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Sample records for integrated sequence motif

  1. iMotifs: an integrated sequence motif visualization and analysis environment

    PubMed Central

    Piipari, Matias; Down, Thomas A.; Saini, Harpreet; Enright, Anton; Hubbard, Tim J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Motivation: Short sequence motifs are an important class of models in molecular biology, used most commonly for describing transcription factor binding site specificity patterns. High-throughput methods have been recently developed for detecting regulatory factor binding sites in vivo and in vitro and consequently high-quality binding site motif data are becoming available for increasing number of organisms and regulatory factors. Development of intuitive tools for the study of sequence motifs is therefore important. iMotifs is a graphical motif analysis environment that allows visualization of annotated sequence motifs and scored motif hits in sequences. It also offers motif inference with the sensitive NestedMICA algorithm, as well as overrepresentation and pairwise motif matching capabilities. All of the analysis functionality is provided without the need to convert between file formats or learn different command line interfaces. The application includes a bundled and graphically integrated version of the NestedMICA motif inference suite that has no outside dependencies. Problems associated with local deployment of software are therefore avoided. Availability: iMotifs is licensed with the GNU Lesser General Public License v2.0 (LGPL 2.0). The software and its source is available at http://wiki.github.com/mz2/imotifs and can be run on Mac OS X Leopard (Intel/PowerPC). We also provide a cross-platform (Linux, OS X, Windows) LGPL 2.0 licensed library libxms for the Perl, Ruby, R and Objective-C programming languages for input and output of XMS formatted annotated sequence motif set files. Contact: matias.piipari@gmail.com; imotifs@googlegroups.com PMID:20106815

  2. Detecting correlations among functional-sequence motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirino, Davide; Rigosa, Jacopo; Ledda, Alice; Ferretti, Luca

    2012-06-01

    Sequence motifs are words of nucleotides in DNA with biological functions, e.g., gene regulation. Identification of such words proceeds through rejection of Markov models on the expected motif frequency along the genome. Additional biological information can be extracted from the correlation structure among patterns of motif occurrences. In this paper a log-linear multivariate intensity Poisson model is estimated via expectation maximization on a set of motifs along the genome of E. coli K12. The proposed approach allows for excitatory as well as inhibitory interactions among motifs and between motifs and other genomic features like gene occurrences. Our findings confirm previous stylized facts about such types of interactions and shed new light on genome-maintenance functions of some particular motifs. We expect these methods to be applicable to a wider set of genomic features.

  3. Networks of motifs from sequences of symbols.

    PubMed

    Sinatra, Roberta; Condorelli, Daniele; Latora, Vito

    2010-10-22

    We introduce a method to convert an ensemble of sequences of symbols into a weighted directed network whose nodes are motifs, while the directed links and their weights are defined from statistically significant co-occurences of two motifs in the same sequence. The analysis of communities of networks of motifs is shown to be able to correlate sequences with functions in the human proteome database, to detect hot topics from online social dialogs, to characterize trajectories of dynamical systems, and it might find other useful applications to process large amounts of data in various fields.

  4. Networks of Motifs from Sequences of Symbols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinatra, Roberta; Condorelli, Daniele; Latora, Vito

    2010-10-01

    We introduce a method to convert an ensemble of sequences of symbols into a weighted directed network whose nodes are motifs, while the directed links and their weights are defined from statistically significant co-occurences of two motifs in the same sequence. The analysis of communities of networks of motifs is shown to be able to correlate sequences with functions in the human proteome database, to detect hot topics from online social dialogs, to characterize trajectories of dynamical systems, and it might find other useful applications to process large amounts of data in various fields.

  5. Motif3D: Relating protein sequence motifs to 3D structure.

    PubMed

    Gaulton, Anna; Attwood, Teresa K

    2003-07-01

    Motif3D is a web-based protein structure viewer designed to allow sequence motifs, and in particular those contained in the fingerprints of the PRINTS database, to be visualised on three-dimensional (3D) structures. Additional functionality is provided for the rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors, enabling fingerprint motifs of any of the receptors in this family to be mapped onto the single structure available, that of bovine rhodopsin. Motif3D can be used via the web interface available at: http://www.bioinf.man.ac.uk/dbbrowser/motif3d/motif3d.html.

  6. Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-21

    Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by patterns in

  7. Occurrence probability of structured motifs in random sequences.

    PubMed

    Robin, S; Daudin, J-J; Richard, H; Sagot, M-F; Schbath, S

    2002-01-01

    The problem of extracting from a set of nucleic acid sequences motifs which may have biological function is more and more important. In this paper, we are interested in particular motifs that may be implicated in the transcription process. These motifs, called structured motifs, are composed of two ordered parts separated by a variable distance and allowing for substitutions. In order to assess their statistical significance, we propose approximations of the probability of occurrences of such a structured motif in a given sequence. An application of our method to evaluate candidate promoters in E. coli and B. subtilis is presented. Simulations show the goodness of the approximations. PMID:12614545

  8. Identifying novel sequence variants of RNA 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Zirbel, Craig L.; Roll, James; Sweeney, Blake A.; Petrov, Anton I.; Pirrung, Meg; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2015-01-01

    Predicting RNA 3D structure from sequence is a major challenge in biophysics. An important sub-goal is accurately identifying recurrent 3D motifs from RNA internal and hairpin loop sequences extracted from secondary structure (2D) diagrams. We have developed and validated new probabilistic models for 3D motif sequences based on hybrid Stochastic Context-Free Grammars and Markov Random Fields (SCFG/MRF). The SCFG/MRF models are constructed using atomic-resolution RNA 3D structures. To parameterize each model, we use all instances of each motif found in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas and annotations of pairwise nucleotide interactions generated by the FR3D software. Isostericity relations between non-Watson–Crick basepairs are used in scoring sequence variants. SCFG techniques model nested pairs and insertions, while MRF ideas handle crossing interactions and base triples. We use test sets of randomly-generated sequences to set acceptance and rejection thresholds for each motif group and thus control the false positive rate. Validation was carried out by comparing results for four motif groups to RMDetect. The software developed for sequence scoring (JAR3D) is structured to automatically incorporate new motifs as they accumulate in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas when new structures are solved and is available free for download. PMID:26130723

  9. A Gibbs sampler for motif detection in phylogenetically close sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddharthan, Rahul; van Nimwegen, Erik; Siggia, Eric

    2004-03-01

    Genes are regulated by transcription factors that bind to DNA upstream of genes and recognize short conserved ``motifs'' in a random intergenic ``background''. Motif-finders such as the Gibbs sampler compare the probability of these short sequences being represented by ``weight matrices'' to the probability of their arising from the background ``null model'', and explore this space (analogous to a free-energy landscape). But closely related species may show conservation not because of functional sites but simply because they have not had sufficient time to diverge, so conventional methods will fail. We introduce a new Gibbs sampler algorithm that accounts for common ancestry when searching for motifs, while requiring minimal ``prior'' assumptions on the number and types of motifs, assessing the significance of detected motifs by ``tracking'' clusters that stay together. We apply this scheme to motif detection in sporulation-cycle genes in the yeast S. cerevisiae, using recent sequences of other closely-related Saccharomyces species.

  10. Transmembrane helix dimerization: beyond the search for sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    Li, Edwin; Wimley, William C; Hristova, Kalina

    2012-02-01

    Studies of the dimerization of transmembrane (TM) helices have been ongoing for many years now, and have provided clues to the fundamental principles behind membrane protein (MP) folding. Our understanding of TM helix dimerization has been dominated by the idea that sequence motifs, simple recognizable amino acid sequences that drive lateral interaction, can be used to explain and predict the lateral interactions between TM helices in membrane proteins. But as more and more unique interacting helices are characterized, it is becoming clear that the sequence motif paradigm is incomplete. Experimental evidence suggests that the search for sequence motifs, as mediators of TM helix dimerization, cannot solve the membrane protein folding problem alone. Here we review the current understanding in the field, as it has evolved from the paradigm of sequence motifs into a view in which the interactions between TM helices are much more complex. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane protein structure and function.

  11. DMINDA: an integrated web server for DNA motif identification and analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qin; Zhang, Hanyuan; Mao, Xizeng; Zhou, Chuan; Liu, Bingqiang; Chen, Xin; Xu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    DMINDA (DNA motif identification and analyses) is an integrated web server for DNA motif identification and analyses, which is accessible at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/DMINDA/. This web site is freely available to all users and there is no login requirement. This server provides a suite of cis-regulatory motif analysis functions on DNA sequences, which are important to elucidation of the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation: (i) de novo motif finding for a given set of promoter sequences along with statistical scores for the predicted motifs derived based on information extracted from a control set, (ii) scanning motif instances of a query motif in provided genomic sequences, (iii) motif comparison and clustering of identified motifs, and (iv) co-occurrence analyses of query motifs in given promoter sequences. The server is powered by a backend computer cluster with over 150 computing nodes, and is particularly useful for motif prediction and analyses in prokaryotic genomes. We believe that DMINDA, as a new and comprehensive web server for cis-regulatory motif finding and analyses, will benefit the genomic research community in general and prokaryotic genome researchers in particular. PMID:24753419

  12. Annotating RNA motifs in sequences and alignments

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Paul P.; Eldai, Hisham

    2015-01-01

    RNA performs a diverse array of important functions across all cellular life. These functions include important roles in translation, building translational machinery and maturing messenger RNA. More recent discoveries include the miRNAs and bacterial sRNAs that regulate gene expression, the thermosensors, riboswitches and other cis-regulatory elements that help prokaryotes sense their environment and eukaryotic piRNAs that suppress transposition. However, there can be a long period between the initial discovery of a RNA and determining its function. We present a bioinformatic approach to characterize RNA motifs, which are critical components of many RNA structure–function relationships. These motifs can, in some instances, provide researchers with functional hypotheses for uncharacterized RNAs. Moreover, we introduce a new profile-based database of RNA motifs—RMfam—and illustrate some applications for investigating the evolution and functional characterization of RNA. All the data and scripts associated with this work are available from: https://github.com/ppgardne/RMfam. PMID:25520192

  13. Discovering Motifs in Biological Sequences Using the Micron Automata Processor.

    PubMed

    Roy, Indranil; Aluru, Srinivas

    2016-01-01

    Finding approximately conserved sequences, called motifs, across multiple DNA or protein sequences is an important problem in computational biology. In this paper, we consider the (l, d) motif search problem of identifying one or more motifs of length l present in at least q of the n given sequences, with each occurrence differing from the motif in at most d substitutions. The problem is known to be NP-complete, and the largest solved instance reported to date is (26,11). We propose a novel algorithm for the (l,d) motif search problem using streaming execution over a large set of non-deterministic finite automata (NFA). This solution is designed to take advantage of the micron automata processor, a new technology close to deployment that can simultaneously execute multiple NFA in parallel. We demonstrate the capability for solving much larger instances of the (l, d) motif search problem using the resources available within a single automata processor board, by estimating run-times for problem instances (39,18) and (40,17). The paper serves as a useful guide to solving problems using this new accelerator technology. PMID:26886735

  14. Discovering motifs in ranked lists of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Eden, Eran; Lipson, Doron; Yogev, Sivan; Yakhini, Zohar

    2007-03-23

    Computational methods for discovery of sequence elements that are enriched in a target set compared with a background set are fundamental in molecular biology research. One example is the discovery of transcription factor binding motifs that are inferred from ChIP-chip (chromatin immuno-precipitation on a microarray) measurements. Several major challenges in sequence motif discovery still require consideration: (i) the need for a principled approach to partitioning the data into target and background sets; (ii) the lack of rigorous models and of an exact p-value for measuring motif enrichment; (iii) the need for an appropriate framework for accounting for motif multiplicity; (iv) the tendency, in many of the existing methods, to report presumably significant motifs even when applied to randomly generated data. In this paper we present a statistical framework for discovering enriched sequence elements in ranked lists that resolves these four issues. We demonstrate the implementation of this framework in a software application, termed DRIM (discovery of rank imbalanced motifs), which identifies sequence motifs in lists of ranked DNA sequences. We applied DRIM to ChIP-chip and CpG methylation data and obtained the following results. (i) Identification of 50 novel putative transcription factor (TF) binding sites in yeast ChIP-chip data. The biological function of some of them was further investigated to gain new insights on transcription regulation networks in yeast. For example, our discoveries enable the elucidation of the network of the TF ARO80. Another finding concerns a systematic TF binding enhancement to sequences containing CA repeats. (ii) Discovery of novel motifs in human cancer CpG methylation data. Remarkably, most of these motifs are similar to DNA sequence elements bound by the Polycomb complex that promotes histone methylation. Our findings thus support a model in which histone methylation and CpG methylation are mechanistically linked. Overall, we

  15. Oligonucleotide Sequence Motifs as Nucleosome Positioning Signals

    PubMed Central

    Collings, Clayton K.; Fernandez, Alfonso G.; Pitschka, Chad G.; Hawkins, Troy B.; Anderson, John N.

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the sequence patterns that characterize positioned nucleosomes, we first performed an analysis of the periodicities of the 256 tetranucleotides in a yeast genome-wide library of nucleosomal DNA sequences that was prepared by in vitro reconstitution. The approach entailed the identification and analysis of 24 unique tetranucleotides that were defined by 8 consensus sequences. These consensus sequences were shown to be responsible for most if not all of the tetranucleotide and dinucleotide periodicities displayed by the entire library, demonstrating that the periodicities of dinucleotides that characterize the yeast genome are, in actuality, due primarily to the 8 consensus sequences. A novel combination of experimental and bioinformatic approaches was then used to show that these tetranucleotides are important for preferred formation of nucleosomes at specific sites along DNA in vitro. These results were then compared to tetranucleotide patterns in genome-wide in vivo libraries from yeast and C. elegans in order to assess the contributions of DNA sequence in the control of nucleosome residency in the cell. These comparisons revealed striking similarities in the tetranucleotide occurrence profiles that are likely to be involved in nucleosome positioning in both in vitro and in vivo libraries, suggesting that DNA sequence is an important factor in the control of nucleosome placement in vivo. However, the strengths of the tetranucleotide periodicities were 3–4 fold higher in the in vitro as compared to the in vivo libraries, which implies that DNA sequence plays less of a role in dictating nucleosome positions in vivo. The results of this study have important implications for models of sequence-dependent positioning since they suggest that a defined subset of tetranucleotides is involved in preferred nucleosome occupancy and that these tetranucleotides are the major source of the dinucleotide periodicities that are characteristic of

  16. Chaotic motif sampler: detecting motifs from biological sequences by using chaotic neurodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Takafumi; Ikeguchi, Tohru

    Identification of a region in biological sequences, motif extraction problem (MEP) is solved in bioinformatics. However, the MEP is an NP-hard problem. Therefore, it is almost impossible to obtain an optimal solution within a reasonable time frame. To find near optimal solutions for NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems such as traveling salesman problems, quadratic assignment problems, and vehicle routing problems, chaotic search, which is one of the deterministic approaches, has been proposed and exhibits better performance than stochastic approaches. In this paper, we propose a new alignment method that employs chaotic dynamics to solve the MEPs. It is called the Chaotic Motif Sampler. We show that the performance of the Chaotic Motif Sampler is considerably better than that of the conventional methods such as the Gibbs Site Sampler and the Neighborhood Optimization for Multiple Alignment Discovery.

  17. Identification of disease-specific motifs in the antibody specificity repertoire via next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pantazes, Robert J; Reifert, Jack; Bozekowski, Joel; Ibsen, Kelly N; Murray, Joseph A; Daugherty, Patrick S

    2016-01-01

    Disease-specific antibodies can serve as highly effective biomarkers but have been identified for only a relatively small number of autoimmune diseases. A method was developed to identify disease-specific binding motifs through integration of bacterial display peptide library screening, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and computational analysis. Antibody specificity repertoires were determined by identifying bound peptide library members for each specimen using cell sorting and performing NGS. A computational algorithm, termed Identifying Motifs Using Next- generation sequencing Experiments (IMUNE), was developed and applied to discover disease- and healthy control-specific motifs. IMUNE performs comprehensive pattern searches, identifies patterns statistically enriched in the disease or control groups and clusters the patterns to generate motifs. Using celiac disease sera as a discovery set, IMUNE identified a consensus motif (QPEQPF[PS]E) with high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in a validation sera set, in addition to novel motifs. Peptide display and sequencing (Display-Seq) coupled with IMUNE analysis may thus be useful to characterize antibody repertoires and identify disease-specific antibody epitopes and biomarkers. PMID:27481573

  18. Identification of disease-specific motifs in the antibody specificity repertoire via next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pantazes, Robert J.; Reifert, Jack; Bozekowski, Joel; Ibsen, Kelly N.; Murray, Joseph A.; Daugherty, Patrick S.

    2016-01-01

    Disease-specific antibodies can serve as highly effective biomarkers but have been identified for only a relatively small number of autoimmune diseases. A method was developed to identify disease-specific binding motifs through integration of bacterial display peptide library screening, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and computational analysis. Antibody specificity repertoires were determined by identifying bound peptide library members for each specimen using cell sorting and performing NGS. A computational algorithm, termed Identifying Motifs Using Next- generation sequencing Experiments (IMUNE), was developed and applied to discover disease- and healthy control-specific motifs. IMUNE performs comprehensive pattern searches, identifies patterns statistically enriched in the disease or control groups and clusters the patterns to generate motifs. Using celiac disease sera as a discovery set, IMUNE identified a consensus motif (QPEQPF[PS]E) with high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in a validation sera set, in addition to novel motifs. Peptide display and sequencing (Display-Seq) coupled with IMUNE analysis may thus be useful to characterize antibody repertoires and identify disease-specific antibody epitopes and biomarkers. PMID:27481573

  19. SCANMOT: searching for similar sequences using a simultaneous scan of multiple sequence motifs.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Saikat; Anand, A Prem; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Sowdhamini, R

    2005-07-01

    Establishment of similarities between proteins is very important for the study of the relationship between sequence, structure and function and for the analysis of evolutionary relationships. Motif-based search methods play a crucial role in establishing the connections between proteins that are particularly useful for distant relationships. This paper reports SCANMOT, a web-based server that searches for similarities between proteins by simultaneous matching of multiple motifs. SCANMOT searches for similar sequences in entire sequence databases using multiple conserved regions and utilizes inter-motif spacing as restraints. The SCANMOT server is available via http://www.ncbs.res.in/~faculty/mini/scanmot/scanmot.html.

  20. Sequence-based classification using discriminatory motif feature selection.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Hao; Capurso, Daniel; Sen, Saunak; Segal, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    Most existing methods for sequence-based classification use exhaustive feature generation, employing, for example, all k-mer patterns. The motivation behind such (enumerative) approaches is to minimize the potential for overlooking important features. However, there are shortcomings to this strategy. First, practical constraints limit the scope of exhaustive feature generation to patterns of length ≤ k, such that potentially important, longer (> k) predictors are not considered. Second, features so generated exhibit strong dependencies, which can complicate understanding of derived classification rules. Third, and most importantly, numerous irrelevant features are created. These concerns can compromise prediction and interpretation. While remedies have been proposed, they tend to be problem-specific and not broadly applicable. Here, we develop a generally applicable methodology, and an attendant software pipeline, that is predicated on discriminatory motif finding. In addition to the traditional training and validation partitions, our framework entails a third level of data partitioning, a discovery partition. A discriminatory motif finder is used on sequences and associated class labels in the discovery partition to yield a (small) set of features. These features are then used as inputs to a classifier in the training partition. Finally, performance assessment occurs on the validation partition. Important attributes of our approach are its modularity (any discriminatory motif finder and any classifier can be deployed) and its universality (all data, including sequences that are unaligned and/or of unequal length, can be accommodated). We illustrate our approach on two nucleosome occupancy datasets and a protein solubility dataset, previously analyzed using enumerative feature generation. Our method achieves excellent performance results, with and without optimization of classifier tuning parameters. A Python pipeline implementing the approach is available at

  1. Sequence motifs of myelin membrane proteins: towards the molecular basis of diseases.

    PubMed

    Sedzik, Jan; Jastrzebski, Jan Pawel; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    The shortest sequence of amino acids in protein containing functional and structural information is a "motif." To understand myelin protein functions, we intensively searched for motifs that can be found in myelin proteins. Some myelin proteins had several different motifs or repetition of the same motif. The most abundant motif found among myelin proteins was a myristoylation motif. Bovine MAG held 11 myristoylation motifs and human myelin basic protein held as many as eight such motifs. PMP22 had the fewest myristoylation motifs, which was only one; rat PMP22 contained no such motifs. Cholesterol recognition/interaction amino-acid consensus (CRAC) motif was not found in myelin basic protein. P2 protein of different species contained only one CRAC motif, except for P2 of horse, which had no such motifs. MAG, MOG, and P0 were very rich in CRAC, three to eight motifs per protein. The analysis of motifs in myelin proteins is expected to provide structural insight and refinement of predicted 3D models for which structures are as yet unknown. Analysis of motifs in mutant proteins associated with neurological diseases uncovered that some motifs disappeared in P0 with mutation found in neurological diseases. There are 2,500 motifs deposited in a databank, but 21 were found in myelin proteins, which is only 1% of the total known motifs. There was great variability in the number of motifs among proteins from different species. The appearance or disappearance of protein motifs after gaining point mutation in the protein related to neurological diseases was very interesting. PMID:23339078

  2. An Automaton for Motifs Recognition in DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Gerardo; Mejia, Yuridia P.; Olmos, Ivan; Gonzalez, Jesus A.; Sánchez, Patricia; Vázquez, Candelario

    In this paper we present a new algorithm to find inexact motifs (which are transformed into a set of exact subsequences) from a DNA sequence. Our algorithm builds an automaton that searches for the set of exact subsequences in the DNA database (that can be very long). It starts with a preprocessing phase in which it builds the finite automaton, in this phase it also considers the case in which two different subsequences share a substring (in other words, the subsequences might overlap), this is implemented in a similar way as the KMP algorithm. During the searching phase, the algorithm recognizes all instances in the set of input subsequences that appear in the DNA sequence. The automaton is able to perform the search phase in linear time with respect to the dimension of the input sequence. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the Aho-Corasick algorithm, which has been proved to perform better than the naive approach, even more; it is considered to run in linear time.

  3. SVM2Motif--Reconstructing Overlapping DNA Sequence Motifs by Mimicking an SVM Predictor.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Marina M-C; Görnitz, Nico; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Rätsch, Gunnar; Kloft, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Identifying discriminative motifs underlying the functionality and evolution of organisms is a major challenge in computational biology. Machine learning approaches such as support vector machines (SVMs) achieve state-of-the-art performances in genomic discrimination tasks, but--due to its black-box character--motifs underlying its decision function are largely unknown. As a remedy, positional oligomer importance matrices (POIMs) allow us to visualize the significance of position-specific subsequences. Although being a major step towards the explanation of trained SVM models, they suffer from the fact that their size grows exponentially in the length of the motif, which renders their manual inspection feasible only for comparably small motif sizes, typically k ≤ 5. In this work, we extend the work on positional oligomer importance matrices, by presenting a new machine-learning methodology, entitled motifPOIM, to extract the truly relevant motifs--regardless of their length and complexity--underlying the predictions of a trained SVM model. Our framework thereby considers the motifs as free parameters in a probabilistic model, a task which can be phrased as a non-convex optimization problem. The exponential dependence of the POIM size on the oligomer length poses a major numerical challenge, which we address by an efficient optimization framework that allows us to find possibly overlapping motifs consisting of up to hundreds of nucleotides. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on a synthetic data set as well as a real-world human splice site data set. PMID:26690911

  4. Sequence Bundles: a novel method for visualising, discovering and exploring sequence motifs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We introduce Sequence Bundles--a novel data visualisation method for representing multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). We identify and address key limitations of the existing bioinformatics data visualisation methods (i.e. the Sequence Logo) by enabling Sequence Bundles to give salient visual expression to sequence motifs and other data features, which would otherwise remain hidden. Methods For the development of Sequence Bundles we employed research-led information design methodologies. Sequences are encoded as uninterrupted, semi-opaque lines plotted on a 2-dimensional reconfigurable grid. Each line represents a single sequence. The thickness and opacity of the stack at each residue in each position indicates the level of conservation and the lines' curved paths expose patterns in correlation and functionality. Several MSAs can be visualised in a composite image. The Sequence Bundles method is designed to favour a tangible, continuous and intuitive display of information. Results We have developed a software demonstration application for generating a Sequence Bundles visualisation of MSAs provided for the BioVis 2013 redesign contest. A subsequent exploration of the visualised line patterns allowed for the discovery of a number of interesting features in the dataset. Reported features include the extreme conservation of sequences displaying a specific residue and bifurcations of the consensus sequence. Conclusions Sequence Bundles is a novel method for visualisation of MSAs and the discovery of sequence motifs. It can aid in generating new insight and hypothesis making. Sequence Bundles is well disposed for future implementation as an interactive visual analytics software, which can complement existing visualisation tools. PMID:25237395

  5. JAR3D Webserver: Scoring and aligning RNA loop sequences to known 3D motifs

    PubMed Central

    Roll, James; Zirbel, Craig L.; Sweeney, Blake; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles

    2016-01-01

    Many non-coding RNAs have been identified and may function by forming 2D and 3D structures. RNA hairpin and internal loops are often represented as unstructured on secondary structure diagrams, but RNA 3D structures show that most such loops are structured by non-Watson–Crick basepairs and base stacking. Moreover, different RNA sequences can form the same RNA 3D motif. JAR3D finds possible 3D geometries for hairpin and internal loops by matching loop sequences to motif groups from the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, by exact sequence match when possible, and by probabilistic scoring and edit distance for novel sequences. The scoring gauges the ability of the sequences to form the same pattern of interactions observed in 3D structures of the motif. The JAR3D webserver at http://rna.bgsu.edu/jar3d/ takes one or many sequences of a single loop as input, or else one or many sequences of longer RNAs with multiple loops. Each sequence is scored against all current motif groups. The output shows the ten best-matching motif groups. Users can align input sequences to each of the motif groups found by JAR3D. JAR3D will be updated with every release of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas, and so its performance is expected to improve over time. PMID:27235417

  6. PhyME: a software tool for finding motifs in sets of orthologous sequences.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Saurabh

    2007-01-01

    Discovery of transcription factor binding sites is a crucial and challenging problem in bioinformatics. Several computational tools have been developed for this problem, popularly known as the motif-finding problem. PhyME is an ab initio motif-finding algorithm, which finds overrepresented motifs in input sequences while accounting for their evolutionary conservation in orthologs of those sequences. Here, we describe the usage of this algorithm, publicly available as a Linux-based implementation. PMID:17993682

  7. Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins: sequence motifs in structural and evolutionary analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wyckoff, Gerald J.; Solidar, Ada; Yoden, Marilyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins (PITP) are a family of monomeric proteins that bind and transfer phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine between membrane compartments. They are required for production of inositol and diacylglycerol second messengers, and are found in most metazoan organisms. While PITPs are known to carry out crucial cell-signaling roles in many organisms, the structure, function and evolution of the majority of family members remains unexplored; primarily because the ubiquity and diversity of the family thwarts traditional methods of global alignment. To surmount this obstacle, we instead took a novel approach, using MEME and a parsimony-based analysis to create a cladogram of conserved sequence motifs in 56 PITP family proteins from 26 species. In keeping with previous functional annotations, three clades were supported within our evolutionary analysis; two classes of soluble proteins and a class of membrane-associated proteins. By, focusing on conserved regions, the analysis allowed for in depth queries regarding possible functional roles of PITP proteins in both intra- and extra- cellular signaling. PMID:27429707

  8. Discovery of Recurrent Sequence Motifs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cell Wall Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Juan E.; Epstein, Susan L.; Qiu, Wei-Gang; Lipke, Peter N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure for the discovery of recurrent substrings in amino acid sequences of proteins, and its application to fungal cell walls. The evolutionary origins of fungal cell walls are an open biological question. This question can be approached by studies of similarity among the sequences and sub-sequences of fungal wall proteins and by comparison to proteins in animals. We describe here how we have discovered building blocks, represented as recurrent sequence motifs (sub-sequences), within fungal cell wall proteins. These motifs have not been systematically identified before, because the low Shannon entropy of the cell wall sequences has hindered searches for local sequence similarities by sequence alignments. Nonetheless, our new, composition-based scoring matrices for local alignment searches now support statistically valid alignments for such low entropy sequences (Coronado et al. 2006. Euk. Cell 5: 628–637). We have now searched for similarities in a set of 171 known and putative cell wall proteins from baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aligned segments were repeatedly subdivided and catalogued to identify 217 recurrent sequence motifs of length 8 amino acids or greater. 95% of these motifs occur in more than one cell wall protein. The median length of the motifs is 22 amino acid residues, considerably shorter than protein domains. For many cell wall proteins, these motifs collectively account for more than half of their amino acids. The prevalence of these motifs supports the idea of fungal cell wall proteins as assemblies of recurrent building blocks. PMID:19430580

  9. Illumina MiSeq sequencing disfavours a sequence motif in the GFP reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Van den Hoecke, Silvie; Verhelst, Judith; Saelens, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is one of the most used reporter genes. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyse the genetic diversity of a recombinant influenza A virus that expresses GFP and found a remarkable coverage dip in the GFP coding sequence. This coverage dip was present when virus-derived RT-PCR product or the parental plasmid DNA was used as starting material for NGS and regardless of whether Nextera XT transposase or Covaris shearing was used for DNA fragmentation. Therefore, the sequence coverage dip in the GFP coding sequence was not the result of emerging GFP mutant viruses or a bias introduced by Nextera XT fragmentation. Instead, we found that the Illumina MiSeq sequencing method disfavours the 'CCCGCC' motif in the GFP coding sequence. PMID:27193250

  10. Illumina MiSeq sequencing disfavours a sequence motif in the GFP reporter gene

    PubMed Central

    Van den Hoecke, Silvie; Verhelst, Judith; Saelens, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is one of the most used reporter genes. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS) to analyse the genetic diversity of a recombinant influenza A virus that expresses GFP and found a remarkable coverage dip in the GFP coding sequence. This coverage dip was present when virus-derived RT-PCR product or the parental plasmid DNA was used as starting material for NGS and regardless of whether Nextera XT transposase or Covaris shearing was used for DNA fragmentation. Therefore, the sequence coverage dip in the GFP coding sequence was not the result of emerging GFP mutant viruses or a bias introduced by Nextera XT fragmentation. Instead, we found that the Illumina MiSeq sequencing method disfavours the ‘CCCGCC’ motif in the GFP coding sequence. PMID:27193250

  11. Finding the most significant common sequence and structure motifs in a set of RNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Gorodkin, J; Heyer, L J; Stormo, G D

    1997-01-01

    We present a computational scheme to locally align a collection of RNA sequences using sequence and structure constraints. In addition, the method searches for the resulting alignments with the most significant common motifs, among all possible collections. The first part utilizes a simplified version of the Sankoff algorithm for simultaneous folding and alignment of RNA sequences, but maintains tractability by constructing multi-sequence alignments from pairwise comparisons. The algorithm finds the multiple alignments using a greedy approach and has similarities to both CLUSTAL and CONSENSUS, but the core algorithm assures that the pairwise alignments are optimized for both sequence and structure conservation. The choice of scoring system and the method of progressively constructing the final solution are important considerations that are discussed. Example solutions, and comparisons with other approaches, are provided. The solutions include finding consensus structures identical to published ones. PMID:9278497

  12. ZFP57 recognizes multiple and closely spaced sequence motif variants to maintain repressive epigenetic marks in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Anvar, Zahra; Cammisa, Marco; Riso, Vincenzo; Baglivo, Ilaria; Kukreja, Harpreet; Sparago, Angela; Girardot, Michael; Lad, Shraddha; De Feis, Italia; Cerrato, Flavia; Angelini, Claudia; Feil, Robert; Pedone, Paolo V.; Grimaldi, Giovanna; Riccio, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs) need to maintain their parental allele-specific DNA methylation during early embryogenesis despite genome-wide demethylation and subsequent de novo methylation. ZFP57 and KAP1 are both required for maintaining the repressive DNA methylation and H3-lysine-9-trimethylation (H3K9me3) at ICRs. In vitro, ZFP57 binds a specific hexanucleotide motif that is enriched at its genomic binding sites. We now demonstrate in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that SNPs disrupting closely-spaced hexanucleotide motifs are associated with lack of ZFP57 binding and H3K9me3 enrichment. Through a transgenic approach in mouse ESCs, we further demonstrate that an ICR fragment containing three ZFP57 motif sequences recapitulates the original methylated or unmethylated status when integrated into the genome at an ectopic position. Mutation of Zfp57 or the hexanucleotide motifs led to loss of ZFP57 binding and DNA methylation of the transgene. Finally, we identified a sequence variant of the hexanucleotide motif that interacts with ZFP57 both in vivo and in vitro. The presence of multiple and closely located copies of ZFP57 motif variants emerges as a distinct characteristic that is required for the faithful maintenance of repressive epigenetic marks at ICRs and other ZFP57 binding sites. PMID:26481358

  13. Physical-chemical property based sequence motifs and methods regarding same

    DOEpatents

    Braun, Werner; Mathura, Venkatarajan S.; Schein, Catherine H.

    2008-09-09

    A data analysis system, program, and/or method, e.g., a data mining/data exploration method, using physical-chemical property motifs. For example, a sequence database may be searched for identifying segments thereof having physical-chemical properties similar to the physical-chemical property motifs.

  14. Fission Yeast Hotspot Sequence Motifs Are Also Active in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Walter W.; Steiner, Estelle M.

    2012-01-01

    In most organisms, including humans, meiotic recombination occurs preferentially at a limited number of sites in the genome known as hotspots. There has been substantial progress recently in elucidating the factors determining the location of meiotic recombination hotspots, and it is becoming clear that simple sequence motifs play a significant role. In S. pombe, there are at least five unique sequence motifs that have been shown to produce hotspots of recombination, and it is likely that there are more. In S. cerevisiae, simple sequence motifs have also been shown to produce hotspots or show significant correlations with hotspots. Some of the hotspot motifs in both yeasts are known or suspected to bind transcription factors (TFs), which are required for the activity of those hotspots. Here we show that four of the five hotspot motifs identified in S. pombe also create hotspots in the distantly related budding yeast S. cerevisiae. For one of these hotspots, M26 (also called CRE), we identify TFs, Cst6 and Sko1, that activate and inhibit the hotspot, respectively. In addition, two of the hotspot motifs show significant correlations with naturally occurring hotspots. The conservation of these hotspots between the distantly related fission and budding yeasts suggests that these sequence motifs, and others yet to be discovered, may function widely as hotspots in many diverse organisms. PMID:23300865

  15. Analysis of Genomic Sequence Motifs for Deciphering Transcription Factor Binding and Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain a variety of structured patterns: repetitive elements, binding sites of DNA and RNA associated proteins, splice sites, and so on. Often, these structured patterns can be formalized as motifs and described using a proper mathematical model such as position weight matrix and IUPAC consensus. Two key tasks are typically carried out for motifs in the context of the analysis of genomic sequences. These are: identification in a set of DNA regions of over-represented motifs from a particular motif database, and de novo discovery of over-represented motifs. Here we describe existing methodology to perform these two tasks for motifs characterizing transcription factor binding. When applied to the output of ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments, or to promoter regions of co-modulated genes, motif analysis techniques allow for the prediction of transcription factor binding events and enable identification of transcriptional regulators and co-regulators. The usefulness of motif analysis is further exemplified in this review by how motif discovery improves peak calling in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments and, when coupled with information on gene expression, allows insights into physical mechanisms of transcriptional modulation. PMID:26941778

  16. Analysis of Genomic Sequence Motifs for Deciphering Transcription Factor Binding and Transcriptional Regulation in Eukaryotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Boeva, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain a variety of structured patterns: repetitive elements, binding sites of DNA and RNA associated proteins, splice sites, and so on. Often, these structured patterns can be formalized as motifs and described using a proper mathematical model such as position weight matrix and IUPAC consensus. Two key tasks are typically carried out for motifs in the context of the analysis of genomic sequences. These are: identification in a set of DNA regions of over-represented motifs from a particular motif database, and de novo discovery of over-represented motifs. Here we describe existing methodology to perform these two tasks for motifs characterizing transcription factor binding. When applied to the output of ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments, or to promoter regions of co-modulated genes, motif analysis techniques allow for the prediction of transcription factor binding events and enable identification of transcriptional regulators and co-regulators. The usefulness of motif analysis is further exemplified in this review by how motif discovery improves peak calling in ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo experiments and, when coupled with information on gene expression, allows insights into physical mechanisms of transcriptional modulation.

  17. Repulsive parallel MCMC algorithm for discovering diverse motifs from large sequence sets

    PubMed Central

    Ikebata, Hisaki; Yoshida, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The motif discovery problem consists of finding recurring patterns of short strings in a set of nucleotide sequences. This classical problem is receiving renewed attention as most early motif discovery methods lack the ability to handle large data of recent genome-wide ChIP studies. New ChIP-tailored methods focus on reducing computation time and pay little regard to the accuracy of motif detection. Unlike such methods, our method focuses on increasing the detection accuracy while maintaining the computation efficiency at an acceptable level. The major advantage of our method is that it can mine diverse multiple motifs undetectable by current methods. Results: The repulsive parallel Markov chain Monte Carlo (RPMCMC) algorithm that we propose is a parallel version of the widely used Gibbs motif sampler. RPMCMC is run on parallel interacting motif samplers. A repulsive force is generated when different motifs produced by different samplers near each other. Thus, different samplers explore different motifs. In this way, we can detect much more diverse motifs than conventional methods can. Through application to 228 transcription factor ChIP-seq datasets of the ENCODE project, we show that the RPMCMC algorithm can find many reliable cofactor interacting motifs that existing methods are unable to discover. Availability and implementation: A C++ implementation of RPMCMC and discovered cofactor motifs for the 228 ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets are available from http://daweb.ism.ac.jp/yoshidalab/motif. Contact: ikebata.hisaki@ism.ac.jp, yoshidar@ism.ac.jp Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available from Bioinformatics online. PMID:25583120

  18. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Robert K; Roberts, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360), cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases. PMID:18479503

  19. PROMOT: a FORTRAN program to scan protein sequences against a library of known motifs.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, M J

    1991-04-01

    Information about the three-dimensional structure or function of a newly determined protein sequence can be obtained if the protein is found to contain a characterized motif or pattern of residues. Recently a database (PROSITE) has been established that contains 337 known motifs encoded as a list of allowed residue types at specific positions along the sequence. PROMOT is a FORTRAN computer program that takes a protein sequence and examines if it contains any of the motifs in PROSITE. The program also extends the definitions of patterns beyond those used in PROSITE to provide a simple, yet flexible, method to scan either a PROSITE or a user-defined pattern against a protein sequence database.

  20. REPdenovo: Inferring De Novo Repeat Motifs from Short Sequence Reads

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chong; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wu, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Repeat elements are important components of eukaryotic genomes. One limitation in our understanding of repeat elements is that most analyses rely on reference genomes that are incomplete and often contain missing data in highly repetitive regions that are difficult to assemble. To overcome this problem we develop a new method, REPdenovo, which assembles repeat sequences directly from raw shotgun sequencing data. REPdenovo can construct various types of repeats that are highly repetitive and have low sequence divergence within copies. We show that REPdenovo is substantially better than existing methods both in terms of the number and the completeness of the repeat sequences that it recovers. The key advantage of REPdenovo is that it can reconstruct long repeats from sequence reads. We apply the method to human data and discover a number of potentially new repeats sequences that have been missed by previous repeat annotations. Many of these sequences are incorporated into various parasite genomes, possibly because the filtering process for host DNA involved in the sequencing of the parasite genomes failed to exclude the host derived repeat sequences. REPdenovo is a new powerful computational tool for annotating genomes and for addressing questions regarding the evolution of repeat families. The software tool, REPdenovo, is available for download at https://github.com/Reedwarbler/REPdenovo. PMID:26977803

  1. Sequence Motifs in Transit Peptides Act as Independent Functional Units and Can Be Transferred to New Sequence Contexts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Wook; Woo, Seungjin; Geem, Kyoung Rok; Hwang, Inhwan

    2015-09-01

    A large number of nuclear-encoded proteins are imported into chloroplasts after they are translated in the cytosol. Import is mediated by transit peptides (TPs) at the N termini of these proteins. TPs contain many small motifs, each of which is critical for a specific step in the process of chloroplast protein import; however, it remains unknown how these motifs are organized to give rise to TPs with diverse sequences. In this study, we generated various hybrid TPs by swapping domains between Rubisco small subunit (RbcS) and chlorophyll a/b-binding protein, which have highly divergent sequences, and examined the abilities of the resultant TPs to deliver proteins into chloroplasts. Subsequently, we compared the functionality of sequence motifs in the hybrid TPs with those of wild-type TPs. The sequence motifs in the hybrid TPs exhibited three different modes of functionality, depending on their domain composition, as follows: active in both wild-type and hybrid TPs, active in wild-type TPs but inactive in hybrid TPs, and inactive in wild-type TPs but active in hybrid TPs. Moreover, synthetic TPs, in which only three critical motifs from RbcS or chlorophyll a/b-binding protein TPs were incorporated into an unrelated sequence, were able to deliver clients to chloroplasts with a comparable efficiency to RbcS TP. Based on these results, we propose that diverse sequence motifs in TPs are independent functional units that interact with specific translocon components at various steps during protein import and can be transferred to new sequence contexts. PMID:26149569

  2. Creation of Hybrid Nanorods From Sequences of Natural Trimeric Fibrous Proteins Using the Fibritin Trimerization Motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolopoulou, Katerina; van Raaij, Mark J.; Mitraki, Anna

    Stable, artificial fibrous proteins that can be functionalized open new avenues in fields such as bionanomaterials design and fiber engineering. An important source of inspiration for the creation of such proteins are natural fibrous proteins such as collagen, elastin, insect silks, and fibers from phages and viruses. The fibrous parts of this last class of proteins usually adopt trimeric, β-stranded structural folds and are appended to globular, receptor-binding domains. It has been recently shown that the globular domains are essential for correct folding and trimerization and can be successfully substituted by a very small (27-amino acid) trimerization motif from phage T4 fibritin. The hybrid proteins are correctly folded nanorods that can withstand extreme conditions. When the fibrous part derives from the adenovirus fiber shaft, different tissue-targeting specificities can be engineered into the hybrid proteins, which therefore can be used as gene therapy vectors. The integration of such stable nanorods in devices is also a big challenge in the field of biomechanical design. The fibritin foldon domain is a versatile trimerization motif and can be combined with a variety of fibrous motifs, such as coiled-coil, collagenous, and triple β-stranded motifs, provided the appropriate linkers are used. The combination of different motifs within the same fibrous molecule to create stable rods with multiple functions can even be envisioned. We provide a comprehensive overview of the experimental procedures used for designing, creating, and characterizing hybrid fibrous nanorods using the fibritin trimerization motif.

  3. Classification of protein motifs based on subcellular localization uncovers evolutionary relationships at both sequence and functional levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most proteins have evolved in specific cellular compartments that limit their functions and potential interactions. On the other hand, motifs define amino acid arrangements conserved between protein family members and represent powerful tools for assigning function to protein sequences. The ideal motif would identify all members of a protein family but in practice many motifs identify both family members and unrelated proteins, referred to as True Positive (TP) and False Positive (FP) sequences, respectively. Results To address the relationship between protein motifs, protein function and cellular localization, we systematically assigned subcellular localization data to motif sequences from the comprehensive PROSITE sequence motif database. Using this data we analyzed relationships between localization and function. We find that TPs and FPs have a strong tendency to localize in different compartments. When multiple localizations are considered, TPs are usually distributed between related cellular compartments. We also identified cases where FPs are concentrated in particular subcellular regions, indicating possible functional or evolutionary relationships with TP sequences of the same motif. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the systematic examination of subcellular localization has the potential to uncover evolutionary and functional relationships between motif-containing sequences. We believe that this type of analysis complements existing motif annotations and could aid in their interpretation. Our results shed light on the evolution of cellular organelles and potentially establish the basis for new subcellular localization and function prediction algorithms. PMID:23865897

  4. Discovery of sequence motifs related to coexpression of genes using evolutionary computation

    PubMed Central

    Fogel, Gary B.; Weekes, Dana G.; Varga, Gabor; Dow, Ernst R.; Harlow, Harry B.; Onyia, Jude E.; Su, Chen

    2004-01-01

    Transcription factors are key regulatory elements that control gene expression. Recognition of transcription factor binding site (TFBS) motifs in the upstream region of coexpressed genes is therefore critical towards a true understanding of the regulations of gene expression. The task of discovering eukaryotic TFBSs remains a challenging problem. Here, we demonstrate that evolutionary computation can be used to search for TFBSs in upstream regions of genes known to be coexpressed. Evolutionary computation was used to search for TFBSs of genes regulated by octamer-binding factor and nuclear factor kappa B. The discovered binding sites included experimentally determined known binding motifs as well as lists of putative, previously unknown TFBSs. We believe that this method to search nucleotide sequence information efficiently for similar motifs will be useful for discovering TFBSs that affect gene regulation. PMID:15266008

  5. Defining a Conformational Consensus Motif in Cotransin-Sensitive Signal Sequences: A Proteomic and Site-Directed Mutagenesis Study

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Wolfgang; Westendorf, Carolin; Schmidt, Antje; Conill-Cortés, Mercè; Rutz, Claudia; Blohs, Marcus; Beyermann, Michael; Protze, Jonas; Krause, Gerd; Krause, Eberhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar) to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity. PMID:25806945

  6. Defining a conformational consensus motif in cotransin-sensitive signal sequences: a proteomic and site-directed mutagenesis study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Wolfgang; Westendorf, Carolin; Schmidt, Antje; Conill-Cortés, Mercè; Rutz, Claudia; Blohs, Marcus; Beyermann, Michael; Protze, Jonas; Krause, Gerd; Krause, Eberhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The cyclodepsipeptide cotransin was described to inhibit the biosynthesis of a small subset of proteins by a signal sequence-discriminatory mechanism at the Sec61 protein-conducting channel. However, it was not clear how selective cotransin is, i.e. how many proteins are sensitive. Moreover, a consensus motif in signal sequences mediating cotransin sensitivity has yet not been described. To address these questions, we performed a proteomic study using cotransin-treated human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture technique in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry. We used a saturating concentration of cotransin (30 micromolar) to identify also less-sensitive proteins and to discriminate the latter from completely resistant proteins. We found that the biosynthesis of almost all secreted proteins was cotransin-sensitive under these conditions. In contrast, biosynthesis of the majority of the integral membrane proteins was cotransin-resistant. Cotransin sensitivity of signal sequences was neither related to their length nor to their hydrophobicity. Instead, in the case of signal anchor sequences, we identified for the first time a conformational consensus motif mediating cotransin sensitivity.

  7. Using machine learning to predict gene expression and discover sequence motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuejing

    Recently, large amounts of experimental data for complex biological systems have become available. We use tools and algorithms from machine learning to build data-driven predictive models. We first present a novel algorithm to discover gene sequence motifs associated with temporal expression patterns of genes. Our algorithm, which is based on partial least squares (PLS) regression, is able to directly model the flow of information, from gene sequence to gene expression, to learn cis regulatory motifs and characterize associated gene expression patterns. Our algorithm outperforms traditional computational methods e.g. clustering in motif discovery. We then present a study of extending a machine learning model for transcriptional regulation predictive of genetic regulatory response to Caenorhabditis elegans. We show meaningful results both in terms of prediction accuracy on the test experiments and biological information extracted from the regulatory program. The model discovers DNA binding sites ab initio. We also present a case study where we detect a signal of lineage-specific regulation. Finally we present a comparative study on learning predictive models for motif discovery, based on different boosting algorithms: Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost), Linear Programming Boosting (LPBoost) and Totally Corrective Boosting (TotalBoost). We evaluate and compare the performance of the three boosting algorithms via both statistical and biological validation, for hypoxia response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  8. Conserved sequence motifs among bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal phosphatases that define a new phosphohydrolase superfamily.

    PubMed

    Thaller, M C; Schippa, S; Rossolini, G M

    1998-07-01

    Members of a new molecular family of bacterial nonspecific acid phosphatases (NSAPs), indicated as class C, were found to share significant sequence similarities to bacterial class B NSAPs and to some plant acid phosphatases, representing the first example of a family of bacterial NSAPs that has a relatively close eukaryotic counterpart. Despite the lack of an overall similarity, conserved sequence motifs were also identified among the above enzyme families (class B and class C bacterial NSAPs, and related plant phosphatases) and several other families of phosphohydrolases, including bacterial phosphoglycolate phosphatases, histidinol-phosphatase domains of the bacterial bifunctional enzymes imidazole-glycerolphosphate dehydratases, and bacterial, eukaryotic, and archaeal phosphoserine phosphatases and threalose-6-phosphatases. These conserved motifs are clustered within two domains, separated by a variable spacer region, according to the pattern [FILMAVT]-D-[ILFRMVY]-D-[GSNDE]-[TV]-[ILVAM]-[AT S VILMC]-X-¿YFWHKR)-X-¿YFWHNQ¿-X( 102,191)-¿KRHNQ¿-G-D-¿FYWHILVMC¿-¿QNH¿-¿FWYGP¿-D -¿PSNQYW¿. The dephosphorylating activity common to all these proteins supports the definition of this phosphatase motif and the inclusion of these enzymes into a superfamily of phosphohydrolases that we propose to indicate as "DDDD" after the presence of the four invariant aspartate residues. Database searches retrieved various hypothetical proteins of unknown function containing this or similar motifs, for which a phosphohydrolase activity could be hypothesized.

  9. Nucleotide binding database NBDB – a collection of sequence motifs with specific protein-ligand interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zejun; Goncearenco, Alexander; Berezovsky, Igor N.

    2016-01-01

    NBDB database describes protein motifs, elementary functional loops (EFLs) that are involved in binding of nucleotide-containing ligands and other biologically relevant cofactors/coenzymes, including ATP, AMP, ATP, GMP, GDP, GTP, CTP, PAP, PPS, FMN, FAD(H), NAD(H), NADP, cAMP, cGMP, c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP, ThPP, THD, F-420, ACO, CoA, PLP and SAM. The database is freely available online at http://nbdb.bii.a-star.edu.sg. In total, NBDB contains data on 249 motifs that work in interactions with 24 ligands. Sequence profiles of EFL motifs were derived de novo from nonredundant Uniprot proteome sequences. Conserved amino acid residues in the profiles interact specifically with distinct chemical parts of nucleotide-containing ligands, such as nitrogenous bases, phosphate groups, ribose, nicotinamide, and flavin moieties. Each EFL profile in the database is characterized by a pattern of corresponding ligand–protein interactions found in crystallized ligand–protein complexes. NBDB database helps to explore the determinants of nucleotide and cofactor binding in different protein folds and families. NBDB can also detect fragments that match to profiles of particular EFLs in the protein sequence provided by user. Comprehensive information on sequence, structures, and interactions of EFLs with ligands provides a foundation for experimental and computational efforts on design of required protein functions. PMID:26507856

  10. Nucleotide binding database NBDB--a collection of sequence motifs with specific protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zejun; Goncearenco, Alexander; Berezovsky, Igor N

    2016-01-01

    NBDB database describes protein motifs, elementary functional loops (EFLs) that are involved in binding of nucleotide-containing ligands and other biologically relevant cofactors/coenzymes, including ATP, AMP, ATP, GMP, GDP, GTP, CTP, PAP, PPS, FMN, FAD(H), NAD(H), NADP, cAMP, cGMP, c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP, ThPP, THD, F-420, ACO, CoA, PLP and SAM. The database is freely available online at http://nbdb.bii.a-star.edu.sg. In total, NBDB contains data on 249 motifs that work in interactions with 24 ligands. Sequence profiles of EFL motifs were derived de novo from nonredundant Uniprot proteome sequences. Conserved amino acid residues in the profiles interact specifically with distinct chemical parts of nucleotide-containing ligands, such as nitrogenous bases, phosphate groups, ribose, nicotinamide, and flavin moieties. Each EFL profile in the database is characterized by a pattern of corresponding ligand-protein interactions found in crystallized ligand-protein complexes. NBDB database helps to explore the determinants of nucleotide and cofactor binding in different protein folds and families. NBDB can also detect fragments that match to profiles of particular EFLs in the protein sequence provided by user. Comprehensive information on sequence, structures, and interactions of EFLs with ligands provides a foundation for experimental and computational efforts on design of required protein functions.

  11. Nucleotide binding database NBDB--a collection of sequence motifs with specific protein-ligand interactions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zejun; Goncearenco, Alexander; Berezovsky, Igor N

    2016-01-01

    NBDB database describes protein motifs, elementary functional loops (EFLs) that are involved in binding of nucleotide-containing ligands and other biologically relevant cofactors/coenzymes, including ATP, AMP, ATP, GMP, GDP, GTP, CTP, PAP, PPS, FMN, FAD(H), NAD(H), NADP, cAMP, cGMP, c-di-AMP and c-di-GMP, ThPP, THD, F-420, ACO, CoA, PLP and SAM. The database is freely available online at http://nbdb.bii.a-star.edu.sg. In total, NBDB contains data on 249 motifs that work in interactions with 24 ligands. Sequence profiles of EFL motifs were derived de novo from nonredundant Uniprot proteome sequences. Conserved amino acid residues in the profiles interact specifically with distinct chemical parts of nucleotide-containing ligands, such as nitrogenous bases, phosphate groups, ribose, nicotinamide, and flavin moieties. Each EFL profile in the database is characterized by a pattern of corresponding ligand-protein interactions found in crystallized ligand-protein complexes. NBDB database helps to explore the determinants of nucleotide and cofactor binding in different protein folds and families. NBDB can also detect fragments that match to profiles of particular EFLs in the protein sequence provided by user. Comprehensive information on sequence, structures, and interactions of EFLs with ligands provides a foundation for experimental and computational efforts on design of required protein functions. PMID:26507856

  12. A Convex Atomic-Norm Approach to Multiple Sequence Alignment and Motif Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Ian E. H.; Lin, Xin; Zhang, Jiong; Ravikumar, Pradeep; Dhillon, Inderjit S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple Sequence Alignment and Motif Discovery, known as NP-hard problems, are two fundamental tasks in Bioinformatics. Existing approaches to these two problems are based on either local search methods such as Expectation Maximization (EM), Gibbs Sampling or greedy heuristic methods. In this work, we develop a convex relaxation approach to both problems based on the recent concept of atomic norm and develop a new algorithm, termed Greedy Direction Method of Multiplier, for solving the convex relaxation with two convex atomic constraints. Experiments show that our convex relaxation approach produces solutions of higher quality than those standard tools widely-used in Bioinformatics community on the Multiple Sequence Alignment and Motif Discovery problems. PMID:27559428

  13. Recognition of distantly related protein sequences using conserved motifs and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Frishman, D; Argos, P

    1992-12-01

    A sensitive technique for protein sequence motif recognition based on neural networks has been developed. It involves three major steps. (1) At each appropriate alignment position of a set of N matched sequences, a set of N aligned oligopeptides is specified with preselected window length. N neural nets are subsequently and successively trained on N-1 amino acid spans after eliminating each ith oligopeptide. A test for recognition of each of the ith spans is performed. The average neural net recognition over N such trials is used as a measure of conservation for the particular windowed region of the multiple alignment. This process is repeated for all possible spans of given length in the multiple alignment. (2) The M most conserved regions are regarded as motifs and the oligopeptides within each are used to train intensively M individual neural networks. (3) The M networks are then applied in a search for related primary structures in a databank of known protein sequences. The oligopeptide spans in the database sequence with strongest neural net output for each of the M networks are saved and then scored according to the output signals and the proper combination that follows the expected N- to C-terminal sequence order. The motifs from the database with highest similarity scores can then be used to retrain the M neural nets, which can be subsequently utilized for further searches in the databank, thus providing even greater sensitivity to recognize distant familial proteins. This technique was successfully applied to the integrase, DNA-polymerase and immunoglobulin families.

  14. The TAGteam motif facilitates binding of 21 sequence-specific transcription factors in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Satija, Rahul; Bradley, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Highly overlapping patterns of genome-wide binding of many distinct transcription factors have been observed in worms, insects, and mammals, but the origins and consequences of this overlapping binding remain unclear. While analyzing chromatin immunoprecipitation data sets from 21 sequence-specific transcription factors active in the Drosophila embryo, we found that binding of all factors exhibits a dose-dependent relationship with “TAGteam” sequence motifs bound by the zinc finger protein Vielfaltig, also known as Zelda, a recently discovered activator of the zygotic genome. TAGteam motifs are present and well conserved in highly bound regions, and are associated with transcription factor binding even in the absence of canonical recognition motifs for these factors. Furthermore, levels of binding in promoters and enhancers of zygotically transcribed genes are correlated with RNA polymerase II occupancy and gene expression levels. Our results suggest that Vielfaltig acts as a master regulator of early development by facilitating the genome-wide establishment of overlapping patterns of binding of diverse transcription factors that drive global gene expression. PMID:22247430

  15. CyanoLyase: a database of phycobilin lyase sequences, motifs and functions.

    PubMed

    Bretaudeau, Anthony; Coste, François; Humily, Florian; Garczarek, Laurence; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Six, Christophe; Ratin, Morgane; Collin, Olivier; Schluchter, Wendy M; Partensky, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    CyanoLyase (http://cyanolyase.genouest.org/) is a manually curated sequence and motif database of phycobilin lyases and related proteins. These enzymes catalyze the covalent ligation of chromophores (phycobilins) to specific binding sites of phycobiliproteins (PBPs). The latter constitute the building bricks of phycobilisomes, the major light-harvesting systems of cyanobacteria and red algae. Phycobilin lyases sequences are poorly annotated in public databases. Sequences included in CyanoLyase were retrieved from all available genomes of these organisms and a few others by similarity searches using biochemically characterized enzyme sequences and then classified into 3 clans and 32 families. Amino acid motifs were computed for each family using Protomata learner. CyanoLyase also includes BLAST and a novel pattern matching tool (Protomatch) that allow users to rapidly retrieve and annotate lyases from any new genome. In addition, it provides phylogenetic analyses of all phycobilin lyases families, describes their function, their presence/absence in all genomes of the database (phyletic profiles) and predicts the chromophorylation of PBPs in each strain. The site also includes a thorough bibliography about phycobilin lyases and genomes included in the database. This resource should be useful to scientists and companies interested in natural or artificial PBPs, which have a number of biotechnological applications, notably as fluorescent markers.

  16. Sequence motifs associated with hepatotoxicity of locked nucleic acid—modified antisense oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Andrew D.; Sciabola, Simone; Mantena, Srinivasa R.; Hollingshead, Brett D.; Stanton, Robert; Warneke, James A.; Zeng, Ming; Martsen, Elena; Medvedev, Alexander; Makarov, Sergei S.; Reed, Lori A.; Davis, John W.; Whiteley, Laurence O.

    2014-01-01

    Fully phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) with locked nucleic acids (LNAs) improve target affinity, RNase H activation and stability. LNA modified ASOs can cause hepatotoxicity, and this risk is currently not fully understood. In vitro cytotoxicity screens have not been reliable predictors of hepatic toxicity in non-clinical testing; however, mice are considered to be a sensitive test species. To better understand the relationship between nucleotide sequence and hepatotoxicity, a structure–toxicity analysis was performed using results from 2 week repeated-dose-tolerability studies in mice administered LNA-modified ASOs. ASOs targeting human Apolipoprotien C3 (Apoc3), CREB (cAMP Response Element Binding Protein) Regulated Transcription Coactivator 2 (Crtc2) or Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR, NR3C1) were classified based upon the presence or absence of hepatotoxicity in mice. From these data, a random-decision forest-classification model generated from nucleotide sequence descriptors identified two trinucleotide motifs (TCC and TGC) that were present only in hepatotoxic sequences. We found that motif containing sequences were more likely to bind to hepatocellular proteins in vitro and increased P53 and NRF2 stress pathway activity in vivo. These results suggest in silico approaches can be utilized to establish structure–toxicity relationships of LNA-modified ASOs and decrease the likelihood of hepatotoxicity in preclinical testing. PMID:24550163

  17. Network motifs in integrated cellular networks of transcription-regulation and protein-protein interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Sattath, Shmuel; Kashtan, Nadav; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Milo, Ron; Pinter, Ron Y.; Alon, Uri; Margalit, Hanah

    2004-04-01

    Genes and proteins generate molecular circuitry that enables the cell to process information and respond to stimuli. A major challenge is to identify characteristic patterns in this network of interactions that may shed light on basic cellular mechanisms. Previous studies have analyzed aspects of this network, concentrating on either transcription-regulation or protein-protein interactions. Here we search for composite network motifs: characteristic network patterns consisting of both transcription-regulation and protein-protein interactions that recur significantly more often than in random networks. To this end we developed algorithms for detecting motifs in networks with two or more types of interactions and applied them to an integrated data set of protein-protein interactions and transcription regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found a two-protein mixed-feedback loop motif, five types of three-protein motifs exhibiting coregulation and complex formation, and many motifs involving four proteins. Virtually all four-protein motifs consisted of combinations of smaller motifs. This study presents a basic framework for detecting the building blocks of networks with multiple types of interactions.

  18. Gapped alignment of protein sequence motifs through Monte Carlo optimization of a hidden Markov model

    PubMed Central

    Neuwald, Andrew F; Liu, Jun S

    2004-01-01

    Background Certain protein families are highly conserved across distantly related organisms and belong to large and functionally diverse superfamilies. The patterns of conservation present in these protein sequences presumably are due to selective constraints maintaining important but unknown structural mechanisms with some constraints specific to each family and others shared by a larger subset or by the entire superfamily. To exploit these patterns as a source of functional information, we recently devised a statistically based approach called contrast hierarchical alignment and interaction network (CHAIN) analysis, which infers the strengths of various categories of selective constraints from co-conserved patterns in a multiple alignment. The power of this approach strongly depends on the quality of the multiple alignments, which thus motivated development of theoretical concepts and strategies to improve alignment of conserved motifs within large sets of distantly related sequences. Results Here we describe a hidden Markov model (HMM), an algebraic system, and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling strategies for alignment of multiple sequence motifs. The MCMC sampling strategies are useful both for alignment optimization and for adjusting position specific background amino acid frequencies for alignment uncertainties. Associated statistical formulations provide an objective measure of alignment quality as well as automatic gap penalty optimization. Improved alignments obtained in this way are compared with PSI-BLAST based alignments within the context of CHAIN analysis of three protein families: Giα subunits, prolyl oligopeptidases, and transitional endoplasmic reticulum (p97) AAA+ ATPases. Conclusion While not entirely replacing PSI-BLAST based alignments, which likewise may be optimized for CHAIN analysis using this approach, these motif-based methods often more accurately align very distantly related sequences and thus can provide a better measure of

  19. CDR3β sequence motifs regulate autoreactivity of human invariant NKT cell receptors.

    PubMed

    Chamoto, Kenji; Guo, Tingxi; Imataki, Osamu; Tanaka, Makito; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Ochi, Toshiki; Yamashita, Yuki; Saito, Akiko M; Saito, Toshiki I; Butler, Marcus O; Hirano, Naoto

    2016-04-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize lipid ligands presented by monomorphic CD1d. Human iNKT T cell receptor (TCR) is largely composed of invariant Vα24 (Vα24i) TCRα chain and semi-variant Vβ11 TCRβ chain, where complementarity-determining region (CDR)3β is the sole variable region. One of the characteristic features of iNKT cells is that they retain autoreactivity even after the thymic selection. However, the molecular features of human iNKT TCR CDR3β sequences that regulate autoreactivity remain unknown. Since the numbers of iNKT cells with detectable autoreactivity in peripheral blood is limited, we introduced the Vα24i gene into peripheral T cells and generated a de novo human iNKT TCR repertoire. By stimulating the transfected T cells with artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) presenting self-ligands, we enriched strongly autoreactive iNKT TCRs and isolated a large panel of human iNKT TCRs with a broad range autoreactivity. From this panel of unique iNKT TCRs, we deciphered three CDR3β sequence motifs frequently encoded by strongly-autoreactive iNKT TCRs: a VD region with 2 or more acidic amino acids, usage of the Jβ2-5 allele, and a CDR3β region of 13 amino acids in length. iNKT TCRs encoding 2 or 3 sequence motifs also exhibit higher autoreactivity than those encoding 0 or 1 motifs. These data facilitate our understanding of the molecular basis for human iNKT cell autoreactivity involved in immune responses associated with human disease. PMID:26748722

  20. Specific Sequence Motifs Direct the Oxygenation and Chlorination of Tryptophan by Myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Yi; Kao, Jeffery; Irwin, Angela; d’Avignon, André; Mecham, Robert P.; Parks, William C.; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2008-01-01

    Most studies of protein oxidation have typically focused on the reactivity of single amino acid side chains while ignoring the potential importance of adjacent sequences in directing the reaction pathway. We previously showed that hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a specific product of myeloperoxidase, inactivates matrilysin by modifying adjacent tryptophan and glycine (WG) residues in the catalytic domain. Here, we use model peptides that mimic the region of matrilysin involved in this reaction, VVWGTA, VVWATA and the library VVWXTA, to determine whether specific sequence motifs are targeted for chlorination or oxygenation by myeloperoxidase. Our results demonstrate that HOCl generated by myeloperoxidase or activated neutrophils converts the peptide VVWGTA to a chlorinated product, WG+32(Cl). Tandem mass spectrometry in concert with high resolution 1H and two-dimensional NMR analysis revealed that the modification required cross-linking of the tryptophan to the amide of glycine followed by chlorination of the indole ring of tryptophan. In contrast, when glycine in the peptide was replaced with alanine, the major products were mono- and di-oxygenated tryptophan residues. When the peptide library VVWXTA (where X represents all 20 common amino acids) was exposed to HOCl, only WG produced a high yield of the chloroindolenine derivative. However, when glycine was replaced by other amino acids, oxygenated tryptophan derivatives were the major products. Our observations indicate that WG may represent a specific sequence motif in proteins that is targeted for chlorination by myeloperoxidase. PMID:16548523

  1. Sequence-dependent stability test of a left-handed β-helix motif.

    PubMed

    Hayre, Natha R; Singh, Rajiv R P; Cox, Daniel L

    2012-03-21

    The left-handed β-helix (LHBH) is an intriguing, rare structural pattern in polypeptides that has been implicated in the formation of amyloid aggregates. We used accurate all-atom replica-exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations to study the relative stability of diverse sequences in the LHBH conformation. Ensemble-average coordinates from REMD served as a scoring criterion to identify sequences and threadings optimally suited to the LHBH, as in a fold recognition paradigm. We examined the repeatability of our REMD simulations, finding that single simulations can be reliable to a quantifiable extent. We find expected behavior for the positive and negative control cases of a native LHBH and intrinsically disordered sequences, respectively. Polyglutamine and a designed hexapeptide repeat show remarkable affinity for the LHBH motif. A structural model for misfolded murine prion protein was also considered, and showed intermediate stability under the given conditions. Our technique is found to be an effective probe of LHBH stability, and promises to be scalable to broader studies of this and potentially other novel or rare motifs. The superstable character of the designed hexapeptide repeat suggests theoretical and experimental follow-ups.

  2. Weighted sequence motifs as an improved seeding step in microRNA target prediction algorithms.

    PubMed

    Saetrom, Ola; Snøve, Ola; Saetrom, Pål

    2005-07-01

    We present a new microRNA target prediction algorithm called TargetBoost, and show that the algorithm is stable and identifies more true targets than do existing algorithms. TargetBoost uses machine learning on a set of validated microRNA targets in lower organisms to create weighted sequence motifs that capture the binding characteristics between microRNAs and their targets. Existing algorithms require candidates to have (1) near-perfect complementarity between microRNAs' 5' end and their targets; (2) relatively high thermodynamic duplex stability; (3) multiple target sites in the target's 3' UTR; and (4) evolutionary conservation of the target between species. Most algorithms use one of the two first requirements in a seeding step, and use the three others as filters to improve the method's specificity. The initial seeding step determines an algorithm's sensitivity and also influences its specificity. As all algorithms may add filters to increase the specificity, we propose that methods should be compared before such filtering. We show that TargetBoost's weighted sequence motif approach is favorable to using both the duplex stability and the sequence complementarity steps. (TargetBoost is available as a Web tool from http://www.interagon.com/demo/.).

  3. Sequence-motif Detection of NAD(P)-binding Proteins: Discovery of a Unique Antibacterial Drug Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Yun Hao; Wu, Chih Yuan; Sargsyan, Karen; Lim, Carmay

    2014-09-01

    Many enzymes use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)) as essential coenzymes. These enzymes often do not share significant sequence identity and cannot be easily detected by sequence homology. Previously, we determined all distinct locally conserved pyrophosphate-binding structures (3d motifs) from NAD(P)-bound protein structures, from which 1d sequence motifs were derived. Here, we aim to establish the precision of these 3d and 1d motifs to annotate NAD(P)-binding proteins. We show that the pyrophosphate-binding 3d motifs are characteristic of NAD(P)-binding proteins, as they are rarely found in nonNAD(P)-binding proteins. Furthermore, several 1d motifs could distinguish between proteins that bind only NAD and those that bind only NADP. They could also distinguish between NAD(P)-binding proteins from nonNAD(P)-binding ones. Interestingly, one of the pyrophosphate-binding 3d and corresponding 1d motifs was found only in enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases, which are enzymes essential for bacterial fatty acid biosynthesis. This unique 3d motif serves as an attractive novel drug target, as it is conserved across many bacterial species and is not found in human proteins.

  4. Unique Structural Features and Sequence Motifs of Proline Utilization A (PutA)

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ranjan K.; Tanner, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20–30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100–200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA. PMID:22201760

  5. Unique structural features and sequence motifs of proline utilization A (PutA).

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjan K; Tanner, John J

    2012-01-01

    Proline utilization A proteins (PutAs) are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of proline to glutamate using spatially separated proline dehydrogenase and pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase active sites. Here we use the crystal structure of the minimalist PutA from Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BjPutA) along with sequence analysis to identify unique structural features of PutAs. This analysis shows that PutAs have secondary structural elements and domains not found in the related monofunctional enzymes. Some of these extra features are predicted to be important for substrate channeling in BjPutA. Multiple sequence alignment analysis shows that some PutAs have a 17-residue conserved motif in the C-terminal 20-30 residues of the polypeptide chain. The BjPutA structure shows that this motif helps seal the internal substrate-channeling cavity from the bulk medium. Finally, it is shown that some PutAs have a 100-200 residue domain of unknown function in the C-terminus that is not found in minimalist PutAs. Remote homology detection suggests that this domain is homologous to the oligomerization beta-hairpin and Rossmann fold domain of BjPutA. PMID:22201760

  6. oPOSSUM: integrated tools for analysis of regulatory motif over-representation

    PubMed Central

    Ho Sui, Shannan J.; Fulton, Debra L.; Arenillas, David J.; Kwon, Andrew T.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2007-01-01

    The identification of over-represented transcription factor binding sites from sets of co-expressed genes provides insights into the mechanisms of regulation for diverse biological contexts. oPOSSUM, an internet-based system for such studies of regulation, has been improved and expanded in this new release. New features include a worm-specific version for investigating binding sites conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, as well as a yeast-specific version for the analysis of co-expressed sets of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes. The human and mouse applications feature improvements in ortholog mapping, sequence alignments and the delineation of multiple alternative promoters. oPOSSUM2, introduced for the analysis of over-represented combinations of motifs in human and mouse genes, has been integrated with the original oPOSSUM system. Analysis using user-defined background gene sets is now supported. The transcription factor binding site models have been updated to include new profiles from the JASPAR database. oPOSSUM is available at http://www.cisreg.ca/oPOSSUM/ PMID:17576675

  7. MoD Tools: regulatory motif discovery in nucleotide sequences from co-regulated or homologous genes.

    PubMed

    Pavesi, Giulio; Mereghetti, Paolo; Zambelli, Federico; Stefani, Marco; Mauri, Giancarlo; Pesole, Graziano

    2006-07-01

    Understanding the complex mechanisms regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is one of the greatest challenges of the post-genomic era. The MoD (MOtif Discovery) Tools web server comprises a set of tools for the discovery of novel conserved sequence and structure motifs in nucleotide sequences, motifs that in turn are good candidates for regulatory activity. The server includes the following programs: Weeder, for the discovery of conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) in nucleotide sequences from co-regulated genes; WeederH, for the discovery of conserved TFBSs and distal regulatory modules in sequences from homologous genes; RNAProfile, for the discovery of conserved secondary structure motifs in unaligned RNA sequences whose secondary structure is not known. In this way, a given gene can be compared with other co-regulated genes or with its homologs, or its mRNA can be analyzed for conserved motifs regulating its post-transcriptional fate. The web server thus provides researchers with different strategies and methods to investigate the regulation of gene expression, at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Available at http://www.pesolelab.it/modtools/ and http://www.beacon.unimi.it/modtools/.

  8. Sequence motifs and prokaryotic expression of the reptilian paramyxovirus fusion protein

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franke, J.; Batts, W.N.; Ahne, W.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Fourteen reptilian paramyxovirus isolates were chosen to represent the known extent of genetic diversity among this novel group of viruses. Selected regions of the fusion (F) gene were sequenced, analyzed and compared. The F gene of all isolates contained conserved motifs homologous to those described for other members of the family Paramyxoviridae including: signal peptide, transmembrane domain, furin cleavage site, fusion peptide, N-linked glycosylation sites, and two heptad repeats, the second of which (HRB-LZ) had the characteristics of a leucine zipper. Selected regions of the fusion gene of isolate Gono-GER85 were inserted into a prokaryotic expression system to generate three recombinant protein fragments of various sizes. The longest recombinant protein was cleaved by furin into two fragments of predicted length. Western blot analysis with virus-neutralizing rabbit-antiserum against this isolate demonstrated that only the longest construct reacted with the antiserum. This construct was unique in containing 30 additional C-terminal amino acids that included most of the HRB-LZ. These results indicate that the F genes of reptilian paramyxoviruses contain highly conserved motifs typical of other members of the family and suggest that the HRB-LZ domain of the reptilian paramyxovirus F protein contains a linear antigenic epitope. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  9. Temporal motifs reveal homophily, gender-specific patterns, and group talk in call sequences.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, Lauri; Kaski, Kimmo; Kertész, János; Saramäki, Jari

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies on electronic communication records have shown that human communication has complex temporal structure. We study how communication patterns that involve multiple individuals are affected by attributes such as sex and age. To this end, we represent the communication records as a colored temporal network where node color is used to represent individuals' attributes, and identify patterns known as temporal motifs. We then construct a null model for the occurrence of temporal motifs that takes into account the interaction frequencies and connectivity between nodes of different colors. This null model allows us to detect significant patterns in call sequences that cannot be observed in a static network that uses interaction frequencies as link weights. We find sex-related differences in communication patterns in a large dataset of mobile phone records and show the existence of temporal homophily, the tendency of similar individuals to participate in communication patterns beyond what would be expected on the basis of their average interaction frequencies. We also show that temporal patterns differ between dense and sparse neighborhoods in the network. Because also this result is independent of interaction frequencies, it can be seen as an extension of Granovetter's hypothesis to temporal networks. PMID:24145424

  10. MtHc: a motif-based hierarchical method for clustering massive 16S rRNA sequences into OTUs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Wu

    2015-07-01

    The recent sequencing revolution driven by high-throughput technologies has led to rapid accumulation of 16S rRNA sequences for microbial communities. Clustering short sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is an initial crucial process in analyzing metagenomic data. Although many methods have been proposed for OTU inferences, a major challenge is the balance between inference accuracy and computational efficiency. To address these challenges, we present a novel motif-based hierarchical method (namely MtHc) for clustering massive 16S rRNA sequences into OTUs with high clustering accuracy and low memory usage. Suppose all the 16S rRNA sequences can be used to construct a complete weighted network, where sequences are viewed as nodes, each pair of sequences is connected by an imaginary edge, and the distance of a pair of sequences represents the weight of the edge. MtHc consists of three main phrases. First, heuristically search the motif that is defined as n-node sub-graph (in the present study, n = 3, 4, 5), in which the distance between any two nodes is less than a threshold. Second, use the motif as a seed to form candidate clusters by computing the distances of other sequences with the motif. Finally, hierarchically merge the candidate clusters to generate the OTUs by only calculating the distances of motifs between two clusters. Compared with the existing methods on several simulated and real-life metagenomic datasets, we demonstrate that MtHc has higher clustering performance, less memory usage and robustness for setting parameters, and that it is more effective to handle the large-scale metagenomic datasets. The MtHC software can be freely download from for academic users.

  11. MtHc: a motif-based hierarchical method for clustering massive 16S rRNA sequences into OTUs.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ze-Gang; Zhang, Shao-Wu

    2015-07-01

    The recent sequencing revolution driven by high-throughput technologies has led to rapid accumulation of 16S rRNA sequences for microbial communities. Clustering short sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) is an initial crucial process in analyzing metagenomic data. Although many methods have been proposed for OTU inferences, a major challenge is the balance between inference accuracy and computational efficiency. To address these challenges, we present a novel motif-based hierarchical method (namely MtHc) for clustering massive 16S rRNA sequences into OTUs with high clustering accuracy and low memory usage. Suppose all the 16S rRNA sequences can be used to construct a complete weighted network, where sequences are viewed as nodes, each pair of sequences is connected by an imaginary edge, and the distance of a pair of sequences represents the weight of the edge. MtHc consists of three main phrases. First, heuristically search the motif that is defined as n-node sub-graph (in the present study, n = 3, 4, 5), in which the distance between any two nodes is less than a threshold. Second, use the motif as a seed to form candidate clusters by computing the distances of other sequences with the motif. Finally, hierarchically merge the candidate clusters to generate the OTUs by only calculating the distances of motifs between two clusters. Compared with the existing methods on several simulated and real-life metagenomic datasets, we demonstrate that MtHc has higher clustering performance, less memory usage and robustness for setting parameters, and that it is more effective to handle the large-scale metagenomic datasets. The MtHC software can be freely download from for academic users. PMID:25912934

  12. The structure of an endogenous Drosophila centromere reveals the prevalence of tandemly repeated sequences able to form i-motifs

    PubMed Central

    Garavís, Miguel; Méndez-Lago, María; Gabelica, Valérie; Whitehead, Siobhan L.; González, Carlos; Villasante, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Centromeres are the chromosomal loci at which spindle microtubules attach to mediate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. In most eukaryotes, centromeres are made up of highly repetitive DNA sequences (satellite DNA) interspersed with middle repetitive DNA sequences (transposable elements). Despite the efforts to establish complete genomic sequences of eukaryotic organisms, the so-called ‘finished’ genomes are not actually complete because the centromeres have not been assembled due to the intrinsic difficulties in constructing both physical maps and complete sequence assemblies of long stretches of tandemly repetitive DNA. Here we show the first molecular structure of an endogenous Drosophila centromere and the ability of the C-rich dodeca satellite strand to form dimeric i-motifs. The finding of i-motif structures in simple and complex centromeric satellite DNAs leads us to suggest that these centromeric sequences may have been selected not by their primary sequence but by their ability to form noncanonical secondary structures. PMID:26289671

  13. Platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling and vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Boulaftali, Yacine; Hess, Paul R; Kahn, Mark L; Bergmeier, Wolfgang

    2014-03-28

    Platelets are well-known for their critical role in hemostasis, that is, the prevention of blood loss at sites of mechanical vessel injury. Inappropriate platelet activation and adhesion, however, can lead to thrombotic complications, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To fulfill its role in hemostasis, the platelet is equipped with various G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to soluble agonists such as thrombin, ADP, and thromboxane A2. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, platelets express 3 glycoproteins that belong to the family of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors: Fc receptor γ chain, which is noncovalently associated with the glycoprotein VI collagen receptor, C-type lectin 2, the receptor for podoplanin, and Fc receptor γII A, a low-affinity receptor for immune complexes. Although both genetic and chemical approaches have documented a critical role for platelet G protein-coupled receptors in hemostasis, the contribution of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors to this process is less defined. Studies performed during the past decade, however, have identified new roles for platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling in vascular integrity in utero and at sites of inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on how platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling controls vascular integrity, both in the presence and absence of mechanical injury. PMID:24677237

  14. Platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) signaling and vascular integrity.

    PubMed

    Boulaftali, Yacine; Hess, Paul R; Kahn, Mark L; Bergmeier, Wolfgang

    2014-03-28

    Platelets are well-known for their critical role in hemostasis, that is, the prevention of blood loss at sites of mechanical vessel injury. Inappropriate platelet activation and adhesion, however, can lead to thrombotic complications, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. To fulfill its role in hemostasis, the platelet is equipped with various G protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to soluble agonists such as thrombin, ADP, and thromboxane A2. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, platelets express 3 glycoproteins that belong to the family of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors: Fc receptor γ chain, which is noncovalently associated with the glycoprotein VI collagen receptor, C-type lectin 2, the receptor for podoplanin, and Fc receptor γII A, a low-affinity receptor for immune complexes. Although both genetic and chemical approaches have documented a critical role for platelet G protein-coupled receptors in hemostasis, the contribution of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif receptors to this process is less defined. Studies performed during the past decade, however, have identified new roles for platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling in vascular integrity in utero and at sites of inflammation. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings on how platelet immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling controls vascular integrity, both in the presence and absence of mechanical injury.

  15. SIRW: A web server for the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System that combines sequence motif searches with keyword searches.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Chenna

    2003-07-01

    SIRW (http://sirw.embl.de/) is a World Wide Web interface to the Simple Indexing and Retrieval System (SIR) that is capable of parsing and indexing various flat file databases. In addition it provides a framework for doing sequence analysis (e.g. motif pattern searches) for selected biological sequences through keyword search. SIRW is an ideal tool for the bioinformatics community for searching as well as analyzing biological sequences of interest.

  16. Direct RNA motif definition and identification from multiple sequence alignments using secondary structure profiles.

    PubMed

    Gautheret, D; Lambert, A

    2001-11-01

    We present here a new approach to the problem of defining RNA signatures and finding their occurrences in sequence databases. The proposed method is based on "secondary structure profiles". An RNA sequence alignment with secondary structure information is used as an input. Two types of weight matrices/profiles are constructed from this alignment: single strands are represented by a classical lod-scores profile while helical regions are represented by an extended "helical profile" comprising 16 lod-scores per position, one for each of the 16 possible base-pairs. Database searches are then conducted using a simultaneous search for helical profiles and dynamic programming alignment of single strand profiles. The algorithm has been implemented into a new software, ERPIN, that performs both profile construction and database search. Applications are presented for several RNA motifs. The automated use of sequence information in both single-stranded and helical regions yields better sensitivity/specificity ratios than descriptor-based programs. Furthermore, since the translation of alignments into profiles is straightforward with ERPIN, iterative searches can easily be conducted to enrich collections of homologous RNAs.

  17. Exceptional motifs in different Markov chain models for a statistical analysis of DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Schbath, S; Prum, B; de Turckheim, E

    1995-01-01

    Identifying exceptional motifs is often used for extracting information from long DNA sequences. The two difficulties of the method are the choice of the model that defines the expected frequencies of words and the approximation of the variance of the difference T(W) between the number of occurrences of a word W and its estimation. We consider here different Markov chain models, either with stationary or periodic transition probabilities. We estimate the variance of the difference T(W) by the conditional variance of the number of occurrences of W given the oligonucleotides counts that define the model. Two applications show how to use asymptotically standard normal statistics associated with the counts to describe a given sequence in terms of its outlying words. Sequences of Escherichia coli and of Bacillus subtilis are compared with respect to their exceptional tri- and tetranucleotides. For both bacteria, exceptional 3-words are mainly found in the coding frame. E. coli palindrome counts are analyzed in different models, showing that many overabundant words are one-letter mutations of avoided palindromes. PMID:8521272

  18. Synthesis, anti-mycobacterial activity and DNA sequence-selectivity of a library of biaryl-motifs containing polyamides.

    PubMed

    Brucoli, Federico; Guzman, Juan D; Maitra, Arundhati; James, Colin H; Fox, Keith R; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2015-07-01

    The alarming rise of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains, compel the development of new molecules with novel modes of action to control this world health emergency. Distamycin analogues containing N-terminal biaryl-motifs 2(1-5)(1-7) were synthesised using a solution-phase approach and evaluated for their anti-mycobacterial activity and DNA-sequence selectivity. Thiophene dimer motif-containing polyamide 2(2,6) exhibited 10-fold higher inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis compared to distamycin and library member 2(5,7) showed high binding affinity for the 5'-ACATAT-3' sequence.

  19. Integration of retinal image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballerini, Lucia

    1998-10-01

    In this paper a method for noise reduction in ocular fundus image sequences is described. The eye is the only part of the human body where the capillary network can be observed along with the arterial and venous circulation using a non invasive technique. The study of the retinal vessels is very important both for the study of the local pathology (retinal disease) and for the large amount of information it offers on systematic haemodynamics, such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, and diabetes. In this paper a method for image integration of ocular fundus image sequences is described. The procedure can be divided in two step: registration and fusion. First we describe an automatic alignment algorithm for registration of ocular fundus images. In order to enhance vessel structures, we used a spatially oriented bank of filters designed to match the properties of the objects of interest. To evaluate interframe misalignment we adopted a fast cross-correlation algorithm. The performances of the alignment method have been estimated by simulating shifts between image pairs and by using a cross-validation approach. Then we propose a temporal integration technique of image sequences so as to compute enhanced pictures of the overall capillary network. Image registration is combined with image enhancement by fusing subsequent frames of a same region. To evaluate the attainable results, the signal-to-noise ratio was estimated before and after integration. Experimental results on synthetic images of vessel-like structures with different kind of Gaussian additive noise as well as on real fundus images are reported.

  20. Identification of internal transcribed spacer sequence motifs in truffles: a first step toward their DNA bar coding.

    PubMed

    El Karkouri, Khalid; Murat, Claude; Zampieri, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

    2007-08-01

    This work presents DNA sequence motifs from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the nuclear rRNA repeat unit which are useful for the identification of five European and Asiatic truffles (Tuber magnatum, T. melanosporum, T. indicum, T. aestivum, and T. mesentericum). Truffles are edible mycorrhizal ascomycetes that show similar morphological characteristics but that have distinct organoleptic and economic values. A total of 36 out of 46 ITS1 or ITS2 sequence motifs have allowed an accurate in silico distinction of the five truffles to be made (i.e., by pattern matching and/or BLAST analysis on downloaded GenBank sequences and directly against GenBank databases). The motifs considered the intraspecific genetic variability of each species, including rare haplotypes, and assigned their respective species from either the ascocarps or ectomycorrhizas. The data indicate that short ITS1 or ITS2 motifs (< or = 50 bp in size) can be considered promising tools for truffle species identification. A dot blot hybridization analysis of T. magnatum and T. melanosporum compared with other close relatives or distant lineages allowed at least one highly specific motif to be identified for each species. These results were confirmed in a blind test which included new field isolates. The current work has provided a reliable new tool for a truffle oligonucleotide bar code and identification in ecological and evolutionary studies. PMID:17601808

  1. Analysis of the Campylobacter jejuni Genome by SMRT DNA Sequencing Identifies Restriction-Modification Motifs

    PubMed Central

    O’Loughlin, Jason L.; Eucker, Tyson P.; Chavez, Juan D.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Neal-McKinney, Jason; Gourley, Christopher R.; Bruce, James E.; Konkel, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastroenteritis. The goal of this study was to analyze the C. jejuni F38011 strain, recovered from an individual with severe enteritis, at a genomic and proteomic level to gain insight into microbial processes. The C. jejuni F38011 genome is comprised of 1,691,939 bp, with a mol.% (G+C) content of 30.5%. PacBio sequencing coupled with REBASE analysis was used to predict C. jejuni F38011 genomic sites and enzymes that may be involved in DNA restriction-modification. A total of five putative methylation motifs were identified as well as the C. jejuni enzymes that could be responsible for the modifications. Peptides corresponding to the deduced amino acid sequence of the C. jejuni enzymes were identified using proteomics. This work sets the stage for studies to dissect the precise functions of the C. jejuni putative restriction-modification enzymes. Taken together, the data generated in this study contributes to our knowledge of the genomic content, methylation profile, and encoding capacity of C. jejuni. PMID:25695747

  2. Sequence, structure, and cooperativity in folding of elementary protein structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jason K; Kubelka, Ginka S; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-08-11

    Residue-level unfolding of two helix-turn-helix proteins--one naturally occurring and one de novo designed--is reconstructed from multiple sets of site-specific (13)C isotopically edited infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) data using Ising-like statistical-mechanical models. Several model variants are parameterized to test the importance of sequence-specific interactions (approximated by Miyazawa-Jernigan statistical potentials), local structural flexibility (derived from the ensemble of NMR structures), interhelical hydrogen bonds, and native contacts separated by intervening disordered regions (through the Wako-Saitô-Muñoz-Eaton scheme, which disallows such configurations). The models are optimized by directly simulating experimental observables: CD ellipticity at 222 nm for model proteins and their fragments and (13)C-amide I' bands for multiple isotopologues of each protein. We find that data can be quantitatively reproduced by the model that allows two interacting segments flanking a disordered loop (double sequence approximation) and incorporates flexibility in the native contact maps, but neither sequence-specific interactions nor hydrogen bonds are required. The near-identical free energy profiles as a function of the global order parameter are consistent with expected similar folding kinetics for nearly identical structures. However, the predicted folding mechanism for the two motifs is different, reflecting the order of local stability. We introduce free energy profiles for "experimental" reaction coordinates--namely, the degree of local folding as sensed by site-specific (13)C-edited IR, which highlight folding heterogeneity and contrast its overall, average description with the detailed, local picture.

  3. Sequence, structure, and cooperativity in folding of elementary protein structural motifs

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jason K.; Kubelka, Ginka S.; Kubelka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Residue-level unfolding of two helix-turn-helix proteins—one naturally occurring and one de novo designed—is reconstructed from multiple sets of site-specific 13C isotopically edited infrared (IR) and circular dichroism (CD) data using Ising-like statistical-mechanical models. Several model variants are parameterized to test the importance of sequence-specific interactions (approximated by Miyazawa–Jernigan statistical potentials), local structural flexibility (derived from the ensemble of NMR structures), interhelical hydrogen bonds, and native contacts separated by intervening disordered regions (through the Wako–Saitô–Muñoz–Eaton scheme, which disallows such configurations). The models are optimized by directly simulating experimental observables: CD ellipticity at 222 nm for model proteins and their fragments and 13C-amide I′ bands for multiple isotopologues of each protein. We find that data can be quantitatively reproduced by the model that allows two interacting segments flanking a disordered loop (double sequence approximation) and incorporates flexibility in the native contact maps, but neither sequence-specific interactions nor hydrogen bonds are required. The near-identical free energy profiles as a function of the global order parameter are consistent with expected similar folding kinetics for nearly identical structures. However, the predicted folding mechanism for the two motifs is different, reflecting the order of local stability. We introduce free energy profiles for “experimental” reaction coordinates—namely, the degree of local folding as sensed by site-specific 13C-edited IR, which highlight folding heterogeneity and contrast its overall, average description with the detailed, local picture. PMID:26216963

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure of a Novel Globular Domain in RBM10 Containing OCRE, the Octamer Repeat Sequence Motif.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bryan T; Serrano, Pedro; Geralt, Michael; Wüthrich, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The OCtamer REpeat (OCRE) has been annotated as a 42-residue sequence motif with 12 tyrosine residues in the spliceosome trans-regulatory elements RBM5 and RBM10 (RBM [RNA-binding motif]), which are known to regulate alternative splicing of Fas and Bcl-x pre-mRNA transcripts. Nuclear magnetic resonance structure determination showed that the RBM10 OCRE sequence motif is part of a 55-residue globular domain containing 16 aromatic amino acids, which consists of an anti-parallel arrangement of six β strands, with the first five strands containing complete or incomplete Tyr triplets. This OCRE globular domain is a distinctive component of RBM10 and is more widely conserved in RBM10s across the animal kingdom than the ubiquitous RNA recognition components. It is also found in the functionally related RBM5. Thus, it appears that the three-dimensional structure of the globular OCRE domain, rather than the 42-residue OCRE sequence motif alone, confers specificity on RBM10 intermolecular interactions in the spliceosome.

  5. AptaTRACE Elucidates RNA Sequence-Structure Motifs from Selection Trends in HT-SELEX Experiments.

    PubMed

    Dao, Phuong; Hoinka, Jan; Takahashi, Mayumi; Zhou, Jiehua; Ho, Michelle; Wang, Yijie; Costa, Fabrizio; Rossi, John J; Backofen, Rolf; Burnett, John; Przytycka, Teresa M

    2016-07-01

    Aptamers, short RNA or DNA molecules that bind distinct targets with high affinity and specificity, can be identified using high-throughput systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (HT-SELEX), but scalable analytic tools for understanding sequence-function relationships from diverse HT-SELEX data are not available. Here we present AptaTRACE, a computational approach that leverages the experimental design of the HT-SELEX protocol, RNA secondary structure, and the potential presence of many secondary motifs to identify sequence-structure motifs that show a signature of selection. We apply AptaTRACE to identify nine motifs in C-C chemokine receptor type 7 targeted by aptamers in an in vitro cell-SELEX experiment. We experimentally validate two aptamers whose binding required both sequence and structural features. AptaTRACE can identify low-abundance motifs, and we show through simulations that, because of this, it could lower HT-SELEX cost and time by reducing the number of selection cycles required. PMID:27467247

  6. Finishing and Special Motifs: Lessons Learned from CRISPR Analysis Using Next-Generation Draft Sequences ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Catherine

    2012-06-01

    Catherine Campbell on "Finishing and Special Motifs: Lessons learned from CRISPR analysis using next-generation draft sequences" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  7. Finishing and Special Motifs: Lessons Learned from CRISPR Analysis Using Next-Generation Draft Sequences ( 7th Annual SFAF Meeting, 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Campbell, Catherine [Noblis

    2016-07-12

    Catherine Campbell on "Finishing and Special Motifs: Lessons learned from CRISPR analysis using next-generation draft sequences" at the 2012 Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future Meeting held June 5-7, 2012 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

  8. Viroids: from genotype to phenotype just relying on RNA sequence and structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ricardo; Serra, Pedro; Minoia, Sofía; Di Serio, Francesco; Navarro, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of two unique physical properties, small size and circularity, viroid RNAs do not code for proteins and thus depend on RNA sequence/structural motifs for interacting with host proteins that mediate their invasion, replication, spread, and circumvention of defensive barriers. Viroid genomes fold up on themselves adopting collapsed secondary structures wherein stretches of nucleotides stabilized by Watson-Crick pairs are flanked by apparently unstructured loops. However, compelling data show that they are instead stabilized by alternative non-canonical pairs and that specific loops in the rod-like secondary structure, characteristic of Potato spindle tuber viroid and most other members of the family Pospiviroidae, are critical for replication and systemic trafficking. In contrast, rather than folding into a rod-like secondary structure, most members of the family Avsunviroidae adopt multibranched conformations occasionally stabilized by kissing-loop interactions critical for viroid viability in vivo. Besides these most stable secondary structures, viroid RNAs alternatively adopt during replication transient metastable conformations containing elements of local higher-order structure, prominent among which are the hammerhead ribozymes catalyzing a key replicative step in the family Avsunviroidae, and certain conserved hairpins that also mediate replication steps in the family Pospiviroidae. Therefore, different RNA structures - either global or local - determine different functions, thus highlighting the need for in-depth structural studies on viroid RNAs.

  9. Modeling of the Ebola virus delta peptide reveals a potential lytic sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Gallaher, William R; Garry, Robert F

    2015-01-20

    Filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause severe outbreaks of human infection, including the extensive epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in 2014. In the course of examining mutations in the glycoprotein gene associated with 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) sequences, a differential level of conservation was noted between the soluble form of glycoprotein (sGP) and the full length glycoprotein (GP), which are both encoded by the GP gene via RNA editing. In the region of the proteins encoded after the RNA editing site sGP was more conserved than the overlapping region of GP when compared to a distant outlier species, Tai Forest ebolavirus. Half of the amino acids comprising the "delta peptide", a 40 amino acid carboxy-terminal fragment of sGP, were identical between otherwise widely divergent species. A lysine-rich amphipathic peptide motif was noted at the carboxyl terminus of delta peptide with high structural relatedness to the cytolytic peptide of the non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) of rotavirus. EBOV delta peptide is a candidate viroporin, a cationic pore-forming peptide, and may contribute to EBOV pathogenesis.

  10. Modeling of the Ebola Virus Delta Peptide Reveals a Potential Lytic Sequence Motif

    PubMed Central

    Gallaher, William R.; Garry, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses, such as Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause severe outbreaks of human infection, including the extensive epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in 2014. In the course of examining mutations in the glycoprotein gene associated with 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) sequences, a differential level of conservation was noted between the soluble form of glycoprotein (sGP) and the full length glycoprotein (GP), which are both encoded by the GP gene via RNA editing. In the region of the proteins encoded after the RNA editing site sGP was more conserved than the overlapping region of GP when compared to a distant outlier species, Tai Forest ebolavirus. Half of the amino acids comprising the “delta peptide”, a 40 amino acid carboxy-terminal fragment of sGP, were identical between otherwise widely divergent species. A lysine-rich amphipathic peptide motif was noted at the carboxyl terminus of delta peptide with high structural relatedness to the cytolytic peptide of the non-structural protein 4 (NSP4) of rotavirus. EBOV delta peptide is a candidate viroporin, a cationic pore-forming peptide, and may contribute to EBOV pathogenesis. PMID:25609303

  11. Triazine-Based Sequence-Defined Polymers with Side-Chain Diversity and Backbone-Backbone Interaction Motifs.

    PubMed

    Grate, Jay W; Mo, Kai-For; Daily, Michael D

    2016-03-14

    Sequence control in polymers, well-known in nature, encodes structure and functionality. Here we introduce a new architecture, based on the nucleophilic aromatic substitution chemistry of cyanuric chloride, that creates a new class of sequence-defined polymers dubbed TZPs. Proof of concept is demonstrated with two synthesized hexamers, having neutral and ionizable side chains. Molecular dynamics simulations show backbone-backbone interactions, including H-bonding motifs and pi-pi interactions. This architecture is arguably biomimetic while differing from sequence-defined polymers having peptide bonds. The synthetic methodology supports the structural diversity of side chains known in peptides, as well as backbone-backbone hydrogen-bonding motifs, and will thus enable new macromolecules and materials with useful functions. PMID:26865312

  12. DNA recognition for virus assembly through multiple sequence-independent interactions with a helix-turn-helix motif

    PubMed Central

    Greive, Sandra J.; Fung, Herman K.H.; Chechik, Maria; Jenkins, Huw T.; Weitzel, Stephen E.; Aguiar, Pedro M.; Brentnall, Andrew S.; Glousieau, Matthieu; Gladyshev, Grigory V.; Potts, Jennifer R.; Antson, Alfred A.

    2016-01-01

    The helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif features frequently in protein DNA-binding assemblies. Viral pac site-targeting small terminase proteins possess an unusual architecture in which the HTH motifs are displayed in a ring, distinct from the classical HTH dimer. Here we investigate how such a circular array of HTH motifs enables specific recognition of the viral genome for initiation of DNA packaging during virus assembly. We found, by surface plasmon resonance and analytical ultracentrifugation, that individual HTH motifs of the Bacillus phage SF6 small terminase bind the packaging regions of SF6 and related SPP1 genome weakly, with little local sequence specificity. Nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shift perturbation studies with an arbitrary single-site substrate suggest that the HTH motif contacts DNA similarly to how certain HTH proteins contact DNA non-specifically. Our observations support a model where specificity is generated through conformational selection of an intrinsically bent DNA segment by a ring of HTHs which bind weakly but cooperatively. Such a system would enable viral gene regulation and control of the viral life cycle, with a minimal genome, conferring a major evolutionary advantage for SPP1-like viruses. PMID:26673721

  13. SVM2Motif—Reconstructing Overlapping DNA Sequence Motifs by Mimicking an SVM Predictor

    PubMed Central

    Vidovic, Marina M. -C.; Görnitz, Nico; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Rätsch, Gunnar; Kloft, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Identifying discriminative motifs underlying the functionality and evolution of organisms is a major challenge in computational biology. Machine learning approaches such as support vector machines (SVMs) achieve state-of-the-art performances in genomic discrimination tasks, but—due to its black-box character—motifs underlying its decision function are largely unknown. As a remedy, positional oligomer importance matrices (POIMs) allow us to visualize the significance of position-specific subsequences. Although being a major step towards the explanation of trained SVM models, they suffer from the fact that their size grows exponentially in the length of the motif, which renders their manual inspection feasible only for comparably small motif sizes, typically k ≤ 5. In this work, we extend the work on positional oligomer importance matrices, by presenting a new machine-learning methodology, entitled motifPOIM, to extract the truly relevant motifs—regardless of their length and complexity—underlying the predictions of a trained SVM model. Our framework thereby considers the motifs as free parameters in a probabilistic model, a task which can be phrased as a non-convex optimization problem. The exponential dependence of the POIM size on the oligomer length poses a major numerical challenge, which we address by an efficient optimization framework that allows us to find possibly overlapping motifs consisting of up to hundreds of nucleotides. We demonstrate the efficacy of our approach on a synthetic data set as well as a real-world human splice site data set. PMID:26690911

  14. A self-assembling peptide RADA16-I integrated with spider fibroin uncrystalline motifs.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijuan; Zhao, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical strength of nanofiber scaffolds formed by the self-assembling peptide RADA16-I or its derivatives is not very good and limits their application. To address this problem, we inserted spidroin uncrystalline motifs, which confer incomparable elasticity and hydrophobicity to spider silk GGAGGS or GPGGY, into the C-terminus of RADA16-I to newly design two peptides: R3 (n-RADARADARADARADA-GGAGGS-c) and R4 (n-RADARADARADARADA-GPGGY-c), and then observed the effect of these motifs on biophysical properties of the peptide. Atomic force microscopy, transmitting electron microscopy, and circular dichroism spectroscopy confirm that R3 and R4 display β-sheet structure and self-assemble into long nanofibers. Compared with R3, the β-sheet structure and nanofibers formed by R4 are more stable; they change to random coil and unordered aggregation at higher temperature. Rheology measurements indicate that novel peptides form hydrogel when induced by DMEM, and the storage modulus of R3 and R4 hydrogel is 0.5 times and 3 times higher than that of RADA16-I, respectively. Furthermore, R4 hydrogel remarkably promotes growth of liver cell L02 and liver cancer cell SMCC7721 compared with 2D culture, determined by MTT assay. Novel peptides still have potential as hydrophobic drug carriers; they can stabilize pyrene microcrystals in aqueous solution and deliver this into a lipophilic environment, identified by fluorescence emission spectra. Altogether, the spider fibroin motif GPGGY most effectively enhances mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of the peptide. This study provides a new method in the design of nanobiomaterials and helps us to understand the role of the amino acid sequence in nanofiber formation.

  15. Sequence-Specific Recognition of DNA by Proteins: Binding Motifs Discovered Using a Novel Statistical/Computational Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jakubec, David; Laskowski, Roman A.; Vondrasek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Decades of intensive experimental studies of the recognition of DNA sequences by proteins have provided us with a view of a diverse and complicated world in which few to no features are shared between individual DNA-binding protein families. The originally conceived direct readout of DNA residue sequences by amino acid side chains offers very limited capacity for sequence recognition, while the effects of the dynamic properties of the interacting partners remain difficult to quantify and almost impossible to generalise. In this work we investigated the energetic characteristics of all DNA residue—amino acid side chain combinations in the conformations found at the interaction interface in a very large set of protein—DNA complexes by the means of empirical potential-based calculations. General specificity-defining criteria were derived and utilised to look beyond the binding motifs considered in previous studies. Linking energetic favourability to the observed geometrical preferences, our approach reveals several additional amino acid motifs which can distinguish between individual DNA bases. Our results remained valid in environments with various dielectric properties. PMID:27384774

  16. Sequence-Specific Recognition of DNA by Proteins: Binding Motifs Discovered Using a Novel Statistical/Computational Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jakubec, David; Laskowski, Roman A; Vondrasek, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    Decades of intensive experimental studies of the recognition of DNA sequences by proteins have provided us with a view of a diverse and complicated world in which few to no features are shared between individual DNA-binding protein families. The originally conceived direct readout of DNA residue sequences by amino acid side chains offers very limited capacity for sequence recognition, while the effects of the dynamic properties of the interacting partners remain difficult to quantify and almost impossible to generalise. In this work we investigated the energetic characteristics of all DNA residue-amino acid side chain combinations in the conformations found at the interaction interface in a very large set of protein-DNA complexes by the means of empirical potential-based calculations. General specificity-defining criteria were derived and utilised to look beyond the binding motifs considered in previous studies. Linking energetic favourability to the observed geometrical preferences, our approach reveals several additional amino acid motifs which can distinguish between individual DNA bases. Our results remained valid in environments with various dielectric properties. PMID:27384774

  17. A Glance at Microsatellite Motifs from 454 Sequencing Reads of Watermelon Genomic DNA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single 454 (Life Sciences Sequencing Technology) run of Charleston Gray watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) genomic DNA was performed and sequence data were assembled. A large scale identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) was performed and SSR sequence data were used for the develo...

  18. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element

    PubMed Central

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-01-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5′-NNCCAC-3′ and 5′-GCGMGN′N′-3′ (M:A or C; N and N′ form Watson–Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences. PMID:23709277

  19. In planta analysis of a cis-regulatory cytokinin response motif in Arabidopsis and identification of a novel enhancer sequence.

    PubMed

    Ramireddy, Eswarayya; Brenner, Wolfram G; Pfeifer, Andreas; Heyl, Alexander; Schmülling, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    The phytohormone cytokinin plays a key role in regulating plant growth and development, and is involved in numerous physiological responses to environmental changes. The type-B response regulators, which regulate the transcription of cytokinin response genes, are a part of the cytokinin signaling system. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 11 type-B response regulators (type-B ARRs), and some of them were shown to bind in vitro to the core cytokinin response motif (CRM) 5'-(A/G)GAT(T/C)-3' or, in the case of ARR1, to an extended motif (ECRM), 5'-AAGAT(T/C)TT-3'. Here we obtained in planta proof for the functionality of the latter motif. Promoter deletion analysis of the primary cytokinin response gene ARR6 showed that a combination of two extended motifs within the promoter is required to mediate the full transcriptional activation by ARR1 and other type-B ARRs. CRMs were found to be over-represented in the vicinity of ECRMs in the promoters of cytokinin-regulated genes, suggesting their functional relevance. Moreover, an evolutionarily conserved 27 bp long T-rich region between -220 and -193 bp was identified and shown to be required for the full activation by type-B ARRs and the response to cytokinin. This novel enhancer is not bound by the DNA-binding domain of ARR1, indicating that additional proteins might be involved in mediating the transcriptional cytokinin response. Furthermore, genome-wide expression profiling identified genes, among them ARR16, whose induction by cytokinin depends on both ARR1 and other specific type-B ARRs. This together with the ECRM/CRM sequence clustering indicates cooperative action of different type-B ARRs for the activation of particular target genes. PMID:23620480

  20. Rapid characterization of CRISPR-Cas9 protospacer adjacent motif sequence elements.

    PubMed

    Karvelis, Tautvydas; Gasiunas, Giedrius; Young, Joshua; Bigelyte, Greta; Silanskas, Arunas; Cigan, Mark; Siksnys, Virginijus

    2015-01-01

    To expand the repertoire of Cas9s available for genome targeting, we present a new in vitro method for the simultaneous examination of guide RNA and protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) requirements. The method relies on the in vitro cleavage of plasmid libraries containing a randomized PAM as a function of Cas9-guide RNA complex concentration. Using this method, we accurately reproduce the canonical PAM preferences for Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR3 (Sth3), and CRISPR1 (Sth1). Additionally, PAM and sgRNA solutions for a novel Cas9 protein from Brevibacillus laterosporus are provided by the assay and are demonstrated to support functional activity in vitro and in plants. PMID:26585795

  1. Uncovering a Macrophage Transcriptional Program by Integrating Evidence from Motif Scanning and Expression Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Stephen A.; Klemm, Sandy L.; Zak, Daniel E.; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Li, Bin; Gilchrist, Mark; Gold, Elizabeth S.; Johnson, Carrie D.; Litvak, Vladimir; Navarro, Garnet; Roach, Jared C.; Rosenberger, Carrie M.; Rust, Alistair G.; Yudkovsky, Natalya; Aderem, Alan; Shmulevich, Ilya

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are versatile immune cells that can detect a variety of pathogen-associated molecular patterns through their Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In response to microbial challenge, the TLR-stimulated macrophage undergoes an activation program controlled by a dynamically inducible transcriptional regulatory network. Mapping a complex mammalian transcriptional network poses significant challenges and requires the integration of multiple experimental data types. In this work, we inferred a transcriptional network underlying TLR-stimulated murine macrophage activation. Microarray-based expression profiling and transcription factor binding site motif scanning were used to infer a network of associations between transcription factor genes and clusters of co-expressed target genes. The time-lagged correlation was used to analyze temporal expression data in order to identify potential causal influences in the network. A novel statistical test was developed to assess the significance of the time-lagged correlation. Several associations in the resulting inferred network were validated using targeted ChIP-on-chip experiments. The network incorporates known regulators and gives insight into the transcriptional control of macrophage activation. Our analysis identified a novel regulator (TGIF1) that may have a role in macrophage activation. PMID:18369420

  2. Eukaryotic genomes contain a [2Fez.sbnd;2S] ferredoxin isoform with a conserved C-terminal sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Seeber, Frank

    2002-11-01

    Apicomplexan protists contain a single mitochondrial [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin sequence (mtFd) with a highly conserved C-terminal motif, VDGxxpxPH, that distinguishes it from other mtFd, which have heterogeneous C-termini. This isoform of mtFd, called 'type II ferredoxin', is widespread in eukaryotes, some species having two isoforms and others possessing only one. Because of the known modulating role of the C-terminus of type I mtFd during association with itself and other interacting proteins, the presence of a conserved C-terminus in type II mtFd suggests it evolved either as a means for optimized homodimerization or to allow interaction with a highly conserved partner(s) that is yet to be defined.

  3. A sequence motif enriched in regions bound by the Drosophila dosage compensation complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Drosophila melanogaster, dosage compensation is mediated by the action of the dosage compensation complex (DCC). How the DCC recognizes the fly X chromosome is still poorly understood. Characteristic sequence signatures at all DCC binding sites have not hitherto been found. Results In this study, we compare the known binding sites of the DCC with oligonucleotide profiles that measure the specificity of the sequences of the D. melanogaster X chromosome. We show that the X chromosome regions bound by the DCC are enriched for a particular type of short, repetitive sequences. Their distribution suggests that these sequences contribute to chromosome recognition, the generation of DCC binding sites and/or the local spreading of the complex. Comparative data indicate that the same sequences may be involved in dosage compensation in other Drosophila species. Conclusions These results offer an explanation for the wild-type binding of the DCC along the Drosophila X chromosome, contribute to delineate the forces leading to the establishment of dosage compensation and suggest new experimental approaches to understand the precise biochemical features of the dosage compensation system. PMID:20226017

  4. MPS Editor - An Integrated Sequencing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streiffert, Barbara A.; O'Reilly, Taifun; Schrock, Mitchell; Catchen, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    In today's operations environment, the teams are smaller and need to be more efficient while still ensuring the safety and success of the mission. In addition, teams often begin working on a mission in its early development phases and continue on the team through actual operations. For these reasons the operations teams want to be presented with a software environment that integrates multiple needed software applications as well as providing them with context sensitive editing support for entering commands and sequences of commands. At Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Multi-Mission Planning and Sequencing (MPS) Editor provided by the Multi-Mission Ground Systems and Services (MGSS) supports those operational needs.

  5. Structural analysis of a repetitive protein sequence motif in strepsirrhine primate amelogenin.

    PubMed

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Bromley, Keith M; Hacia, Joseph G; Bromage, Timothy G; Snead, Malcolm L; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Paine, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Strepsirrhines are members of a primate suborder that has a distinctive set of features associated with the development of the dentition. Amelogenin (AMEL), the better known of the enamel matrix proteins, forms 90% of the secreted organic matrix during amelogenesis. Although AMEL has been sequenced in numerous mammalian lineages, the only reported strepsirrhine AMEL sequences are those of the ring-tailed lemur and galago, which contain a set of additional proline-rich tandem repeats absent in all other primates species analyzed to date, but present in some non-primate mammals. Here, we first determined that these repeats are present in AMEL from three additional lemur species and thus are likely to be widespread throughout this group. To evaluate the functional relevance of these repeats in strepsirrhines, we engineered a mutated murine amelogenin sequence containing a similar proline-rich sequence to that of Lemur catta. In the monomeric form, the MQP insertions had no influence on the secondary structure or refolding properties, whereas in the assembled form, the insertions increased the hydrodynamic radii. We speculate that increased AMEL nanosphere size may influence enamel formation in strepsirrhine primates. PMID:21437261

  6. Structural Analysis of a Repetitive Protein Sequence Motif in Strepsirrhine Primate Amelogenin

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Keith M.; Hacia, Joseph G.; Bromage, Timothy G.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Paine, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Strepsirrhines are members of a primate suborder that has a distinctive set of features associated with the development of the dentition. Amelogenin (AMEL), the better known of the enamel matrix proteins, forms 90% of the secreted organic matrix during amelogenesis. Although AMEL has been sequenced in numerous mammalian lineages, the only reported strepsirrhine AMEL sequences are those of the ring-tailed lemur and galago, which contain a set of additional proline-rich tandem repeats absent in all other primates species analyzed to date, but present in some non-primate mammals. Here, we first determined that these repeats are present in AMEL from three additional lemur species and thus are likely to be widespread throughout this group. To evaluate the functional relevance of these repeats in strepsirrhines, we engineered a mutated murine amelogenin sequence containing a similar proline-rich sequence to that of Lemur catta. In the monomeric form, the MQP insertions had no influence on the secondary structure or refolding properties, whereas in the assembled form, the insertions increased the hydrodynamic radii. We speculate that increased AMEL nanosphere size may influence enamel formation in strepsirrhine primates. PMID:21437261

  7. Gibbs motif sampling: detection of bacterial outer membrane protein repeats.

    PubMed Central

    Neuwald, A. F.; Liu, J. S.; Lawrence, C. E.

    1995-01-01

    The detection and alignment of locally conserved regions (motifs) in multiple sequences can provide insight into protein structure, function, and evolution. A new Gibbs sampling algorithm is described that detects motif-encoding regions in sequences and optimally partitions them into distinct motif models; this is illustrated using a set of immunoglobulin fold proteins. When applied to sequences sharing a single motif, the sampler can be used to classify motif regions into related submodels, as is illustrated using helix-turn-helix DNA-binding proteins. Other statistically based procedures are described for searching a database for sequences matching motifs found by the sampler. When applied to a set of 32 very distantly related bacterial integral outer membrane proteins, the sampler revealed that they share a subtle, repetitive motif. Although BLAST (Altschul SF et al., 1990, J Mol Biol 215:403-410) fails to detect significant pairwise similarity between any of the sequences, the repeats present in these outer membrane proteins, taken as a whole, are highly significant (based on a generally applicable statistical test for motifs described here). Analysis of bacterial porins with known trimeric beta-barrel structure and related proteins reveals a similar repetitive motif corresponding to alternating membrane-spanning beta-strands. These beta-strands occur on the membrane interface (as opposed to the trimeric interface) of the beta-barrel. The broad conservation and structural location of these repeats suggests that they play important functional roles. PMID:8520488

  8. Phylogenetic Analysis of Geographically Diverse Radopholus similis via rDNA Sequence Reveals a Monomorphic Motif

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, D. T.; Thomas, W. K.; Frisse, L. M.; Sarah, J. L.; Stanton, J. M.; Speijer, P. R.; Marin, D. H.; Opperman, C. H.

    2000-01-01

    The nucleic acid sequences of rDNA ITS1 and the rDNA D2/D3 expansion segment were compared for 57 burrowing nematode isolates collected from Australia, Cameroon, Central America, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Guadeloupe, Hawaii, Nigeria, Honduras, Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Puerto Rico, South Africa, and Uganda. Of the 57 isolates, 55 were morphologically similar to Radopholus similis and seven were citrus-parasitic. The nucleic acid sequences for PCR-amplified ITS1 and for the D2/D3 expansion segment of the 28S rDNA gene were each identical for all putative R. similis. Sequence divergence for both the ITS1 and the D2/D3 was concordant with morphological differences that distinguish R. similis from other burrowing nematode species. This result substantiates previous observations that the R. similis genome is highly conserved across geographic regions. Autapomorphies that would delimit phylogenetic lineages of non-citrus-parasitic R. similis from those that parasitize citrus were not observed. The data presented herein support the concept that R. similis is comprised of two pathotypes-one that parasitizes citrus and one that does not. PMID:19270959

  9. Network motif-based identification of transcription factor-target gene relationships by integrating multi-source biological data

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuji; Xuan, Jianhua; de los Reyes, Benildo G; Clarke, Robert; Ressom, Habtom W

    2008-01-01

    Background Integrating data from multiple global assays and curated databases is essential to understand the spatio-temporal interactions within cells. Different experiments measure cellular processes at various widths and depths, while databases contain biological information based on established facts or published data. Integrating these complementary datasets helps infer a mutually consistent transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) with strong similarity to the structure of the underlying genetic regulatory modules. Decomposing the TRN into a small set of recurring regulatory patterns, called network motifs (NM), facilitates the inference. Identifying NMs defined by specific transcription factors (TF) establishes the framework structure of a TRN and allows the inference of TF-target gene relationship. This paper introduces a computational framework for utilizing data from multiple sources to infer TF-target gene relationships on the basis of NMs. The data include time course gene expression profiles, genome-wide location analysis data, binding sequence data, and gene ontology (GO) information. Results The proposed computational framework was tested using gene expression data associated with cell cycle progression in yeast. Among 800 cell cycle related genes, 85 were identified as candidate TFs and classified into four previously defined NMs. The NMs for a subset of TFs are obtained from literature. Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers were used to estimate NMs for the remaining TFs. The potential downstream target genes for the TFs were clustered into 34 biologically significant groups. The relationships between TFs and potential target gene clusters were examined by training recurrent neural networks whose topologies mimic the NMs to which the TFs are classified. The identified relationships between TFs and gene clusters were evaluated using the following biological validation and statistical analyses: (1) Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to evaluate

  10. Peptide sequences identified by phage display are immunodominant functional motifs of Pet and Pic serine proteases secreted by Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri.

    PubMed

    Ulises, Hernández-Chiñas; Tatiana, Gazarian; Karlen, Gazarian; Guillermo, Mendoza-Hernández; Juan, Xicohtencatl-Cortes; Carlos, Eslava

    2009-12-01

    Plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet) and protein involved in colonization (Pic), are serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) secreted by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), which display the GDSGSG sequence or the serine motif. Our research was directed to localize functional sites in both proteins using the phage display method. From a 12mer linear and a 7mer cysteine-constrained (C7C) libraries displayed on the M13 phage pIII protein we selected different mimotopes using IgG purified from sera of children naturally infected with EAEC producing Pet and Pic proteins, and anti-Pet and anti-Pic IgG purified from rabbits immunized with each one of these proteins. Children IgG selected a homologous group of sequences forming the consensus sequence, motif, PQPxK, and the motifs PGxI/LN and CxPDDSSxC were selected by the rabbit anti-Pet and anti-Pic IgGs, respectively. Analysis of the amino terminal region of a panel of SPATEs showed the presence in all of them of sequences matching the PGxI/LN or CxPDDSSxC motifs, and in a three-dimensional model (Modeller 9v2) designed for Pet, both these motifs were found in the globular portion of the protein, close to the protease active site GDSGSG. Antibodies induced in mice by mimotopes carrying the three aforementioned motifs were reactive with Pet, Pic, and with synthetic peptides carrying the immunogenic mimotope sequences TYPGYINHSKA and LLPQPPKLLLP, thus confirming that the peptide moiety of the selected phages induced the antibodies specific for the toxins. The antibodies induced in mice to the PGxI/LN and CxPDDSSxC mimotopes inhibited fodrin proteolysis and macrophage chemotaxis biological activities of Pet. Our results showed that we were able to generate, by a phage display procedure, mimotopes with sequence motifs PGxI/LN and CxPDDSSxC, and to identify them as functional motifs of the Pet, Pic and other SPATEs involved in their biological activities.

  11. On the Concept of Cis-regulatory Information: From Sequence Motifs to Logic Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpine, Ryan; Istrail, Sorin

    The regulatory genome is about the “system level organization of the core genomic regulatory apparatus, and how this is the locus of causality underlying the twin phenomena of animal development and animal evolution” (E.H. Davidson. The Regulatory Genome: Gene Regulatory Networks in Development and Evolution, Academic Press, 2006). Information processing in the regulatory genome is done through regulatory states, defined as sets of transcription factors (sequence-specific DNA binding proteins which determine gene expression) that are expressed and active at the same time. The core information processing machinery consists of modular DNA sequence elements, called cis-modules, that interact with transcription factors. The cis-modules “read” the information contained in the regulatory state of the cell through transcription factor binding, “process” it, and directly or indirectly communicate with the basal transcription apparatus to determine gene expression. This endowment of each gene with the information-receiving capacity through their cis-regulatory modules is essential for the response to every possible regulatory state to which it might be exposed during all phases of the life cycle and in all cell types. We present here a set of challenges addressed by our CYRENE research project aimed at studying the cis-regulatory code of the regulatory genome. The CYRENE Project is devoted to (1) the construction of a database, the cis-Lexicon, containing comprehensive information across species about experimentally validated cis-regulatory modules; and (2) the software development of a next-generation genome browser, the cis-Browser, specialized for the regulatory genome. The presentation is anchored on three main computational challenges: the Gene Naming Problem, the Consensus Sequence Bottleneck Problem, and the Logic Function Inference Problem.

  12. High-throughput sequencing enhanced phage display enables the identification of patient-specific epitope motifs in serum

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Anders; Kringelum, Jens V.; Hansen, Christian S.; Bøgh, Katrine L.; Sullivan, Eric; Patel, Jigar; Rigby, Neil M.; Eiwegger, Thomas; Szépfalusi, Zsolt; Masi, Federico de; Nielsen, Morten; Lund, Ole; Dufva, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Phage display is a prominent screening technique with a multitude of applications including therapeutic antibody development and mapping of antigen epitopes. In this study, phages were selected based on their interaction with patient serum and exhaustively characterised by high-throughput sequencing. A bioinformatics approach was developed in order to identify peptide motifs of interest based on clustering and contrasting to control samples. Comparison of patient and control samples confirmed a major issue in phage display, namely the selection of unspecific peptides. The potential of the bioinformatic approach was demonstrated by identifying epitopes of a prominent peanut allergen, Ara h 1, in sera from patients with severe peanut allergy. The identified epitopes were confirmed by high-density peptide micro-arrays. The present study demonstrates that high-throughput sequencing can empower phage display by (i) enabling the analysis of complex biological samples, (ii) circumventing the traditional laborious picking and functional testing of individual phage clones and (iii) reducing the number of selection rounds. PMID:26246327

  13. CpG island erosion, polycomb occupancy and sequence motif enrichment at bivalent promoters in mammalian embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mantsoki, Anna; Devailly, Guillaume; Joshi, Anagha

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem (ES) cells, developmental regulators have a characteristic bivalent chromatin signature marked by simultaneous presence of both activation (H3K4me3) and repression (H3K27me3) signals and are thought to be in a ‘poised’ state for subsequent activation or silencing during differentiation. We collected eleven pairs (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of ChIP sequencing datasets in human ES cells and eight pairs in murine ES cells, and predicted high-confidence (HC) bivalent promoters. Over 85% of H3K27me3 marked promoters were bivalent in human and mouse ES cells. We found that (i) HC bivalent promoters were enriched for developmental factors and were highly likely to be differentially expressed upon transcription factor perturbation; (ii) murine HC bivalent promoters were occupied by both polycomb repressive component classes (PRC1 and PRC2) and grouped into four distinct clusters with different biological functions; (iii) HC bivalent and active promoters were CpG rich while H3K27me3-only promoters lacked CpG islands. Binding enrichment of distinct sets of regulators distinguished bivalent from active promoters. Moreover, a ‘TCCCC’ sequence motif was specifically enriched in bivalent promoters. Finally, this analysis will serve as a resource for future studies to further understand transcriptional regulation during embryonic development. PMID:26582124

  14. Integrating bioinformatic resources to predict transcription factors interacting with cis-sequences conserved in co-regulated genes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Using motif detection programs it is fairly straightforward to identify conserved cis-sequences in promoters of co-regulated genes. In contrast, the identification of the transcription factors (TFs) interacting with these cis-sequences is much more elaborate. To facilitate this, we explore the possibility of using several bioinformatic and experimental approaches for TF identification. This starts with the selection of co-regulated gene sets and leads first to the prediction and then to the experimental validation of TFs interacting with cis-sequences conserved in the promoters of these co-regulated genes. Results Using the PathoPlant database, 32 up-regulated gene groups were identified with microarray data for drought-responsive gene expression from Arabidopsis thaliana. Application of the binding site estimation suite of tools (BEST) discovered 179 conserved sequence motifs within the corresponding promoters. Using the STAMP web-server, 49 sequence motifs were classified into 7 motif families for which similarities with known cis-regulatory sequences were identified. All motifs were subjected to a footprintDB analysis to predict interacting DNA binding domains from plant TF families. Predictions were confirmed by using a yeast-one-hybrid approach to select interacting TFs belonging to the predicted TF families. TF-DNA interactions were further experimentally validated in yeast and with a Physcomitrella patens transient expression system, leading to the discovery of several novel TF-DNA interactions. Conclusions The present work demonstrates the successful integration of several bioinformatic resources with experimental approaches to predict and validate TFs interacting with conserved sequence motifs in co-regulated genes. PMID:24773781

  15. Sequence specific protein binding to and activation of the TGF-beta 3 promoter through a repeated TCCC motif.

    PubMed Central

    Lafyatis, R; Denhez, F; Williams, T; Sporn, M; Roberts, A

    1991-01-01

    We have previously characterized the TGF-beta 3 promoter and shown that the activity of this promoter is highly variable in different cell types. Although the promoter contains a proximal cAMP responsive element, which is critical to basal and forskolin-induced promoter activity, this element is not responsible for the variable, cell-specific regulation of the promoter. In this paper, we identify a 25 base pair sequence in the proximal region of the TGF-beta 3 promoter that binds a novel DNA-binding protein. This region includes the sequence T-CCCTCCCTCCC, (3 x TCCC), and mutation of these T-CCC repeats inhibits protein binding. Further, we show that in the cell line A375, which we have previously shown expresses high levels of TGF-beta 3 mRNA, this region is responsible for mediating high level TGF-beta 3 promoter activity. Immediately 3' to the 3 x TCCC sequence is a consensus AP-2 binding site, however, we show that this region does not bind AP-2, and AP-2 does not transactivate the TGF-beta 3 promoter. Therefore, we provide strong evidence that high level expression of TGF-beta 3 in A375 cells results from transactivation of the TGF-beta 3 promoter by a protein that binds to a repeated TCCC motif in the promoter and suggest that this DNA-binding protein likely also regulates aspects of developmental and tissue-specific expression of this cytokine. Images PMID:1754378

  16. Sequence motifs of human her-2 protooncogene important for Peptide binding to hla-A2.

    PubMed

    Fisk, B; Chesak, B; Ioannides, M; Wharton, J; Ioannides, C

    1994-07-01

    Tumor progression and metastasis are often associated with overexpression of specific cellular proteins. In 1991, we introduced a hypothesis that epitopes of nonmutated overexpressed proteins can be targets of a specific cellular immune response against tumor mediated by T cells (Mol Carcinogen 6: 77-81, 1992) and that, when T cell epitopes are present, distinction between tumor immunity/autoimmunity and unresponsiveness can be predicated on the protein concentration as a limiting factor of epitope supply. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrated that CTL from patients with ovarian tumors which overexpress HER-2 proto-oncogene can recognize both autologous tumor and synthetic analogs of a specific epitope from HER-2, which was identified based on the convergence of all criteria for selection of HLA-A2 associated epitopes recognized by T cells. In this study, we identified all epitopes in HER-2 containing nonapeptides with HLA-A2 anchors. Of these, analysis of potential amphiphilic sites identified both sequences and specific mutations that positively affected the reactivity of conformationally dependent HLA-A2 specific mAb which served as an indication of HER-2 peptide binding. We also report the in vitro induction of cellular responses to these peptides by PBMC from healthy HLA-A2+ volunteers as an indication of their ability to stimulate/ restimulate pre-existing T cell responses to HER-2. The peptides induced proliferative responses in one of four donors tested and CTL responses (one of three peptides tested in two of three donors). This strategy may allow selection of immunogenic HER-2 peptides and elucidation of mechanisms operating in induction of tolerance to defined epitopes on self-proteins. PMID:21559557

  17. Flow Cytometry-assisted Cloning of Specific Sequence Motifs fromComplex 16S ribosomal RNA Gene Libraries.

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, J.L.; Schramm, A.; Bernhard, A.E.; van den Engh, G.J.; Stahl, D.A.

    2004-07-21

    A flow cytometry method was developed for rapid screeningand recovery of cloned DNA containing common sequence motifs. Thisapproach, termed fluorescence-activated cell sorting-assisted cloning,was used to recover sequences affiliated with a unique lineage within theBacteroidetes not abundant in a clone library of environmental 16S rRNAgenes. Retrieval and sequence analysis of phylogenetically informativegenes has become a standard cultivation-independent technique toinvestigate microbial diversity in nature (7, 18). Genes encoding the 16SrRNA, because of the relative ease of their selective amplification, havebeen most frequently employed for general diversity surveys (16).Environmental studies have also focused on specific subpopulationsaffiliated with a phylogenetic group or identified by genes encodingspecific metabolic functions (e.g., ammonia oxidation, sulfaterespiration, and nitrate reduction) (8,15,20). However, specificpopulations may be of low abundance (1,23), or the genes encodingspecific metabolic functions may be insufficiently conserved to providepriming sites for general PCR amplification. Three general approacheshave been used to obtain 16S rRNA sequence information from low-abundancepopulations: screening hundreds to thousands of clones in a general 16SrRNA gene library (21), flow cytometric sorting of a subpopulation ofenvironmentally derived cells labeled by fluorescent in situhybridization (FISH) (27), or selective PCR amplification using primersspecific for the subpopulation (2,23). While the first approach is simplytime-consuming and tedious, the second has been restricted to fairlylarge and strongly fluorescent cells from aquatic samples (5, 27). Thethird approach often generates fragments of only a few hundred bases dueto the limited number of specific priming sites. Partial sequenceinformation often degrades analysis, obscuring or distorting thephylogenetic placement of the new sequences (11, 20). A more robustcharacterization of environ

  18. Gene conversion causing human inherited disease: evidence for involvement of non-B-DNA-forming sequences and recombination-promoting motifs in DNA breakage and repair

    PubMed Central

    Chuzhanova, Nadia; Chen, Jian-Min; Bacolla, Albino; Patrinos, George P.; Férec, Claude; Wells, Robert D.; Cooper, David N.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of DNA sequence motifs including inverted repeats, minisatellites, and the χ recombination hotspot, have been reported in association with gene conversion in human genes causing inherited disease. However, no methodical statistically-based analysis has been performed to formalize these observations. We have performed an in silico analysis of the DNA sequence tracts involved in 27 non-overlapping gene conversion events in 19 different genes reported in the context of inherited disease. We found that gene conversion events tend to occur within (C+G)- and CpG-rich regions and that sequences with the potential to form non-B-DNA structures, and which may be involved in the generation of double-strand breaks that could in turn serve to promote gene conversion, occur disproportionately within maximal converted tracts and/or short flanking regions. Maximal converted tracts were also found to be enriched (p<0.01) in a truncated version of the χ-element (a TGGTGG motif), immunoglobulin heavy chain class switch repeats, translin target sites and several novel motifs including (or overlapping) the classical meiotic recombination hotspot, CCTCCCCT. Finally, gene conversions tend to occur in genomic regions that have the potential to fold into stable hairpin conformations. These findings support the concept that recombination-inducing motifs, in association with alternative DNA conformations, can promote recombination in the human genome. PMID:19431182

  19. Rare k-mer DNA: Identification of sequence motifs and prediction of CpG island and promoter.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Hashim, Ezzeddin Kamil; Abdullah, Rosni

    2015-12-21

    Empirical analysis on k-mer DNA has been proven as an effective tool in finding unique patterns in DNA sequences which can lead to the discovery of potential sequence motifs. In an extensive study of empirical k-mer DNA on hundreds of organisms, the researchers found unique multi-modal k-mer spectra occur in the genomes of organisms from the tetrapod clade only which includes all mammals. The multi-modality is caused by the formation of the two lowest modes where k-mers under them are referred as the rare k-mers. The suppression of the two lowest modes (or the rare k-mers) can be attributed to the CG dinucleotide inclusions in them. Apart from that, the rare k-mers are selectively distributed in certain genomic features of CpG Island (CGI), promoter, 5' UTR, and exon. We correlated the rare k-mers with hundreds of annotated features using several bioinformatic tools, performed further intrinsic rare k-mer analyses within the correlated features, and modeled the elucidated rare k-mer clustering feature into a classifier to predict the correlated CGI and promoter features. Our correlation results show that rare k-mers are highly associated with several annotated features of CGI, promoter, 5' UTR, and open chromatin regions. Our intrinsic results show that rare k-mers have several unique topological, compositional, and clustering properties in CGI and promoter features. Finally, the performances of our RWC (rare-word clustering) method in predicting the CGI and promoter features are ranked among the top three, in eight of the CGI and promoter evaluations, among eight of the benchmarked datasets.

  20. Rare k-mer DNA: Identification of sequence motifs and prediction of CpG island and promoter.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Hashim, Ezzeddin Kamil; Abdullah, Rosni

    2015-12-21

    Empirical analysis on k-mer DNA has been proven as an effective tool in finding unique patterns in DNA sequences which can lead to the discovery of potential sequence motifs. In an extensive study of empirical k-mer DNA on hundreds of organisms, the researchers found unique multi-modal k-mer spectra occur in the genomes of organisms from the tetrapod clade only which includes all mammals. The multi-modality is caused by the formation of the two lowest modes where k-mers under them are referred as the rare k-mers. The suppression of the two lowest modes (or the rare k-mers) can be attributed to the CG dinucleotide inclusions in them. Apart from that, the rare k-mers are selectively distributed in certain genomic features of CpG Island (CGI), promoter, 5' UTR, and exon. We correlated the rare k-mers with hundreds of annotated features using several bioinformatic tools, performed further intrinsic rare k-mer analyses within the correlated features, and modeled the elucidated rare k-mer clustering feature into a classifier to predict the correlated CGI and promoter features. Our correlation results show that rare k-mers are highly associated with several annotated features of CGI, promoter, 5' UTR, and open chromatin regions. Our intrinsic results show that rare k-mers have several unique topological, compositional, and clustering properties in CGI and promoter features. Finally, the performances of our RWC (rare-word clustering) method in predicting the CGI and promoter features are ranked among the top three, in eight of the CGI and promoter evaluations, among eight of the benchmarked datasets. PMID:26427337

  1. Identification of Cardiac Troponin I Sequence Motifs Leading to Heart Failure by Inducing Myocardial Inflammation and Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ziya; Göser, Stefan; Buss, Sebastian J.; Leuschner, Florian; Öttl, Renate; Li, Jin; Völkers, Mirko; Zittrich, Stefan; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Rose, Noel R.; Katus, Hugo A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of cardiac troponins for diagnosis of myocyte injury and risk stratification in acute cardiac disorders, little is known about the long term effects of the released troponins on cardiac function. Recently, we showed that an autoimmune response to cardiac troponin I induces severe inflammation and subsequent fibrosis in the myocardium. This autoimmune disorder predisposes in mice to heart failure and cardiac death. Methods and Results To investigate the role of cTnI-specific T-cells, T-cells were isolated from splenocytes of mice immunized with murine cardiac troponin I (mcTnI). WT mice receiving mcTnI-specific T-cells showed high mcTnI-specific antibody titers, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, severe inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium, and reduced fractional shortening. To identify the antigenic determinants of troponin I responsible for the observed inflammation, fibrosis and heart failure, 16 overlapping 16-18mer peptides covering the entire amino acid sequence of mcTnI (211 residues) were synthesized. Only mice immunized with the residues 105-122 of mcTnI developed significant inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium with increased expression of inflammatory chemokines RANTES, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, MIP-2, TCA-3, eotaxin and chemokine receptors CCR1, CCR2, CCR5. Mice immunized with the corresponding human cTnI residues 104-121 and the mcTnI residues 131-148 developed milder disease. Conclusion Transfer of troponin I-specific T-cells can induce inflammation and fibrosis in WT mice leading to deterioration of contractile function. Furthermore, two sequence motifs of cTnI that induce inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium are characterized. PMID:18955666

  2. Integrative visual analysis of protein sequence mutations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An important aspect of studying the relationship between protein sequence, structure and function is the molecular characterization of the effect of protein mutations. To understand the functional impact of amino acid changes, the multiple biological properties of protein residues have to be considered together. Results Here, we present a novel visual approach for analyzing residue mutations. It combines different biological visualizations and integrates them with molecular data derived from external resources. To show various aspects of the biological information on different scales, our approach includes one-dimensional sequence views, three-dimensional protein structure views and two-dimensional views of residue interaction networks as well as aggregated views. The views are linked tightly and synchronized to reduce the cognitive load of the user when switching between them. In particular, the protein mutations are mapped onto the views together with further functional and structural information. We also assess the impact of individual amino acid changes by the detailed analysis and visualization of the involved residue interactions. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach and the developed software on the data provided for the BioVis 2013 data contest. Conclusions Our visual approach and software greatly facilitate the integrative and interactive analysis of protein mutations based on complementary visualizations. The different data views offered to the user are enriched with information about molecular properties of amino acid residues and further biological knowledge. PMID:25237389

  3. Identification of a novel calcium binding motif based on the detection of sequence insertions in the animal peroxidase domain of bacterial proteins.

    PubMed

    Santamaría-Hernando, Saray; Krell, Tino; Ramos-González, María-Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (ANP) superfamily differ greatly in size since they have either one or two catalytic domains that match profile PS50292. The orf PP_2561 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that we have called PepA encodes a two-domain ANP. The alignment of these domains with those of PepA homologues revealed a variable number of insertions with the consensus G-x-D-G-x-x-[GN]-[TN]-x-D-D. This motif has also been detected in the structure of pseudopilin (pdb 3G20), where it was found to be involved in Ca(2+) coordination although a sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of any known calcium binding motifs in this protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that a peptide containing this consensus motif bound specifically calcium ions with affinities ranging between 33-79 µM depending on the pH. Microcalorimetric titrations of the purified N-terminal ANP-like domain of PepA revealed Ca(2+) binding with a K(D) of 12 µM and stoichiometry of 1.25 calcium ions per protein monomer. This domain exhibited peroxidase activity after its reconstitution with heme. These data led to the definition of a novel calcium binding motif that we have termed PERCAL and which was abundantly present in animal peroxidase-like domains of bacterial proteins. Bacterial heme peroxidases thus possess two different types of calcium binding motifs, namely PERCAL and the related hemolysin type calcium binding motif, with the latter being located outside the catalytic domains and in their C-terminal end. A phylogenetic tree of ANP-like catalytic domains of bacterial proteins with PERCAL motifs, including single domain peroxidases, was divided into two major clusters, representing domains with and without PERCAL motif containing insertions. We have verified that the recently reported classification of bacterial heme peroxidases in two families (cd09819 and cd09821) is unrelated to these insertions. Sequences matching PERCAL were detected in all kingdoms of life. PMID

  4. Formation and Dissociation of the Interstrand i-Motif by the Sequences d(XnC4Ym) Monitored with Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yanwei; Qin, Yujiao; Bruist, Michael; Gao, Shang; Wang, Bing; Wang, Huixin; Guo, Xinhua

    2015-06-01

    Formation and dissociation of the interstrand i-motifs by DNA with the sequence d(XnC4Ym) (X and Y represent thymine, adenine, or guanine, and n, m range from 0 to 2) are studied with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), circular dichroism (CD), and UV spectrophotometry. The ion complexes detected in the gas phase and the melting temperatures (Tm) obtained in solution show that a non-C base residue located at 5' end favors formation of the four-stranded structures, with T > A > G for imparting stability. Comparatively, no rule is found when a non-C base is located at the 3' end. Detection of penta- and hexa-stranded ions indicates the formation of i-motifs with more than four strands. In addition, the i-motifs seen in our mass spectra are accompanied by single-, double-, and triple-stranded ions, and the trimeric ions were always less abundant during annealing and heat-induced dissociation process of the DNA strands in solution (pH = 4.5). This provides a direct evidence of a strand-by-strand formation and dissociation pathway of the interstrand i-motif and formation of the triple strands is the rate-limiting step. In contrast, the trimeric ions are abundant when the tetramolecular ions are subjected to collision-induced dissociation (CID) in the gas phase, suggesting different dissociation behaviors of the interstrand i-motif in the gas phase and in solution. Furthermore, hysteretic UV absorption melting and cooling curves reveal an irreversible dissociation and association kinetic process of the interstrand i-motif in solution.

  5. Using Weeder, Pscan, and PscanChIP for the Discovery of Enriched Transcription Factor Binding Site Motifs in Nucleotide Sequences.

    PubMed

    Zambelli, Federico; Pesole, Graziano; Pavesi, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing modern molecular biology is understanding the complex mechanisms regulating gene expression. A fundamental step in this process requires the characterization of sequence motifs involved in the regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In particular, transcription is modulated by the interaction of transcription factors (TFs) with their corresponding binding sites. Weeder, Pscan, and PscanChIP are software tools freely available for noncommercial users as a stand-alone or Web-based applications for the automatic discovery of conserved motifs in a set of DNA sequences likely to be bound by the same TFs. Input for the tools can be promoter sequences from co-expressed or co-regulated genes (for which Weeder and Pscan are suitable), or regions identified through genome wide ChIP-seq or similar experiments (Weeder and PscanChIP). The motifs are either found by a de novo approach (Weeder) or by using descriptors of the binding specificity of TFs (Pscan and PscanChIP). PMID:25199791

  6. Loop Sequence Context Influences the Formation and Stability of the i-Motif for DNA Oligomers of Sequence (CCCXXX)4, where X = A and/or T, under Slightly Acidic Conditions.

    PubMed

    McKim, Mikeal; Buxton, Alexander; Johnson, Courtney; Metz, Amanda; Sheardy, Richard D

    2016-08-11

    The structure and stability of DNA is highly dependent upon the sequence context of the bases (A, G, C, and T) and the environment under which the DNA is prepared (e.g., buffer, temperature, pH, ionic strength). Understanding the factors that influence structure and stability of the i-motif conformation can lead to the design of DNA sequences with highly tunable properties. We have been investigating the influence of pH and temperature on the conformations and stabilities for all permutations of the DNA sequence (CCCXXX)4, where X = A and/or T, using spectroscopic approaches. All oligomers undergo transitions from single-stranded structures at pH 7.0 to i-motif conformations at pH 5.0 as evidenced by circular dichroism (CD) studies. These folded structures possess stacked C:CH(+) base pairs joined by loops of 5'-XXX-3'. Although the pH at the midpoint of the transition (pHmp) varies slightly with loop sequence, the linkage between pH and log K for the proton induced transition is highly loop sequence dependent. All oligomers also undergo the thermally induced i-motif to single-strand transition at pH 5.0 as the temperature is increased from 25 to 95 °C. The temperature at the midpoint of this transition (Tm) is also highly dependent on loop sequence context effects. For seven of eight possible permutations, the pH induced, and thermally induced transitions appear to be highly cooperative and two state. Analysis of the CD optical melting profiles via a van't Hoff approach reveals sequence-dependent thermodynamic parameters for the unfolding as well. Together, these data reveal that the i-motif conformation exhibits exquisite sensitivity to loop sequence context with respect to formation and stability. PMID:27438583

  7. Motifs in brain networks.

    PubMed

    Sporns, Olaf; Kötter, Rolf

    2004-11-01

    Complex brains have evolved a highly efficient network architecture whose structural connectivity is capable of generating a large repertoire of functional states. We detect characteristic network building blocks (structural and functional motifs) in neuroanatomical data sets and identify a small set of structural motifs that occur in significantly increased numbers. Our analysis suggests the hypothesis that brain networks maximize both the number and the diversity of functional motifs, while the repertoire of structural motifs remains small. Using functional motif number as a cost function in an optimization algorithm, we obtain network topologies that resemble real brain networks across a broad spectrum of structural measures, including small-world attributes. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that highly evolved neural architectures are organized to maximize functional repertoires and to support highly efficient integration of information.

  8. Motifs in Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Complex brains have evolved a highly efficient network architecture whose structural connectivity is capable of generating a large repertoire of functional states. We detect characteristic network building blocks (structural and functional motifs) in neuroanatomical data sets and identify a small set of structural motifs that occur in significantly increased numbers. Our analysis suggests the hypothesis that brain networks maximize both the number and the diversity of functional motifs, while the repertoire of structural motifs remains small. Using functional motif number as a cost function in an optimization algorithm, we obtain network topologies that resemble real brain networks across a broad spectrum of structural measures, including small-world attributes. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that highly evolved neural architectures are organized to maximize functional repertoires and to support highly efficient integration of information. PMID:15510229

  9. The stabilized supralinear network: A unifying circuit motif underlying multi-input integration in sensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Daniel B.; Van Hooser, Stephen D.; Miller, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Neurons in sensory cortex integrate multiple influences to parse objects and support perception. Across multiple cortical areas, integration is characterized by two neuronal response properties: (1) surround suppression: modulatory contextual stimuli suppress responses to driving stimuli; (2) “normalization”: responses to multiple driving stimuli add sublinearly. These properties depend on input strength: for weak driving stimuli, contextual influences more weakly suppress or facilitate and summation becomes linear or supralinear. Understanding the circuit operations underlying integration is critical to understanding cortical function and disease. We present a simple, general theory. A wealth of integrative properties including the above emerge robustly from four properties of cortical circuitry: (1) supralinear neuronal input/output functions; (2) sufficiently strong recurrent excitation; (3) feedback inhibition; (4) simple spatial properties of intracortical connections. Integrative properties emerge dynamically as circuit properties, with excitatory and inhibitory neurons showing similar behaviors. In new recordings in visual cortex, we confirm key model predictions. PMID:25611511

  10. Stably integrated mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat DNA requires the octamer motifs for basal promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Buetti, E

    1994-01-01

    In the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter, a tandem of octamer motifs, recognized by ubiquitous and tissue-restricted Oct transcription factors, is located upstream of the TATA box and next to a binding site for the transcription factor nuclear factor I (NF-I). Their function was investigated with mutant long terminal repeats under different transfection conditions in mouse Ltk- cells and quantitative S1 nuclease mapping of the transcripts. In stable transfectants, which are most representative of the state of proviral DNA with respect to both number of integrated DNA templates and chromatin organization, a long terminal repeat mutant of both octamer sites showed an average 50-fold reduction of the basal transcription level, while the dexamethasone-stimulated level was unaffected. DNase I in vitro footprinting assays with L-cell nuclear protein extracts showed that the mutant DNA was unable to bind octamer factors but had a normal footprint in the NF-I site. I conclude that mouse mammary tumor virus employs the tandem octamer motifs of the viral promoter, recognized by the ubiquitous transcription factor Oct-1, for its basal transcriptional activity and the NF-I binding site, as previously shown, for glucocorticoid-stimulated transcription. A deletion mutant with only one octamer site showed a marked base-level reduction at high copy number but little reduction at low copies of integrated plasmids. The observed transcription levels may depend both on the relative ratio of transcription factors to DNA templates and on the relative affinity of binding sites, as determined by oligonucleotide competition footprinting. Images PMID:8289800

  11. Sequence and spatiotemporal expression analysis of CLE-motif containing genes from the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a sedentary semi-endoparasitic species with a host range that encompasses more than 77 plant families. Nematode effector proteins containing plant-ligand motifs similar to CLAVATA3/ESR (CLE) peptides have been identified in the Heterodera, Globode...

  12. PscanChIP: finding over-represented transcription factor-binding site motifs and their correlations in sequences from ChIP-Seq experiments

    PubMed Central

    Zambelli, Federico; Pesole, Graziano; Pavesi, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing with next-generation technologies (ChIP-Seq) has become the de facto standard for building genome-wide maps of regions bound by a given transcription factor (TF). The regions identified, however, have to be further analyzed to determine the actual DNA-binding sites for the TF, as well as sites for other TFs belonging to the same TF complex or in general co-operating or interacting with it in transcription regulation. PscanChIP is a web server that, starting from a collection of genomic regions derived from a ChIP-Seq experiment, scans them using motif descriptors like JASPAR or TRANSFAC position-specific frequency matrices, or descriptors uploaded by users, and it evaluates both motif enrichment and positional bias within the regions according to different measures and criteria. PscanChIP can successfully identify not only the actual binding sites for the TF investigated by a ChIP-Seq experiment but also secondary motifs corresponding to other TFs that tend to bind the same regions, and, if present, precise positional correlations among their respective sites. The web interface is free for use, and there is no login requirement. It is available at http://www.beaconlab.it/pscan_chip_dev. PMID:23748563

  13. Sequence motif upstream of the Hendra virus fusion protein cleavage site is not sufficient to promote efficient proteolytic processing

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Willie Warren; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis . E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu

    2005-10-10

    The Hendra virus fusion (HeV F) protein is synthesized as a precursor, F{sub 0}, and proteolytically cleaved into the mature F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} heterodimer, following an HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif. This cleavage event is required for fusogenic activity. To determine the amino acid requirements for processing of the HeV F protein, we constructed multiple mutants. Individual and simultaneous alanine substitutions of the eight residues immediately upstream of the cleavage site did not eliminate processing. A chimeric SV5 F protein in which the furin site was substituted for the VDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein was not processed but was expressed on the cell surface. Another chimeric SV5 F protein containing the HDLVDGVK{sub 109} motif of the HeV F protein underwent partial cleavage. These data indicate that the upstream region can play a role in protease recognition, but is neither absolutely required nor sufficient for efficient processing of the HeV F protein.

  14. D-SLIMMER: domain-SLiM interaction motifs miner for sequence based protein-protein interaction data.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Willy; Ng, See-Kiong; Sung, Wing-Kin

    2011-12-01

    Many biologically important protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have been found to be mediated by short linear motifs (SLiMs). These interactions are mediated by the binding of a protein domain, often with a nonlinear interaction interface, to a SLiM. We propose a method called D-SLIMMER to mine for SLiMs in PPI data on the basis of the interaction density between a nonlinear motif (i.e., a protein domain) in one protein and a SLiM in the other protein. Our results on a benchmark of 113 experimentally verified reference SLiMs showed that D-SLIMMER outperformed existing methods notably for discovering domain-SLiMs interaction motifs. To illustrate the significance of the SLiMs detected, we highlighted two SLiMs discovered from the PPI data by D-SLIMMER that are variants of the known ELM SLiM, as well as a literature-backed SLiM that is yet to be listed in the reference databases. We also presented a novel SLiM predicted by D-SLIMMER that was strongly supported by existing biological literatures. These examples showed that D-SLIMMER is able to find SLiMs that are biologically relevant.

  15. Comparison of loline alkaloid gene clusters across fungal endophytes: predicting the co-regulatory sequence motifs and the evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Kutil, Brandi L; Greenwald, Charles; Liu, Gang; Spiering, Martin J; Schardl, Christopher L; Wilkinson, Heather H

    2007-10-01

    LOL, a fungal secondary metabolite gene cluster found in Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, is responsible for production of insecticidal loline alkaloids. To analyze the genetic architecture and to predict the evolutionary history of LOL, we compared five clusters from four fungal species (single clusters from Epichloë festucae, Neotyphodium sp. PauTG-1, Neotyphodium coenophialum, and two clusters we previously characterized in Neotyphodium uncinatum). Using PhyloCon to compare putative lol gene promoter regions, we have identified four motifs conserved across the lol genes in all five clusters. Each motif has significant similarity to known fungal transcription factor binding sites in the TRANSFAC database. Conservation of these motifs is further support for the hypothesis that the lol genes are co-regulated. Interestingly, the history of asexual Neotyphodium spp. includes multiple interspecific hybridization events. Comparing clusters from three Neotyphodium species and E. festucae allowed us to determine which Epichloë ancestors are the most likely contributors of LOL in these asexual species. For example, while no present day Epichloë typhina isolates are known to produce lolines, our data support the hypothesis that the E. typhina ancestor(s) of three asexual endophyte species contained a LOL gene cluster. Thus, these data support a model of evolution in which the polymorphism in loline alkaloid production phenotypes among endophyte species is likely due to the loss of the trait over time.

  16. NNAlign: a web-based prediction method allowing non-expert end-user discovery of sequence motifs in quantitative peptide data.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Massimo; Schafer-Nielsen, Claus; Lund, Ole; Buus, Søren; Nielsen, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have made it possible to generate both gene and protein sequence data at an unprecedented rate and scale thereby enabling entirely new "omics"-based approaches towards the analysis of complex biological processes. However, the amount and complexity of data that even a single experiment can produce seriously challenges researchers with limited bioinformatics expertise, who need to handle, analyze and interpret the data before it can be understood in a biological context. Thus, there is an unmet need for tools allowing non-bioinformatics users to interpret large data sets. We have recently developed a method, NNAlign, which is generally applicable to any biological problem where quantitative peptide data is available. This method efficiently identifies underlying sequence patterns by simultaneously aligning peptide sequences and identifying motifs associated with quantitative readouts. Here, we provide a web-based implementation of NNAlign allowing non-expert end-users to submit their data (optionally adjusting method parameters), and in return receive a trained method (including a visual representation of the identified motif) that subsequently can be used as prediction method and applied to unknown proteins/peptides. We have successfully applied this method to several different data sets including peptide microarray-derived sets containing more than 100,000 data points. NNAlign is available online at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NNAlign.

  17. Integration of bioinformatics and synthetic promoters leads to the discovery of novel elicitor-responsive cis-regulatory sequences in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Koschmann, Jeannette; Machens, Fabian; Becker, Marlies; Niemeyer, Julia; Schulze, Jutta; Bülow, Lorenz; Stahl, Dietmar J; Hehl, Reinhard

    2012-09-01

    A combination of bioinformatic tools, high-throughput gene expression profiles, and the use of synthetic promoters is a powerful approach to discover and evaluate novel cis-sequences in response to specific stimuli. With Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data annotated to the PathoPlant database, 732 different queries with a focus on fungal and oomycete pathogens were performed, leading to 510 up-regulated gene groups. Using the binding site estimation suite of tools, BEST, 407 conserved sequence motifs were identified in promoter regions of these coregulated gene sets. Motif similarities were determined with STAMP, classifying the 407 sequence motifs into 37 families. A comparative analysis of these 37 families with the AthaMap, PLACE, and AGRIS databases revealed similarities to known cis-elements but also led to the discovery of cis-sequences not yet implicated in pathogen response. Using a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system and a modified reporter gene vector with an internal transformation control, 25 elicitor-responsive cis-sequences from 10 different motif families were identified. Many of the elicitor-responsive cis-sequences also drive reporter gene expression in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. This work significantly increases the number of known elicitor-responsive cis-sequences and demonstrates the successful integration of a diverse set of bioinformatic resources combined with synthetic promoter analysis for data mining and functional screening in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22744985

  18. Integration of Bioinformatics and Synthetic Promoters Leads to the Discovery of Novel Elicitor-Responsive cis-Regulatory Sequences in Arabidopsis1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Koschmann, Jeannette; Machens, Fabian; Becker, Marlies; Niemeyer, Julia; Schulze, Jutta; Bülow, Lorenz; Stahl, Dietmar J.; Hehl, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    A combination of bioinformatic tools, high-throughput gene expression profiles, and the use of synthetic promoters is a powerful approach to discover and evaluate novel cis-sequences in response to specific stimuli. With Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) microarray data annotated to the PathoPlant database, 732 different queries with a focus on fungal and oomycete pathogens were performed, leading to 510 up-regulated gene groups. Using the binding site estimation suite of tools, BEST, 407 conserved sequence motifs were identified in promoter regions of these coregulated gene sets. Motif similarities were determined with STAMP, classifying the 407 sequence motifs into 37 families. A comparative analysis of these 37 families with the AthaMap, PLACE, and AGRIS databases revealed similarities to known cis-elements but also led to the discovery of cis-sequences not yet implicated in pathogen response. Using a parsley (Petroselinum crispum) protoplast system and a modified reporter gene vector with an internal transformation control, 25 elicitor-responsive cis-sequences from 10 different motif families were identified. Many of the elicitor-responsive cis-sequences also drive reporter gene expression in an Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection assay in Nicotiana benthamiana. This work significantly increases the number of known elicitor-responsive cis-sequences and demonstrates the successful integration of a diverse set of bioinformatic resources combined with synthetic promoter analysis for data mining and functional screening in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:22744985

  19. Conversion of a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent.

    PubMed Central

    Ebright, R H; Ebright, Y W; Pendergrast, P S; Gunasekera, A

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a helix-turn-helix motif sequence-specific DNA binding protein [de Crombrugghe, B., Busby, S. & Buc, H. (1984) Science 224, 831-838; and Pabo, C. & Sauer, R. (1984) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 53, 293-321]. In this work, CAP has been converted into a site-specific DNA cleavage agent by incorporation of the chelator 1,10-phenanthroline at amino acid 10 of the helix-turn-helix motif. [(N-Acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP binds to a 22-base-pair DNA recognition site with Kobs = 1 x 10(8) M-1. In the presence of Cu(II) and reducing agent, [(N-acetyl-5-amino-1,10-phenanthroline)-Cys178]CAP cleaves DNA at four adjacent nucleotides on each DNA strand within the DNA recognition site. The DNA cleavage reaction has been demonstrated using 40-base-pair and 7164-base-pair DNA substrates. The DNA cleavage reaction is not inhibited by dam methylation of the DNA substrate. Such semisynthetic site-specific DNA cleavage agents have potential applications in chromosome mapping, cloning, and sequencing. Images PMID:2158096

  20. Clinical Integration of Next Generation Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Gullapalli, R.R.; Lyons-Weiler, M.; Petrosko, P.; Dhir, R.; Becich, M.J.; LaFramboise, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract/Synopsis Recent technological advances in Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods have substantially reduced cost and operational complexity leading to the production of bench top sequencers and commercial software solutions for implementation in small research and clinical laboratories. This chapter summarizes requirements and hurdles to the successful implementation of these systems including 1) calibration, validation and optimization of the instrumentation, experimental paradigm and primary readout, 2) secure transfer, storage and secondary processing of the data, 3) implementation of software tools for targeted analysis, and 4) training of research and clinical personnel to evaluate data fidelity and interpret the molecular significance of the genomic output. In light of the commercial and technological impetus to bring NGS technology into the clinical domain, it is critical that novel tests incorporate rigid protocols with built-in calibration standards and that data transfer and processing occur under exacting security measures for interpretation by clinicians with specialized training in molecular diagnostics. PMID:23078661

  1. Role of GxxxG Motifs in Transmembrane Domain Interactions.

    PubMed

    Teese, Mark G; Langosch, Dieter

    2015-08-25

    Transmembrane (TM) helices of integral membrane proteins can facilitate strong and specific noncovalent protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis and structural analyses have revealed numerous examples in which the interaction between TM helices of single-pass membrane proteins is dependent on a GxxxG or (small)xxx(small) motif. It is therefore tempting to use the presence of these simple motifs as an indicator of TM helix interactions. In this Current Topic review, we point out that these motifs are quite common, with more than 50% of single-pass TM domains containing a (small)xxx(small) motif. However, the actual interaction strength of motif-containing helices depends strongly on sequence context and membrane properties. In addition, recent studies have revealed several GxxxG-containing TM domains that interact via alternative interfaces involving hydrophobic, polar, aromatic, or even ionizable residues that do not form recognizable motifs. In multipass membrane proteins, GxxxG motifs can be important for protein folding, and not just oligomerization. Our current knowledge thus suggests that the presence of a GxxxG motif alone is a weak predictor of protein dimerization in the membrane. PMID:26244771

  2. Extracting regulator activity profiles by integration of de novo motifs and expression data: characterizing key regulators of nutrient depletion responses in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Mudassar; Mast, Yvonne; Amin, Rafat; Hodgson, David A.; Wohlleben, Wolfgang; Burroughs, Nigel J.

    2012-01-01

    Determining transcriptional regulator activities is a major focus of systems biology, providing key insight into regulatory mechanisms and co-regulators. For organisms such as Escherichia coli, transcriptional regulator binding site data can be integrated with expression data to infer transcriptional regulator activities. However, for most organisms there is only sparse data on their transcriptional regulators, while their associated binding motifs are largely unknown. Here, we address the challenge of inferring activities of unknown regulators by generating de novo (binding) motifs and integrating with expression data. We identify a number of key regulators active in the metabolic switch, including PhoP with its associated directed repeat PHO box, candidate motifs for two SARPs, a CRP family regulator, an iron response regulator and that for LexA. Experimental validation for some of our predictions was obtained using gel-shift assays. Our analysis is applicable to any organism for which there is a reasonable amount of complementary expression data and for which motifs (either over represented or evolutionary conserved) can be identified in the genome. PMID:22406834

  3. Relation between mRNA expression and sequence information in Desulfovibrio vulgaris: Combinatorial contributions of upstream regulatory motifs and coding sequence features to variations in mRNA abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Gang; Nie, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2006-05-26

    ABSTRACT-The context-dependent expression of genes is the core for biological activities, and significant attention has been given to identification of various factors contributing to gene expression at genomic scale. However, so far this type of analysis has been focused whether on relation between mRNA expression and non-coding sequence features such as upstream regulatory motifs or on correlation between mRN abundance and non-random features in coding sequences (e.g. codon usage and amino acid usage). In this study multiple regression analyses of the mRNA abundance and all sequence information in Desulfovibrio vulgaris were performed, with the goal to investigate how much coding and non-coding sequence features contribute to the variations in mRNA expression, and in what manner they act together...

  4. Phylogenetic reconstruction using secondary structures and sequence motifs of ITS2 rDNA of Paragonimus westermani (Kerbert, 1878) Braun, 1899 (Digenea: Paragonimidae) and related species

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    motifs allowed an accurate in-silico distinction of lung flukes. Conclusion Data indicate that ITS2 motifs (≤ 50 bp in size) can be considered a promising tool for trematode species identification. RNA secondary structure analysis could be a valuable tool for distinguishing new species and completing Paragonimus systematics, more so because ITS2 secondary structure contains more information than the usual primary sequence alignment. PMID:19958489

  5. Integrating Sequence Evolution into Probabilistic Orthology Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ikram; Sjöstrand, Joel; Andersson, Peter; Sennblad, Bengt; Lagergren, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Orthology analysis, that is, finding out whether a pair of homologous genes are orthologs - stemming from a speciation - or paralogs - stemming from a gene duplication - is of central importance in computational biology, genome annotation, and phylogenetic inference. In particular, an orthologous relationship makes functional equivalence of the two genes highly likely. A major approach to orthology analysis is to reconcile a gene tree to the corresponding species tree, (most commonly performed using the most parsimonious reconciliation, MPR). However, most such phylogenetic orthology methods infer the gene tree without considering the constraints implied by the species tree and, perhaps even more importantly, only allow the gene sequences to influence the orthology analysis through the a priori reconstructed gene tree. We propose a sound, comprehensive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo-based method, DLRSOrthology, to compute orthology probabilities. It efficiently sums over the possible gene trees and jointly takes into account the current gene tree, all possible reconciliations to the species tree, and the, typically strong, signal conveyed by the sequences. We compare our method with PrIME-GEM, a probabilistic orthology approach built on a probabilistic duplication-loss model, and MrBayesMPR, a probabilistic orthology approach that is based on conventional Bayesian inference coupled with MPR. We find that DLRSOrthology outperforms these competing approaches on synthetic data as well as on biological data sets and is robust to incomplete taxon sampling artifacts. PMID:26130236

  6. U17/snR30 is a ubiquitous snoRNA with two conserved sequence motifs essential for 18S rRNA production.

    PubMed

    Atzorn, Vera; Fragapane, Paola; Kiss, Tamás

    2004-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae snR30 is an essential box H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) required for the processing of 18S rRNA. Here, we show that the previously characterized human, reptilian, amphibian, and fish U17 snoRNAs represent the vertebrate homologues of yeast snR30. We also demonstrate that U17/snR30 is present in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the unicellular ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. Evolutionary comparison revealed that the 3'-terminal hairpins of U17/snR30 snoRNAs contain two highly conserved sequence motifs, the m1 (AUAUUCCUA) and m2 (AAACCAU) elements. Mutation analysis of yeast snR30 demonstrated that the m1 and m2 elements are essential for early cleavages of the 35S pre-rRNA and, consequently, for the production of mature 18S rRNA. The m1 and m2 motifs occupy the opposite strands of an internal loop structure, and they are located invariantly 7 nucleotides upstream from the ACA box of U17/snR30 snoRNAs. U17/snR30 is the first identified box H/ACA snoRNA that possesses an evolutionarily conserved role in the nucleolytic processing of eukaryotic pre-rRNA.

  7. The mammalian Rab family of small GTPases: definition of family and subfamily sequence motifs suggests a mechanism for functional specificity in the Ras superfamily.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Leal, J B; Seabra, M C

    2000-08-25

    The Rab/Ypt/Sec4 family forms the largest branch of the Ras superfamily of GTPases, acting as essential regulators of vesicular transport pathways. We used the large amount of information in the databases to analyse the mammalian Rab family. We defined Rab-conserved sequences that we designate Rab family (RabF) motifs using the conserved PM and G motifs as "landmarks". The Rab-specific regions were used to identify new Rab proteins in the databases and suggest rules for nomenclature. Surprisingly, we find that RabF regions cluster in and around switch I and switch II regions, i.e. the regions that change conformation upon GDP or GTP binding. This finding suggests that specificity of Rab-effector interaction cannot be conferred solely through the switch regions as is usually inferred. Instead, we propose a model whereby an effector binds to RabF (switch) regions to discriminate between nucleotide-bound states and simultaneously to other regions that confer specificity to the interaction, possibly Rab subfamily (RabSF) specific regions that we also define here. We discuss structural and functional data that support this model and its general applicability to the Ras superfamily of proteins.

  8. Avian retroviral RNA encapsidation: reexamination of functional 5' RNA sequences and the role of nucleocapsid Cys-His motifs.

    PubMed Central

    Aronoff, R; Hajjar, A M; Linial, M L

    1993-01-01

    RNA packaging signals (psi) from the 5' ends of murine and avian retroviral genomes have previously been shown to direct encapsidation of heterologous mRNA into the retroviral virion. The avian 5' packaging region has now been further characterized, and we have defined a 270-nucleotide sequence, A psi, which is sufficient to direct packaging of heterologous RNA. Identification of the A psi sequence suggests that several retroviral cis-acting sequences contained in psi+ (the primer binding site, the putative dimer linkage sequence, and the splice donor site) are dispensable for specific RNA encapsidation. Subgenomic env mRNA is not efficiently encapsidated into particles, even though the A psi sequence is present in this RNA. In contrast, spliced heterologous psi-containing RNA is packaged into virions as efficiently as unspliced species; thus splicing per se is not responsible for the failure of env mRNA to be encapsidated. We also found that an avian retroviral mutant deleted for both nucleocapsid Cys-His boxes retains the capacity to encapsidate RNA containing psi sequences, although this RNA is unstable and is thus difficult to detect in mature particles. Electron microscopy reveals that virions produced by this mutant lack a condensed core, which may allow the RNA to be accessible to nucleases. Images PMID:8380070

  9. Nucleophosmin integrates within the nucleolus via multi-modal interactions with proteins displaying R-rich linear motifs and rRNA

    DOE PAGES

    Mitrea, Diana M.; Cika, Jaclyn A.; Guy, Clifford S.; Ban, David; Banerjee, Priya R.; Stanley, Christopher B.; Nourse, Amanda; Deniz, Ashok A.; Kriwacki, Richard W.

    2016-02-02

    The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle formed through liquid-liquid phase separation of its components from the surrounding nucleoplasm. Here, we show that nucleophosmin (NPM1) integrates within the nucleolus via a multi-modal mechanism involving multivalent interactions with proteins containing arginine-rich linear motifs (R-motifs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Importantly, these R-motifs are found in canonical nucleolar localization signals. Based on a novel combination of biophysical approaches, we propose a model for the molecular organization within liquid-like droplets formed by the N-terminal domain of NPM1 and R-motif peptides, thus providing insights into the structural organization of the nucleolus. We identify multivalency of acidicmore » tracts and folded nucleic acid binding domains, mediated by N-terminal domain oligomerization, as structural features required for phase separation of NPM1 with other nucleolar components in vitro and for localization within mammalian nucleoli. We propose that one mechanism of nucleolar localization involves phase separation of proteins within the nucleolus.« less

  10. Nucleophosmin integrates within the nucleolus via multi-modal interactions with proteins displaying R-rich linear motifs and rRNA.

    PubMed

    Mitrea, Diana M; Cika, Jaclyn A; Guy, Clifford S; Ban, David; Banerjee, Priya R; Stanley, Christopher B; Nourse, Amanda; Deniz, Ashok A; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle formed through liquid-liquid phase separation of its components from the surrounding nucleoplasm. Here, we show that nucleophosmin (NPM1) integrates within the nucleolus via a multi-modal mechanism involving multivalent interactions with proteins containing arginine-rich linear motifs (R-motifs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Importantly, these R-motifs are found in canonical nucleolar localization signals. Based on a novel combination of biophysical approaches, we propose a model for the molecular organization within liquid-like droplets formed by the N-terminal domain of NPM1 and R-motif peptides, thus providing insights into the structural organization of the nucleolus. We identify multivalency of acidic tracts and folded nucleic acid binding domains, mediated by N-terminal domain oligomerization, as structural features required for phase separation of NPM1 with other nucleolar components in vitro and for localization within mammalian nucleoli. We propose that one mechanism of nucleolar localization involves phase separation of proteins within the nucleolus. PMID:26836305

  11. Nucleophosmin integrates within the nucleolus via multi-modal interactions with proteins displaying R-rich linear motifs and rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Mitrea, Diana M; Cika, Jaclyn A; Guy, Clifford S; Ban, David; Banerjee, Priya R; Stanley, Christopher B; Nourse, Amanda; Deniz, Ashok A; Kriwacki, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    The nucleolus is a membrane-less organelle formed through liquid-liquid phase separation of its components from the surrounding nucleoplasm. Here, we show that nucleophosmin (NPM1) integrates within the nucleolus via a multi-modal mechanism involving multivalent interactions with proteins containing arginine-rich linear motifs (R-motifs) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Importantly, these R-motifs are found in canonical nucleolar localization signals. Based on a novel combination of biophysical approaches, we propose a model for the molecular organization within liquid-like droplets formed by the N-terminal domain of NPM1 and R-motif peptides, thus providing insights into the structural organization of the nucleolus. We identify multivalency of acidic tracts and folded nucleic acid binding domains, mediated by N-terminal domain oligomerization, as structural features required for phase separation of NPM1 with other nucleolar components in vitro and for localization within mammalian nucleoli. We propose that one mechanism of nucleolar localization involves phase separation of proteins within the nucleolus. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13571.001 PMID:26836305

  12. Distinct XPPX sequence motifs induce ribosome stalling, which is rescued by the translation elongation factor EF-P

    PubMed Central

    Peil, Lauri; Starosta, Agata L.; Lassak, Jürgen; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Virumäe, Kai; Spitzer, Michaela; Tenson, Tanel; Jung, Kirsten; Remme, Jaanus; Wilson, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are the protein synthesizing factories of the cell, polymerizing polypeptide chains from their constituent amino acids. However, distinct combinations of amino acids, such as polyproline stretches, cannot be efficiently polymerized by ribosomes, leading to translational stalling. The stalled ribosomes are rescued by the translational elongation factor P (EF-P), which by stimulating peptide-bond formation allows translation to resume. Using metabolic stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry, we demonstrate in vivo that EF-P is important for expression of not only polyproline-containing proteins, but also for specific subsets of proteins containing diprolyl motifs (XPP/PPX). Together with a systematic in vitro and in vivo analysis, we provide a distinct hierarchy of stalling triplets, ranging from strong stallers, such as PPP, DPP, and PPN to weak stallers, such as CPP, PPR, and PPH, all of which are substrates for EF-P. These findings provide mechanistic insight into how the characteristics of the specific amino acid substrates influence the fundamentals of peptide bond formation. PMID:24003132

  13. Homologous recombination enhancement conferred by the Z-DNA motif d(TG)30 is abrogated by simian virus 40 T antigen binding to adjacent DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P; Moore, P D

    1990-02-01

    The Z-DNA motif polydeoxythymidylic-guanylic [d(TG)].polydeoxyadenylic-cytidylic acid [d(AC)], present throughout eucaryotic genomes, is capable of readily forming left-handed Z-DNA in vitro and has been shown to promote homologous recombination. The effects of simian virus 40 T-antigen-dependent substrate replication upon the stimulation of recombination conferred by the Z-DNA motif d(TG)30 were analyzed. Presence of d(TG)30 adjacent to a T-antigen-binding site I can stimulate homologous recombination between nonreplicating plasmids, providing that T antigen is absent, in both simian CV-1 cells and human EJ cells (W. P. Wahls, L. J. Wallace, and P. D. Moore, Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:785-793). It has also been shown elsewhere that the presence of d(TG)n not adjacent to the T-antigen-binding site can stimulate homologous recombination in simian virus 40 molecules replicating in the presence of T antigen (P. Bullock, J. Miller, and M. Botchan, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:3948-3953, 1986). However, it is demonstrated here that d(TG)30 nine base pairs distant from a T-antigen-binding site bound with T antigen does not stimulate recombination between either replicating or nonreplicating substrates in somatic cells. The bound T antigen either prevents the d(TG)30 sequence from acquiring a recombinogenic configuration (such as left-handed Z-DNA), or it prevents the interaction of recombinase proteins with the sequence by stearic hindrance. PMID:2153923

  14. Characterizing and controlling intrinsic biases of lambda exonuclease in nascent strand sequencing reveals phasing between nucleosomes and G-quadruplex motifs around a subset of human replication origins.

    PubMed

    Foulk, Michael S; Urban, John M; Casella, Cinzia; Gerbi, Susan A

    2015-05-01

    Nascent strand sequencing (NS-seq) is used to discover DNA replication origins genome-wide, allowing identification of features for their specification. NS-seq depends on the ability of lambda exonuclease (λ-exo) to efficiently digest parental DNA while leaving RNA-primer protected nascent strands intact. We used genomics and biochemical approaches to determine if λ-exo digests all parental DNA sequences equally. We report that λ-exo does not efficiently digest G-quadruplex (G4) structures in a plasmid. Moreover, λ-exo digestion of nonreplicating genomic DNA (LexoG0) enriches GC-rich DNA and G4 motifs genome-wide. We used LexoG0 data to control for nascent strand-independent λ-exo biases in NS-seq and validated this approach at the rDNA locus. The λ-exo-controlled NS-seq peaks are not GC-rich, and only 35.5% overlap with 6.8% of all G4s, suggesting that G4s are not general determinants for origin specification but may play a role for a subset. Interestingly, we observed a periodic spacing of G4 motifs and nucleosomes around the peak summits, suggesting that G4s may position nucleosomes at this subset of origins. Finally, we demonstrate that use of Na(+) instead of K(+) in the λ-exo digestion buffer reduced the effect of G4s on λ-exo digestion and discuss ways to increase both the sensitivity and specificity of NS-seq.

  15. Characterizing and controlling intrinsic biases of lambda exonuclease in nascent strand sequencing reveals phasing between nucleosomes and G-quadruplex motifs around a subset of human replication origins

    PubMed Central

    Foulk, Michael S.; Urban, John M.; Casella, Cinzia; Gerbi, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Nascent strand sequencing (NS-seq) is used to discover DNA replication origins genome-wide, allowing identification of features for their specification. NS-seq depends on the ability of lambda exonuclease (λ-exo) to efficiently digest parental DNA while leaving RNA-primer protected nascent strands intact. We used genomics and biochemical approaches to determine if λ-exo digests all parental DNA sequences equally. We report that λ-exo does not efficiently digest G-quadruplex (G4) structures in a plasmid. Moreover, λ-exo digestion of nonreplicating genomic DNA (LexoG0) enriches GC-rich DNA and G4 motifs genome-wide. We used LexoG0 data to control for nascent strand–independent λ-exo biases in NS-seq and validated this approach at the rDNA locus. The λ-exo–controlled NS-seq peaks are not GC-rich, and only 35.5% overlap with 6.8% of all G4s, suggesting that G4s are not general determinants for origin specification but may play a role for a subset. Interestingly, we observed a periodic spacing of G4 motifs and nucleosomes around the peak summits, suggesting that G4s may position nucleosomes at this subset of origins. Finally, we demonstrate that use of Na+ instead of K+ in the λ-exo digestion buffer reduced the effect of G4s on λ-exo digestion and discuss ways to increase both the sensitivity and specificity of NS-seq. PMID:25695952

  16. Limb body wall complex, amniotic band sequence, or new syndrome caused by mutation in IQ Motif containing K (IQCK)?

    PubMed Central

    Kruszka, Paul; Uwineza, Annette; Mutesa, Leon; Martinez, Ariel F; Abe, Yu; Zackai, Elaine H; Ganetzky, Rebecca; Chung, Brian; Stevenson, Roger E; Adelstein, Robert S; Ma, Xuefei; Mullikin, James C; Hong, Sung-Kook; Muenke, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Limb body wall complex (LBWC) and amniotic band sequence (ABS) are multiple congenital anomaly conditions with craniofacial, limb, and ventral wall defects. LBWC and ABS are considered separate entities by some, and a continuum of severity of the same condition by others. The etiology of LBWC/ABS remains unknown and multiple hypotheses have been proposed. One individual with features of LBWC and his unaffected parents were whole exome sequenced and Sanger sequenced as confirmation of the mutation. Functional studies were conducted using morpholino knockdown studies followed by human mRNA rescue experiments. Using whole exome sequencing, a de novo heterozygous mutation was found in the gene IQCK: c.667C>G; p.Q223E and confirmed by Sanger sequencing in an individual with LBWC. Morpholino knockdown of iqck mRNA in the zebrafish showed ventral defects including failure of ventral fin to develop and cardiac edema. Human wild-type IQCK mRNA rescued the zebrafish phenotype, whereas human p.Q223E IQCK mRNA did not, but worsened the phenotype of the morpholino knockdown zebrafish. This study supports a genetic etiology for LBWC/ABS, or potentially a new syndrome. PMID:26436108

  17. Finding regulatory elements and regulatory motifs: a general probabilistic framework

    PubMed Central

    van Nimwegen, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Over the last two decades a large number of algorithms has been developed for regulatory motif finding. Here we show how many of these algorithms, especially those that model binding specificities of regulatory factors with position specific weight matrices (WMs), naturally arise within a general Bayesian probabilistic framework. We discuss how WMs are constructed from sets of regulatory sites, how sites for a given WM can be discovered by scanning of large sequences, how to cluster WMs, and more generally how to cluster large sets of sites from different WMs into clusters. We discuss how 'regulatory modules', clusters of sites for subsets of WMs, can be found in large intergenic sequences, and we discuss different methods for ab initio motif finding, including expectation maximization (EM) algorithms, and motif sampling algorithms. Finally, we extensively discuss how module finding methods and ab initio motif finding methods can be extended to take phylogenetic relations between the input sequences into account, i.e. we show how motif finding and phylogenetic footprinting can be integrated in a rigorous probabilistic framework. The article is intended for readers with a solid background in applied mathematics, and preferably with some knowledge of general Bayesian probabilistic methods. The main purpose of the article is to elucidate that all these methods are not a disconnected set of individual algorithmic recipes, but that they are just different facets of a single integrated probabilistic theory. PMID:17903285

  18. Construction and Analysis of an Integrated Regulatory Network Derived from High-Throughput Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chao; Yan, Koon-Kiu; Hwang, Woochang; Qian, Jiang; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Rozowsky, Joel; Lu, Zhi John; Niu, Wei; Alves, Pedro; Kato, Masaomi; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We present a network framework for analyzing multi-level regulation in higher eukaryotes based on systematic integration of various high-throughput datasets. The network, namely the integrated regulatory network, consists of three major types of regulation: TF→gene, TF→miRNA and miRNA→gene. We identified the target genes and target miRNAs for a set of TFs based on the ChIP-Seq binding profiles, the predicted targets of miRNAs using annotated 3′UTR sequences and conservation information. Making use of the system-wide RNA-Seq profiles, we classified transcription factors into positive and negative regulators and assigned a sign for each regulatory interaction. Other types of edges such as protein-protein interactions and potential intra-regulations between miRNAs based on the embedding of miRNAs in their host genes were further incorporated. We examined the topological structures of the network, including its hierarchical organization and motif enrichment. We found that transcription factors downstream of the hierarchy distinguish themselves by expressing more uniformly at various tissues, have more interacting partners, and are more likely to be essential. We found an over-representation of notable network motifs, including a FFL in which a miRNA cost-effectively shuts down a transcription factor and its target. We used data of C. elegans from the modENCODE project as a primary model to illustrate our framework, but further verified the results using other two data sets. As more and more genome-wide ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq data becomes available in the near future, our methods of data integration have various potential applications. PMID:22125477

  19. Construction of an integrated database to support genomic sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, W.; Overbeek, R.

    1994-11-01

    The central goal of this project is to develop an integrated database to support comparative analysis of genomes including DNA sequence data, protein sequence data, gene expression data and metabolism data. In developing the logic-based system GenoBase, a broader integration of available data was achieved due to assistance from collaborators. Current goals are to easily include new forms of data as they become available and to easily navigate through the ensemble of objects described within the database. This report comments on progress made in these areas.

  20. An integrated semiconductor device enabling non-optical genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, Jonathan M; Hinz, Wolfgang; Rearick, Todd M; Schultz, Jonathan; Mileski, William; Davey, Mel; Leamon, John H; Johnson, Kim; Milgrew, Mark J; Edwards, Matthew; Hoon, Jeremy; Simons, Jan F; Marran, David; Myers, Jason W; Davidson, John F; Branting, Annika; Nobile, John R; Puc, Bernard P; Light, David; Clark, Travis A; Huber, Martin; Branciforte, Jeffrey T; Stoner, Isaac B; Cawley, Simon E; Lyons, Michael; Fu, Yutao; Homer, Nils; Sedova, Marina; Miao, Xin; Reed, Brian; Sabina, Jeffrey; Feierstein, Erika; Schorn, Michelle; Alanjary, Mohammad; Dimalanta, Eileen; Dressman, Devin; Kasinskas, Rachel; Sokolsky, Tanya; Fidanza, Jacqueline A; Namsaraev, Eugeni; McKernan, Kevin J; Williams, Alan; Roth, G Thomas; Bustillo, James

    2011-07-21

    The seminal importance of DNA sequencing to the life sciences, biotechnology and medicine has driven the search for more scalable and lower-cost solutions. Here we describe a DNA sequencing technology in which scalable, low-cost semiconductor manufacturing techniques are used to make an integrated circuit able to directly perform non-optical DNA sequencing of genomes. Sequence data are obtained by directly sensing the ions produced by template-directed DNA polymerase synthesis using all-natural nucleotides on this massively parallel semiconductor-sensing device or ion chip. The ion chip contains ion-sensitive, field-effect transistor-based sensors in perfect register with 1.2 million wells, which provide confinement and allow parallel, simultaneous detection of independent sequencing reactions. Use of the most widely used technology for constructing integrated circuits, the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, allows for low-cost, large-scale production and scaling of the device to higher densities and larger array sizes. We show the performance of the system by sequencing three bacterial genomes, its robustness and scalability by producing ion chips with up to 10 times as many sensors and sequencing a human genome. PMID:21776081

  1. Rice MEL2, the RNA recognition motif (RRM) protein, binds in vitro to meiosis-expressed genes containing U-rich RNA consensus sequences in the 3'-UTR.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Saori; Sato, Yutaka; Asano, Tomoya; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi

    2015-10-01

    Post-transcriptional gene regulation by RNA recognition motif (RRM) proteins through binding to cis-elements in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) is widely used in eukaryotes to complete various biological processes. Rice MEIOSIS ARRESTED AT LEPTOTENE2 (MEL2) is the RRM protein that functions in the transition to meiosis in proper timing. The MEL2 RRM preferentially associated with the U-rich RNA consensus, UUAGUU[U/A][U/G][A/U/G]U, dependently on sequences and proportionally to MEL2 protein amounts in vitro. The consensus sequences were located in the putative looped structures of the RNA ligand. A genome-wide survey revealed a tendency of MEL2-binding consensus appearing in 3'-UTR of rice genes. Of 249 genes that conserved the consensus in their 3'-UTR, 13 genes spatiotemporally co-expressed with MEL2 in meiotic flowers, and included several genes whose function was supposed in meiosis; such as Replication protein A and OsMADS3. The proteome analysis revealed that the amounts of small ubiquitin-related modifier-like protein and eukaryotic translation initiation factor3-like protein were dramatically altered in mel2 mutant anthers. Taken together with transcriptome and gene ontology results, we propose that the rice MEL2 is involved in the translational regulation of key meiotic genes on 3'-UTRs to achieve the faithful transition of germ cells to meiosis.

  2. An Integrated Enzyme Kinetics Laboratory Sequence for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Michael L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a three-week sequence to take undergraduate students through the study of enzyme kinetics in an integrated manner that reinforces the basic concepts of initial velocity and the effects of varying operational parameters. Discusses laboratory sessions and the use of a microcomputer in instruction. (CW)

  3. An Algorithm for Motif Discovery with Iteration on Lengths of Motifs.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yetian; Wu, Wei; Yang, Jie; Yang, Wenyu; Liu, Rongrong

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of DNA sequence motifs is becoming increasingly important in the study of gene regulation, and the identification of motif in DNA sequences is a complex problem in computational biology. Motif discovery has attracted the attention of more and more researchers, and varieties of algorithms have been proposed. Most existing motif discovery algorithms fix the motif's length as one of the input parameters. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to identify the optimal length of the motif and the optimal motif with that length, through an iteration process on increasing length numbers. For each fixed length, a modified genetic algorithm (GA) is used for finding the optimal motif with that length. Three operators are used in the modified GA: Mutation that is similar to the one used in usual GA but is modified to avoid local optimum in our case, and Addition and Deletion that are proposed by us for the problem. A criterion is given for singling out the optimal length in the increasing motif's lengths. We call this method AMDILM (an algorithm for motif discovery with iteration on lengths of motifs). The experiments on simulated data and real biological data show that AMDILM can accurately identify the optimal motif length. Meanwhile, the optimal motifs discovered by AMDILM are consistent with the real ones and are similar with the motifs obtained by the three well-known methods: Gibbs Sampler, MEME and Weeder. PMID:26357084

  4. Papillomavirus sequences integrate near cellular oncogenes in some cervical carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Duerst, M.; Croce, C.M.; Gissmann, L.; Schwarz, E.; Huebner, K.

    1987-02-01

    The chromosomal locations of cellular sequences flanking integrated papillomavirus DNA in four cervical cell lines and a primary cervical carcinoma have been determined. The two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 flanking sequences derived from the tumor were localized to chromosomes regions 20pter..-->..20q13 and 3p25..-->..3qter, regions that also contain the protooncogenes c-src-1 and c-raf-1, respectively. The HPV 16 integration site in the SiHa cervical carcinoma-derived cell line is in chromosome region 13q14..-->..13q32. The HPV 18 integration site in SW756 cervical carcinoma cells is in chromosome 12 but is not closely linked to the Ki-ras2 gene. Finally, in two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and C4-I, HPV 18 DNA is integrated in chromosome 8, 5' of the c-myc gene. The HeLaHPV 18 integration site is within 40 kilobases 5' of the c-myc gene, inside the HL60 amplification unit surrounding and including the c-myc gene. Additionally, steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA are elevated in HeLa and C4-I cells relative to other cervical carcinoma cell lines. Thus, in at least some genital tumors, cis-activation of cellular oncogenes by HPV may be involved in malignant transformation of cervical cells.

  5. A Short Sequence Motif in the 5′ Leader of the HIV-1 Genome Modulates Extended RNA Dimer Formation and Virus Replication*

    PubMed Central

    van Bel, Nikki; Das, Atze T.; Cornelissen, Marion; Abbink, Truus E. M.; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The 5′ leader of the HIV-1 RNA genome encodes signals that control various steps in the replication cycle, including the dimerization initiation signal (DIS) that triggers RNA dimerization. The DIS folds a hairpin structure with a palindromic sequence in the loop that allows RNA dimerization via intermolecular kissing loop (KL) base pairing. The KL dimer can be stabilized by including the DIS stem nucleotides in the intermolecular base pairing, forming an extended dimer (ED). The role of the ED RNA dimer in HIV-1 replication has hardly been addressed because of technical challenges. We analyzed a set of leader mutants with a stabilized DIS hairpin for in vitro RNA dimerization and virus replication in T cells. In agreement with previous observations, DIS hairpin stability modulated KL and ED dimerization. An unexpected previous finding was that mutation of three nucleotides immediately upstream of the DIS hairpin significantly reduced in vitro ED formation. In this study, we tested such mutants in vivo for the importance of the ED in HIV-1 biology. Mutants with a stabilized DIS hairpin replicated less efficiently than WT HIV-1. This defect was most severe when the upstream sequence motif was altered. Virus evolution experiments with the defective mutants yielded fast replicating HIV-1 variants with second site mutations that (partially) restored the WT hairpin stability. Characterization of the mutant and revertant RNA molecules and the corresponding viruses confirmed the correlation between in vitro ED RNA dimer formation and efficient virus replication, thus indicating that the ED structure is important for HIV-1 replication. PMID:25368321

  6. Music and language perception: expectations, structural integration, and cognitive sequencing.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Music can be described as sequences of events that are structured in pitch and time. Studying music processing provides insight into how complex event sequences are learned, perceived, and represented by the brain. Given the temporal nature of sound, expectations, structural integration, and cognitive sequencing are central in music perception (i.e., which sounds are most likely to come next and at what moment should they occur?). This paper focuses on similarities in music and language cognition research, showing that music cognition research provides insight into the understanding of not only music processing but also language processing and the processing of other structured stimuli. The hypothesis of shared resources between music and language processing and of domain-general dynamic attention has motivated the development of research to test music as a means to stimulate sensory, cognitive, and motor processes.

  7. MotifMiner: A Table Driven Greedy Algorithm for DNA Motif Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeja, K. R.; Alam, M. A.; Jain, S. K.

    DNA motif discovery is a much explored problem in functional genomics. This paper describes a table driven greedy algorithm for discovering regulatory motifs in the promoter sequences of co-expressed genes. The proposed algorithm searches both DNA strands for the common patterns or motifs. The inputs to the algorithm are set of promoter sequences, the motif length and minimum Information Content. The algorithm generates subsequences of given length from the shortest input promoter sequence. It stores these subsequences and their reverse complements in a table. Then it searches the remaining sequences for good matches of these subsequences. The Information Content score is used to measure the goodness of the motifs. The algorithm has been tested with synthetic data and real data. The results are found promising. The algorithm could discover meaningful motifs from the muscle specific regulatory sequences.

  8. Selection against spurious promoter motifs correlates withtranslational efficiency across bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, Jeffrey L.; Francino, M. Pilar

    2007-05-01

    Because binding of RNAP to misplaced sites could compromise the efficiency of transcription, natural selection for the optimization of gene expression should regulate the distribution of DNA motifs capable of RNAP-binding across the genome. Here we analyze the distribution of the -10 promoter motifs that bind the {sigma}{sup 70} subunit of RNAP in 42 bacterial genomes. We show that selection on these motifs operates across the genome, maintaining an over-representation of -10 motifs in regulatory sequences while eliminating them from the nonfunctional and, in most cases, from the protein coding regions. In some genomes, however, -10 sites are over-represented in the coding sequences; these sites could induce pauses effecting regulatory roles throughout the length of a transcriptional unit. For nonfunctional sequences, the extent of motif under-representation varies across genomes in a manner that broadly correlates with the number of tRNA genes, a good indicator of translational speed and growth rate. This suggests that minimizing the time invested in gene transcription is an important selective pressure against spurious binding. However, selection against spurious binding is detectable in the reduced genomes of host-restricted bacteria that grow at slow rates, indicating that components of efficiency other than speed may also be important. Minimizing the number of RNAP molecules per cell required for transcription, and the corresponding energetic expense, may be most relevant in slow growers. These results indicate that genome-level properties affecting the efficiency of transcription and translation can respond in an integrated manner to optimize gene expression. The detection of selection against promoter motifs in nonfunctional regions also implies that no sequence may evolve free of selective constraints, at least in the relatively small and unstructured genomes of bacteria.

  9. MIR@NT@N: a framework integrating transcription factors, microRNAs and their targets to identify sub-network motifs in a meta-regulation network model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To understand biological processes and diseases, it is crucial to unravel the concerted interplay of transcription factors (TFs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets within regulatory networks and fundamental sub-networks. An integrative computational resource generating a comprehensive view of these regulatory molecular interactions at a genome-wide scale would be of great interest to biologists, but is not available to date. Results To identify and analyze molecular interaction networks, we developed MIR@NT@N, an integrative approach based on a meta-regulation network model and a large-scale database. MIR@NT@N uses a graph-based approach to predict novel molecular actors across multiple regulatory processes (i.e. TFs acting on protein-coding or miRNA genes, or miRNAs acting on messenger RNAs). Exploiting these predictions, the user can generate networks and further analyze them to identify sub-networks, including motifs such as feedback and feedforward loops (FBL and FFL). In addition, networks can be built from lists of molecular actors with an a priori role in a given biological process to predict novel and unanticipated interactions. Analyses can be contextualized and filtered by integrating additional information such as microarray expression data. All results, including generated graphs, can be visualized, saved and exported into various formats. MIR@NT@N performances have been evaluated using published data and then applied to the regulatory program underlying epithelium to mesenchyme transition (EMT), an evolutionary-conserved process which is implicated in embryonic development and disease. Conclusions MIR@NT@N is an effective computational approach to identify novel molecular regulations and to predict gene regulatory networks and sub-networks including conserved motifs within a given biological context. Taking advantage of the M@IA environment, MIR@NT@N is a user-friendly web resource freely available at http://mironton.uni.lu which will be

  10. Mining, compressing and classifying with extensible motifs

    PubMed Central

    Apostolico, Alberto; Comin, Matteo; Parida, Laxmi

    2006-01-01

    Background Motif patterns of maximal saturation emerged originally in contexts of pattern discovery in biomolecular sequences and have recently proven a valuable notion also in the design of data compression schemes. Informally, a motif is a string of intermittently solid and wild characters that recurs more or less frequently in an input sequence or family of sequences. Motif discovery techniques and tools tend to be computationally imposing, however, special classes of "rigid" motifs have been identified of which the discovery is affordable in low polynomial time. Results In the present work, "extensible" motifs are considered such that each sequence of gaps comes endowed with some elasticity, whereby the same pattern may be stretched to fit segments of the source that match all the solid characters but are otherwise of different lengths. A few applications of this notion are then described. In applications of data compression by textual substitution, extensible motifs are seen to bring savings on the size of the codebook, and hence to improve compression. In germane contexts, in which compressibility is used in its dual role as a basis for structural inference and classification, extensible motifs are seen to support unsupervised classification and phylogeny reconstruction. Conclusion Off-line compression based on extensible motifs can be used advantageously to compress and classify biological sequences. PMID:16722593

  11. Discriminative motif optimization based on perceptron training

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak Y.; Stormo, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Generating accurate transcription factor (TF) binding site motifs from data generated using the next-generation sequencing, especially ChIP-seq, is challenging. The challenge arises because a typical experiment reports a large number of sequences bound by a TF, and the length of each sequence is relatively long. Most traditional motif finders are slow in handling such enormous amount of data. To overcome this limitation, tools have been developed that compromise accuracy with speed by using heuristic discrete search strategies or limited optimization of identified seed motifs. However, such strategies may not fully use the information in input sequences to generate motifs. Such motifs often form good seeds and can be further improved with appropriate scoring functions and rapid optimization. Results: We report a tool named discriminative motif optimizer (DiMO). DiMO takes a seed motif along with a positive and a negative database and improves the motif based on a discriminative strategy. We use area under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) as a measure of discriminating power of motifs and a strategy based on perceptron training that maximizes AUC rapidly in a discriminative manner. Using DiMO, on a large test set of 87 TFs from human, drosophila and yeast, we show that it is possible to significantly improve motifs identified by nine motif finders. The motifs are generated/optimized using training sets and evaluated on test sets. The AUC is improved for almost 90% of the TFs on test sets and the magnitude of increase is up to 39%. Availability and implementation: DiMO is available at http://stormo.wustl.edu/DiMO Contact: rpatel@genetics.wustl.edu, ronakypatel@gmail.com PMID:24369152

  12. The Pichia pastoris PER6 gene product is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis and has sequence similarity to the Zellweger syndrome protein PAF-1.

    PubMed Central

    Waterham, H R; de Vries, Y; Russel, K A; Xie, W; Veenhuis, M; Cregg, J M

    1996-01-01

    We report the cloning of PER6, a gene essential for peroxisome biogenesis in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The PER6 sequence predicts that its product Per6p is a 52-kDa polypeptide with the cysteine-rich C3HC4 motif. Per6p has significant overall sequence similarity with the human peroxisome assembly factor PAF-1, a protein that is defective in certain patients suffering from the peroxisomal disorder Zellweger syndrome, and with car1, a protein required for peroxisome biogenesis and caryogamy in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. In addition, the C3HC4 motif and two of the three membrane-spanning segments predicted for Per6p align with the C3HC4 motifs and the two membrane-spanning segments predicted for PAF-1 and car1. Like PAF-1, Per6p is a peroxisomal integral membrane protein. In methanol- or oleic acid-induced cells of per6 mutants, morphologically recognizable peroxisomes are absent. Instead, peroxisomal remnants are observed. In addition, peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized but located in the cytosol. The similarities between Per6p and PAF-1 in amino acid sequence and biochemical properties, and between mutants defective in their respective genes, suggest that Per6p is the putative yeast homolog of PAF-1. PMID:8628321

  13. The C-Terminal Sequence and PI motif of the Orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey) PISTILLATA (PI) Ortholog Determine its Ability to Bind AP3 Orthologs and Enter the Nucleus to Regulate Downstream Genes Controlling Petal and Stamen Formation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wan-Ting; Hsu, Hsing-Fun; Hsu, Wei-Han; Li, Jen-Ying; Lee, Yung-I; Yang, Chang-Hsien

    2015-11-01

    This study focused on the investigation of the effects of the PI motif and C-terminus of the Oncidium Gower Ramsey MADS box gene 8 (OMADS8), a PISTILLATA (PI) ortholog, on floral organ formation. 35S::OMADS8 completely rescued and 35S::OMADS8-PI (with the PI motif deleted) partially rescued petal/stamen formation, whereas these deficiencies were not rescued by 35S::OMADS8-C (C-terminal 29 amino acids deleted) in pi-1 mutants. OMADS8 could interact with Arabidopsis APETALA3 (AP3) and enter the nucleus. The nuclear entry efficiency was reduced for OMADS8-PI/AP3 and OMADS8-C/AP3. OMADS8 could also interact with OMADS5/OMADS9 (the Oncidium AP3 ortholog) and enter the nucleus with an efficiency only slightly affected by the deletion of the C-terminal sequence or PI motif. However, the stability of the OMADS8/OMADS5 and OMADS8/OMADS9 complexes was significantly reduced by deletion of the C-terminal sequence or PI motif. Further analysis indicated that the expression of genes downstream of AP3/PI (BNQ1/BNQ2/GNC/At4g30270) was compensated by 35S::OMADS8 and 35S::OMADS8-PI to a level similar to wild-type plants but was not affected by 35S::OMADS8-C in the pi-1 mutants. A similar FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) efficiency was observed for Arabidopsis AGAMOUS (AG) and the Oncidium AG ortholog OMADS4 for OMADS8, OMADS8-PI and OMADS8-C. These results indicated that the OMADS8 PI motif and C-terminus were valuable for the interaction of OMADS8 with the AP3 orthologs to form higher order heterotetrameric complexes that regulated petal/stamen formation in both Oncidium orchids and transgenic Arabidopsis. However, the C-terminal sequence and PI motif were dispensable for the interaction of OMADS8 with the AG orthologs.

  14. In vitro HIV-1 selective integration into the target sequence and decoy-effect of the modified sequence.

    PubMed

    Tsuruyama, Tatsuaki; Nakai, Tonau; Hiratsuka, Takuya; Jin, Guang; Nakamura, Takuro; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Although there have been a few reports that the HIV-1 genome can be selectively integrated into the genomic DNA of cultured host cell, the biochemistry of integration selectivity has not been fully understood. We modified the in vitro integration reaction protocol and developed a reaction system with higher efficiency. We used a substrate repeat, 5'-(GTCCCTTCCCAGT)(n)(ACTGGGAAGGGAC)(n)-3', and a modified sequence DNA ligated into a circular plasmid. CAGT and ACTG (shown in italics in the above sequence) in the repeat units originated from the HIV-1 proviral genome ends. Following the incubation of the HIV-1 genome end cDNA and recombinant integrase for the formation of the pre-integration (PI) complex, substrate DNA was reacted with this complex. It was confirmed that the integration selectively occurred in the middle segment of the repeat sequence. In addition, integration frequency and selectivity were positively correlated with repeat number n. On the other hand, both frequency and selectivity decreased markedly when using sequences with deletion of CAGT in the middle position of the original target sequence. Moreover, on incubation with the deleted DNAs and original sequence, the integration efficiency and selectivity for the original target sequence were significantly reduced, which indicated interference effects by the deleted sequence DNAs. Efficiency and selectivity were also found to vary discontinuously with changes in manganese dichloride concentration in the reaction buffer, probably due to its influence on the secondary structure of substrate DNA. Finally, integrase was found to form oligomers on the binding site and substrate DNA formed a loop-like structure. In conclusion, there is a considerable selectivity in HIV-integration into the specified sequence; however, similar DNA sequences can interfere with the integration process, and it is therefore difficult for in vivo integration to occur selectively in the actual host genome DNA.

  15. Ovodefensins, an Oviduct-Specific Antimicrobial Gene Family, Have Evolved in Birds and Reptiles to Protect the Egg by Both Sequence and Intra-Six-Cysteine Sequence Motif Spacing.

    PubMed

    Whenham, Natasha; Lu, Tian Chee; Maidin, Maisarah B M; Wilson, Peter W; Bain, Maureen M; Stevenson, M Lynn; Stevens, Mark P; Bedford, Michael R; Dunn, Ian C

    2015-06-01

    Ovodefensins are a novel beta defensin-related family of antimicrobial peptides containing conserved glycine and six cysteine residues. Originally thought to be restricted to the albumen-producing region of the avian oviduct, expression was found in chicken, turkey, duck, and zebra finch in large quantities in many parts of the oviduct, but this varied between species and between gene forms in the same species. Using new search strategies, the ovodefensin family now has 35 members, including reptiles, but no representatives outside birds and reptiles have been found. Analysis of their evolution shows that ovodefensins divide into six groups based on the intra-cysteine amino acid spacing, representing a unique mechanism alongside traditional evolution of sequence. The groups have been used to base a nomenclature for the family. Antimicrobial activity for three ovodefensins from chicken and duck was confirmed against Escherichia coli and a pathogenic E. coli strain as well as a Gram-positive organism, Staphylococcus aureus, for the first time. However, activity varied greatly between peptides, with Gallus gallus OvoDA1 being the most potent, suggesting a link with the different structures. Expression of Gallus gallus OvoDA1 (gallin) in the oviduct was increased by estrogen and progesterone and in the reproductive state. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that ovodefensins evolved to protect the egg, but they are not necessarily restricted to the egg white. Therefore, divergent motif structure and sequence present an interesting area of research for antimicrobial peptide design and understanding protection of the cleidoic egg.

  16. Stochastic motif extraction using hidden Markov model

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Yukiko; Asogawa, Minoru; Konagaya, Akihiko

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, we study the application of an HMM (hidden Markov model) to the problem of representing protein sequences by a stochastic motif. A stochastic protein motif represents the small segments of protein sequences that have a certain function or structure. The stochastic motif, represented by an HMM, has conditional probabilities to deal with the stochastic nature of the motif. This HMM directive reflects the characteristics of the motif, such as a protein periodical structure or grouping. In order to obtain the optimal HMM, we developed the {open_quotes}iterative duplication method{close_quotes} for HMM topology learning. It starts from a small fully-connected network and iterates the network generation and parameter optimization until it achieves sufficient discrimination accuracy. Using this method, we obtained an HMM for a leucine zipper motif. Compared to the accuracy of a symbolic pattern representation with accuracy of 14.8 percent, an HMM achieved 79.3 percent in prediction. Additionally, the method can obtain an HMM for various types of zinc finger motifs, and it might separate the mixed data. We demonstrated that this approach is applicable to the validation of the protein databases; a constructed HMM b as indicated that one protein sequence annotated as {open_quotes}lencine-zipper like sequence{close_quotes} in the database is quite different from other leucine-zipper sequences in terms of likelihood, and we found this discrimination is plausible.

  17. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013–15 infected more than 28 000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. As this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of known natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family Filoviridae sequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy. Database URL: www.hfv.lanl.gov PMID:27103629

  18. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    Yusim, Karina; Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013–15 infected more than 28,000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. We report that as this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of known natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family Filoviridae sequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy.

  19. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos

    DOE PAGES

    Yusim, Karina; Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; et al

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013–15 infected more than 28,000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. We report that as this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of knownmore » natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family Filoviridae sequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy.« less

  20. Mining Conditional Phosphorylation Motifs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jun; Gong, Haipeng; Deng, Shengchun; He, Zengyou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation motifs represent position-specific amino acid patterns around the phosphorylation sites in the set of phosphopeptides. Several algorithms have been proposed to uncover phosphorylation motifs, whereas the problem of efficiently discovering a set of significant motifs with sufficiently high coverage and non-redundancy still remains unsolved. Here we present a novel notion called conditional phosphorylation motifs. Through this new concept, the motifs whose over-expressiveness mainly benefits from its constituting parts can be filtered out effectively. To discover conditional phosphorylation motifs, we propose an algorithm called C-Motif for a non-redundant identification of significant phosphorylation motifs. C-Motif is implemented under the Apriori framework, and it tests the statistical significance together with the frequency of candidate motifs in a single stage. Experiments demonstrate that C-Motif outperforms some current algorithms such as MMFPh and Motif-All in terms of coverage and non-redundancy of the results and efficiency of the execution. The source code of C-Motif is available at: https://sourceforge. net/projects/cmotif/. PMID:26356863

  1. Targeted gene integration using the combination of a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein and phiC31 integrase.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki; Higuchi, Yuriko; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2014-09-30

    PhiC31 integrase-based vectors can integrate therapeutic genes selectively into attP or pseudo-attP sites in genomes, but considerable numbers of pseudo-attP sites in human genomes exist inside endogenous gene-coding regions. To avoid endogenous gene disruptions, we aimed to enhance the integration site-specificity of the phiC31 integrase-based vector using a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein containing Gal4 and LexA DNA-binding motifs. The dual DNA-binding protein was designed to tether the UAS-containing donor vector to the target sequence, the LexA operator, and restrict integration to sites close to the LexA operator. To analyze the site-specificity in chromosomal integration, a human cell line having LexA operators on the genome was established, and the cell line was transfected with donor vectors expressing the DNA-binding protein and the phiC31 integrase expression vector (helper vector). Quantitative PCR indicated that integration around the LexA operator was 26-fold higher with the UAS-containing donor vector than with the control. Sequence analysis confirmed that the integration occurred around the LexA operator. The dual DNA-binding protein-based targeted integration strategy developed herein would allow safer and more reliable genetic manipulations for various applications, including gene and cell therapies.

  2. RegulonDB version 9.0: high-level integration of gene regulation, coexpression, motif clustering and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gama-Castro, Socorro; Salgado, Heladia; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Ledezma-Tejeida, Daniela; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair Santiago; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Pannier, Lucia; Castro-Mondragón, Jaime Abraham; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Hernández-Koutoucheva, Anastasia; Del Moral-Chávez, Víctor; Rinaldi, Fabio; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2016-01-01

    RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx) is one of the most useful and important resources on bacterial gene regulation,as it integrates the scattered scientific knowledge of the best-characterized organism, Escherichia coli K-12, in a database that organizes large amounts of data. Its electronic format enables researchers to compare their results with the legacy of previous knowledge and supports bioinformatics tools and model building. Here, we summarize our progress with RegulonDB since our last Nucleic Acids Research publication describing RegulonDB, in 2013. In addition to maintaining curation up-to-date, we report a collection of 232 interactions with small RNAs affecting 192 genes, and the complete repertoire of 189 Elementary Genetic Sensory-Response units (GENSOR units), integrating the signal, regulatory interactions, and metabolic pathways they govern. These additions represent major progress to a higher level of understanding of regulated processes. We have updated the computationally predicted transcription factors, which total 304 (184 with experimental evidence and 120 from computational predictions); we updated our position-weight matrices and have included tools for clustering them in evolutionary families. We describe our semiautomatic strategy to accelerate curation, including datasets from high-throughput experiments, a novel coexpression distance to search for 'neighborhood' genes to known operons and regulons, and computational developments. PMID:26527724

  3. RegulonDB version 9.0: high-level integration of gene regulation, coexpression, motif clustering and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Castro, Socorro; Salgado, Heladia; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Ledezma-Tejeida, Daniela; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair Santiago; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Pannier, Lucia; Castro-Mondragón, Jaime Abraham; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Hernández-Koutoucheva, Anastasia; Moral-Chávez, Víctor Del; Rinaldi, Fabio; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2016-01-01

    RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx) is one of the most useful and important resources on bacterial gene regulation,as it integrates the scattered scientific knowledge of the best-characterized organism, Escherichia coli K-12, in a database that organizes large amounts of data. Its electronic format enables researchers to compare their results with the legacy of previous knowledge and supports bioinformatics tools and model building. Here, we summarize our progress with RegulonDB since our last Nucleic Acids Research publication describing RegulonDB, in 2013. In addition to maintaining curation up-to-date, we report a collection of 232 interactions with small RNAs affecting 192 genes, and the complete repertoire of 189 Elementary Genetic Sensory-Response units (GENSOR units), integrating the signal, regulatory interactions, and metabolic pathways they govern. These additions represent major progress to a higher level of understanding of regulated processes. We have updated the computationally predicted transcription factors, which total 304 (184 with experimental evidence and 120 from computational predictions); we updated our position-weight matrices and have included tools for clustering them in evolutionary families. We describe our semiautomatic strategy to accelerate curation, including datasets from high-throughput experiments, a novel coexpression distance to search for ‘neighborhood’ genes to known operons and regulons, and computational developments. PMID:26527724

  4. RegulonDB version 9.0: high-level integration of gene regulation, coexpression, motif clustering and beyond.

    PubMed

    Gama-Castro, Socorro; Salgado, Heladia; Santos-Zavaleta, Alberto; Ledezma-Tejeida, Daniela; Muñiz-Rascado, Luis; García-Sotelo, Jair Santiago; Alquicira-Hernández, Kevin; Martínez-Flores, Irma; Pannier, Lucia; Castro-Mondragón, Jaime Abraham; Medina-Rivera, Alejandra; Solano-Lira, Hilda; Bonavides-Martínez, César; Pérez-Rueda, Ernesto; Alquicira-Hernández, Shirley; Porrón-Sotelo, Liliana; López-Fuentes, Alejandra; Hernández-Koutoucheva, Anastasia; Del Moral-Chávez, Víctor; Rinaldi, Fabio; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2016-01-01

    RegulonDB (http://regulondb.ccg.unam.mx) is one of the most useful and important resources on bacterial gene regulation,as it integrates the scattered scientific knowledge of the best-characterized organism, Escherichia coli K-12, in a database that organizes large amounts of data. Its electronic format enables researchers to compare their results with the legacy of previous knowledge and supports bioinformatics tools and model building. Here, we summarize our progress with RegulonDB since our last Nucleic Acids Research publication describing RegulonDB, in 2013. In addition to maintaining curation up-to-date, we report a collection of 232 interactions with small RNAs affecting 192 genes, and the complete repertoire of 189 Elementary Genetic Sensory-Response units (GENSOR units), integrating the signal, regulatory interactions, and metabolic pathways they govern. These additions represent major progress to a higher level of understanding of regulated processes. We have updated the computationally predicted transcription factors, which total 304 (184 with experimental evidence and 120 from computational predictions); we updated our position-weight matrices and have included tools for clustering them in evolutionary families. We describe our semiautomatic strategy to accelerate curation, including datasets from high-throughput experiments, a novel coexpression distance to search for 'neighborhood' genes to known operons and regulons, and computational developments.

  5. Single-base pair differences in a shared motif determine differential Rhodopsin expression.

    PubMed

    Rister, Jens; Razzaq, Ansa; Boodram, Pamela; Desai, Nisha; Tsanis, Cleopatra; Chen, Hongtao; Jukam, David; Desplan, Claude

    2015-12-01

    The final identity and functional properties of a neuron are specified by terminal differentiation genes, which are controlled by specific motifs in compact regulatory regions. To determine how these sequences integrate inputs from transcription factors that specify cell types, we compared the regulatory mechanism of Drosophila Rhodopsin genes that are expressed in subsets of photoreceptors to that of phototransduction genes that are expressed broadly, in all photoreceptors. Both sets of genes share an 11-base pair (bp) activator motif. Broadly expressed genes contain a palindromic version that mediates expression in all photoreceptors. In contrast, each Rhodopsin exhibits characteristic single-bp substitutions that break the symmetry of the palindrome and generate activator or repressor motifs critical for restricting expression to photoreceptor subsets. Sensory neuron subtypes can therefore evolve through single-bp changes in short regulatory motifs, allowing the discrimination of a wide spectrum of stimuli.

  6. Single base pair differences in a shared motif determine differential Rhodopsin expression

    PubMed Central

    Rister, Jens; Razzaq, Ansa; Boodram, Pamela; Desai, Nisha; Tsanis, Cleopatra; Chen, Hongtao; Jukam, David; Desplan, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The final identity and functional properties of a neuron are specified by terminal differentiation genes, which are controlled by specific motifs in compact regulatory regions. To determine how these sequences integrate inputs from transcription factors that specify cell types, we compared the regulatory mechanism of Drosophila Rhodopsin genes that are expressed in subsets of photoreceptors to that of phototransduction genes that are expressed broadly, in all photoreceptors. Both sets of genes share an 11bp activator motif. Broadly expressed genes contain a palindromic version that mediates expression in all photoreceptors. In contrast, each Rhodopsin exhibits unique single bp substitutions that break the symmetry of the palindrome and generate activator or repressor motifs critical for restricting expression to photoreceptor subsets. Novel sensory neuron subtypes can therefore evolve through single base pair changes in short regulatory motifs, allowing the discrimination of a wide spectrum of stimuli. PMID:26785491

  7. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Anton I; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2013-10-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson-Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access.

  8. Automated classification of RNA 3D motifs and the RNA 3D Motif Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Anton I.; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of atomic-resolution RNA three-dimensional (3D) structures reveals that many internal and hairpin loops are modular, recurrent, and structured by conserved non-Watson–Crick base pairs. Structurally similar loops define RNA 3D motifs that are conserved in homologous RNA molecules, but can also occur at nonhomologous sites in diverse RNAs, and which often vary in sequence. To further our understanding of RNA motif structure and sequence variability and to provide a useful resource for structure modeling and prediction, we present a new method for automated classification of internal and hairpin loop RNA 3D motifs and a new online database called the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. To classify the motif instances, a representative set of internal and hairpin loops is automatically extracted from a nonredundant list of RNA-containing PDB files. Their structures are compared geometrically, all-against-all, using the FR3D program suite. The loops are clustered into motif groups, taking into account geometric similarity and structural annotations and making allowance for a variable number of bulged bases. The automated procedure that we have implemented identifies all hairpin and internal loop motifs previously described in the literature. All motif instances and motif groups are assigned unique and stable identifiers and are made available in the RNA 3D Motif Atlas (http://rna.bgsu.edu/motifs), which is automatically updated every four weeks. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas provides an interactive user interface for exploring motif diversity and tools for programmatic data access. PMID:23970545

  9. Localization of Daucus carota NMCP1 to the nuclear periphery: the role of the N-terminal region and an NLS-linked sequence motif, RYNLRR, in the tail domain.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuta; Fujino, Kaien; Ogawa, Kana; Masuda, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Recent ultrastructural studies revealed that a structure similar to the vertebrate nuclear lamina exists in the nuclei of higher plants. However, plant genomes lack genes for lamins and intermediate-type filament proteins, and this suggests that plant-specific nuclear coiled-coil proteins make up the lamina-like structure in plants. NMCP1 is a protein, first identified in Daucus carota cells, that localizes exclusively to the nuclear periphery in interphase cells. It has a tripartite structure comprised of head, rod, and tail domains, and includes putative nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs. We identified the functional NLS of DcNMCP1 (carrot NMCP1) and determined the protein regions required for localizing to the nuclear periphery using EGFP-fused constructs transiently expressed in Apium graveolens epidermal cells. Transcription was driven under a CaMV35S promoter, and the genes were introduced into the epidermal cells by a DNA-coated microprojectile delivery system. Of the NLS motifs, KRRRK and RRHK in the tail domain were highly functional for nuclear localization. Addition of the N-terminal 141 amino acids from DcNMCP1 shifted the localization of a region including these NLSs from the entire nucleus to the nuclear periphery. Using this same construct, the replacement of amino acids in RRHK or its preceding sequence, YNL, with alanine residues abolished localization to the nuclear periphery, while replacement of KRRRK did not affect localization. The sequence R/Q/HYNLRR/H, including YNL and the first part of the sequence of RRHK, is evolutionarily conserved in a subclass of NMCP1 sequences from many plant species. These results show that NMCP1 localizes to the nuclear periphery by a combined action of a sequence composed of R/Q/HYNLRR/H, NLS, and the N-terminal region including the head and a portion of the rod domain, suggesting that more than one binding site is implicated in localization of NMCP1.

  10. Integrated and Independent Learning of Hand-Related Constituent Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Michael P.; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    In almost all daily activities fingers of both hands are used in coordinated succession. The present experiments explored whether learning in such tasks pertains not only to the overall sequence spanning both hands but also to the constituent sequences of each hand. In a serial reaction time task, 2 repeating hand-related sequences were…

  11. MAR characteristic motifs mediate episomal vector in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Li, Zhaoxi; Wang, Tianyun; Wang, Xiaoyin; Wang, Li; Dong, Weihua; Jing, Changqin; Yang, Xianjun

    2015-04-01

    An ideal gene therapy vector should enable persistent transgene expression without limitations in safety and reproducibility. Recent researches' insight into the ability of chromosomal matrix attachment regions (MARs) to mediate episomal maintenance of genetic elements allowed the development of a circular episomal vector. Although a MAR-mediated engineered vector has been developed, little is known on which motifs of MAR confer this function during interaction with the host genome. Here, we report an artificially synthesized DNA fragment containing only characteristic motif sequences that served as an alternative to human beta-interferon matrix attachment region sequence. The potential of the vector to mediate gene transfer in CHO cells was investigated. The short synthetic MAR motifs were found to mediate episomal vector at a low copy number for many generations without integration into the host genome. Higher transgene expression was maintained for at least 4 months. In addition, MAR was maintained episomally and conferred sustained EGFP expression even in nonselective CHO cells. All the results demonstrated that MAR characteristic sequence-based vector can function as stable episomes in CHO cells, supporting long-term and effective transgene expression.

  12. Integration of Temporal and Ordinal Information During Serial Interception Sequence Learning

    PubMed Central

    Gobel, Eric W.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Reber, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of expert motor skills typically involves learning to perform a precisely timed sequence of movements (e.g., language production, music performance, athletic skills). Research examining incidental sequence learning has previously relied on a perceptually-cued task that gives participants exposure to repeating motor sequences but does not require timing of responses for accuracy. Using a novel perceptual-motor sequence learning task, learning a precisely timed cued sequence of motor actions is shown to occur without explicit instruction. Participants learned a repeating sequence through practice and showed sequence-specific knowledge via a performance decrement when switched to an unfamiliar sequence. In a second experiment, the integration of representation of action order and timing sequence knowledge was examined. When either action order or timing sequence information was selectively disrupted, performance was reduced to levels similar to completely novel sequences. Unlike prior sequence-learning research that has found timing information to be secondary to learning action sequences, when the task demands require accurate action and timing information, an integrated representation of these types of information is acquired. These results provide the first evidence for incidental learning of fully integrated action and timing sequence information in the absence of an independent representation of action order, and suggest that this integrative mechanism may play a material role in the acquisition of complex motor skills. PMID:21417511

  13. Identifying DNA Binding Motifs by Combining Data from Different Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Linyong; Resat, Haluk; Nagib Callaos; Katsuhisa Horimoto; Jake Chen; Amy Sze Chan

    2004-07-19

    A transcription factor regulates the expression of its target genes by binding to their operator regions. It functions by affecting the interactions between RNA polymerases and the gene's promoter. Many transcription factors bind to their targets by recognizing a specific DNA sequence pattern, which is referred to as a consensus sequence or a motif. Since it would remove the possible biases, combining biological data from different sources can be expected to improve the quality of the information extracted from the biological data. We analyzed the microarray gene expression data and the organism's genome sequence jointly to determine the transcription factor recognition sequences with more accuracy. Utilizing such a data integration approach, we have investigated the regulation of the photosynthesis genes of the purple non-sulphur photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The photosynthesis genes in this organism are tightly regulated as a function of environmental growth conditions by three major regulatory systems, PrrB/PrrA, AppA/PpsR and FnrL. In this study, we have detected a previously undefined PrrA consensus sequence, improved the previously known DNA-binding motif of PpsR, and confirmed the consensus sequence of the global regulator FnrL.

  14. Sampling Motif-Constrained Ensembles of Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Rico; Leitão, Jorge C.; Peixoto, Tiago P.; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-10-01

    The statistical significance of network properties is conditioned on null models which satisfy specified properties but that are otherwise random. Exponential random graph models are a principled theoretical framework to generate such constrained ensembles, but which often fail in practice, either due to model inconsistency or due to the impossibility to sample networks from them. These problems affect the important case of networks with prescribed clustering coefficient or number of small connected subgraphs (motifs). In this Letter we use the Wang-Landau method to obtain a multicanonical sampling that overcomes both these problems. We sample, in polynomial time, networks with arbitrary degree sequences from ensembles with imposed motifs counts. Applying this method to social networks, we investigate the relation between transitivity and homophily, and we quantify the correlation between different types of motifs, finding that single motifs can explain up to 60% of the variation of motif profiles.

  15. ATtRACT—a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available at http://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid–F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discovering de novo motifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database. Database URL: http:// attract. cnic. es PMID:27055826

  16. A survey of motif finding Web tools for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract ChIP-Seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) has provided the advantage for finding motifs as ChIP-Seq experiments narrow down the motif finding to binding site locations. Recent motif finding tools facilitate the motif detection by providing user-friendly Web interface. In this work, we reviewed nine motif finding Web tools that are capable for detecting binding site motifs in ChIP-Seq data. We showed each motif finding Web tool has its own advantages for detecting motifs that other tools may not discover. We recommended the users to use multiple motif finding Web tools that implement different algorithms for obtaining significant motifs, overlapping resemble motifs, and non-overlapping motifs. Finally, we provided our suggestions for future development of motif finding Web tool that better assists researchers for finding motifs in ChIP-Seq data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Prof. Sandor Pongor, Dr. Yuriy Gusev, and Dr. Shyam Prabhakar (nominated by Prof. Limsoon Wong). PMID:24555784

  17. Sequence and structural analysis of the Asp-box motif and Asp-box beta-propellers; a widespread propeller-type characteristic of the Vps10 domain family and several glycoside hydrolase families

    PubMed Central

    Quistgaard, Esben M; Thirup, Søren S

    2009-01-01

    Background The Asp-box is a short sequence and structure motif that folds as a well-defined β-hairpin. It is present in different folds, but occurs most prominently as repeats in β-propellers. Asp-box β-propellers are known to be characteristically irregular and to occur in many medically important proteins, most of which are glycosidase enzymes, but they are otherwise not well characterized and are only rarely treated as a distinct β-propeller family. We have analyzed the sequence, structure, function and occurrence of the Asp-box and s-Asp-box -a related shorter variant, and provide a comprehensive classification and computational analysis of the Asp-box β-propeller family. Results We find that all conserved residues of the Asp-box support its structure, whereas the residues in variable positions are generally used for other purposes. The Asp-box clearly has a structural role in β-propellers and is highly unlikely to be involved in ligand binding. Sequence analysis of the Asp-box β-propeller family reveals it to be very widespread especially in bacteria and suggests a wide functional range. Disregarding the Asp-boxes, sequence conservation of the propeller blades is very low, but a distinct pattern of residues with specific properties have been identified. Interestingly, Asp-boxes are occasionally found very close to other propeller-associated repeats in extensive mixed-motif stretches, which strongly suggests the existence of a novel class of hybrid β-propellers. Structural analysis reveals that the top and bottom faces of Asp-box β-propellers have striking and consistently different loop properties; the bottom is structurally conserved whereas the top shows great structural variation. Interestingly, only the top face is used for functional purposes in known structures. A structural analysis of the 10-bladed β-propeller fold, which has so far only been observed in the Asp-box family, reveals that the inner strands of the blades are unusually far apart

  18. MISAE: a new approach for regulatory motif extraction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhaohui; Yang, Jingyi; Deogun, Jitender S

    2004-01-01

    The recognition of regulatory motifs of co-regulated genes is essential for understanding the regulatory mechanisms. However, the automatic extraction of regulatory motifs from a given data set of the upstream non-coding DNA sequences of a family of co-regulated genes is difficult because regulatory motifs are often subtle and inexact. This problem is further complicated by the corruption of the data sets. In this paper, a new approach called Mismatch-allowed Probabilistic Suffix Tree Motif Extraction (MISAE) is proposed. It combines the mismatch-allowed probabilistic suffix tree that is a probabilistic model and local prediction for the extraction of regulatory motifs. The proposed approach is tested on 15 co-regulated gene families and compares favorably with other state-of-the-art approaches. Moreover, MISAE performs well on "corrupted" data sets. It is able to extract the motif from a "corrupted" data set with less than one fourth of the sequences containing the real motif.

  19. NG6: Integrated next generation sequencing storage and processing environment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing platforms are now well implanted in sequencing centres and some laboratories. Upcoming smaller scale machines such as the 454 junior from Roche or the MiSeq from Illumina will increase the number of laboratories hosting a sequencer. In such a context, it is important to provide these teams with an easily manageable environment to store and process the produced reads. Results We describe a user-friendly information system able to manage large sets of sequencing data. It includes, on one hand, a workflow environment already containing pipelines adapted to different input formats (sff, fasta, fastq and qseq), different sequencers (Roche 454, Illumina HiSeq) and various analyses (quality control, assembly, alignment, diversity studies,…) and, on the other hand, a secured web site giving access to the results. The connected user will be able to download raw and processed data and browse through the analysis result statistics. The provided workflows can easily be modified or extended and new ones can be added. Ergatis is used as a workflow building, running and monitoring system. The analyses can be run locally or in a cluster environment using Sun Grid Engine. Conclusions NG6 is a complete information system designed to answer the needs of a sequencing platform. It provides a user-friendly interface to process, store and download high-throughput sequencing data. PMID:22958229

  20. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, Paulina M.; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits, two catalytic centers, common amino acid sequence, and specific contacts to provide a flip-flop, or alternate site, mechanism of action. Each catalytic center [PP:PYR] is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and aminopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core [PP:PYR]* within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GX@&(G)@XXGQ, and GDGX25-30 within the PP- domain, and the E&(G)@XXG@ within the PYR-domain, where Q, corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  1. Using SCOPE to identify potential regulatory motifs in coregulated genes.

    PubMed

    Martyanov, Viktor; Gross, Robert H

    2011-05-31

    SCOPE is an ensemble motif finder that uses three component algorithms in parallel to identify potential regulatory motifs by over-representation and motif position preference. Each component algorithm is optimized to find a different kind of motif. By taking the best of these three approaches, SCOPE performs better than any single algorithm, even in the presence of noisy data. In this article, we utilize a web version of SCOPE to examine genes that are involved in telomere maintenance. SCOPE has been incorporated into at least two other motif finding programs and has been used in other studies. The three algorithms that comprise SCOPE are BEAM, which finds non-degenerate motifs (ACCGGT), PRISM, which finds degenerate motifs (ASCGWT), and SPACER, which finds longer bipartite motifs (ACCnnnnnnnnGGT). These three algorithms have been optimized to find their corresponding type of motif. Together, they allow SCOPE to perform extremely well. Once a gene set has been analyzed and candidate motifs identified, SCOPE can look for other genes that contain the motif which, when added to the original set, will improve the motif score. This can occur through over-representation or motif position preference. Working with partial gene sets that have biologically verified transcription factor binding sites, SCOPE was able to identify most of the rest of the genes also regulated by the given transcription factor. Output from SCOPE shows candidate motifs, their significance, and other information both as a table and as a graphical motif map. FAQs and video tutorials are available at the SCOPE web site which also includes a "Sample Search" button that allows the user to perform a trial run. Scope has a very friendly user interface that enables novice users to access the algorithm's full power without having to become an expert in the bioinformatics of motif finding. As input, SCOPE can take a list of genes, or FASTA sequences. These can be entered in browser text fields, or read from

  2. Characterization of DNA sequences that mediate nuclear protein binding to the regulatory region of the Pisum sativum (pea) chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80: identification of a repeated heptamer motif.

    PubMed

    Argüello, G; García-Hernández, E; Sánchez, M; Gariglio, P; Herrera-Estrella, L; Simpson, J

    1992-05-01

    Two protein factors binding to the regulatory region of the pea chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80 have been identified. One of these factors is found only in green tissue but not in etiolated or root tissue. The second factor (denominated ABF-2) binds to a DNA sequence element that contains a direct heptamer repeat TCTCAAA. It was found that presence of both of the repeats is essential for binding. ABF-2 is present in both green and etiolated tissue and in roots and factors analogous to ABF-2 are present in several plant species. Computer analysis showed that the TCTCAAA motif is present in the regulatory region of several plant genes. PMID:1303797

  3. Integrating Information Literacy with a Sequenced English Composition Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Wendy; Fagerheim, Britt

    2006-01-01

    This article details the process of implementing a sequenced information literacy program for two core English composition courses at Utah State University. An extensive needs assessment guided the project, leading to a curriculum design process with the goal of building a foundation for deeper critical thinking skills. The curriculum development…

  4. Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Walters, R F S; DeGrado, W F

    2006-09-12

    The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs, we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity (rmsd motifs whose structural features can be understood in terms of simple principles of helix-helix packing. Thus, the universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. The largest cluster, which comprises 29% of the library members, consists of an antiparallel motif with left-handed packing angles, and it is frequently stabilized by packing of small side chains occurring every seven residues in the sequence. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins.

  5. Evolutionary Analysis and Classification of OATs, OCTs, OCTNs, and Other SLC22 Transporters: Structure-Function Implications and Analysis of Sequence Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Date, Rishabh C.; Bush, Kevin T.; Springer, Stevan A.; Saier, Milton H.; Wu, Wei; Nigam, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    The SLC22 family includes organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic carnitine and zwitterion transporters (OCTNs). These are often referred to as drug transporters even though they interact with many endogenous metabolites and signaling molecules (Nigam, S.K., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 14:29–44, 2015). Phylogenetic analysis of SLC22 supports the view that these transporters may have evolved over 450 million years ago. Many OAT members were found to appear after a major expansion of the SLC22 family in mammals, suggesting a physiological and/or toxicological role during the mammalian radiation. Putative SLC22 orthologs exist in worms, sea urchins, flies, and ciona. At least six groups of SLC22 exist. OATs and OCTs form two Major clades of SLC22, within which (apart from Oat and Oct subclades), there are also clear Oat-like, Octn, and Oct-related subclades, as well as a distantly related group we term “Oat-related” (which may have different functions). Based on available data, it is arguable whether SLC22A18, which is related to bacterial drug-proton antiporters, should be assigned to SLC22. Disease-causing mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other functionally analyzed mutations in OAT1, OAT3, URAT1, OCT1, OCT2, OCTN1, and OCTN2 map to the first extracellular domain, the large central intracellular domain, and transmembrane domains 9 and 10. These regions are highly conserved within subclades, but not between subclades, and may be necessary for SLC22 transporter function and functional diversification. Our results not only link function to evolutionarily conserved motifs but indicate the need for a revised sub-classification of SLC22. PMID:26536134

  6. Integration of new alternative reference strain genome sequences into the Saccharomyces genome database

    PubMed Central

    Song, Giltae; Balakrishnan, Rama; Binkley, Gail; Costanzo, Maria C.; Dalusag, Kyla; Demeter, Janos; Engel, Stacia; Hellerstedt, Sage T.; Karra, Kalpana; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Nash, Robert S.; Paskov, Kelley; Sheppard, Travis; Skrzypek, Marek; Weng, Shuai; Wong, Edith; Michael Cherry, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD; http://www.yeastgenome.org/) is the authoritative community resource for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae reference genome sequence and its annotation. To provide a wider scope of genetic and phenotypic variation in yeast, the genome sequences and their corresponding annotations from 11 alternative S. cerevisiae reference strains have been integrated into SGD. Genomic and protein sequence information for genes from these strains are now available on the Sequence and Protein tab of the corresponding Locus Summary pages. We illustrate how these genome sequences can be utilized to aid our understanding of strain-specific functional and phenotypic differences. Database URL: www.yeastgenome.org PMID:27252399

  7. Comparison of SIV and HIV-1 genomic RNA structures reveals impact of sequence evolution on conserved and non-conserved structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Pollom, Elizabeth; Dang, Kristen K; Potter, E Lake; Gorelick, Robert J; Burch, Christina L; Weeks, Kevin M; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    RNA secondary structure plays a central role in the replication and metabolism of all RNA viruses, including retroviruses like HIV-1. However, structures with known function represent only a fraction of the secondary structure reported for HIV-1(NL4-3). One tool to assess the importance of RNA structures is to examine their conservation over evolutionary time. To this end, we used SHAPE to model the secondary structure of a second primate lentiviral genome, SIVmac239, which shares only 50% sequence identity at the nucleotide level with HIV-1NL4-3. Only about half of the paired nucleotides are paired in both genomic RNAs and, across the genome, just 71 base pairs form with the same pairing partner in both genomes. On average the RNA secondary structure is thus evolving at a much faster rate than the sequence. Structure at the Gag-Pro-Pol frameshift site is maintained but in a significantly altered form, while the impact of selection for maintaining a protein binding interaction can be seen in the conservation of pairing partners in the small RRE stems where Rev binds. Structures that are conserved between SIVmac239 and HIV-1(NL4-3) also occur at the 5' polyadenylation sequence, in the plus strand primer sites, PPT and cPPT, and in the stem-loop structure that includes the first splice acceptor site. The two genomes are adenosine-rich and cytidine-poor. The structured regions are enriched in guanosines, while unpaired regions are enriched in adenosines, and functionaly important structures have stronger base pairing than nonconserved structures. We conclude that much of the secondary structure is the result of fortuitous pairing in a metastable state that reforms during sequence evolution. However, secondary structure elements with important function are stabilized by higher guanosine content that allows regions of structure to persist as sequence evolution proceeds, and, within the confines of selective pressure, allows structures to evolve. PMID:23593004

  8. The Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominiak, P.; Ciszak, E.

    2003-01-01

    Using databases the authors have identified a common thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)-motif in the family of functionally diverse TPP-dependent enzymes. This common motif consists of multimeric organization of subunits and two catalytic centers. Each catalytic center (PP:PYR) is formed at the interface of the PP-domain binding the magnesium ion, pyrophosphate and amhopyrimidine ring of TPP, and the PYR-domain binding the aminopyrimidine ring of that cofactor. A pair of these catalytic centers constitutes the catalytic core (PP:PYR)(sub 2) within these enzymes. Analysis of the structural elements of this catalytic core reveals novel definition of the common amino acid sequences, which are GXPhiX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGQ and GDGX(sub 25-30)NN in the PP-domain, and the EX(sub 4)(G)PhiXXGPhi in the PYR-domain, where Phi corresponds to a hydrophobic amino acid. This TPP-motif provides a novel tool for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes useful in advancing functional proteomics.

  9. Process sequence optimization for digital microfluidic integration using EWOD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Supriya; Joyce, Robin; Sharma, Akash Kumar; Sharma, Himani; Sharma, Niti Nipun; Varghese, Soney; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    Micro/nano-fluidic MEMS biosensors are the devices that detects the biomolecules. The emerging micro/nano-fluidic devices provide high throughput and high repeatability with very low response time and reduced device cost as compared to traditional devices. This article presents the experimental details for process sequence optimization of digital microfluidics (DMF) using "electrowetting-on-dielectric" (EWOD). Stress free thick film deposition of silicon dioxide using PECVD and subsequent process for EWOD techniques have been optimized in this work.

  10. Ichnofabric and siliciclastic depositional systems: Integration for sequence stratigraphic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bottjer, D.J. ); Droser, M.L. )

    1991-03-01

    Much previous research on biogenic sedimentary structures has established how ichnofacies (assemblages of discrete trace fossils) vary within marine depositional systems. However, studies aimed at understanding the distribution of ichnofabric (sedimentary rock fabric resulting from biogenic reworking) have only recently been attempted. Because ichnofabric can be recorded using a semi-quantitative series of ichnofabric indices (ii), its distribution in marine sedimentary rocks can be easily recorded through vertical sequence analysis. Thicknesses of strata recording different ichnofabric indices can be logged from stratigraphic sections or cores. These data are best displayed in histograms as percent of ii recorded from the total thickness measured. These ichnofabric histograms (ichnograms) show variable but distinctive distributions for genetic units such as facies within systems tracts of siliciclastic depositional sequences. An average ichnofabric index for any genetic sedimentary unit can also be computed from the data used to construct ichnograms. Because skeletal fossils are typically much less commonly preserved in siliciclastic than carbonate depositional systems, such ichnofabric analyses have the potential of providing an important new line of evidence for depositional systems and sequence stratigraphic analysis of siliciclastic strata. In petroleum exploration results from completing analyses of ichnofabric distribution could provide important information including: (1) systems tracts with fine-grained facies that have relatively low ichnofabric values are potential source beds; and (2) petroleum reservoirs that occur in coarse episodically deposited beds are more likely to from in systems tracts with facies that have low rather than high ichnofabric values.

  11. Integrated visual analysis of protein structures, sequences, and feature data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background To understand the molecular mechanisms that give rise to a protein's function, biologists often need to (i) find and access all related atomic-resolution 3D structures, and (ii) map sequence-based features (e.g., domains, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, post-translational modifications) onto these structures. Results To streamline these processes we recently developed Aquaria, a resource offering unprecedented access to protein structure information based on an all-against-all comparison of SwissProt and PDB sequences. In this work, we provide a requirements analysis for several frequently occuring tasks in molecular biology and describe how design choices in Aquaria meet these requirements. Finally, we show how the interface can be used to explore features of a protein and gain biologically meaningful insights in two case studies conducted by domain experts. Conclusions The user interface design of Aquaria enables biologists to gain unprecedented access to molecular structures and simplifies the generation of insight. The tasks involved in mapping sequence features onto structures can be conducted easier and faster using Aquaria. PMID:26329268

  12. The Thiamine-Pyrophosphate-Motif

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Dominiak, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), a derivative of vitamin B1, is a cofactor for enzymes performing catalysis in pathways of energy production including the well known decarboxylation of a-keto acid dehydrogenases followed by transketolation. TPP-dependent enzymes constitute a structurally and functionally diverse group exhibiting multimeric subunit organization, multiple domains and two chemically equivalent catalytic centers. Annotation of functional TPP-dependcnt enzymes, therefore, has not been trivial due to low sequence similarity related to this complex organization. Our approach to analysis of structures of known TPP-dependent enzymes reveals for the first time features common to this group, which we have termed the TPP-motif. The TPP-motif consists of specific spatial arrangements of structural elements and their specific contacts to provide for a flip-flop, or alternate site, enzymatic mechanism of action. Analysis of structural elements entrained in the flip-flop action displayed by TPP-dependent enzymes reveals a novel definition of the common amino acid sequences. These sequences allow for annotation of TPP-dependent enzymes, thus advancing functional proteomics. Further details of three-dimensional structures of TPP-dependent enzymes will be discussed.

  13. Structural Motifs of Gold Nanoparticles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, C. L.; Luedtke, W. D.; Landman, Uzi

    1996-03-01

    Through an extensive search, involving energy minimization using embedded atom potentials, we found(R.L. Whetten et al./), submitted to Nature (1995). that the energetically optimal sequence for AuN clusters (30 <= N <= 3000 atoms) consists of fcc crystallites, with a truncated-octahedral (TO) morphological motif, and variants thereof. These predictions for bare gold particles, and for particles coated by sef-assembled thiol monolayers, are discussed in light of recent experiments on the preparation and characterization (including mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction) of nanocrystalline gold molecules (see Ref. 2).

  14. Sequence-Based Screening for Rare Enzymes: New Insights into the World of AMDases Reveal a Conserved Motif and 58 Novel Enzymes Clustering in Eight Distinct Families

    PubMed Central

    Maimanakos, Janine; Chow, Jennifer; Gaßmeyer, Sarah K.; Güllert, Simon; Busch, Florian; Kourist, Robert; Streit, Wolfgang R.

    2016-01-01

    Arylmalonate Decarboxylases (AMDases, EC 4.1.1.76) are very rare and mostly underexplored enzymes. Currently only four known and biochemically characterized representatives exist. However, their ability to decarboxylate α-disubstituted malonic acid derivatives to optically pure products without cofactors makes them attractive and promising candidates for the use as biocatalysts in industrial processes. Until now, AMDases could not be separated from other members of the aspartate/glutamate racemase superfamily based on their gene sequences. Within this work, a search algorithm was developed that enables a reliable prediction of AMDase activity for potential candidates. Based on specific sequence patterns and screening methods 58 novel AMDase candidate genes could be identified in this work. Thereby, AMDases with the conserved sequence pattern of Bordetella bronchiseptica’s prototype appeared to be limited to the classes of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria. Amino acid homologies and comparison of gene surrounding sequences enabled the classification of eight enzyme clusters. Particularly striking is the accumulation of genes coding for different transporters of the tripartite tricarboxylate transporters family, TRAP transporters and ABC transporters as well as genes coding for mandelate racemases/muconate lactonizing enzymes that might be involved in substrate uptake or degradation of AMDase products. Further, three novel AMDases were characterized which showed a high enantiomeric excess (>99%) of the (R)-enantiomer of flurbiprofen. These are the recombinant AmdA and AmdV from Variovorax sp. strains HH01 and HH02, originated from soil, and AmdP from Polymorphum gilvum found by a data base search. Altogether our findings give new insights into the class of AMDases and reveal many previously unknown enzyme candidates with high potential for bioindustrial processes. PMID:27610105

  15. Sequence-Based Screening for Rare Enzymes: New Insights into the World of AMDases Reveal a Conserved Motif and 58 Novel Enzymes Clustering in Eight Distinct Families.

    PubMed

    Maimanakos, Janine; Chow, Jennifer; Gaßmeyer, Sarah K; Güllert, Simon; Busch, Florian; Kourist, Robert; Streit, Wolfgang R

    2016-01-01

    Arylmalonate Decarboxylases (AMDases, EC 4.1.1.76) are very rare and mostly underexplored enzymes. Currently only four known and biochemically characterized representatives exist. However, their ability to decarboxylate α-disubstituted malonic acid derivatives to optically pure products without cofactors makes them attractive and promising candidates for the use as biocatalysts in industrial processes. Until now, AMDases could not be separated from other members of the aspartate/glutamate racemase superfamily based on their gene sequences. Within this work, a search algorithm was developed that enables a reliable prediction of AMDase activity for potential candidates. Based on specific sequence patterns and screening methods 58 novel AMDase candidate genes could be identified in this work. Thereby, AMDases with the conserved sequence pattern of Bordetella bronchiseptica's prototype appeared to be limited to the classes of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria. Amino acid homologies and comparison of gene surrounding sequences enabled the classification of eight enzyme clusters. Particularly striking is the accumulation of genes coding for different transporters of the tripartite tricarboxylate transporters family, TRAP transporters and ABC transporters as well as genes coding for mandelate racemases/muconate lactonizing enzymes that might be involved in substrate uptake or degradation of AMDase products. Further, three novel AMDases were characterized which showed a high enantiomeric excess (>99%) of the (R)-enantiomer of flurbiprofen. These are the recombinant AmdA and AmdV from Variovorax sp. strains HH01 and HH02, originated from soil, and AmdP from Polymorphum gilvum found by a data base search. Altogether our findings give new insights into the class of AMDases and reveal many previously unknown enzyme candidates with high potential for bioindustrial processes. PMID:27610105

  16. Sequence-Based Screening for Rare Enzymes: New Insights into the World of AMDases Reveal a Conserved Motif and 58 Novel Enzymes Clustering in Eight Distinct Families

    PubMed Central

    Maimanakos, Janine; Chow, Jennifer; Gaßmeyer, Sarah K.; Güllert, Simon; Busch, Florian; Kourist, Robert; Streit, Wolfgang R.

    2016-01-01

    Arylmalonate Decarboxylases (AMDases, EC 4.1.1.76) are very rare and mostly underexplored enzymes. Currently only four known and biochemically characterized representatives exist. However, their ability to decarboxylate α-disubstituted malonic acid derivatives to optically pure products without cofactors makes them attractive and promising candidates for the use as biocatalysts in industrial processes. Until now, AMDases could not be separated from other members of the aspartate/glutamate racemase superfamily based on their gene sequences. Within this work, a search algorithm was developed that enables a reliable prediction of AMDase activity for potential candidates. Based on specific sequence patterns and screening methods 58 novel AMDase candidate genes could be identified in this work. Thereby, AMDases with the conserved sequence pattern of Bordetella bronchiseptica’s prototype appeared to be limited to the classes of Alpha-, Beta-, and Gamma-proteobacteria. Amino acid homologies and comparison of gene surrounding sequences enabled the classification of eight enzyme clusters. Particularly striking is the accumulation of genes coding for different transporters of the tripartite tricarboxylate transporters family, TRAP transporters and ABC transporters as well as genes coding for mandelate racemases/muconate lactonizing enzymes that might be involved in substrate uptake or degradation of AMDase products. Further, three novel AMDases were characterized which showed a high enantiomeric excess (>99%) of the (R)-enantiomer of flurbiprofen. These are the recombinant AmdA and AmdV from Variovorax sp. strains HH01 and HH02, originated from soil, and AmdP from Polymorphum gilvum found by a data base search. Altogether our findings give new insights into the class of AMDases and reveal many previously unknown enzyme candidates with high potential for bioindustrial processes.

  17. ATtRACT-a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available athttp://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid-F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discoveringde novomotifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database.Database URL:http:// attract. cnic. es. PMID:27055826

  18. ATtRACT-a database of RNA-binding proteins and associated motifs.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Girolamo; Sánchez-Cabo, Fátima; Torroja, Carlos; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) play a crucial role in key cellular processes, including RNA transport, splicing, polyadenylation and stability. Understanding the interaction between RBPs and RNA is key to improve our knowledge of RNA processing, localization and regulation in a global manner. Despite advances in recent years, a unified non-redundant resource that includes information on experimentally validated motifs, RBPs and integrated tools to exploit this information is lacking. Here, we developed a database named ATtRACT (available athttp://attract.cnic.es) that compiles information on 370 RBPs and 1583 RBP consensus binding motifs, 192 of which are not present in any other database. To populate ATtRACT we (i) extracted and hand-curated experimentally validated data from CISBP-RNA, SpliceAid-F, RBPDB databases, (ii) integrated and updated the unavailable ASD database and (iii) extracted information from Protein-RNA complexes present in Protein Data Bank database through computational analyses. ATtRACT provides also efficient algorithms to search a specific motif and scan one or more RNA sequences at a time. It also allows discoveringde novomotifs enriched in a set of related sequences and compare them with the motifs included in the database.Database URL:http:// attract. cnic. es.

  19. Mapping the structure of folding cores in TIM barrel proteins by hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry: the roles of motif and sequence for the indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhenyu; Zitzewitz, Jill A; Matthews, C Robert

    2007-04-27

    To test the roles of motif and amino acid sequence in the folding mechanisms of TIM barrel proteins, hydrogen-deuterium exchange was used to explore the structure of the stable folding intermediates for the of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase from Sulfolobus solfataricus (sIGPS). Previous studies of the urea denaturation of sIGPS revealed the presence of an intermediate that is highly populated at approximately 4.5 M urea and contains approximately 50% of the secondary structure of the native (N) state. Kinetic studies showed that this apparent equilibrium intermediate is actually comprised of two thermodynamically distinct species, I(a) and I(b). To probe the location of the secondary structure in this pair of stable on-pathway intermediates, the equilibrium unfolding process of sIGPS was monitored by hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. The intact protein and pepsin-digested fragments were studied at various concentrations of urea by electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, respectively. Intact sIGPS strongly protects at least 54 amide protons from hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the intermediate states, demonstrating the presence of stable folded cores. When the protection patterns and the exchange mechanisms for the peptides are considered with the proposed folding mechanism, the results can be interpreted to define the structural boundaries of I(a) and I(b). Comparison of these results with previous hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies on another TIM barrel protein of low sequence identify, alpha-tryptophan synthase (alphaTS), indicates that the thermodynamic states corresponding to the folding intermediates are better conserved than their structures. Although the TIM barrel motif appears to define the basic features of the folding free energy surface, the structures of the partially folded states that appear during the folding reaction depend on the amino acid sequence. Markedly, the good

  20. Armadillo motifs involved in vesicular transport.

    PubMed

    Striegl, Harald; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A; Heinemann, Udo

    2010-02-01

    Armadillo (ARM) repeat proteins function in various cellular processes including vesicular transport and membrane tethering. They contain an imperfect repeating sequence motif that forms a conserved three-dimensional structure. Recently, structural and functional insight into tethering mediated by the ARM-repeat protein p115 has been provided. Here we describe the p115 ARM-motifs for reasons of clarity and nomenclature and show that both sequence and structure are highly conserved among ARM-repeat proteins. We argue that there is no need to invoke repeat types other than ARM repeats for a proper description of the structure of the p115 globular head region. Additionally, we propose to define a new subfamily of ARM-like proteins and show lack of evidence that the ARM motifs found in p115 are present in other long coiled-coil tethering factors of the golgin family.

  1. Integrated sequence and immunology filovirus database at Los Alamos.

    PubMed

    Yusim, Karina; Yoon, Hyejin; Foley, Brian; Feng, Shihai; Macke, Jennifer; Dimitrijevic, Mira; Abfalterer, Werner; Szinger, James; Fischer, Will; Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola outbreak of 2013-15 infected more than 28 000 people and claimed more lives than all previous filovirus outbreaks combined. Governmental agencies, clinical teams, and the world scientific community pulled together in a multifaceted response ranging from prevention and disease control, to evaluating vaccines and therapeutics in human trials. As this epidemic is finally coming to a close, refocusing on long-term prevention strategies becomes paramount. Given the very real threat of future filovirus outbreaks, and the inherent uncertainty of the next outbreak virus and geographic location, it is prudent to consider the extent and implications of known natural diversity in advancing vaccines and therapeutic approaches. To facilitate such consideration, we have updated and enhanced the content of the filovirus portion of Los Alamos Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses Database. We have integrated and performed baseline analysis of all family ITALIC! Filoviridaesequences deposited into GenBank, with associated immune response data, and metadata, and we have added new computational tools with web-interfaces to assist users with analysis. Here, we (i) describe the main features of updated database, (ii) provide integrated views and some basic analyses summarizing evolutionary patterns as they relate to geo-temporal data captured in the database and (iii) highlight the most conserved regions in the proteome that may be useful for a T cell vaccine strategy.Database URL:www.hfv.lanl.gov. PMID:27103629

  2. Integration of hepatitis B virus DNA in chromosome-specific satellite sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Shaul, Y.; Garcia, P.D.; Schonberg, S.; Rutter, W.J.

    1986-09-01

    The authors previously reported the cloning and detailed analysis of the integrated hepatitis B virus sequences in a human hepatoma cell line. They report here the integration of at least one of hepatitis B virus at human satellite DNA sequences. The majority of the cellular sequences identified by this satellite were organized as a multimeric composition of a 0.6-kilobase EcoRI fragment. This clone hybridized in situ almost exclusively to the centromeric heterochromatin of chromosomes 1 and 16 and to a lower extent to chromosome 2 and to the heterochromatic region of the Y chromosome. The immediate flanking host sequence appeared as a hierarchy of repeating units which were almost identical to a previously reported human satellite III DNA sequence.

  3. Encoded expansion: an efficient algorithm to discover identical string motifs.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Aqil M; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952-7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes [Formula: see text] in theoretical time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the length of the input sequence and [Formula: see text] is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes [Formula: see text] that occur at least [Formula: see text] times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than [Formula: see text] times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms. PMID:24871320

  4. Encoded Expansion: An Efficient Algorithm to Discover Identical String Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Aqil M.; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952–7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes in theoretical time complexity of and a space complexity of where is the length of the input sequence and is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes that occur at least times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of and a space complexity of Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms. PMID:24871320

  5. Encoded expansion: an efficient algorithm to discover identical string motifs.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Aqil M; Al-Ssulami, Abdulrakeeb

    2014-01-01

    A major task in computational biology is the discovery of short recurring string patterns known as motifs. Most of the schemes to discover motifs are either stochastic or combinatorial in nature. Stochastic approaches do not guarantee finding the correct motifs, while the combinatorial schemes tend to have an exponential time complexity with respect to motif length. To alleviate the cost, the combinatorial approach exploits dynamic data structures such as trees or graphs. Recently (Karci (2009) Efficient automatic exact motif discovery algorithms for biological sequences, Expert Systems with Applications 36:7952-7963) devised a deterministic algorithm that finds all the identical copies of string motifs of all sizes [Formula: see text] in theoretical time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] where [Formula: see text] is the length of the input sequence and [Formula: see text] is the length of the longest possible string motif. In this paper, we present a significant improvement on Karci's original algorithm. The algorithm that we propose reports all identical string motifs of sizes [Formula: see text] that occur at least [Formula: see text] times. Our algorithm starts with string motifs of size 2, and at each iteration it expands the candidate string motifs by one symbol throwing out those that occur less than [Formula: see text] times in the entire input sequence. We use a simple array and data encoding to achieve theoretical worst-case time complexity of [Formula: see text] and a space complexity of [Formula: see text] Encoding of the substrings can speed up the process of comparison between string motifs. Experimental results on random and real biological sequences confirm that our algorithm has indeed a linear time complexity and it is more scalable in terms of sequence length than the existing algorithms.

  6. Phage randomization in a charybdotoxin scaffold leads to CD4-mimetic recognition motifs that bind HIV-1 envelope through non-aromatic sequences.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Dowd, C S; Zhang, W; Chaiken, I M

    2001-06-01

    Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to T-cell receptor CD4 initiates conformational changes in the viral envelope that trigger viral entry into host cells. Phage epitope randomization of a beta-turn loop of a charybdotoxin-based miniprotein scaffold was used to identify peptides that can bind gp120 and block the gp120-CD4 interaction. We describe here the display of the charybdotoxin scaffold on the filamentous phage fUSE5, its use to construct a beta-turn library, and miniprotein sequences identified through library panning with immobilized Env gp120. Competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) identified high-frequency phage selectants for which specific gp120 binding was competed by sCD4. Several of these selectants contain hydrophobic residues in place of the Phe that occurs in the gp120-binding beta-turns of both CD4 and previously identified scorpion toxin CD4 mimetics. One of these selectants, denoted TXM[24GQTL27], contains GQTL in place of the CD4 beta-turn sequence 40QGSF43. TXM[24GQTL27] peptide was prepared using solid-phase chemical synthesis, its binding to gp120 demonstrated by optical biosensor kinetics analysis and its affinity for the CD4 binding site of gp120 confirmed by competition ELISA. The results demonstrate that aromatic-less loop-containing CD4 recognition mimetics can be formed with detectable envelope protein binding within a beta-turn of the charybdotoxin miniprotein scaffold. The results of this work establish a methodology for phage display of a charybdotoxin miniprotein scaffold and point to the potential value of phage-based epitope randomization of this miniprotein for identifying novel CD4 mimetics. The latter are potentially useful in deconvoluting structural determinants of CD4-HIV envelope recognition and possibly in designing antagonists of viral entry. PMID:11437954

  7. Integrative analysis of next generation sequencing for small non-coding RNAs and transcriptional regulation in Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDSS) are pre-leukemic disorders with increasing incident rates worldwide, but very limited treatment options. Little is known about small regulatory RNAs and how they contribute to pathogenesis, progression and transcriptome changes in MDS. Methods Patients' primary marrow cells were screened for short RNAs (RNA-seq) using next generation sequencing. Exon arrays from the same cells were used to profile gene expression and additional measures on 98 patients obtained. Integrative bioinformatics algorithms were proposed, and pathway and ontology analysis performed. Results In low-grade MDS, observations implied extensive post-transcriptional regulation via microRNAs (miRNA) and the recently discovered Piwi interacting RNAs (piRNA). Large expression differences were found for MDS-associated and novel miRNAs, including 48 sequences matching to miRNA star (miRNA*) motifs. The detected species were predicted to regulate disease stage specific molecular functions and pathways, including apoptosis and response to DNA damage. In high-grade MDS, results suggested extensive post-translation editing via transfer RNAs (tRNAs), providing a potential link for reduced apoptosis, a hallmark for this disease stage. Bioinformatics analysis confirmed important regulatory roles for MDS linked miRNAs and TFs, and strengthened the biological significance of miRNA*. The "RNA polymerase II promoters" were identified as the tightest controlled biological function. We suggest their control by a miRNA dominated feedback loop, which might be linked to the dramatically different miRNA amounts seen between low and high-grade MDS. Discussion The presented results provide novel findings that build a basis of further investigations of diagnostic biomarkers, targeted therapies and studies on MDS pathogenesis. PMID:21342535

  8. Sequence analysis, characterization and mRNA distribution of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque, 1818) chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) cDNA.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Klesius, Phillip H

    2010-04-15

    Chemokine receptor CXCR4, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, binds selectively CXCL12. This protein plays many important roles in immunological as well as pathophysiological functions. In this study, we identified and characterized the channel catfish CXCR4 transcript. The full-length nucleic acid sequence of channel catfish CXCR4 cDNA comprised of 1994 nucleotides, including an open reading frame, which appears to encode a putative peptide of 357 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 40.1kDa. By comparison with the human counterpart, the channel catfish CXCR4 peptide can be divided into domains, including seven transmembrane domains, four cytoplasmic domains, and four extracellular domains. The CXCR4 transcript was detected in spleen, anterior kidney, liver, intestine, skin and gill of all catfish examined in this study. Because four CXCL of channel catfish have been identified, the result provides valuable information for further exploring the channel catfish chemokine signalling pathways and their roles in immune responses to infection. PMID:19853928

  9. Golden Ratio Versus Pi as Random Sequence Sources for Monte Carlo Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, S. K.; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences is not judged directly based on the outcome of all known tests for the randomness of a sequence. Instead, it is determined implicitly by the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration in a statistical sense. Since our main motive of using a random sequence is to solve real world problems, it is more desirable if we compare the quality of the sequences based on their performances for these problems in terms of quality/accuracy of the output. We also compare these sources against those generated by a popular pseudo-random generator, viz., the Matlab rand and the quasi-random generator ha/ton both in terms of error and time complexity. Our study demonstrates that consecutive blocks of digits of each of these numbers produce a good random sequence source. It is observed that randomly chosen blocks of digits do not have any remarkable advantage over consecutive blocks for the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration. Also, it reveals that pi is a better source of a random sequence than theta when the accuracy of the integration is concerned.

  10. A Conserved Motif Provides Binding Specificity to the PP2A-B56 Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Emil Peter Thrane; Kruse, Thomas; Davey, Norman E; López-Méndez, Blanca; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Montoya, Guillermo; Olsen, Jesper V; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-08-18

    Dynamic protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating biological processes in all organisms. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the main source of phosphatase activity in the cell, but the molecular details of substrate recognition are unknown. Here, we report that a conserved surface-exposed pocket on PP2A regulatory B56 subunits binds to a consensus sequence on interacting proteins, which we term the LxxIxE motif. The composition of the motif modulates the affinity for B56, which in turn determines the phosphorylation status of associated substrates. Phosphorylation of amino acid residues within the motif increases B56 binding, allowing integration of kinase and phosphatase activity. We identify conserved LxxIxE motifs in essential proteins throughout the eukaryotic domain of life and in human viruses, suggesting that the motifs are required for basic cellular function. Our study provides a molecular description of PP2A binding specificity with broad implications for understanding signaling in eukaryotes.

  11. A Conserved Motif Provides Binding Specificity to the PP2A-B56 Phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Emil Peter Thrane; Kruse, Thomas; Davey, Norman E; López-Méndez, Blanca; Sigurðsson, Jón Otti; Montoya, Guillermo; Olsen, Jesper V; Nilsson, Jakob

    2016-08-18

    Dynamic protein phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism regulating biological processes in all organisms. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the main source of phosphatase activity in the cell, but the molecular details of substrate recognition are unknown. Here, we report that a conserved surface-exposed pocket on PP2A regulatory B56 subunits binds to a consensus sequence on interacting proteins, which we term the LxxIxE motif. The composition of the motif modulates the affinity for B56, which in turn determines the phosphorylation status of associated substrates. Phosphorylation of amino acid residues within the motif increases B56 binding, allowing integration of kinase and phosphatase activity. We identify conserved LxxIxE motifs in essential proteins throughout the eukaryotic domain of life and in human viruses, suggesting that the motifs are required for basic cellular function. Our study provides a molecular description of PP2A binding specificity with broad implications for understanding signaling in eukaryotes. PMID:27453045

  12. Motif content comparison between monocot and dicot species

    PubMed Central

    Cserhati, Matyas

    2015-01-01

    While a number of DNA sequence motifs have been functionally characterized, the full repertoire of motifs in an organism (the motifome) is yet to be characterized. The present study wishes to widen the scope of motif content analysis in different monocot and dicot species that include both rice species, Brachypodium, corn, wheat as monocots and Arabidopsis, Lotus japonica, Medicago truncatula, and Populus tremula as dicots. All possible existing motifs were analyzed in different regions of genomes such as were found in different sets of sequences in these species: the whole genome, core proximal and distal promoters, 5′ and 3′ UTRs, and the 1st introns. Due to the increased number of species involved in this study compared to previous works, species relationships were analyzed based on the similarity of common motif content. Certain secondary structure elements were inferred in the genomes of these species as well as new unknown motifs. The distribution of 20 motifs common to the studied species were found to have a significantly larger occurrence within the promoters and 3′ UTRs of genes, both being regulatory regions. Motifs common to the promoter regions of japonica rice, Brachypodium, and corn were also found in a number of orthologous and paralogous genes. Some of our motifs were found to be complementary to miRNA elements in Brachypodium distachyon and japonica rice. PMID:26484161

  13. Protein chaperones Q8ZP25_SALTY from Salmonella typhimurium and HYAE_ECOLI from Escherichia coli exhibit thioredoxin-like structures despite lack of canonical thioredoxin active site sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Parish, David; Benach, Jordi; Liu, Goahua; Singarapu, Kiran Kumar; Xiao, Rong; Acton, Thomas; Su, Min; Bansal, Sonal; Prestegard, James H; Hunt, John; Montelione, Gaetano T; Szyperski, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    The structure of the 142-residue protein Q8ZP25_SALTY encoded in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was determined independently by NMR and X-ray crystallography, and the structure of the 140-residue protein HYAE_ECOLI encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli was determined by NMR. The two proteins belong to Pfam (Finn et al. 34:D247-D251, 2006) PF07449, which currently comprises 50 members, and belongs itself to the 'thioredoxin-like clan'. However, protein HYAE_ECOLI and the other proteins of Pfam PF07449 do not contain the canonical Cys-X-X-Cys active site sequence motif of thioredoxin. Protein HYAE_ECOLI was previously classified as a [NiFe] hydrogenase-1 specific chaperone interacting with the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) signal peptide. The structures presented here exhibit the expected thioredoxin-like fold and support the view that members of Pfam family PF07449 specifically interact with Tat signal peptides. PMID:19039680

  14. Protein Chaperones Q8ZP25_SALTY from Salmonella Typhimurium and HYAE_ECOLI from Escherichia coli Exhibit Thioredoxin-like Structures Despite Lack of Canonical Thioredoxin Active Site Sequence Motif

    SciTech Connect

    Parish, D.; Benach, J; Liu, G; Singarapu, K; Xiao, R; Acton, T; Hunt, J; Montelione, G; Szyperski, T; et. al.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the 142-residue protein Q8ZP25 SALTY encoded in the genome of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 was determined independently by NMR and X-ray crystallography, and the structure of the 140-residue protein HYAE ECOLI encoded in the genome of Escherichia coli was determined by NMR. The two proteins belong to Pfam (Finn et al. 34:D247-D251, 2006) PF07449, which currently comprises 50 members, and belongs itself to the 'thioredoxin-like clan'. However, protein HYAE ECOLI and the other proteins of Pfam PF07449 do not contain the canonical Cys-X-X-Cys active site sequence motif of thioredoxin. Protein HYAE ECOLI was previously classified as a (NiFe) hydrogenase-1 specific chaperone interacting with the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) signal peptide. The structures presented here exhibit the expected thioredoxin-like fold and support the view that members of Pfam family PF07449 specifically interact with Tat signal peptides.

  15. An integrated SNP mining and utilization (ISMU) pipeline for next generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Azam, Sarwar; Rathore, Abhishek; Shah, Trushar M; Telluri, Mohan; Amindala, BhanuPrakash; Ruperao, Pradeep; Katta, Mohan A V S K; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Open source single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery pipelines for next generation sequencing data commonly requires working knowledge of command line interface, massive computational resources and expertise which is a daunting task for biologists. Further, the SNP information generated may not be readily used for downstream processes such as genotyping. Hence, a comprehensive pipeline has been developed by integrating several open source next generation sequencing (NGS) tools along with a graphical user interface called Integrated SNP Mining and Utilization (ISMU) for SNP discovery and their utilization by developing genotyping assays. The pipeline features functionalities such as pre-processing of raw data, integration of open source alignment tools (Bowtie2, BWA, Maq, NovoAlign and SOAP2), SNP prediction (SAMtools/SOAPsnp/CNS2snp and CbCC) methods and interfaces for developing genotyping assays. The pipeline outputs a list of high quality SNPs between all pairwise combinations of genotypes analyzed, in addition to the reference genome/sequence. Visualization tools (Tablet and Flapjack) integrated into the pipeline enable inspection of the alignment and errors, if any. The pipeline also provides a confidence score or polymorphism information content value with flanking sequences for identified SNPs in standard format required for developing marker genotyping (KASP and Golden Gate) assays. The pipeline enables users to process a range of NGS datasets such as whole genome re-sequencing, restriction site associated DNA sequencing and transcriptome sequencing data at a fast speed. The pipeline is very useful for plant genetics and breeding community with no computational expertise in order to discover SNPs and utilize in genomics, genetics and breeding studies. The pipeline has been parallelized to process huge datasets of next generation sequencing. It has been developed in Java language and is available at http://hpc.icrisat.cgiar.org/ISMU as a standalone

  16. XplorSeq: A software environment for integrated management and phylogenetic analysis of metagenomic sequence data

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Daniel N

    2008-01-01

    Background Advances in automated DNA sequencing technology have accelerated the generation of metagenomic DNA sequences, especially environmental ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences. As the scale of rDNA-based studies of microbial ecology has expanded, need has arisen for software that is capable of managing, annotating, and analyzing the plethora of diverse data accumulated in these projects. Results XplorSeq is a software package that facilitates the compilation, management and phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences. XplorSeq was developed for, but is not limited to, high-throughput analysis of environmental rRNA gene sequences. XplorSeq integrates and extends several commonly used UNIX-based analysis tools by use of a Macintosh OS-X-based graphical user interface (GUI). Through this GUI, users may perform basic sequence import and assembly steps (base-calling, vector/primer trimming, contig assembly), perform BLAST (Basic Local Alignment and Search Tool; [1-3]) searches of NCBI and local databases, create multiple sequence alignments, build phylogenetic trees, assemble Operational Taxonomic Units, estimate biodiversity indices, and summarize data in a variety of formats. Furthermore, sequences may be annotated with user-specified meta-data, which then can be used to sort data and organize analyses and reports. A document-based architecture permits parallel analysis of sequence data from multiple clones or amplicons, with sequences and other data stored in a single file. Conclusion XplorSeq should benefit researchers who are engaged in analyses of environmental sequence data, especially those with little experience using bioinformatics software. Although XplorSeq was developed for management of rDNA sequence data, it can be applied to most any sequencing project. The application is available free of charge for non-commercial use at . PMID:18840282

  17. Sequence motifs of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) determining progelatinase A (proMMP-2) binding and activation by membrane-type metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP).

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Joanna R; Thompkins, Philip B; Lee, Meng H; Hutton, Mike; Soloway, Paul; Edwards, Dylan R; Murphy, Gillian; Knäuper, Vera

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental cellular processes including angiogenesis and cell migration require a proteolytic cascade driven by interactions of membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) and progelatinase A (proMMP-2) that are dependent on the presence of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2). There are unique interactions between TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP, which we have previously defined, and here we identify TIMP-2 sequence motifs specific for proMMP-2 binding in the context of its activation by MT1-MMP. A TIMP-2 mutant encoding the C-terminal domain of TIMP-4 showed loss of proMMP-2 activation, indicating that the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2 is important in establishing the trimolecular complex between MT1-MMP, TIMP-2 and proMMP-2. This was confirmed by analysis of a TIMP-4 mutant encoding the C-terminal domain of TIMP-2, which formed a trimolecular complex and promoted proMMP-2 processing to the intermediate form. Mutants encoding TIMP-4 from Cys(1) to Leu(185) and partial tail sequence of TIMP-2 showed some gain of activating capability relative to TIMP-4. The identified residues were subsequently mutated in TIMP-2 (E(192)-D(193) to I(192)-Q(193)) and this inhibitor showed a significantly reduced ability to facilitate proMMP-2 processing by MT1-MMP. Furthermore, the tail-deletion mutant Delta(186-194)TIMP-2 was completely incapable of promoting proMMP-2 activation by MT1-MMP. Thus the C-terminal tail residues of TIMP-2 are important determinants for stable trimolecular complex formation between TIMP-2, proMMP-2 and MT1-MMP and play an important role in MT1-MMP-mediated processing to the intermediate and final active forms of MMP-2 at the cell surface. PMID:12630911

  18. [Personal motif in art].

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy.

  19. [Personal motif in art].

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    One of the basic questions of the art psychology is whether a personal motif is to be found behind works of art and if so, how openly or indirectly it appears in the work itself. Analysis of examples and documents from the fine arts and literature allow us to conclude that the personal motif that can be identified by the viewer through symbols, at times easily at others with more difficulty, gives an emotional plus to the artistic product. The personal motif may be found in traumatic experiences, in communication to the model or with other emotionally important persons (mourning, disappointment, revenge, hatred, rivalry, revolt etc.), in self-searching, or self-analysis. The emotions are expressed in artistic activity either directly or indirectly. The intention nourished by the artist's identity (Kunstwollen) may stand in the way of spontaneous self-expression, channelling it into hidden paths. Under the influence of certain circumstances, the artist may arouse in the viewer, consciously or unconsciously, an illusionary, misleading image of himself. An examination of the personal motif is one of the important research areas of art therapy. PMID:26202617

  20. MicroRNA Target Site Identification by Integrating Sequence and Binding Information

    PubMed Central

    Majoros, William H.; Lekprasert, Parawee; Mukherjee, Neelanjan; Skalsky, Rebecca L.; Corcoran, David L.; Cullen, Bryan R.; Ohler, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing has opened numerous possibilities for the identification of regulatory RNA-binding events. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation of Argonaute protein members can pinpoint microRNA target sites within tens of bases, but leaves the identity of the microRNA unresolved. A flexible computational framework that integrates sequence with cross-linking features reliably identifies the microRNA family involved in each binding event, considerably outperforms sequence-only approaches, and quantifies the prevalence of noncanonical binding modes. PMID:23708386

  1. ET-Motif: Solving the Exact (l, d)-Planted Motif Problem Using Error Tree Structure.

    PubMed

    Al-Okaily, Anas; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2016-07-01

    Motif finding is an important and a challenging problem in many biological applications such as discovering promoters, enhancers, locus control regions, transcription factors, and more. The (l, d)-planted motif search, PMS, is one of several variations of the problem. In this problem, there are n given sequences over alphabets of size [Formula: see text], each of length m, and two given integers l and d. The problem is to find a motif m of length l, where in each sequence there is at least an l-mer at a Hamming distance of [Formula: see text] of m. In this article, we propose ET-Motif, an algorithm that can solve the PMS problem in [Formula: see text] time and [Formula: see text] space. The time bound can be further reduced by a factor of m with [Formula: see text] space. In case the suffix tree that is built for the input sequences is balanced, the problem can be solved in [Formula: see text] time and [Formula: see text] space. Similarly, the time bound can be reduced by a factor of m using [Formula: see text] space. Moreover, the variations of the problem, namely the edit distance PMS and edited PMS (Quorum), can be solved using ET-Motif with simple modifications but upper bands of space and time. For edit distance PMS, the time and space bounds will be increased by [Formula: see text], while for edited PMS the increase will be of [Formula: see text] in the time bound. PMID:27152692

  2. Large-scale collection and analysis of full-length cDNAs from Brachypodium distachyon and integration with Pooideae sequence resources.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Keiichi; Uehara-Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Takahashi, Fuminori; Yoshida, Takuhiro; Sakurai, Tetsuya; Shinozaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive collection of full-length cDNAs is essential for correct structural gene annotation and functional analyses of genes. We constructed a mixed full-length cDNA library from 21 different tissues of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21, and obtained 78,163 high quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from both ends of ca. 40,000 clones (including 16,079 contigs). We updated gene structure annotations of Brachypodium genes based on full-length cDNA sequences in comparison with the latest publicly available annotations. About 10,000 non-redundant gene models were supported by full-length cDNAs; ca. 6,000 showed some transcription unit modifications. We also found ca. 580 novel gene models, including 362 newly identified in Bd21. Using the updated transcription start sites, we searched a total of 580 plant cis-motifs in the -3 kb promoter regions and determined a genome-wide Brachypodium promoter architecture. Furthermore, we integrated the Brachypodium full-length cDNAs and updated gene structures with available sequence resources in wheat and barley in a web-accessible database, the RIKEN Brachypodium FL cDNA database. The database represents a "one-stop" information resource for all genomic information in the Pooideae, facilitating functional analysis of genes in this model grass plant and seamless knowledge transfer to the Triticeae crops.

  3. Integrated and sequence-ordered BAC- and YAC-based physical maps for the rat genome.

    PubMed

    Krzywinski, Martin; Wallis, John; Gösele, Claudia; Bosdet, Ian; Chiu, Readman; Graves, Tina; Hummel, Oliver; Layman, Dan; Mathewson, Carrie; Wye, Natasja; Zhu, Baoli; Albracht, Derek; Asano, Jennifer; Barber, Sarah; Brown-John, Mabel; Chan, Susanna; Chand, Steve; Cloutier, Alison; Davito, Jonathon; Fjell, Chris; Gaige, Tony; Ganten, Detlev; Girn, Noreen; Guggenheimer, Kurtis; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Kreitler, Thomas; Leach, Stephen; Lee, Darlene; Lehrach, Hans; Mayo, Michael; Mead, Kelly; Olson, Teika; Pandoh, Pawan; Prabhu, Anna-Liisa; Shin, Heesun; Tänzer, Simone; Thompson, Jason; Tsai, Miranda; Walker, Jason; Yang, George; Sekhon, Mandeep; Hillier, LaDeana; Zimdahl, Heike; Marziali, Andre; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhao, Shaying; Siddiqui, Asim; de Jong, Pieter J; Warren, Wes; Mardis, Elaine; McPherson, John D; Wilson, Richard; Hübner, Norbert; Jones, Steven; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline

    2004-04-01

    As part of the effort to sequence the genome of Rattus norvegicus, we constructed a physical map comprised of fingerprinted bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the CHORI-230 BAC library. These BAC clones provide approximately 13-fold redundant coverage of the genome and have been assembled into 376 fingerprint contigs. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) map was also constructed and aligned with the BAC map via fingerprinted BAC and P1 artificial chromosome clones (PACs) sharing interspersed repetitive sequence markers with the YAC-based physical map. We have annotated 95% of the fingerprint map clones in contigs with coordinates on the version 3.1 rat genome sequence assembly, using BAC-end sequences and in silico mapping methods. These coordinates have allowed anchoring 358 of the 376 fingerprint map contigs onto the sequence assembly. Of these, 324 contigs are anchored to rat genome sequences localized to chromosomes, and 34 contigs are anchored to unlocalized portions of the rat sequence assembly. The remaining 18 contigs, containing 54 clones, still require placement. The fingerprint map is a high-resolution integrative data resource that provides genome-ordered associations among BAC, YAC, and PAC clones and the assembled sequence of the rat genome. PMID:15060021

  4. CDinFusion--submission-ready, on-line integration of sequence and contextual data.

    PubMed

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in "Omics" studies grant insight into the 'blueprints' of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion.

  5. CDinFusion – Submission-Ready, On-Line Integration of Sequence and Contextual Data

    PubMed Central

    Hankeln, Wolfgang; Wendel, Norma Johanna; Gerken, Jan; Waldmann, Jost; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Kottmann, Renzo; Yilmaz, Pelin; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-01-01

    State of the art (DNA) sequencing methods applied in “Omics” studies grant insight into the ‘blueprints’ of organisms from all domains of life. Sequencing is carried out around the globe and the data is submitted to the public repositories of the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration. However, the context in which these studies are conducted often gets lost, because experimental data, as well as information about the environment are rarely submitted along with the sequence data. If these contextual or metadata are missing, key opportunities of comparison and analysis across studies and habitats are hampered or even impossible. To address this problem, the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) promotes checklists and standards to better describe our sequence data collection and to promote the capturing, exchange and integration of sequence data with contextual data. In a recent community effort the GSC has developed a series of recommendations for contextual data that should be submitted along with sequence data. To support the scientific community to significantly enhance the quality and quantity of contextual data in the public sequence data repositories, specialized software tools are needed. In this work we present CDinFusion, a web-based tool to integrate contextual and sequence data in (Multi)FASTA format prior to submission. The tool is open source and available under the Lesser GNU Public License 3. A public installation is hosted and maintained at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology at http://www.megx.net/cdinfusion. The tool may also be installed locally using the open source code available at http://code.google.com/p/cdinfusion. PMID:21935468

  6. Sequenced Integration and the Identification of a Problem-Solving Approach through a Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormas, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Preservice teachers (N = 27) in two sections of a sequenced, methodological and process integrated mathematics/science course solved a levers problem with three similar learning processes and a problem-solving approach, and identified a problem-solving approach through one different learning process. Similar learning processes used included:…

  7. Tertiary Structural and Functional Analyses of a Viroid RNA Motif by Isostericity Matrix and Mutagenesis Reveal Its Essential Role in Replication

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Xuehua; Leontis, Neocles; Qian, Shuiming; Itaya, Asuka; Qi, Yijun; Boris-Lawrie, Kathleen; Ding, Biao

    2006-01-01

    RNA-templated RNA replication is essential for viral or viroid infection, as well as for regulation of cellular gene expression. Specific RNA motifs likely regulate various aspects of this replication. Viroids of the Pospiviroidae family, as represented by the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), replicate in the nucleus by utilizing DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II. We investigated the role of the loop E (sarcin/ricin) motif of the PSTVd genomic RNA in replication. A tertiary-structural model of this motif, inferred by comparative sequence analysis and comparison with nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray crystal structures of loop E motifs in other RNAs, is presented in which core non-Watson-Crick base pairs are precisely specified. Isostericity matrix analysis of these base pairs showed that the model accounts for the reported natural sequence variations and viable experimental mutations in loop E motifs of PSTVd and other viroids. Furthermore, isostericity matrix analysis allowed us to design disruptive, as well as compensatory, mutations of PSTVd loop E. Functional analyses of such mutants by in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that loop E structural integrity is crucial for replication, specifically during transcription. Our results suggest that the PSTVd loop E motif exists and functions in vivo and provide loss-of-function genetic evidence for the essential role of a viroid RNA three-dimensional motif in rolling-circle replication. The use of isostericity matrix analysis of non-Watson-Crick base pairing to rationalize mutagenesis of tertiary motifs and systematic in vitro and in vivo functional assays of mutants offers a novel, comprehensive approach to elucidate the tertiary-structure-function relationships for RNA motifs of general biological significance. PMID:16912306

  8. Integrable maps from Galois differential algebras, Borel transforms and number sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempesta, Piergiulio

    A new class of integrable maps, obtained as lattice versions of polynomial dynamical systems is introduced. These systems are obtained by means of a discretization procedure that preserves several analytic and algebraic properties of a given differential equation, in particular symmetries and integrability (see Tempesta, 2010 [40]). Our approach is based on the properties of a suitable Galois differential algebra, that we shall call a Rota algebra. A formulation of the procedure in terms of category theory is proposed. In order to render the lattice dynamics confined, a Borel regularization is also adopted. As a byproduct of the theory, a connection between number sequences and integrability is discussed.

  9. The MIGenAS integrated bioinformatics toolkit for web-based sequence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rampp, Markus; Soddemann, Thomas; Lederer, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    We describe a versatile and extensible integrated bioinformatics toolkit for the analysis of biological sequences over the Internet. The web portal offers convenient interactive access to a growing pool of chainable bioinformatics software tools and databases that are centrally installed and maintained by the RZG. Currently, supported tasks comprise sequence similarity searches in public or user-supplied databases, computation and validation of multiple sequence alignments, phylogenetic analysis and protein–structure prediction. Individual tools can be seamlessly chained into pipelines allowing the user to conveniently process complex workflows without the necessity to take care of any format conversions or tedious parsing of intermediate results. The toolkit is part of the Max-Planck Integrated Gene Analysis System (MIGenAS) of the Max Planck Society available at (click ‘Start Toolkit’). PMID:16844980

  10. Integration of complete chloroplast genome sequences with small amplicon datasets improves phylogenetic resolution in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna V; Miller, Joseph T; Small, Ian; Nevill, Paul G; Boykin, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Combining whole genome data with previously obtained amplicon sequences has the potential to increase the resolution of phylogenetic analyses, particularly at low taxonomic levels or where recent divergence, rapid speciation or slow genome evolution has resulted in limited sequence variation. However, the integration of these types of data for large scale phylogenetic studies has rarely been investigated. Here we conduct a phylogenetic analysis of the whole chloroplast genome and two nuclear ribosomal loci for 65 Acacia species from across the most recent Acacia phylogeny. We then combine this data with previously generated amplicon sequences (four chloroplast loci and two nuclear ribosomal loci) for 508 Acacia species. We use several phylogenetic methods, including maximum likelihood bootstrapping (with and without constraint) and ExaBayes, in order to determine the success of combining a dataset of 4000bp with one of 189,000bp. The results of our study indicate that the inclusion of whole genome data gave a far better resolved and well supported representation of the phylogenetic relationships within Acacia than using only amplicon sequences, with the greatest support observed when using a whole genome phylogeny as a constraint on the amplicon sequences. Our study therefore provides methods for optimal integration of genomic and amplicon sequences.

  11. Integration of complete chloroplast genome sequences with small amplicon datasets improves phylogenetic resolution in Acacia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna V; Miller, Joseph T; Small, Ian; Nevill, Paul G; Boykin, Laura M

    2016-03-01

    Combining whole genome data with previously obtained amplicon sequences has the potential to increase the resolution of phylogenetic analyses, particularly at low taxonomic levels or where recent divergence, rapid speciation or slow genome evolution has resulted in limited sequence variation. However, the integration of these types of data for large scale phylogenetic studies has rarely been investigated. Here we conduct a phylogenetic analysis of the whole chloroplast genome and two nuclear ribosomal loci for 65 Acacia species from across the most recent Acacia phylogeny. We then combine this data with previously generated amplicon sequences (four chloroplast loci and two nuclear ribosomal loci) for 508 Acacia species. We use several phylogenetic methods, including maximum likelihood bootstrapping (with and without constraint) and ExaBayes, in order to determine the success of combining a dataset of 4000bp with one of 189,000bp. The results of our study indicate that the inclusion of whole genome data gave a far better resolved and well supported representation of the phylogenetic relationships within Acacia than using only amplicon sequences, with the greatest support observed when using a whole genome phylogeny as a constraint on the amplicon sequences. Our study therefore provides methods for optimal integration of genomic and amplicon sequences. PMID:26702955

  12. Titration of integrated simian virus 40 DNA sequences, using highly radioactive, single-stranded DNA probes.

    PubMed

    Marchionni, M A; Roufa, D J

    1981-04-01

    Nick-translated simian virus 40 (SV40) [32P]DNA fragments (greater than 2 X 10(8) cpm/micrograms) were resolved into early- and late-strand nucleic acid sequences by hybridization with asymmetric SV40 complementary RNA. Both single-stranded DNA fractions contained less than 0.5% self-complementary sequences; both included [32P]-DNA sequences that derived from all regions of the SV40 genome. In contrast to asymmetric SV40 complementary RNA, both single-stranded [32P]DNAs annealed to viral [3H]DNA at a rate characteristic of SV40 DNA reassociation. Kinetics of reassociation between the single-stranded [32P]DNAs indicated that the two fractions contain greater than 90% of the total nucleotide sequences comprising the SV40 genome. These preparations were used as hybridization probes to detect small amounts of viral DNA integrated into the chromosomes of Chinese hamster cells transformed by SV40. Under the conditions used for hybridization titrations in solution (i.e., 10- to 50-fold excess of radioactive probe), as little as 1 pg of integrated SV40 DNA sequence was assayed quantitatively. Among the transformed cells analyzed, three clones contained approximately one viral genome equivalent of SV40 DNA per diploid cell DNA complement; three other clones contained between 1.2 and 1.6 viral genome equivalents of SV40 DNA; and one clone contained somewhat more than two viral genome equivalents of SV40 DNA. Preliminary restriction endonuclease maps of the integrated SV40 DNAs indicated that four clones contained viral DNA sequences located at a single, clone-specific chromosomal site. In three clones, the SV40 DNA sequences were located at two distinct chromosomal sites.

  13. Convergent evolution and mimicry of protein linear motifs in host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Chemes, Lucía Beatriz; de Prat-Gay, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Ignacio Enrique

    2015-06-01

    Pathogen linear motif mimics are highly evolvable elements that facilitate rewiring of host protein interaction networks. Host linear motifs and pathogen mimics differ in sequence, leading to thermodynamic and structural differences in the resulting protein-protein interactions. Moreover, the functional output of a mimic depends on the motif and domain repertoire of the pathogen protein. Regulatory evolution mediated by linear motifs can be understood by measuring evolutionary rates, quantifying positive and negative selection and performing phylogenetic reconstructions of linear motif natural history. Convergent evolution of linear motif mimics is widespread among unrelated proteins from viral, prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens and can also take place within individual protein phylogenies. Statistics, biochemistry and laboratory models of infection link pathogen linear motifs to phenotypic traits such as tropism, virulence and oncogenicity. In vitro evolution experiments and analysis of natural sequences suggest that changes in linear motif composition underlie pathogen adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:25863584

  14. A Bioinformatics Approach for Detecting Repetitive Nested Motifs using Pattern Matching

    PubMed Central

    Romero, José R.; Carballido, Jessica A.; Garbus, Ingrid; Echenique, Viviana C.; Ponzoni, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of nested motifs in genomic sequences is a complex computational problem. The detection of these patterns is important to allow the discovery of transposable element (TE) insertions, incomplete reverse transcripts, deletions, and/or mutations. In this study, a de novo strategy for detecting patterns that represent nested motifs was designed based on exhaustive searches for pairs of motifs and combinatorial pattern analysis. These patterns can be grouped into three categories, motifs within other motifs, motifs flanked by other motifs, and motifs of large size. The methodology used in this study, applied to genomic sequences from the plant species Aegilops tauschii and Oryza sativa, revealed that it is possible to identify putative nested TEs by detecting these three types of patterns. The results were validated through BLAST alignments, which revealed the efficacy and usefulness of the new method, which is called Mamushka. PMID:27812277

  15. STEME: a robust, accurate motif finder for large data sets.

    PubMed

    Reid, John E; Wernisch, Lorenz

    2014-01-01

    Motif finding is a difficult problem that has been studied for over 20 years. Some older popular motif finders are not suitable for analysis of the large data sets generated by next-generation sequencing. We recently published an efficient approximation (STEME) to the EM algorithm that is at the core of many motif finders such as MEME. This approximation allows the EM algorithm to be applied to large data sets. In this work we describe several efficient extensions to STEME that are based on the MEME algorithm. Together with the original STEME EM approximation, these extensions make STEME a fully-fledged motif finder with similar properties to MEME. We discuss the difficulty of objectively comparing motif finders. We show that STEME performs comparably to existing prominent discriminative motif finders, DREME and Trawler, on 13 sets of transcription factor binding data in mouse ES cells. We demonstrate the ability of STEME to find long degenerate motifs which these discriminative motif finders do not find. As part of our method, we extend an earlier method due to Nagarajan et al. for the efficient calculation of motif E-values. STEME's source code is available under an open source license and STEME is available via a web interface. PMID:24625410

  16. A physical map of the papaya genome with integrated genetic map and genome sequence

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Papaya is a major fruit crop in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide and has primitive sex chromosomes controlling sex determination in this trioecious species. The papaya genome was recently sequenced because of its agricultural importance, unique biological features, and successful application of transgenic papaya for resistance to papaya ringspot virus. As a part of the genome sequencing project, we constructed a BAC-based physical map using a high information-content fingerprinting approach to assist whole genome shotgun sequence assembly. Results The physical map consists of 963 contigs, representing 9.4× genome equivalents, and was integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence using BAC end sequences and a sequence-tagged high-density genetic map. The estimated genome coverage of the physical map is about 95.8%, while 72.4% of the genome was aligned to the genetic map. A total of 1,181 high quality overgo (overlapping oligonucleotide) probes representing conserved sequences in Arabidopsis and genetically mapped loci in Brassica were anchored on the physical map, which provides a foundation for comparative genomics in the Brassicales. The integrated genetic and physical map aligned with the genome sequence revealed recombination hotspots as well as regions suppressed for recombination across the genome, particularly on the recently evolved sex chromosomes. Suppression of recombination spread to the adjacent region of the male specific region of the Y chromosome (MSY), and recombination rates were recovered gradually and then exceeded the genome average. Recombination hotspots were observed at about 10 Mb away on both sides of the MSY, showing 7-fold increase compared with the genome wide average, demonstrating the dynamics of recombination of the sex chromosomes. Conclusion A BAC-based physical map of papaya was constructed and integrated with the genetic map and genome sequence. The integrated map facilitated the draft genome assembly

  17. IMSA: integrated metagenomic sequence analysis for identification of exogenous reads in a host genomic background.

    PubMed

    Dimon, Michelle T; Wood, Henry M; Rabbitts, Pamela H; Arron, Sarah T

    2013-01-01

    Metagenomics, the study of microbial genomes within diverse environments, is a rapidly developing field. The identification of microbial sequences within a host organism enables the study of human intestinal, respiratory, and skin microbiota, and has allowed the identification of novel viruses in diseases such as Merkel cell carcinoma. There are few publicly available tools for metagenomic high throughput sequence analysis. We present Integrated Metagenomic Sequence Analysis (IMSA), a flexible, fast, and robust computational analysis pipeline that is available for public use. IMSA takes input sequence from high throughput datasets and uses a user-defined host database to filter out host sequence. IMSA then aligns the filtered reads to a user-defined universal database to characterize exogenous reads within the host background. IMSA assigns a score to each node of the taxonomy based on read frequency, and can output this as a taxonomy report suitable for cluster analysis or as a taxonomy map (TaxMap). IMSA also outputs the specific sequence reads assigned to a taxon of interest for downstream analysis. We demonstrate the use of IMSA to detect pathogens and normal flora within sequence data from a primary human cervical cancer carrying HPV16, a primary human cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma carrying HPV 16, the CaSki cell line carrying HPV16, and the HeLa cell line carrying HPV18. PMID:23717627

  18. Unexpected inheritance: multiple integrations of ancient bornavirus and ebolavirus/marburgvirus sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    PubMed

    Belyi, Vladimir A; Levine, Arnold J; Skalka, Anna Marie

    2010-01-01

    Vertebrate genomes contain numerous copies of retroviral sequences, acquired over the course of evolution. Until recently they were thought to be the only type of RNA viruses to be so represented, because integration of a DNA copy of their genome is required for their replication. In this study, an extensive sequence comparison was conducted in which 5,666 viral genes from all known non-retroviral families with single-stranded RNA genomes were matched against the germline genomes of 48 vertebrate species, to determine if such viruses could also contribute to the vertebrate genetic heritage. In 19 of the tested vertebrate species, we discovered as many as 80 high-confidence examples of genomic DNA sequences that appear to be derived, as long ago as 40 million years, from ancestral members of 4 currently circulating virus families with single strand RNA genomes. Surprisingly, almost all of the sequences are related to only two families in the Order Mononegavirales: the Bornaviruses and the Filoviruses, which cause lethal neurological disease and hemorrhagic fevers, respectively. Based on signature landmarks some, and perhaps all, of the endogenous virus-like DNA sequences appear to be LINE element-facilitated integrations derived from viral mRNAs. The integrations represent genes that encode viral nucleocapsid, RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase, matrix and, possibly, glycoproteins. Integrations are generally limited to one or very few copies of a related viral gene per species, suggesting that once the initial germline integration was obtained (or selected), later integrations failed or provided little advantage to the host. The conservation of relatively long open reading frames for several of the endogenous sequences, the virus-like protein regions represented, and a potential correlation between their presence and a species' resistance to the diseases caused by these pathogens, are consistent with the notion that their products provide some important biological

  19. cWINNOWER Algorithm for Finding Fuzzy DNA Motifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Shoudan

    2003-01-01

    The cWINNOWER algorithm detects fuzzy motifs in DNA sequences rich in protein-binding signals. A signal is defined as any short nucleotide pattern having up to d mutations differing from a motif of length l. The algorithm finds such motifs if multiple mutated copies of the motif (i.e., the signals) are present in the DNA sequence in sufficient abundance. The cWINNOWER algorithm substantially improves the sensitivity of the winnower method of Pevzner and Sze by imposing a consensus constraint, enabling it to detect much weaker signals. We studied the minimum number of detectable motifs qc as a function of sequence length N for random sequences. We found that qc increases linearly with N for a fast version of the algorithm based on counting three-member sub-cliques. Imposing consensus constraints reduces qc, by a factor of three in this case, which makes the algorithm dramatically more sensitive. Our most sensitive algorithm, which counts four-member sub-cliques, needs a minimum of only 13 signals to detect motifs in a sequence of length N = 12000 for (l,d) = (15,4).

  20. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence: An Interdisciplinary Introductory Course for Science Majors

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Newton H.; Black, Kersey; Gould, Scot

    2012-01-01

    We report here on our development of an introductory science course sequence that integrates biology, chemistry and physics in order to foster an interdisciplinary perspective in future science majors. Accelerated Integrated Science Sequence (AISS) is a two semester, double credit sequence co-taught by a biologist, a physicist and a chemist to first year undergraduates who plan to major in a natural science field. Topics are organized within a thematic framework. The course sequence also features integration of various pedagogical approaches as students shift from one type of activity to another within the same class session. The presence of AISS in our curriculum over the past five years has been correlated with increased recruitment and graduation of students in science majors and a perception within the department that AISS has helped improve the culture of learning. These benefits outweigh the difficulties of developing such a course and encourage us that interdisciplinary introductory courses can make important contributions to training versatile scientists. PMID:23494601

  1. Sequencing and beyond: integrating molecular ‘omics for microbial community profiling

    PubMed Central

    Franzosa, Eric A.; Hsu, Tiffany; Sirota-Madi, Alexandra; Shafquat, Afrah; Abu-Ali, Galeb; Morgan, Xochitl C.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing has proven invaluable for investigating diverse environmental and host-associated microbial communities. In this Review, we discuss emerging strategies for microbial community analysis that complement and expand traditional metagenomic profiling. These include novel DNA sequencing strategies for identifying strain-level microbial variation and community temporal dynamics; measuring additional multi'omic data types that better capture community functional activity, such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics; and combining multiple forms of multi'omic data in an integrated framework. We highlight studies in which the multi'omics approach has led to improved mechanistic models of microbial community structure and function. PMID:25915636

  2. Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema

    Patel, Kamlesh D [Ken; SNL,

    2016-07-12

    Kamlesh (Ken) Patel from Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, California) presents "Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology " at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  3. Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Kamlesh D; SNL,

    2012-06-01

    Kamlesh (Ken) Patel from Sandia National Laboratories (Livermore, California) presents "Preparation of Nucleic Acid Libraries for Personalized Sequencing Systems Using an Integrated Microfluidic Hub Technology " at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  4. Integrating sequencing technologies in personal genomics: optimal low cost reconstruction of structural variants.

    PubMed

    Du, Jiang; Bjornson, Robert D; Zhang, Zhengdong D; Kong, Yong; Snyder, Michael; Gerstein, Mark B

    2009-07-01

    The goal of human genome re-sequencing is obtaining an accurate assembly of an individual's genome. Recently, there has been great excitement in the development of many technologies for this (e.g. medium and short read sequencing from companies such as 454 and SOLiD, and high-density oligo-arrays from Affymetrix and NimbelGen), with even more expected to appear. The costs and sensitivities of these technologies differ considerably from each other. As an important goal of personal genomics is to reduce the cost of re-sequencing to an affordable point, it is worthwhile to consider optimally integrating technologies. Here, we build a simulation toolbox that will help us optimally combine different technologies for genome re-sequencing, especially in reconstructing large structural variants (SVs). SV reconstruction is considered the most challenging step in human genome re-sequencing. (It is sometimes even harder than de novo assembly of small genomes because of the duplications and repetitive sequences in the human genome.) To this end, we formulate canonical problems that are representative of issues in reconstruction and are of small enough scale to be computationally tractable and simulatable. Using semi-realistic simulations, we show how we can combine different technologies to optimally solve the assembly at low cost. With mapability maps, our simulations efficiently handle the inhomogeneous repeat-containing structure of the human genome and the computational complexity of practical assembly algorithms. They quantitatively show how combining different read lengths is more cost-effective than using one length, how an optimal mixed sequencing strategy for reconstructing large novel SVs usually also gives accurate detection of SNPs/indels, how paired-end reads can improve reconstruction efficiency, and how adding in arrays is more efficient than just sequencing for disentangling some complex SVs. Our strategy should facilitate the sequencing of human genomes at

  5. Folding of helical membrane proteins: the role of polar, GxxxG-like and proline motifs.

    PubMed

    Senes, Alessandro; Engel, Donald E; DeGrado, William F

    2004-08-01

    Helical integral membrane proteins share several structural determinants that are widely conserved across their universe. The discovery of common motifs has furthered our understanding of the features that are important to stability in the membrane environment, while simultaneously providing clues about proteins that lack high-resolution structures. Motif analysis also helps to target mutagenesis studies, and other experimental and computational work. Three types of transmembrane motifs have recently seen interesting developments: the GxxxG motif and its like; polar and hydrogen bonding motifs; and proline motifs.

  6. Vy-PER: eliminating false positive detection of virus integration events in next generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael; Szymczak, Silke; Ellinghaus, David; Hemmrich, Georg; Rühlemann, Malte; Kraemer, Lars; Mucha, Sören; Wienbrandt, Lars; Stanulla, Martin; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Several pathogenic viruses such as hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency viruses may integrate into the host genome. These virus/host integrations are detectable using paired-end next generation sequencing. However, the low number of expected true virus integrations may be difficult to distinguish from the noise of many false positive candidates. Here, we propose a novel filtering approach that increases specificity without compromising sensitivity for virus/host chimera detection. Our detection pipeline termed Vy-PER (Virus integration detection bY Paired End Reads) outperforms existing similar tools in speed and accuracy. We analysed whole genome data from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterised by genomic rearrangements and usually associated with radiation exposure. This analysis was motivated by the recently reported virus integrations at genomic rearrangement sites and association with chromosomal instability in liver cancer. However, as expected, our analysis of 20 tumour and matched germline genomes from ALL patients finds no significant evidence for integrations by known viruses. Nevertheless, our method eliminates 12,800 false positives per genome (80× coverage) and only our method detects singleton human-phiX174-chimeras caused by optical errors of the Illumina HiSeq platform. This high accuracy is useful for detecting low virus integration levels as well as non-integrated viruses. PMID:26166306

  7. Vy-PER: eliminating false positive detection of virus integration events in next generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael; Szymczak, Silke; Ellinghaus, David; Hemmrich, Georg; Rühlemann, Malte; Kraemer, Lars; Mucha, Sören; Wienbrandt, Lars; Stanulla, Martin; Franke, Andre

    2015-07-13

    Several pathogenic viruses such as hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency viruses may integrate into the host genome. These virus/host integrations are detectable using paired-end next generation sequencing. However, the low number of expected true virus integrations may be difficult to distinguish from the noise of many false positive candidates. Here, we propose a novel filtering approach that increases specificity without compromising sensitivity for virus/host chimera detection. Our detection pipeline termed Vy-PER (Virus integration detection bY Paired End Reads) outperforms existing similar tools in speed and accuracy. We analysed whole genome data from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterised by genomic rearrangements and usually associated with radiation exposure. This analysis was motivated by the recently reported virus integrations at genomic rearrangement sites and association with chromosomal instability in liver cancer. However, as expected, our analysis of 20 tumour and matched germline genomes from ALL patients finds no significant evidence for integrations by known viruses. Nevertheless, our method eliminates 12,800 false positives per genome (80× coverage) and only our method detects singleton human-phiX174-chimeras caused by optical errors of the Illumina HiSeq platform. This high accuracy is useful for detecting low virus integration levels as well as non-integrated viruses.

  8. Vy-PER: eliminating false positive detection of virus integration events in next generation sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Michael; Szymczak, Silke; Ellinghaus, David; Hemmrich, Georg; Rühlemann, Malte; Kraemer, Lars; Mucha, Sören; Wienbrandt, Lars; Stanulla, Martin; Franke, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Several pathogenic viruses such as hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency viruses may integrate into the host genome. These virus/host integrations are detectable using paired-end next generation sequencing. However, the low number of expected true virus integrations may be difficult to distinguish from the noise of many false positive candidates. Here, we propose a novel filtering approach that increases specificity without compromising sensitivity for virus/host chimera detection. Our detection pipeline termed Vy-PER (Virus integration detection bY Paired End Reads) outperforms existing similar tools in speed and accuracy. We analysed whole genome data from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which is characterised by genomic rearrangements and usually associated with radiation exposure. This analysis was motivated by the recently reported virus integrations at genomic rearrangement sites and association with chromosomal instability in liver cancer. However, as expected, our analysis of 20 tumour and matched germline genomes from ALL patients finds no significant evidence for integrations by known viruses. Nevertheless, our method eliminates 12,800 false positives per genome (80× coverage) and only our method detects singleton human-phiX174-chimeras caused by optical errors of the Illumina HiSeq platform. This high accuracy is useful for detecting low virus integration levels as well as non-integrated viruses. PMID:26166306

  9. Combining Microarray and Genomic Data to Predict DNA Binding Motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Linyong; Mackenzie, Ronald C.; Roh, J. H.; Eraso, Jesus M.; Kaplan, Samuel; Resat, Haluk

    2005-10-01

    The ability to detect regulatory elements within genome sequences is important in understanding how gene expression is controlled in biological systems. In this work, we combine microarray data analysis with genome sequence analysis to predict DNA sequences in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides that bind the regulators PrrA, PpsR and FnrL. These predictions were made by using hierarchical clustering to detect genes that share similar expression patterns. The DNA sequences upstream of these genes were then searched for possible transcription factor recognition motifs that may be involved in their co-regulation. The approach used promises to be widely applicable for the prediction of cis-acting DNA binding elements. Using this method we were independently able to detect and extend the previously described consensus sequences that have been suggested to bind FnrL and PpsR. In addition we have predicted sequences that may be recognized by the global regulator PrrA. Our results support the earlier suggestions that the DNA binding sequence of PrrA may have a variable sized gap between its conserved block elements. Using the predicted DNA binding sequences, we have performed a whole genome scale analysis to determine the relative importance of the interplay between these three regulators PpsR, FnrL and PrrA. Results of this analysis showed that, compared to the regulation by PpsR and FnrL, a much larger number of genes are candidates to be regulated by PrrA. Our study demonstrates by example that integration of multiple data types can be a powerful approach for inferring transcriptional regulatory patterns in microbial systems, and it allowed us to detect the photosynthesis related regulatory patterns in R. sphaeroides.

  10. Automated discovery of active motifs in multiple RNA secondary structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.T.L.; Chang, Chia-Yo; Shapiro, B.A.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present a method for discovering approximately common motifs (also known as active motifs) in multiple RNA secondary structures. The secondary structures can be represented as ordered trees (i.e., the order among siblings matters). Motifs in these trees are connected subgraphs that can differ in both substitutions and deletions/insertions. The proposed method consists of two steps: (1) find candidate motifs in a small sample of the secondary structures; (2) search all of the secondary structures to determine how frequently these motifs occur (within the allowed approximation) in the secondary structures. To reduce the running time, we develop two optimization heuristics based on sampling and pattern matching techniques. Experimental results obtained by running these algorithms on both generated data and RNA secondary structures show the good performance of the algorithms. To demonstrate the utility of our algorithms, we discuss their applications to conducting the phylogenetic study of RNA sequences obtained from GenBank.

  11. Evaluating the genomic and sequence integrity of human ES cell lines; comparison to normal genomes.

    PubMed

    Funk, Walter D; Labat, Ivan; Sampathkumar, Janani; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Rosler, Elen; Steiger, Daniel; Sheibani, Nadia; Caillier, Stacy; Stache-Crain, Birgit; Johnson, Julie A; Meisner, Lorraine; Lacher, Markus D; Chapman, Karen B; Park, Myung Jin; Shin, Kyoung-Jin; Drmanac, Rade; West, Michael D

    2012-03-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) is a common chromosomal alteration that can occur during in vitro cultivation of human cells and can be accompanied by the accumulation of mutations in coding region sequences. We describe here a systematic application of current molecular technologies to provide a detailed understanding of genomic and sequence profiles of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines that were derived under GMP-compliant conditions. We first examined the overall chromosomal integrity using cytogenetic techniques to determine chromosome count, and to detect the presence of cytogenetically aberrant cells in the culture (mosaicism). Assays of copy number variation, using both microarray and sequence-based analyses, provide a detailed view genomic variation in these lines and shows that in early passage cultures of these lines, the size range and distribution of CNVs are entirely consistent with those seen in the genomes of normal individuals. Similarly, genome sequencing shows variation within these lines that is completely within the range seen in normal genomes. Important gene classes, such as tumor suppressors and genetic disease genes, do not display overtly disruptive mutations that could affect the overall safety of cell-based therapeutics. Complete sequence also allows the analysis of important transplantation antigens, such as ABO and HLA types. The combined application of cytogenetic and molecular technologies provides a detailed understanding of genomic and sequence profiles of GMP produced ES lines for potential use as therapeutic agents. PMID:22265736

  12. Virtual Ribosome—a comprehensive DNA translation tool with support for integration of sequence feature annotation

    PubMed Central

    Wernersson, Rasmus

    2006-01-01

    Virtual Ribosome is a DNA translation tool with two areas of focus. (i) Providing a strong translation tool in its own right, with an integrated ORF finder, full support for the IUPAC degenerate DNA alphabet and all translation tables defined by the NCBI taxonomy group, including the use of alternative start codons. (ii) Integration of sequences feature annotation—in particular, native support for working with files containing intron/exon structure annotation. The software is available for both download and online use at . PMID:16845033

  13. RNA motif discovery: a computational overview.

    PubMed

    Achar, Avinash; Sætrom, Pål

    2015-01-01

    Genomic studies have greatly expanded our knowledge of structural non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). These RNAs fold into characteristic secondary structures and perform specific-structure dependent biological functions. Hence RNA secondary structure prediction is one of the most well studied problems in computational RNA biology. Comparative sequence analysis is one of the more reliable RNA structure prediction approaches as it exploits information of multiple related sequences to infer the consensus secondary structure. This class of methods essentially learns a global secondary structure from the input sequences. In this paper, we consider the more general problem of unearthing common local secondary structure based patterns from a set of related sequences. The input sequences for example could correspond to 3(') or 5(') untranslated regions of a set of orthologous genes and the unearthed local patterns could correspond to regulatory motifs found in these regions. These sequences could also correspond to in vitro selected RNA, genomic segments housing ncRNA genes from the same family and so on. Here, we give a detailed review of the various computational techniques proposed in literature attempting to solve this general motif discovery problem. We also give empirical comparisons of some of the current state of the art methods and point out future directions of research.

  14. Integrated analysis of homozygous deletions, focal amplifications, and sequence alterations in breast and colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Leary, Rebecca J; Lin, Jimmy C; Cummins, Jordan; Boca, Simina; Wood, Laura D; Parsons, D Williams; Jones, Siân; Sjöblom, Tobias; Park, Ben-Ho; Parsons, Ramon; Willis, Joseph; Dawson, Dawn; Willson, James K V; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri; Kopelovich, Levy; Papadopoulos, Nick; Pennacchio, Len A; Wang, Tian-Li; Markowitz, Sanford D; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Vogelstein, Bert; Velculescu, Victor E

    2008-10-21

    We have performed a genome-wide analysis of copy number changes in breast and colorectal tumors using approaches that can reliably detect homozygous deletions and amplifications. We found that the number of genes altered by major copy number changes, deletion of all copies or amplification to at least 12 copies per cell, averaged 17 per tumor. We have integrated these data with previous mutation analyses of the Reference Sequence genes in these same tumor types and have identified genes and cellular pathways affected by both copy number changes and point alterations. Pathways enriched for genetic alterations included those controlling cell adhesion, intracellular signaling, DNA topological change, and cell cycle control. These analyses provide an integrated view of copy number and sequencing alterations on a genome-wide scale and identify genes and pathways that could prove useful for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

  15. PRINTS--a database of protein motif fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Attwood, T K; Beck, M E; Bleasby, A J; Parry-Smith, D J

    1994-09-01

    PRINTS is a compendium of protein motif 'fingerprints'. A fingerprint is defined as a group of motifs excised from conserved regions of a sequence alignment, whose diagnostic power or potency is refined by iterative databasescanning (in this case the OWL composite sequence database). Generally, the motifs do not overlap, but are separated along a sequence, though they may be contiguous in 3D-space. The use of groups of independent, linearly- or spatially-distinct motifs allows protein folds and functionalities to be characterised more flexibly and powerfully than conventional single-component patterns or regular expressions. The current version of the database contains 200 entries (encoding 950 motifs), covering a wide range of globular and membrane proteins, modular polypeptides, and so on. The growth of the databaseis influenced by a number of factors; e.g. the use of multiple motifs; the maximisation of sequence information through iterative database scanning; and the fact that the database searched is a large composite. The information contained within PRINTS is distinct from, but complementary to the consensus expressions stored in the widely-used PROSITE dictionary of patterns.

  16. WIT : integrated system for high-throughput genome sequence analysis and metabolic reconstruction.

    SciTech Connect

    Overbeek, R.; Larsen, N.; Pusch, G. D.; D'Souza, M.; Selkov, E., Jr.; Kyrpides, N.; Fonstein, M.; Maltsev, N.; Selkov, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Integrated Genomics, Inc.

    2000-01-01

    The WIT (What Is There) (http://wit.mcs.anl.gov/WIT2/ ) system has been designed to support comparative analysis of sequenced genomes and to generate metabolic reconstructions based on chromosomal sequences and metabolic modules from the EMP/MPW family of databases. This system contains data derived from about 40 completed or nearly completed genomes. Sequence homologies, various ORF-clustering algorithms, relative gene positions on the chromosome and placement of gene products in metabolic pathways (metabolic reconstruction) can be used for the assignment of gene functions and for development of overviews of genomes within WIT. The integration of a large number of phylogenetically diverse genomes in WIT facilitates the understanding of the physiology of different organisms.

  17. Motifs and structural blocks retrieval by GHT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantoni, Virginio; Ferone, Alessio; Petrosino, Alfredo; Polat, Ozlem

    2014-06-01

    The structure of a protein gives more insight on the protein function than its amino acid sequence. Protein structure analysis and comparison are important for understanding the evolutionary relationships among proteins, predicting protein functions, and predicting protein folding. Proteins are formed by two basic regular 3D structural patterns, called Secondary Structures (SSs): helices and sheets. A structural motif is a compact 3D protein block referring to a small specific combination of secondary structural elements, which appears in a variety of molecules. In this paper we compare a few approaches for motif retrieval based on the Generalized Hough Transform (GHT). A primary technique is to adopt the single SS as structural primitives; alternatives are to adopt a SSs pair as primitive structural element, or a SSs triplet, and so on up-to an entire motif. The richer the primitive, the higher the time for pre-analysis and search, and the simpler the inspection process on the parameter space for analyzing the peaks. Performance comparisons, in terms of precision and computation time, are here presented considering the retrieval of motifs composed by three to five SSs for more than 15 million searches. The approach can be easily applied to the retrieval of greater blocks, up to protein domains, or even entire proteins.

  18. ANTHEPROT: an integrated protein sequence analysis software with client/server capabilities.

    PubMed

    Deléage, G; Combet, C; Blanchet, C; Geourjon, C

    2001-07-01

    Programs devoted to the analysis of protein sequences exist either as stand-alone programs or as Web servers. However, stand-alone programs can hardly accommodate for the analysis that involves comparisons on databanks, which require regular updates. Moreover, Web servers cannot be as efficient as stand-alone programs when dealing with real-time graphic display. We describe here a stand-alone software program called ANTHEPROT, which is intended to perform protein sequence analysis with a high integration level and clients/server capabilities. It is an interactive program with a graphical user interface that allows handling of protein sequence and data in a very interactive and convenient manner. It provides many methods and tools, which are integrated into a graphical user interface. ANTHEPROT is available for Windows-based systems. It is able to connect to a Web server in order to perform large-scale sequence comparison on up-to-date databanks. ANTHEPROT is freely available to academic users and may be downloaded at http://pbil.ibcp.fr/ANTHEPROT.

  19. An integrated framework for discovery and genotyping of genomic variants from high-throughput sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Duitama, Jorge; Quintero, Juan Camilo; Cruz, Daniel Felipe; Quintero, Constanza; Hubmann, Georg; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M; Tohme, Joe

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and computing capacity have produced unprecedented amounts of genomic data that have unraveled the genetics of phenotypic variability in several species. However, operating and integrating current software tools for data analysis still require important investments in highly skilled personnel. Developing accurate, efficient and user-friendly software packages for HTS data analysis will lead to a more rapid discovery of genomic elements relevant to medical, agricultural and industrial applications. We therefore developed Next-Generation Sequencing Eclipse Plug-in (NGSEP), a new software tool for integrated, efficient and user-friendly detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and copy number variants (CNVs). NGSEP includes modules for read alignment, sorting, merging, functional annotation of variants, filtering and quality statistics. Analysis of sequencing experiments in yeast, rice and human samples shows that NGSEP has superior accuracy and efficiency, compared with currently available packages for variants detection. We also show that only a comprehensive and accurate identification of repeat regions and CNVs allows researchers to properly separate SNVs from differences between copies of repeat elements. We expect that NGSEP will become a strong support tool to empower the analysis of sequencing data in a wide range of research projects on different species. PMID:24413664

  20. An integrated framework for discovery and genotyping of genomic variants from high-throughput sequencing experiments

    PubMed Central

    Duitama, Jorge; Quintero, Juan Camilo; Cruz, Daniel Felipe; Quintero, Constanza; Hubmann, Georg; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R.; Verstrepen, Kevin J.; Thevelein, Johan M.; Tohme, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and computing capacity have produced unprecedented amounts of genomic data that have unraveled the genetics of phenotypic variability in several species. However, operating and integrating current software tools for data analysis still require important investments in highly skilled personnel. Developing accurate, efficient and user-friendly software packages for HTS data analysis will lead to a more rapid discovery of genomic elements relevant to medical, agricultural and industrial applications. We therefore developed Next-Generation Sequencing Eclipse Plug-in (NGSEP), a new software tool for integrated, efficient and user-friendly detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and copy number variants (CNVs). NGSEP includes modules for read alignment, sorting, merging, functional annotation of variants, filtering and quality statistics. Analysis of sequencing experiments in yeast, rice and human samples shows that NGSEP has superior accuracy and efficiency, compared with currently available packages for variants detection. We also show that only a comprehensive and accurate identification of repeat regions and CNVs allows researchers to properly separate SNVs from differences between copies of repeat elements. We expect that NGSEP will become a strong support tool to empower the analysis of sequencing data in a wide range of research projects on different species. PMID:24413664

  1. An integrated framework for discovery and genotyping of genomic variants from high-throughput sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Duitama, Jorge; Quintero, Juan Camilo; Cruz, Daniel Felipe; Quintero, Constanza; Hubmann, Georg; Foulquié-Moreno, Maria R; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Thevelein, Johan M; Tohme, Joe

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and computing capacity have produced unprecedented amounts of genomic data that have unraveled the genetics of phenotypic variability in several species. However, operating and integrating current software tools for data analysis still require important investments in highly skilled personnel. Developing accurate, efficient and user-friendly software packages for HTS data analysis will lead to a more rapid discovery of genomic elements relevant to medical, agricultural and industrial applications. We therefore developed Next-Generation Sequencing Eclipse Plug-in (NGSEP), a new software tool for integrated, efficient and user-friendly detection of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and copy number variants (CNVs). NGSEP includes modules for read alignment, sorting, merging, functional annotation of variants, filtering and quality statistics. Analysis of sequencing experiments in yeast, rice and human samples shows that NGSEP has superior accuracy and efficiency, compared with currently available packages for variants detection. We also show that only a comprehensive and accurate identification of repeat regions and CNVs allows researchers to properly separate SNVs from differences between copies of repeat elements. We expect that NGSEP will become a strong support tool to empower the analysis of sequencing data in a wide range of research projects on different species.

  2. Genome puzzle master (GPM): an integrated pipeline for building and editing pseudomolecules from fragmented sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jianwei; Kudrna, Dave; Mu, Ting; Li, Weiming; Copetti, Dario; Yu, Yeisoo; Goicoechea, Jose Luis; Lei, Yang; Wing, Rod A.

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Next generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized our ability to rapidly and affordably generate vast quantities of sequence data. Once generated, raw sequences are assembled into contigs or scaffolds. However, these assemblies are mostly fragmented and inaccurate at the whole genome scale, largely due to the inability to integrate additional informative datasets (e.g. physical, optical and genetic maps). To address this problem, we developed a semi-automated software tool—Genome Puzzle Master (GPM)—that enables the integration of additional genomic signposts to edit and build ‘new-gen-assemblies’ that result in high-quality ‘annotation-ready’ pseudomolecules. Results: With GPM, loaded datasets can be connected to each other via their logical relationships which accomplishes tasks to ‘group,’ ‘merge,’ ‘order and orient’ sequences in a draft assembly. Manual editing can also be performed with a user-friendly graphical interface. Final pseudomolecules reflect a user’s total data package and are available for long-term project management. GPM is a web-based pipeline and an important part of a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) which can be easily deployed on local servers for any genome research laboratory. Availability and Implementation: The GPM (with LIMS) package is available at https://github.com/Jianwei-Zhang/LIMS Contacts: jzhang@mail.hzau.edu.cn or rwing@mail.arizona.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27318200

  3. Development and Assessment of a Horizontally Integrated Biological Sciences Course Sequence for Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Nicholas J.D.; Alston, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To design and assess a horizontally integrated biological sciences course sequence and to determine its effectiveness in imparting the foundational science knowledge necessary to successfully progress through the pharmacy school curriculum and produce competent pharmacy school graduates. Design. A 2-semester course sequence integrated principles from several basic science disciplines: biochemistry, molecular biology, cellular biology, anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology. Each is a 5-credit course taught 5 days per week, with 50-minute class periods. Assessment. Achievement of outcomes was determined with course examinations, student lecture, and an annual skills mastery assessment. The North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX) results were used as an indicator of competency to practice pharmacy. Conclusion. Students achieved course objectives and program level outcomes. The biological sciences integrated course sequence was successful in providing students with foundational basic science knowledge required to progress through the pharmacy program and to pass the NAPLEX. The percentage of the school’s students who passed the NAPLEX was not statistically different from the national percentage. PMID:26430276

  4. A three-dimensional RNA motif in Potato spindle tuber viroid mediates trafficking from palisade mesophyll to spongy mesophyll in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Ryuta; Petrov, Anton I; Leontis, Neocles B; Ding, Biao

    2011-01-01

    Cell-to-cell trafficking of RNA is an emerging biological principle that integrates systemic gene regulation, viral infection, antiviral response, and cell-to-cell communication. A key mechanistic question is how an RNA is specifically selected for trafficking from one type of cell into another type. Here, we report the identification of an RNA motif in Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) required for trafficking from palisade mesophyll to spongy mesophyll in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This motif, called loop 6, has the sequence 5'-CGA-3'...5'-GAC-3' flanked on both sides by cis Watson-Crick G/C and G/U wobble base pairs. We present a three-dimensional (3D) structural model of loop 6 that specifies all non-Watson-Crick base pair interactions, derived by isostericity-based sequence comparisons with 3D RNA motifs from the RNA x-ray crystal structure database. The model is supported by available chemical modification patterns, natural sequence conservation/variations in PSTVd isolates and related species, and functional characterization of all possible mutants for each of the loop 6 base pairs. Our findings and approaches have broad implications for studying the 3D RNA structural motifs mediating trafficking of diverse RNA species across specific cellular boundaries and for studying the structure-function relationships of RNA motifs in other biological processes.

  5. A Three-Dimensional RNA Motif in Potato spindle tuber viroid Mediates Trafficking from Palisade Mesophyll to Spongy Mesophyll in Nicotiana benthamiana[W

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Ryuta; Petrov, Anton I.; Leontis, Neocles B.; Ding, Biao

    2011-01-01

    Cell-to-cell trafficking of RNA is an emerging biological principle that integrates systemic gene regulation, viral infection, antiviral response, and cell-to-cell communication. A key mechanistic question is how an RNA is specifically selected for trafficking from one type of cell into another type. Here, we report the identification of an RNA motif in Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) required for trafficking from palisade mesophyll to spongy mesophyll in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This motif, called loop 6, has the sequence 5′-CGA-3′...5′-GAC-3′ flanked on both sides by cis Watson-Crick G/C and G/U wobble base pairs. We present a three-dimensional (3D) structural model of loop 6 that specifies all non-Watson-Crick base pair interactions, derived by isostericity-based sequence comparisons with 3D RNA motifs from the RNA x-ray crystal structure database. The model is supported by available chemical modification patterns, natural sequence conservation/variations in PSTVd isolates and related species, and functional characterization of all possible mutants for each of the loop 6 base pairs. Our findings and approaches have broad implications for studying the 3D RNA structural motifs mediating trafficking of diverse RNA species across specific cellular boundaries and for studying the structure-function relationships of RNA motifs in other biological processes. PMID:21258006

  6. ELM: the status of the 2010 eukaryotic linear motif resource.

    PubMed

    Gould, Cathryn M; Diella, Francesca; Via, Allegra; Puntervoll, Pål; Gemünd, Christine; Chabanis-Davidson, Sophie; Michael, Sushama; Sayadi, Ahmed; Bryne, Jan Christian; Chica, Claudia; Seiler, Markus; Davey, Norman E; Haslam, Niall; Weatheritt, Robert J; Budd, Aidan; Hughes, Tim; Pas, Jakub; Rychlewski, Leszek; Travé, Gilles; Aasland, Rein; Helmer-Citterich, Manuela; Linding, Rune; Gibson, Toby J

    2010-01-01

    Linear motifs are short segments of multidomain proteins that provide regulatory functions independently of protein tertiary structure. Much of intracellular signalling passes through protein modifications at linear motifs. Many thousands of linear motif instances, most notably phosphorylation sites, have now been reported. Although clearly very abundant, linear motifs are difficult to predict de novo in protein sequences due to the difficulty of obtaining robust statistical assessments. The ELM resource at http://elm.eu.org/ provides an expanding knowledge base, currently covering 146 known motifs, with annotation that includes >1300 experimentally reported instances. ELM is also an exploratory tool for suggesting new candidates of known linear motifs in proteins of interest. Information about protein domains, protein structure and native disorder, cellular and taxonomic contexts is used to reduce or deprecate false positive matches. Results are graphically displayed in a 'Bar Code' format, which also displays known instances from homologous proteins through a novel 'Instance Mapper' protocol based on PHI-BLAST. ELM server output provides links to the ELM annotation as well as to a number of remote resources. Using the links, researchers can explore the motifs, proteins, complex structures and associated literature to evaluate whether candidate motifs might be worth experimental investigation. PMID:19920119

  7. MINER: software for phylogenetic motif identification.

    PubMed

    La, David; Livesay, Dennis R

    2005-07-01

    MINER is web-based software for phylogenetic motif (PM) identification. PMs are sequence regions (fragments) that conserve the overall familial phylogeny. PMs have been shown to correspond to a wide variety of catalytic regions, substrate-binding sites and protein interfaces, making them ideal functional site predictions. The MINER output provides an intuitive interface for interactive PM sequence analysis and structural visualization. The web implementation of MINER is freely available at http://www.pmap.csupomona.edu/MINER/. Source code is available to the academic community on request.

  8. Motif co-regulation and co-operativity are common mechanisms in transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational regulation.

    PubMed

    Van Roey, Kim; Davey, Norman E

    2015-01-01

    A substantial portion of the regulatory interactions in the higher eukaryotic cell are mediated by simple sequence motifs in the regulatory segments of genes and (pre-)mRNAs, and in the intrinsically disordered regions of proteins. Although these regulatory modules are physicochemically distinct, they share an evolutionary plasticity that has facilitated a rapid growth of their use and resulted in their ubiquity in complex organisms. The ease of motif acquisition simplifies access to basal housekeeping functions, facilitates the co-regulation of multiple biomolecules allowing them to respond in a coordinated manner to changes in the cell state, and supports the integration of multiple signals for combinatorial decision-making. Consequently, motifs are indispensable for temporal, spatial, conditional and basal regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational level. In this review, we highlight that many of the key regulatory pathways of the cell are recruited by motifs and that the ease of motif acquisition has resulted in large networks of co-regulated biomolecules. We discuss how co-operativity allows simple static motifs to perform the conditional regulation that underlies decision-making in higher eukaryotic biological systems. We observe that each gene and its products have a unique set of DNA, RNA or protein motifs that encode a regulatory program to define the logical circuitry that guides the life cycle of these biomolecules, from transcription to degradation. Finally, we contrast the regulatory properties of protein motifs and the regulatory elements of DNA and (pre-)mRNAs, advocating that co-regulation, co-operativity, and motif-driven regulatory programs are common mechanisms that emerge from the use of simple, evolutionarily plastic regulatory modules. PMID:26626130

  9. Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wyatt, Alexander W; Lapuk, Anna V; McPherson, Andrew; McConeghy, Brian J; Bell, Robert H; Anderson, Shawn; Haegert, Anne; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Shukin, Robert; Mo, Fan; Li, Estelle; Fazli, Ladan; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Jones, Edward C; Butterfield, Yaron S; Hach, Faraz; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G; Jones, Steven Jm; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Maher, Christopher A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2012-05-01

    Next-generation sequencing is making sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology viable. We selected an individual initially diagnosed with conventional but aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma and sequenced the genome and transcriptome from primary and metastatic tissues collected prior to hormone therapy. The histology-pathology and copy number profiles were remarkably homogeneous, yet it was possible to propose the quadrant of the prostate tumour that likely seeded the metastatic diaspora. Despite a homogeneous cell type, our transcriptome analysis revealed signatures of both luminal and neuroendocrine cell types. Remarkably, the repertoire of expressed but apparently private gene fusions, including C15orf21:MYC, recapitulated this biology. We hypothesize that the amplification and over-expression of the stem cell gene MSI2 may have contributed to the stable hybrid cellular identity. This hybrid luminal-neuroendocrine tumour appears to represent a novel and highly aggressive case of prostate cancer with unique biological features and, conceivably, a propensity for rapid progression to castrate-resistance. Overall, this work highlights the importance of integrated analyses of genome, exome and transcriptome sequences for basic tumour biology, sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology.

  10. Integrated genome and transcriptome sequencing identifies a novel form of hybrid and aggressive prostate cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chunxiao; Wyatt, Alexander W; Lapuk, Anna V; McPherson, Andrew; McConeghy, Brian J; Bell, Robert H; Anderson, Shawn; Haegert, Anne; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Shukin, Robert; Mo, Fan; Li, Estelle; Fazli, Ladan; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Jones, Edward C; Butterfield, Yaron S; Hach, Faraz; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G; Jones, Steven JM; Hirst, Martin; Marra, Marco A; Maher, Christopher A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing is making sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology viable. We selected an individual initially diagnosed with conventional but aggressive prostate adenocarcinoma and sequenced the genome and transcriptome from primary and metastatic tissues collected prior to hormone therapy. The histology-pathology and copy number profiles were remarkably homogeneous, yet it was possible to propose the quadrant of the prostate tumour that likely seeded the metastatic diaspora. Despite a homogeneous cell type, our transcriptome analysis revealed signatures of both luminal and neuroendocrine cell types. Remarkably, the repertoire of expressed but apparently private gene fusions, including C15orf21:MYC, recapitulated this biology. We hypothesize that the amplification and over-expression of the stem cell gene MSI2 may have contributed to the stable hybrid cellular identity. This hybrid luminal-neuroendocrine tumour appears to represent a novel and highly aggressive case of prostate cancer with unique biological features and, conceivably, a propensity for rapid progression to castrate-resistance. Overall, this work highlights the importance of integrated analyses of genome, exome and transcriptome sequences for basic tumour biology, sequence-based molecular pathology and personalized oncology. PMID:22294438

  11. De Novo Regulatory Motif Discovery Identifies Significant Motifs in Promoters of Five Classes of Plant Dehydrin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zolotarov, Yevgen; Strömvik, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Plants accumulate dehydrins in response to osmotic stresses. Dehydrins are divided into five different classes, which are thought to be regulated in different manners. To better understand differences in transcriptional regulation of the five dehydrin classes, de novo motif discovery was performed on 350 dehydrin promoter sequences from a total of 51 plant genomes. Overrepresented motifs were identified in the promoters of five dehydrin classes. The Kn dehydrin promoters contain motifs linked with meristem specific expression, as well as motifs linked with cold/dehydration and abscisic acid response. KS dehydrin promoters contain a motif with a GATA core. SKn and YnSKn dehydrin promoters contain motifs that match elements connected with cold/dehydration, abscisic acid and light response. YnKn dehydrin promoters contain motifs that match abscisic acid and light response elements, but not cold/dehydration response elements. Conserved promoter motifs are present in the dehydrin classes and across different plant lineages, indicating that dehydrin gene regulation is likely also conserved. PMID:26114291

  12. Finding specific RNA motifs: Function in a zeptomole world?

    PubMed Central

    KNIGHT, ROB; YARUS, MICHAEL

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new method for estimating the abundance of any modular (piecewise) RNA motif within a longer random region. We have used this method to estimate the size of the active motifs available to modern SELEX experiments (picomoles of unique sequences) and to a plausible RNA World (zeptomoles of unique sequences: 1 zmole = 602 sequences). Unexpectedly, activities such as specific isoleucine binding are almost certainly present in zeptomoles of molecules, and even ribozymes such as self-cleavage motifs may appear (depending on assumptions about the minimal structures). The number of specified nucleotides is not the only important determinant of a motif’s rarity: The number of modules into which it is divided, and the details of this division, are also crucial. We propose three maxims for easily isolated motifs: the Maxim of Minimization, the Maxim of Multiplicity, and the Maxim of the Median. These maxims together state that selected motifs should be small and composed of as many separate, equally sized modules as possible. For evenly divided motifs with four modules, the largest accessible activity in picomole scale (1–1000 pmole) pools of length 100 is about 34 nucleotides; while for zeptomole scale (1–1000 zmole) pools it is about 20 specific nucleotides (50% probability of occurrence). This latter figure includes some ribozymes and aptamers. Consequently, an RNA metabolism apparently could have begun with only zeptomoles of RNA molecules. PMID:12554865

  13. cWINNOWER algorithm for finding fuzzy dna motifs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, S.; Samanta, M. P.; Biegel, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    The cWINNOWER algorithm detects fuzzy motifs in DNA sequences rich in protein-binding signals. A signal is defined as any short nucleotide pattern having up to d mutations differing from a motif of length l. The algorithm finds such motifs if a clique consisting of a sufficiently large number of mutated copies of the motif (i.e., the signals) is present in the DNA sequence. The cWINNOWER algorithm substantially improves the sensitivity of the winnower method of Pevzner and Sze by imposing a consensus constraint, enabling it to detect much weaker signals. We studied the minimum detectable clique size qc as a function of sequence length N for random sequences. We found that qc increases linearly with N for a fast version of the algorithm based on counting three-member sub-cliques. Imposing consensus constraints reduces qc by a factor of three in this case, which makes the algorithm dramatically more sensitive. Our most sensitive algorithm, which counts four-member sub-cliques, needs a minimum of only 13 signals to detect motifs in a sequence of length N = 12,000 for (l, d) = (15, 4). Copyright Imperial College Press.

  14. Subgraphs and network motifs in geometric networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzkovitz, Shalev; Alon, Uri

    2005-02-01

    Many real-world networks describe systems in which interactions decay with the distance between nodes. Examples include systems constrained in real space such as transportation and communication networks, as well as systems constrained in abstract spaces such as multivariate biological or economic data sets and models of social networks. These networks often display network motifs: subgraphs that recur in the network much more often than in randomized networks. To understand the origin of the network motifs in these networks, it is important to study the subgraphs and network motifs that arise solely from geometric constraints. To address this, we analyze geometric network models, in which nodes are arranged on a lattice and edges are formed with a probability that decays with the distance between nodes. We present analytical solutions for the numbers of all three- and four-node subgraphs, in both directed and nondirected geometric networks. We also analyze geometric networks with arbitrary degree sequences and models with a bias for directed edges in one direction. Scaling rules for scaling of subgraph numbers with system size, lattice dimension, and interaction range are given. Several invariant measures are found, such as the ratio of feedback and feed-forward loops, which do not depend on system size, dimension, or connectivity function. We find that network motifs in many real-world networks, including social networks and neuronal networks, are not captured solely by these geometric models. This is in line with recent evidence that biological network motifs were selected as basic circuit elements with defined information-processing functions.

  15. Sequence determinants spanning -35 motif and AT-rich spacer region impacting Ehrlichia chaffeensis Sigma 70-dependent promoter activity of two differentially expressed p28 outer membrane protein genes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huitao; Jakkula, Laxmi U. M. R.; Von Ohlen, Tonia; Ganta, Roman R.

    2016-01-01

    Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an obligate intracellular tick-borne bacterium which causes the disease, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Ehrlichia chaffeensis contains only two sigma factors, σ32 and σ70. It is difficult to study E. chaffeensis gene regulation due to lack of a transformation system. We developed an Escherichia coli-based transcription system to study E. chaffeensis transcriptional regulation. An E. coli strain with its σ70 repressed with trp promoter is used to express E. chaffeensis σ70. The E. coli system and our previously established in vitro transcription system were used to map transcriptional differences of two Ehrlichia genes encoding p28-outer membrane proteins 14 and 19. We mapped the -10 and -35 motifs and the AT rich spacers located between the two motifs by performing detailed mutational analysis. Mutations within the -35 motif of the genes impacted transcription differently, while -10 motif deletions had no impact. The AT-rich spacers also contributed to transcriptional differences. We further demonstrated that the domain 4.2 of E. chaffeensis σ70 is important for regulating promoter activity and the deletion of region 1.1 of E. chaffeensis σ70 causes enhancement of the promoter activity. This is the first study defining the promoters of two closely related E. chaffeensis genes. PMID:27402867

  16. DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanchen; Yang, Zhongqiang; Liu, Dongsheng

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Most biological processes happen at the nanometer scale, and understanding the energy transformations and material transportation mechanisms within living organisms has proved challenging. To better understand the secrets of life, researchers have investigated artificial molecular motors and devices over the past decade because such systems can mimic certain biological processes. DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures is one system that has played an important role in these investigations. In this Account, we summarize recent advances in functional DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures. The i-motif is a DNA quadruplex that occurs as four stretches of cytosine repeat sequences form C·CH(+) base pairs, and their stabilization requires slightly acidic conditions. This unique property has produced the first DNA molecular motor driven by pH changes. The motor is reliable, and studies show that it is capable of millisecond running speeds, comparable to the speed of natural protein motors. With careful design, the output of these types of motors was combined to drive micrometer-sized cantilevers bend. Using established DNA nanostructure assembly and functionalization methods, researchers can easily integrate the motor within other DNA assembled structures and functional units, producing DNA molecular devices with new functions such as suprahydrophobic/suprahydrophilic smart surfaces that switch, intelligent nanopores triggered by pH changes, molecular logic gates, and DNA nanosprings. Recently, researchers have produced motors driven by light and electricity, which have allowed DNA motors to be integrated within silicon-based nanodevices. Moreover, some devices based on i-motif structures have proven useful for investigating processes within living cells. The pH-responsiveness of the i-motif structure also provides a way to control the stepwise assembly of DNA nanostructures. In addition, because of the stability of the i-motif, this

  17. DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuanchen; Yang, Zhongqiang; Liu, Dongsheng

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: Most biological processes happen at the nanometer scale, and understanding the energy transformations and material transportation mechanisms within living organisms has proved challenging. To better understand the secrets of life, researchers have investigated artificial molecular motors and devices over the past decade because such systems can mimic certain biological processes. DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures is one system that has played an important role in these investigations. In this Account, we summarize recent advances in functional DNA nanotechnology based on i-motif structures. The i-motif is a DNA quadruplex that occurs as four stretches of cytosine repeat sequences form C·CH(+) base pairs, and their stabilization requires slightly acidic conditions. This unique property has produced the first DNA molecular motor driven by pH changes. The motor is reliable, and studies show that it is capable of millisecond running speeds, comparable to the speed of natural protein motors. With careful design, the output of these types of motors was combined to drive micrometer-sized cantilevers bend. Using established DNA nanostructure assembly and functionalization methods, researchers can easily integrate the motor within other DNA assembled structures and functional units, producing DNA molecular devices with new functions such as suprahydrophobic/suprahydrophilic smart surfaces that switch, intelligent nanopores triggered by pH changes, molecular logic gates, and DNA nanosprings. Recently, researchers have produced motors driven by light and electricity, which have allowed DNA motors to be integrated within silicon-based nanodevices. Moreover, some devices based on i-motif structures have proven useful for investigating processes within living cells. The pH-responsiveness of the i-motif structure also provides a way to control the stepwise assembly of DNA nanostructures. In addition, because of the stability of the i-motif, this

  18. Integrative analysis of time course microarray data and DNA sequence data via log-linear models for identifying dynamic transcriptional regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Youngchul; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Park, Taesung

    2013-01-01

    Since eukaryotic transcription is regulated by sets of Transcription Factors (TFs) having various transcriptional time delays, identification of temporal combinations of activated TFs is important to reconstruct Transcriptional Regulatory Networks (TRNs). Our methods combine time course microarray data, information on physical binding between the TFs and their targets and the regulatory sequences of genes using a log-linear model to reconstruct dynamic functional TRNs of the yeast cell cycle and human apoptosis. In conclusion, our results suggest that the proposed dynamic motif search method is more effective in reconstructing TRNs than the static motif search method.

  19. Acidic/IQ Motif Regulator of Calmodulin*

    PubMed Central

    Putkey, John A.; Waxham, M. Neal; Gaertner, Tara R.; Brewer, Kari J.; Goldsmith, Michael; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Kleerekoper, Quinn K.

    2013-01-01

    The small IQ motif proteins PEP-19 (62 amino acids) and RC3 (78 amino acids) greatly accelerate the rates of Ca2+ binding to sites III and IV in the C-domain of calmodulin (CaM). We show here that PEP-19 decreases the degree of cooperativity of Ca2+ binding to sites III and IV, and we present a model showing that this could increase Ca2+ binding rate constants. Comparative sequence analysis showed that residues 28 to 58 from PEP-19 are conserved in other proteins. This region includes the IQ motif (amino acids 39–62), and an adjacent acidic cluster of amino acids (amino acids 28–40). A synthetic peptide spanning residues 28–62 faithfully mimics intact PEP-19 with respect to increasing the rates of Ca2+ association and dissociation, as well as binding preferentially to the C-domain of CaM. In contrast, a peptide encoding only the core IQ motif does not modulate Ca2+ binding, and binds to multiple sites on CaM. A peptide that includes only the acidic region does not bind to CaM. These results show that PEP-19 has a novel acidic/IQ CaM regulatory motif in which the IQ sequence provides a targeting function that allows binding of PEP-19 to CaM, whereas the acidic residues modify the nature of this interaction, and are essential for modulating Ca2+ binding to the C-domain of CaM. PMID:17991744

  20. Analysis of DNA sequences by an optical time-integrating correlator.

    PubMed

    Brousseau, N; Brousseau, R; Salt, J W; Gutz, L; Tucker, M D

    1992-08-10

    The analysis of the molecular structure called DNA is of particular interest for the understanding of the basic processes governing life. Correlation techniques implemented on digital computers are currently used to do this analysis, but the process is so slow that the mapping and sequencing of the entire human genome requires a computational breakthrough. This paper presents a new method of performing the analysis of DNA sequences with an optical time-integrating correlator. The method is characterized by short processing times that make the analysis of the entire human genome a tractable enterprise. A processing strategy and the resultant processing times are presented. Experimental proofs of concept for the two types of analysis specified by the strategy are also included.

  1. Very small and soft scorpionates: water stable technetium tricarbonyl complexes combining a bis-agostic (k(3)-H, H, S) binding motif with pendant and integrated bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Maria, Leonor; Paulo, António; Santos, Isabel C; Santos, Isabel; Kurz, Philipp; Spingler, Bernhard; Alberto, Roger

    2006-11-15

    The novel trihydro(mercaptoazolyl)borates Na[H(3)B(tim(Me))] (L(1)) (tim(Me) = 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazolyl), Na[H(3)B(tim(Bupip))] (L(2)) (tim(Bupip) = 1-[4-((2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)butyl]-2-mercaptoimidazolyl), and Na[H(3)B(bzt)] (L(3)) (bzt = 2-mercaptobenzothiazolyl) were synthesized by reaction of NaBH(4) with the corresponding azole. Ligands L(1)-L(3) represent a new class of light and soft scorpionates that stabilizes the [M(CO)(3)](+) core (M = (99)Tc, Re) by formation of the complexes fac-[M{kappa(3)-H(mu-H)(2)B(tim(Me))}(CO)(3)] (M = (99)Tc (1), Re (2)), fac-[Re{kappa(3)-H(mu-H)(2)B(tim(Bupip))}(CO)(3)] (3), and fac-[Re{kappa(3)-H(mu-H)(2)B(bzt)}(CO)(3)] (4), respectively. The soft scorpionates are coordinated to the metal in unique (kappa(3)-H, H', S) fashion, as confirmed by X-ray crystallography of 1, 2, and 4. These complexes with bis-agostic hydride coordination are formed in aqueous solution with the two hydrides replacing two coordinating aquo ligands. The agostic hydrogen atoms were located directly, confirming an unprecedented donor atom set combining one sulfur and two hydrogen atoms. Preliminary studies have shown the possibility of preparing some of these complexes at the no carrier added level ((99m)Tc), under conditions as required in radiopharmaceutical preparation. Due to their lipophilicity, small-size, and easy functionalization with adequate biomolecules, the trihydro(mercaptoazolyl)borate technetium tricarbonyl complexes are suitable for the design of CNS receptor ligand radiopharmaceuticals as exemplified with 3, comprising a pendant serotonergic 5-HT(1A) ligand. The integrated design of radiopharmaceuticals involving a bis-agostic scorpionate ligand is demonstrated by the synthesis of 4, with an integrated benzothiazolyl fragment for the recognition of beta-amyloid plaques.

  2. The RNA 3D Motif Atlas: Computational methods for extraction, organization and evaluation of RNA motifs.

    PubMed

    Parlea, Lorena G; Sweeney, Blake A; Hosseini-Asanjan, Maryam; Zirbel, Craig L; Leontis, Neocles B

    2016-07-01

    RNA 3D motifs occupy places in structured RNA molecules that correspond to the hairpin, internal and multi-helix junction "loops" of their secondary structure representations. As many as 40% of the nucleotides of an RNA molecule can belong to these structural elements, which are distinct from the regular double helical regions formed by contiguous AU, GC, and GU Watson-Crick basepairs. With the large number of atomic- or near atomic-resolution 3D structures appearing in a steady stream in the PDB/NDB structure databases, the automated identification, extraction, comparison, clustering and visualization of these structural elements presents an opportunity to enhance RNA science. Three broad applications are: (1) identification of modular, autonomous structural units for RNA nanotechnology, nanobiology and synthetic biology applications; (2) bioinformatic analysis to improve RNA 3D structure prediction from sequence; and (3) creation of searchable databases for exploring the binding specificities, structural flexibility, and dynamics of these RNA elements. In this contribution, we review methods developed for computational extraction of hairpin and internal loop motifs from a non-redundant set of high-quality RNA 3D structures. We provide a statistical summary of the extracted hairpin and internal loop motifs in the most recent version of the RNA 3D Motif Atlas. We also explore the reliability and accuracy of the extraction process by examining its performance in clustering recurrent motifs from homologous ribosomal RNA (rRNA) structures. We conclude with a summary of remaining challenges, especially with regard to extraction of multi-helix junction motifs. PMID:27125735

  3. Multiple Weak Linear Motifs Enhance Recruitment and Processivity in SPOP-Mediated Substrate Ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Wendy K; Grace, Christy R; Lee, Jihun; Nourse, Amanda; Marzahn, Melissa R; Watson, Edmond R; High, Anthony A; Peng, Junmin; Schulman, Brenda A; Mittag, Tanja

    2016-03-27

    Primary sequence motifs, with millimolar affinities for binding partners, are abundant in disordered protein regions. In multivalent interactions, such weak linear motifs can cooperate to recruit binding partners via avidity effects. If linear motifs recruit modifying enzymes, optimal placement of weak motifs may regulate access to modification sites. Weak motifs may thus exert physiological relevance stronger than that suggested by their affinities, but molecular mechanisms of their function are still poorly understood. Herein, we use the N-terminal disordered region of the Hedgehog transcriptional regulator Gli3 (Gli3(1-90)) to determine the role of weak motifs encoded in its primary sequence for the recruitment of its ubiquitin ligase CRL3(SPOP) and the subsequent effect on ubiquitination efficiency. The substrate adaptor SPOP binds linear motifs through its MATH (meprin and TRAF homology) domain and forms higher-order oligomers through its oligomerization domains, rendering SPOP multivalent for its substrates. Gli3 has multiple weak SPOP binding motifs. We map three such motifs in Gli3(1-90), the weakest of which has a millimolar dissociation constant. Multivalency of ligase and substrate for each other facilitates enhanced ligase recruitment and stimulates Gli3(1-90) ubiquitination in in vitro ubiquitination assays. We speculate that the weak motifs enable processivity through avidity effects and by providing steric access to lysine residues that are otherwise not prioritized for polyubiquitination. Weak motifs may generally be employed in multivalent systems to act as gatekeepers regulating post-translational modification. PMID:26475525

  4. An integrative approach for efficient analysis of whole genome bisulfite sequencing data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Whole genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is a high-throughput technique for profiling genome-wide DNA methylation at single nucleotide resolution. However, the applications of WGBS are limited by low accuracy resulting from bisulfite-induced damage on DNA fragments. Although many computer programs have been developed for accurate detecting, most of the programs have barely succeeded in improving either quantity or quality of the methylation results. To improve both, we attempted to develop a novel integration of most widely used bisulfite-read mappers: Bismark, BSMAP, and BS-seeker2. Results A comprehensive analysis of the three mappers revealed that the mapping results of the mappers were mutually complementary under diverse read conditions. Therefore, we sought to integrate the characteristics of the mappers by scoring them to gain robustness against artifacts. As a result, the integration significantly increased detection accuracy compared with the individual mappers. In addition, the amount of detected cytosine was higher than that by Bismark. Furthermore, the integration successfully reduced the fluctuation of detection accuracy induced by read conditions. We applied the integration to real WGBS samples and succeeded in classifying the samples according to the originated tissues by both CpG and CpH methylation patterns. Conclusions In this study, we improved both quality and quantity of methylation results from WGBS data by integrating the mapping results of three bisulfite-read mappers. Also, we succeeded in combining and comparing WGBS samples by reducing the effects of read heterogeneity on methylation detection. This study contributes to DNA methylation researches by improving efficiency of methylation detection from WGBS data and facilitating the comprehensive analysis of public WGBS data. PMID:26680746

  5. Local graph alignment and motif search in biological networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Johannes; Lässig, Michael

    2004-10-01

    Interaction networks are of central importance in postgenomic molecular biology, with increasing amounts of data becoming available by high-throughput methods. Examples are gene regulatory networks or protein interaction maps. The main challenge in the analysis of these data is to read off biological functions from the topology of the network. Topological motifs, i.e., patterns occurring repeatedly at different positions in the network, have recently been identified as basic modules of molecular information processing. In this article, we discuss motifs derived from families of mutually similar but not necessarily identical patterns. We establish a statistical model for the occurrence of such motifs, from which we derive a scoring function for their statistical significance. Based on this scoring function, we develop a search algorithm for topological motifs called graph alignment, a procedure with some analogies to sequence alignment. The algorithm is applied to the gene regulation network of Escherichia coli.

  6. BALSA: integrated secondary analysis for whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, accelerated by GPU

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lap-Kei; Cheung, Jeanno; Liu, Chi-Man

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated solution, called BALSA, for the secondary analysis of next generation sequencing data; it exploits the computational power of GPU and an intricate memory management to give a fast and accurate analysis. From raw reads to variants (including SNPs and Indels), BALSA, using just a single computing node with a commodity GPU board, takes 5.5 h to process 50-fold whole genome sequencing (∼750 million 100 bp paired-end reads), or just 25 min for 210-fold whole exome sequencing. BALSA’s speed is rooted at its parallel algorithms to effectively exploit a GPU to speed up processes like alignment, realignment and statistical testing. BALSA incorporates a 16-genotype model to support the calling of SNPs and Indels and achieves competitive variant calling accuracy and sensitivity when compared to the ensemble of six popular variant callers. BALSA also supports efficient identification of somatic SNVs and CNVs; experiments showed that BALSA recovers all the previously validated somatic SNVs and CNVs, and it is more sensitive for somatic Indel detection. BALSA outputs variants in VCF format. A pileup-like SNAPSHOT format, while maintaining the same fidelity as BAM in variant calling, enables efficient storage and indexing, and facilitates the App development of downstream analyses. BALSA is available at: http://sourceforge.net/p/balsa. PMID:24949238

  7. Drosophila bloom helicase maintains genome integrity by inhibiting recombination between divergent DNA sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Michael; Kranz, Elisabeth; Woolcock, Katrina; Georgiev, Oleg; Schaffner, Walter

    2008-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSB) can be repaired either via a sequence independent joining of DNA ends or via homologous recombination. We established a detection system in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of sequence constraints on the usage of the homology based DSB repair via single strand annealing (SSA), which leads to recombination between direct repeats with concomitant loss of one repeat copy. First of all, we find the SSA frequency to be inversely proportional to the spacer length between the repeats, for spacers up to 2.4 kb in length. We further show that SSA between divergent repeats (homeologous SSA) is suppressed in cell cultures and in vivo in a sensitive manner, recognizing sequence divergences smaller than 0.5%. Finally, we demonstrate that the suppression of homeologous SSA depends on the Bloom helicase (Blm), encoded by the Drosophila gene mus309. Suppression of homeologous recombination is a novel function of Blm in ensuring genomic integrity, not described to date in mammalian systems. Unexpectedly, distinct from its function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the mismatch repair factor Msh2 encoded by spel1 does not suppress homeologous SSA in Drosophila. PMID:18978019

  8. Quality control of next-generation sequencing library through an integrative digital microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    Thaitrong, Numrin; Kim, Hanyoup; Renzi, Ronald F; Bartsch, Michael S; Meagher, Robert J; Patel, Kamlesh D

    2012-12-01

    We have developed an automated quality control (QC) platform for next-generation sequencing (NGS) library characterization by integrating a droplet-based digital microfluidic (DMF) system with a capillary-based reagent delivery unit and a quantitative CE module. Using an in-plane capillary-DMF interface, a prepared sample droplet was actuated into position between the ground electrode and the inlet of the separation capillary to complete the circuit for an electrokinetic injection. Using a DNA ladder as an internal standard, the CE module with a compact LIF detector was capable of detecting dsDNA in the range of 5-100 pg/μL, suitable for the amount of DNA required by the Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing platform. This DMF-CE platform consumes tenfold less sample volume than the current Agilent BioAnalyzer QC technique, preserving precious sample while providing necessary sensitivity and accuracy for optimal sequencing performance. The ability of this microfluidic system to validate NGS library preparation was demonstrated by examining the effects of limited-cycle PCR amplification on the size distribution and the yield of Illumina-compatible libraries, demonstrating that as few as ten cycles of PCR bias the size distribution of the library toward undesirable larger fragments.

  9. Direct vs 2-stage approaches to structured motif finding

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The notion of DNA motif is a mathematical abstraction used to model regions of the DNA (known as Transcription Factor Binding Sites, or TFBSs) that are bound by a given Transcription Factor to regulate gene expression or repression. In turn, DNA structured motifs are a mathematical counterpart that models sets of TFBSs that work in concert in the gene regulations processes of higher eukaryotic organisms. Typically, a structured motif is composed of an ordered set of isolated (or simple) motifs, separated by a variable, but somewhat constrained number of “irrelevant” base-pairs. Discovering structured motifs in a set of DNA sequences is a computationally hard problem that has been addressed by a number of authors using either a direct approach, or via the preliminary identification and successive combination of simple motifs. Results We describe a computational tool, named SISMA, for the de-novo discovery of structured motifs in a set of DNA sequences. SISMA is an exact, enumerative algorithm, meaning that it finds all the motifs conforming to the specifications. It does so in two stages: first it discovers all the possible component simple motifs, then combines them in a way that respects the given constraints. We developed SISMA mainly with the aim of understanding the potential benefits of such a 2-stage approach w.r.t. direct methods. In fact, no 2-stage software was available for the general problem of structured motif discovery, but only a few tools that solved restricted versions of the problem. We evaluated SISMA against other published tools on a comprehensive benchmark made of both synthetic and real biological datasets. In a significant number of cases, SISMA outperformed the competitors, exhibiting a good performance also in most of the cases in which it was inferior. Conclusions A reflection on the results obtained lead us to conclude that a 2-stage approach can be implemented with many advantages over direct approaches. Some of these

  10. Synthesis of 2,3-anti-3,4-anti and 2,3-anti-3,4-syn propionate motifs: a diastereoselective tandem sequence of Mukaiyama and free-radical-based hydrogen transfer reactions.

    PubMed

    Guindon, Yvan; Prévost, Michel; Mochirian, Philippe; Guérin, Brigitte

    2002-03-21

    [reaction: see text] Reported herein is a strategy employing a Mukaiyama reaction in tandem with a hydrogen transfer reaction for the elaboration of 2,3-anti-3,4-anti and 2,3-anti-3,4-syn propionate motifs. The mode of complexation is controlled through monodentate or chelate pathways for the Mukaiyama reaction to give access to either syn or anti aldol products, precursors of the free-radical reduction reaction. Boron Lewis acid is used to control the free-radical reaction through the exocyclic pathway.

  11. More robust detection of motifs in coexpressed genes by using phylogenetic information

    PubMed Central

    Monsieurs, Pieter; Thijs, Gert; Fadda, Abeer A; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid CJ; Vanderleyden, Jozef; De Moor, Bart; Marchal, Kathleen

    2006-01-01

    Background Several motif detection algorithms have been developed to discover overrepresented motifs in sets of coexpressed genes. However, in a noisy gene list, the number of genes containing the motif versus the number lacking the motif might not be sufficiently high to allow detection by classical motif detection tools. To still recover motifs which are not significantly enriched but still present, we developed a procedure in which we use phylogenetic footprinting to first delineate all potential motifs in each gene. Then we mutually compare all detected motifs and identify the ones that are shared by at least a few genes in the data set as potential candidates. Results We applied our methodology to a compiled test data set containing known regulatory motifs and to two biological data sets derived from genome wide expression studies. By executing four consecutive steps of 1) identifying conserved regions in orthologous intergenic regions, 2) aligning these conserved regions, 3) clustering the conserved regions containing similar regulatory regions followed by extraction of the regulatory motifs and 4) screening the input intergenic sequences with detected regulatory motif models, our methodology proves to be a powerful tool for detecting regulatory motifs when a low signal to noise ratio is present in the input data set. Comparing our results with two other motif detection algorithms points out the robustness of our algorithm. Conclusion We developed an approach that can reliably identify multiple regulatory motifs lacking a high degree of overrepresentation in a set of coexpressed genes (motifs belonging to sparsely connected hubs in the regulatory network) by exploiting the advantages of using both coexpression and phylogenetic information. PMID:16549017

  12. Integrating sequence stratigraphy and rock-physics to interpret seismic amplitudes and predict reservoir quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tanima

    This dissertation focuses on the link between seismic amplitudes and reservoir properties. Prediction of reservoir properties, such as sorting, sand/shale ratio, and cement-volume from seismic amplitudes improves by integrating knowledge from multiple disciplines. The key contribution of this dissertation is to improve the prediction of reservoir properties by integrating sequence stratigraphy and rock physics. Sequence stratigraphy has been successfully used for qualitative interpretation of seismic amplitudes to predict reservoir properties. Rock physics modeling allows quantitative interpretation of seismic amplitudes. However, often there is uncertainty about selecting geologically appropriate rock physics model and its input parameters, away from the wells. In the present dissertation, we exploit the predictive power of sequence stratigraphy to extract the spatial trends of sedimentological parameters that control seismic amplitudes. These spatial trends of sedimentological parameters can serve as valuable constraints in rock physics modeling, especially away from the wells. Consequently, rock physics modeling, integrated with the trends from sequence stratigraphy, become useful for interpreting observed seismic amplitudes away from the wells in terms of underlying sedimentological parameters. We illustrate this methodology using a comprehensive dataset from channelized turbidite systems, deposited in minibasin settings in the offshore Equatorial Guinea, West Africa. First, we present a practical recipe for using closed-form expressions of effective medium models to predict seismic velocities in unconsolidated sandstones. We use an effective medium model that combines perfectly rough and smooth grains (the extended Walton model), and use that model to derive coordination number, porosity, and pressure relations for P and S wave velocities from experimental data. Our recipe provides reasonable fits to other experimental and borehole data, and specifically

  13. Network motif-based method for identifying coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    LI, YIN; CONG, YAN; ZHAO, YUN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to develop a more efficient method for identifying coronary artery disease (CAD) than the conventional method using individual differentially expressed genes (DEGs). GSE42148 gene microarray data were downloaded, preprocessed and screened for DEGs. Additionally, based on transcriptional regulation data obtained from ENCODE database and protein-protein interaction data from the HPRD, the common genes were downloaded and compared with genes annotated from gene microarrays to screen additional common genes in order to construct an integrated regulation network. FANMOD was then used to detect significant three-gene network motifs. Subsequently, GlobalAncova was used to screen differential three-gene network motifs between the CAD group and the normal control data from GSE42148. Genes involved in the differential network motifs were then subjected to functional annotation and pathway enrichment analysis. Finally, clustering analysis of the CAD and control samples was performed based on individual DEGs and the top 20 network motifs identified. In total, 9,008 significant three-node network motifs were detected from the integrated regulation network; these were categorized into 22 interaction modes, each containing a minimum of one transcription factor. Subsequently, 1,132 differential network motifs involving 697 genes were screened between the CAD and control group. The 697 genes were enriched in 154 gene ontology terms, including 119 biological processes, and 14 KEGG pathways. Identifying patients with CAD based on the top 20 network motifs provided increased accuracy compared with the conventional method based on individual DEGs. The results of the present study indicate that the network motif-based method is more efficient and accurate for identifying CAD patients than the conventional method based on individual DEGs. PMID:27347046

  14. Description of the PMAD DC test bed architecture and integration sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Trash, L.; Fong, D.; Bolerjack, B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-LEWIS is responsible for the development, fabrication, and assembly of the electric power system (EPS) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSF power system is radically different from previous spacecraft power systems in both the size and complexity of the system. Unlike past spacecraft power systems, the SSF EPS will grow and be maintained on orbit and must be flexible to meet challenging user power needs. The SSF power system is also unique in comparison with terrestrial power systems because it is dominated by power electronic converters which regulate and control the power. A description is provided of the Power Management and Distribution DC Testbed which was assembled to support the design and early evaluation of the SSF EPS. A description of the integration process used in the assembly sequence is also given along with a description of the support facility.

  15. The HIVToolbox 2 web system integrates sequence, structure, function and mutation analysis.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, David P; Deverasetty, Sandeep; Strong, Christy L; Alaniz, Izua J; Bartlett, Alexandria; Brandon, Nicholas R; Brooks, Steven B; Brown, Frederick A; Bufi, Flaviona; Chakarova, Monika; David, Roxanne P; Dobritch, Karlyn M; Guerra, Horacio P; Hedden, Michael W; Kumra, Rma; Levitt, Kelvy S; Mathew, Kiran R; Matti, Ray; Maza, Dorothea Q; Mistry, Sabyasachy; Novakovic, Nemanja; Pomerantz, Austin; Portillo, Josue; Rafalski, Timothy F; Rathnayake, Viraj R; Rezapour, Noura; Songao, Sarah; Tuggle, Sean L; Yousif, Sandy; Dorsky, David I; Schiller, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    There is enormous interest in studying HIV pathogenesis for improving the treatment of patients with HIV infection. HIV infection has become one of the best-studied systems for understanding how a virus can hijack a cell. To help facilitate discovery, we previously built HIVToolbox, a web system for visual data mining. The original HIVToolbox integrated information for HIV protein sequence, structure, functional sites, and sequence conservation. This web system has been used for almost 40,000 searches. We report improvements to HIVToolbox including new functions and workflows, data updates, and updates for ease of use. HIVToolbox2, is an improvement over HIVToolbox with new functions. HIVToolbox2 has new functionalities focused on HIV pathogenesis including drug-binding sites, drug-resistance mutations, and immune epitopes. The integrated, interactive view enables visual mining to generate hypotheses that are not readily revealed by other approaches. Most HIV proteins form multimers, and there are posttranslational modification and protein-protein interaction sites at many of these multimerization interfaces. Analysis of protease drug binding sites reveals an anatomy of drug resistance with different types of drug-resistance mutations regionally localized on the surface of protease. Some of these drug-resistance mutations have a high prevalence in specific HIV-1 M subtypes. Finally, consolidation of Tat functional sites reveals a hotspot region where there appear to be 30 interactions or posttranslational modifications. A cursory analysis with HIVToolbox2 has helped to identify several global patterns for HIV proteins. An initial analysis with this tool identifies homomultimerization of almost all HIV proteins, functional sites that overlap with multimerization sites, a global drug resistance anatomy for HIV protease, and specific distributions of some DRMs in specific HIV M subtypes. HIVToolbox2 is an open-access web application available at [http://hivtoolbox2

  16. Motif-based analysis of large nucleotide data sets using MEME-ChIP.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxiu; Noble, William S; Bailey, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    MEME-ChIP is a web-based tool for analyzing motifs in large DNA or RNA data sets. It can analyze peak regions identified by ChIP-seq, cross-linking sites identified by CLIP-seq and related assays, as well as sets of genomic regions selected using other criteria. MEME-ChIP performs de novo motif discovery, motif enrichment analysis, motif location analysis and motif clustering, providing a comprehensive picture of the DNA or RNA motifs that are enriched in the input sequences. MEME-ChIP performs two complementary types of de novo motif discovery: weight matrix-based discovery for high accuracy; and word-based discovery for high sensitivity. Motif enrichment analysis using DNA or RNA motifs from human, mouse, worm, fly and other model organisms provides even greater sensitivity. MEME-ChIP's interactive HTML output groups and aligns significant motifs to ease interpretation. This protocol takes less than 3 h, and it provides motif discovery approaches that are distinct and complementary to other online methods. PMID:24853928

  17. Motif-based analysis of large nucleotide data sets using MEME-ChIP

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenxiu; Noble, William S; Bailey, Timothy L

    2014-01-01

    MEME-ChIP is a web-based tool for analyzing motifs in large DNA or RNA data sets. It can analyze peak regions identified by ChIP-seq, cross-linking sites identified by cLIP-seq and related assays, as well as sets of genomic regions selected using other criteria. MEME-ChIP performs de novo motif discovery, motif enrichment analysis, motif location analysis and motif clustering, providing a comprehensive picture of the DNA or RNA motifs that are enriched in the input sequences. MEME-ChIP performs two complementary types of de novo motif discovery: weight matrix–based discovery for high accuracy; and word-based discovery for high sensitivity. Motif enrichment analysis using DNA or RNA motifs from human, mouse, worm, fly and other model organisms provides even greater sensitivity. MEME-ChIP’s interactive HTML output groups and aligns significant motifs to ease interpretation. this protocol takes less than 3 h, and it provides motif discovery approaches that are distinct and complementary to other online methods. PMID:24853928

  18. Sequence-based Network Completion Reveals the Integrality of Missing Reactions in Metabolic Networks.

    PubMed

    Krumholz, Elias W; Libourel, Igor G L

    2015-07-31

    Genome-scale metabolic models are central in connecting genotypes to metabolic phenotypes. However, even for well studied organisms, such as Escherichia coli, draft networks do not contain a complete biochemical network. Missing reactions are referred to as gaps. These gaps need to be filled to enable functional analysis, and gap-filling choices influence model predictions. To investigate whether functional networks existed where all gap-filling reactions were supported by sequence similarity to annotated enzymes, four draft networks were supplemented with all reactions from the Model SEED database for which minimal sequence similarity was found in their genomes. Quadratic programming revealed that the number of reactions that could partake in a gap-filling solution was vast: 3,270 in the case of E. coli, where 72% of the metabolites in the draft network could connect a gap-filling solution. Nonetheless, no network could be completed without the inclusion of orphaned enzymes, suggesting that parts of the biochemistry integral to biomass precursor formation are uncharacterized. However, many gap-filling reactions were well determined, and the resulting networks showed improved prediction of gene essentiality compared with networks generated through canonical gap filling. In addition, gene essentiality predictions that were sensitive to poorly determined gap-filling reactions were of poor quality, suggesting that damage to the network structure resulting from the inclusion of erroneous gap-filling reactions may be predictable.

  19. Integration Deficiencies Associated with Continuous Limb Movement Sequences in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Hoon; Stelmach, George E.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the extent to which Parkinson’s disease (PD) influences integration of continuous limb movement sequences. Eight patients with idiopathic PD and 8 age-matched normal subjects were instructed to perform repetitive sequential aiming movements to specified targets under three accuracy constraints: 1) low accuracy (W=7 cm) - minimal accuracy constraint, 2) high accuracy (W=0.64 cm) - maximum accuracy constraint, and 3) mixed accuracy constraint - one target of high accuracy and another target of low accuracy. The characteristic of sequential movements in the low accuracy condition was mostly cyclical, whereas in the high accuracy condition it was discrete in both groups. When the accuracy constraint was mixed, the sequential movements were executed by assembling discrete and cyclical movements in both groups, suggesting that for PD patients the capability to combine discrete and cyclical movements to meet a task requirement appears to be intact. However, such functional linkage was not as pronounced as was in normal subjects. Close examination of movement from the mixed accuracy condition revealed marked movement hesitations in the vicinity of the large target in PD patients, resulting in a bias towards discrete movement. These results suggest that PD patients may have deficits in ongoing planning and organizing processes during movement execution when the tasks require to assemble various accuracy requirements into more complex movement sequences. PMID:19401272

  20. WordSpy: identifying transcription factor binding motifs by building a dictionary and learning a grammar

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guandong; Yu, Taotao; Zhang, Weixiong

    2005-01-01

    Transcription factor (TF) binding sites or motifs (TFBMs) are functional cis-regulatory DNA sequences that play an essential role in gene transcriptional regulation. Although many experimental and computational methods have been developed, finding TFBMs remains a challenging problem. We propose and develop a novel dictionary based motif finding algorithm, which we call WordSpy. One significant feature of WordSpy is the combination of a word counting method and a statistical model which consists of a dictionary of motifs and a grammar specifying their usage. The algorithm is suitable for genome-wide motif finding; it is capable of discovering hundreds of motifs from a large set of promoters in a single run. We further enhance WordSpy by applying gene expression information to separate true TFBMs from spurious ones, and by incorporating negative sequences to identify discriminative motifs. In addition, we also use randomly selected promoters from the genome to evaluate the significance of the discovered motifs. The output from WordSpy consists of an ordered list of putative motifs and a set of regulatory sequences with motif binding sites highlighted. The web server of WordSpy is available at . PMID:15980501

  1. CpGAVAS, an integrated web server for the annotation, visualization, analysis, and GenBank submission of completely sequenced chloroplast genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The complete sequences of chloroplast genomes provide wealthy information regarding the evolutionary history of species. With the advance of next-generation sequencing technology, the number of completely sequenced chloroplast genomes is expected to increase exponentially, powerful computational tools annotating the genome sequences are in urgent need. Results We have developed a web server CPGAVAS. The server accepts a complete chloroplast genome sequence as input. First, it predicts protein-coding and rRNA genes based on the identification and mapping of the most similar, full-length protein, cDNA and rRNA sequences by integrating results from Blastx, Blastn, protein2genome and est2genome programs. Second, tRNA genes and inverted repeats (IR) are identified using tRNAscan, ARAGORN and vmatch respectively. Third, it calculates the summary statistics for the annotated genome. Fourth, it generates a circular map ready for publication. Fifth, it can create a Sequin file for GenBank submission. Last, it allows the extractions of protein and mRNA sequences for given list of genes and species. The annotation results in GFF3 format can be edited using any compatible annotation editing tools. The edited annotations can then be uploaded to CPGAVAS for update and re-analyses repeatedly. Using known chloroplast genome sequences as test set, we show that CPGAVAS performs comparably to another application DOGMA, while having several superior functionalities. Conclusions CPGAVAS allows the semi-automatic and complete annotation of a chloroplast genome sequence, and the visualization, editing and analysis of the annotation results. It will become an indispensible tool for researchers studying chloroplast genomes. The software is freely accessible from http://www.herbalgenomics.org/cpgavas. PMID:23256920

  2. Survey on the PABC recognition motif PAM2.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Mario; Lengauer, Thomas

    2004-03-26

    The PABP-interacting motif PAM2 has been identified in various eukaryotic proteins as an important binding site for the PABC domain. This domain is contained in homologs of the poly(A)-binding protein PABP and the ubiquitin-protein ligase HYD. Despite the importance of the PAM2 motif, a comprehensive analysis of its occurrence in different proteins has been missing. Using iterated sequence profile searches, we obtained an extensive list of proteins carrying the PAM2 motif. We discuss their functional context and domain architecture, which often consists of RNA-binding domains. Our list of PAM2 motif proteins includes eukaryotic homologs of eRF3/GSPT1/2, PAIP1/2, Tob1/2, Ataxin-2, RBP37, RBP1, Blackjack, HELZ, TPRD, USP10, ERD15, C1D4.14, and the viral protease P29. The identification of the PAM2 motif in as yet uncharacterized proteins can give valuable hints with respect to their cellular function and potential interaction partners and suggests further experimentation. It is also striking that the PAM2 motif appears to occur solely outside globular protein domains.

  3. A methodology for motif discovery employing iterated cluster re-assignment.

    PubMed

    Abul, Osman; Drabløs, Finn; Sandve, Geir Kjetil

    2006-01-01

    Motif discovery is a crucial part of regulatory network identification, and therefore widely studied in the literature. Motif discovery programs search for statistically significant, well-conserved and over-represented patterns in given promoter sequences. When gene expression data is available, there are mainly three paradigms for motif discovery; cluster-first, regression, and joint probabilistic. The success of motif discovery depends highly on the homogeneity of input sequences, regardless of paradigm employed. In this work, we propose a methodology for getting homogeneous subsets from input sequences for increased motif discovery performance. It is a unification of cluster-first and regression paradigms based on iterative cluster re-assignment. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the methodology.

  4. [Prediction of Promoter Motifs in Virophages].

    PubMed

    Gong, Chaowen; Zhou, Xuewen; Pan, Yingjie; Wang, Yongjie

    2015-07-01

    Virophages have crucial roles in ecosystems and are the transport vectors of genetic materials. To shed light on regulation and control mechanisms in virophage--host systems as well as evolution between virophages and their hosts, the promoter motifs of virophages were predicted on the upstream regions of start codons using an analytical tool for prediction of promoter motifs: Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation. Seventeen potential promoter motifs were identified based on the E-value, location, number and length of promoters in genomes. Sputnik and zamilon motif 2 with AT-rich regions were distributed widely on genomes, suggesting that these motifs may be associated with regulation of the expression of various genes. Motifs containing the TCTA box were predicted to be late promoter motif in mavirus; motifs containing the ATCT box were the potential late promoter motif in the Ace Lake mavirus . AT-rich regions were identified on motif 2 in the Organic Lake virophage, motif 3 in Yellowstone Lake virophage (YSLV)1 and 2, motif 1 in YSLV3, and motif 1 and 2 in YSLV4, respectively. AT-rich regions were distributed widely on the genomes of virophages. All of these motifs may be promoter motifs of virophages. Our results provide insights into further exploration of temporal expression of genes in virophages as well as associations between virophages and giant viruses. PMID:26524912

  5. An RNA motif that binds ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sassanfar, M.; Szostak, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    RNAs that contain specific high-affinity binding sites for small molecule ligands immobilized on a solid support are present at a frequency of roughly one in 10(10)-10(11) in pools of random sequence RNA molecules. Here we describe a new in vitro selection procedure designed to ensure the isolation of RNAs that bind the ligand of interest in solution as well as on a solid support. We have used this method to isolate a remarkably small RNA motif that binds ATP, a substrate in numerous biological reactions and the universal biological high-energy intermediate. The selected ATP-binding RNAs contain a consensus sequence, embedded in a common secondary structure. The binding properties of ATP analogues and modified RNAs show that the binding interaction is characterized by a large number of close contacts between the ATP and RNA, and by a change in the conformation of the RNA.

  6. MALISAM: a database of structurally analogous motifs in proteins.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hua; Kim, Bong-Hyun; Grishin, Nick V

    2008-01-01

    MALISAM (manual alignments for structurally analogous motifs) represents the first database containing pairs of structural analogs and their alignments. To find reliable analogs, we developed an approach based on three ideas. First, an insertion together with a part of the evolutionary core of one domain family (a hybrid motif) is analogous to a similar motif contained within the core of another domain family. Second, a motif at an interface, formed by secondary structural elements (SSEs) contributed by two or more domains or subunits contacting along that interface, is analogous to a similar motif present in the core of a single domain. Third, an artificial protein obtained through selection from random peptides or in sequence design experiments not biased by sequences of a particular homologous family, is analogous to a structurally similar natural protein. Each analogous pair is superimposed and aligned manually, as well as by several commonly used programs. Applications of this database may range from protein evolution studies, e.g. development of remote homology inference tools and discriminators between homologs and analogs, to protein-folding research, since in the absence of evolutionary reasons, similarity between proteins is caused by structural and folding constraints. The database is publicly available at http://prodata.swmed.edu/malisam. PMID:17855399

  7. An Efficient Algorithm for Discovering Motifs in Large DNA Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Huo, Hongwei; Chen, Xiaoyang; Guo, Haitao; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott; Huan, Jun

    2015-07-01

    The planted (l,d) motif discovery has been successfully used to locate transcription factor binding sites in dozens of promoter sequences over the past decade. However, there has not been enough work done in identifying (l,d) motifs in the next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) data sets, which contain thousands of input sequences and thereby bring new challenge to make a good identification in reasonable time. To cater this need, we propose a new planted (l,d) motif discovery algorithm named MCES, which identifies motifs by mining and combining emerging substrings. Specially, to handle larger data sets, we design a MapReduce-based strategy to mine emerging substrings distributedly. Experimental results on the simulated data show that i) MCES is able to identify (l,d) motifs efficiently and effectively in thousands to millions of input sequences, and runs faster than the state-of-the-art (l,d) motif discovery algorithms, such as F-motif and TraverStringsR; ii) MCES is able to identify motifs without known lengths, and has a better identification accuracy than the competing algorithm CisFinder. Also, the validity of MCES is tested on real data sets. MCES is freely available at http://sites.google.com/site/feqond/mces.

  8. Adeno-associated virus Rep78 protein and terminal repeats enhance integration of DNA sequences into the cellular genome.

    PubMed Central

    Balagúe, C; Kalla, M; Zhang, W W

    1997-01-01

    Two adeno-associated virus (AAV) elements are necessary for the integration of the AAV genome: Rep78/68 proteins and inverted terminal repeats (ITRs). To study the contribution of the Rep proteins and the ITRs in the process of integration, we have compared the integration efficiencies of three different plasmids containing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression cassette. In one plasmid, no viral sequences were present; a second plasmid contained AAV ITRs flanking the reporter gene (integration cassette), and a third plasmid consisted of an integration cassette plus a Rep78 expression cassette. One day after transfection of 293 cells, fluorescent cells were sorted by flow cytometry and plated at 1 cell per well. Two weeks after sorting, colonies were monitored for stable expression of GFP. Transfection with the GFP plasmid containing no viral sequences resulted in no stable fluorescent colonies. Transfection with the plasmid containing the integration cassette alone (GFP flanked by ITRs) produced stable fluorescent colonies at a frequency of 5.3% +/- 1.0% whereas transfection with the plasmid containing both the integration cassette and Rep78 expression cassette produced stable fluorescent colonies at a frequency of 47% +/- 7.5%. Southern blot analysis indicated that in the presence of Rep78, integration is targeted to the AAVSI site in more than 50% of the clones analyzed. Some clones also showed tandem arrays of the integrated GFP cassette. Both head-to-head and head-to-tail orientations were detected. These findings indicate that the presence of AAV ITRs and the Rep78 protein enhance the integration of DNA sequences into the cellular genome and that the integration cassette is targeted to AAVS1 in the presence of Rep78. PMID:9060699

  9. HIV Integration Site Analysis of Cellular Models of HIV Latency with a Probe-Enriched Next-Generation Sequencing Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sunshine, Sara; Kirchner, Rory; Amr, Sami S.; Mansur, Leandra; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Kim, Michelle; Bosque, Alberto; Siliciano, Robert F.; Planelles, Vicente; Hofmann, Oliver; Ho Sui, Shannan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is successful in the suppression of HIV but cannot target and eradicate the latent proviral reservoir. The location of retroviral integration into the human genome is thought to play a role in the clonal expansion of infected cells and HIV persistence. We developed a high-throughput targeted sequence capture assay that uses a pool of HIV-specific probes to enrich Illumina libraries prior to deep sequencing. Using an expanded clonal population of ACH-2 cells, we demonstrate that this sequence capture assay has an extremely low false-positive rate. This assay assessed four cellular models commonly used to study HIV latency and latency-reversing agents: ACH-2 cells, J-Lat cells, the Bcl-2-transduced primary CD4+ model, and the cultured TCM (central memory) CD4+ model. HIV integration site characteristics and genes were compared between these cellular models and to previously reported patient data sets. Across these cellular models, there were significant differences in integration site characteristics, including orientation relative to that of the host gene, the proportion of clonally expanded sites, and the proportion located within genic regions and exons. Despite a greater diversity of minority integration sites than expected in ACH-2 cells, their integration site characteristics consistently differed from those of the other models and from the patient samples. Gene ontology analysis of highly represented genes from the patient samples found little overlap with HIV-containing genes from the cell lines. These findings show that integration site differences exist among the commonly used cellular models of HIV latency and in comparison to integration sites found in patient samples. IMPORTANCE Despite the success of ART, currently there is no successful therapy to eradicate integrated proviruses. Cellular models of HIV latency are used to test the efficacy of latency-reversing agents, but it is unclear how well these models reflect

  10. Motif types, motif locations and base composition patterns around the RNA polyadenylation site in microorganisms, plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The polyadenylation of RNA is critical for gene functioning, but the conserved sequence motifs (often called signal or signature motifs), motif locations and abundances, and base composition patterns around mRNA polyadenylation [poly(A)] sites are still uncharacterized in most species. The evolutionary tendency for poly(A) site selection is still largely unknown. Results We analyzed the poly(A) site regions of 31 species or phyla. Different groups of species showed different poly(A) signal motifs: UUACUU at the poly(A) site in the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi; UGUAAC (approximately 13 bases upstream of the site) in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii; UGUUUG (or UGUUUGUU) at mainly the fourth base downstream of the poly(A) site in the parasite Blastocystis hominis; and AAUAAA at approximately 16 bases and approximately 19 bases upstream of the poly(A) site in animals and plants, respectively. Polyadenylation signal motifs are usually several hundred times more abundant around poly(A) sites than in whole genomes. These predominant motifs usually had very specific locations, whether upstream of, at, or downstream of poly(A) sites, depending on the species or phylum. The poly(A) site was usually an adenosine (A) in all analyzed species except for B. hominis, and there was weak A predominance in C. reinhardtii. Fungi, animals, plants, and the protist Phytophthora infestans shared a general base abundance pattern (or base composition pattern) of “U-rich—A-rich—U-rich—Poly(A) site—U-rich regions”, or U-A-U-A-U for short, with some variation for each kingdom or subkingdom. Conclusion This study identified the poly(A) signal motifs, motif locations, and base composition patterns around mRNA poly(A) sites in protists, fungi, plants, and animals and provided insight into poly(A) site evolution. PMID:25052519

  11. Interstitial Telomeric Motifs in Squamate Reptiles: When the Exceptions Outnumber the Rule

    PubMed Central

    Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Altmanová, Marie; Johnson Pokorná, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes protecting the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and therefore helping to ensure their stability and integrity. Additionally, telomeric sequences can be localized in non-terminal regions of chromosomes, forming so-called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). ITSs are traditionally considered to be relics of chromosomal rearrangements and thus very informative in the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of karyotype formation. We examined the distribution of the telomeric motifs (TTAGGG)n using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 30 species, representing 17 families of squamate reptiles, and compared them with the collected data from another 38 species from literature. Out of the 68 squamate species analyzed, 35 possess ITSs in pericentromeric regions, centromeric regions and/or within chromosome arms. We conclude that the occurrence of ITSs is rather common in squamates, despite their generally conserved karyotypes, suggesting frequent and independent cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in this vertebrate group. PMID:26252002

  12. Interstitial Telomeric Motifs in Squamate Reptiles: When the Exceptions Outnumber the Rule.

    PubMed

    Rovatsos, Michail; Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Altmanová, Marie; Johnson Pokorná, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes protecting the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and therefore helping to ensure their stability and integrity. Additionally, telomeric sequences can be localized in non-terminal regions of chromosomes, forming so-called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). ITSs are traditionally considered to be relics of chromosomal rearrangements and thus very informative in the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of karyotype formation. We examined the distribution of the telomeric motifs (TTAGGG)n using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 30 species, representing 17 families of squamate reptiles, and compared them with the collected data from another 38 species from literature. Out of the 68 squamate species analyzed, 35 possess ITSs in pericentromeric regions, centromeric regions and/or within chromosome arms. We conclude that the occurrence of ITSs is rather common in squamates, despite their generally conserved karyotypes, suggesting frequent and independent cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in this vertebrate group.

  13. Sequential visibility-graph motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of sequential visibility-graph motifs, smaller substructures of n consecutive nodes that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated with general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable of distinguishing among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification and description of physical, biological, and financial time series.

  14. Unravelling daily human mobility motifs.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Christian M; Belik, Vitaly; Couronné, Thomas; Smoreda, Zbigniew; González, Marta C

    2013-07-01

    Human mobility is differentiated by time scales. While the mechanism for long time scales has been studied, the underlying mechanism on the daily scale is still unrevealed. Here, we uncover the mechanism responsible for the daily mobility patterns by analysing the temporal and spatial trajectories of thousands of persons as individual networks. Using the concept of motifs from network theory, we find only 17 unique networks are present in daily mobility and they follow simple rules. These networks, called here motifs, are sufficient to capture up to 90 per cent of the population in surveys and mobile phone datasets for different countries. Each individual exhibits a characteristic motif, which seems to be stable over several months. Consequently, daily human mobility can be reproduced by an analytically tractable framework for Markov chains by modelling periods of high-frequency trips followed by periods of lower activity as the key ingredient.

  15. A motif extraction algorithm based on hashing and modulo-4 arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Huitao; Mehrotra, Kishan; Mohan, Chilukuri; Raina, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    We develop an algorithm to identify cis-elements in promoter regions of coregulated genes. This algorithm searches for subsequences of desired length whose frequency of occurrence is relatively high, while accounting for slightly perturbed variants using hash table and modulo arithmetic. Motifs are evaluated using profile matrices and higher-order Markov background model. Simulation results show that our algorithm discovers more motifs present in the test sequences, when compared with two well-known motif-discovery tools (MDScan and AlignACE). The algorithm produces very promising results on real data set; the output of the algorithm contained many known motifs. PMID:20058489

  16. A motif extraction algorithm based on hashing and modulo-4 arithmetic.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Huitao; Mehrotra, Kishan; Mohan, Chilukuri; Raina, Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    We develop an algorithm to identify cis-elements in promoter regions of coregulated genes. This algorithm searches for subsequences of desired length whose frequency of occurrence is relatively high, while accounting for slightly perturbed variants using hash table and modulo arithmetic. Motifs are evaluated using profile matrices and higher-order Markov background model. Simulation results show that our algorithm discovers more motifs present in the test sequences, when compared with two well-known motif-discovery tools (MDScan and AlignACE). The algorithm produces very promising results on real data set; the output of the algorithm contained many known motifs.

  17. Sequence duplication and internal deletion in the integrated human papillomavirus type 16 genome cloned from a cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Kongbung; Lee, Hsienhsiung; Pan, Chaochih; Wu, Sheuemei; Liew, Lipnyin; Cheung, Wingfai; Han, Shouhwa )

    1988-05-01

    Integrated human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) sequences were cloned from a cervical carcinoma and analyzed by restriction mapping and nucleotide sequencing. The viral integration sites were mapped within the E1 and E2 open reading frames (ORFs). The E4 and E5 ORFs were entirely deleted. An internal deletion of 376 base pairs (bp) was found disrupting the L1 and L2 ORFs. Sequencing analysis showed that an AGATGT/ACATCT inverted repeat marked the deletion junction with two flanking direct repeats 14 and 8 bp in length. A 1,330-bp sequence duplication containing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 and E7 ORFs was also found. The duplication junction was formed by two 24-bp direct repeats with 79% (19 of 24) homology located within the LCR and the E2 ORF of the prototype viral genome, respectively. This observation leads us to propose that the initial viral integration involved an HPV16 dimer in which the direct repeats in tandem units recombined, resulting in reiteration of only a portion of the original duplication. A guanosine insertion between nucleotides 1,137 and 1,138 created a continuous E1 ORF which was previously shown to be disrupted. Results from this study indicate that sequence reiteration and internal deletion in the integrated, and possibly in the episomal, HPV16 genome are influenced by specific nucleotide sequences in the viral genome. Moreover, reiteration of the LCR/E6/E7 sequences further supports the hypothesis that the E6/E7 ORFs may code for oncogenic proteins and that regulatory signals in the LCR may play a role in cellular transformation.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of upstream miRNA regulatory motifs in Caenorhabditis.

    PubMed

    Jovelin, Richard; Krizus, Aldis; Taghizada, Bakhtiyar; Gray, Jeremy C; Phillips, Patrick C; Claycomb, Julie M; Cutter, Asher D

    2016-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a class of short noncoding RNA molecules that play diverse developmental and physiological roles by controlling mRNA abundance and protein output of the vast majority of transcripts. Despite the importance of miRNAs in regulating gene function, we still lack a complete understanding of how miRNAs themselves are transcriptionally regulated. To fill this gap, we predicted regulatory sequences by searching for abundant short motifs located upstream of miRNAs in eight species of Caenorhabditis nematodes. We identified three conserved motifs across the Caenorhabditis phylogeny that show clear signatures of purifying selection from comparative genomics, patterns of nucleotide changes in motifs of orthologous miRNAs, and correlation between motif incidence and miRNA expression. We then validated our predictions with transgenic green fluorescent protein reporters and site-directed mutagenesis for a subset of motifs located in an enhancer region upstream of let-7 We demonstrate that a CT-dinucleotide motif is sufficient for proper expression of GFP in the seam cells of adult C. elegans, and that two other motifs play incremental roles in combination with the CT-rich motif. Thus, functional tests of sequence motifs identified through analysis of molecular evolutionary signatures provide a powerful path for efficiently characterizing the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes. PMID:27140965

  19. Construction of an integrated pepper map using RFLP, SSR, CAPS, AFLP, WRKY, rRAMP, and BAC end sequences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heung-Ryul; Bae, Ik-Hyun; Park, Soung-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Joung; Min, Woong-Ki; Han, Jung-Heon; Kim, Ki-Taek; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2009-01-31

    Map-based cloning to find genes of interest, markerassisted selection (MAS), and marker-assisted breeding (MAB) all require good genetic maps with high reproducible markers. For map construction as well as chromosome assignment, development of single copy PCR-based markers and map integration process are necessary. In this study, the 132 markers (57 STS from BAC-end sequences, 13 STS from RFLP, and 62 SSR) were newly developed as single copy type PCR-based markers. They were used together with 1830 markers previously developed in our lab to construct an integrated map with the Joinmap 3.0 program. This integrated map contained 169 SSR, 354 RFLP, 23 STS from BAC-end sequences, 6 STS from RFLP, 152 AFLP, 51 WRKY, and 99 rRAMP markers on 12 chromosomes. The integrated map contained four genetic maps of two interspecific (Capsicum annuum 'TF68' and C. chinense 'Habanero') and two intraspecific (C. annuum 'CM334' and C. annuum 'Chilsungcho') populations of peppers. This constructed integrated map consisted of 805 markers (map distance of 1858 cM) in interspecific populations and 745 markers (map distance of 1892 cM) in intraspecific populations. The used pepper STS were first developed from end sequences of BAC clones from Capsicum annuum 'CM334'. This integrated map will provide useful information for construction of future pepper genetic maps and for assignment of linkage groups to pepper chromosomes.

  20. RAP: Accurate and Fast Motif Finding Based on Protein-Binding Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Orenstein, Yaron; Mick, Eran

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The novel high-throughput technology of protein-binding microarrays (PBMs) measures binding intensity of a transcription factor to thousands of DNA probe sequences. Several algorithms have been developed to extract binding-site motifs from these data. Such motifs are commonly represented by positional weight matrices. Previous studies have shown that the motifs produced by these algorithms are either accurate in predicting in vitro binding or similar to previously published motifs, but not both. In this work, we present a new simple algorithm to infer binding-site motifs from PBM data. It outperforms prior art both in predicting in vitro binding and in producing motifs similar to literature motifs. Our results challenge previous claims that motifs with lower information content are better models for transcription-factor binding specificity. Moreover, we tested the effect of motif length and side positions flanking the “core” motif in the binding site. We show that side positions have a significant effect and should not be removed, as commonly done. A large drop in the results quality of all methods is observed between in vitro and in vivo binding prediction. The software is available on acgt.cs.tau.ac.il/rap. PMID:23464877

  1. Description of the PMAD DC test bed architecture and integration sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, R. F.; Trash, L.; Fong, D.; Bolerjack, B.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Lewis is responsible for the development, fabrication, and assembly of the electric power system (EPS) for the Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSF power system is radically different from previous spacecraft power systems in both the size and complexity of the system. Unlike past spacecraft power system the SSF EPS will grow and be maintained on orbit and must be flexible to meet changing user power needs. The SSF power system is also unique in comparison with terrestrial power systems because it is dominated by power electronic converters which regulate and control the power. Although spacecraft historically have used power converters for regulation they typically involved only a single series regulating element. The SSF EPS involves multiple regulating elements, two or more in series, prior to the load. These unique system features required the construction of a testbed which would allow the development of spacecraft power system technology. A description is provided of the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) DC Testbed which was assembled to support the design and early evaluation of the SSF EPS. A description of the integration process used in the assembly sequence is also given along with a description of the support facility.

  2. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice.

  3. Integration of sequence stratigraphy and process sedimentology: Miocene Rincon and Topanga Formations, Santa Barbara basin near Point Mugu, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, D.W.; Marquard, R.S. )

    1990-05-01

    The Miocene Rincan and Topanga formations exposed at Point Mugu comprise over 1,200 ft of interbedded sandstones, siltstones, claystones, and clay shales that were deposited in a tectonically active marine basin adjacent to the present Santa Monica Mountains. Integration of sequence stratigraphic interpretation techniques and process sedimentology demonstrates that this section originated as shelfal deposits during sea level rise that were cut by a submarine canyon during subsequent sea level lowstand. The base of the sequence contains a bioturbated silty sandstone indicative of a transgressive deposit within the sequence stratigraphic framework. Upsection, dark clay shales of a condensed section contain fish fragments and sponge progradational highstand shelf sandstones. An erosional surface flooring a deep-water canyon cuts the highstand deposits and marks a sequence boundary. Within the submarine canyon fill, deep-water deposits represent at least two episodes of sediment gravity flows. A predominantly deformed lower section is cut by an erosional surface (another sequence boundary ) overlain by undeformed strata. The deformed section was caused by slumping of a canyon wall within a slope environment and deposition of high-density turbidites and debris flows. The undeformed section contains Bouma sequences, graded beds, dish structures, and biogenic structures. Interstratified bed-thinning and bed-thickening sequences suggest minor progradational events and small feeder channels within the undeformed section. These relationships demonstrate that not all sequences comprising deep-water deposits can be easily assigned to facies, such as channels and lobes, based on vertical and lateral profiles. This integration of sequence stratigraphy and sedimentology has assisted in understanding the vertical and lateral heterogeneities present within exploration and production areas in the adjacent Santa Barbara Channel.

  4. Chemistry of Living Matter, Energy Capture & Growth, Parts Three & Four of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1973 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    This teacher's guide includes parts three and four of the four-part third year Portland Project, a three-year integrated secondary science curriculum sequence. The underlying intention of the third year is to study energy and its importance to life. Energy-related concepts considered in year one and two, and the concepts related to atomic…

  5. Teaching Note--Integrating Theory and Research Methods in a First-Year Doctoral Sequence or Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollio, David E.; MacNeil, Gordon; Womack, Bethany; Brazeal, Michelle; Church, Wesley T., II

    2016-01-01

    This teaching note describes an innovative process in which faculty members worked collaboratively to create an integrated three-course sequence of requisite course content in a PhD program, developed complementary assignments, and coordinated a classroom experience that led to the creation of an individualized area statement and eventual…

  6. Motion and Energy Chemical Reactions, Parts One and Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1973 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    This teacher's guide is for the second year of the Portland Project, a three-year integrated secondary science curriculum sequence. The first of two parts in this volume, "Motion and Energy," begins with the study of motion, going from the quantitative description to a consideration of what causes motion and a discussion of Newton's laws. There…

  7. Mice and Men Environmental Balance, Parts Three and Four of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    This teacher's guide contains parts three and four of the four-part first year Portland Project, a three-year secondary integrated science curriculum sequence. Part three of the guide deals with topics such as the cell, reproduction, embryology, genetics, genetic diseases, genetics and change, populations, effects of density on populations,…

  8. Waves and Particles, The Orbital Atom, Parts One and Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Teacher's Guide, 1973 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    This teacher's guide includes parts one and two of the four-part third year Portland Project, a three-year integrated secondary science curriculum sequence. The Harvard Project Physics textbook is used for reading assignments for part one. Assignments relate to waves, light, electricity, magnetic fields, Faraday and the electrical age,…

  9. Themes or Motifs? Aiming for Coherence through Interdisciplinary Outlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Keith C.; Smith Lynne A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how "motif-units" undermine the potential benefits of integrated thematic instruction. Suggests replacing the term "thematic unit" with the concept of "interdisciplinary outline," which focus on meaningful content, authentic activities, students' needs, teacher mediation, and a variety of resources. Shows how one fourth-grade teacher…

  10. Onco-Regulon: an integrated database and software suite for site specific targeting of transcription factors of cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Navneet; Mishra, Akhilesh; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Jayaram, B

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind at multiple sites in the genome and regulate expression of many genes. Regulating TF binding in a gene specific manner remains a formidable challenge in drug discovery because the same binding motif may be present at multiple locations in the genome. Here, we present Onco-Regulon (http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm), an integrated database of regulatory motifs of cancer genes clubbed with Unique Sequence-Predictor (USP) a software suite that identifies unique sequences for each of these regulatory DNA motifs at the specified position in the genome. USP works by extending a given DNA motif, in 5'→3', 3' →5' or both directions by adding one nucleotide at each step, and calculates the frequency of each extended motif in the genome by Frequency Counter programme. This step is iterated till the frequency of the extended motif becomes unity in the genome. Thus, for each given motif, we get three possible unique sequences. Closest Sequence Finder program predicts off-target drug binding in the genome. Inclusion of DNA-Protein structural information further makes Onco-Regulon a highly informative repository for gene specific drug development. We believe that Onco-Regulon will help researchers to design drugs which will bind to an exclusive site in the genome with no off-target effects, theoretically.Database URL: http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm.

  11. Onco-Regulon: an integrated database and software suite for site specific targeting of transcription factors of cancer genes

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, Navneet; Mishra, Akhilesh; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Jayaram, B.

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind at multiple sites in the genome and regulate expression of many genes. Regulating TF binding in a gene specific manner remains a formidable challenge in drug discovery because the same binding motif may be present at multiple locations in the genome. Here, we present Onco-Regulon (http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm), an integrated database of regulatory motifs of cancer genes clubbed with Unique Sequence-Predictor (USP) a software suite that identifies unique sequences for each of these regulatory DNA motifs at the specified position in the genome. USP works by extending a given DNA motif, in 5′→3′, 3′ →5′ or both directions by adding one nucleotide at each step, and calculates the frequency of each extended motif in the genome by Frequency Counter programme. This step is iterated till the frequency of the extended motif becomes unity in the genome. Thus, for each given motif, we get three possible unique sequences. Closest Sequence Finder program predicts off-target drug binding in the genome. Inclusion of DNA-Protein structural information further makes Onco-Regulon a highly informative repository for gene specific drug development. We believe that Onco-Regulon will help researchers to design drugs which will bind to an exclusive site in the genome with no off-target effects, theoretically. Database URL: http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm PMID:27515825

  12. Onco-Regulon: an integrated database and software suite for site specific targeting of transcription factors of cancer genes.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Navneet; Mishra, Akhilesh; Mrinal, Nirotpal; Jayaram, B

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind at multiple sites in the genome and regulate expression of many genes. Regulating TF binding in a gene specific manner remains a formidable challenge in drug discovery because the same binding motif may be present at multiple locations in the genome. Here, we present Onco-Regulon (http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm), an integrated database of regulatory motifs of cancer genes clubbed with Unique Sequence-Predictor (USP) a software suite that identifies unique sequences for each of these regulatory DNA motifs at the specified position in the genome. USP works by extending a given DNA motif, in 5'→3', 3' →5' or both directions by adding one nucleotide at each step, and calculates the frequency of each extended motif in the genome by Frequency Counter programme. This step is iterated till the frequency of the extended motif becomes unity in the genome. Thus, for each given motif, we get three possible unique sequences. Closest Sequence Finder program predicts off-target drug binding in the genome. Inclusion of DNA-Protein structural information further makes Onco-Regulon a highly informative repository for gene specific drug development. We believe that Onco-Regulon will help researchers to design drugs which will bind to an exclusive site in the genome with no off-target effects, theoretically.Database URL: http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/software/onco/NavSite/index.htm. PMID:27515825

  13. A comprehensive analysis of the La-motif protein superfamily.

    PubMed

    Bousquet-Antonelli, Cécile; Deragon, Jean-Marc

    2009-05-01

    The extremely well-conserved La motif (LAM), in synergy with the immediately following RNA recognition motif (RRM), allows direct binding of the (genuine) La autoantigen to RNA polymerase III primary transcripts. This motif is not only found on La homologs, but also on La-related proteins (LARPs) of unrelated function. LARPs are widely found amongst eukaryotes and, although poorly characterized, appear to be RNA-binding proteins fulfilling crucial cellular functions. We searched the fully sequenced genomes of 83 eukaryotic species scattered along the tree of life for the presence of LAM-containing proteins. We observed that these proteins are absent from archaea and present in all eukaryotes (except protists from the Plasmodium genus), strongly suggesting that the LAM is an ancestral motif that emerged early after the archaea-eukarya radiation. A complete evolutionary and structural analysis of these proteins resulted in their classification into five families: the genuine La homologs and four LARP families. Unexpectedly, in each family a conserved domain representing either a classical RRM or an RRM-like motif immediately follows the LAM of most proteins. An evolutionary analysis of the LAM-RRM/RRM-L regions shows that these motifs co-evolved and should be used as a single entity to define the functional region of interaction of LARPs with their substrates. We also found two extremely well conserved motifs, named LSA and DM15, shared by LARP6 and LARP1 family members, respectively. We suggest that members of the same family are functional homologs and/or share a common molecular mode of action on different RNA baits.

  14. Redox active motifs in selenoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fei; Lutz, Patricia B.; Pepelyayeva, Yuliya; Arnér, Elias S. J.; Bayse, Craig A.; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Selenoproteins use the rare amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) to act as the first line of defense against oxidants, which are linked to aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Many selenoproteins are oxidoreductases in which the reactive Sec is connected to a neighboring Cys and able to form a ring. These Sec-containing redox motifs govern much of the reactivity of selenoproteins. To study their fundamental properties, we have used 77Se NMR spectroscopy in concert with theoretical calculations to determine the conformational preferences and mobility of representative motifs. This use of 77Se as a probe enables the direct recording of the properties of Sec as its environment is systematically changed. We find that all motifs have several ring conformations in their oxidized state. These ring structures are most likely stabilized by weak, nonbonding interactions between the selenium and the amide carbon. To examine how the presence of selenium and ring geometric strain governs the motifs’ reactivity, we measured the redox potentials of Sec-containing motifs and their corresponding Cys-only variants. The comparisons reveal that for C-terminal motifs the redox potentials increased between 20–25 mV when the selenenylsulfide bond was changed to a disulfide bond. Changes of similar magnitude arose when we varied ring size or the motifs’ flanking residues. This suggests that the presence of Sec is not tied to unusually low redox potentials. The unique roles of selenoproteins in human health and their chemical reactivities may therefore not necessarily be explained by lower redox potentials, as has often been claimed. PMID:24769567

  15. Integration of Seismic Sequence Analysis and High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy for Delineating the Sedimentation Characteristics and Modeling of Baltim Area, Off-Shore Nile Delta, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr El-Deen Badawy, A. M. E. S.; Abu El-Ata, A. S. A.; El-Gendy, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    The current study is aiming to discuss the Messinian Prospectivity of the concerned area, which is located in the offshore Nile Delta, about 25 Km from the Mediterranean Sea shoreline. An integrated exploration approach applied, using a variety of the 2D/3D seismic data, subsurface borehole geologic and log data of the selected wells distributed in the study area, as well as the geophysical and biostratigraphic data. The well data comprise well markers, and electric logs, where the geological data represented by litho-stratigraphic information, as well as ditch samples analysis of the studied interval. The geophysical data include check shots, VSP, velocity cubes and 3D seismic lines. Biostratigraphic data include biozones, benthonic to planktonic ratios, nannofossils and foraminiferal data. Seismic interpretation and seismic stratigraphic analysis, in the form of seismic sequence analysis, seismic facies analysis, seismic unit analysis and geologic confirmation have been done by the aid of Petrel and Kingdom computer softwares. The seismic lines were interpreted for defining the different parasequences and picking the various smaller sequences for mapping, after picking each sequence from the seismic correlation, it is facilitated the mapping of every sequence laterally. In addition, the interpretation of structures and isopach of every sequence has been carried out, and the seismic attributes for every sequence were possible, to extract the sands present in each sequence, and to study the extensions of these sands that act as a reservoir. The integration of all results was taken as a base to produce the various models for the study area. The first one was the depositional environmental model, which showed that, the area varies from intertidal-littoral southward at Nidoco wells to inner-middle neritic at Baltim East wells then to outer neritic, and changes to bathyal and then to abyssal at the extreme north. The geologic model for the area was constructed

  16. A novel approach to identifying regulatory motifs in distantly related genomes

    PubMed Central

    Van Hellemont, Ruth; Monsieurs, Pieter; Thijs, Gert; De Moor, Bart; Van de Peer, Yves; Marchal, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Although proven successful in the identification of regulatory motifs, phylogenetic footprinting methods still show some shortcomings. To assess these difficulties, most apparent when applying phylogenetic footprinting to distantly related organisms, we developed a two-step procedure that combines the advantages of sequence alignment and motif detection approaches. The results on well-studied benchmark datasets indicate that the presented method outperforms other methods when the sequences become either too long or too heterogeneous in size. PMID:16420672

  17. BC1 RNA motifs required for dendritic transport in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Robeck, Thomas; Skryabin, Boris V.; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S.; Skryabin, Anastasiya B.; Brosius, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    BC1 RNA is a small brain specific non-protein coding RNA. It is transported from the cell body into dendrites where it is involved in the fine-tuning translational control. Due to its compactness and established secondary structure, BC1 RNA is an ideal model for investigating the motifs necessary for dendritic localization. Previously, microinjection of in vitro transcribed BC1 RNA mutants into the soma of cultured primary neurons suggested the importance of RNA motifs for dendritic targeting. These ex vivo experiments identified a single bulged nucleotide (U22) and a putative K-turn (GA motif) structure required for dendritic localization or distal transport, respectively. We generated six transgenic mouse lines (three founders each) containing neuronally expressing BC1 RNA variants on a BC1 RNA knockout mouse background. In contrast to ex vivo data, we did not find indications of reduction or abolition of dendritic BC1 RNA localization in the mutants devoid of the GA motif or the bulged nucleotide. We confirmed the ex vivo data, which showed that the triloop terminal sequence had no consequence on dendritic transport. Interestingly, changing the triloop supporting structure completely abolished dendritic localization of BC1 RNA. We propose a novel RNA motif important for dendritic transport in vivo. PMID:27350115

  18. BC1 RNA motifs required for dendritic transport in vivo.

    PubMed

    Robeck, Thomas; Skryabin, Boris V; Rozhdestvensky, Timofey S; Skryabin, Anastasiya B; Brosius, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    BC1 RNA is a small brain specific non-protein coding RNA. It is transported from the cell body into dendrites where it is involved in the fine-tuning translational control. Due to its compactness and established secondary structure, BC1 RNA is an ideal model for investigating the motifs necessary for dendritic localization. Previously, microinjection of in vitro transcribed BC1 RNA mutants into the soma of cultured primary neurons suggested the importance of RNA motifs for dendritic targeting. These ex vivo experiments identified a single bulged nucleotide (U22) and a putative K-turn (GA motif) structure required for dendritic localization or distal transport, respectively. We generated six transgenic mouse lines (three founders each) containing neuronally expressing BC1 RNA variants on a BC1 RNA knockout mouse background. In contrast to ex vivo data, we did not find indications of reduction or abolition of dendritic BC1 RNA localization in the mutants devoid of the GA motif or the bulged nucleotide. We confirmed the ex vivo data, which showed that the triloop terminal sequence had no consequence on dendritic transport. Interestingly, changing the triloop supporting structure completely abolished dendritic localization of BC1 RNA. We propose a novel RNA motif important for dendritic transport in vivo. PMID:27350115

  19. Off-line consolidation of motor sequence learning results in greater integration within a cortico-striatal functional network.

    PubMed

    Debas, Karen; Carrier, Julie; Barakat, Marc; Marrelec, Guillaume; Bellec, Pierre; Hadj Tahar, Abdallah; Karni, Avi; Ungerleider, Leslie G; Benali, Habib; Doyon, Julien

    2014-10-01

    The consolidation of motor sequence learning is known to depend on sleep. Work in our laboratory and others have shown that the striatum is associated with this off-line consolidation process. In this study, we aimed to quantify the sleep-dependent dynamic changes occurring at the network level using a measure of functional integration. We directly compared changes in connectivity before and after sleep or the simple passage of daytime. As predicted, the results revealed greater integration within the cortico-striatal network after sleep, but not an equivalent daytime period. Importantly, a similar pattern of results was also observed using a data-driven approach; the increase in integration being specific to a cortico-striatal network, but not to other known functional networks. These findings reveal, for the first time, a new signature of motor sequence consolidation: a greater between-regions interaction within the cortico-striatal system.

  20. Nucleotide sequence analysis of HLA-B*1523 and B*8101. Dominant alpha-helical motifs produce complex serologic recognition patterns for the HLA-B"DT" and HLA-B"NM5" antigens.

    PubMed

    Ellexson, M E; Zhang, G; Stewart, D; Lau, M; Teresi, G; Terasaki, P; Roe, B; Hildebrand, W

    1995-10-01

    Assigning a precise serologic specificity to the class I HLA-B"NM5" and HLA-B"DT" molecules has proven difficult, with patterns of serologic cross-reactivity suggesting that NM5 is most like antigens in the B5 CREG and that DT is either B7 or B40 like. To better understand the relationship these antigens share with other HLA-B molecules we determined the nucleotide sequence of the alleles encoding HLA-B"NM5" and HLA-B"DT". Sequencing results show that NM5 shares the most overall sequence homology with the B70 antigens and that differences at the alpha-helical Bw4/Bw6 epitope preclude serologic cross-reactivity between NM5 and the B70 antigens. Accordingly, NM5 has been assigned the name B*1523. The strong serologic impact of helical sequence conservations and variations is reiterated for the class I HLA-B"DT" molecule. Comparative analysis demonstrates that sequence conservations in the first domain's alpha-helix stimulate cross-reactivity between HLA-B"DT" and HLA-B7, whereas epitopes conserved in the second domain's alpha-helix impel cross-reactivity between HLA-B"DT" and HLA-B48. To convey the unique lineage of this hybrid B7/B48 molecule the name HLA-B*8101 has been assigned to HLA-B"DT".

  1. Conservation defines functional motifs in the squint/nodal-related 1 RNA dorsal localization element

    PubMed Central

    Gilligan, Patrick C.; Kumari, Pooja; Lim, Shimin; Cheong, Albert; Chang, Alex; Sampath, Karuna

    2011-01-01

    RNA localization is emerging as a general principle of sub-cellular protein localization and cellular organization. However, the sequence and structural requirements in many RNA localization elements remain poorly understood. Whereas transcription factor-binding sites in DNA can be recognized as short degenerate motifs, and consensus binding sites readily inferred, protein-binding sites in RNA often contain structural features, and can be difficult to infer. We previously showed that zebrafish squint/nodal-related 1 (sqt/ndr1) RNA localizes to the future dorsal side of the embryo. Interestingly, mammalian nodal RNA can also localize to dorsal when injected into zebrafish embryos, suggesting that the sequence motif(s) may be conserved, even though the fish and mammal UTRs cannot be aligned. To define potential sequence and structural features, we obtained ndr1 3′-UTR sequences from approximately 50 fishes that are closely, or distantly, related to zebrafish, for high-resolution phylogenetic footprinting. We identify conserved sequence and structural motifs within the zebrafish/carp family and catfish. We find that two novel motifs, a single-stranded AGCAC motif and a small stem-loop, are required for efficient sqt RNA localization. These findings show that comparative sequencing in the zebrafish/carp family is an efficient approach for identifying weak consensus binding sites for RNA regulatory proteins. PMID:21149265

  2. Event-related potential indices of congruency sequence effects without feature integration or contingency learning confounds.

    PubMed

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Kirwan, C Brock; Weissman, Daniel H

    2016-06-01

    The congruency effect in Stroop-like tasks (i.e., increased response time and reduced accuracy in incongruent relative to congruent trials) is often smaller when the previous trial was incongruent as compared to congruent. This congruency sequence effect (CSE) is thought to reflect cognitive control processes that shift attention to the target and/or modulate the response engendered by the distracter differently after incongruent relative to congruent trials. The neural signatures of CSEs are therefore usually attributed to cognitive control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. However, CSEs in previous functional neuroimaging studies were ubiquitously confounded with feature integration and/or contingency learning processes. We therefore investigated whether a neural CSE can be observed without such confounds in a group of healthy young adults (n = 56). To this end, we combined a prime-probe task that lacks such confounds with high-density ERPs to identify, for the first time, the neural time course of confound-minimized CSEs. Replicating recent behavioral findings, we observed strong CSEs in this task for mean response time and mean accuracy. Critically, conceptually replicating prior ERP results from confounded tasks, we also observed a CSE in both the parietal conflict slow potential (conflict SP) and the frontomedial N450. These findings indicate for the first time that neural CSEs as indexed by ERPs can be observed without the typical confounds. More broadly, the present study provides a confound-minimized protocol that will help future researchers to better isolate the neural bases of control processes that minimize distraction from irrelevant stimuli. PMID:26854028

  3. Comparison and integration of deleteriousness prediction methods for nonsynonymous SNVs in whole exome sequencing studies

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chengliang; Wei, Peng; Jian, Xueqiu; Gibbs, Richard; Boerwinkle, Eric; Wang, Kai; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Accurate deleteriousness prediction for nonsynonymous variants is crucial for distinguishing pathogenic mutations from background polymorphisms in whole exome sequencing (WES) studies. Although many deleteriousness prediction methods have been developed, their prediction results are sometimes inconsistent with each other and their relative merits are still unclear in practical applications. To address these issues, we comprehensively evaluated the predictive performance of 18 current deleteriousness-scoring methods, including 11 function prediction scores (PolyPhen-2, SIFT, MutationTaster, Mutation Assessor, FATHMM, LRT, PANTHER, PhD-SNP, SNAP, SNPs&GO and MutPred), 3 conservation scores (GERP++, SiPhy and PhyloP) and 4 ensemble scores (CADD, PON-P, KGGSeq and CONDEL). We found that FATHMM and KGGSeq had the highest discriminative power among independent scores and ensemble scores, respectively. Moreover, to ensure unbiased performance evaluation of these prediction scores, we manually collected three distinct testing datasets, on which no current prediction scores were tuned. In addition, we developed two new ensemble scores that integrate nine independent scores and allele frequency. Our scores achieved the highest discriminative power compared with all the deleteriousness prediction scores tested and showed low false-positive prediction rate for benign yet rare nonsynonymous variants, which demonstrated the value of combining information from multiple orthologous approaches. Finally, to facilitate variant prioritization in WES studies, we have pre-computed our ensemble scores for 87 347 044 possible variants in the whole-exome and made them publicly available through the ANNOVAR software and the dbNSFP database. PMID:25552646

  4. Comparison and integration of deleteriousness prediction methods for nonsynonymous SNVs in whole exome sequencing studies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chengliang; Wei, Peng; Jian, Xueqiu; Gibbs, Richard; Boerwinkle, Eric; Wang, Kai; Liu, Xiaoming

    2015-04-15

    Accurate deleteriousness prediction for nonsynonymous variants is crucial for distinguishing pathogenic mutations from background polymorphisms in whole exome sequencing (WES) studies. Although many deleteriousness prediction methods have been developed, their prediction results are sometimes inconsistent with each other and their relative merits are still unclear in practical applications. To address these issues, we comprehensively evaluated the predictive performance of 18 current deleteriousness-scoring methods, including 11 function prediction scores (PolyPhen-2, SIFT, MutationTaster, Mutation Assessor, FATHMM, LRT, PANTHER, PhD-SNP, SNAP, SNPs&GO and MutPred), 3 conservation scores (GERP++, SiPhy and PhyloP) and 4 ensemble scores (CADD, PON-P, KGGSeq and CONDEL). We found that FATHMM and KGGSeq had the highest discriminative power among independent scores and ensemble scores, respectively. Moreover, to ensure unbiased performance evaluation of these prediction scores, we manually collected three distinct testing datasets, on which no current prediction scores were tuned. In addition, we developed two new ensemble scores that integrate nine independent scores and allele frequency. Our scores achieved the highest discriminative power compared with all the deleteriousness prediction scores tested and showed low false-positive prediction rate for benign yet rare nonsynonymous variants, which demonstrated the value of combining information from multiple orthologous approaches. Finally, to facilitate variant prioritization in WES studies, we have pre-computed our ensemble scores for 87 347 044 possible variants in the whole-exome and made them publicly available through the ANNOVAR software and the dbNSFP database. PMID:25552646

  5. Co-evolution of segregation guide DNA motifs and the FtsK translocase in bacteria: identification of the atypical Lactococcus lactis KOPS motif

    PubMed Central

    Nolivos, Sophie; Touzain, Fabrice; Pages, Carine; Coddeville, Michele; Rousseau, Philippe; El Karoui, Meriem; Le Bourgeois, Pascal; Cornet, François

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria use the global bipolarization of their chromosomes into replichores to control the dynamics and segregation of their genome during the cell cycle. This involves the control of protein activities by recognition of specific short DNA motifs whose orientation along the chromosome is highly skewed. The KOPS motifs act in chromosome segregation by orienting the activity of the FtsK DNA translocase towards the terminal replichore junction. KOPS motifs have been identified in γ-Proteobacteria and in Bacillus subtilis as closely related G-rich octamers. We have identified the KOPS motif of Lactococcus lactis, a model bacteria of the Streptococcaceae family harbouring a compact and low GC% genome. This motif, 5′-GAAGAAG-3, was predicted in silico using the occurrence and skew characteristics of known KOPS motifs. We show that it is specifically recognized by L. lactis FtsK in vitro and controls its activity in vivo. L. lactis KOPS is thus an A-rich heptamer motif. Our results show that KOPS-controlled chromosome segregation is conserved in Streptococcaceae but that KOPS may show important variation in sequence and length between bacterial families. This suggests that FtsK adapts to its host genome by selecting motifs with convenient occurrence frequencies and orientation skews to orient its activity. PMID:22373923

  6. Miz-1 activates gene expression via a novel consensus DNA binding motif.

    PubMed

    Barrilleaux, Bonnie L; Burow, Dana; Lockwood, Sarah H; Yu, Abigail; Segal, David J; Knoepfler, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor Miz-1 can either activate or repress gene expression in concert with binding partners including the Myc oncoprotein. The genomic binding of Miz-1 includes both core promoters and more distal sites, but the preferred DNA binding motif of Miz-1 has been unclear. We used a high-throughput in vitro technique, Bind-n-Seq, to identify two Miz-1 consensus DNA binding motif sequences--ATCGGTAATC and ATCGAT (Mizm1 and Mizm2)--bound by full-length Miz-1 and its zinc finger domain, respectively. We validated these sequences directly as high affinity Miz-1 binding motifs. Competition assays using mutant probes indicated that the binding affinity of Miz-1 for Mizm1 and Mizm2 is highly sequence-specific. Miz-1 strongly activates gene expression through the motifs in a Myc-independent manner. MEME-ChIP analysis of Miz-1 ChIP-seq data in two different cell types reveals a long motif with a central core sequence highly similar to the Mizm1 motif identified by Bind-n-Seq, validating the in vivo relevance of the findings. Miz-1 ChIP-seq peaks containing the long motif are predominantly located outside of proximal promoter regions, in contrast to peaks without the motif, which are highly concentrated within 1.5 kb of the nearest transcription start site. Overall, our results indicate that Miz-1 may be directed in vivo to the novel motif sequences we have identified, where it can recruit its specific binding partners to control gene expression and ultimately regulate cell fate. PMID:24983942

  7. Integrated hepatitis B virus DNA sequences specifying the major viral core polypeptide are methylated in PLC/PRF/5 cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, R H; Robinson, W S

    1983-05-01

    The methylation of various hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA sequences was examined using the restriction endonucleases Hpa II and Msp I. HBV DNA from virions (Dane particles) and virus-infected liver tissue was digested with Hpa II or Msp I and fractionated by electrophoresis in agarose gels, and the restriction enzyme cleavage pattern was examined by Southern blot analysis. No methylation of the 5' C-C-G-G 3' recognition sequence was detected in either virion DNA or HBV DNA from infected liver tissue. The tissue culture cell line PLC/PRF/5, derived from a human hepatoma, possesses HBV DNA exclusively integrated at several sites. Digestion of PLC/PRF/5 DNA with Hpa II and Msp I revealed that the integrated HBV DNA sequences were methylated. Further analysis using probes specific for various regions of the HBV genome showed that some of the hepatitis B viral DNA sequences, including those specifying the major surface antigen polypeptide, were methylated infrequently or not at all. In contrast, the viral DNA sequences coding for the major core polypeptide were extensively methylated. Because the surface antigen is expressed in these cells while the core antigen is not, our results suggest that DNA methylation could account for the selective expression of HBV genes in this hepatoma cell line.

  8. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Andrew J.; Brennan, Sean N.; Sauer, Timothy D.; Schiff, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We quantify observability in small (3 node) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and symmetry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3) the nodal dynamics (linear and nonlinear). We find that typical observability metrics for 3 neuron motifs range over several orders of magnitude, depending upon topology, and for motifs containing symmetry the network observability decreases when observing from particularly confounded nodes. Nonlinearities in the nodal equations generally decrease the average network observability and full network information becomes available only in limited regions of the system phase space. Our findings demonstrate that such networks are partially observable, and suggest their potential efficacy in reconstructing network dynamics from limited measurement data. How well such strategies can be used to reconstruct and control network dynamics in experimental settings is a subject for future experimental work. PMID:25909092

  9. Recurrent mutation of the ID3 gene in Burkitt lymphoma identified by integrated genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Richter, Julia; Schlesner, Matthias; Hoffmann, Steve; Kreuz, Markus; Leich, Ellen; Burkhardt, Birgit; Rosolowski, Maciej; Ammerpohl, Ole; Wagener, Rabea; Bernhart, Stephan H; Lenze, Dido; Szczepanowski, Monika; Paulsen, Maren; Lipinski, Simone; Russell, Robert B; Adam-Klages, Sabine; Apic, Gordana; Claviez, Alexander; Hasenclever, Dirk; Hovestadt, Volker; Hornig, Nadine; Korbel, Jan O; Kube, Dieter; Langenberger, David; Lawerenz, Chris; Lisfeld, Jasmin; Meyer, Katharina; Picelli, Simone; Pischimarov, Jordan; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Rausch, Tobias; Rohde, Marius; Schilhabel, Markus; Scholtysik, René; Spang, Rainer; Trautmann, Heiko; Zenz, Thorsten; Borkhardt, Arndt; Drexler, Hans G; Möller, Peter; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Pott, Christiane; Schreiber, Stefan; Trümper, Lorenz; Loeffler, Markus; Stadler, Peter F; Lichter, Peter; Eils, Roland; Küppers, Ralf; Hummel, Michael; Klapper, Wolfram; Rosenstiel, Philip; Rosenwald, Andreas; Brors, Benedikt; Siebert, Reiner

    2012-12-01

    Burkitt lymphoma is a mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma derived from germinal center B cells. Its cytogenetic hallmark is the Burkitt translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants, which juxtapose the MYC oncogene with one of the three immunoglobulin loci. Consequently, MYC is deregulated, resulting in massive perturbation of gene expression. Nevertheless, MYC deregulation alone seems not to be sufficient to drive Burkitt lymphomagenesis. By whole-genome, whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of four prototypical Burkitt lymphomas with immunoglobulin gene (IG)-MYC translocation, we identified seven recurrently mutated genes. One of these genes, ID3, mapped to a region of focal homozygous loss in Burkitt lymphoma. In an extended cohort, 36 of 53 molecularly defined Burkitt lymphomas (68%) carried potentially damaging mutations of ID3. These were strongly enriched at somatic hypermutation motifs. Only 6 of 47 other B-cell lymphomas with the IG-MYC translocation (13%) carried ID3 mutations. These findings suggest that cooperation between ID3 inactivation and IG-MYC translocation is a hallmark of Burkitt lymphomagenesis.

  10. An Efficient Exact Algorithm for the Motif Stem Search Problem over Large Alphabets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qiang; Huo, Hongwei; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott; Huan, Jun; Nekrich, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in planted (l, d) motif search (PMS) with applications to discovering significant segments in biological sequences. However, there has been little discussion about PMS over large alphabets. This paper focuses on motif stem search (MSS), which is recently introduced to search motifs on large-alphabet inputs. A motif stem is an l-length string with some wildcards. The goal of the MSS problem is to find a set of stems that represents a superset of all (l , d) motifs present in the input sequences, and the superset is expected to be as small as possible. The three main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) We build motif stem representation more precisely by using regular expressions. (2) We give a method for generating all possible motif stems without redundant wildcards. (3) We propose an efficient exact algorithm, called StemFinder, for solving the MSS problem. Compared with the previous MSS algorithms, StemFinder runs much faster and reports fewer stems which represent a smaller superset of all (l, d) motifs. StemFinder is freely available at http://sites.google.com/site/feqond/stemfinder. PMID:26357225

  11. RNAMotifScanX: a graph alignment approach for RNA structural motif identification.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cuncong; Zhang, Shaojie

    2015-03-01

    RNA structural motifs are recurrent three-dimensional (3D) components found in the RNA architecture. These RNA structural motifs play important structural or functional roles and usually exhibit highly conserved 3D geometries and base-interaction patterns. Analysis of the RNA 3D structures and elucidation of their molecular functions heavily rely on efficient and accurate identification of these motifs. However, efficient RNA structural motif search tools are lacking due to the high complexity of these motifs. In this work, we present RNAMotifScanX, a motif search tool based on a base-interaction graph alignment algorithm. This novel algorithm enables automatic identification of both partially and fully matched motif instances. RNAMotifScanX considers noncanonical base-pairing interactions, base-stacking interactions, and sequence conservation of the motifs, which leads to significantly improved sensitivity and specificity as compared with other state-of-the-art search tools. RNAMotifScanX also adopts a carefully designed branch-and-bound technique, which enables ultra-fast search of large kink-turn motifs against a 23S rRNA. The software package RNAMotifScanX is implemented using GNU C++, and is freely available from http://genome.ucf.edu/RNAMotifScanX.

  12. A general approach for discriminative de novo motif discovery from high-throughput data

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Jan; Posch, Stefan; Grosse, Ivo; Keilwagen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    De novo motif discovery has been an important challenge of bioinformatics for the past two decades. Since the emergence of high-throughput techniques like ChIP-seq, ChIP-exo and protein-binding microarrays (PBMs), the focus of de novo motif discovery has shifted to runtime and accuracy on large data sets. For this purpose, specialized algorithms have been designed for discovering motifs in ChIP-seq or PBM data. However, none of the existing approaches work perfectly for all three high-throughput techniques. In this article, we propose Dimont, a general approach for fast and accurate de novo motif discovery from high-throughput data. We demonstrate that Dimont yields a higher number of correct motifs from ChIP-seq data than any of the specialized approaches and achieves a higher accuracy for predicting PBM intensities from probe sequence than any of the approaches specifically designed for that purpose. Dimont also reports the expected motifs for several ChIP-exo data sets. Investigating differences between in vitro and in vivo binding, we find that for most transcription factors, the motifs discovered by Dimont are in good accordance between techniques, but we also find notable exceptions. We also observe that modeling intra-motif dependencies may increase accuracy, which indicates that more complex motif models are a worthwhile field of research. PMID:24057214

  13. Melatonin synthesis in retina: cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulation of chicken arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase by a CRE-like sequence and a TTATT repeat motif in the proximal promoter.

    PubMed

    Haque, Rashidul; Chong, Nelson W; Ali, Fatima; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Sengupta, Trisha; Chun, Eugene; Howell, Jennifer C; Klein, David C; Iuvone, P Michael

    2011-10-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT) is the key regulatory enzyme controlling the daily rhythm of melatonin biosynthesis. In chicken retinal photoreceptor cells, Aanat transcription and AANAT activity are regulated in part by cAMP-dependent mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to identify regulatory elements within the chicken Aanat promoter responsible for cAMP-dependent induction. Photoreceptor-enriched retinal cell cultures were transfected with a luciferase reporter construct containing up to 4 kb of 5'-flanking region and the first exon of Aanat. Forskolin treatment stimulated luciferase activity driven by the ∼4 kb promoter construct and by all 5'-deletion constructs except the smallest, Aanat (-217 to +120)luc. Maximal basal and forskolin-stimulated expression levels were generated by the Aanat (-484 to +120)luc construct. This construct lacks a canonical cyclic AMP-response element (CRE), but contains two other potentially important elements in its sequence: an eight times TTATT repeat (TTATT₈) and a CRE-like sequence. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and siRNA experiments provide evidence that these elements bind c-Fos, JunD, and CREB to enhance basal and forskolin-stimulated Aanat transcription. We propose that the CRE-like sequence and TTATT₈ elements in the 484 bp proximal promoter interact to mediate cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulation of Aanat.

  14. Acquisition of telomere repeat sequences by transfected DNA integrated at the site of a chromosome break

    SciTech Connect

    Murnane, J.P.; Lohchung Yu )

    1993-02-01

    Rearrangement of the human genome is an important element in both cancer biology and genetic disease. Rearrangements that have been observed include deletions, translocations, chromosome breakage or loss, and gene amplification. Transfection of the DNA into mammalian cells can created instability in the genome. The characterization of DNA rearrangement associated with transfected DNA may provide information about the general mechanisms involved in genomic instability. This genomic instability is an important aspect of tumor cell progression. This research examines chromosome breakage and rearrangement that results in interstitial telomere repeat sequences within the human genome. These sequences could promote genomic instability because short repeat sequences can be recombination hotspots. Also, DNA rearrangements involving telomere repeat sequences can be associated with chromosome breaks. The introduction of telomere repeat sequences at spontaneous or ionizing radiation-induced DNA strand breaks may therefore also be a mechanism of chromosome fragmentation. 52 refs., 7 figs.

  15. RNA 3D Structural Motifs: Definition, Identification, Annotation, and Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasalean, Lorena; Stombaugh, Jesse; Zirbel, Craig L.; Leontis, Neocles B.

    Structured RNA molecules resemble proteins in the hierarchical organization of their global structures, folding and broad range of functions. Structured RNAs are composed of recurrent modular motifs that play specific functional roles. Some motifs direct the folding of the RNA or stabilize the folded structure through tertiary interactions. Others bind ligands or proteins or catalyze chemical reactions. Therefore, it is desirable, starting from the RNA sequence, to be able to predict the locations of recurrent motifs in RNA molecules. Conversely, the potential occurrence of one or more known 3D RNA motifs may indicate that a genomic sequence codes for a structured RNA molecule. To identify known RNA structural motifs in new RNA sequences, precise structure-based definitions are needed that specify the core nucleotides of each motif and their conserved interactions. By comparing instances of each recurrent motif and applying base pair isosteriCity relations, one can identify neutral mutations that preserve its structure and function in the contexts in which it occurs.

  16. PlantMirnaT: miRNA and mRNA integrated analysis fully utilizing characteristics of plant sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Rhee, S; Chae, H; Kim, S

    2015-07-15

    miRNA is known to regulate up to several hundreds coding genes, thus the integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression data is an important problem. Unfortunately, the integrated analysis is challenging since it needs to consider expression data of two different types, miRNA and mRNA, and target relationship between miRNA and mRNA is not clear, especially when microarray data is used. Fortunately, due to the low sequencing cost, small RNA and RNA sequencing are routinely processed and we may be able to infer regulation relationships between miRNAs and mRNAs more accurately by using sequencing data. However, no method is developed specifically for sequencing data. Thus we developed PlantMirnaT, a new miRNA-mRNA integrated analysis system. To fully leverage the power of sequencing data, three major features are developed and implemented in PlantMirnaT. First, we implemented a plant-specific short read mapping tool based on recent discoveries on miRNA target relationship in plant. Second, we designed and implemented an algorithm considering miRNA targets in the full intragenic region, not just 3' UTR. Lastly but most importantly, our algorithm is designed to consider quantity of miRNA expression and its distribution on target mRNAs. The new algorithm was used to characterize rice under drought condition using our proprietary data. Our algorithm successfully discovered that two miRNAs, miRNA1425-5p, miRNA 398b, that are involved in suppression of glucose pathway in a naturally drought resistant rice, Vandana. The system can be downloaded at https://sites.google.com/site/biohealthinformaticslab/resources. PMID:25863133

  17. Knowledge discovery and sequence-based prediction of pandemic influenza using an integrated classification and association rule mining (CBA) algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Fatemeh; Sami, Ashkan; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-10-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major concern worldwide. Availability of advanced technologies and the nucleotide sequences of a large number of pandemic and non-pandemic influenza viruses in 2009 provide a great opportunity to investigate the underlying rules of pandemic induction through data mining tools. Here, for the first time, an integrated classification and association rule mining algorithm (CBA) was used to discover the rules underpinning alteration of non-pandemic sequences to pandemic ones. We hypothesized that the extracted rules can lead to the development of an efficient expert system for prediction of influenza pandemics. To this end, we used a large dataset containing 5373 HA (hemagglutinin) segments of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and non-pandemic influenza sequences. The analysis was carried out for both nucleotide and protein sequences. We found a number of new rules which potentially present the undiscovered antigenic sites at influenza structure. At the nucleotide level, alteration of thymine (T) at position 260 was the key discriminating feature in distinguishing non-pandemic from pandemic sequences. At the protein level, rules including I233K, M334L were the differentiating features. CBA efficiently classifies pandemic and non-pandemic sequences with high accuracy at both the nucleotide and protein level. Finding hotspots in influenza sequences is a significant finding as they represent the regions with low antibody reactivity. We argue that the virus breaks host immunity response by mutation at these spots. Based on the discovered rules, we developed the software, "Prediction of Pandemic Influenza" for discrimination of pandemic from non-pandemic sequences. This study opens a new vista in discovery of association rules between mutation points during evolution of pandemic influenza.

  18. An Integrated View of the Mw 6 Earthquake Sequence at Parkfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapusta, N.; Barbot, S.; Avouac, J.

    2011-12-01

    propagation (including the radiation of seismic waves) and the afterslip transient that follows the main shocks. Our model gives rise to a sequence of Mw~6 earthquakes that can explain the observed variability of hypocenters and reproduce the geodetic observations of surface deformation in the co- and postseismic periods associated with the 2004 event. The change of hypocenter between 1966 and 2004 and the delay of the latest event is consistent with the occurrence of a swarm of smaller-magnitude earthquakes during the 1992-1994 period and these two locations being close to the boundary of the seismogenic zone. Our study introduces a methodology capable of integrating seismological and geodetic observations into a coherent physical model of the earthquake cycle. Our approach can serve as an important tool to investigate the effect of other components of earthquake physics and to help understand and mitigate seismic hazards around active faults.

  19. Definition of a GC-rich motif as regulatory sequence of the human IL-3 gene: coordinate regulation of the IL-3 gene by CLE2/GC box of the GM-CSF gene in T cell activation.

    PubMed

    Nishida, J; Yoshida, M; Arai, K; Yokota, T

    1991-03-01

    The human IL-3 gene, located on chromosome 5, contains several cis-acting DNA sequences, i.e. CLE (conserved lymphokine element) and a GC-rich region, similar to the GM-CSF gene. To investigate the role of these elements, the 5' flanking region of the IL-3 gene was attached to a bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. The fusion plasmids were analyzed by an in vitro transcription system using Jurkat cell nuclear extract prepared from cells stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and calcium ionophore (PMA/A23187), introduced into Jurkat cells, expressed transiently, and stimulated by co-transfection of human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) encoded transactivator, p40tax. The GC-rich region enhanced TATA-dependent transcription in the in vitro transcription system and also strongly responded to p40tax stimulation in the in vivo cotransfection assay. Using this GC-rich region as a probe, we identified a constitutive DNA-protein complex, alpha, whose binding specificity correlates with transcription activity. However, this element is not sufficient for the expression of the IL-3 gene in response to T cell activation signals (PMA/A23187) and no sequence was found within the IL-3 gene which mediates the response to PMA/A23187. The enhancer sequence which responds to T cell activation signals may be located outside the IL-3 gene and may be shared by other lymphokines, possibly by GM-CSF. We propose that the GM-CSF enhancer (CLE2/GC box) which mediates the response to T cell activation signals may stimulate the expression of the IL-3 gene. PMID:2049340

  20. Multi-sequence magnetic resonance imaging integration framework for image-guided catheter ablation of scar-related ventricular tachycardia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Qian; Milles, Julien; van Huls van Taxis, Carine; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Zeppenfeld, Katja; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2012-02-01

    Catheter ablation is an important option to treat ventricular tachycardias (VT). Scar-related VT is among the most difficult to treat, because myocardial scar, which is the underlying arrhythmogenic substrate, is patient-specific and often highly complex. The scar image from preprocedural late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LGE- MRI) can provide high-resolution substrate information and, if integrated at the early stage of the procedure, can largely facilitate the procedure with image guidance. In clinical practice, however, early MRI integration is difficult because available integration tools rely on matching the MRI surface mesh and electroanatomical mapping (EAM) points, which is only possible after extensive EAM has been performed. In this paper, we propose to use a priori information on patient posture and a multi-sequence MRI integration framework to achieve accurate MRI integration that can be accomplished at an early stage of the procedure. From the MRI sequences, the left ventricular (LV) geometry, myocardial scar characteristics, and an anatomical landmark indicating the origin of the left main coronary artery are obtained preprocedurally using image processing techniques. Thereby the integration can be realized at the beginning of the procedure after acquiring a single mapping point. The integration method has been evaluated postprocedurally in terms of LV shape match and actual scar match. Compared to the iterative closest point (ICP) method that uses high-intensity mapping (225+/-49 points), our method using one mapping point reached a mean point-to-surface distance of 5.09+/-1.09 mm (vs. 3.85+/-0.60 mm, p<0.05), and scar correlation of -0.51+/-0.14 (vs. -0.50+/-0.14, p=NS).

  1. Genomic RNAs of Borna disease virus are elongated on internal template motifs after realignment of the 3′ termini

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Arnold; Hoefs, Nadja; Tadewaldt, Josefine; Staeheli, Peter; Schneider, Urs

    2011-01-01

    The terminal structures of the Borna disease virus (BDV) genome (vRNA) and antigenome (cRNA) differ from those of other negative strand RNA viruses, as both molecules possess four nucleotides at the 3′ terminus without an apparent template at the 5′ end of the opposite strand. Consequently, the v- and cRNA molecules are not perfect mirror images, a situation that is not compatible with conventional strategies to maintain genetic information. We show here that recombinant viruses recovered from cDNA lacking the nontemplated nucleotides efficiently reconstitute the 3′ overhangs. Analyses of recombinant viruses encoding genetic markers in potential alternative template sequences demonstrated that the BDV v- and cRNA molecules are extended by a realign-and-elongation process on internal template motifs located in close proximity to the 3′ ends of v- and cRNA, respectively. The data further suggest that cRNA elongation is restricted to a single template motif of the nascent strand, whereas elongation of vRNA might use multiple template motifs. We propose that the elongation of the 3′ termini supports the terminal integrity of the genomic RNA molecules during BDV persistence, and furthermore provides an elegant strategy to eliminate the triphosphate groups from the 5′ termini of the BDV v- and cRNA without compromising the genetic information of the virus. PMID:21482759

  2. Identification and preliminary characterization of a protein motif related to the zinc finger.

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, R; Hanson, I M; Borden, K L; Martin, S; O'Reilly, N J; Evan, G I; Rahman, D; Pappin, D J; Trowsdale, J; Freemont, P S

    1993-01-01

    We have identified a protein motif, related to the zinc finger, which defines a newly discovered family of proteins. The motif was found in the sequence of the human RING1 gene, which is proximal to the major histocompatibility complex region on chromosome six. We propose naming this motif the "RING finger" and it is found in 27 proteins, all of which have putative DNA binding functions. We have synthesized a peptide corresponding to the RING1 motif and examined a number of properties, including metal and DNA binding. We provide evidence to support the suggestion that the RING finger motif is the DNA binding domain of this newly defined family of proteins. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:7681583

  3. Proteogenomics: Integrating Next-Generation Sequencing and Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Human Proteomic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Sheynkman, Gloria M.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Cesnik, Anthony J.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2016-01-01

    Mass spectrometry–based proteomics has emerged as the leading method for detection, quantification, and characterization of proteins. Nearly all proteomic workflows rely on proteomic databases to identify peptides and proteins, but these databases typically contain a generic set of proteins that lack variations unique to a given sample, precluding their detection. Fortunately, proteogenomics enables the detection of such proteomic variations and can be defined, broadly, as the use of nucleotide sequences to generate candidate protein sequences for mass spectrometry database searching. Proteogenomics is experiencing heightened significance due to two developments: (a) advances in DNA sequencing technologies that have made complete sequencing of human genomes and transcriptomes routine, and (b) the unveiling of the tremendous complexity of the human proteome as expressed at the levels of genes, cells, tissues, individuals, and populations. We review here the field of human proteogenomics, with an emphasis on its history, current implementations, the types of proteomic variations it reveals, and several important applications. PMID:27049631

  4. Proteogenomics: Integrating Next-Generation Sequencing and Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Human Proteomic Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheynkman, Gloria M.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Cesnik, Anthony J.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry-based proteomics has emerged as the leading method for detection, quantification, and characterization of proteins. Nearly all proteomic workflows rely on proteomic databases to identify peptides and proteins, but these databases typically contain a generic set of proteins that lack variations unique to a given sample, precluding their detection. Fortunately, proteogenomics enables the detection of such proteomic variations and can be defined, broadly, as the use of nucleotide sequences to generate candidate protein sequences for mass spectrometry database searching. Proteogenomics is experiencing heightened significance due to two developments: (a) advances in DNA sequencing technologies that have made complete sequencing of human genomes and transcriptomes routine, and (b) the unveiling of the tremendous complexity of the human proteome as expressed at the levels of genes, cells, tissues, individuals, and populations. We review here the field of human proteogenomics, with an emphasis on its history, current implementations, the types of proteomic variations it reveals, and several important applications.

  5. Integrating sequence and array data to create an improved 1000 Genomes Project haplotype reference panel.

    PubMed

    Delaneau, Olivier; Marchini, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    A major use of the 1000 Genomes Project (1000 GP) data is genotype imputation in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Here we develop a method to estimate haplotypes from low-coverage sequencing data that can take advantage of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray genotypes on the same samples. First the SNP array data are phased to build a backbone (or 'scaffold') of haplotypes across each chromosome. We then phase the sequence data 'onto' this haplotype scaffold. This approach can take advantage of relatedness between sequenced and non-sequenced samples to improve accuracy. We use this method to create a new 1000 GP haplotype reference set for use by the human genetic community. Using a set of validation genotypes at SNP and bi-allelic indels we show that these haplotypes have lower genotype discordance and improved imputation performance into downstream GWAS samples, especially at low-frequency variants. PMID:25653097

  6. The role of integrated databases in microbial genome sequence analysis and metabolic reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T., Maltsev, N., Overbeek, R.

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the PUMA system which provides access to data about metabolic pathways, enzymes, compounds, organisms, encoded activity, and assay condition information for enzymes in particular organisms and multiple sequence alignments.

  7. Proteogenomics: Integrating Next-Generation Sequencing and Mass Spectrometry to Characterize Human Proteomic Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheynkman, Gloria M.; Shortreed, Michael R.; Cesnik, Anthony J.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    2016-06-01

    Mass spectrometry–based proteomics has emerged as the leading method for detection, quantification, and characterization of proteins. Nearly all proteomic workflows rely on proteomic databases to identify peptides and proteins, but these databases typically contain a generic set of proteins that lack variations unique to a given sample, precluding their detection. Fortunately, proteogenomics enables the detection of such proteomic variations and can be defined, broadly, as the use of nucleotide sequences to generate candidate protein sequences for mass spectrometry database searching. Proteogenomics is experiencing heightened significance due to two developments: (a) advances in DNA sequencing technologies that have made complete sequencing of human genomes and transcriptomes routine, and (b) the unveiling of the tremendous complexity of the human proteome as expressed at the levels of genes, cells, tissues, individuals, and populations. We review here the field of human proteogenomics, with an emphasis on its history, current implementations, the types of proteomic variations it reveals, and several important applications.

  8. Sequence-specific association in aqueous media by integrating hydrogen bonding and dynamic covalent interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Minfeng; Yamato, Kazuhiro; Ferguson, Joseph S; Gong, Bing

    2006-10-01

    Oligoamide strands that associate in a sequence-specific fashion into hydrogen-bonded duplexes in nonpolar solvents were converted into disulfide cross-linked duplexes in aqueous media. Thus, by incorporating trityl-protected thiol groups, which allows the reversible formation of disulfide bonds, into the oligoamide strands, only duplexes consisting of complementary hydrogen-bonding sequences were formed in aqueous solution as well as in methanol. The sequence-specific cross-linking of oligoamide strands was confirmed by MALDI-TOF, reverse-phase HPLC, and by isolating a cross-linked duplex. This study demonstrates that the sequence-specificity characteristic of multiply hydrogen-bonded systems can be extended into competitive media through the interplay of H-bonding and reversible covalent interactions, based on which a new class of molecular associating and ligating units that are compatible with both polar and nonpolar environments can be conveniently obtained.

  9. Regulatory motifs in Chk1

    PubMed Central

    Caparelli, Michael L.; O’Connell, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Chk1 is the effector kinase of the G2 DNA damage checkpoint. Chk1 homologs possess a highly conserved N-terminal kinase domain and a less conserved C-terminal regulatory domain. In response to DNA damage, Chk1 is recruited to mediator proteins assembled at lesions on replication protein A (RPA)-coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Chk1 is then activated by phosphorylation on S345 in the C-terminal regulatory domain by the PI3 kinase-related kinases ATM and ATR to enforce a G2 cell cycle arrest to allow time for DNA repair. Models have emerged in which this C-terminal phosphorylation relieves auto-inhibitory regulation of the kinase domain by the regulatory domain. However, experiments in fission yeast have shown that deletion of this putative auto-inhibitory domain actually inactivates Chk1 function. We show here that Chk1 homologs possess a kinase-associated 1 (KA1) domain that possesses residues previously implicated in Chk1 auto-inhibition. In addition, all Chk1 homologs have a small and highly conserved C-terminal extension (CTE domain). In fission yeast, both of these motifs are essential for Chk1 activation through interaction with the mediator protein Crb2, the homolog of human 53BP1. Thus, through different intra- and intermolecular interactions, these motifs explain why the regulatory domain exerts both positive and negative control over Chk1 activation. Such motifs may provide alternative targets to the ATP-binding pocket on which to dock Chk1 inhibitors as anticancer therapeutics. PMID:23422000

  10. Application of targeted enrichment to next-generation sequencing of retroviruses integrated into the host human genome

    PubMed Central

    Miyazato, Paola; Katsuya, Hiroo; Fukuda, Asami; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Matsuo, Misaki; Tokunaga, Michiyo; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Satou, Yorifumi

    2016-01-01

    The recent development and advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled the characterization of the human genome at extremely high resolution. In the retrovirology field, NGS technologies have been applied to integration-site analysis and deep sequencing of viral genomes in combination with PCR amplification using virus-specific primers. However, virus-specific primers are not available for some epigenetic analyses, like chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) assays. Viral sequences are poorly detected without specific PCR amplification because proviral DNA is very scarce compared to human genomic DNA. Here, we have developed and evaluated the use of biotinylated DNA probes for the capture of viral genetic fragments from a library prepared for NGS. Our results demonstrated that viral sequence detection was hundreds or thousands of times more sensitive after enrichment, enabling us to reduce the economic burden that arises when attempting to analyze the epigenetic landscape of proviruses by NGS. In addition, the method is versatile enough to analyze proviruses that have mismatches compared to the DNA probes. Taken together, we propose that this approach is a powerful tool to clarify the mechanisms of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of retroviral proviruses that have, until now, remained elusive. PMID:27321866

  11. Prioritization Of Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Variants For Exome Sequencing Studies Via Integrative Learning On Multiple Genomic Data

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mengmeng; Wu, Jiaxin; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next generation sequencing technology has greatly accelerated the progress for understanding human inherited diseases via such innovations as exome sequencing. Nevertheless, the identification of causative variants from sequencing data remains a great challenge. Traditional statistical genetics approaches such as linkage analysis and association studies have limited power in analyzing exome sequencing data, while relying on simply filtration strategies and predicted functional implications of mutations to pinpoint pathogenic variants are prone to produce false positives. To overcome these limitations, we herein propose a supervised learning approach, termed snvForest, to prioritize candidate nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants for a specific type of disease by integrating 11 functional scores at the variant level and 8 association scores at the gene level. We conduct a series of large-scale in silico validation experiments, demonstrating the effectiveness of snvForest across 2,511 diseases of different inheritance styles and the superiority of our approach over two state-of-the-art methods. We further apply snvForest to three real exome sequencing data sets of epileptic encephalophathies and intellectual disability to show the ability of our approach to identify causative de novo mutations for these complex diseases. The online service and standalone software of snvForest are found at http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/jianglab/snvforest. PMID:26459872

  12. Application of targeted enrichment to next-generation sequencing of retroviruses integrated into the host human genome.

    PubMed

    Miyazato, Paola; Katsuya, Hiroo; Fukuda, Asami; Uchiyama, Yoshikazu; Matsuo, Misaki; Tokunaga, Michiyo; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Satou, Yorifumi

    2016-01-01

    The recent development and advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have enabled the characterization of the human genome at extremely high resolution. In the retrovirology field, NGS technologies have been applied to integration-site analysis and deep sequencing of viral genomes in combination with PCR amplification using virus-specific primers. However, virus-specific primers are not available for some epigenetic analyses, like chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) assays. Viral sequences are poorly detected without specific PCR amplification because proviral DNA is very scarce compared to human genomic DNA. Here, we have developed and evaluated the use of biotinylated DNA probes for the capture of viral genetic fragments from a library prepared for NGS. Our results demonstrated that viral sequence detection was hundreds or thousands of times more sensitive after enrichment, enabling us to reduce the economic burden that arises when attempting to analyze the epigenetic landscape of proviruses by NGS. In addition, the method is versatile enough to analyze proviruses that have mismatches compared to the DNA probes. Taken together, we propose that this approach is a powerful tool to clarify the mechanisms of transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of retroviral proviruses that have, until now, remained elusive. PMID:27321866

  13. Prioritization Of Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Variants For Exome Sequencing Studies Via Integrative Learning On Multiple Genomic Data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengmeng; Wu, Jiaxin; Chen, Ting; Jiang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The rapid advancement of next generation sequencing technology has greatly accelerated the progress for understanding human inherited diseases via such innovations as exome sequencing. Nevertheless, the identification of causative variants from sequencing data remains a great challenge. Traditional statistical genetics approaches such as linkage analysis and association studies have limited power in analyzing exome sequencing data, while relying on simply filtration strategies and predicted functional implications of mutations to pinpoint pathogenic variants are prone to produce false positives. To overcome these limitations, we herein propose a supervised learning approach, termed snvForest, to prioritize candidate nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants for a specific type of disease by integrating 11 functional scores at the variant level and 8 association scores at the gene level. We conduct a series of large-scale in silico validation experiments, demonstrating the effectiveness of snvForest across 2,511 diseases of different inheritance styles and the superiority of our approach over two state-of-the-art methods. We further apply snvForest to three real exome sequencing data sets of epileptic encephalophathies and intellectual disability to show the ability of our approach to identify causative de novo mutations for these complex diseases. The online service and standalone software of snvForest are found at http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/jianglab/snvforest. PMID:26459872

  14. Circular code motifs in genomes of eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    El Soufi, Karim; Michel, Christian J

    2016-11-01

    A set X of 20 trinucleotides was identified in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses, which has in average the highest occurrence in reading frame compared to its two shifted frames (Michel, 2015; Arquès and Michel, 1996). This set X has an interesting mathematical property as X is a circular code (Arquès and Michel, 1996). Thus, the motifs from this circular code X, called X motifs, have the property to always retrieve, synchronize and maintain the reading frame in genes. In this paper, we develop several statistical analyzes of X motifs in 138 available complete genomes of eukaryotes in which genes as well as non-gene regions are examined. Large X motifs (with lengths of at least 15 consecutive trinucleotides of X and compositions of at least 10 different trinucleotides of X among 20) have the highest occurrence in genomes of eukaryotes compared to its 23 large bijective motifs, its two large permuted motifs and large random motifs. The largest X motifs identified in eukaryotic genomes are presented, e.g. an X motif in a non-gene region of the genome Solanum pennellii with a length of 155 trinucleotides (465 nucleotides) and an expectation E=10(-71). In the human genome, the largest X motif occurs in a non-gene region of the chromosome 13 with a length of 36 trinucleotides and an expectation E=10(-11). X motifs in non-gene regions of genomes could be evolutionary relics of primitive genes using the circular code for translation. However, the proportion of X motifs (with lengths of at least 10 consecutive trinucleotides of X and compositions of at least 5 different trinucleotides of X among 20) in genes/non-genes of the 138 complete eukaryotic genomes is about 8. Thus, the X motifs occur preferentially in genes, as expected from the previous works of 20 years.

  15. Comparative motif discovery combined with comparative transcriptomics yields accurate targetome and enhancer predictions.

    PubMed

    Naval-Sánchez, Marina; Potier, Delphine; Haagen, Lotte; Sánchez, Máximo; Munck, Sebastian; Van de Sande, Bram; Casares, Fernando; Christiaens, Valerie; Aerts, Stein

    2013-01-01

    The identification of transcription factor binding sites, enhancers, and transcriptional target genes often relies on the integration of gene expression profiling and computational cis-regulatory sequence analysis. Methods for the prediction of cis-regulatory elements can take advantage of comparative genomics to increase signal-to-noise levels. However, gene expression data are usually derived from only one species. Here we investigate tissue-specific cross-species gene expression profiling by high-throughput sequencing, combined with cross-species motif discovery. First, we compared different methods for expression level quantification and cross-species integration using Tag-seq data. Using the optimal pipeline, we derived a set of genes with conserved expression during retinal determination across Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila yakuba, and Drosophila virilis. These genes are enriched for binding sites of eye-related transcription factors including the zinc-finger Glass, a master regulator of photoreceptor differentiation. Validation of predicted Glass targets using RNA-seq in homozygous glass mutants confirms that the majority of our predictions are expressed downstream from Glass. Finally, we tested nine candidate enhancers by in vivo reporter assays and found eight of them to drive GFP in the eye disc, of which seven colocalize with the Glass protein, namely, scrt, chp, dpr10, CG6329, retn, Lim3, and dmrt99B. In conclusion, we show for the first time the combined use of cross-species expression profiling with cross-species motif discovery as a method to define a core developmental program, and we augment the candidate Glass targetome from a single known target gene, lozenge, to at least 62 conserved transcriptional targets. PMID:23070853

  16. Gender-specific effects on food intake but no inhibition of age-related fat accretion in transgenic mice overexpressing human IGFBP-2 lacking the Cardin-Weintraub sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Wiedmer, Petra; Schwarz, Franziska; Große, Birgit; Schindler, Nancy; Tuchscherer, Armin; Russo, Vincenzo C; Tschöp, Matthias H; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    IGFBP-2 affects growth and metabolism and is thought to impact on energy homeostasis and the accretion of body fat via its heparin binding domains (HBD). In order to assess the function of the HBD present in the linker domain (HBD1) we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human IGFBP-2 lacking the PKKLRP sequence and carrying a PNNLAP sequence instead. Transgenic mice expressed high amounts of human IGFBP-2, while endogenous IGFBP-2 or IGF-I serum concentrations were not affected. In both genders we performed a longitudinal analysis of growth and metabolism including at least 4 separate time points between the age of 10 and 52 weeks. Body composition was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Food intake was recorded by an automated online-monitoring. We describe negative effects of mutant human IGFBP-2 on body weight, longitudinal growth and lean body mass (p < 0.05). Very clearly, negative effects of mutant IGFBP-2 were not observed for fat mass accretion throughout life. Instead, relative fat mass was increased in transgenic mice of both genders (p < 0.05). In male mice transgene expression significantly increased absolute mass of total body fat over all age groups (p < 0.05). Food intake was increased in female but decreased in male transgenic mice at an age of 11 weeks. Thus our study clearly provides gender- and time-specific effects of HBD1-deficient hIGFBP-2 (H1d-BP-2) on fat mass accretion and food intake. While our data are in principal agreement with current knowledge on the role of HB-domains for fat accretion we now may also speculate on a role of HBD1 for the control of eating behavior.

  17. Toward an Integrated BAC Library Resource for Genome Sequencing and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, M. I.; Kim, U.-J.

    2002-02-26

    We developed a great deal of expertise in building large BAC libraries from a variety of DNA sources including humans, mice, corn, microorganisms, worms, and Arabidopsis. We greatly improved the technology for screening these libraries rapidly and for selecting appropriate BACs and mapping BACs to develop large overlapping contigs. We became involved in supplying BACs and BAC contigs to a variety of sequencing and mapping projects and we began to collaborate with Drs. Adams and Venter at TIGR and with Dr. Leroy Hood and his group at University of Washington to provide BACs for end sequencing and for mapping and sequencing of large fragments of chromosome 16. Together with Dr. Ian Dunham and his co-workers at the Sanger Center we completed the mapping and they completed the sequencing of the first human chromosome, chromosome 22. This was published in Nature in 1999 and our BAC contigs made a major contribution to this sequencing effort. Drs. Shizuya and Ding invented an automated highly accurate BAC mapping technique. We also developed long-term collaborations with Dr. Uli Weier at UCSF in the design of BAC probes for characterization of human tumors and specific chromosome deletions and breakpoints. Finally the contribution of our work to the human genome project has been recognized in the publication both by the international consortium and the NIH of a draft sequence of the human genome in Nature last year. Dr. Shizuya was acknowledged in the authorship of that landmark paper. Dr. Simon was also an author on the Venter/Adams Celera project sequencing the human genome that was published in Science last year.

  18. Development of a high density integrated reference genetic linkage map for the multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Choi, Su Ryun; Van Nguyen, Dan; Hossain, Md Jamil; Yang, Hyeon Kook; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2010-11-01

    We constructed a high-density Brassica rapa integrated linkage map by combining a reference genetic map of 78 doubled haploid lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × Kenshin (CKDH) and a new map of 190 F2 lines derived from Chiifu-401-42 × rapid cycling B. rapa (CRF2). The integrated map contains 1017 markers and covers 1262.0 cM of the B. rapa genome, with an average interlocus distance of 1.24 cM. High similarity of marker order and position was observed among the linkage groups of the maps with few short-distance inversions. In total, 155 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, anchored to 102 new bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) and 146 intron polymorphic (IP) markers were mapped in the integrated map, which would be helpful to align the sequenced BACs in the ongoing multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP). Further, comparison of the B. rapa consensus map with the 10 B. juncea A-genome linkage groups by using 98 common IP markers showed high-degree colinearity between the A-genome linkage groups, except for few markers showing inversion or translocation. Suggesting that chromosomes are highly conserved between these Brassica species, although they evolved independently after divergence. The sequence information coming out of BrGSP would be useful for B. juncea breeding. and the identified Arabidopsis chromosomal blocks and known quantitative trait loci (QTL) information of B. juncea could be applied to improve other Brassica crops including B. rapa.

  19. Synthetic biology with RNA motifs.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hirohide; Inoue, Tan

    2009-02-01

    Structural motifs in naturally occurring RNAs and RNPs can be employed as new molecular parts for synthetic biology to facilitate the development of novel devices and systems that modulate cellular functions. In this review, we focus on the following: (i) experimental evolution techniques of RNA molecules in vitro and (ii) their applications for regulating gene expression systems in vivo. For experimental evolution, new artificial RNA aptamers and RNA enzymes (ribozymes) have been selected in vitro. These functional RNA molecules are likely to be applicable in the reprogramming of existing gene regulatory systems. Furthermore, they may be used for designing hypothetical RNA-based living systems in the so-called RNA world. For the regulation of gene expressions in living cells, the development of new riboswitches allows us to modulate the target gene expression in a tailor-made manner. Moreover, recently RNA-based synthetic genetic circuits have been reported by employing functional RNA molecules, expanding the repertory of synthetic biology with RNA motifs. PMID:18775792

  20. miRBase: integrating microRNA annotation and deep-sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Kozomara, Ana; Griffiths-Jones, Sam

    2011-01-01

    miRBase is the primary online repository for all microRNA sequences and annotation. The current release (miRBase 16) contains over 15,000 microRNA gene loci in over 140 species, and over 17,000 distinct mature microRNA sequences. Deep-sequencing technologies have delivered a sharp rise in the rate of novel microRNA discovery. We have mapped reads from short RNA deep-sequencing experiments to microRNAs in miRBase and developed web interfaces to view these mappings. The user can view all read data associated with a given microRNA annotation, filter reads by experiment and count, and search for microRNAs by tissue- and stage-specific expression. These data can be used as a proxy for relative expression levels of microRNA sequences, provide detailed evidence for microRNA annotations and alternative isoforms of mature microRNAs, and allow us to revisit previous annotations. miRBase is available online at: http://www.mirbase.org/.

  1. SoftSearch: Integration of Multiple Sequence Features to Identify Breakpoints of Structural Variations

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Steven N.; Sarangi, Vivekananda; Moore, Raymond; Baheti, Saurabh; Bhavsar, Jaysheel D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Structural variation (SV) represents a significant, yet poorly understood contribution to an individual’s genetic makeup. Advanced next-generation sequencing technologies are widely used to discover such variations, but there is no single detection tool that is considered a community standard. In an attempt to fulfil this need, we developed an algorithm, SoftSearch, for discovering structural variant breakpoints in Illumina paired-end next-generation sequencing data. SoftSearch combines multiple strategies for detecting SV including split-read, discordant read-pair, and unmated pairs. Co-localized split-reads and discordant read pairs are used to refine the breakpoints. Results We developed and validated SoftSearch using real and synthetic datasets. SoftSearch’s key features are 1) not requiring secondary (or exhaustive primary) alignment, 2) portability into established sequencing workflows, and 3) is applicable to any DNA-sequencing experiment (e.g. whole genome, exome, custom capture, etc.). SoftSearch identifies breakpoints from a small number of soft-clipped bases from split reads and a few discordant read-pairs which on their own would not be sufficient to make an SV call. Conclusions We show that SoftSearch can identify more true SVs by combining multiple sequence features. SoftSearch was able to call clinically relevant SVs in the BRCA2 gene not reported by other tools while offering significantly improved overall performance. PMID:24358278

  2. A Fast Cluster Motif Finding Algorithm for ChIP-Seq Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yipu; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    New high-throughput technique ChIP-seq, coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment with high-throughput sequencing technologies, has extended the identification of binding locations of a transcription factor to the genome-wide regions. However, the most existing motif discovery algorithms are time-consuming and limited to identify binding motifs in ChIP-seq data which normally has the significant characteristics of large scale data. In order to improve the efficiency, we propose a fast cluster motif finding algorithm, named as FCmotif, to identify the (l,  d) motifs in large scale ChIP-seq data set. It is inspired by the emerging substrings mining strategy to find the enriched substrings and then searching the neighborhood instances to construct PWM and cluster motifs in different length. FCmotif is not following the OOPS model constraint and can find long motifs. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm has been proved by experiments on the ChIP-seq data sets from mouse ES cells. The whole detection of the real binding motifs and processing of the full size data of several megabytes finished in a few minutes. The experimental results show that FCmotif has advantageous to deal with the (l,  d) motif finding in the ChIP-seq data; meanwhile it also demonstrates better performance than other current widely-used algorithms such as MEME, Weeder, ChIPMunk, and DREME. PMID:26236718

  3. A Fast Cluster Motif Finding Algorithm for ChIP-Seq Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yipu; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    New high-throughput technique ChIP-seq, coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation experiment with high-throughput sequencing technologies, has extended the identification of binding locations of a transcription factor to the genome-wide regions. However, the most existing motif discovery algorithms are time-consuming and limited to identify binding motifs in ChIP-seq data which normally has the significant characteristics of large scale data. In order to improve the efficiency, we propose a fast cluster motif finding algorithm, named as FCmotif, to identify the (l,  d) motifs in large scale ChIP-seq data set. It is inspired by the emerging substrings mining strategy to find the enriched substrings and then searching the neighborhood instances to construct PWM and cluster motifs in different length. FCmotif is not following the OOPS model constraint and can find long motifs. The effectiveness of proposed algorithm has been proved by experiments on the ChIP-seq data sets from mouse ES cells. The whole detection of the real binding motifs and processing of the full size data of several megabytes finished in a few minutes. The experimental results show that FCmotif has advantageous to deal with the (l,  d) motif finding in the ChIP-seq data; meanwhile it also demonstrates better performance than other current widely-used algorithms such as MEME, Weeder, ChIPMunk, and DREME. PMID:26236718

  4. SBH and the integration of complementary approaches in the mapping, sequencing, and understanding of complex genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Drmanac, R.; Drmanac, S.; Labat, I.; Vicentic, A.; Gemmell, A.; Stavropoulos, N.; Jarvis, J.

    1992-12-01

    A variant of sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is being developed with a potential to inexpensively determine up to 100 million base pairs per year. The method comprises (1) arraying short clones in 864-well plates; (2) growth of the M13 clones or PCR of the inserts; (3) automated spotting of DNAs by corresponding pin-arrays; (4) hybridization of dotted samples with 200-3000 {sup 32}P- or {sup 33}P-labeled 6- to 8-mer probes; and (5) scoring hybridization signals using storage phosphor plates. Some 200 7- to 8-mers can provide an inventory of the genes if CDNA clones are hybridized, or can define the order of 2-kb genomic clones, creating physical and structural maps with 100-bp resolution; the distribution of G+C, LINEs, SINEs, and gene families would be revealed. cDNAs that represent new genes and genomic clones in regions of interest selected by SBH can be sequenced by a gel method. Uniformly distributed clones from the previous step will be hybridized with 2000--3000 6- to 8-mers. As a result, approximately 50--60% of the genomic regions containing members of large repetitive and gene families and those families represented in GenBank would be completely sequenced. In the less redundant regions, every base pair is expected to be read with 3-4 probes, but the complete sequence can not be reconstructed. Such partial sequences allow the inference of similarity and the recognition of coding, regulatory, and repetitive sequences, as well as study of the evolutionary processes all the way up to the species delineation.

  5. SBH and the integration of complementary approaches in the mapping, sequencing, and understanding of complex genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Drmanac, R.; Drmanac, S.; Labat, I.; Vicentic, A.; Gemmell, A.; Stavropoulos, N.; Jarvis, J.

    1992-01-01

    A variant of sequencing by hybridization (SBH) is being developed with a potential to inexpensively determine up to 100 million base pairs per year. The method comprises (1) arraying short clones in 864-well plates; (2) growth of the M13 clones or PCR of the inserts; (3) automated spotting of DNAs by corresponding pin-arrays; (4) hybridization of dotted samples with 200-3000 [sup 32]P- or [sup 33]P-labeled 6- to 8-mer probes; and (5) scoring hybridization signals using storage phosphor plates. Some 200 7- to 8-mers can provide an inventory of the genes if CDNA clones are hybridized, or can define the order of 2-kb genomic clones, creating physical and structural maps with 100-bp resolution; the distribution of G+C, LINEs, SINEs, and gene families would be revealed. cDNAs that represent new genes and genomic clones in regions of interest selected by SBH can be sequenced by a gel method. Uniformly distributed clones from the previous step will be hybridized with 2000--3000 6- to 8-mers. As a result, approximately 50--60% of the genomic regions containing members of large repetitive and gene families and those families represented in GenBank would be completely sequenced. In the less redundant regions, every base pair is expected to be read with 3-4 probes, but the complete sequence can not be reconstructed. Such partial sequences allow the inference of similarity and the recognition of coding, regulatory, and repetitive sequences, as well as study of the evolutionary processes all the way up to the species delineation.

  6. Coagulase and Efb of Staphylococcus aureus Have a Common Fibrinogen Binding Motif

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ya-Ping; Kang, Mingsong; Ganesh, Vannakambadi K.; Ravirajan, Dharmanand; Li, Bin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coagulase (Coa) and Efb, secreted Staphylococcus aureus proteins, are important virulence factors in staphylococcal infections. Coa interacts with fibrinogen (Fg) and induces the formation of fibrin(ogen) clots through activation of prothrombin. Efb attracts Fg to the bacterial surface and forms a shield to protect the bacteria from phagocytic clearance. This communication describes the use of an array of synthetic peptides to identify variants of a linear Fg binding motif present in Coa and Efb which are responsible for the Fg binding activities of these proteins. This motif represents the first Fg binding motif identified for any microbial protein. We initially located the Fg binding sites to Coa’s C-terminal disordered segment containing tandem repeats by using recombinant fragments of Coa in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-type binding experiments. Sequence analyses revealed that this Coa region contained shorter segments with sequences similar to the Fg binding segments in Efb. An alanine scanning approach allowed us to identify the residues in Coa and Efb that are critical for Fg binding and to define the Fg binding motifs in the two proteins. In these motifs, the residues required for Fg binding are largely conserved, and they therefore constitute variants of a common Fg binding motif which binds to Fg with high affinity. Defining a specific motif also allowed us to identify a functional Fg binding register for the Coa repeats that is different from the repeat unit previously proposed. PMID:26733070

  7. A Systems Approach towards an Intelligent and Self-Controlling Platform for Integrated Continuous Reaction Sequences**

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Richard J; Battilocchio, Claudio; Fitzpatrick, Daniel E; Sliwinski, Eric; Hawkins, Joel M; Ley, Steven V

    2015-01-01

    Performing reactions in flow can offer major advantages over batch methods. However, laboratory flow chemistry processes are currently often limited to single steps or short sequences due to the complexity involved with operating a multi-step process. Using new modular components for downstream processing, coupled with control technologies, more advanced multi-step flow sequences can be realized. These tools are applied to the synthesis of 2-aminoadamantane-2-carboxylic acid. A system comprising three chemistry steps and three workup steps was developed, having sufficient autonomy and self-regulation to be managed by a single operator. PMID:25377747

  8. Construction of an integrated high density simple sequence repeat linkage map in cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and its applicability.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Sachiko N; Hirakawa, Hideki; Sato, Shusei; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Mori, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Yuko; Shirasawa, Kenta; Kimura, Mitsuhiro; Fukami, Masanobu; Hashizume, Fujio; Tsuji, Tomoko; Sasamoto, Shigemi; Kato, Midori; Nanri, Keiko; Tsuruoka, Hisano; Minami, Chiharu; Takahashi, Chika; Wada, Tsuyuko; Ono, Akiko; Kawashima, Kumiko; Nakazaki, Naomi; Kishida, Yoshie; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Nakayama, Shinobu; Yamada, Manabu; Fujishiro, Tsunakazu; Watanabe, Akiko; Tabata, Satoshi

    2013-02-01

    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) of the Rosaceae family whose genomic architecture is still controversial. Several recent studies support the AAA'A'BBB'B' model, but its complexity has hindered genetic and genomic analysis of this important crop. To overcome this difficulty and to assist genome-wide analysis of F. × ananassa, we constructed an integrated linkage map by organizing a total of 4474 of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers collected from published Fragaria sequences, including 3746 SSR markers [Fragaria vesca expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived SSR markers] derived from F. vesca ESTs, 603 markers (F. × ananassa EST-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa ESTs, and 125 markers (F. × ananassa transcriptome-derived SSR markers) from F. × ananassa transcripts. Along with the previously published SSR markers, these markers were mapped onto five parent-specific linkage maps derived from three mapping populations, which were then assembled into an integrated linkage map. The constructed map consists of 1856 loci in 28 linkage groups (LGs) that total 2364.1 cM in length. Macrosynteny at the chromosome level was observed between the LGs of F. × ananassa and the genome of F. vesca. Variety distinction on 129 F. × ananassa lines was demonstrated using 45 selected SSR markers.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative event-specific PCR detection methods for oxy-235 canola based on the 3' integration flanking sequence.

    PubMed

    Yang, Litao; Guo, Jinchao; Zhang, Haibo; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Dabing

    2008-03-26

    As more genetically modified plant events are approved for commercialization worldwide, the event-specific PCR method has become the key method for genetically modified organism (GMO) identification and quantification. This study reveals the 3' flanking sequence of the exogenous integration of Oxy-235 canola employing thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR). On the basis of the revealed 3' flanking sequence, PCR primers and TaqMan probe were designed and qualitative and quantitative PCR assays were established for Oxy-235 canola. The specificity and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of these two PCR assays were validated to as low as 0.1% for the relative LOD of qualitative PCR assay; the absolute LOD and LOQ were low to 10 and 20 copies of canola genomic DNA in quantitative PCR assay, respectively. Furthermore, ideal quantified results were obtained in the practical canola sample detection. All of the results indicate that the developed qualitative and quantitative PCR methods based on the revealed 3' integration flanking sequence are suitable for GM canola Oxy-235 identification and quantification.

  10. Biological network motif detection: principles and practice.

    PubMed

    Wong, Elisabeth; Baur, Brittany; Quader, Saad; Huang, Chun-Hsi

    2012-03-01

    Network motifs are statistically overrepresented sub-structures (sub-graphs) in a network, and have been recognized as 'the simple building blocks of complex networks'. Study of biological network motifs may reveal answers to many important biological questions. The main difficulty in detecting larger network motifs in biological networks lies in the facts that the number of possible sub-graphs increases exponentially with the network or motif size (node counts, in general), and that no known polynomial-time algorithm exists in deciding if two graphs are topologically equivalent. This article discusses the biological significance of network motifs, the motivation behind solving the motif-finding problem, and strategies to solve the various aspects of this problem. A simple classification scheme is designed to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of several existing algorithms. Experimental results derived from a few comparative studies in the literature are discussed, with conclusions that lead to future research directions. PMID:22396487

  11. LRRCE: a leucine-rich repeat cysteine capping motif unique to the chordate lineage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hosil; Huxley-Jones, Julie; Boot-Handford, Ray P; Bishop, Paul N; Attwood, Teresa K; Bella, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Background The small leucine-rich repeat proteins and proteoglycans (SLRPs) form an important family of regulatory molecules that participate in many essential functions. They typically control the correct assembly of collagen fibrils, regulate mineral deposition in bone, and modulate the activity of potent cellular growth factors through many signalling cascades. SLRPs belong to the group of extracellular leucine-rich repeat proteins that are flanked at both ends by disulphide-bonded caps that protect the hydrophobic core of the terminal repeats. A capping motif specific to SLRPs has been recently described in the crystal structures of the core proteins of decorin and biglycan. This motif, designated as LRRCE, differs in both sequence and structure from other, more widespread leucine-rich capping motifs. To investigate if the LRRCE motif is a common structural feature found in other leucine-rich repeat proteins, we have defined characteristic sequence patterns and used them in genome-wide searches. Results The LRRCE motif is a structural element exclusive to the main group of SLRPs. It appears to have evolved during early chordate evolution and is not found in protein sequences from non-chordate genomes. Our search has expanded the family of SLRPs to include new predicted protein sequences, mainly in fishes but with intriguing putative orthologs in mammals. The chromosomal locations of the newly predicted SLRP genes would support the large-scale genome or gene duplications that are thought to have occurred during vertebrate evolution. From this expanded list we describe a new class of SLRP sequences that could be representative of an ancestral SLRP gene. Conclusion Given its exclusivity the LRRCE motif is a useful annotation tool for the identification and classification of new SLRP sequences in genome databases. The expanded list of members of the SLRP family offers interesting insights into early vertebrate evolution and suggests an early chordate evolutionary

  12. Toward allotetraploid cotton genome assembly: integration of a high-density molecular genetic linkage map with DNA sequence information

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cotton is the world’s most important natural textile fiber and a significant oilseed crop. Decoding cotton genomes will provide the ultimate reference and resource for research and utilization of the species. Integration of high-density genetic maps with genomic sequence information will largely accelerate the process of whole-genome assembly in cotton. Results In this paper, we update a high-density interspecific genetic linkage map of allotetraploid cultivated cotton. An additional 1,167 marker loci have been added to our previously published map of 2,247 loci. Three new marker types, InDel (insertion-deletion) and SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) developed from gene information, and REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism), were used to increase map density. The updated map consists of 3,414 loci in 26 linkage groups covering 3,667.62 cM with an average inter-locus distance of 1.08 cM. Furthermore, genome-wide sequence analysis was finished using 3,324 informative sequence-based markers and publicly-available Gossypium DNA sequence information. A total of 413,113 EST and 195 BAC sequences were physically anchored and clustered by 3,324 sequence-based markers. Of these, 14,243 ESTs and 188 BACs from different species of Gossypium were clustered and specifically anchored to the high-density genetic map. A total of 2,748 candidate unigenes from 2,111 ESTs clusters and 63 BACs were mined for functional annotation and classification. The 337 ESTs/genes related to fiber quality traits were integrated with 132 previously reported cotton fiber quality quantitative trait loci, which demonstrated the important roles in fiber quality of these genes. Higher-level sequence conservation between different cotton species and between the A- and D-subgenomes in tetraploid cotton was found, indicating a common evolutionary origin for orthologous and paralogous loci in Gossypium. Conclusion This study will serve as a valuable genomic resource

  13. Targeting functional motifs of a protein family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita

    2016-10-01

    The structural organization of a protein family is investigated by devising a method based on the random matrix theory (RMT), which uses the physiochemical properties of the amino acid with multiple sequence alignment. A graphical method to represent protein sequences using physiochemical properties is devised that gives a fast, easy, and informative way of comparing the evolutionary distances between protein sequences. A correlation matrix associated with each property is calculated, where the noise reduction and information filtering is done using RMT involving an ensemble of Wishart matrices. The analysis of the eigenvalue statistics of the correlation matrix for the β -lactamase family shows the universal features as observed in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE). The property-based approach captures the short- as well as the long-range correlation (approximately following GOE) between the eigenvalues, whereas the previous approach (treating amino acids as characters) gives the usual short-range correlations, while the long-range correlations are the same as that of an uncorrelated series. The distribution of the eigenvector components for the eigenvalues outside the bulk (RMT bound) deviates significantly from RMT observations and contains important information about the system. The information content of each eigenvector of the correlation matrix is quantified by introducing an entropic estimate, which shows that for the β -lactamase family the smallest eigenvectors (low eigenmodes) are highly localized as well as informative. These small eigenvectors when processed gives clusters involving positions that have well-defined biological and structural importance matching with experiments. The approach is crucial for the recognition of structural motifs as shown in β -lactamase (and other families) and selectively identifies the important positions for targets to deactivate (activate) the enzymatic actions.

  14. Integrating motion, illumination, and structure in video sequences with applications in illumination-invariant tracking.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yilei; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we present a theory for combining the effects of motion, illumination, 3D structure, albedo, and camera parameters in a sequence of images obtained by a perspective camera. We show that the set of all Lambertian reflectance functions of a moving object, at any position, illuminated by arbitrarily distant light sources, lies "close" to a bilinear subspace consisting of nine illumination variables and six motion variables. This result implies that, given an arbitrary video sequence, it is possible to recover the 3D structure, motion, and illumination conditions simultaneously using the bilinear subspace formulation. The derivation builds upon existing work on linear subspace representations of reflectance by generalizing it to moving objects. Lighting can change slowly or suddenly, locally or globally, and can originate from a combination of point and extended sources. We experimentally compare the results of our theory with ground truth data and also provide results on real data by using video sequences of a 3D face and the entire human body with various combinations of motion and illumination directions. We also show results of our theory in estimating 3D motion and illumination model parameters from a video sequence. PMID:17356200

  15. Identification of recurrent NAB2-STAT6 gene fusions in solitary fibrous tumor by integrative sequencing.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dan R; Wu, Yi-Mi; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Cao, Xuhong; Lonigro, Robert J; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Rui; Su, Fengyun; Iyer, Matthew K; Roychowdhury, Sameek; Siddiqui, Javed; Pienta, Kenneth J; Kunju, Lakshmi P; Talpaz, Moshe; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Singer, Samuel; Schuetze, Scott M; Antonescu, Cristina R; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2013-02-01

    A 44-year old woman with recurrent solitary fibrous tumor (SFT)/hemangiopericytoma was enrolled in a clinical sequencing program including whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing. A gene fusion of the transcriptional repressor NAB2 with the transcriptional activator STAT6 was detected. Transcriptome sequencing of 27 additional SFTs identified the presence of a NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion in all tumors. Using RT-PCR and sequencing, we detected this fusion in all 51 SFTs, indicating high levels of recurrence. Expression of NAB2-STAT6 fusion proteins was confirmed in SFT, and the predicted fusion products harbor the early growth response (EGR)-binding domain of NAB2 fused to the activation domain of STAT6. Overexpression of the NAB2-STAT6 gene fusion induced proliferation in cultured cells and activated the expression of EGR-responsive genes. These studies establish NAB2-STAT6 as the defining driver mutation of SFT and provide an example of how neoplasia can be initiated by converting a transcriptional repressor of mitogenic pathways into a transcriptional activator.

  16. Automation and integration of multiplexed on-line sample preparation with capillary electrophoresis for DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, H.

    1999-03-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a multiplexed sample processing system in conjunction with multiplexed capillary electrophoresis for high-throughput DNA sequencing. The concept from DNA template to called bases was first demonstrated with a manually operated single capillary system. Later, an automated microfluidic system with 8 channels based on the same principle was successfully constructed. The instrument automatically processes 8 templates through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in a parallel fashion. A multiplexed freeze/thaw switching principle and a distribution network were implemented to manage flow direction and sample transportation. Dye-labeled terminator cycle-sequencing reactions are performed in an 8-capillary array in a hot air thermal cycler. Subsequently, the sequencing ladders are directly loaded into a corresponding size-exclusion chromatographic column operated at {approximately} 60 C for purification. On-line denaturation and stacking injection for capillary electrophoresis is simultaneously accomplished at a cross assembly set at {approximately} 70 C. Not only the separation capillary array but also the reaction capillary array and purification columns can be regenerated after every run. DNA sequencing data from this system allow base calling up to 460 bases with accuracy of 98%.

  17. MEGA3: Integrated software for Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis and sequence alignment.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Tamura, Koichiro; Nei, Masatoshi

    2004-06-01

    With its theoretical basis firmly established in molecular evolutionary and population genetics, the comparative DNA and protein sequence analysis plays a central role in reconstructing the evolutionary histories of species and multigene families, estimating rates of molecular evolution, and inferring the nature and extent of selective forces shaping the evolution of genes and genomes. The scope of these investigations has now expanded greatly owing to the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques and novel statistical and computational methods. These methods require easy-to-use computer programs. One such effort has been to produce Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, with its focus on facilitating the exploration and analysis of the DNA and protein sequence variation from an evolutionary perspective. Currently in its third major release, MEGA3 contains facilities for automatic and manual sequence alignment, web-based mining of databases, inference of the phylogenetic trees, estimation of evolutionary distances and testing evolutionary hypotheses. This paper provides an overview of the statistical methods, computational tools, and visual exploration modules for data input and the results obtainable in MEGA.

  18. Integrated Analysis of Whole Genome and Transcriptome Sequencing Reveals Diverse Transcriptomic Aberrations Driven by Somatic Genomic Changes in Liver Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Yuichi; Fujimoto, Akihiro; Furuta, Mayuko; Tanaka, Hiroko; Chiba, Ken-ichi; Boroevich, Keith A.; Abe, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Ueno, Masaki; Gotoh, Kunihito; Ariizumi, Shun-ichi; Shibuya, Tetsuo; Nakano, Kaoru; Sasaki, Aya; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Kitada, Rina; Hayami, Shinya; Shigekawa, Yoshinobu; Marubashi, Shigeru; Yamada, Terumasa; Kubo, Michiaki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Aikata, Hiroshi; Arihiro, Koji; Ohdan, Hideki; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Yamaue, Hiroki; Chayama, Kazuaki; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Miyano, Satoru; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies applying high-throughput sequencing technologies have identified several recurrently mutated genes and pathways in multiple cancer genomes. However, transcriptional consequences from these genomic alterations in cancer genome remain unclear. In this study, we performed integrated and comparative analyses of whole genomes and transcriptomes of 22 hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their matched controls. Comparison of whole genome sequence (WGS) and RNA-Seq revealed much evidence that various types of genomic mutations triggered diverse transcriptional changes. Not only splice-site mutations, but also silent mutations in coding regions, deep intronic mutations and structural changes caused splicing aberrations. HBV integrations generated diverse patterns of virus-human fusion transcripts depending on affected gene, such as TERT, CDK15, FN1 and MLL4. Structural variations could drive over-expression of genes such as WNT ligands, with/without creating gene fusions. Furthermore, by taking account of genomic mutations causing transcriptional aberrations, we could improve the sensitivity of deleterious mutation detection in known cancer driver genes (TP53, AXIN1, ARID2, RPS6KA3), and identified recurrent disruptions in putative cancer driver genes such as HNF4A, CPS1, TSC1 and THRAP3 in HCCs. These findings indicate genomic alterations in cancer genome have diverse transcriptomic effects, and integrated analysis of WGS and RNA-Seq can facilitate the interpretation of a large number of genomic alterations detected in cancer genome. PMID:25526364

  19. A cost-aggregating integer linear program for motif finding.

    PubMed

    Kingsford, Carl; Zaslavsky, Elena; Singh, Mona

    2011-12-01

    In the motif finding problem one seeks a set of mutually similar substrings within a collection of biological sequences. This is an important and widely-studied problem, as such shared motifs in DNA often correspond to regulatory elements. We study a combinatorial framework where the goal is to find substrings of a given length such that the sum of their pairwise distances is minimized. We describe a novel integer linear program for the problem, which uses the fact that distances between substrings come from a limited set of possibilities allowing for aggregate consideration of sequence position pairs with the same distances. We show how to tighten its linear programming relaxation by adding an exponential set of constraints and give an efficient separation algorithm that can find violated constraints, thereby showing that the tightened linear program can still be solved in polynomial time. We apply our approach to find optimal solutions for the motif finding problem and show that it is effective in practice in uncovering known transcription factor binding sites.

  20. Identification, sequencing and expression of an integral membrane protein of the trans-Golgi network (TGN38).

    PubMed Central

    Luzio, J P; Brake, B; Banting, G; Howell, K E; Braghetta, P; Stanley, K K

    1990-01-01

    Organelle-specific integral membrane proteins were identified by a novel strategy which gives rise to monospecific antibodies to these proteins as well as to the cDNA clones encoding them. A cDNA expression library was screened with a polyclonal antiserum raised against Triton X-114-extracted organelle proteins and clones were then grouped using antibodies affinity-purified on individual fusion proteins. The identification, molecular cloning and sequencing are described of a type 1 membrane protein (TGN38) which is located specifically in the trans-Golgi network. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:2204342

  1. Integrating mapping-, assembly- and haplotype-based approaches for calling variants in clinical sequencing applications.

    PubMed

    Rimmer, Andy; Phan, Hang; Mathieson, Iain; Iqbal, Zamin; Twigg, Stephen R F; Wilkie, Andrew O M; McVean, Gil; Lunter, Gerton

    2014-08-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing technology has transformed genetic research and is starting to make an impact on clinical practice. However, analyzing high-throughput sequencing data remains challenging, particularly in clinical settings where accuracy and turnaround times are critical. We present a new approach to this problem, implemented in a software package called Platypus. Platypus achieves high sensitivity and specificity for SNPs, indels and complex polymorphisms by using local de novo assembly to generate candidate variants, followed by local realignment and probabilistic haplotype estimation. It is an order of magnitude faster than existing tools and generates calls from raw aligned read data without preprocessing. We demonstrate the performance of Platypus in clinically relevant experimental designs by comparing with SAMtools and GATK on whole-genome and exome-capture data, by identifying de novo variation in 15 parent-offspring trios with high sensitivity and specificity, and by estimating human leukocyte antigen genotypes directly from variant calls. PMID:25017105

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces parvulus 2297, Integrating Site-Specifically with Actinophage R4.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Tomoyasu; Miura, Takamasa; Harada, Chizuko; Guo, Yong; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hideo; Shirai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces parvulus 2297, which is a host for site-specific recombination according to actinophage R4, is derived from the type strain ATCC 12434. Species of S. parvulus are known as producers of polypeptide antibiotic actinomycins and have been considered for industrial applications. We herein report for the first time the complete genome sequence of S. parvulus 2297. PMID:27563047

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptomyces parvulus 2297, Integrating Site-Specifically with Actinophage R4

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Takamasa; Harada, Chizuko; Guo, Yong; Narisawa, Kazuhiko; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Hideo; Shirai, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Streptomyces parvulus 2297, which is a host for site-specific recombination according to actinophage R4, is derived from the type strain ATCC 12434. Species of S. parvulus are known as producers of polypeptide antibiotic actinomycins and have been considered for industrial applications. We herein report for the first time the complete genome sequence of S. parvulus 2297. PMID:27563047

  4. Integration with the human genome of peptide sequences obtained by high-throughput mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Desiere, Frank; Deutsch, Eric W; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I; Mallick, Parag; King, Nichole L; Eng, Jimmy K; Aderem, Alan; Boyle, Rose; Brunner, Erich; Donohoe, Samuel; Fausto, Nelson; Hafen, Ernst; Hood, Lee; Katze, Michael G; Kennedy, Kathleen A; Kregenow, Floyd; Lee, Hookeun; Lin, Biaoyang; Martin, Dan; Ranish, Jeffrey A; Rawlings, David J; Samelson, Lawrence E; Shiio, Yuzuru; Watts, Julian D; Wollscheid, Bernd; Wright, Michael E; Yan, Wei; Yang, Lihong; Yi, Eugene C; Zhang, Hui; Aebersold, Ruedi

    2005-01-01

    A crucial aim upon the completion of the human genome is the verification and functional annotation of all predicted genes and their protein products. Here we describe the mapping of peptides derived from accurate interpretations of protein tandem mass spectrometry (MS) data to eukaryotic genomes and the generation of an expandable resource for integration of data from many diverse proteomics experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that peptide identifications obtained from high-throughput proteomics can be integrated on a large scale with the human genome. This resource could serve as an expandable repository for MS-derived proteome information. PMID:15642101

  5. An integrated multiple capillary array electrophoresis system for high-throughput DNA sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, X.

    1998-03-27

    A capillary array electrophoresis system was chosen to perform DNA sequencing because of several advantages such as rapid heat dissipation, multiplexing capabilities, gel matrix filling simplicity, and the mature nature of the associated manufacturing technologies. There are two major concerns for the multiple capillary systems. One concern is inter-capillary cross-talk, and the other concern is excitation and detection efficiency. Cross-talk is eliminated through proper optical coupling, good focusing and immersing capillary array into index matching fluid. A side-entry excitation scheme with orthogonal detection was established for large capillary array. Two 100 capillary array formats were used for DNA sequencing. One format is cylindrical capillary with 150 {micro}m o.d., 75 {micro}m i.d and the other format is square capillary with 300 {micro}m out edge and 75 {micro}m inner edge. This project is focused on the development of excitation and detection of DNA as well as performing DNA sequencing. The DNA injection schemes are discussed for the cases of single and bundled capillaries. An individual sampling device was designed. The base-calling was performed for a capillary from the capillary array with the accuracy of 98%.

  6. Integration of DNA sequence and DNA methylation changes in monozygotic twin pairs discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C A; Melka, M G; Gui, J L; O'Reilly, R L; Singh, S M

    2015-12-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with high heritability (80%), extensive genetic heterogeneity, environmental contributions and only 50% concordance in discordant monozygotic (MZ) twins. Discordant MZ twins provide an exceptional opportunity to assess patient specific genome-wide genetic and epigenetic changes that may account for the disease phenotype. A combined analysis of genetic and epigenetic changes on the same twin pairs is expected to provide a more effective approach for two reasons. First, it is now possible to generate relatively reliable complete genome sequences as well as promoter methylation states on an individual level and second, the unaffected twin that originated from the same zygote provides a near perfect genetic match for contrast and comparison. This report deals with the combined analysis of DNA sequence data and methylation data on two pairs of discordant MZ twins that have been clinically followed for over 20 years. Results on Family 1 show that 58 genes differ in DNA sequence as well as promoter methylation in a schizophrenia-affected twin as compared to her healthy co-twin. The corresponding number for family 2 was 13. The two lists are over represented by neuronal genes and include a number of known schizophrenia candidate genes and drug targets. The results argue that changes in multiple genes via co-localized genetic and epigenetic alteration contribute to a liability threshold that is necessary for development of schizophrenia. This novel hypothesis, although logical, remains to be validated.

  7. Minimal motif peptide structure of metzincin clan zinc peptidases in micelles.

    PubMed

    Onoda, Akira; Suzuki, Takako; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Rumiko; Ariyasu, Shinya; Yamamura, Takeshi

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that the functions of metalloproteins generally originate from their metal-binding motifs. However, the intrinsic nature of individual motifs remains unknown, particularly the details about metal-binding effects on the folding of motifs; the converse is also unknown, although there is no doubt that the motif is the core of the reactivity for each metalloprotein. In this study, we focused our attention on the zinc-binding motif of the metzincin clan family, HEXXHXXGXXH; this family contains the general zinc-binding sequence His-Glu-Xaa-Xaa-His (HEXXH) and the extended GXXH region. We adopted the motif sequence of stromelysin-1 and investigated the folding properties of the Trp-labeled peptides WAHEIAHSLGLFHA (STR-W1), AWHEIAHSLGLFHA (STR-W2), AHEIAHSLGWFHA (STR-W11), and AHEIAHSLGLFHWA (STR-W14) in the presence and absence of zinc ions in hydrophobic micellar environments by circular dichroism (CD) measurements. We accessed successful incorporation of these zinc peptides into micelles using quenching of Trp fluorescence. Results of CD studies indicated that two of the Trp-incorporated peptides, STR-W1 and STR-W14, exhibited helical folding in the hydrophobic region of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride micelle. The NMR structural analysis of the apo STR-W14 revealed that the conformation in the C-terminus GXXH region significantly differred between the apo state in the micelle and the reported Zn-bound state of stromelysin-1 in crystal structures. The structural analyses of the qualitative Zn-binding properties of this motif peptide provide an interesting Zn-binding mechanism: the minimum consensus motif in the metzincin clan, a basic zinc-binding motif with an extended GXXH region, has the potential to serve as a preorganized Zn binding scaffold in a hydrophobic environment.

  8. An improved poly(A) motifs recognition method based on decision level fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanxin; Han, Jiuqiang; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jiguang; Liu, Ruiling

    2015-02-01

    Polyadenylation is the process of addition of poly(A) tail to mRNA 3' ends. Identification of motifs controlling polyadenylation plays an essential role in improving genome annotation accuracy and better understanding of the mechanisms governing gene regulation. The bioinformatics methods used for poly(A) motifs recognition have demonstrated that information extracted from sequences surrounding the candidate motifs can differentiate true motifs from the false ones greatly. However, these methods depend on either domain features or string kernels. To date, methods combining information from different sources have not been found yet. Here, we proposed an improved poly(A) motifs recognition method by combing different sources based on decision level fusion. First of all, two novel prediction methods was proposed based on support vector machine (SVM): one method is achieved by using the domain-specific features and principle component analysis (PCA) method to eliminate the redundancy (PCA-SVM); the other method is based on Oligo string kernel (Oligo-SVM). Then we proposed a novel machine-learning method for poly(A) motif prediction by marrying four poly(A) motifs recognition methods, including two state-of-the-art methods (Random Forest (RF) and HMM-SVM), and two novel proposed methods (PCA-SVM and Oligo-SVM). A decision level information fusion method was employed to combine the decision values of different classifiers by applying the DS evidence theory. We evaluated our method on a comprehensive poly(A) dataset that consists of 14,740 samples on 12 variants of poly(A) motifs and 2750 samples containing none of these motifs. Our method has achieved accuracy up to 86.13%. Compared with the four classifiers, our evidence theory based method reduces the average error rate by about 30%, 27%, 26% and 16%, respectively. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method is more effective for poly(A) motif recognition. PMID:25594576

  9. An improved poly(A) motifs recognition method based on decision level fusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanxin; Han, Jiuqiang; Liu, Jun; Zheng, Jiguang; Liu, Ruiling

    2015-02-01

    Polyadenylation is the process of addition of poly(A) tail to mRNA 3' ends. Identification of motifs controlling polyadenylation plays an essential role in improving genome annotation accuracy and better understanding of the mechanisms governing gene regulation. The bioinformatics methods used for poly(A) motifs recognition have demonstrated that information extracted from sequences surrounding the candidate motifs can differentiate true motifs from the false ones greatly. However, these methods depend on either domain features or string kernels. To date, methods combining information from different sources have not been found yet. Here, we proposed an improved poly(A) motifs recognition method by combing different sources based on decision level fusion. First of all, two novel prediction methods was proposed based on support vector machine (SVM): one method is achieved by using the domain-specific features and principle component analysis (PCA) method to eliminate the redundancy (PCA-SVM); the other method is based on Oligo string kernel (Oligo-SVM). Then we proposed a novel machine-learning method for poly(A) motif prediction by marrying four poly(A) motifs recognition methods, including two state-of-the-art methods (Random Forest (RF) and HMM-SVM), and two novel proposed methods (PCA-SVM and Oligo-SVM). A decision level information fusion method was employed to combine the decision values of different classifiers by applying the DS evidence theory. We evaluated our method on a comprehensive poly(A) dataset that consists of 14,740 samples on 12 variants of poly(A) motifs and 2750 samples containing none of these motifs. Our method has achieved accuracy up to 86.13%. Compared with the four classifiers, our evidence theory based method reduces the average error rate by about 30%, 27%, 26% and 16%, respectively. The experimental results suggest that the proposed method is more effective for poly(A) motif recognition.

  10. Heat, Energy, and Order, Part Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Student Guide, 1970 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    Part two of the first year in the Portland Project, a three-year high school integrated science curriculum, is contained in this student guide. This volume, one of four parts in the year course, involves activities relating to what is considered the most powerful unifying concept in science: energy. The macroscopic aspects of heat as embodied in…

  11. Demonstrating the Effectiveness of an Integrated and Intensive Research Methods and Statistics Course Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pliske, Rebecca M.; Caldwell, Tracy L.; Calin-Jageman, Robert J.; Taylor-Ritzler, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We developed a two-semester series of intensive (six-contact hours per week) behavioral research methods courses with an integrated statistics curriculum. Our approach includes the use of team-based learning, authentic projects, and Excel and SPSS. We assessed the effectiveness of our approach by examining our students' content area scores on the…

  12. An AU-Rich Sequence Element (UUUN[A/U]U) Downstream of the Edited C in Apolipoprotein B mRNA Is a High-Affinity Binding Site for Apobec-1: Binding of Apobec-1 to This Motif in the 3′ Untranslated Region of c-myc Increases mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2000-01-01

    Apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, is a cytidine deaminase with RNA binding activity for AU-rich sequences. This RNA binding activity is required for Apobec-1 to mediate C-to-U RNA editing. Filter binding assays, using immobilized Apobec-1, demonstrate saturable binding to a 105-nt apoB RNA with a Kd of ∼435 nM. A series of AU-rich templates was used to identify a high-affinity (∼50 nM) binding site of consensus sequence UUUN[A/U]U, with multiple copies of this sequence constituting the high-affinity binding site. In order to determine whether this consensus site could be functionally demonstrated from within an apoB RNA, circular-permutation analysis was performed, revealing one major (UUUGAU) and one minor (UU) site located 3 and 16 nucleotides, respectively, downstream of the edited base. Secondary-structure predictions reveal a stem-loop flanking the edited base with Apobec-1 binding to the consensus site(s) at an open loop. A similar consensus (AUUUA) is present in the 3′ untranslated regions of several mRNAs, including that of c-myc, that are known to undergo rapid degradation. In this context, it is presumed that the consensus motif acts as a destabilizing element. As an independent test of the ability of Apobec-1 to bind to this sequence, F442A cells were transfected with Apobec-1 and the half-life of c-myc mRNA was determined following actinomycin D treatment. These studies demonstrated an increase in the half-life of c-myc mRNA from 90 to 240 min in control versus Apobec-1-expressing cells. Apobec-1 expression mutants, in which RNA binding activity is eliminated, failed to alter c-myc mRNA turnover. Taken together, the data establish a consensus binding site for Apobec-1 embedded in proximity to the edited base in apoB RNA. Binding to this site in other target RNAs raises the possibility that Apobec-1 may be involved in other aspects of RNA metabolism, independent of its role as an apoB RNA

  13. Ensuring critical event sequences in high integrity software by applying path expressions

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, M.E.C.

    1996-07-01

    The goal of this work is to extend the use of existing path expression theory and methodologies to ensure that critical software event sequences are maintained even in the face of malevolent attacks and harsh or unstable operating environments. This will be accomplished by providing dynamic fault management measures directly to the software developer and to their varied development environments. This paper discusses the perceived problems, a brief overview of path expressions, and the author`s proposed extension areas. The authors discuss how the traditional path expression usage and implementation differs from the intended usage and implementation.

  14. Integration of Expressed Sequence Tag Data Flanking Predicted RNA Secondary Structures Facilitates Novel Non-Coding RNA Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, Paul M.; Price, Feodor D.; Muro, Enrique M.; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Many computational methods have been used to predict novel non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), but none, to our knowledge, have explicitly investigated the impact of integrating existing cDNA-based Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data that flank structural RNA predictions. To determine whether flanking EST data can assist in microRNA (miRNA) prediction, we identified genomic sites encoding putative miRNAs by combining functional RNA predictions with flanking ESTs data in a model consistent with miRNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. In both human and mouse genomes, we observed that the inclusion of flanking ESTs adjacent to and not overlapping predicted miRNAs significantly improved the performance of various methods of miRNA prediction, including direct high-throughput sequencing of small RNA libraries. We analyzed the expression of hundreds of miRNAs predicted to be expressed during myogenic differentiation using a customized microarray and identified several known and predicted myogenic miRNA hairpins. Our results indicate that integrating ESTs flanking structural RNA predictions improves the quality of cleaved miRNA predictions and suggest that this strategy can be used to predict other non-coding RNAs undergoing cleavage during maturation. PMID:21698286

  15. SeqFold: genome-scale reconstruction of RNA secondary structure integrating high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhengqing; Snyder, Michael P; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-02-01

    We present an integrative approach, SeqFold, that combines high-throughput RNA structure profiling data with computational prediction for genome-scale reconstruction of RNA secondary structures. SeqFold transforms experimental RNA structure information into a structure preference profile (SPP) and uses it to select stable RNA structure candidates representing the structure ensemble. Under a high-dimensional classification framework, SeqFold efficiently matches a given SPP to the most likely cluster of structures sampled from the Boltzmann-weighted ensemble. SeqFold is able to incorporate diverse types of RNA structure profiling data, including parallel analysis of RNA structure (PARS), selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE-Seq), fragmentation sequencing (FragSeq) data generated by deep sequencing, and conventional SHAPE data. Using the known structures of a wide range of mRNAs and noncoding RNAs as benchmarks, we demonstrate that SeqFold outperforms or matches existing approaches in accuracy and is more robust to noise in experimental data. Application of SeqFold to reconstruct the secondary structures of the yeast transcriptome reveals the diverse impact of RNA secondary structure on gene regulation, including translation efficiency, transcription initiation, and protein-RNA interactions. SeqFold can be easily adapted to incorporate any new types of high-throughput RNA structure profiling data and is widely applicable to analyze RNA structures in any transcriptome.

  16. Integration of related sequences with protein three-dimensional structural families in an updated version of PALI database.

    PubMed

    Gowri, V S; Pandit, Shashi B; Karthik, P S; Srinivasan, N; Balaji, S

    2003-01-01

    The database of Phylogeny and ALIgnment of homologous protein structures (PALI) contains three-dimensional (3-D) structure-dependent sequence alignments as well as structure-based phylogenetic trees of protein domains in various families. The latest updated version (Release 2.1) comprises of 844 families of homologous proteins involving 3863 protein domain structures with each of these families having at least two members. Each member in a family has been structurally aligned with every other member in the same family using two proteins at a time. In addition, an alignment of multiple structures has also been performed using all the members in a family. Every family with at least three members is associated with two dendrograms, one based on a structural dissimilarity metric and the other based on similarity of topologically equivalenced residues for every pairwise alignment. Apart from these multi-member families, there are 817 single member families in the updated version of PALI. A new feature in the current release of PALI is the integration, with 3-D structural families, of sequences of homologues from the sequence databases. Alignments between homologous proteins of known 3-D structure and those without an experimentally derived structure are also provided for every family in the enhanced version of PALI. The database with several web interfaced utilities can be accessed at: http://pauling.mbu.iisc.ernet.in/~pali.

  17. A graph-theoretic approach to comparing and integrating genetic, physical and sequence-based maps.

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Immanuel V; Schneider, David; Kleinberg, Jon; Matthews, David; Cartinhour, Samuel; McCouch, Susan R

    2003-01-01

    For many species, multiple maps are available, often constructed independently by different research groups using different sets of markers and different source material. Integration of these maps provides a higher density of markers and greater genome coverage than is possible using a single study. In this article, we describe a novel approach to comparing and integrating maps by using abstract graphs. A map is modeled as a directed graph in which nodes represent mapped markers and edges define the order of adjacent markers. Independently constructed graphs representing corresponding maps from different studies are merged on the basis of their common loci. Absence of a path between two nodes indicates that their order is undetermined. A cycle indicates inconsistency among the mapping studies with regard to the order of the loci involved. The integrated graph thus produced represents a complete picture of all of the mapping studies that comprise it, including all of the ambiguities and inconsistencies among them. The objective of this representation is to guide additional research aimed at interpreting these ambiguities and inconsistencies in locus order rather than presenting a "consensus order" that ignores these problems. PMID:14704199

  18. Integrated genome sequence and linkage map of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingzhi; Zhou, Changpin; Cheng, Shifeng; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Chen, Yanbo; Chen, Yan; Ni, Peixiang; Wang, Ying; Xu, Xun; Huang, Ying; Song, Chi; Wang, Zhiwen; Shi, Nan; Zhang, Xudong; Fang, Xiaohua; Yang, Qing; Jiang, Huawu; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Wang, Ying; Chen, Fan; Wang, Jun; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-03-01

    The family Euphorbiaceae includes some of the most efficient biomass accumulators. Whole genome sequencing and the development of genetic maps of these species are important components in molecular breeding and genetic improvement. Here we report the draft genome of physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.), a biodiesel plant. The assembled genome has a total length of 320.5 Mbp and contains 27,172 putative protein-coding genes. We established a linkage map containing 1208 markers and anchored the genome assembly (81.7%) to this map to produce 11 pseudochromosomes. After gene family clustering, 15,268 families were identified, of which 13,887 existed in the castor bean genome. Analysis of the genome highlighted specific expansion and contraction of a number of gene families during the evolution of this species, including the ribosome-inactivating proteins and oil biosynthesis pathway enzymes. The genomic sequence and linkage map provide a valuable resource not only for fundamental and applied research on physic nut but also for evolutionary and comparative genomics analysis, particularly in the Euphorbiaceae. PMID:25603894

  19. Integrated sequence analysis pipeline provides one-stop solution for identifying disease-causing mutations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hao; Wienker, Thomas F; Musante, Luciana; Kalscheuer, Vera M; Kahrizi, Kimia; Najmabadi, Hossein; Ropers, H Hilger

    2014-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing has greatly accelerated the search for disease-causing defects, but even for experts the data analysis can be a major challenge. To facilitate the data processing in a clinical setting, we have developed a novel medical resequencing analysis pipeline (MERAP). MERAP assesses the quality of sequencing, and has optimized capacity for calling variants, including single-nucleotide variants, insertions and deletions, copy-number variation, and other structural variants. MERAP identifies polymorphic and known causal variants by filtering against public domain databases, and flags nonsynonymous and splice-site changes. MERAP uses a logistic model to estimate the causal likelihood of a given missense variant. MERAP considers the relevant information such as phenotype and interaction with known disease-causing genes. MERAP compares favorably with GATK, one of the widely used tools, because of its higher sensitivity for detecting indels, its easy installation, and its economical use of computational resources. Upon testing more than 1,200 individuals with mutations in known and novel disease genes, MERAP proved highly reliable, as illustrated here for five families with disease-causing variants. We believe that the clinical implementation of MERAP will expedite the diagnostic process of many disease-causing defects.

  20. Mars Exploration 2003 to 2013 - An Integrated Perspective: Time Sequencing the Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, G.; McKay, C.

    2000-01-01

    The science goals for the Mars exploration program, together with the HEDS precursor environmental and technology needs, serve as a solid starting point for re-planning the program in an orderly way. Most recently, the community has recognized the significance of subsurface sampling as a key component in "following the water". Accessing samples from hundreds and even thousands of meters beneath the surface is a challenge that will call for technology development and for one or more demonstration missions. Recent mission failures and concerns about the complexity of the previously planned MSR missions indicate that, before we are ready to undertake sample return and deep sampling, the Mars exploration program needs to include: 1) technology development missions; and 2) basic landing site assessment missions. These precursor missions should demonstrate the capability for reliable & accurate soft landing and in situ propellant production. The precursor missions will need to carry out close-up site observations, ground-penetrating radar mapping from orbit and conduct seismic surveys. Clearly the programs should be planned as a single, continuous exploration effort. A prudent minimum list of missions, including surface rovers with ranges of more than 10 km, can be derived from the numerous goals and requirements; they can be sequenced in an orderly way to ensure that time is available to feed forward the results of the precursor missions. One such sequence of missions is proposed for the decade beginning in 2003.

  1. qPMS9: An Efficient Algorithm for Quorum Planted Motif Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolae, Marius; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2015-01-01

    Discovering patterns in biological sequences is a crucial problem. For example, the identification of patterns in DNA sequences has resulted in the determination of open reading frames, identification of gene promoter elements, intron/exon splicing sites, and SH RNAs, location of RNA degradation signals, identification of alternative splicing sites, etc. In protein sequences, patterns have led to domain identification, location of protease cleavage sites, identification of signal peptides, protein interactions, determination of protein degradation elements, identification of protein trafficking elements, discovery of short functional motifs, etc. In this paper we focus on the identification of an important class of patterns, namely, motifs. We study the (l, d) motif search problem or Planted Motif Search (PMS). PMS receives as input n strings and two integers l and d. It returns all sequences M of length l that occur in each input string, where each occurrence differs from M in at most d positions. Another formulation is quorum PMS (qPMS), where the motif appears in at least q% of the strings. We introduce qPMS9, a parallel exact qPMS algorithm that offers significant runtime improvements on DNA and protein datasets. qPMS9 solves the challenging DNA (l, d)-instances (28, 12) and (30, 13). The source code is available at https://code.google.com/p/qpms9/.

  2. A motif present in the main cytoplasmic loop of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and catalases.

    PubMed

    Morgado-Valle, C; García-Colunga, J; Miledi, R; Díaz-Muñoz, M

    2001-05-01

    A motif containing five conserved amino acids (RXPXTH(X)14P) was detected in 111 proteins, including 82 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and 20 catalases. To explore possible functional roles of this motif in nAChRs two approaches were used: first, the motif sequences in nAChR subunits and catalases were analysed and compared; and, second, deletions in the rat alpha2 and beta4 nAChR subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes were analysed. Compared to the three-dimensional structure of bovine hepatic catalase, structural coincidences were found in the motif of catalases and nAChRs. On the other hand, partial deletions of the motif in the alpha2 or beta4 subunits and injection of the mutants into oocytes was followed by a very weak expression of functional nAChRs; oocytes injected with alpha2 and beta4 subunits in which the entire motif had been deleted failed to elicit any acetylcholine currents. The results suggest that the motif may play a role in the activation of nAChRs. PMID:11370971

  3. The consensus 5' splice site motif inhibits mRNA nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliza S; Akef, Abdalla; Mahadevan, Kohila; Palazzo, Alexander F

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, mRNAs are synthesized in the nucleus and then exported to the cytoplasm where they are translated into proteins. We have mapped an element, which when present in the 3'terminal exon or in an unspliced mRNA, inhibits mRNA nuclear export. This element has the same sequence as the consensus 5'splice site motif that is used to define the start of introns. Previously it was shown that when this motif is retained in the mRNA, it causes defects in 3'cleavage and polyadenylation and promotes mRNA decay. Our new data indicates that this motif also inhibits nuclear export and promotes the targeting of transcripts to nuclear speckles, foci within the nucleus which have been linked to splicing. The motif, however, does not disrupt splicing or the recruitment of UAP56 or TAP/Nxf1 to the RNA, which are normally required for nuclear export. Genome wide analysis of human mRNAs, lncRNA and eRNAs indicates that this motif is depleted from naturally intronless mRNAs and eRNAs, but less so in lncRNAs. This motif is also depleted from the beginning and ends of the 3'terminal exons of spliced mRNAs, but less so for lncRNAs. Our data suggests that the presence of the 5'splice site motif in mature RNAs promotes their nuclear retention and may help to distinguish mRNAs from misprocessed transcripts and transcriptional noise.

  4. Newly identified motifs in Candida albicans Cdr1 protein nucleotide binding domains are pleiotropic drug resistance subfamily-specific and functionally asymmetric

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Banerjee, Atanu; Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Monk, Brian C.; Cannon, Richard D.; Bhatnagar, Rakesh; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of Candida albicans ABC transporters identified conserved related α-helical sequence motifs immediately C-terminal of each Walker A sequence. Despite the occurrence of these motifs in ABC subfamilies of other yeasts and higher eukaryotes, their roles in protein function remained unexplored. In this study we have examined the functional significance of these motifs in the C. albicans PDR transporter Cdr1p. The motifs present in NBD1 and NBD2 were subjected to alanine scanning mutagenesis, deletion, or replacement of an entire motif. Systematic replacement of individual motif residues with alanine did not affect the function of Cdr1p but deletion of the M1-motif in NBD1 (M1-Del) resulted in Cdr1p being trapped within the endoplasmic reticulum. In contrast, deletion of the M2-motif in NBD2 (M2-Del) yielded a non-functional protein with normal plasma membrane localization. Replacement of the motif in M1-Del with six alanines (M1-Ala) significantly improved localization of the protein and partially restored function. Conversely, replacement of the motif in M2-Del with six alanines (M2-Ala) did not reverse the phenotype and susceptibility to antifungal substrates of Cdr1p was unchanged. Together, the M1 and M2 motifs contribute to the functional asymmetry of NBDs and are important for maturation of Cdr1p and ATP catalysis, respectively. PMID:27251950

  5. [Psychopathological study of lie motif in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Koichiro; Kato, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The theme of a statement is called "lie motif" by the authors when schizophrenic patients say "I have lied to anybody". We tried to analyse of the psychopathological characteristics and anthropological meanings of the lie motifs in schizophrenia, which has not been thematically examined until now, based on 4 cases, and contrasting with the lie motif (Lügenmotiv) in depression taken up by A. Kraus (1989). We classified the lie motifs in schizophrenia into the following two types: a) the past directive lie motif: the patients speak about their real lie regarding it as a 'petty fault' in their distant past with self-guilty feeling, b) the present directive lie motif: the patients say repeatedly 'I have lied' (about their present speech and behavior), retreating from their previous commitments. The observed false confessions of innocent fault by the patients seem to belong to the present directed lie motif. In comparison with the lie motif in depression, it is characteristic for the lie motif in schizophrenia that the patients feel themselves to already have been caught out by others before they confess the lie. The lie motif in schizophrenia seems to come into being through the attribution process of taking the others' blame on ones' own shoulders, which has been pointed out to be common in the guilt experience in schizophrenia. The others' blame on this occasion is due to "the others' gaze" in the experience of the initial self-centralization (i.e. non delusional self-referential experience) in the early stage of schizophrenia (S. Kato 1999). The others' gaze is supposed to bring about the feeling of amorphous self-revelation which could also be regarded as the guilt feeling without content, to the patients. When the guilt feeling is bound with a past concrete fault, the patients tell the past directive lie motif. On the other hand, when the patients cannot find a past fixed content, and feel their present actions as uncertain and experience them as lies, the

  6. INTEGRATING NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING INTO MEDICAL DIAGNOSTICS--A SNAPSHOT OF NORMATIVE CHALLENGES.

    PubMed

    Molnár-Gábor, Fruzsina

    2014-12-01

    Next-Generation Sequencing has been used as a diagnostic tool in an increasing manner. Compared to conventional medical interventions, NGS, as a medical intervention, has its own special characteristics. NGS allows us to obtain a multitude of additional findings. However, their correct interpretation requires molecular biological expertise and is still unknown at the time of the sampling. These factors, when applying NGS, lead to a dynamic process of informational interference with the patients' rights. The physician-patient relationship that becomes successive, is loosened by involving non-physician researchers in the validation of the findings and by the fact that genetic data also gives information about the relatives of the patient. Moreover, dealing with risk information lays the burden on the patients and strengthens their responsibility. These challenges increase in international translational medicine and they demand solutions for the protection of the patients' rights.

  7. Integration of whole-genome sequencing into infection control practices: the potential and the hurdles.

    PubMed

    Robilotti, Elizabeth; Kamboj, Mini

    2015-04-01

    Microbial whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is poised to transform many of the currently used approaches in medical microbiology. Recent reports on the application of WGS to understand genetic evolution and reconstruct transmission pathways have provided valuable information that will influence infection control practices. While this technology holds great promise, obstacles to full implementation remain. Two articles in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (S. Octavia, Q. Wang, M. M. Tanaka, S. Kaur, V. Sintchenko, and R. Lan, J Clin Microbiol 53:1063-1071, 2015, doi:10.1128/JCM.03235-14, and S. J. Salipante, D. J. SenGupta, L. A. Cummings, T. A. Land, D. R. Hoogestraat, and B. T. Cookson, J Clin Microbiol 53:1072-1079, 2015, doi:10.1128/JCM.03385-14) describe the breadth of application of WGS to the field of clinical epidemiology. PMID:25673795

  8. Integrated genomic sequencing reveals mutational landscape of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Mark J; Velusamy, Thirunavukkarasu; Rolland, Delphine; Sahasrabuddhe, Anagh A; Chung, Fuzon; Bailey, Nathanael G; Schrader, Alexandra; Li, Bo; Li, Jun Z; Ozel, Ayse B; Betz, Bryan L; Miranda, Roberto N; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Zhao, Lili; Herling, Marco; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2014-08-28

    The comprehensive genetic alterations underlying the pathogenesis of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) are unknown. To address this, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS), whole-exome sequencing (WES), high-resolution copy-number analysis, and Sanger resequencing of a large cohort of T-PLL. WGS and WES identified novel mutations in recurrently altered genes not previously implicated in T-PLL including EZH2, FBXW10, and CHEK2. Strikingly, WGS and/or WES showed largely mutually exclusive mutations affecting IL2RG, JAK1, JAK3, or STAT5B in 38 of 50 T-PLL genomes (76.0%). Notably, gain-of-function IL2RG mutations are novel and have not been reported in any form of cancer. Further, high-frequency mutations in STAT5B have not been previously reported in T-PLL. Functionally, IL2RG-JAK1-JAK3-STAT5B mutations led to signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) hyperactivation, transformed Ba/F3 cells resulting in cytokine-independent growth, and/or enhanced colony formation in Jurkat T cells. Importantly, primary T-PLL cells exhibited constitutive activation of STAT5, and targeted pharmacologic inhibition of STAT5 with pimozide induced apoptosis in primary T-PLL cells. These results for the first time provide a portrait of the mutational landscape of T-PLL and implicate deregulation of DNA repair and epigenetic modulators as well as high-frequency mutational activation of the IL2RG-JAK1-JAK3-STAT5B axis in the pathogenesis of T-PLL. These findings offer opportunities for novel targeted therapies in this aggressive leukemia.

  9. H-NS Facilitates Sequence Diversification of Horizontally Transferred DNAs during Their Integration in Host Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Koichi; Tobe, Toru; Kanai, Akinori; Uyar, Ebru; Ishikawa, Shu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ogasawara, Naotake; Kurokawa, Ken; Oshima, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can acquire new traits through horizontal gene transfer. Inappropriate expression of transferred genes, however, can disrupt the physiology of the host bacteria. To reduce this risk, Escherichia coli expresses the nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS, which preferentially binds to horizontally transferred genes to control their expression. Once expression is optimized, the horizontally transferred genes may actually contribute to E. coli survival in new habitats. Therefore, we investigated whether and how H-NS contributes to this optimization process. A comparison of H-NS binding profiles on common chromosomal segments of three E. coli strains belonging to different phylogenetic groups indicated that the positions of H-NS-bound regions have been conserved in E. coli strains. The sequences of the H-NS-bound regions appear to have diverged more so than H-NS-unbound regions only when H-NS-bound regions are located upstream or in coding regions of genes. Because these regions generally contain regulatory elements for gene expression, sequence divergence in these regions may be associated with alteration of gene expression. Indeed, nucleotide substitutions in H-NS-bound regions of the ybdO promoter and coding regions have diversified the potential for H-NS-independent negative regulation among E. coli strains. The ybdO expression in these strains was still negatively regulated by H-NS, which reduced the effect of H-NS-independent regulation under normal growth conditions. Hence, we propose that, during E. coli evolution, the conservation of H-NS binding sites resulted in the diversification of the regulation of horizontally transferred genes, which may have facilitated E. coli adaptation to new ecological niches. PMID:26789284

  10. RNA Bricks--a database of RNA 3D motifs and their interactions.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Grzegorz; Walen, Tomasz; Bujnicki, Janusz M

    2014-01-01

    The RNA Bricks database (http://iimcb.genesilico.pl/rnabricks), stores information about recurrent RNA 3D motifs and their interactions, found in experimentally determined RNA structures and in RNA-protein complexes. In contrast to other similar tools (RNA 3D Motif Atlas, RNA Frabase, Rloom) RNA motifs, i.e. 'RNA bricks' are presented in the molecular environment, in which they were determined, including RNA, protein, metal ions, water molecules and ligands. All nucleotide residues in RNA bricks are annotated with structural quality scores that describe real-space correlation coefficients with the electron density data (if available), backbone geometry and possible steric conflicts, which can be used to identify poorly modeled residues. The database is also equipped with an algorithm for 3D motif search and comparison. The algorithm compares spatial positions of backbone atoms of the user-provided query structure and of stored RNA motifs, without relying on sequence or secondary structure information. This enables the identification of local structural similarities among evolutionarily related and unrelated RNA molecules. Besides, the search utility enables searching 'RNA bricks' according to sequence similarity, and makes it possible to identify motifs with modified ribonucleotide residues at specific positions.

  11. Dipeptide frequency/bias analysis identifies conserved sites of nonrandomness shared by cysteine-rich motifs.

    PubMed

    Campion, S R; Ameen, A S; Lai, L; King, J M; Munzenmaier, T N

    2001-08-15

    This report describes the application of a simple computational tool, AAPAIR.TAB, for the systematic analysis of the cysteine-rich EGF, Sushi, and Laminin motif/sequence families at the two-amino acid level. Automated dipeptide frequency/bias analysis detects preferences in the distribution of amino acids in established protein families, by determining which "ordered dipeptides" occur most frequently in comprehensive motif-specific sequence data sets. Graphic display of the dipeptide frequency/bias data revealed family-specific preferences for certain dipeptides, but more importantly detected a shared preference for employment of the ordered dipeptides Gly-Tyr (GY) and Gly-Phe (GF) in all three protein families. The dipeptide Asn-Gly (NG) also exhibited high-frequency and bias in the EGF and Sushi motif families, whereas Asn-Thr (NT) was distinguished in the Laminin family. Evaluation of the distribution of dipeptides identified by frequency/bias analysis subsequently revealed the highly restricted localization of the G(F/Y) and N(G/T) sequence elements at two separate sites of extreme conservation in the consensus sequence of all three sequence families. The similar employment of the high-frequency/bias dipeptides in three distinct protein sequence families was further correlated with the concurrence of these shared molecular determinants at similar positions within the distinctive scaffolds of three structurally divergent, but similarly employed, motif modules.

  12. Structural characterization of a capping protein interaction motif defines a family of actin filament regulators

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Valladares, Maria; Kim, Taekyung; Kannan, Balakrishnan; Tung, Alvin; Aguda, Adeleke H; Larsson, Mårten; Cooper, John A; Robinson, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    Capping protein (CP) regulates actin dynamics by binding the barbed ends of actin filaments. Removal of CP may be one means to harness actin polymerization for processes such as cell movement and endocytosis. Here we structurally and biochemically investigated a CP interaction (CPI) motif present in the otherwise unrelated proteins CARMIL and CD2AP. The CPI motif wraps around the stalk of the mushroom-shaped CP at a site distant from the actin-binding interface, which lies on the top of the mushroom cap. We propose that the CPI motif may act as an allosteric modulator, restricting CP to a low-affinity, filament-binding conformation. Structure-based sequence alignments extend the CPI motif–containing family to include CIN85, CKIP-1, CapZIP and a relatively uncharacterized protein, WASHCAP (FAM21). Peptides comprising these CPI motifs are able to inhibit CP and to uncap CP-bound actin filaments. PMID:20357771

  13. New measuring concepts using integrated online analysis of color and monochrome digital high-speed camera sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renz, Harald

    1997-05-01

    digital image data. An integrated software solution (MOTION HRC ImageServer) for interfacing the camera will be presented: it controls the recording and the transfer of the images to a PC and contains tools for sequence processing, display, storage and database handling. A corresponding viewing software enables a comfortable visualization of film sequences from standard desktop pc's, replacing the presentation of 16 mm films or video tapes. The new analysis software MOTION LC was designed in cooperation with the automotive industry specially for the use with high speed video cameras. It automizes all necessary steps to measure the positions of signalled points within an image sequence and to derive calibrated trajectories. These tools now allow new integrated analyzing concept, with a very fast processing time starting with the test up to the print out of result diagrams. The system supports a lot of image sources and shows an open interface for data in- and output.

  14. Automated Motif Discovery from Glycan Array Data

    PubMed Central

    Cholleti, Sharath R.; Agravat, Sanjay; Morris, Tim; Saltz, Joel H.; Song, Xuezheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Assessing interactions of a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or lectin with glycans on a microarray generates large datasets, making it difficult to identify a glycan structural motif or determinant associated with the highest apparent binding strength of the GBP. We have developed a computational method, termed GlycanMotifMiner, that uses the relative binding of a GBP with glycans within a glycan microarray to automatically reveal the glycan structural motifs recognized by a GBP. We implemented the software with a web-based graphical interface for users to explore and visualize the discovered motifs. The utility of GlycanMotifMiner was determined using five plant lectins, SNA, HPA, PNA, Con A, and UEA-I. Data from the analyses of the lectins at different protein concentrations were processed to rank the glycans based on their relative binding strengths. The motifs, defined as glycan substructures that exist in a large number of the bound glycans and few non-bound glycans, were then discovered by our algorithm and displayed in a web-based graphical user interface (http://glycanmotifminer.emory.edu). The information is used in defining the glycan-binding specificity of GBPs. The results were compared to the known glycan specificities of these lectins generated by manual methods. A more complex analysis was also carried out using glycan microarray data obtained for a recombinant form of human galectin-8. Results for all of these lectins show that GlycanMotifMiner identified the major motifs known in the literature along with some unexpected novel binding motifs. PMID:22877213

  15. Automated motif discovery from glycan array data.

    PubMed

    Cholleti, Sharath R; Agravat, Sanjay; Morris, Tim; Saltz, Joel H; Song, Xuezheng; Cummings, Richard D; Smith, David F

    2012-10-01

    Assessing interactions of a glycan-binding protein (GBP) or lectin with glycans on a microarray generates large datasets, making it difficult to identify a glycan structural motif or determinant associated with the highest apparent binding strength of the GBP. We have developed a computational method, termed GlycanMotifMiner, that uses the relative binding of a GBP with glycans within a glycan microarray to automatically reveal the glycan structural motifs recognized by a GBP. We implemented the software with a web-based graphical interface for users to explore and visualize the discovered motifs. The utility of GlycanMotifMiner was determined using five plant lectins, SNA, HPA, PNA, Con A, and UEA-I. Data from the analyses of the lectins at different protein concentrations were processed to rank the glycans based on their relative binding strengths. The motifs, defined as glycan substructures that exist in a large number of the bound glycans and few non-bound glycans, were then discovered by our algorithm and displayed in a web-based graphical user interface ( http://glycanmotifminer.emory.edu ). The information is used in defining the glycan-binding specificity of GBPs. The results were compared to the known glycan specificities of these lectins generated by manual methods. A more complex analysis was also carried out using glycan microarray data obtained for a recombinant form of human galectin-8. Results for all of these lectins show that GlycanMotifMiner identified the major motifs known in the literature along with some unexpected novel binding motifs. PMID:22877213

  16. Binding cofactors with triplex-based DNA motifs.

    PubMed

    Kröner, Christoph; Göckel, Anja; Liu, Wenjing; Richert, Clemens

    2013-11-18

    Cofactors are pivotal compounds for the cell and many biotechnological processes. It is therefore interesting to ask how well cofactors can be bound by oligonucleotides designed not to convert but to store and release these biomolecules. Here we show that triplex-based DNA binding motifs can be used to bind nucleotides and cofactors, including NADH, FAD, SAM, acetyl CoA, and tetrahydrofolate (THF). Dissociation constants between 0.1 μM for SAM and 35 μM for THF were measured. A two-nucleotide gap still binds NADH. The selectivity for one ligand over the others can be changed by changing the sequence of the binding pocket. For example, a mismatch placed in one of the two triplets adjacent to the base-pairing site changes the selectivity, favoring the binding of FAD over that of ATP. Further, changing one of the two thymines of an A-binding motif to cytosine gives significant affinity for G, whereas changing the other does not. Immobilization of DNA motifs gives beads that store NADH. Exploratory experiments show that the beads release the cofactor upon warming to body temperature.

  17. A novel swarm intelligence algorithm for finding DNA motifs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Chengwei; Ruan, Jianhua

    2010-01-01

    Discovering DNA motifs from co-expressed or co-regulated genes is an important step towards deciphering complex gene regulatory networks and understanding gene functions. Despite significant improvement in the last decade, it still remains one of the most challenging problems in computational molecular biology. In this work, we propose a novel motif finding algorithm that finds consensus patterns using a population-based stochastic optimisation technique called Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO), which has been shown to be effective in optimising difficult multidimensional problems in continuous domains. We propose to use a word dissimilarity graph to remap the neighborhood structure of the solution space of DNA motifs, and propose a modification of the naive PSO algorithm to accommodate discrete variables. In order to improve efficiency, we also propose several strategies for escaping from local optima and for automatically determining the termination criteria. Experimental results on simulated challenge problems show that our method is both more efficient and more accurate than several existing algorithms. Applications to several sets of real promoter sequences also show that our approach is able to detect known transcription factor binding sites, and outperforms two of the most popular existing algorithms. PMID:20090174

  18. An update on cell surface proteins containing extensin-motifs.

    PubMed

    Borassi, Cecilia; Sede, Ana R; Mecchia, Martin A; Salgado Salter, Juan D; Marzol, Eliana; Muschietti, Jorge P; Estevez, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that there are several molecular links that interconnect the plant cell surface continuum, which is highly important in many biological processes such as plant growth, development, and interaction with the environment. The plant cell surface continuum can be defined as the space that contains and interlinks the cell wall, plasma membrane and cytoskeleton compartments. In this review, we provide an updated view of cell surface proteins that include modular domains with an extensin (EXT)-motif followed by a cytoplasmic kinase-like domain, known as PERKs (for proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinases); with an EXT-motif and an actin binding domain, known as formins; and with extracellular hybrid-EXTs. We focus our attention on the EXT-motifs with the short sequence Ser-Pro(3-5), which is found in several different protein contexts within the same extracellular space, highlighting a putative conserved structural and functional role. A closer understanding of the dynamic regulation of plant cell surface continuum and its relationship with the downstream signalling cascade is a crucial forthcoming challenge.

  19. Materials and fabrication sequences for water soluble silicon integrated circuits at the 90 nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lan; Bozler, Carl; Harburg, Daniel V.; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Rogers, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten interconnects in silicon integrated circuits built at the 90 nm node with releasable configurations on silicon on insulator wafers serve as the basis for advanced forms of water-soluble electronics. These physically transient systems have potential uses in applications that range from temporary biomedical implants to zero-waste environmental sensors. Systematic experimental studies and modeling efforts reveal essential aspects of electrical performance in field effect transistors and complementary ring oscillators with as many as 499 stages. Accelerated tests reveal timescales for dissolution of the various constituent materials, including tungsten, silicon, and silicon dioxide. The results demonstrate that silicon complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor circuits formed with tungsten interconnects in foundry-compatible fabrication processes can serve as a path to high performance, mass-produced transient electronic systems.

  20. Integrated exome and transcriptome sequencing reveals ZAK isoform usage in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfeng; McCleland, Mark; Stawiski, Eric W.; Gnad, Florian; Mayba, Oleg; Haverty, Peter M.; Durinck, Steffen; Chen, Ying-Jiun; Klijn, Christiaan; Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; Lawrence, Michael; Liu, Hanbin; Wan, Yinan; Chopra, Vivek; Yaylaoglu, Murat B.; Yuan, Wenlin; Ha, Connie; Gilbert, Houston N.; Reeder, Jens; Pau, Gregoire; Stinson, Jeremy; Stern, Howard M.; Manning, Gerard; Wu, Thomas D.; Neve, Richard M.; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Modrusan, Zora; Seshagiri, Somasekar; Firestein, Ron; Zhang, Zemin

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of worldwide cancer mortality, yet the underlying genomic alterations remain poorly understood. Here we perform exome and transcriptome sequencing and SNP array assays to characterize 51 primary gastric tumours and 32 cell lines. Meta-analysis of exome data and previously published data sets reveals 24 significantly mutated genes in microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours and 16 in microsatellite instable (MSI) tumours. Over half the patients in our collection could potentially benefit from targeted therapies. We identify 55 splice site mutations accompanied by aberrant splicing products, in addition to mutation-independent differential isoform usage in tumours. ZAK kinase isoform TV1 is preferentially upregulated in gastric tumours and cell lines relative to normal samples. This pattern is also observed in colorectal, bladder and breast cancers. Overexpression of this particular isoform activates multiple cancer-related transcription factor reporters, while depletion of ZAK in gastric cell lines inhibits proliferation. These results reveal the spectrum of genomic and transcriptomic alterations in gastric cancer, and identify isoform-specific oncogenic properties of ZAK. PMID:24807215

  1. SA-Mot: a web server for the identification of motifs of interest extracted from protein loops.

    PubMed

    Regad, Leslie; Saladin, Adrien; Maupetit, Julien; Geneix, Colette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2011-07-01

    The detection of functional motifs is an important step for the determination of protein functions. We present here a new web server SA-Mot (Structural Alphabet Motif) for the extraction and location of structural motifs of interest from protein loops. Contrary to other methods, SA-Mot does not focus only on functional motifs, but it extracts recurrent and conserved structural motifs involved in structural redundancy of loops. SA-Mot uses the structural word notion to extract all structural motifs from uni-dimensional sequences corresponding to loop structures. Then, SA-Mot provides a description of these structural motifs using statistics computed in the loop data set and in SCOP superfamily, sequence and structural parameters. SA-Mot results correspond to an interactive table listing all structural motifs extracted from a target structure and their associated descriptors. Using this information, the users can easily locate loop regions that are important for the protein folding and function. The SA-Mot web server is available at http://sa-mot.mti.univ-paris-diderot.fr.

  2. Discovering interacting domains and motifs in protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Willy; Sung, Wing-Kin; Ng, See-Kiong

    2013-01-01

    Many important biological processes, such as the signaling pathways, require protein-protein interactions (PPIs) that are designed for fast response to stimuli. These interactions are usually transient, easily formed, and disrupted, yet specific. Many of these transient interactions involve the binding of a protein domain to a short stretch (3-10) of amino acid residues, which can be characterized by a sequence pattern, i.e., a short linear motif (SLiM). We call these interacting domains and motifs domain-SLiM interactions. Existing methods have focused on discovering SLiMs in the interacting proteins' sequence data. With the recent increase in protein structures, we have a new opportunity to detect SLiMs directly from the proteins' 3D structures instead of their linear sequences. In this chapter, we describe a computational method called SLiMDIet to directly detect SLiMs on domain interfaces extracted from 3D structures of PPIs. SLiMDIet comprises two steps: (1) interaction interfaces belonging to the same domain are extracted and grouped together using structural clustering and (2) the extracted interaction interfaces in each cluster are structurally aligned to extract the corresponding SLiM. Using SLiMDIet, de novo SLiMs interacting with protein domains can be computationally detected from structurally clustered domain-SLiM interactions for PFAM domains which have available 3D structures in the PDB database.

  3. Identification of a putative nuclear export signal motif in human NANOG homeobox domain

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Won; Do, Hyun-Jin; Huh, Sun-Hyung; Sung, Boreum; Uhm, Sang-Jun; Song, Hyuk; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found the putative nuclear export signal motif within human NANOG homeodomain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Leucine-rich residues are important for human NANOG homeodomain nuclear export. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CRM1-specific inhibitor LMB blocked the potent human NANOG NES-mediated nuclear export. -- Abstract: NANOG is a homeobox-containing transcription factor that plays an important role in pluripotent stem cells and tumorigenic cells. To understand how nuclear localization of human NANOG is regulated, the NANOG sequence was examined and a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES) motif ({sup 125}MQELSNILNL{sup 134}) was found in the homeodomain (HD). To functionally validate the putative NES motif, deletion and site-directed mutants were fused to an EGFP expression vector and transfected into COS-7 cells, and the localization of the proteins was examined. While hNANOG HD exclusively localized to the nucleus, a mutant with both NLSs deleted and only the putative NES motif contained (hNANOG HD-{Delta}NLSs) was predominantly cytoplasmic, as observed by nucleo/cytoplasmic fractionation and Western blot analysis as well as confocal microscopy. Furthermore, site-directed mutagenesis of the putative NES motif in a partial hNANOG HD only containing either one of the two NLS motifs led to localization in the nucleus, suggesting that the NES motif may play a functional role in nuclear export. Furthermore, CRM1-specific nuclear export inhibitor LMB blocked the hNANOG potent NES-mediated export, suggesting that the leucine-rich motif may function in CRM1-mediated nuclear export of hNANOG. Collectively, a NES motif is present in the hNANOG HD and may be functionally involved in CRM1-mediated nuclear export pathway.

  4. Nucleic Acid i-Motif Structures in Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Alba, Joan Josep; Sadurní, Anna; Gargallo, Raimundo

    2016-09-01

    Under the appropriate experimental conditions of pH and temperature, cytosine-rich segments in DNA or RNA sequences may produce a characteristic folded structure known as an i-motif. Besides its potential role in vivo, which is still under investigation, this structure has attracted increasing interest in other fields due to its sharp, fast and reversible pH-driven conformational changes. This "on/off" switch at molecular level is being used in nanotechnology and analytical chemistry to develop nanomachines and sensors, respectively. This paper presents a review of the latest applications of this structure in the field of chemical analysis.

  5. Regulatory sequence analysis tools.

    PubMed

    van Helden, Jacques

    2003-07-01

    The web resource Regulatory Sequence Analysis Tools (RSAT) (http://rsat.ulb.ac.be/rsat) offers a collection of software tools dedicated to the prediction of regulatory sites in non-coding DNA sequences. These tools include sequence retrieval, pattern discovery, pattern matching, genome-scale pattern matching, feature-map drawing, random sequence generation and other utilities. Alternative formats are supported for the representation of regulatory motifs (strings or position-specific scoring matrices) and several algorithms are proposed for pattern discovery. RSAT currently holds >100 fully sequenced genomes and these data are regularly updated from GenBank.

  6. Graph animals, subgraph sampling, and motif search in large networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2007-09-01

    We generalize a sampling algorithm for lattice animals (connected clusters on a regular lattice) to a Monte Carlo algorithm for “graph animals,” i.e., connected subgraphs in arbitrary networks. As with the algorithm in [N. Kashtan , Bioinformatics 20, 1746 (2004)], it provides a weighted sample, but the computation of the weights is much faster (linear in the size of subgraphs, instead of superexponential). This allows subgraphs with up to ten or more nodes to be sampled with very high statistics, from arbitrarily large networks. Using this together with a heuristic algorithm for rapidly classifying isomorphic graphs, we present results for two protein interaction networks obtained using the tandem affinity purification (TAP) method: one of Escherichia coli with 230 nodes and 695 links, and one for yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with roughly ten times more nodes and links. We find in both cases that most connected subgraphs are strong motifs ( Z scores >10 ) or antimotifs ( Z scores <-10 ) when the null model is the ensemble of networks with fixed degree sequence. Strong differences appear between the two networks, with dominant motifs in E. coli being (nearly) bipartite graphs and having many pairs of nodes that connect to the same neighbors, while dominant motifs in yeast tend towards completeness or contain large cliques. We also explore a number of methods that do not rely on measurements of Z scores or comparisons with null models. For instance, we discuss the influence of specific complexes like the 26S proteasome in yeast, where a small number of complexes dominate the k cores with large k and have a decisive effect on the strongest motifs with 6-8 nodes. We also present Zipf plots of counts versus rank. They show broad distributions that are not power laws, in contrast to the case when disconnected subgraphs are included.

  7. FootPrinter3: phylogenetic footprinting in partially alignable sequences.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fei; Blanchette, Mathieu

    2006-07-01

    FootPrinter3 is a web server for predicting transcription factor binding sites by using phylogenetic footprinting. Until now, phylogenetic footprinting approaches have been based either on multiple alignment analysis (e.g. PhyloVista, PhastCons), or on motif-discovery algorithms (e.g. FootPrinter2). FootPrinter3 integrates these two approaches, making use of local multiple sequence alignment blocks when those are available and reliable, but also allowing finding motifs in unalignable regions. The result is a set of predictions that joins the advantages of alignment-based methods (good specificity) to those of motif-based methods (good sensitivity, even in the presence of highly diverged species). FootPrinter3 is thus a tool of choice to exploit the wealth of vertebrate genomes being sequenced, as it allows taking full advantage of the sequences of highly diverged species (e.g. chicken, zebrafish), as well as those of more closely related species (e.g. mammals). The FootPrinter3 web server is available at: http://www.mcb.mcgill.ca/~blanchem/FootPrinter3.

  8. Intronic motif pairs cooperate across exons to promote pre-mRNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A very early step in splice site recognition is exon definition, a process that is as yet poorly understood. Communication between the two ends of an exon is thought to be required for this step. We report genome-wide evidence for exons being defined through the combinatorial activity of motifs located in flanking intronic regions. Results Strongly co-occurring motifs were found to specifically reside in four intronic regions surrounding a large number of human exons. These paired motifs occur around constitutive and alternative exons but not pseudo exons. Most co-occurring motifs are limited to intronic regions within 100 nucleotides of the exon. They are preferentially associated with weaker exons. Their pairing is conserved in evolution and they exhibit a lower frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism when paired. Paired motifs display specificity with respect to distance from the exon borders and in constitutive versus alternative splicing. Many resemble binding sites for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Specific pairs are associated with tissue-specific genes, the higher expression of which coincides with that of the pertinent RNA binding proteins. Tested pairs acted synergistically to enhance exon inclusion, and this enhancement was found to be exon-specific. Conclusions The exon-flanking sequence pairs identified here by genomic analysis promote exon inclusion and may play a role in the exon definition step in pre-mRNA splicing. We propose a model in which multiple concerted interactions are required between exonic sequences and flanking intronic sequences to effect exon definition. PMID:20704715

  9. The position of the Gly-xxx-Gly motif in transmembrane segments modulates dimer affinity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachel M; Rath, Arianna; Deber, Charles M

    2006-12-01

    Although the intrinsic low solubility of membrane proteins presents challenges to their high-resolution structure determination, insight into the amino acid sequence features and forces that stabilize their folds has been provided through study of sequence-dependent helix-helix interactions between single transmembrane (TM) helices. While the stability of helix-helix partnerships mediated by the Gly-xxx-Gly (GG4) motif is known to be generally modulated by distal interfacial residues, it has not been established whether the position of this motif, with respect to the ends of a given TM segment, affects dimer affinity. Here we examine the relationship between motif position and affinity in the homodimers of 2 single-spanning membrane protein TM sequences: glycophorin A (GpA) and bacteriophage M13 coat protein (MCP). Using the TOXCAT assay for dimer affinity on a series of GpA and MCP TM segments that have been modified with either 4 Leu residues at each end or with 8 Leu residues at the N-terminal end, we show that in each protein, centrally located GG4 motifs are capable of stronger helix-helix interactions than those proximal to TM helix ends, even when surrounding interfacial residues are maintained. The relative importance of GG4 motifs in stabilizing helix-helix interactions therefore must be considered not only in its specific residue context but also in terms of the location of the interactive surface relative to the N and C termini of alpha-helical TM segments.

  10. Study of optimal sequences and energy requirements of integrated processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Enezi, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demand for high quality unleaded gasoline produced from a refinery has caused an increased in developing processing alternatives for producing high-octane gasoline components. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is currently considered one of the most practical alternatives. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is based mainly on the availability of light hydrocarbons as a feed, such as isobutane from a refinery. The availability of isobutane is increased by isomerization of normal butanes. Even though distillation processes are widely used to separate mixtures of light hydrocarbons, they are highly energy intensive. A steady-state design of several configurations of distillation columns were studied for separating light hydrocarbon mixtures. A number of energy conservation alternatives were evaluated for the distillation process integrated with an isomerization unit. A modified form of the Complex Method of Box was used for optimizing the design and operating conditions of these energy conservation alternatives. The use of vapor recompression with distillation columns was evaluated as one of the alternatives. Despite the more complex processing scheme required, this alternative used only about 30% of the external energy required in a conventional distillation process for the same separation. The operating conditions of the multi-effect distillation columns were optimized as another alternative. Reduction in energy consumption for this case was about 40% compared to conventional distillation columns.

  11. Integrative transcriptome sequencing identifies trans-splicing events with important roles in human embryonic stem cell pluripotency.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chan-Shuo; Yu, Chun-Ying; Chuang, Ching-Yu; Hsiao, Michael; Kao, Cheng-Fu; Kuo, Hung-Chih; Chuang, Trees-Juen

    2014-01-01

    Trans-splicing is a post-transcriptional event that joins exons from separate pre-mRNAs. Detection of trans-splicing is usually severely hampered by experimental artifacts and genetic rearrangements. Here, we develop a new computational pipeline, TSscan, which integrates different types of high-throughput long-/short-read transcriptome sequencing of different human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines to effectively minimize false positives while detecting trans-splicing. Combining TSscan screening with multiple experimental validation steps revealed that most chimeric RNA products were platform-dependent experimental artifacts of RNA sequencing. We successfully identified and confirmed four trans-spliced RNAs, including the first reported trans-spliced large intergenic noncoding RNA ("tsRMST"). We s