed on the evaluation. In the RISMC project, which is part of the Department of Energy’s “Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program” (LWRSP), we are developing a risk-informed characterization of safety margin. Beginning with the traditional discussion of “margin” in terms of a “load” (a physical challenge to system or component function) and a “capacity” (the capability of that system or component to accommodate the challenge), we are developing the capability to characterize probabilistic load and capacity spectra, reflecting both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in system response. For example, the probabilistic load spectrum will reflect the frequency of challenges of a particular severity. Such a characterization is required if decision-making is to be informed optimally. However, in order to enable the quantification of probabilistic load spectra, existing analysis capability needs to be extended. Accordingly, the INL is working on a next-generation safety analysis capability whose design will allow for much more efficient parameter uncertainty analysis, and will enable a much better integration of reliability-related and phenomenology-related aspects of margin.

  7. Comparative assessment of health and safety impacts of coal use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    Increasing the use of coal to replace oil and gas consumption is considered beneficial for economic and political reasons. The evaluation of this report, however, is that the shift to coal can involve significant health, safety, and environmental impacts compared to those from oil and natural gas systems, which are considerably less adverse than those of any coal energy system in use today. An evaluation and comparison of the potential impacts from the various alternative coal technologies would be useful to both governmental and industrial policy planners and would provide them with information relevant to a decision on assistance, incentives, and prioritization among the energy technologies. It is, therefore, the main objective of this report to review the key health, safety, and environmental impacts of some promising coal energy technologies and to compare them.

  8. Safety Assessment of Alkyl PEG Sulfosuccinates as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-09-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of alkyl polyethylene glycol (PEG) sulfosuccinates, which function in cosmetics mostly as surfactants/cleansing agents. Although these ingredients may cause ocular and skin irritation, dermal penetration is unlikely because of the substantial polarity and molecular size of these ingredients. The Panel considered the negative oral carcinogenicity and reproductive and developmental toxicity data on chemically related laureths (PEG lauryl ethers) and negative repeated dose toxicity and skin sensitization data on disodium laureth sulfosuccinate supported the safety of these alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates in cosmetic products, but. The CIR Expert Panel concluded that the alkyl PEG sulfosuccinates are safe in the present practices of use and concentration when formulated to be nonirritating.

  9. Risk assessment and its application to flight safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Keese, D.L.; Barton, W.R.

    1989-12-01

    Potentially hazardous test activities have historically been a part of Sandia National Labs mission to design, develop, and test new weapons systems. These test activities include high speed air drops for parachute development, sled tests for component and system level studies, multiple stage rocket experiments, and artillery firings of various projectiles. Due to the nature of Sandia's test programs, the risk associated with these activities can never be totally eliminated. However, a consistent set of policies should be available to provide guidance into the level of risk that is acceptable in these areas. This report presents a general set of guidelines for addressing safety issues related to rocket flight operations at Sandia National Laboratories. Even though the majority of this report deals primarily with rocket flight safety, these same principles could be applied to other hazardous test activities. The basic concepts of risk analysis have a wide range of applications into many of Sandia's current operations. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Performance and safety of an integrated bihormonal artificial pancreas for fully automated glucose control at home

    PubMed Central

    van Bon, A. C.; Koops, R.; DeVries, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To assess the performance and safety of an integrated bihormonal artificial pancreas system consisting of one wearable device and two wireless glucose sensor transmitters during short‐term daily use at home. Methods Adult patients with type 1 diabetes using an insulin pump were invited to enrol in this randomized crossover study. Treatment with the artificial pancreas started with a day and night in the clinical research centre, followed by 3 days at home. The control period consisted of 4 days of insulin pump therapy at home with blinded continuous glucose monitoring for data collection. Days 2–4 were predefined as the analysis period, with median glucose as the primary outcome. Results A total of 10 patients completed the study. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] glucose level was similar for the two treatments [7.3 (7.0–7.6) mmol/l for the artificial pancreas vs. 7.7 (7.0–9.0) mmol/l for the control; p = 0.123]. The median (IQR) percentage of time spent in euglycaemia (3.9–10 mmol/l) was longer during use of the artificial pancreas [84.7 (82.2–87.8)% for the artificial pancreas vs. 68.5 (57.9–83.6)% for the control; p = 0.007]. Time in hypoglycaemia was 1.3 (0.2–3.2)% for the artificial pancreas and 2.4 (0.4–10.3)% for the control treatment (p = 0.139). Separate analysis of daytime and night‐time showed that the improvements were mainly achieved during the night. Conclusions The results of this pilot study suggest that our integrated artificial pancreas provides better glucose control than insulin pump therapy in patients with type 1 diabetes at home and that the treatment is safe. PMID:26996542

  11. Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies--A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingwen; Flannagan, Carol A; Bao, Shan; McCoy, Robert W; Siasoco, Kevin M; Barbat, Saeed

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers' head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset. Parametric studies with a total of 4800 MADYMO simulations showed that both delta-V and occupant pre-crash posture had pronounced effects on occupant injury risks and on the optimal restraint designs. By combining the results for the delta-V and head position distribution changes, a weighted average of injury risk reduction of 17% and 48% was predicted by the 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) model and human body model, respectively, with the assumption that the restraint system can adapt to the specific delta-V and pre-crash posture. This study demonstrated the potential for further reducing occupant injury risk in frontal crashes by the integration of a passive safety system with a DA feature. Future analyses considering more vehicle models, various crash conditions, and variations of occupant characteristics, such as age, gender, weight, and height, are necessary to further investigate the potential capability of integrating passive and DA or active safety systems.

  12. Environmental Assessment: Waste Tank Safety Program, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take action in the near-term, to accelerate resolution of waste tank safety issues at the Hanford Site near the City of Richland, Washington, and reduce the risks associated with operations and management of the waste tanks. The DOE has conducted nuclear waste management operations at the Hanford Site for nearly 50 years. Operations have included storage of high-level nuclear waste in 177 underground storage tanks (UST), both in single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank configurations. Many of the tanks, and the equipment needed to operate them, are deteriorated. Sixty-seven SSTs are presumed to have leaked a total approximately 3,800,000 liters (1 million gallons) of radioactive waste to the soil. Safety issues associated with the waste have been identified, and include (1) flammable gas generation and episodic release; (2) ferrocyanide-containing wastes; (3) a floating organic solvent layer in Tank 241-C-103; (4) nuclear criticality; (5) toxic vapors; (6) infrastructure upgrades; and (7) interim stabilization of SSTs. Initial actions have been taken in all of these areas; however, much work remains before a full understanding of the tank waste behavior is achieved. The DOE needs to accelerate the resolution of tank safety concerns to reduce the risk of an unanticipated radioactive or chemical release to the environment, while continuing to manage the wastes safely.

  13. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  14. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

  15. A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods…

  16. Safety assessment of foods from genetically modified crops in countries with developing economies.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Population growth particularly in countries with developing economies will result in a need to increase food production by 70% by the year 2050. Biotechnology has been utilized to produce genetically modified (GM) crops for insect and weed control with benefits including increased crop yield and will also be used in emerging countries. A multicomponent safety assessment paradigm has been applied to individual GM crops to determine whether they as safe as foods from non-GM crops. This paper reviews methods to assess the safety of foods from GM crops for safe consumption from the first generation of GM crops. The methods can readily be applied to new products developed within country and this paper will emphasize the concept of data portability; that safety data produced in one geographic location is suitable for safety assessment regardless of where it is utilized.

  17. Integrating Academic and Clinical Learning Using a Clinical Swallowing Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an experiential learning activity designed to integrate classroom knowledge and a clinical swallowing assessment. Twenty master's-level graduate students in a dysphagia course conducted a clinical swallowing assessment with a resident of an independent retirement community. The exercise was designed to allow students an…

  18. Embedding of Authentic Assessment in Work-Integrated Learning Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Anna Maria; Ferns, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives of higher education endorse a work integrated learning (WIL) approach to curriculum content, delivery and assessment. It is agreed that authenticity in learning relates to real-world experience, however, differentiating and strategically linking WIL provision and facilitation to assessment tasks and collation of authentic…

  19. IES Integrated Learning Assessment Final Report. CRESST Report 788

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, David; Hansen, Mark; Herman, Joan; Silk, Yael; Greenleaf, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the Reading Apprenticeship professional development program on several teacher and student outcomes, including effects on student learning. A key part of the study was the use of an enhanced performance assessment program, the Integrated Learning Assessment (ILA), to measure student…

  20. Safety evaluation of disposable baby diapers using principles of quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Rai, Prashant; Lee, Byung-Mu; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Yuhui, Qin; Krause, Edburga; Marsman, Daniel S; Felter, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Baby diapers are complex products consisting of multiple layers of materials, most of which are not in direct contact with the skin. The safety profile of a diaper is determined by the biological properties of individual components and the extent to which the baby is exposed to each component during use. Rigorous evaluation of the toxicological profile and realistic exposure conditions of each material is important to ensure the overall safety of the diaper under normal and foreseeable use conditions. Quantitative risk assessment (QRA) principles may be applied to the safety assessment of diapers and similar products. Exposure to component materials is determined by (1) considering the conditions of product use, (2) the degree to which individual layers of the product are in contact with the skin during use, and (3) the extent to which some components may be extracted by urine and delivered to skin. This assessment of potential exposure is then combined with data from standard safety assessments of components to determine the margin of safety (MOS). This study examined the application of QRA to the safety evaluation of baby diapers, including risk assessments for some diaper ingredient chemicals for which establishment of acceptable and safe exposure levels were demonstrated.

  1. Systematic evaluation of non-animal test methods for skin sensitisation safety assessment.

    PubMed

    Reisinger, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Alépée, Nathalie; Ashikaga, Takao; Barroso, Joao; Elcombe, Cliff; Gellatly, Nicola; Galbiati, Valentina; Gibbs, Susan; Groux, Hervé; Hibatallah, Jalila; Keller, Donald; Kern, Petra; Klaric, Martina; Kolle, Susanne; Kuehnl, Jochen; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Lindstedt, Malin; Millet, Marion; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Natsch, Andreas; Petersohn, Dirk; Pike, Ian; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Schepky, Andreas; Tailhardat, Magalie; Templier, Marie; van Vliet, Erwin; Maxwell, Gavin

    2015-02-01

    The need for non-animal data to assess skin sensitisation properties of substances, especially cosmetics ingredients, has spawned the development of many in vitro methods. As it is widely believed that no single method can provide a solution, the Cosmetics Europe Skin Tolerance Task Force has defined a three-phase framework for the development of a non-animal testing strategy for skin sensitization potency prediction. The results of the first phase – systematic evaluation of 16 test methods – are presented here. This evaluation involved generation of data on a common set of ten substances in all methods and systematic collation of information including the level of standardisation, existing test data,potential for throughput, transferability and accessibility in cooperation with the test method developers.A workshop was held with the test method developers to review the outcome of this evaluation and to discuss the results. The evaluation informed the prioritisation of test methods for the next phase of the non-animal testing strategy development framework. Ultimately, the testing strategy – combined with bioavailability and skin metabolism data and exposure consideration – is envisaged to allow establishment of a data integration approach for skin sensitisation safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

  2. Joint FAM/Line Management Assessment Report on LLNL Machine Guarding Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, J. J.

    2016-07-19

    The LLNL Safety Program for Machine Guarding is implemented to comply with requirements in the ES&H Manual Document 11.2, "Hazards-General and Miscellaneous," Section 13 Machine Guarding (Rev 18, issued Dec. 15, 2015). The primary goal of this LLNL Safety Program is to ensure that LLNL operations involving machine guarding are managed so that workers, equipment and government property are adequately protected. This means that all such operations are planned and approved using the Integrated Safety Management System to provide the most cost effective and safest means available to support the LLNL mission.

  3. Safety culture perceptions of pharmacists in Malaysian hospitals and health clinics: a multicentre assessment using the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Samsuri, Srima Elina; Pei Lin, Lua; Fahrni, Mathumalar Loganathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the safety attitudes of pharmacists, provide a profile of their domains of safety attitude and correlate their attitudes with self-reported rates of medication errors. Design A cross-sectional study utilising the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). Setting 3 public hospitals and 27 health clinics. Participants 117 pharmacists. Main outcome measure(s) Safety culture mean scores, variation in scores across working units and between hospitals versus health clinics, predictors of safety culture, and medication errors and their correlation. Results Response rate was 83.6% (117 valid questionnaires returned). Stress recognition (73.0±20.4) and working condition (54.8±17.4) received the highest and lowest mean scores, respectively. Pharmacists exhibited positive attitudes towards: stress recognition (58.1%), job satisfaction (46.2%), teamwork climate (38.5%), safety climate (33.3%), perception of management (29.9%) and working condition (15.4%). With the exception of stress recognition, those who worked in health clinics scored higher than those in hospitals (p<0.05) and higher scores (overall score as well as score for each domain except for stress recognition) correlated negatively with reported number of medication errors. Conversely, those working in hospital (versus health clinic) were 8.9 times more likely (p<0.01) to report a medication error (OR 8.9, CI 3.08 to 25.7). As stress recognition increased, the number of medication errors reported increased (p=0.023). Years of work experience (p=0.017) influenced the number of medication errors reported. For every additional year of work experience, pharmacists were 0.87 times less likely to report a medication error (OR 0.87, CI 0.78 to 0.98). Conclusions A minority (20.5%) of the pharmacists working in hospitals and health clinics was in agreement with the overall SAQ questions and scales. Pharmacists in outpatient and ambulatory units and those in health clinics had better perceptions of safety

  4. Safety identifying of integral abutment bridges under seismic and thermal loads.

    PubMed

    Easazadeh Far, Narges; Barghian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have many advantages over conventional bridges in terms of strength and maintenance cost. Due to the integrity of these structures uniform thermal and seismic loads are known important ones on the structure performance. Although all bridge design codes consider temperature and earthquake loads separately in their load combinations for conventional bridges, the thermal load is an "always on" load and, during the occurrence of an earthquake, these two important loads act on bridge simultaneously. Evaluating the safety level of IABs under combination of these loads becomes important. In this paper, the safety of IABs--designed by AASHTO LRFD bridge design code--under combination of thermal and seismic loads is studied. To fulfill this aim, first the target reliability indexes under seismic load have been calculated. Then, these analyses for the same bridge under combination of thermal and seismic loads have been repeated and the obtained reliability indexes are compared with target indexes. It is shown that, for an IAB designed by AASHTO LRFD, the indexes have been reduced under combined effects. So, the target level of safety during its design life is not provided and the code's load combination should be changed.

  5. Safety Identifying of Integral Abutment Bridges under Seismic and Thermal Loads

    PubMed Central

    Easazadeh Far, Narges; Barghian, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges (IABs) have many advantages over conventional bridges in terms of strength and maintenance cost. Due to the integrity of these structures uniform thermal and seismic loads are known important ones on the structure performance. Although all bridge design codes consider temperature and earthquake loads separately in their load combinations for conventional bridges, the thermal load is an “always on” load and, during the occurrence of an earthquake, these two important loads act on bridge simultaneously. Evaluating the safety level of IABs under combination of these loads becomes important. In this paper, the safety of IABs—designed by AASHTO LRFD bridge design code—under combination of thermal and seismic loads is studied. To fulfill this aim, first the target reliability indexes under seismic load have been calculated. Then, these analyses for the same bridge under combination of thermal and seismic loads have been repeated and the obtained reliability indexes are compared with target indexes. It is shown that, for an IAB designed by AASHTO LRFD, the indexes have been reduced under combined effects. So, the target level of safety during its design life is not provided and the code's load combination should be changed. PMID:25405232

  6. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security & safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Adam David

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  7. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute : an integrated approach to safety, security and safeguards.

    SciTech Connect

    Beeley, Phillip A.; Boyle, David R.; Williams, Adam David; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2010-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI) at Texas A&M University are working with Middle East regional partners to set up a nuclear energy safety, safeguards, and security educational institute in the Gulf region. SNL and NSSPI, partnered with the Khalifa University of Science, Technology, and Research (KUSTAR), with suppot from its key nuclear stakeholders, the Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation (ENEC), and the Federal Authority for Nuclear Regulation (FANR), plan to jointly establish the institute in Abu Dhabi. The Gulf Nuclear Energy Infrastructure Institute (GNEII) will be a KUSTAR-associated, credit-granting regional education program providing both classroom instruction and hands-on experience. The ultimate objective is for GNEII to be autonomous - regionally funded and staffed with personnel capable of teaching all GNEII courses five years after its inauguration. This is a strategic effort to indigenize a responsible nuclear energy culture - a culture shaped by an integrated understanding of nuclear safety, safeguards and security - in regional nuclear energy programs. GNEII also promotes international interests in developing a nuclear energy security and safety culture, increases collaboration between the nuclear energy security and safety communities, and helps to enhance global standards for nuclear energy technology in the Middle East.

  8. 78 FR 11172 - Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants AGENCY: Environmental... final document titled, ``Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants... ``Integrated Science Assessment for Ozone and Related Photochemical Oxidants'' will be made available...

  9. The feasibility of replacing animal testing for assessing consumer safety: a suggested future direction.

    PubMed

    Fentem, Julia; Chamberlain, Mark; Sangster, Bart

    2004-12-01

    At present, we are unable to use much of the data derived from alternative (non-animal) tests for human health risk assessment. This brief Comment outlines why it is plausible that new paradigms could be developed to enable risk assessment to support consumer safety decisions, without the need to generate data in animal tests. The availability of technologies that did not exist 10 years ago makes this new approach possible. The approach is based on the concept that data and information derived from applying existing and new technologies to non-animal models can be interpreted in terms of harm and disease in man. A prerequisite is that similar data and information generated in a clinical setting are available to permit this "translation". The incorporation of this additional translation step should make it possible to use data and information generated in non-animal models as inputs to risk assessment. The new technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics. Their application to in vitro and human "models" enables large amounts of data to be generated very quickly. The processing, interpretation and translation of these data need to be supported by powerful informatics capabilities and statistical tools. The use of integrated "systems biology" approaches will further support the interpretation by providing better understanding of the underlying biological complexity and mechanisms of toxicity. Clinical medicine is using the opportunities offered by the new "omics" technologies to advance the understanding of disease. The application of these technologies in clinical medicine will generate massive amounts of data that will need processing and interpretation to allow clinicians to better diagnose disease and understand the patients' responses to therapeutic interventions. Support from clinical epidemiology will be essential. If these data and information can be made generally accessible in an ethical and legal way, they should also permit

  10. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  11. Canadian insights: The challenges of an integrated environmental assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    McCaig, Karen . E-mail: mccaig@interchange.ubc.ca

    2005-10-15

    The paper draws results from a review of literature to examine the strengths and weaknesses of the integrated environmental assessment framework in Canada with respect to the inclusion of health impact assessment. Insights include the legislative nature, rigid structure and priority for the natural environment that may restrict progress and the pool of government agencies that need to be convinced of the benefits of health impact assessment that may provide a strong structure for compliance in the long term.

  12. The School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy): An Observational Measure of the School Environment.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Catherine P; Milam, Adam J; Furr-Holden, C Debra M; Johnson, Sarah Lindstrom

    2015-12-01

    School safety is of great concern for prevention researchers, school officials, parents, and students, yet there are a dearth of assessments that have operationalized school safety from an organizational framework using objective tools and measures. Such a tool would be important for deriving unbiased assessments of the school environment, which in turn could be used as an evaluative tool for school violence prevention efforts. The current paper presents a framework for conceptualizing school safety consistent with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) model and social disorganization theory, both of which highlight the importance of context as a driver for adolescents' risk for involvement in substance use and violence. This paper describes the development of a novel observational measure, called the School Assessment for Environmental Typology (SAfETy), which applies CPTED and social disorganizational frameworks to schools to measure eight indicators of school physical and social environment (i.e., disorder, trash, graffiti/vandalism, appearance, illumination, surveillance, ownership, and positive behavioral expectations). Drawing upon data from 58 high schools, we provide preliminary data regarding the validity and reliability of the SAfETy and describe patterns of the school safety indicators. Findings demonstrate the reliability and validity of the SAfETy and are discussed with regard to the prevention of violence in schools.

  13. Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    FRMAC Health and Safety Working Group

    2012-03-20

    This manual is a tool to provide information to all responders and emergency planners and is suggested as a starting point for all organizations that provide personnel/assets for radiological emergency response. It defines the safety requirements for the protection of all emergency responders. The intent is to comply with appropriate regulations or provide an equal level of protection when the situation makes it necessary to deviate. In the event a situation arises which is not addressed in the manual, an appropriate management-level expert will define alternate requirements based on the specifics of the emergency situation. This manual is not intended to pertain to the general public.

  14. Safety assessment of nylon as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Christina; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of nylon polymers, which function in cosmetics primarily as bulking and opacifying agents. The Panel reviewed relevant animal and human data related to these large polymers and determined that they are not likely to penetrate the skin. Whatever residual monomers may be present were not present at a sufficient level to cause any reactions in test subjects at the maximum ingredient use concentration. Accordingly, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration.

  15. Safety Assessment of Ethanolamides as Used in Cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Fiume, Monice M; Heldreth, Bart A; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) rereviewed the safety of 28 ethanolamides and found them safe in the present practices of use and concentration when they are formulated to be nonirritating, and that these ingredients should not be used in cosmetic products in which N-nitroso compounds may be formed. Most of the ethanolamides are reported to function in cosmetics as hair-conditioning agents, skin-conditioning agents, and surfactant-foam boosters. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports.

  16. Integrated assessment of emerging science and technologies as creating learning processes among assessment communities.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Ribeiro, Barbara; Heyen, Nils B; Nielsen, Rasmus Øjvind; Thorstensen, Erik; de Bakker, Erik; Klüver, Lars; Reiss, Thomas; Beekman, Volkert; Millar, Kate

    2016-12-01

    Emerging science and technologies are often characterised by complexity, uncertainty and controversy. Regulation and governance of such scientific and technological developments needs to build on knowledge and evidence that reflect this complicated situation. This insight is sometimes formulated as a call for integrated assessment of emerging science and technologies, and such a call is analysed in this article. The article addresses two overall questions. The first is: to what extent are emerging science and technologies currently assessed in an integrated way. The second is: if there appears to be a need for further integration, what should such integration consist in? In the article we briefly outline the pedigree of the term 'integrated assessment' and present a number of interpretations of the concept that are useful for informing current analyses and discussions of integration in assessment. Based on four case studies of assessment of emerging science and technologies, studies of assessment traditions, literature analysis and dialogues with assessment professionals, currently under-developed integration dimensions are identified. It is suggested how these dimensions can be addressed in a practical approach to assessment where representatives of different assessment communities and stakeholders are involved. We call this approach the Trans Domain Technology Evaluation Process (TranSTEP).

  17. Integrated assessment of dispersed energy resources deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Blanco, Raquel; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Kawaan, Cornelia P.; Osborn, Julie G.; Rubio, F. Javier

    2000-06-01

    The goal of this work is to create an integrated framework for forecasting the adoption of distributed energy resources (DER), both by electricity customers and by the various institutions within the industry itself, and for evaluating the effect of this adoption on the power system, particularly on the overall reliability and quality of electrical service to the end user. This effort and follow on contributions are intended to anticipate and explore possible patterns of DER deployment, thereby guiding technical work on microgrids towards the key technical problems. An early example of this process addressed is the question of possible DER adopting customer disconnection. A deployment scenario in which many customers disconnect from their distribution company (disco) entirely leads to a quite different set of technical problems than a scenario in which customers self generate a significant share or all of their on-site electricity requirements and additionally buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) locally and/or into wider markets. The exploratory work in this study suggests that the economics under which customers disconnect entirely are unlikely.

  18. Three Reflections on Assessing Safety Training Needs: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleezer, Catherine M.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Wood, Thomas E.

    2008-01-01

    Needs assessment plays an important role in training and human performance improvement efforts, but the literature contains little research on this topic. This study extended previous research on the Performance Analysis for Training (PAT) model of needs assessment by examining its implementation to determine environmental and occupational health…

  19. Quantitative safety assessment of air traffic control systems through system control capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing

    Quantitative Safety Assessments (QSA) are essential to safety benefit verification and regulations of developmental changes in safety critical systems like the Air Traffic Control (ATC) systems. Effectiveness of the assessments is particularly desirable today in the safe implementations of revolutionary ATC overhauls like NextGen and SESAR. QSA of ATC systems are however challenged by system complexity and lack of accident data. Extending from the idea "safety is a control problem" in the literature, this research proposes to assess system safety from the control perspective, through quantifying a system's "control capacity". A system's safety performance correlates to this "control capacity" in the control of "safety critical processes". To examine this idea in QSA of the ATC systems, a Control-capacity Based Safety Assessment Framework (CBSAF) is developed which includes two control capacity metrics and a procedural method. The two metrics are Probabilistic System Control-capacity (PSC) and Temporal System Control-capacity (TSC); each addresses an aspect of a system's control capacity. And the procedural method consists three general stages: I) identification of safety critical processes, II) development of system control models and III) evaluation of system control capacity. The CBSAF was tested in two case studies. The first one assesses an en-route collision avoidance scenario and compares three hypothetical configurations. The CBSAF was able to capture the uncoordinated behavior between two means of control, as was observed in a historic midair collision accident. The second case study compares CBSAF with an existing risk based QSA method in assessing the safety benefits of introducing a runway incursion alert system. Similar conclusions are reached between the two methods, while the CBSAF has the advantage of simplicity and provides a new control-based perspective and interpretation to the assessments. The case studies are intended to investigate the

  20. Assessing Knowledge Retention of an Immersive Serious Game vs. a Traditional Education Method in Aviation Safety.

    PubMed

    Chittaro, Luca; Buttussi, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to the increasing availability of consumer head-mounted displays, educational applications of immersive VR could now reach to the general public, especially if they include gaming elements (immersive serious games). Safety education of citizens could be a particularly promising domain for immersive serious games, because people tend not to pay attention to and benefit from current safety materials. In this paper, we propose an HMD-based immersive game for educating passengers about aviation safety that allows players to experience a serious aircraft emergency with the goal of surviving it. We compare the proposed approach to a traditional aviation safety education method (the safety card) used by airlines. Unlike most studies of VR for safety knowledge acquisition, we do not focus only on assessing learning immediately after the experience but we extend our attention to knowledge retention over a longer time span. This is a fundamental requirement, because people need to retain safety procedures in order to apply them when faced with danger. A knowledge test administered before, immediately after and one week after the experimental condition showed that the immersive serious game was superior to the safety card. Moreover, subjective as well as physiological measurements employed in the study showed that the immersive serious game was more engaging and fear-arousing than the safety card, a factor that can contribute to explain the obtained superior retention, as we discuss in the paper.

  1. Treatment Integrity Assessment in the Schools: An Evaluation of the Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    The Treatment Integrity Planning Protocol (TIPP) provides a structured process for collaboratively creating a treatment integrity assessment within a consultation framework. The authors evaluated the effect of the TIPP on the implementation of an intervention designed to improve the consistency of students' mathematics performance. Treatment…

  2. Assessment of the safety of foods derived from genetically modified (GM) crops.

    PubMed

    König, A; Cockburn, A; Crevel, R W R; Debruyne, E; Grafstroem, R; Hammerling, U; Kimber, I; Knudsen, I; Kuiper, H A; Peijnenburg, A A C M; Penninks, A H; Poulsen, M; Schauzu, M; Wal, J M

    2004-07-01

    This paper provides guidance on how to assess the safety of foods derived from genetically modified crops (GM crops); it summarises conclusions and recommendations of Working Group 1 of the ENTRANSFOOD project. The paper provides an approach for adapting the test strategy to the characteristics of the modified crop and the introduced trait, and assessing potential unintended effects from the genetic modification. The proposed approach to safety assessment starts with the comparison of the new GM crop with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use (the concept of substantial equivalence). This case-focused approach ensures that foods derived from GM crops that have passed this extensive test-regime are as safe and nutritious as currently consumed plant-derived foods. The approach is suitable for current and future GM crops with more complex modifications. First, the paper reviews test methods developed for the risk assessment of chemicals, including food additives and pesticides, discussing which of these methods are suitable for the assessment of recombinant proteins and whole foods. Second, the paper presents a systematic approach to combine test methods for the safety assessment of foods derived from a specific GM crop. Third, the paper provides an overview on developments in this area that may prove of use in the safety assessment of GM crops, and recommendations for research priorities. It is concluded that the combination of existing test methods provides a sound test-regime to assess the safety of GM crops. Advances in our understanding of molecular biology, biochemistry, and nutrition may in future allow further improvement of test methods that will over time render the safety assessment of foods even more effective and informative.

  3. River Protection Project Integrated safety management system phase II verification review plan - 7/29/99

    SciTech Connect

    SHOOP, D.S.

    1999-09-10

    The purpose of this review is to verify the implementation status of the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) for the River Protection Project (RPP) facilities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) and operated by Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC). This review will also ascertain whether within RPP facilities and operations the work planning and execution processes are in place and functioning to effectively protect the health and safety of the workers, public, environment, and federal property over the RPP life cycle. The RPP ISMS should support the Hanford Strategic Plan (DOERL-96-92) to safely clean up and manage the site's legacy waste and deploy science and technology while incorporating the ISMS central theme to ''Do work safely'' and protect human health and the environment.

  4. Impact of Electronic Health Record Systems on Information Integrity: Quality and Safety Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Sue

    2013-01-01

    While the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems promises a number of substantial benefits, including better care and decreased healthcare costs, serious unintended consequences from the implementation of these systems have emerged. Poor EHR system design and improper use can cause EHR-related errors that jeopardize the integrity of the information in the EHR, leading to errors that endanger patient safety or decrease the quality of care. These unintended consequences also may increase fraud and abuse and can have serious legal implications. This literature review examines the impact of unintended consequences of the use of EHR systems on the quality of care and proposed solutions to address EHR-related errors. This analysis of the literature on EHR risks is intended to serve as an impetus for further research on the prevalence of these risks, their impact on quality and safety of patient care, and strategies for reducing them. PMID:24159271

  5. Impact of electronic health record systems on information integrity: quality and safety implications.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Sue

    2013-01-01

    While the adoption of electronic health record (EHR) systems promises a number of substantial benefits, including better care and decreased healthcare costs, serious unintended consequences from the implementation of these systems have emerged. Poor EHR system design and improper use can cause EHR-related errors that jeopardize the integrity of the information in the EHR, leading to errors that endanger patient safety or decrease the quality of care. These unintended consequences also may increase fraud and abuse and can have serious legal implications. This literature review examines the impact of unintended consequences of the use of EHR systems on the quality of care and proposed solutions to address EHR-related errors. This analysis of the literature on EHR risks is intended to serve as an impetus for further research on the prevalence of these risks, their impact on quality and safety of patient care, and strategies for reducing them.

  6. Flight Demonstration of Integrated Airport Surface Technologies for Increased Capacity and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Young, Steven D.; Wills, Robert W.; Smith, Kathryn A.; Shipman, Floyd S.; Bryant, Wayne H.; Eckhardt, Dave E., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A flight demonstration was conducted to address airport surface movement area capacity and safety issues by providing pilots with enhanced situational awareness information. The demonstration presented an integration of several technologies to government and industry representatives. These technologies consisted of an electronic moving map display in the cockpit, a Differential Global Positioning system (DGPS) receiver, a high speed very high frequency (VHF) data link, an Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) radar, and the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS). Aircraft identification was presented to an air traffic controller on an AMASS display. The onboard electronic map included the display of taxi routes, hold instructions, and clearances, which were sent to the aircraft via data link by the controller. The map also displayed the positions of other traffic and warning information, which were sent to the aircraft automatically from the ASDE-3/AMASS system. This paper describes the flight demonstration in detail, along with test results.

  7. Microbiological quality and safety assessment of lettuce production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ceuppens, Siele; Hessel, Claudia Titze; de Quadros Rodrigues, Rochele; Bartz, Sabrina; Tondo, Eduardo César; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-07-02

    The microbiological quality and safety of lettuce during primary production in Brazil were determined by enumeration of hygiene indicators Escherichia coli, coliforms and enterococci and detection of enteric pathogens Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water, lettuce crops, harvest boxes and worker's hands taken from six different lettuce farms throughout the crop growth cycle. Generic E. coli was a suitable indicator for the presence of Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7, while coliforms and enterococci were not. Few pathogens were detected: 5 salmonellae and 2 E. coli O157:H7 from 260 samples, of which only one was lettuce and the others were manure, soil and water. Most (5/7) pathogens were isolated from the same farm and all were from organic production. Statistical analysis revealed the following environmental and agro-technical risk factors for increased microbial load and pathogen prevalence in lettuce production: high temperature, flooding of lettuce fields, application of contaminated organic fertilizer, irrigation with water of inferior quality and large distances between the field and toilets. Control of the composting process of organic fertilizers and the irrigation water quality appear most crucial to improve and/or maintain the microbiological quality and safety during the primary production of lettuce.

  8. Safety Assessment and Biological Effects of a New Cold Processed SilEmulsion for Dermatological Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Ana; Gonçalves, Lídia; Pinto, Pedro C.; Urbano, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product. The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion). The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient. EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data. The efficacy of the SilEmulsion was studied using biophysical measurements in human volunteers during 21 days. According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53). EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin. The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use. Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids. PMID:24294598

  9. Safety assessment and biological effects of a new cold processed SilEmulsion for dermatological purpose.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Sara; Salgado, Ana; Gonçalves, Lídia; Pinto, Pedro C; Urbano, Manuela; Ribeiro, Helena M

    2013-01-01

    It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions. A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product. The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion). The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient. EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data. The efficacy of the SilEmulsion was studied using biophysical measurements in human volunteers during 21 days. According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53). EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin. The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use. Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids.

  10. Assessment of the food safety issues related to genetically modified foods.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, H A; Kleter, G A; Noteborn, H P; Kok, E J

    2001-09-01

    International consensus has been reached on the principles regarding evaluation of the food safety of genetically modified plants. The concept of substantial equivalence has been developed as part of a safety evaluation framework, based on the idea that existing foods can serve as a basis for comparing the properties of genetically modified foods with the appropriate counterpart. Application of the concept is not a safety assessment per se, but helps to identify similarities and differences between the existing food and the new product, which are then subject to further toxicological investigation. Substantial equivalence is a starting point in the safety evaluation, rather than an endpoint of the assessment. Consensus on practical application of the principle should be further elaborated. Experiences with the safety testing of newly inserted proteins and of whole genetically modified foods are reviewed, and limitations of current test methodologies are discussed. The development and validation of new profiling methods such as DNA microarray technology, proteomics, and metabolomics for the identification and characterization of unintended effects, which may occur as a result of the genetic modification, is recommended. The assessment of the allergenicity of newly inserted proteins and of marker genes is discussed. An issue that will gain importance in the near future is that of post-marketing surveillance of the foods derived from genetically modified crops. It is concluded, among others that, that application of the principle of substantial equivalence has proven adequate, and that no alternative adequate safety assessment strategies are available.

  11. The practice of pre-marketing safety assessment in drug development.

    PubMed

    Chuang-Stein, Christy; Xia, H Amy

    2013-01-01

    The last 15 years have seen a substantial increase in efforts devoted to safety assessment by statisticians in the pharmaceutical industry. While some of these efforts were driven by regulations and public demand for safer products, much of the motivation came from the realization that there is a strong need for a systematic approach to safety planning, evaluation, and reporting at the program level throughout the drug development life cycle. An efficient process can help us identify safety signals early and afford us the opportunity to develop effective risk minimization plan early in the development cycle. This awareness has led many pharmaceutical sponsors to set up internal systems and structures to effectively conduct safety assessment at all levels (patient, study, and program). In addition to process, tools have emerged that are designed to enhance data review and pattern recognition. In this paper, we describe advancements in the practice of safety assessment during the premarketing phase of drug development. In particular, we share examples of safety assessment practice at our respective companies, some of which are based on recommendations from industry-initiated working groups on best practice in recent years.

  12. Climate considerations in long-term safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories.

    PubMed

    Näslund, Jens-Ove; Brandefelt, Jenny; Liljedahl, Lillemor Claesson

    2013-05-01

    For a deep geological repository for spent nuclear fuel planned in Sweden, the safety assessment covers up to 1 million years. Climate scenarios range from high-end global warming for the coming 100 000 years, through deep permafrost, to large ice sheets during glacial conditions. In contrast, in an existing repository for short-lived waste the activity decays to low levels within a few tens of thousands of years. The shorter assessment period, 100 000 years, requires more focus on climate development over the coming tens of thousands of years, including the earliest possibility for permafrost growth and freezing of the engineered system. The handling of climate and climate change in safety assessments must be tailor-made for each repository concept and waste type. However, due to the uncertain future climate development on these vast time scales, all safety assessments for nuclear waste repositories require a range of possible climate scenarios.

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at https://hero.epa.gov/hero/sulfur-oxides. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  14. An integrated analysis of the efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, José L; Kornstein, Susan G; McIntyre, Roger S; Fayyad, Rana; Prieto, Rita; Salas, Maribel; Mackell, Joan; Boucher, Matthieu

    2016-05-01

    The chronic course of major depressive disorder (MDD) often impedes the ability of patients to achieve full remission. Return of full functioning is a critical goal of antidepressant pharmacotherapy as the presence of residual depressive symptoms is associated with an increased risk of relapse. Treatment guidelines recommend selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, or atypical antidepressants as first-line treatment for moderate to severe MDD. Desvenlafaxine, administered as desvenlafaxine succinate, is an serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor approved for the treatment of adults with MDD at the recommended dose of 50 mg/day. The aim of this integrated analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day compared with placebo in adult outpatients with MDD. The analysis used data from nine fixed-dose, short-term, placebo-controlled studies in adult outpatients diagnosed with MDD who had depressive symptoms for at least 30 days. Data from 4279 and 4317 patients were pooled for the efficacy and safety analyses, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were observed with desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day versus placebo for all efficacy endpoints assessed, including improvements in depressive symptoms, response and remission rates, as well as functional and cognitive outcomes. Treatment with desvenlafaxine 50 and 100 mg/day was generally safe and well tolerated. The findings of this integrated analysis of data from a large population of patients with MDD confirmed the antidepressant efficacy of both desvenlafaxine doses and add to previous evidence supporting the efficacy of desvenlafaxine.

  15. Food safety education: health professionals' knowledge and assessment of WIC client needs.

    PubMed

    Scheule, Barbara

    2004-05-01

    A written questionnaire was used to assess the opportunities and challenges for food safety education in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). The sample included directors and health professionals with nutrition counseling responsibilities in 79 WIC clinics in a midwestern state. Seventy-two percent of the clinics participated in the study. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi(2) analysis, and Cronbach's alpha. Seventy-two percent reported offering food safety advice to 20% or more of their clients daily. Ninety percent identified the food-safety knowledge of their WIC clients to be fair to very poor. The need for food safety handouts, targeted for WIC clients, was identified by 27% of the respondents. WIC professionals are promoting safe food handling among a high-risk population group. Expansion of current food-safety education efforts with WIC clients is encouraged with emphasis on methods to effectively overcome barriers to safe food handling.

  16. Surgical team member assessment of the safety of surgery practice in 38 South Carolina hospitals.

    PubMed

    Singer, Sara J; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Lyen C; Gibbons, Lorri; Kiang, Mathew V; Edmondson, Lizabeth; Gawande, Atul A; Berry, William R

    2015-06-01

    We assessed surgical team member perceptions of multiple dimensions of safe surgical practice in 38 South Carolina hospitals participating in a statewide initiative to implement surgical safety checklists. Primary data were collected using a novel 35-item survey. We calculated the percentage of 1,852 respondents with strongly positive, positive, and neutral/negative responses about the safety of surgical practice, compared results by hospital and professional discipline, and examined how readiness, teamwork, and adherence related to staff perception of care quality. Overall, 78% of responses were positive about surgical safety at respondent's hospitals, but in each survey dimension, from 16% to 40% of responses were neutral/negative, suggesting significant opportunity to improve surgical safety. Respondents not reporting they would feel safe being treated in their operating rooms varied from 0% to 57% among hospitals. Surgeons responded more positively than nonsurgeons. Readiness, teamwork, and practice adherence related directly to staff perceptions of patient safety (p < .001).

  17. Statistical analysis used in the nutritional assessment of novel food using the proof of safety.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Ludwig A; Oberdoerfer, Regina

    2006-03-01

    The safety assessment of Novel Food, including GM biotechnology-derived crops, starts with the comparison of the Novel Food with a traditional counterpart that is generally accepted as safe based on a history of human food use. Substantial equivalence is established if no meaningful difference from the conventional counterpart was found, leading to the conclusion that the Novel Food is as safe and nutritious as its traditional counterpart. In general, the non-significance of p value is used for the proof of safety. From a statistical perspective, the problems connected with such an approach are demonstrated, namely that quite different component-specific false negative error rates result. As an alternative, the proof of safety is discussed with the inherently related definition of safety thresholds. Moreover, parametric and non-parametric confidence intervals for the difference and the ratio to control (conventional line) are described in detail. Finally, the treatment of multiple components for a global proof of safety is explained.

  18. Assessment of patient safety culture among healthcare providers at a teaching hospital in Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aboul-Fotouh, A M; Ismail, N A; Ez Elarab, H S; Wassif, G O

    2012-04-01

    A previous study in Cairo, Egypt highlighted the need to improve the patient safety culture among health-care providers at Ain Shams University hospitals. This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed healthcare providers' perceptions of patient safety culture within the organization and determined factors that played a role in patient safety culture. A representative sample of 510 physicians, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and labourers in different departments answered an Arabic version of the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality hospital survey for patient safety culture. The highest mean composite positive score among the 12 dimensions was for the organizational learning for continuous improvement (78.2%), followed by teamwork (58.1%). The lowest mean score was for the dimension of non-punitive response to error (19.5%). Patient safety culture still has many areas for improvement that need continuous evaluation and monitoring to attain a safe environment both for patients and health-care providers.

  19. Savannah River Site management response plan for chemical safety vulnerability field assessment. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E.J.; Murphy, S.L.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) initiative to identify potential chemical safety vulnerabilities in the DOE complex, the Chemical Safety Vulnerability Core Working Group issued a field verification assessment report. While the report concluded that Savannah River Site (SRS) is moving in a positive direction, the report also identified five chemical safety vulnerabilities with broad programmatic impact that are not easily nor quickly remedied. The May 1994 SRS Management Response Plan addressed the five SRS vulnerabilities identified in the field assessment report. The SRS response plan listed observations supporting the vulnerabilities and any actions taken or planned toward resolution. Many of the observations were resolved by simple explanations, such as the existence of implementation plans for Safety Analysis Report updates. Recognizing that correcting individual observations does not suffice in remedying the vulnerabilities, a task team was assembled to address the broader programmatic issues and to recommend corrective actions.

  20. Preliminary Assessment of Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements for Airborne Trajectory Management (ABTM) Roadmap Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, William B.; Hilb, Robert; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    A set of five developmental steps building from the NASA TASAR (Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests) concept are described, each providing incrementally more efficiency and capacity benefits to airspace system users and service providers, culminating in a Full Airborne Trajectory Management capability. For each of these steps, the incremental Operational Hazards and Safety Requirements are identified for later use in future formal safety assessments intended to lead to certification and operational approval of the equipment and the associated procedures. Two established safety assessment methodologies that are compliant with the FAA's Safety Management System were used leading to Failure Effects Classifications (FEC) for each of the steps. The most likely FEC for the first three steps, Basic TASAR, Digital TASAR, and 4D TASAR, is "No effect". For step four, Strategic Airborne Trajectory Management, the likely FEC is "Minor". For Full Airborne Trajectory Management (Step 5), the most likely FEC is "Major".