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Sample records for integrated sequential injection

  1. Sequential injection immunoassay for environmental measurements.

    PubMed

    Soh, Nobuaki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Hirakawa, Koji; Zhang, RuiQi; Nakajima, Hizuru; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Sequential injection immunoassay systems for environmental measurements based on the selective immunoreaction between antigen and antibody were described. A sequential injection analysis (SIA) technique is suitable to be applied for the procedure of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), because the washing and the addition of reagent solutions can be automated by using a computer-controlled syringe pump and switching valve. We selected vitellogenin (Vg), which is a biomarker for evaluating environmental risk caused by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the hydrosphere, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), which are versatile surfactants, as target analytes in the flow immunoassay systems. For Vg monitoring, SIA systems based on spectrophotometric, chemiluminescence, and electrochemical determinations were constructed. On the other hand, chemiluminescence determination was applied to the detection of LAS and APEO. For APEO, an SIA system combined with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was also developed. These new sequential injection immunoassay systems are expected to be useful systems for environmental analysis.

  2. Determination of Pb(II) by sequential injection/stripping analysis at all-plastic electrochemical fluidic cells with integrated composite electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Christos; Economou, Anastasios; Goddard, Nicholas G; Fielden, Peter R; Baldock, Sara J

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the development of a sequential injection/stripping analysis method for the determination of trace Pb(II) at injection-moulded electrochemical fluidic cells. Conducting carbon fibre-loaded polystyrene electrodes were integrated within the plastic cells. The flow-through cells were incorporated into a home-made sequential injection analysis (SIA) manifold. Different experimental parameters for the detection of Pb(II) were investigated including the type and concentration of the supporting electrolyte, the conditions of the stripping step, the volume of the sample, the flow rate and the accumulation potential. The LOD for Pb(II) was 0.5μgL(-1), the within-cell % relative standard deviation (n=8) was 3.1% and the between-cell % relative standard deviation (n=5) was 8.9% for 25μgL(-1) Pb(II). The cells were applied to the determination of Pb(II) in tapwater and a phosphate fertilizer sample.

  3. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Jeffrey M; Chu, Henry S; Novascone, Stephen R

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  4. Sequential capillary electrophoresis analysis using optically gated sample injection and UV/vis detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxia; Tian, Miaomiao; Camara, Mohamed Amara; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2015-10-01

    We present sequential CE analysis of amino acids and L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction, by combing the on-line derivatization, optically gated (OG) injection and commercial-available UV-Vis detection. Various experimental conditions for sequential OG-UV/vis CE analysis were investigated and optimized by analyzing a standard mixture of amino acids. High reproducibility of the sequential CE analysis was demonstrated with RSD values (n = 20) of 2.23, 2.57, and 0.70% for peak heights, peak areas, and migration times, respectively, and the LOD of 5.0 μM (for asparagine) and 2.0 μM (for aspartic acid) were obtained. With the application of the OG-UV/vis CE analysis, sequential online CE enzyme assay of L-asparaginase-catalyzed enzyme reaction was carried out by automatically and continuously monitoring the substrate consumption and the product formation every 12 s from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The Michaelis constants for the reaction were obtained and were found to be in good agreement with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. The study demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of integrating the OG injection with UV/vis detection for sequential online CE analysis, which could be of potential value for online monitoring various chemical reaction and bioprocesses.

  5. Extended and Sequential Delivery of Protein from Injectable Thermoresponsive Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Devin M; Ma, Zuwei; Leeson, Cory E; Wagner, William R

    2011-01-01

    Thermoresponsive hydrogels are attractive for their injectability and retention in tissue sites where they may serve as a mechanical support and as a scaffold to guide tissue remodeling. Our objective in this report was to develop a thermoresponsive, biodegradable hydrogel system that would be capable of protein release from two distinct reservoirs – one where protein was attached to the hydrogel backbone, and one where protein was loaded into biodegradable microparticles mixed into the network. Thermoresponsive hydrogels consisting of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and biodegradable methacrylate polylactide (MAPLA) were synthesized along with modified copolymers incorporating 1 mol% protein-reactive methacryloxy N,hydroxysuccinimide (MANHS), hydrophilic acrylic acid (AAc), or both. In vitro, bovine serum albumin (BSA) release was studied from hydrogels, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles, or microparticles mixed into the hydrogels. The synthesized copolymers were able to gel below 37°C and release protein in excess of 3 months. The presence of MANHS and AAc in the copolymers was associated with higher loaded protein retention during thermal transition (45% vs 22%) and faster release (2 months), respectively. Microspheres entrapped in the hydrogel released protein in a delayed fashion relative to microspheres in saline. The combination of a protein-reactive hydrogel mixed with protein-loaded microspheres demonstrated a sequential release of specific BSA populations. Overall, the described drug delivery system combines the advantages of injectability, degradability, extended release, and sequential release which may be useful in tissue engineering applications. PMID:22237975

  6. Sequential injection analysis of ethanol using immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hedenfalk, M.; Mattiasson, B.

    1996-05-01

    A Sequential Injection (SI) system was used to analyze the ethanol concentration in fermentation broth. The method is based on the use of immobilized NAD{sup +} dependent alcohol dehydrogenase. A non-linear standard curve for ethanol (range 0.25-100 mM) was used to determine the concentration in fermentation broth and the results correlated well with HPLC measurements. The assay time was 140 s, 0.5 {mu}mol of cofactor was used for each determination, and the relative standard deviation was less than 6% when analyzing fermentation samples. The assay system is very stable and makes it possible to reduce the cofactor consumption while keeping the system set up simple.

  7. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

  8. Development of Decision Making: Sequential versus Integrative Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2012-01-01

    Decisions can be made by applying a variety of decision-making rules--sequential rules in which decisions are based on a sequential evaluation of choice dimensions and the integrative normative rule in which decisions are based on an integration of choice dimensions. In this study, we investigated the developmental trajectory of such…

  9. Screening of conditions controlling spectrophotometric sequential injection analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its potential benefits over univariate, chemometrics is rarely utilized for optimizing sequential injection analysis (SIA) methods. Specifically, in previous vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods, chemometrically optimized conditions were confined within flow rate and reagent concentrations while other conditions were ignored. Results The current manuscript reports, for the first time, a comprehensive screening of conditions controlling vis-spectrophotometric SIA. A new diclofenac assay method was adopted. The method was based on oxidizing diclofenac by permanganate (a major reagent) with sulfuric acid (a minor reagent). The reaction produced a spectrophotometrically detectable diclofenac form. The 26 full-factorial design was utilized to study the effect of volumes of reagents and sample, in addition to flow rate and concentrations of reagents. The main effects and all interaction order effects on method performance, i.e. namely sensitivity, rapidity and reagent consumption, were determined. The method was validated and applied to pharmaceutical formulations (tablets, injection and gel). Conclusions Despite 64 experiments those conducted in the current study were cumbersome, the results obtained would reduce effort and time when developing similar SIA methods in the future. It is recommended to critically optimize effective and interacting conditions using other such optimization tools as fractional-factorial design, response surface and simplex, rather than full-factorial design that used at an initial optimization stage. In vis-spectrophotometric SIA methods those involve developing reactions with two reagents (major and minor), conditions affecting method performance are in the following order: sample volume > flow rate ≈ major reagent concentration >> major reagent volume ≈ minor reagent concentration >> minor reagent volume. PMID:21333024

  10. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes.

  11. Sequential injection extraction based on restricted access material for determination of furosemide in serum.

    PubMed

    Huclová, Jitka; Satínský, Dalibor; Maia, Tiago; Karlícek, Rolf; Solich, Petr; Araújo, Alberto Nova

    2005-09-16

    Restricted access material (RAM) column containing 25 microm C18 alkyl-diol support was integrated into the sequential injection analysis (SIA) manifold and the SIA-RAM system was tested for direct determination of furosemide in serum. LiChrospher ADS column based on restricted access material is proposed to direct injection of biofluids. The integration of RAM material into SIA enabled creation of a comprehensive on-line sample clean-up technique combined with fluorescence quantitation of analyte. Centrifuged and diluted serum sample was aspirated into the system and loaded onto the column using acetonitrile-water (2:98), pH 2.7. The analyte was retained on the column while proteins contained in the sample were removed to the waste without precipitation and clogging the column. Interfering substances complicating the detection were washed out by acetonitrile-water (15:85), pH 2.7 in the next step. The extracted analyte was eluted by means of acetonitrile-water (25:75), pH 2.3 to the fluorescence detector (emission filter 385 nm). The whole procedure comprising sample pre-treatment, analyte detection and column reconditioning took 20 min. The recoveries of furosemide from serum lay between 101.4 and 103.4% for three concentrations of analyte.

  12. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  13. Sequential-Injection Analysis: Principles, Instrument Construction, and Demonstration by a Simple Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economou, A.; Tzanavaras, P. D.; Themelis, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    The sequential-injection analysis (SIA) is an approach to sample handling that enables the automation of manual wet-chemistry procedures in a rapid, precise and efficient manner. The experiments using SIA fits well in the course of Instrumental Chemical Analysis and especially in the section of Automatic Methods of analysis provided by chemistry…

  14. Enzymatic Microreactors for the Determination of Ethanol by an Automatic Sequential Injection Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhadeff, Eliana M.; Salgado, Andrea M.; Cos, Oriol; Pereira, Nei; Valdman, Belkis; Valero, Francisco

    A sequential injection analysis system with two enzymatic microreactors for the determination of ethanol has been designed. Alcohol oxidase and horseradish peroxidase were separately immobilized on glass aminopropyl beads, and packed in 0.91-mL volume microreactors, working in line with the sequential injection analysis system. A stop flow of 120 s was selected for a linear ethanol range of 0.005-0.04 g/L±0.6% relative standard deviation with a throughput of seven analyses per hour. The system was applied to measure ethanol concentrations in samples of distilled and nondistilled alcoholic beverages, and of alcoholic fermentation with good performance and no significant difference compared with other analytical procedures (gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography).

  15. An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    van Staden, J F; Mashamba, Mulalo G; Stefan, Raluca I

    2002-09-01

    An on-line potentiometric sequential injection titration process analyser for the determination of acetic acid is proposed. A solution of 0.1 mol L(-1) sodium chloride is used as carrier. Titration is achieved by aspirating acetic acid samples between two strong base-zone volumes into a holding coil and by channelling the stack of well-defined zones with flow reversal through a reaction coil to a potentiometric sensor where the peak widths were measured. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 1-9 g/100 mL. Vinegar samples were analysed without any sample pre-treatment. The method has a relative standard deviation of 0.4% with a sample frequency of 28 samples per hour. The results revealed good agreement between the proposed sequential injection and an automated batch titration method.

  16. Combined versus sequential injection of mepivacaine and ropivacaine for supraclavicular nerve blocks.

    PubMed

    Roberman, Dmitry; Arora, Harendra; Sessler, Daniel I; Ritchey, Michael; You, Jing; Kumar, Priya

    2011-01-01

    An ideal local anesthetic with rapid onset and prolonged duration has yet to be developed. Clinicians use mixtures of local anesthetics in an attempt to combine their advantages. We tested the hypothesis that sequential supraclavicular injection of 1.5% mepivacaine followed 90 secs later by 0.5% ropivacaine speeds onset of sensory block and prolongs duration of analgesia compared with simultaneous injection of the same 2 local anesthetics. We enrolled 103 patients undergoing surgery suitable for supraclavicular anesthesia. The primary outcome was time to 4-nerve sensory block onset in each of the 4 major nerve distributions: median, ulnar, radial, and musculocutaneous. Secondary outcomes included time to onset of first sensory block, time to complete motor block, duration of analgesia, pain scores at rest and with movement, and total opioid consumption. Outcomes were compared using the Kaplan-Meier analysis with the log-rank test or the analysis of variance, as appropriate. Times to 4-nerve sensory block onset were not different between sequential and combined anesthetic administration. The time to complete motor block onset was faster in the combined group as compared with the sequential. There were not significant differences between the 2 randomized groups in other secondary outcomes, such as the time to onset of first sensory block, the duration of analgesia, the pain scores at rest or with movement, or the total opioid consumption. Sequential injection of 1.5% mepivacaine followed 90 secs later by 0.5% ropivacaine provides no advantage compared with simultaneous injection of the same doses. Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

  17. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, G.R.; Hohimer, J.P.; Owyoung, A.

    1991-02-19

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet. 18 figures.

  18. Integrated injection-locked semiconductor diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, G. Ronald; Hohimer, John P.; Owyoung, Adelbert

    1991-01-01

    A continuous wave integrated injection-locked high-power diode laser array is provided with an on-chip independently-controlled master laser. The integrated injection locked high-power diode laser array is capable of continuous wave lasing in a single near-diffraction limited output beam at single-facet power levels up to 125 mW (250 mW total). Electronic steering of the array emission over an angle of 0.5 degrees is obtained by varying current to the master laser. The master laser injects a laser beam into the slave array by reflection of a rear facet.

  19. Enzymatic determination of glucose in milk samples by sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Alberto N; Lima, José L F C; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2009-05-01

    The present work describes a comparative study involving two sequential injection enzymatic procedures for the spectrophotometric determination of glucose in milk samples. The determinations were based on the use of the enzymes, glucose oxidase and peroxidase, in solution or immobilized, and 4-aminophenazone and phenol as chromogenic reagents. In the first procedure, 8.4 IU of glucose oxidase and 0.5 IU of peroxidase were consumed in each determination. In the second procedure, 107 IU of glucose oxidase and 105 IU of peroxidase, immobilized in glass beads, were sequentially packed into the same reactor. The reactor allowed us to perform about 600 continuous determinations with no activity loss. The proposed systems allowed the determination of glucose up to 120 mg L(-1) in milk samples with a precision, considering the RSD (%) values, lower than 3.5%. The results obtained for the two systems were comparatively evaluated against a routine enzymatic method, showing a relative deviation of less than 3%.

  20. Determination of primary explosive azides in environmental samples by sequential injection amperometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Echols, R. T.; James, R. R.; Aldstadt, J. H.; Environmental Research; Univ.of Minnesota; Univ of Minnesota

    1997-01-01

    The application of flow injection methodology to the determination of trace concentrations of primary explosives is presented. The approach is demonstrated with a sequential injection amperometric method for the determination of the azide ion (N{sub 3}{sup -}). The proposed method can be applied to the determination of sodium azide or lead azide, a primary explosive, without regard to other sources of lead in environmental samples. The sequential injection system used for the analysis forms the basis for a proposed field-portable instrument for the analysis of primary explosives. A microporous gas permeable membrane in a gas diffusion unit (GDU) is used to separate the analyte from other anions that can also be oxidized at the amperometric cell. The behavior of the GDU was optimized with respect to the pH of the donor stream and the timing of the preconcentration step. A study of anions that are commonly found in environmental samples showed that the species that will interfere with the analytical signal can be removed by the GDU. Results from three water samples that were spiked with 0.40 ppm of azide are presented. RSDs in the range 3-5% were typically obtained using the method. The useful working range of the method was linear up to 0.5 ppm and non-linear up to 20 ppm (second-order model). The limit of detection was 24.6 ppb.

  1. Sequential Organization of Speech in Reverberant Environments by Integrating Monaural Grouping and Binaural Localization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    robust sequential organization performance in environments with considerable reverberation. Index Terms – Sequential organization, binaural sound ... Binaural Cue Extraction Two primary binaural cues used by humans for localization of sound sources are interaural time difference (ITD) and...Sequential Organization of Speech in Reverberant Environments by Integrating Monaural Grouping and Binaural Localization John Woodruff Department of

  2. Determination of sulphuric acid in process effluent streams using sequential injection titration.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, H; van Staden, J F

    2000-05-31

    Sulphuric acid in process effluent streams from an electrorefining copper plant was analysed with a sequential injection (SI) titration system using sodium hydroxide as titrant. In the proposed SI titration system a base titrant, acid analyte and base titrant zone were injected sequentially into a distilled water carrier stream in a holding coil and swept by flow reversal through a reaction coil to the detector. The base zones contained bromothymol blue as indicator and the endpoint was monitored spectrophotometrically at 620 nm. The influence of carrier stream flow rate, acid and base zone volumes and titrant concentration on the linear range of the method was studied to obtain an optimum. A linear relationship between peak width and logarithm of the acid concentration was obtained in the range 0.006-0.178 mol l(-1) of H(2)SO(4) for a NaOH concentration of 0.002 mol l(-1). The results obtained for the SI titration of process samples were in good agreement with a standard potentiometric method with an RSD<0.75% and a sample frequency of 23 samples h(-1).

  3. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique.

    PubMed

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A

    2000-05-31

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol.

  4. Flow-injection and sequential-injection determinations of paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations using nitrosation reaction.

    PubMed

    Burakham, Rodjana; Duangthong, Supunnee; Patimapornlert, Lop; Lenghor, Narong; Kasiwad, Suphaphorn; Srivichai, Lalida; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Grudpan, Kate

    2004-05-01

    A simple FI and two different SI systems have been investigated for the determination of paracetamol by employing a simple reagent for a nitrosation reaction. It is based on the on-line nitrosation of paracetamol with sodium nitrite in an acidic medium. The formed nitroso derivative species reacts further with sodium hydroxide to convert it to a more stable compound. The yellow product is continuously monitored at 430 nm. The FI system is very simple and cost effective for fast manual operation (60 injections/h; y = 0.268x + 44.314, r2 = 0.9910 for 400 - 1000 mg/l and y = 0.1687x + 145.72, r2 = 0.9970 for 1000 - 2500 mg/l). The two SI systems with different components and configurations are automated and optimized for the conditions for which no extra dilution is to be required for sample handling: one with a syringe pump and two selection valves (60 samples/h; y = 0.1488x - 4.7297, r2 = 0.9946 for 400 - 1000 mg/l and y = 0.0858x + 63.933, r2 = 0.9849 for 1000 - 2500 mg/l); the other is simpler and more cost-effective, with an autoburette and only one selection valve (15 samples/h; y = 0.0072x + 1.1467, r2 = 0.9977 for 200 - 1000 mg/l and y = 0.0028x + 5.4699, r2 = 0.9879 for 1000 - 2500 mg/l). They have all been applied to assay paracetamol in pharmaceutical preparations. The obtained results agree with those by the US Pharmacopeia method.

  5. Sequential Injection/Electrochemical Immunoassay for Quantifying the Pesticide Metabolite 3, 5, 6-Trichloro-2-Pyridinol

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Riechers, Shawn L.; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-12-04

    An automated and sensitive sequential injection electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor a potential insecticide biomarker, 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. The current method involved a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell and permanent magnet, which was used to fix 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) antibody coated magnetic beads (TCP-Ab-MBs) in the reaction zone. After competitive immunoreactions among TCP-Ab-MBs, TCP analyte, and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled TCP, a 3, 3?, 5, 5?-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride and hydrogen peroxide (TMB-H2O2) substrate solution was injected to produce an electroactive enzymatic product. The activity of HRP tracers was monitored by a square wave voltammetric scanning electroactive enzymatic product in the thin-layer flow cell. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate and the enzymatic product were investigated under batch conditions, and the parameters of the immunoassay were optimized in the SIA system. Under the optimal conditions, the system was used to measure as low as 6 ng L-1 (ppt) TCP, which is around 50-fold lower than the value indicated by the manufacturer of the TCP RaPID Assay? kit (0.25 ug/L, colorimetric detection). The performance of the developed immunoassay system was successfully evaluated on tap water and river water samples spiked with TCP. This technique could be readily used for detecting other environmental contaminants by developing specific antibodies against contaminants and is expected to open new opportunities for environmental and biological monitoring.

  6. Simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate in waste water by sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Mas-Torres, F; Munõz, A; Estela, J M; Cerdà, V

    1997-10-01

    A sequential injection analysis system for the simultaneous determination of phosphate and silicate in waste water is proposed. The method is based on the formation of yellow vanadomolybdophosphate and molybdosilicate, respectively, in addition to the use of large sample volumes. The mutual interference between both analytes was eliminated by selection of the appropriate acidity and by sample segmentation with oxalic acid. The calibration graph for phosphate and silicate is linear up to 12 mg l-1 P and 30 mg l-1 Si, respectively. The detection limits are 0.2 mg l-1 P and 0.9 mg l-1 Si. The method provides a throughput of 23 samples h-1 with a relative standard deviation < 1.4% for phosphate and < 4% for silicate. The method was found to be suitable for the determination of these species in waste water samples.

  7. A non-extractive sequential injection method for determination of molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Lešková, Martina; Sklenářová, Hana; Bazel, Yaroslav; Chocholouš, Petr; Solich, Petr; Andruch, Vasil

    2012-07-15

    A non-extractive sequential injection spectrophotometric method for the determination of molybdenum has been developed. The method is based on the reaction between the thiocyanate complex of molybdenum and the polymethine dye (2-[2-(4-dipropylamino-phenyl)-vinyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium chloride) in a hydrochloric acid medium. The calibration plot in the SIA system was linear from 0.080mgL(-1) to 1.92mgL(-1) of Mo; LOD was 0.021mgL(-1). The method was applied for the determination of molybdenum in spiked drinking water and mineral water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of terbium-sensitized luminescence in sequential-injection analysis for automatic analysis of orbifloxacin.

    PubMed

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Ortega-Barrales, P; Molina-Díaz, A; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2008-12-01

    Orbifloxacin (ORBI) is a third-generation fluoroquinolone developed exclusively for use in veterinary medicine, mainly in companion animals. This antimicrobial agent has bactericidal activity against numerous gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. A few chromatographic methods for its analysis have been described in the scientific literature. Here, coupling of sequential-injection analysis and solid-phase spectroscopy is described in order to develop, for the first time, a terbium-sensitized luminescent optosensor for analysis of ORBI. The cationic resin Sephadex-CM C-25 was used as solid support and measurements were made at 275/545 nm. The system had a linear dynamic range of 10-150 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 3.3 ng mL(-1) and an R.S.D. below 3% (n = 10). The analyte was satisfactorily determined in veterinary drugs and dog and horse urine.

  9. Sequential injection affinity chromatography utilizing an albumin immobilized monolithic column to study drug-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Kalaitzantonakis, Eftichios A; Podgornik, Ales; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2007-03-09

    In this study, sequential injection affinity chromatography was used for drug-protein interactions studies. The analytical system used consisted of a sequential injection analysis (SIA) manifold directly connected with convective interaction media (CIM) monolithic epoxy disks modified by ligand-immobilization of protein. A non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug, naproxen (NAP) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were selected as model drug and protein, respectively. The SIA system was used for sampling, introduction and propulsion of drug towards to the monolithic column. Association equilibrium constants, binding capacity at various temperatures and thermodynamic parameters (free energy DeltaG, enthalpy DeltaH) of the binding reaction of naproxen are calculated by using frontal analysis mathematics. The variation of incubation time and its effect in on-line binding mode was also studied. The results indicated that naproxen had an association equilibrium constant of 2.90 x 10(6)M(-1) at pH 7.4 and 39 degrees C for a single binding site. The associated change in enthalpy (DeltaH) was -27.36 kcal mol(-1) and the change in entropy (DeltaS) was -73 cal mol(-1)K(-1) for a single type of binding sites. The location of the binding region was examined by competitive binding experiments using a biphosphonate drug, alendronate (ALD), as a competitor agent. It was found that the two drugs occupy the same class of binding sites on BSA. All measurements were performed with fluorescence (lambda(ext)=230 nm, lambda(em)=350 nm) and spectrophotometric detection (lambda=280 nm).

  10. Power-free sequential injection for microchip immunoassay toward point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuo; Omata, Masaki; Sato, Kae; Maeda, Mizuo

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a simple fluid handling technique for microchip immunoassay. Necessary solutions were sequentially injected into a microchannel by air-evacuated poly(dimethylsiloxane), and were passively regulated by capillary force at the inlet opening. For heterogeneous immunoassay, microchips are potentially useful for reduction of sample consumption and assay time. However, most of the previously reported microchips have limitations in their use because of the needs for external power sources for fluid handling. In this paper, an on-chip heterogeneous immunofluorescence assay without such an external power source is demonstrated. The microchip consisting of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and glass has a simple structure, and therefore is suitable for single-use applications. Necessary solutions were sequentially injected into a microchannel in an autonomous fashion with the power-free pumping technique, which exploits the high solubility and the rapid diffusion of air in PDMS. For deionized water, this method yielded flow rates of 3-5 nL s-1 with reproducibility of 4-10%. The inlet opening of the microchannel functioned as a passive valve to hold the solution when the flow was finished. Rabbit immunoglobulin G (rIgG) and human C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected using the microchannel walls as reaction sites. With the sample consumption of 1 microL and the assay time of approximately 20 min including the antibody immobilization step, the sandwich immunoassay methods for rIgG and CRP exhibited the limits of detection of 0.21 nM (0.21 fmol) and 0.42 nM (0.42 fmol), respectively.

  11. Sequential injection setup for capillary isoelectric focusing combined with MS detection.

    PubMed

    Páger, Csilla; Dörnyei, Agnes; Kilár, Ferenc

    2011-07-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing in the presence of electroosmosis with sequential injection of carrier ampholytes and sample was found to be suitable for MS detection. The separate injection of the sample and the ampholytes provides good condition to suppress and overcome the undesirable effect of the presence of ampholytes in MS. By the appropriate selection of ampholyte solutions, whose pH range not necessarily covers the pI values of the analytes, the migration of the components can be controlled, and the impact of the ampholytes on MS detection is decreased. The unique applicability of this setup is shown by testing several parameters, such as the application of volatile electrolyte solutions, the type of the ampholytes, the order and the number of the ampholyte and sample zones. Broad and narrow pH range ampholytes were applied in experiments using uncoated capillaries with different lengths for the analyses of substituted nitrophenol dyes to achieve optimal conditions for the MS detection. Although the sample components are not leaving the pH gradient, due to the decrease in the ampholyte concentration at the position of the components, and because the sample components migrate in charged state, the ionisation is more effective for MS detection.

  12. Portable sequential injection analyzer for onsite screening for chemical weapons degradation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Lancaster, Herbert L., III; Bacon, Christina P.; Mensch, David

    2002-02-01

    In many circumstances, the ability to perform on-site, point-of-collection analysis can play a pivotal role in the goals or requirements of the inquiry. Toward this end, the use of commercial or customized kits, which require the analyst to manually perform the metering and mixing of reagents with the sample and the subsequent visual, spectrophotometric or other interpretation of the results, has become widespread. Often, these methods can suffer from poor reproducibility and sensitivity in addition to being tedious and time consuming. Flow analysis methods, such as traditional flow injection analysis (FIA) and the more recent sequential injection analysis (SIA), have found widespread use in the automation of sample and reagent handling and subsequent analysis for many important analytes. These methods can be completely automated and offer excellent reproducibility, minimized analysis time, and in certain configurations, very high sensitivity. We have developed a miniaturized, fully portable SIA-based instrument for on-site screening for chemical weapons degradation products during challenge inspections under the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as for the sensitive analysis of other important environmental analytes. In this paper, we will discuss our portable SIA design, the analytical approaches utilized, and results obtained for the analysis of representative chemical weapons degradation compounds.

  13. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  14. Exploring Liquid Sequential Injection Chromatography to Teach Fundamentals of Separation Methods: A Very Fast Analytical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penteado, Jose C.; Masini, Jorge Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Influence of the solvent strength determined by the addition of a mobile-phase organic modifier and pH on chromatographic separation of sorbic acid and vanillin has been investigated by the relatively new technique, liquid sequential injection chromatography (SIC). This technique uses reversed-phase monolithic stationary phase to execute fast…

  15. Practical applications of digital integrated circuits. Part 3: Practical sequential theory and synchronous circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Here, the 7400 line of transistor to transistor logic (TTL) devices is emphasized almost exclusively where hardware is concerned. However, it should be noted that the logic theory contained herein applies to all hardware. Discussed here are synchronous binary UP counters, synchronous DOWN and UP/DOWN counters, integrated circuit counters, shift registers, sequential techniques, and designing sequential counting machines.

  16. A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    de Mirabó, F M Bauzá; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

    2009-09-15

    Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain).

  17. Therapeutic effect for liver-metastasized tumor by sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic lipoplex of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Shohei; Kikuchi, Takuto; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawano, Kumi; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we developed a novel siRNA transfer method to the liver by sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic liposome/siRNA complex (cationic lipoplex). In this study, we investigated whether siRNA delivered by this sequential injection could significantly suppress mRNA expression of the targeted gene in liver metastasis and inhibit tumor growth. When cationic lipoplex was intravenously injected into mice bearing liver metastasis of human breast tumor MCF-7 at 1 min after intravenous injection of chondroitin sulfate C (CS) or poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA), siRNA was accumulated in tumor-metastasized liver. In terms of a gene silencing effect, sequential injections of CS or PGA plus cationic lipoplex of luciferase siRNA could reduce luciferase activity in liver MCF-7-Luc metastasis. Regarding the side effects, sequential injections of CS plus cationic lipoplex did not exhibit hepatic damage or induction of inflammatory cytokines in serum after repeated injections, but sequential injections of PGA plus cationic lipoplex did. Finally, sequential injections of CS plus cationic lipoplex of protein kinase N3 siRNA could suppress tumor growth in the mice bearing liver metastasis. From these findings, sequential injection of CS and cationic lipoplex of siRNA might be a novel systemic method of delivering siRNA to liver metastasis.

  18. Therapeutic effect for liver-metastasized tumor by sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic lipoplex of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Shohei; Kikuchi, Takuto; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Kawano, Kumi; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we developed a novel siRNA transfer method to the liver by sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic liposome/siRNA complex (cationic lipoplex). In this study, we investigated whether siRNA delivered by this sequential injection could significantly suppress mRNA expression of the targeted gene in liver metastasis and inhibit tumor growth. When cationic lipoplex was intravenously injected into mice bearing liver metastasis of human breast tumor MCF-7 at 1 min after intravenous injection of chondroitin sulfate C (CS) or poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA), siRNA was accumulated in tumor-metastasized liver. In terms of a gene silencing effect, sequential injections of CS or PGA plus cationic lipoplex of luciferase siRNA could reduce luciferase activity in liver MCF-7-Luc metastasis. Regarding the side effects, sequential injections of CS plus cationic lipoplex did not exhibit hepatic damage or induction of inflammatory cytokines in serum after repeated injections, but sequential injections of PGA plus cationic lipoplex did. Finally, sequential injections of CS plus cationic lipoplex of protein kinase N3 siRNA could suppress tumor growth in the mice bearing liver metastasis. From these findings, sequential injection of CS and cationic lipoplex of siRNA might be a novel systemic method of delivering siRNA to liver metastasis.

  19. Incorporation of a monolithic column into sequential injection system for drug-protein binding studies.

    PubMed

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Podgornik, Ales; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios N

    2006-07-14

    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) manifold was incorporated with a monolithic strong anion-exchanger disk for on-line drug-protein interaction studies. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CF) was selected as a model drug compound. The separation principle was based on the strong retention of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the monolithic strong anion-exchanger and the liberation/release of the free form of the drug. Elution of the retained BSA was easily achieved by delivering a different mobile phase via the SIA manifold. The type of functional group of the monolithic support, the breakthrough volume and the injected volumes of CF and BSA were studied and optimized. The influence of the variation of incubation time was studied in on-line binding assays. Scatchard plot was employed to obtain the number of binding sites and the equilibrium binding constants. For the off-line study of the CF-BSA binding, two binding classes were determined with constants of (3.16+/-0.21)x10(6)M(-1) and (1.27+/-0.48)x10(4)M(-1) and 6.1+/-1.3 and 17.8+/-3.9 binding sites per class, respectively. In non-equilibrium binding experiments the binding rate constant was k(1)=785 M(-1)min(-1). All measurements were monitored with fluorescence (lambda(ext)=300 nm, lambda(em)=460 nm) and spectrophotometric detection (lambda=280 nm). To evaluate the accuracy of the developed method the obtained results were compared versus ultrafiltration experiments and were found in good agreement.

  20. Miniaturized sequential injection analyzer for the monitoring and quantitation of chemical weapons degradation compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Herbert L., III; Postlethwaite, Timothy A.; Zhang, Peng; Sorrells, Richard

    2002-06-01

    The ability to monitor and detect chemical warfare agents and their degradation compounds continues to be of utmost importance. Remote on-site field analysis of these compounds is also extremely important as it relates to treaty verification for the Chemical Weapons Convention, as well as the minimization and elimination of human exposure. A portable instrument has been developed and miniaturized that allows for the detection of these compounds in the field with better quantitative results and higher reproducibility than traditional field test kits. All sample and reagent manipulations are conducted in a completely automated fashion. Quantitative results may be determined colorimetrically using the molybdenum blue reaction for the final degradation product of phosphonic acid based chemical warfare agents with a detection limit of 0.05 ppm. The instrument is based on the flow analysis technique of sequential injection analysis (SIA). The benefits of this approach are that the method provides rapid response, high reproducibility of results, high sensitivity and minimal waste production.

  1. Visual detection and sequential injection determination of aluminium using a cinnamoyl derivative.

    PubMed

    Elečková, Lenka; Alexovič, Michal; Kuchár, Juraj; Balogh, Ioseph S; Andruch, Vasil

    2015-02-01

    A cinnamoyl derivative, 3-[4-(dimethylamino)cinnamoyl]-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-3,4-2H-pyran-2-one, was used as a ligand for the determination of aluminium. Upon the addition of an acetonitrile solution of the ligand to an aqueous solution containing Al(III) and a buffer solution at pH 8, a marked change in colour from yellow to orange is observed. The colour intensity is proportional to the concentration of Al(III); thus, the 'naked-eye' detection of aluminium is possible. The reaction is also applied for sequential injection determination of aluminium. Beer׳s law is obeyed in the range from 0.055 to 0.66 mg L(-1) of Al(III). The limit of detection, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank test (n=10), was found to be 4 μg L(-1) for Al(III). The method was applied for the determination of aluminium in spiked water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Spectrophotometric cocaine determination in a biphasic medium employing flow-batch sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria José; dos Anjos, Edijane V; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Paim, Ana Paula S

    2008-11-23

    Quantifying cocaine in apprehended samples is important to the Brazilian Federal Police because the concentration can indicate the origin of the drug and consequently the traffic route. In addition to the other risks of using this drug is the variability in cocaine concentration, which makes large doses lethal. Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and a Mass Selective Detector (GC-MS) are the techniques usually employed, but these systems are not available in all police laboratories, due to the relatively high cost. In the present work, a flow-system procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of cocaine using cobalt thiocyanate as a complexing reagent was developed. In this reaction, two phases are formed: the superior (pink) contains an excess of cobalt thiocyanate solution and the lower layer (blue) contains the complex cocaine-cobalt thiocyanate. Samples and reagent are inserted through a sequential-injection valve between two air bubbles inside a reaction chamber. An optic fiber sensor connected to the chamber recorded the absorbance at 630 nm signal. The detection and quantification limits were 29.4 mg L(-1) and 98 mg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation was 4.9% for solutions containing 400 mg L(-1) (n=10), with stable baselines. The analytical throughput was 12 determinations per hour.

  3. Sequential injection titration with spectrophotometric detection for the assay of acidity in fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Jakmunee, Jaroon; Rujiralai, Thitima; Grudpan, Kate

    2006-01-01

    A simple sequential injection analysis (SIA) with spectrophotometric detection for an assay of acidity in fruit juice was investigated. An alkaline reagent (sodium hydroxide), a sample and an indicator (phenolphthalein) were first aspirated and stacked as adjacent zones in a holding coil. With flow reversal through a reaction coil to the detector, zone penetration occurred, leading to a neutralization reaction that caused a decrease in the color intensity of the indicator being monitored for absorbance at 552 nm. The effects of various parameters were studied. Linear calibration graphs for acidities of 0.2 - 1.0 and 0.5 - 2.5% w/v citric acid as a standard, with a relative standard deviation of 1% (acidity of 0.3 - 0.6% w/v as citric acid, n=11) and a sample throughput of 30 samples h(-1), were achieved. The developed method was validated by a standard titrimetric method for assaying the acidity of fruit juice samples.

  4. Sequential injection kinetic flow assay for monitoring glycerol in a sugar fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Karina B Hueso; Tóth, Ildikó V; Souto, M Renata S; Mendes, Filipa; De María, Cándido García; Vasconcelos, Isabel; Rangel, António O S S

    2010-03-01

    A sequential injection system to monitor glycerol in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process was developed. The method relies on the rate of formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced form (NADH, measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm) from the reaction of glycerol with NAD(+) cofactor, catalysed by the enzyme glycerol dehydrogenase present in solution. This procedure enables the determination of glycerol between 0.046 and 0.46 g/l, (corresponding to yeast fermentation samples with concentrations up to 50 g/l) with good repeatability (relative standard deviation for n = 10 lower than 2.2% for three different samples) at a sampling frequency of 25/h. The detection and quantification limits using a miniaturised spectrophotometer were 0.13 and 0.44 mM, respectively. Reagent consumption was of 0.45 mumol NAD(+) and 1.8 microg enzyme per assay, and the waste production was 2.8 ml per determination. Results obtained for samples were in agreement with those obtained with a high-performance liquid chromatography method.

  5. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion- Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode.

    PubMed

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-03-17

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using aboron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gasdiffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for theelectrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generategaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. Thesulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of theGDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell anddetected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V(versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to preventelectrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mgSO3(2-)/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO3²-/L was achieved. This method wassuccessfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical resultsagreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations forthe analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was65 h(-1).

  6. Amperometric Determination of Sulfite by Gas Diffusion-Sequential Injection with Boron-Doped Diamond Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Chinvongamorn, Chakorn; Pinwattana, Kulwadee; Praphairaksit, Narong; Imato, Toshihiko; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2008-01-01

    A gas diffusion sequential injection system with amperometric detection using a boron-doped diamond electrode was developed for the determination of sulfite. A gas diffusion unit (GDU) was used to prevent interference from sample matrices for the electrochemical measurement. The sample was mixed with an acid solution to generate gaseous sulfur dioxide prior to its passage through the donor channel of the GDU. The sulfur dioxide diffused through the PTFE hydrophobic membrane into a carrier solution of 0.1M phosphate buffer (pH 8)/0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate in the acceptor channel of the GDU and turned to sulfite. Then the sulfite was carried to the electrochemical flow cell and detected directly by amperometry using the boron-doped diamond electrode at 0.95 V (versus Ag/AgCl). Sodium dodecyl sulfate was added to the carrier solution to prevent electrode fouling. This method was applicable in the concentration range of 0.2-20 mg SO32−/L and a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.05 mg SO32−/L was achieved. This method was successfully applied to the determination of sulfite in wines and the analytical results agreed well with those obtained by iodimetric titration. The relative standard deviations for the analysis of sulfite in wines were in the range of 1.0-4.1 %. The sampling frequency was 65 h−1. PMID:27879796

  7. Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

    2015-05-05

    We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0μgmL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032μgmL(-1) and 0.055μgmL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n=11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60h(-1). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Deferiprone, a non-toxic reagent for determination of iron in samples via sequential injection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pragourpun, Kraivinee; Sakee, Uthai; Fernandez, Carlos; Kruanetr, Senee

    2015-05-01

    We present for the first time the use of deferiprone as a non-toxic complexing agent for the determination of iron by sequential injection analysis in pharmaceuticals and food samples. The method was based on the reaction of Fe(III) and deferiprone in phosphate buffer at pH 7.5 to give a Fe(III)-deferiprone complex, which showed a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Under the optimum conditions, the linearity range for iron determination was found over the range of 0.05-3.0 μg mL-1 with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.9993. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.032 μg mL-1 and 0.055 μg mL-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) of the method was less than 5.0% (n = 11), and the percentage recovery was found in the range of 96.0-104.0%. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied for the determination of Fe(III) in pharmaceuticals, water and food samples with a sampling rate of 60 h-1.

  9. An automated sequential injection spectrophotometric method for evaluation of tyramine oxidase inhibitory activity of some flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Moonrungsee, Nuntaporn; Shimamura, Tomoko; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Higuchi, Keiro; Ukeda, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    An automated sequential injection (SI) spectrophotometric system has been developed for evaluation of tyramine oxidase (TOD) inhibitory activity. The method is based on the inhibition of TOD that catalyzes the oxidation of tyramine substrate to produce aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). The produced H₂O₂ reacts with vanillic acid and 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AA) in the presence of peroxidase (POD) to form a quinoneimine dye, the absorbance of which is measured of absorbance at wavelength of 490 nm. The decrease of the quinoneimine dye is related to an increase of TOD inhibitory activity. Under the optimum conditions: 1.0 mM tyramine, 8 U mL(-1) TOD, 1.0 mM vanillic acid, 1.0 mM 4-AA and delay time of 10 s, some flavonoid compounds were examined for the TOD inhibitory activity expressed as IC₅₀ value. It was found that flavonols (quercetin and myricetin) and flavans (epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin (EGC)) showed higher TOD inhibitory activity than flavones and flavanones. The results of IC₅₀ values obtained from the proposed method and a batch-wise method were not significantly different from each other. Moreover, the SI system enabled automation of the analysis, leading to more convenient, more sensitive and faster analysis than the batch-wise method. A precise timing of the system also improves precision and accuracy of the assay, especially when the measurement of absorbance at non-steady state condition is involved.

  10. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  11. Sequential determination of multi-nutrient elements in natural water samples with a reverse flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kunning; Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Feng, Sichao; Su, Haitao; Huang, Yongming; Shangguan, Qipei

    2017-05-15

    An integrated system was developed for automatic and sequential determination of NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+) in natural waters based on reverse flow injection analysis combined with spectrophotometric detection. The system operation was controlled by a single chip microcomputer and laboratory-programmed software written in LabVIEW. The experimental parameters for each nutrient element analysis were optimized based on a univariate experimental design, and interferences from common ions were evaluated. The upper limits of the linear range (along with detection limit, µmolL(-1)) of the proposed method was 20 (0.03), 200 (0.7), 12 (0.3), 5 (0.03), 5 (0.03), 9 (0.2) µmolL(-1), for NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The relative standard deviations were below 5% (n=9-13) and the recoveries varied from 88.0±1.0% to 104.5±1.0% for spiked water samples. The sample throughput was about 20h(-1). This system has been successfully applied for the determination of multi-nutrient elements in different kinds of water samples and showed good agreement with reference methods (slope 1.0260±0.0043, R(2)=0.9991, n=50).

  12. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Lawrence T; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  13. The Integration of Study and Work-Integrated Learning Experience through the Sequential, Embedded Completion of Tertiary Qualifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whannell, Patricia; Humphries, Judy; Whannell, Robert; Usher, Kim

    2015-01-01

    A number of different models have been developed to integrate both Vocational Education and Training (VET) and university study with a view to producing work-ready graduates. This paper describes one joint initiative which allows students to integrate their theoretical study and work-integrated learning (WIL) experience by supporting a sequential,…

  14. Sequential injection chromatography for separation and quantification of chlorpromazine in human urine and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Idris, Abubakr M; Elgorashe, Rafea E E

    2013-01-01

    Sequential injection chromatography (SIC) is a recent, simple, and inexpensive green miniaturized separation technique. In the current study, SIC was exploited for the first time for biochemical analysis. A new SIC method for the separation and quantification of chlorpromazine in human urine, as well as pharmaceutical formulations, was developed and validated. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. Chlorpromazine was successfully separated on a C18 monolithic column (25x4.6 mm id). The UV detection was carried out at 250 nm using miniaturized fiber optic spectrometric devices. The optimum mobile phase composition was 30 mmol/L phosphate-acetonitrile-methanol (55.0 + 31.5 + 13.5, v/v/v) at pH 3.0. The sample volume was 40 microL and flow rate was 40 microL/s. Acceptable chromatographic results were obtained. The resolution was 2.7, peak symmetry was 1.1, and number of theoretical plates was more than 1 x 10(6). Good linearity (r = 0.9997) in the range of 25-100 microg/mL was also obtained. The method offered acceptable recovery for both human urine (89.6-93.1%) and pharmaceutical formulations (96.9-98.5%), which was sensitive enough to detect chlorpromazine. The LOD and LOQ in human urine were 61 and 204 ng/mL, respectively. The method was rapid and reagent-saving, and hence safe for the environment. The sample throughput was 26.3 samples/h and the total volume of consumed reagents was 4.0 mL.

  15. Sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection for rapid monitoring of commercial Calendula officinalis extractions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Fully automated analytical procedure for propofol determination by sequential injection technique with spectrophotometric and fluorimetric detections.

    PubMed

    Šrámková, Ivana; Amorim, Célia G; Sklenářová, Hana; Montenegro, Maria C B M; Horstkotte, Burkhard; Araújo, Alberto N; Solich, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an application of an enzymatic reaction for the determination of the highly hydrophobic drug propofol in emulsion dosage form is presented. Emulsions represent a complex and therefore challenging matrix for analysis. Ethanol was used for breakage of a lipid emulsion, which enabled optical detection. A fully automated method based on Sequential Injection Analysis was developed, allowing propofol determination without the requirement of tedious sample pre-treatment. The method was based on spectrophotometric detection after the enzymatic oxidation catalysed by horseradish peroxidase and subsequent coupling with 4-aminoantipyrine leading to a coloured product with an absorbance maximum at 485 nm. This procedure was compared with a simple fluorimetric method, which was based on the direct selective fluorescence emission of propofol in ethanol at 347 nm. Both methods provide comparable validation parameters with linear working ranges of 0.005-0.100 mg mL(-1) and 0.004-0.243 mg mL(-1) for the spectrophotometric and fluorimetric methods, respectively. The detection and quantitation limits achieved with the spectrophotometric method were 0.0016 and 0.0053 mg mL(-1), respectively. The fluorimetric method provided the detection limit of 0.0013 mg mL(-1) and limit of quantitation of 0.0043 mg mL(-1). The RSD did not exceed 5% and 2% (n=10), correspondingly. A sample throughput of approx. 14 h(-1) for the spectrophotometric and 68 h(-1) for the fluorimetric detection was achieved. Both methods proved to be suitable for the determination of propofol in pharmaceutical formulation with average recovery values of 98.1 and 98.5%.

  17. Determination of ambroxol hydrochloride, methylparaben and benzoic acid in pharmaceutical preparations based on sequential injection technique coupled with monolithic column.

    PubMed

    Satínský, Dalibor; Huclová, Jitka; Ferreira, Raquel L C; Montenegro, Maria Conceição B S M; Solich, Petr

    2006-02-13

    The porous monolithic columns show high performance at relatively low pressure. The coupling of short monoliths with sequential injection technique (SIA) results in a new approach to implementation of separation step to non-separation low-pressure method. In this contribution, a new separation method for simultaneous determination of ambroxol, methylparaben and benzoic acid was developed based on a novel reversed-phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) technique with UV detection. A Chromolith SpeedROD RP-18e, 50-4.6 mm column with 10 mm precolumn and a FIAlab 3000 system with a six-port selection valve and 5 ml syringe were used for sequential injection chromatographic separations in our study. The mobile phase used was acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran-0.05M acetic acid (10:10:90, v/v/v), pH 3.75 adjusted with triethylamine, flow rate 0.48 mlmin(-1), UV-detection was at 245 nm. The analysis time was <11 min. A new SIC method was validated and compared with HPLC. The method was found to be useful for the routine analysis of the active compounds ambroxol and preservatives (methylparaben or benzoic acid) in various pharmaceutical syrups and drops.

  18. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts.

  19. Mechanical System Reliability and Cost Integration Using a Sequential Linear Approximation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, Michael T.

    1997-01-01

    The development of new products is dependent on product designs that incorporate high levels of reliability along with a design that meets predetermined levels of system cost. Additional constraints on the product include explicit and implicit performance requirements. Existing reliability and cost prediction methods result in no direct linkage between variables affecting these two dominant product attributes. A methodology to integrate reliability and cost estimates using a sequential linear approximation method is proposed. The sequential linear approximation method utilizes probability of failure sensitivities determined from probabilistic reliability methods as well a manufacturing cost sensitivities. The application of the sequential linear approximation method to a mechanical system is demonstrated.

  20. TEMPERATURE, RADIOACTIVE TRACER, AND NOISE LOGGING FOR INJECTION WELL INTEGRITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  1. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0M NH4Cl, 0.1M NaOH and 0.5M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3sigma detection limit was 0.02 mg P L(-1) while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L(-1) regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  2. Field speciation of chromium with a sequential injection lab-on-valve incorporating a bismuthate immobilized micro-column.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei; Li, Jin-Xiang; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2007-07-31

    A fully automated and portable analyzer for field speciation of inorganic chromium in wastewater was developed. The instrument consists of a micro-sequential injection lab-on-valve (LOV) system and a miniature USB2000 spectrophotometer. A multi-purpose flow cell was incorporated on one side of the main body of the LOV, which offers vast potentials and versatilities in its compatibility with various detection modes. On-line oxidation of trivalent chromium was performed on a bismuthate immobilized silica micro-column reactor integrated in the LOV. When determining Cr(VI), its chromogenic reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide (DPC) was facilitated in the flow cell and the absorbance was monitored in situ at 548 nm via optical fibers. While for the quantification of total chromium, Cr(III) was oxidized on-line by aspirating sample solution through the oxidizing column reactor, followed by chromogenic reaction with DPC and the absorbance was monitored in the flow cell. With a sampling volume of 200 microl, the detection limits of 5.6 microg l(-1) for Cr(VI) and 6.8 microg l(-1) for total chromium were achieved along with a sampling frequency of 60 h(-1). A R.S.D. value of 2.0% was recorded at 32 microg l(-1) of Cr(VI). The practical applicability of the speciation analyzer was validated by analyzing Cr(VI) and total chromium contents in two certified reference materials. The feasibility of performing rapid field speciation of chromium in wastewater samples was also demonstrated.

  3. Sequential integrated antenatal screening for Down's syndrome, trisomy 18 and trisomy 13.

    PubMed

    Bestwick, Jonathan P; Wald, Nicholas J

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the performance of antenatal sequential Integrated screening for Down's syndrome (DS), trisomy 18 (T18) and trisomy 13 (T13), in which women have first trimester testing for each disorder; those above specified risk cut-offs are screen-positive, and the remainder continue to Integrated testing, using first and second trimester screening markers together. Published screening marker parameters and Monte Carlo simulation were used to calculate detection rates (DR's) and risk cut-off levels for specified false-positive rates (FPR's), and DR's and FPR's for specified risk cut-offs. We compared this screening performance with that based on all women having Integrated tests. Sequential Integrated DS screening detects 71% of DS pregnancies at the first trimester stage at a 0.5% FPR. For an overall 2% FPR, the DS DR is 92%, the same screening performance as the Integrated test performed on all women. Sequential Integrated T18 and T13 screening detects 70% of T18 and 53% of T13 pregnancies at the first trimester stage at a 0.05% FPR for each. The overall T18 and T13 DR's are 96% and 72% respectively at 0.2% FPR, the same screening performance as with Integrated tests performed on all women. Increasing the overall FPR's does not materially increase the DR's for any of the three disorders. The performance of sequential Integrated screening is similar to the performance if all women have an Integrated test, but has the advantage of identifying most DS, T18, and T13 pregnancies a few weeks earlier. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Solutions of TEAM Problem No. 13 using integral equations in a sequential and parallel computing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kettunen, L.; Forsman, K.; Levine, D.; Gropp, W.

    1993-12-31

    In this paper a brief discussion of h-type volume integral formulations implemented in GFUNET/CORAL code is given and solutions of TEAM benchmark No. 13 are shown. GFUNET/CORAL is a general purpose code for 2D and 3D magnetostatics. Solutions of TEAM problem No. 13 are computed using both a sequential and parallel version of GFUNET/CORAL.

  5. Effect of repeated sequential ejaculation on sperm DNA integrity in subfertile males with asthenozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Hussein, T M; Elariny, A F; Elabd, M M; Elgarem, Y F; Elsawy, M M

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the possible beneficial effect of repeated sequential ejaculation on sperm DNA integrity in subfertile males and its possible implementation in assisted reproduction. The study included 20 infertile males with idiopathic asthenozoospermia or oligoasthenozoospermia. They underwent detailed history taking, complete clinical assessment and hormonal assessment. Patients were asked to bring two semen samples (taken within 1-3 h). Two consecutive samples were assessed with regard to semen volume, sperm count, motility grading, and morphology and sperm DNA integrity using the comet assay. There was a significant improvement in the sperm motility pattern and DNA integrity in the second sample in comparison with the first sample. Therefore, it is concluded that due to its positive impact on sperm motility and DNA integrity, repeated sequential ejaculation is recommended in subfertile males with idiopathic asthenozoospermia who pursue assisted reproduction.

  6. On-line coupling of sequential injection lab-on-valve to differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry for determination of Pb in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Zaiqing; Hu, Xiaoya; Cao, Jinglian; Wang, Fei; Xu, Qin; Yang, Chun

    2009-01-15

    Sequential injection lab-on-valve (LOV) was first proposed for analyzing ultra-trace amounts of Pb using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) with a miniaturized electrochemical flow cell fabricated in the LOV unit. Deposition and stripping processes took place between the renewable mercury film carbon paste electrode and sample solution, the peak current was employed as the basis of quantification. The mercury film displayed a long-term stability and reproducibility for at least 50 cycles before next renewal, the properties of integrated miniature LOV unit not only enhanced the automation of the analysis procedure but also declined sample/reagent consumption. Potential factors that affect the present procedure were investigated in detail, i.e., deposition potential, deposition time, electrode renewable procedure and the volume of sample solution. The practical applicability of the present procedure was demonstrated by determination of Pb in environmental water samples.

  7. Monitoring Lipase/Esterase Activity by Stopped Flow in a Sequential Injection Analysis System Using p-Nitrophenyl Butyrate

    PubMed Central

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J.

    2015-01-01

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05–1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed. PMID:25633600

  8. Monitoring lipase/esterase activity by stopped flow in a sequential injection analysis system using p-nitrophenyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    Pliego, Jorge; Mateos, Juan Carlos; Rodriguez, Jorge; Valero, Francisco; Baeza, Mireia; Femat, Ricardo; Camacho, Rosa; Sandoval, Georgina; Herrera-López, Enrique J

    2015-01-27

    Lipases and esterases are biocatalysts used at the laboratory and industrial level. To obtain the maximum yield in a bioprocess, it is important to measure key variables, such as enzymatic activity. The conventional method for monitoring hydrolytic activity is to take out a sample from the bioreactor to be analyzed off-line at the laboratory. The disadvantage of this approach is the long time required to recover the information from the process, hindering the possibility to develop control systems. New strategies to monitor lipase/esterase activity are necessary. In this context and in the first approach, we proposed a lab-made sequential injection analysis system to analyze off-line samples from shake flasks. Lipase/esterase activity was determined using p-nitrophenyl butyrate as the substrate. The sequential injection analysis allowed us to measure the hydrolytic activity from a sample without dilution in a linear range from 0.05-1.60 U/mL, with the capability to reach sample dilutions up to 1000 times, a sampling frequency of five samples/h, with a kinetic reaction of 5 min and a relative standard deviation of 8.75%. The results are promising to monitor lipase/esterase activity in real time, in which optimization and control strategies can be designed.

  9. Imaging the photoinduced charge injection in CdS/TiO2 nanoparticles by the sequential fluorescence mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederice, Rafael; Lencione, Diego; Gehlen, Marcelo H.

    2017-03-01

    The combination of a sensitizer and TiO2 nanoparticles forming a photocatalytic material is a central issue in many fields of applied photochemistry. The charge injection of emissive sensitizers into the conduction band of the semiconductor TiO2 may form a photoactive region that becomes dark, or it has a very low emission signal due to the generation of sensitizer radicals. However, by sequential coupling of a selected photoredox dye, such as resazurin, the dark region may become fluorescent at the interfaces where the charge injection has taken place due to the concomitant formation of fluorescent resorufin by cascade electron transfer. Using this strategy and a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) image, the charge injection in TiO2/CdS and SiO2/TiO2/CdS nanoparticles is investigated The method allows the charge injection efficiency of the excited CdS into TiO2 to be evaluated qualitatively, explaining the differences observed for these photocatalytic materials in H2 generation.

  10. Integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen; Lv, Xiao-Meng; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-05-11

    We experimentally study the characteristics of an integrated semiconductor twin-microdisk laser under mutually optical injection through a connected optical waveguide. Based on the lasing spectra, four-wave mixing, injection locking, and period-two oscillation states are observed due to the mutually optical injection by adjusting the injected currents applied to the two microdisks. The enhanced 3 dB bandwidth is realized for the microdisk laser at the injection locking state, and photonic microwave is obtained from the electrode of the microdisk laser under the period-two oscillation state. The plentifully dynamical states similar as semiconductor lasers subject to external optical injection are realized due to strong optical interaction between the two microdisks.

  11. Sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic lipoplex of siRNA could effectively deliver siRNA to the liver.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Yoshiyuki; Arai, Shohei; Okamoto, Ryou; Hamada, Megumi; Kawano, Kumi; Yonemochi, Etsuo

    2014-12-10

    In this study, we developed novel siRNA transfer method to the liver by sequential intravenous injection of anionic polymer and cationic liposome/cholesterol-modified siRNA complex (cationic lipoplex). When cationic lipoplex was intravenously injected into mice, the accumulation of siRNA was mainly observed in the lungs. In contrast, when cationic lipoplex was intravenously injected at 1 min after intravenous injection of poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) or chondroitin sulfate C (CS), siRNA was accumulated in the liver. In terms of suppression of gene expression in vivo, apolipoprotein B (ApoB) mRNA in the liver and low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density-lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol level in serum were reduced at 48 h after single sequential injection of PGA or CS plus cationic lipoplex of cholesterol-modified ApoB siRNA. Furthermore, sequential injections of PGA plus cationic lipoplex of cholesterol-modified luciferase siRNA could reduce luciferase activity in tumor xenografts bearing liver metastasis of human breast tumor MCF-7-Luc. From these findings, sequential injection of anionic polymer and cationic lipoplex of siRNA might produce a systemic vector of siRNA to the liver. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rapid Self-Integrating, Injectable Hydrogel for Tissue Complex Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sen; Wang, Xuefei; Park, Sean; Jin, Xiaobing; Ma, Peter X

    2015-07-15

    A novel rapid self-integrating, injectable, and bioerodible hydrogel is developed for bone-cartilage tissue complex regeneration. The hydrogels are able to self-integrate to form various structures, as can be seen after dying some hydrogel disks pink with rodamine. This hydrogel is demonstrated to engineer cartilage-bone complex.

  13. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence induced by sequential hot electron and hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Kalle; Kuosmanen, Päivi; Pusa, Matti; Kulmala, Oskari; Håkansson, Markus; Kulmala, Sakari

    2016-03-17

    Hole injection into aqueous electrolyte solution is proposed to occur when oxide-coated aluminum electrode is anodically pulse-polarized by a voltage pulse train containing sufficiently high-voltage anodic pulses. The effects of anodic pulses are studied by using an aromatic Tb(III) chelate as a probe known to produce intensive hot electron-induced electrochemiluminescence (HECL) with plain cathodic pulses and preoxidized electrodes. The presently studied system allows injection of hot electrons and holes successively into aqueous electrolyte solutions and can be utilized in detecting electrochemiluminescent labels in fully aqueous solutions, and actually, the system is suggested to be quite close to a pulse radiolysis system providing hydrated electrons and hydroxyl radicals as the primary radicals in aqueous solution without the problems and hazards of ionizing radiation. The analytical power of the present excitation waveforms are that they allow detection of electrochemiluminescent labels at very low detection limits in bioaffinity assays such as in immunoassays or DNA probe assays. The two important properties of the present waveforms are: (i) they provide in situ oxidation of the electrode surface resulting in the desired oxide film thickness and (ii) they can provide one-electron oxidants for the system by hole injection either via F- and F(+)-center band of the oxide or by direct hole injection to valence band of water at highly anodic pulse amplitudes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequential injection titration method using second-order signals: determination of acidity in plant oils and biodiesel samples.

    PubMed

    del Río, Vanessa; Larrechi, M Soledad; Callao, M Pilar

    2010-06-15

    A new concept of flow titration is proposed and demonstrated for the determination of total acidity in plant oils and biodiesel. We use sequential injection analysis (SIA) with a diode array spectrophotometric detector linked to chemometric tools such as multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS). This system is based on the evolution of the basic specie of an acid-base indicator, alizarine, when it comes into contact with a sample that contains free fatty acids. The gradual pH change in the reactor coil due to diffusion and reaction phenomenona allows the sequential appearance of both species of the indicator in the detector coil, recording a data matrix for each sample. The SIA-MCR-ALS method helps to reduce the amounts of sample, the reagents and the time consumed. Each determination consumes 0.413ml of sample, 0.250ml of indicator and 3ml of carrier (ethanol) and generates 3.333ml of waste. The frequency of the analysis is high (12 samples h(-1) including all steps, i.e., cleaning, preparing and analysing). The utilized reagents are of common use in the laboratory and it is not necessary to use the reagents of perfect known concentration. The method was applied to determine acidity in plant oil and biodiesel samples. Results obtained by the proposed method compare well with those obtained by the official European Community method that is time consuming and uses large amounts of organic solvents.

  15. Atomic absorption spectroscopy for mercury, automated by sequential injection and miniaturized in lab-on-valve system.

    PubMed

    Erxleben, Holger; Ruzicka, Jaromir

    2005-08-15

    Sodium borohydride-based hydride generation was automated by using programmable flow within the lab-on-valve module. Mercury vapor, generated in the reaction mixture, was extracted in a gas/liquid separator. The gas-expansion separator was miniaturized and compared with the performance of a novel gas separator that exploits the combination of Venturi effect and reduced pressure. Cold vapor atomic spectroscopy was used as a model system, with detection of mercury by absorption at 254 nm and limit of detection of 9 microg of Hg/L, using 300 microL of sample and 100 microL of borohydride. This work introduces, for the first time, sequential injection technique for hydride generation, highlights advantages of using programmable flow, and outlines means for miniaturization of assays based on spectroscopy of volatile species.

  16. Chemiluminescence determination of chlorpheniramine using tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) peroxydisulphate system and sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O; Al-Hinai, Mohammed M; Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Salama, Salama B

    2009-01-01

    A sequential injection (SI) method was developed for the determination of chlorpheniramine (CPA), based on the reaction of this drug with tris(1,10-phenanthroline)-ruthenium(II) [Ru(phen)(3)(2+)] and peroxydisulphate (S(2)O(8)(2-)) in the presence of light. The instrumental set-up utilized a syringe pump and a multiposition valve to aspirate the reagents [Ru(phen)(3)(2+) and S(2)O(8)(2-)] and a peristaltic pump to propel the sample. The experimental conditions affecting the chemiluminescence reaction were systematically optimized, using the univariate approach. Under the optimum conditions linear calibration curves of 0.1-10 microg/ml were obtained. The detection limit was 0.04 microg/ml and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was always < 5%. The procedure was applied to the analysis of CPA in pharmaceutical products and was found to be free from interferences from concomitants usually present in these preparations.

  17. Kinetic enzymatic determination of glycerol in wine and beer using a sequential injection system with spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Hugo M; Segundo, Marcela A; Lima, José L F C; Grassi, Viviane; Zagatto, Elias A G

    2006-06-14

    A sequential injection system for the automatic determination of glycerol in wine and beer was developed. The method is based on the rate of formation of NADH from the reaction of glycerol and NAD+ catalyzed by the enzyme glycerol dehydrogenase in solution. The determination of glycerol was performed between 0.3 and 3.0 mmol L(-1) (0.028 and 0.276 g L(-1)), and good repeatability was attained (rsd < 3.6%, n = 5) for all samples tested. The determination rate was 54 h(-1), the reagent consumption was only 0.75 micromol of NAD+ and 5.4 ng of enzyme per assay, and the waste production was 2.12 mL per assay. Results obtained for samples were in agreement with those obtained with the batch enzymatic method.

  18. Automated sample preparation coupled to sequential injection chromatography: on-line filtration and dilution protocols prior to separation.

    PubMed

    Zacharis, Constantinos K; Verdoukas, Aspasia; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2009-04-05

    Sequential injection chromatography (SIC) is a valuable tool in analytical chemistry as it can combine the automation capabilities of low pressure continuous flow techniques and the separation power of HPLC into a single instrumental configuration. The present study reports an automated SI setup allowing on-line filtration and dilution of the samples before separation through a short monolithic column. The applicability of the procedure was evaluated by studying the behavior of acyclovir formulations under forced degradation conditions. Minimal sample preparation is required prior to analysis. Thorough validation of the on-line dilution SIC assay was carried out and proved its validity in terms of critical parameters such as precision, accuracy and robustness. The results were evaluated by parallel experiments and analysis using the procedure recommended by the USP based on conventional HPLC using particulate-based column.

  19. Design of LabVIEW-based software for the control of sequential injection analysis instrumentation for the determination of morphine.

    PubMed

    Lenehan, Claire E; Barnett, Neil W; Lewis, Simon W

    2002-01-01

    LabVIEW-based software for the automation of a sequential injection analysis instrument for the determination of morphine is presented. Detection was based on its chemiluminescence reaction with acidic potassium permanganate in the presence of sodium polyphosphate. The calibration function approximated linearity (range 5 x 10(-10) to 5 x 10(-6) M) with a line of best fit of y=1.05(x)+8.9164 (R(2) =0.9959), where y is the log10 signal (mV) and x is the log10 morphine concentration (M). Precision, as measured by relative standard deviation, was 0.7% for five replicate analyses of morphine standard (5 x 10(-8) M). The limit of detection (3sigma) was determined as 5 x 10(-11) M morphine.

  20. Biosensors for the determination of ortho-acetyl-L-carnitine. Their utilization as detectors in a sequential injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Stefan, Raluca-Ioana; Bokretsion, Rahel Girmai; van Staden, Jacobus F; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2003-08-01

    In order to determine ortho-acetyl-L-carnitine, two biosensors were proposed. The biosensors were designed using physical immobilization of L-amino acid oxidase (L-AAOD) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Electrode characteristics were obtained and compared for the two carbon paste (graphite powder and paraffin oil) biosensors. The linear concentration ranges for the proposed biosensors were in the ranges of fmol/L to nmol/L, magnitude order with low limits of detection. Due to their reliability, the biosensors were used as detectors in a sequential injection analysis system, and gave reliable results for on-line assay of ortho-acetyl-L-carnitine in synthesis process control with a frequency of 75 samples per hour.

  1. Sequential injection of domain walls into ferroelectrics at different bias voltages: Paving the way for “domain wall memristors”

    SciTech Connect

    Whyte, J. R.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Einsle, J. F.; Gregg, J. M.; Ashcroft, C. M.; Canalias, C.; Gruverman, A.

    2014-08-14

    Simple meso-scale capacitor structures have been made by incorporating thin (∼300 nm) single crystal lamellae of KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) between two coplanar Pt electrodes. The influence that either patterned protrusions in the electrodes or focused ion beam milled holes in the KTP have on the nucleation of reverse domains during switching was mapped using piezoresponse force microscopy imaging. The objective was to assess whether or not variations in the magnitude of field enhancement at localised “hot-spots,” caused by such patterning, could be used to both control the exact locations and bias voltages at which nucleation events occurred. It was found that both the patterning of electrodes and the milling of various hole geometries into the KTP could allow controlled sequential injection of domain wall pairs at different bias voltages; this capability could have implications for the design and operation of domain wall electronic devices, such as memristors, in the future.

  2. An Improved GPS/RFID Integration Method Based on Sequential Iterated Reduced Sigma Point Kalman Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Jing; Wu, Falin; Zhu, Ming; Wang, Feixue; Zhang, Kefei

    In this paper, an improved GPS/RFID integration method based on Sequential Iterated Reduced Sigma Point Kalman Filter (SIRSPKF) is proposed for vehicle navigation applications. It is applied to improve the accuracy, reliability and availability of satellite positioning in the areas where the satellite visibility is limited. An RFID system is employed to assist the GPS system in achieving high accuracy positioning. Further, to reduce the measurement noise and decrease the computational complexity caused by the integrated GPS/RFID, SIRSPKF is investigated as the dominant filter for the proposed integration. Performances and computational complexities of different integration scenarios with different filters are compared in this paper. A field experiment shows that both accuracy and availability of positioning can be improved significantly by this low-cost GPS/RFID integration method with the reduced computational load.

  3. Simultaneous determination of potassium and nitrate ions in mouthwashes using sequential injection analysis with potentiometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zárate, N; Irazu, E; Araújo, A N; Montenegro, M C B S M; Pérez-Olmos, R

    2008-06-01

    Two methods for the determination of potassium nitrate in mouthwashes, used against dentin hypersensitivity, have been simultaneously implemented in an sequence injection analysis (SIA) system. In addition to in-line dilution of the samples, the equipment simultaneously detected potassium and nitrate using two tubular potentiometric detectors, selective to each ion, providing a real-time assessment of the quality of the results. Both determinations were shown to be precise and accurate and the obtained results do not statistically differ from those furnished by applying the AES and HPLC reference methods.

  4. Integrated GPS/DR Vehicle Navigation System Based on Sequential and Square Root Kalman Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzoghby, MOSTAFA; Arif, USMAN; Li, FU; Zhi Yu, Xi

    2017-03-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) has become part of many applications in life. In mountainous terrains and around buildings, GPS reception is compromised. In dense urban canyons, signals bounce off the buildings creating multipath reception and provide erroneous measurements. To overcome GPS bandwidth and signal fading problems, Navigation solutions are built on GPS measurements fused with inertial sensors to provide dead reckoning (DR) based position solution. Solution for land vehicle Navigation System using GPS, inertial sensor and odometer is presented. The sensors fusion is performed based on conventional, sequential (SKF) and square root Kalman (SRKF) filters. SRKF based on Cheolesky factorization for covariance matrix P. Simulations are performed on real data, with precisely known covariance’s to simulate mathematical stability, performance and processing time required by each method on a high end microprocessor. The results demonstrate integrated system using SRKF has better performance in stability and estimation accuracy than conventional and sequential filter.

  5. Study of the quenching effect of quinolones over CdTe-quantum dots using sequential injection analysis and multicommutation.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, L; Llorent-Martínez, E J; Fernández-de Córdova, M L; Santos, J L M; Rodrigues, S S M; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2013-06-01

    The field of light-emitting nanoparticles has experienced an enormous development over the past two decades. The fluorescence of these nanometer-size crystalline particles, called quantum dots (QDs), can be both quenched and enhanced by different compounds. Since a high percentage of articles related to QDs are focused on theoretical studies, the development of analytical methods with real applications is an important step in order to progressively demonstrate the versatility of these particles. Moreover, taking into account that most of the QDs-based analytical methods are non-automated, the development of automated flow methodologies is still a field that presents an important analytical potential. With this purpose, two automatic methodologies, multicommutated flow injection analysis and sequential injection analysis, have been here applied to the analysis of quinolones in pharmaceutical formulations, making use of the quenching effect caused by the analytes over mercaptopropionic acid-capped CdTe QDs fluorescence. Both methodologies were compared in terms of versatility, sample throughput, sensitivity, etc., and applied to the determination of five quinolones in pharmaceutical preparations available in the Spanish Pharmacopoeia. The detection limits ranged between 26 and 50μmolL(-1), and Relative Standard Deviations lower than 3% were observed in all cases.

  6. Sequential injection system for simultaneous determination of sucrose and phosphate in cola drinks using paired emitter-detector diode sensor.

    PubMed

    Saetear, Phoonthawee; Khamtau, Kittiwut; Ratanawimarnwong, Nuanlaor; Sereenonchai, Kamonthip; Nacapricha, Duangjai

    2013-10-15

    This work presents the simultaneous determination of sucrose and phosphate by using sequential injection (SI) system with a low cost paired emitter-detector diode (PEDD) light sensor. The PEDD uses two 890 nm LEDs. Measurement of sucrose in Brix unit was carried out based on the detection of light refraction occurring at the liquid interface (the schlieren effect) between the sucrose solution and water. Phosphate was measured from the formation of calcium phosphate with turbidimetric detection. With careful design of the loading sequence and volume (sample--precipitating reagent--sample), simultaneous detection of sucrose and phosphate was accomplished with the single PEDD detector. At the optimized condition, linear calibrations from 1 to 7 Brix sucrose and from 50 to 200mg PO4(3-)L(-1) were obtained. Good precision at lower than 2% RSD (n=10) for both analytes with satisfactory throughput of 21 injections h(-1) was achieved. The method was successfully applied for the determination of sucrose and phosphate in cola drinks. The proposed method is readily applicable for automation and is found to be an alternative method to conventional procedures for on-line quality control process in cola drink industry. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid self-integrating, injectable hydrogel for tissue complex regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Sen; Wang, Xuefei; Park, Sean; Jin, Xiaobing

    2015-01-01

    A novel rapid self-integrating, injectable, and bio-erodible hydrogel is developed for tissue complex regeneration. The figure shows the self-integration of the hydrogel pieces to form various structures. In the figure, some hydrogel disks were dyed pink with rodamine and the others were left with the original light yellow color to visualize the interfaces (scale bar=5mm). This hydrogel is demonstrated to engineer cartilage-bone complex. PMID:25946414

  8. Phosphite determination in fertilizers after online sequential sample preparation in a flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Dametto, Patrícia Roberta; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta

    2007-07-25

    A flow injection spectrophotometric system is proposed for phosphite determination in fertilizers by the molybdenum blue method after the processing of each sample two times on-line without and with an oxidizing step. The flow system was designed to add sulfuric acid or permanganate solutions alternately into the system by simply displacing the injector-commutator from one resting position to another, allowing the determination of phosphate and total phosphate, respectively. The concentration of phosphite is obtained then by difference between the two measurents. The influence of flow rates, sample volume, and dimension of flow line connecting the injector-commutator to the main analytical channel was evaluated. The proposed method was applied to phosphite determination in commercial liquid fertilizers. Results obtained with the proposed FIA system were not statistically different from those obtained by titrimetry at the 95% confidence level. In addition, recoveries within 94 and 100% of spiked fertilizers were found. The relative standard deviation (n = 12) related to the phosphite-converted-phosphate peak alone was

  9. Sequential injection analysis for automation of the Winkler methodology, with real-time SIMPLEX optimization and shipboard application.

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Tovar Sánchez, Antonio; Duarte, Carlos M; Cerdà, Víctor

    2010-01-25

    A multipurpose analyzer system based on sequential injection analysis (SIA) for the determination of dissolved oxygen (DO) in seawater is presented. Three operation modes were established and successfully applied onboard during a research cruise in the Southern ocean: 1st, in-line execution of the entire Winkler method including precipitation of manganese (II) hydroxide, fixation of DO, precipitate dissolution by confluent acidification, and spectrophotometric quantification of the generated iodine/tri-iodide (I(2)/I(3)(-)), 2nd, spectrophotometric quantification of I(2)/I(3)(-) in samples prepared according the classical Winkler protocol, and 3rd, accurate batch-wise titration of I(2)/I(3)(-) with thiosulfate using one syringe pump of the analyzer as automatic burette. In the first mode, the zone stacking principle was applied to achieve high dispersion of the reagent solutions in the sample zone. Spectrophotometric detection was done at the isobestic wavelength 466 nm of I(2)/I(3)(-). Highly reduced consumption of reagents and sample compared to the classical Winkler protocol, linear response up to 16 mg L(-1) DO, and an injection frequency of 30 per hour were achieved. It is noteworthy that for the offline protocol, sample metering and quantification with a potentiometric titrator lasts in general over 5 min without counting sample fixation, incubation, and glassware cleaning. The modified SIMPLEX methodology was used for the simultaneous optimization of four volumetric and two chemical variables. Vertex calculation and consequent application including in-line preparation of one reagent was carried out in real-time using the software AutoAnalysis. The analytical system featured high signal stability, robustness, and a repeatability of 3% RSD (1st mode) and 0.8% (2nd mode) during shipboard application.

  10. Sequential injection system for phospholipase A2 activity evaluation: studies on liposomes using an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe.

    PubMed

    Araujo, André R T S; Gaspar, Diana; Lúcio, Marlene; Reis, Salette; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S; Lima, José L F C

    2009-09-15

    This work reports the development of an automatic methodology based on the use of 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) as an interfacial fluorescent probe for detecting the hydrophobic environment shift around the probe, caused by the hydrolytic action of PLA(2) on the liposomes. The implementation of this reaction in a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system along with the use of the mixing chambers permitted the evaluation of PLA(2) activity and assessment of the inhibitory effect of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on PLA(2) activity. Several studies were performed with the aim of establishing the appropriate flow system configuration: the liposome substrate; PLA(2) and ANS optimum concentrations and incubation times before and after the enzyme addition. Based on these studies, the optimum reaction conditions were selected. It was shown that PLA(2) is effectively inhibited by the NSAIDs tested (meloxicam, tolmetin and ibuprofen) and by the alpha-lipoic acid, used as a positive control. Results obtained from the flow system are in agreement with those provided by the comparison batch procedures. The proposed methodology is in fact more efficient and rapid than the comparison batch experiments, enabling the exact timing of fluidic manipulations and precise control of the reaction conditions.

  11. Hyphenation of sequential- and flow injection analysis with FTIR-spectroscopy for chemical analysis in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, B.; Schindler, R.; Kellner, R.

    1998-06-01

    A survey of the principles of sequential (SIA)-and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems with FTIR spectroscopic detection is presented to introduce these hyphenations as powerful techniques for performing chemical analysis in aqueous solution. The strength of FIA/SIA-FTIR systems lies in the possibility to perform highly reproducible and automated sample manipulations such as sample clean-up and/or chemical reactions prior to spectrum acquisition. It is shown that the hyphenation of FIA/SIA systems with an FTIR spectrometer enhances the problem solving capabilities of the FTIR spectrometer as also parameters which can not be measured directly (e.g. enzyme activities) can be determined. On the other hand application of FTIR spectroscopic detection in FIA or SIA is also of advantage as it allows to shorten conventional analysis procedures (e.g. sucrose or phosphate analysis) or to establish and apply a multivariate calibration model for simultaneous determinations (e.g. glucose, fructose and sucrose analysis). In addition to these examples two recent instrumental developments in miniaturized FIA/SIA-FTIR systems, a μ-Flow through cell based on IR fiber optics and a micromachined SI-enzyme reactor are presented in this paper.

  12. Iron speciation in natural waters by sequential injection analysis with a hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator as chromogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana L A; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Nunes, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Rangel, António O S S

    2016-02-01

    A sequential injection method for iron speciation in various types of natural waters was developed using a synthesised hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator (CP256). The denticity of the ligand that allow formation of the corresponding iron(III) complex in a 1:1 stoichiometry proved to be highly advantageous, in comparison with parent bidentate, hydroxy-4-piridinone chelators, with a two fold increase of reaction sensitivity and over 65% decrease of the LOD. A solid phase extraction approach was employed to attain matrix elimination, facilitating iron(III) determination and application to high salinity waters. The combination with the total iron determination obtained by the direct reaction of the ligand resulted in iron speciation. Two detection spectrophotometric cells were tested, a conventional flow cell (CFC) and a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The dynamic concentration ranges were 0.1-2 mg/L with the CFC detection and 0.005-0.1 mg/L with the LWCC, with limit of detection of 30 µg/L and 6 µg/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to a variety of natural waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Sequential injection separation system with stopped-flow radiometric detection for automated analysis of (99)tc in nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Egorov, O; O'Hara, M J; Ruzicka, J; Grate, J W

    1998-03-01

    An automated procedure for the determination of (99)Tc in aged nuclear waste has been developed. Using advanced sequential injection (SI) analysis instrumentation, (99)Tc(VII) is separated from radioactive and stable interferences using a TEVA resin column that selectively retains pertechnetate ion from dilute nitric acid solutions. The separated (99)Tc is eluted with 6 M nitric acid and quantified on-line with a flow-through liquid scintillation detector. A stopped-flow technique has been optimized that improves the analysis precision and detection limit compared to continuous-flow detection, reduces consumption of liquid scintillation cocktail, and increases sample throughput by separating the next sample while the present sample is being counted. The detection limit is 30 pCi, or 2 ng, of (99)Tc, using a 15-min stopped-flow period. The analysis time is 40 min for the first sample and is reduced to 20 min for each subsequent sample. Processed nuclear waste samples from the Hanford site were successfully analyzed by this new method.

  14. On-line preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium by sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ninwong, Benjawan; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Chailapakul, Orawon; Dungchai, Wijitar; Motomizu, Shoji

    2012-07-15

    The highly sensitive determination of lead (Pb(II)) and cadmium (Cd(II)) ions, with a limit of detection of 0.01μgL(-1) for Pb(II) and Cd(II), by on-line preconcentration and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) controlled by a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system is reported here. The SIA system consisted of a syringe pump, an 8-port selection valve and a 6-port switching valve and was incorporated with a bismuth coated screen-printed carbon nanotube electrode (Bi-SPCNTE). The preconcentration of metal ions was performed by solid phase extraction using an Analig TE-05 chelating resin mini-column on a switching valve. The metal ions collected were then eluted from the resin with 1M hydrochloric acid (HCl), deposited on the electrode surface at -1.3V vs. Ag/AgCl and then measured with ASV. The pH of the sample, eluent volume, flow rate, concentration of the bismuth plating solution and the square-wave voltammetric parameters were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, an enrichment factor of 11.9-fold and 6.6-fold for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions, respectively, was attained. Detection of Pb(II) and Cd(II) had two different linear ranges (0.5-15μgL(-1) and 15-70μgL(-1)).

  15. Use of Sequential Injection Analysis to construct a Potentiometric Electronic Tongue: Application to the Multidetermination of Heavy Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mimendia, Aitor; Merkoci, Arben; Valle, Manel del; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-23

    An automated potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) was developed for the quantitative determination of heavy metal mixtures. The Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) technique was used in order to automate the obtaining of input data, and the combined response was modeled by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The sensor array was formed by four sensors: two based on chalcogenide glasses Cd sensor and Cu sensor, and the rest on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes Pb sensor and Zn sensor. The Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) sensors were first characterized with respect to one and two analytes, by means of high-dimensionality calibrations, thanks to the use of the automated flow system; this characterization enabled an interference study of great practical utility. To take profit of the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, the kinetic profile of each sensor was compacted by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the extracted coefficients were used as inputs for the ANN in the multidetermination applications. In order to identify the ANN which provided the best model of the electrode responses, some of the network parameters were optimized. Finally analyses were performed employing synthetic samples and water samples of the river Ebro; obtained results were compared with reference methods.

  16. Use of Sequential Injection Analysis to construct a Potentiometric Electronic Tongue: Application to the Multidetermination of Heavy Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimendia, Aitor; Legin, Andrey; Merkoçi, Arben; del Valle, Manel

    2009-05-01

    An automated potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) was developed for the quantitative determination of heavy metal mixtures. The Sequential Injection Analysis (SIA) technique was used in order to automate the obtaining of input data, and the combined response was modeled by means of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The sensor array was formed by four sensors: two based on chalcogenide glasses Cd sensor and Cu sensor, and the rest on poly(vinyl chloride) membranes Pb sensor and Zn sensor. The Ion Selective Electrode (ISE) sensors were first characterized with respect to one and two analytes, by means of high-dimensionality calibrations, thanks to the use of the automated flow system; this characterization enabled an interference study of great practical utility. To take profit of the dynamic nature of the sensor's response, the kinetic profile of each sensor was compacted by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and the extracted coefficients were used as inputs for the ANN in the multidetermination applications. In order to identify the ANN which provided the best model of the electrode responses, some of the network parameters were optimized. Finally analyses were performed employing synthetic samples and water samples of the river Ebro; obtained results were compared with reference methods.

  17. Sequential injection method for rapid and simultaneous determination of 236U, 237Np, and Pu isotopes in seawater.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter; Golser, Robin

    2013-11-19

    An automated analytical method implemented in a novel dual-column tandem sequential injection (SI) system was developed for simultaneous determination of (236)U, (237)Np, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu in seawater samples. A combination of TEVA and UTEVA extraction chromatography was exploited to separate and purify target analytes, whereupon plutonium and neptunium were simultaneously isolated and purified on TEVA, while uranium was collected on UTEVA. The separation behavior of U, Np, and Pu on TEVA-UTEVA columns was investigated in detail in order to achieve high chemical yields and complete purification for the radionuclides of interest. (242)Pu was used as a chemical yield tracer for both plutonium and neptunium. (238)U was quantified in the sample before the separation for deducing the (236)U concentration from the measured (236)U/(238)U atomic ratio in the separated uranium target using accelerator mass spectrometry. Plutonium isotopes and (237)Np were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is robust and efficient, providing satisfactory chemical yields (70-100%) of target analytes and relatively short analytical time (8 h/sample).

  18. Spatiotemporal Form Integration: Sequentially presented inducers can lead to representations of stationary and rigidly rotating objects

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Strother, Lars; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objects in the world are often occluded and in motion. The visible fragments of such objects are revealed at different times and locations in space. To form coherent representations of the surfaces of these objects, the visual system must integrate local form information over space and time. We introduce a new illusion in which a rigidly rotating square is perceived on the basis of sequentially presented Pacman inducers. The illusion highlights two fundamental processes that allow us to perceive objects whose form features are revealed over time: Spatiotemporal Form Integration (STFI) and Position Updating. STFI refers to the spatial integration of persistent representations of local form features across time. Position updating of these persistent form representations allows them to be integrated into a rigid global motion percept. We describe three psychophysical experiments designed to identify spatial and temporal constraints that underlie these two processes and a fourth experiment that extends these findings to more ecologically valid stimuli. Our results indicate that although STFI can occur across relatively long delays between successive inducers (i.e., greater than 500 ms), position updating is limited to a more restricted temporal window (i.e., ~300 ms or less) and to a confined range of spatial (mis)alignment. These findings lend insight into the limits of mechanisms underlying the visual system's capacity to integrate transient, piecemeal form information and support coherent object representations in the ever-changing environment. PMID:26269386

  19. Spatiotemporal Form Integration: sequentially presented inducers can lead to representations of stationary and rigidly rotating objects.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Strother, Lars; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2015-11-01

    Objects in the world often are occluded and in motion. The visible fragments of such objects are revealed at different times and locations in space. To form coherent representations of the surfaces of these objects, the visual system must integrate local form information over space and time. We introduce a new illusion in which a rigidly rotating square is perceived on the basis of sequentially presented Pacman inducers. The illusion highlights two fundamental processes that allow us to perceive objects whose form features are revealed over time: Spatiotemporal Form Integration (STFI) and Position Updating. STFI refers to the spatial integration of persistent representations of local form features across time. Position updating of these persistent form representations allows them to be integrated into a rigid global motion percept. We describe three psychophysical experiments designed to identify spatial and temporal constraints that underlie these two processes and a fourth experiment that extends these findings to more ecologically valid stimuli. Our results indicate that although STFI can occur across relatively long delays between successive inducers (i.e., greater than 500 ms), position updating is limited to a more restricted temporal window (i.e., ~300 ms or less), and to a confined range of spatial (mis)alignment. These findings lend insight into the limits of mechanisms underlying the visual system's capacity to integrate transient, piecemeal form information, and support coherent object representations in the ever-changing environment.

  20. On-line speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex environmental aqueous samples by pervaporation sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Boonjob, Warunya; Miró, Manuel; Kolev, Spas D

    2013-12-15

    A proof of concept of a novel pervaporation sequential injection (PSI) analysis method for automatic non-chromatographic speciation analysis of inorganic arsenic in complex aqueous samples is presented. The method is based on hydride generation of arsine followed by its on-line pervaporation-based membrane separation and CCD spectrophotometric detection. The concentrations of arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) are determined sequentially in a single sample zone. The leading section of the sample zone merges with a citric acid/citrate buffer solution (pH 4.5) for the selective reduction of As(III) to arsine while the trailing section of the sample zone merges with hydrochloric acid solution to allow the reduction of both As(III) and As(V) to arsine at pH lower than 1. Virtually identical analytical sensitivity is obtained for both As(III) and As(V) at this high acidity. The flow analyzer also accommodates in-line pH detector for monitoring of the acidity throughout the sample zone prior to hydride generation. Under optimal conditions the proposed PSI method is characterized by a limit of detection, linear calibration range and repeatability for As(III) of 22 μg L(-1) (3sblank level criterion), 50-1000 μg L(-1) and 3.0% at the 500 μg L(-1) level and for As(V) of 51 μg L(-1), 100-2000 μg L(-1) and 2.6% at the 500 μg L(-1) level, respectively. The method was validated with mixed As(III)/As(V) standard aqueous solutions and successfully applied to the determination of As(III) and As(V) in river water samples with elevated content of dissolved organic carbon and suspended particulate matter with no prior sample pretreatment. Excellent relative recoveries ranging from 98% to 104% were obtained for both As(III) and As(V).

  1. Determination of aluminum by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy in lubricating oils emulsified in a sequential injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Burguera, José L; Burguera, Marcela; Antón, Raquel E; Salager, Jean-Louis; Arandia, María A; Rondón, Carlos; Carrero, Pablo; de Peña, Yaneira Petit; Brunetto, Rosario; Gallignani, Máximo

    2005-12-15

    The sequential injection (SIA) technique was applied for the on-line preparation of an "oil in water" microemulsion and for the determination of aluminum in new and used lubricating oils by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ET AAS) with Zeeman-effect background correction. Respectively, 1.0, 0.5 and 1.0ml of surfactants mixture, sample and co-surfactant (sec-butanol) solutions were sequentially aspirated to a holding coil. The sonication and repetitive change of the flowing direction improved the stability of the different emulsion types (oil in water, water in oil and microemulsion). The emulsified zone was pumped to fill the sampling arm of the spectrometer with a sub-sample of 200mul. Then, 10mul of this sample solution were introduced by means of air displacement in the graphite tube atomizer. This sequence was timed to synchronize with the previous introduction of 15mug of Mg(NO(3))(2) (in a 10mul) by the spectrometer autosampler. The entire SIA system was controlled by a computer, independent of the spectrometer. The furnace program was carried out by employing a heating cycle in four steps: drying (two steps at 110 and 130 degrees C), pyrolisis (at 1500 degrees C), atomization (at 2400 degrees C) and cleaning (at 2400 degrees C). The calibration graph was linear from 7.7 to 120mugAll(-1). The characteristic mass (mo) was 33.2pg/0.0044s and the detection limit was 2.3mugAll(-1). The relative standard (RSD) of the method, evaluated by replicate analyses of different lubricating oil samples varied in all cases between 1.5 and 1.7%, and the recovery values found in the analysis of spiked samples ranged from 97.2 to 100.4%. The agreement between the observed and reference values obtained from two NIST Standard Certified Materials was good. The method was simple and satisfactory for determining aluminum in new and used lubricating oils.

  2. Sequential injection approach for simultaneous determination of ultratrace plutonium and neptunium in urine with accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Lachner, Johannes; Christl, Marcus; Xu, Yihong

    2013-09-17

    An analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of ultratrace level plutonium (Pu) and neptunium (Np) using iron hydroxide coprecipitation in combination with automated sequential injection extraction chromatography separation and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurement. Several experimental parameters affecting the analytical performance were investigated and compared including sample preboiling operation, aging time, amount of coprecipitating reagent, reagent for pH adjustment, sedimentation time, and organic matter decomposition approach. The overall analytical results show that preboiling and aging are important for obtaining high chemical yields for both Pu and Np, which is possibly related to the aggregation and adsorption behavior of organic substances contained in urine. Although the optimal condition for Np and Pu simultaneous determination requires 5-day aging time, an immediate coprecipitation without preboiling and aging could also provide fairly satisfactory chemical yields for both Np and Pu (50-60%) with high sample throughput (4 h/sample). Within the developed method, (242)Pu was exploited as chemical yield tracer for both Pu and Np isotopes. (242)Pu was also used as a spike in the AMS measurement for quantification of (239)Pu and (237)Np concentrations. The results show that, under the optimal experimental condition, the chemical yields of (237)Np and (242)Pu are nearly identical, indicating the high feasibility of (242)Pu as a nonisotopic tracer for (237)Np determination in real urine samples. The analytical method was validated by analysis of a number of urine samples spiked with different levels of (237)Np and (239)Pu. The measured values of (237)Np and (239)Pu by AMS exhibit good agreement (R(2) ≥ 0.955) with the spiked ones confirming the reliability of the proposed method.

  3. Design, fabrication and test of a pneumatically controlled, renewable, microfluidic bead trapping device for sequential injection analysis applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Lu, Donglai; Fu, Zhifeng; Du, Dan; Ozanich, Richard M.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a pneumatically controlled,renewable, microfluidic device for conducting bead-based assays in an automated sequential injection analysis system. The device used a “brick wall”-like pillar array (pillar size: 20 μm length X 50 μm width X 45 μm height) with 5 μm gaps between the pillars serving as the micro filter. The flow channel where bead trapping occurred is 500 μm wide X 75 μm deep. An elastomeric membrane and an air chamber were located underneath the flow channel. By applying pressure to the air chamber, the membrane is deformed and pushed upward against the filter structure. This effectively traps beads larger than 5 μm and creates a “bed” or micro column of beads that can be perfused and washed with liquid samples and reagents. Upon completion of the assay process, the pressure is released and the beads are flushed out from underneath the filter structure to renew the device. Mouse IgG was used as a model analyte to test the feasibility of using the proposed device for immunoassay applications. Resulting microbeads from an on-chip fluorescent immunoassay were individually examined using flow cytometry. The results show that the fluorescence signal intensity distribution is fairly narrow indicating high chemical reaction uniformity among the beads population. Electrochemical onchip assay was also conducted. A detection limit of 0.1 ng/mL1 ppb was achieved and good device reliability and repeatability were demonstrated. The novel microfluidic-based beadstrapping device thus opens up a new pathway to design micro-bead based biosensor immunoassays for clinical and othervarious applications.

  4. Evaluation of sequential injection chromatography for reversed phase separation of triazine herbicides exploiting monolithic and core-shell columns.

    PubMed

    de Prá Urio, Ricardo; Masini, Jorge C

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development of reversed phase sequential injection chromatography (SIC) methods for separation of simazine (SIM) and atrazine (AT), as well as their metabolites deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and hydroxyatrazine (HAT) exploiting silica based monolithic (50 × 4.6 mm) and core-shell (30 × 4.6 mm, 2.7 µm particles) columns. The separation was made by stepwise elution with two mobile phases: MP1 composed of 15:85 (v/v) acetonitrile: 2.5 mmol L(-1) acetic acid/ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.2), and MP2, composed of 35:65 (v/v) acetonitrile: 2.5 mmol L(-1) acetic acid/ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.2).The less hydrophobic compounds (DIA, HAT and DEA) eluted with MP1, whereas SIM and AT eluted with MP2. The method using core-shell column exhibited better chromatographic efficiency compared with monolithic column for separation of SIM and AT, but failed to provide base line separation of DIA and HAT. The proposed composition of mobile phases enabled the monolithic column to separate all the studied compounds with resolution >2.3 at flow rate of 35 µL s(-1) and sampling throughput of 8 analyses per hour, whereas in the core-shell the maximum flow rate allowed in the SIC system was 8 µL s(-1) (sampling throughput of 3 analyses per hour). The limits of detection were between 24 µg L(-1) (AT) and 40 µg L(-1) (DEA) using the monolithic column, and between 20 µg L(-1) (SIM) and 38 µg L(-1) (DEA) with the core-shell. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (80:20 v/v acetonitrile:water) of a soil sample enriched with the five triazines (250, 500 and 1000 µg kg(-1)) resulted recoveries between 51% and 121% of the spiked concentrations.

  5. Single peak parameters technique for simultaneous measurements: Spectrophotometric sequential injection determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III).

    PubMed

    Kozak, J; Paluch, J; Węgrzecka, A; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Kochana, J; Kościelniak, P

    2016-02-01

    Spectrophotometric sequential injection system (SI) is proposed to automate the method of simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) on the basis of parameters of a single peak. In the developed SI system, sample and mixture of reagents (1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid) are introduced into a vessel, where in an acid environment (pH≅3) appropriate compounds of Fe(II) and Fe(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline and sulfosalicylic acid are formed, respectively. Then, in turn, air, sample, EDTA and sample again, are introduced into a holding coil. After the flow reversal, a segment of air is removed from the system by an additional valve and as EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid forming a more stable colorless compound with Fe(III), a complex signal is registered. Measurements are performed at wavelength 530 nm. The absorbance measured at minimum of the negative peak and the area or the absorbance measured at maximum of the signal can be used as measures corresponding to Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations, respectively. The time of the peak registration is about 2 min. Two-component calibration has been applied to analysis. Fe(II) and Fe(III) can be determined within the concentration ranges of 0.04-4.00 and 0.1-5.00 mg L(-1), with precision less than 2.8% and 1.7% (RSD), respectively and accuracy better than 7% (RE). The detection limit is 0.04 and 0.09 mg L(-1) for Fe(II) and Fe(III), respectively. The method was applied to analysis of artesian water samples.

  6. Two-column sequential injection chromatography for fast isocratic separation of two analytes of greatly differing chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Šatínský, Dalibor; Chocholouš, Petr; Válová, Olga; Hanusová, Lucia; Solich, Petr

    2013-09-30

    This paper deals with a novel approach to separate two analytes with different chemical properties and different lipophilicity. The newly described methodology is based on the two column system that was used for isocratic separation of two analytes with very different lipophilicity-dexamethasone and cinchocaine. Simultaneous separation of model compounds cinchocaine and dexamethasone was carried under the following conditions in two-column sequential injection chromatography system (2-C SIC). A 25×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column was used in the first dimension for retention and separation of dexamethasone with mobile phase acetonitrile:water 30:70 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption of 1.7 mL. A 10×4.6 mm C-18 monolithic column with 5×4.6 mm C-18 precolumn was used in the second dimension for retention and separation of cinchocaine using mobile phase acetonitrile:water 60:40 (v/v), flow rate 0.9 mL min(-1) and consumption 1.5 mL. Whole analysis time including both mobile phase's aspirations and both column separations was performed in less than 4 min. The method was fully validated and used for determination of cinchocaine and dexamethasone in pharmaceutical otic drops. The developed 2-C SIC method was compared with HPLC method under the isocratic conditions of separation on monolithic column (25×4.6 mm C-18). Spectrophotometric detection of both compounds was performed at wavelength 240 nm. System repeatability and method precision were found in the range (0.39-3.12%) for both compounds. Linearity of determination was evaluated in the range 50-500 μg mL(-1) and coefficients of determination were found to be r(2)=0.99912 for dexamethasone and r(2)=0.99969 for cinchocaine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploiting the bead injection concept for sequential determination of copper and mercury ions in river-water samples.

    PubMed

    Vidotti, Eliane C; Almeida, Vitor C; Oliveira, Cláudio C

    2004-11-15

    A procedure involving bead-injection concept and sequential determination of copper and mercury ions in river-water samples is proposed. The method is based on the solid-phase extraction of both metal ions on the same beads surface (Chelex 100 resin) and in their subsequent reaction with the colorimetric reagents (APDC and Dithizone for copper and mercury ions, respectively). For this task, a resin mini-column is established in the optical path by the selection, introduction and trapping of a defined volume of the Chelex-100 resin beads suspension in the flow system. The passage of the sample solution through the resin mini-column promotes the sorption of Cu(II) ions and, making the APDC colorimetric reagent flows through the beads, the formation of the coloured complex on the solid phase surface occurs. The absorbance of the formed APDC-Cu complex is then monitored at 436nm and the spent beads are discarded. Packing another resin mini-column in the flow cell and repeating the concentration step it is possible to carried out the mercury determination by using Dithizone as reagent. The absorbance of the Dithizone-Hg complex is monitored at 500nm. After each measurement, the spent beads are wasted and a new portion of fresh one is trapped in the system, letting it ready for the next measurement. The bead injection system is versatile and can be used to concentrate different sample volumes, which permits the determination of a wide range of copper and mercury ions concentrations. When the sample-selected volumes are 100 and 1000mul the analytical ranges were 5.0 up to 500.0mugl(-1) and 2.5 up to 30.0mugl(-1) for Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions, respectively. Under these conditions, the detection limit was estimated as 0.63 and 0.25mugl(-1) for copper and mercury ions determination. The system consumes 2mg of Chelex 100 resin beads, 0.20mg of APDC or 1.25mg of Dithizone per determination and the traditional organic solvent extraction methodology, normally used in connection

  8. Middleware for Processing Message Queues with Elasticity Support and Sequential Integrity of Asynchronous Message Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Teixeira, Eduardo; Patrícia Favacho de Araújo, Aletéia

    2015-10-01

    Elasticity in computing refers to dynamically adjusting the amount of allocated resources to process a distributed application. In order to achieve this, mechanisms are needed to avoid the phenomenon of the elasticity threshold detection moving constantly up or down. The existing work fails to deliver sequential integrity of asynchronous messages processing and the asymmetries of data distribution to achieve parallel consumption. This paper fills this gaps and proposes a middleware solution to dynamically analyze the flow of message queue, and a mechanism to increase the parallelized consumption based on the output behavior. An architecture for IOD (Increase On Demand) middleware is presented, with support for the increase and decrease of thread's to cope with the growth of message queues, using the technique of limit-based heuristics over a given period of time and grouping messages into sub-queues based on classification criteria.

  9. Sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography for online renewable micro-solid-phase extraction of carbamate residues in food and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax; Grudpan, Kate

    2011-07-01

    A sequential injection-bead injection-lab-on-valve system was hyphenated to HPLC for online renewable micro-solid-phase extraction of carbamate insecticides. The carbamates studied were isoprocarb, methomyl, carbaryl, carbofuran, methiocarb, promecarb, and propoxur. LiChroprep(®) RP-18 beads (25-40 μm) were employed as renewable sorbent packing in a microcolumn situated inside the LOV platform mounted above the multiposition valve of the sequential injection system. The analytes sorbed by the microcolumn were eluted using 80% acetonitrile in 0.1% acetic acid before online introduction to the HPLC system. Separation was performed on an Atlantis C-18 column (4.6 × 150 mm, 5 μm) utilizing gradient elution with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and a detection wavelength at 270 nm. The sequential injection system offers the means of performing automated handling of sample preconcentration and matrix removal. The enrichment factors ranged between 20 and 125, leading to limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 1-20 μg/L. Good reproducibility was obtained with relative standard deviations of <0.7 and 5.4% for retention time and peak area, respectively. The developed method has been successfully applied to the determination of carbamate residues in fruit, vegetable, and water samples.

  10. Proton Injection into the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA)

    SciTech Connect

    Prebys, Eric; Antipov, Sergey; Piekarz, Henryk; Valishev, A.

    2015-06-01

    The Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) is an experimental synchrotron being built at Fermilab to test the concept of non-linear "integrable optics". These optics are based on a lattice including non-linear elements that satisfies particular conditions on the Hamiltonian. The resulting particle motion is predicted to be stable but without a unique tune. The system is therefore insensitive to resonant instabilities and can in principle store very intense beams, with space charge tune shifts larger than those which are possible in conventional linear synchrotrons. The ring will initially be tested with pencil electron beams, but this poster describes the ultimate plan to install a 2.5 MeV RFQ to inject protons, which will produce tune shifts on the order of unity. Technical details will be presented, as well as simulations of protons in the ring.

  11. Sequential Modulations in a Combined Horizontal and Vertical Simon Task: Is There ERP Evidence for Feature Integration Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe, Katharina; Küper, Kristina; Wascher, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    In the Simon task, participants respond faster when the task-irrelevant stimulus position and the response position are corresponding, for example on the same side, compared to when they have a non-corresponding relation. Interestingly, this Simon effect is reduced after non-corresponding trials. Such sequential effects can be explained in terms of a more focused processing of the relevant stimulus dimension due to increased cognitive control, which transfers from the previous non-corresponding trial (conflict adaptation effects). Alternatively, sequential modulations of the Simon effect can also be due to the degree of trial-to-trial repetitions and alternations of task features, which is confounded with the correspondence sequence (feature integration effects). In the present study, we used a spatially two-dimensional Simon task with vertical response keys to examine the contribution of adaptive cognitive control and feature integration processes to the sequential modulation of the Simon effect. The two-dimensional Simon task creates correspondences in the vertical as well as in the horizontal dimension. A trial-by-trial alternation of the spatial dimension, for example from a vertical to a horizontal stimulus presentation, generates a subset containing no complete repetitions of task features, but only complete alternations and partial repetitions, which are equally distributed over all correspondence sequences. In line with the assumed feature integration effects, we found sequential modulations of the Simon effect only when the spatial dimension repeated. At least for the horizontal dimension, this pattern was confirmed by the parietal P3b, an event-related potential that is assumed to reflect stimulus–response link processes. Contrary to conflict adaptation effects, cognitive control, measured by the fronto-central N2 component of the EEG, was not sequentially modulated. Overall, our data provide behavioral as well as electrophysiological evidence for

  12. Sequential Modulations in a Combined Horizontal and Vertical Simon Task: Is There ERP Evidence for Feature Integration Effects?

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Katharina; Küper, Kristina; Wascher, Edmund

    2017-01-01

    In the Simon task, participants respond faster when the task-irrelevant stimulus position and the response position are corresponding, for example on the same side, compared to when they have a non-corresponding relation. Interestingly, this Simon effect is reduced after non-corresponding trials. Such sequential effects can be explained in terms of a more focused processing of the relevant stimulus dimension due to increased cognitive control, which transfers from the previous non-corresponding trial (conflict adaptation effects). Alternatively, sequential modulations of the Simon effect can also be due to the degree of trial-to-trial repetitions and alternations of task features, which is confounded with the correspondence sequence (feature integration effects). In the present study, we used a spatially two-dimensional Simon task with vertical response keys to examine the contribution of adaptive cognitive control and feature integration processes to the sequential modulation of the Simon effect. The two-dimensional Simon task creates correspondences in the vertical as well as in the horizontal dimension. A trial-by-trial alternation of the spatial dimension, for example from a vertical to a horizontal stimulus presentation, generates a subset containing no complete repetitions of task features, but only complete alternations and partial repetitions, which are equally distributed over all correspondence sequences. In line with the assumed feature integration effects, we found sequential modulations of the Simon effect only when the spatial dimension repeated. At least for the horizontal dimension, this pattern was confirmed by the parietal P3b, an event-related potential that is assumed to reflect stimulus-response link processes. Contrary to conflict adaptation effects, cognitive control, measured by the fronto-central N2 component of the EEG, was not sequentially modulated. Overall, our data provide behavioral as well as electrophysiological evidence for feature

  13. Temporal integration of sequential auditory events: silent period in sound pattern activates human planum temporale.

    PubMed

    Mustovic, Henrietta; Scheffler, Klaus; Di Salle, Francesco; Esposito, Fabrizio; Neuhoff, John G; Hennig, Jürgen; Seifritz, Erich

    2003-09-01

    Temporal integration is a fundamental process that the brain carries out to construct coherent percepts from serial sensory events. This process critically depends on the formation of memory traces reconciling past with present events and is particularly important in the auditory domain where sensory information is received both serially and in parallel. It has been suggested that buffers for transient auditory memory traces reside in the auditory cortex. However, previous studies investigating "echoic memory" did not distinguish between brain response to novel auditory stimulus characteristics on the level of basic sound processing and a higher level involving matching of present with stored information. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with a regular pattern of sounds repeated every 100 ms and deviant interspersed stimuli of 100-ms duration, which were either brief presentations of louder sounds or brief periods of silence, to probe the formation of auditory memory traces. To avoid interaction with scanner noise, the auditory stimulation sequence was implemented into the image acquisition scheme. Compared to increased loudness events, silent periods produced specific neural activation in the right planum temporale and temporoparietal junction. Our findings suggest that this area posterior to the auditory cortex plays a critical role in integrating sequential auditory events and is involved in the formation of short-term auditory memory traces. This function of the planum temporale appears to be fundamental in the segregation of simultaneous sound sources.

  14. On-line coupling of Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent with Sequential Injection Chromatography system for direct extraction and determination of betaxolol in human urine.

    PubMed

    Šrámková, Ivana; Chocholouš, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Šatínský, Dalibor

    2015-10-01

    A novel approach for automation of Micro-Extraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS), a solid phase extraction technique, is presented, enabling precise and repeatable liquid handling due to the employment of sequential injection technique. The developed system was used for human urine sample clean-up and pre-concentration of betaxolol before its separation and determination. A commercial MEPS C-18 cartridge was integrated into an SIChrom™ system. The chromatographic separation was performed on a monolithic High Resolution C18 (50×4.6 mm) column which was coupled on-line in the system with Micro-Extraction using an additional selection valve. A mixture of acetonitrile and aqueous solution of 0.5% triethylamine with acetic acid, pH adjusted to 4.5 in ratio 30:70 was used as a mobile phase for elution of betaxolol from MEPS directly onto the monolithic column where the separation took place. Betaxolol was quantified by a fluorescence detector at wavelengths λ(ex)=220 nm and λ(em)=305 nm. The linear calibration range of 5-400 ng mL(-1), with limit of detection 1.5 ng mL(-1) and limit of quantification 5 ng mL(-1) and correlation r=0.9998 for both the standard and urine matrix calibration were achieved. The system recovery was 105±5%; 100±4%; 108±1% for three concentration levels of betaxolol in 10 times diluted urine - 5, 20 and 200 ng mL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comprehensive investigation of sequential plasma activated Si/Si bonded interfaces for nano-integration on the wafer scale.

    PubMed

    Kibria, M G; Zhang, F; Lee, T H; Kim, M J; Howlader, M M R

    2010-04-02

    The sequentially plasma activated bonding of silicon wafers has been investigated to facilitate the development of chemical free, room temperature and spontaneous bonding required for nanostructure integration on the wafer scale. The contact angle of the surface and the electrical and nanostructural behavior of the interface have been studied. The contact angle measurements show that the sequentially plasma (reactive ion etching plasma followed by microwave radicals) treated surfaces offer highly reactive and hydrophilic surfaces. These highly reactive surfaces allow spontaneous integration at the nanometer scale without any chemicals, external pressure or heating. Electrical characteristics show that the current transportation across the nanobonded interface is dependent on the plasma parameters. High resolution transmission electron microscopy results confirm nanometer scale bonding which is needed for the integration of nanostructures. The findings can be applied in spontaneous integration of nanostructures such as nanowires/nanotubes/quantum dots on the wafer scale.

  16. Evaluation of Injection Efficiency of Carbon Dioxide Using an Integrated Injection Well and Geologic Formation Numerical Simulation Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.; SNU CO2 GEO-SEQ TEAM

    2011-12-01

    A series of integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulations was performed to evaluate the injection efficiency of carbon dioxide using a multiphase thermo-hydrological numerical model. The numerical simulation results show that groundwater flow, carbon dioxide flow, and heat transport in both injection well and sandstone formation can be simultaneously analyzed, and thus the injection efficiency (i.e., injection rate and injectivity) of carbon dioxide can be quantitatively evaluated using the integrated injection well and geologic formation numerical simulation scheme. The injection rate and injectivity of carbon dioxide increase rapidly during the early period of time (about 10 days) and then increase slightly up to about 2.07 kg/s (equivalent to 0.065 Mton/year) and about 2.84 × 10-7 kg/s/Pa, respectively, until 10 years for the base case. The sensitivity test results show that the injection pressure and temperature of carbon dioxide at the wellhead have significant impacts on its injection rate and injectivity. The vertical profile of the fluid pressure in the injection well becomes almost a hydrostatical equilibrium state within 1 month for all the cases. The vertical profile of the fluid temperature in the injection well becomes a monotonously increasing profile with the depth due to isenthalpic or adiabatic compression within 6 months for all the cases. The injection rate of carbon dioxide increases linearly with the fluid pressure difference between the well bottom and the sandstone formation far from the injection well. In contrast, the injectivity of carbon dioxide varies unsystematically with the fluid pressure difference. On the other hand, the reciprocal of the kinematic viscosity of carbon dioxide at the well bottom has an excellent linear relationship with the injectivity of carbon dioxide. It indicates that the above-mentioned variation of the injectivity of carbon dioxide can be corrected using this linear relationship. The

  17. Assessing sequential data assimilation techniques for integrating GRACE data into a hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaki, M.; Hoteit, I.; Kuhn, M.; Awange, J.; Forootan, E.; van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Schumacher, M.; Pattiaratchi, C.

    2017-09-01

    The time-variable terrestrial water storage (TWS) products from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) have been increasingly used in recent years to improve the simulation of hydrological models by applying data assimilation techniques. In this study, for the first time, we assess the performance of the most popular data assimilation sequential techniques for integrating GRACE TWS into the World-Wide Water Resources Assessment (W3RA) model. We implement and test stochastic and deterministic ensemble-based Kalman filters (EnKF), as well as Particle filters (PF) using two different resampling approaches of Multinomial Resampling and Systematic Resampling. These choices provide various opportunities for weighting observations and model simulations during the assimilation and also accounting for error distributions. Particularly, the deterministic EnKF is tested to avoid perturbing observations before assimilation (that is the case in an ordinary EnKF). Gaussian-based random updates in the EnKF approaches likely do not fully represent the statistical properties of the model simulations and TWS observations. Therefore, the fully non-Gaussian PF is also applied to estimate more realistic updates. Monthly GRACE TWS are assimilated into W3RA covering the entire Australia. To evaluate the filters performances and analyze their impact on model simulations, their estimates are validated by independent in-situ measurements. Our results indicate that all implemented filters improve the estimation of water storage simulations of W3RA. The best results are obtained using two versions of deterministic EnKF, i.e. the Square Root Analysis (SQRA) scheme and the Ensemble Square Root Filter (EnSRF), respectively, improving the model groundwater estimations errors by 34% and 31% compared to a model run without assimilation. Applying the PF along with Systematic Resampling successfully decreases the model estimation error by 23%.

  18. Three-dimensional modeling of Mount Vesuvius with sequential integrated inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tondi, Rosaria; de Franco, Roberto

    2003-05-01

    A new image of Mount Vesuvius and the surrounding area is recovered from the tomographic inversion of 693 first P wave arrivals recorded by 314 receivers deployed along five profiles which intersect the crater, and gravity data collected in 17,598 stations on land and offshore. The final three-dimensional (3-D) velocity model presented here is determined by interpolation of five 2-D velocity sections obtained from sequential integrated inversion (SII) of seismic and gravity data. The inversion procedure adopts the "maximum likelihood" scheme in order to jointly optimize seismic velocities and densities. In this way we recover velocity and density models both consistent with seismic and gravity data information. The model parameterization of these 2-D models is chosen in order to keep the diagonal elements of the seismic resolution matrix in the order of 0.2-0.8. The highest values of resolution are detected under the volcano edifice. The imaged 6-km-thick crustal volume underlies a 25 × 45 km2 area. The interpolation is performed by choosing the right grid for a smoothing algorithm which prepares optimum models for asymptotic ray theory methods. Hence this model can be used as a reference model for a 3-D tomographic inversion of seismic data. The 3-D gravity modeling is straightforward. The results of this study clearly image the continuous structure of the Mesozoic carbonate basement top and the connection of the volcano conduit structure to two shallow depressions, which in terms of hazard prevention are the regions through which magma may more easily flow toward the surface and cause possible eruptions.

  19. A new strategy for exploiting ion exchange in sequential injection analysis: in-line phytic acid separation/determination in foods as an example.

    PubMed

    Sartini, Raquel P; Oliveira, Cláudio C

    2002-06-01

    A novel strategy for exploiting ion exchange in sequential injection systems is proposed. The procedure is based on the selection of a defined volume of a resin suspension, which is introduced and packed in the analytical path, establishing a resin mini-column in the system. The passage of a selected sample volume through the resin mini-column leads to the retention of the analyte, while the sample matrix is discarded. The analyte is eluted during the passage of the eluant/reagent by the packed beads, being the analytical signal monitored (absorbance) in the liquid phase. The beads are then aspirated back to the holding coil and directed to a recovery flask, linked at the selection valve; then the system is ready to begin a new cycle. With the proposed strategy, the main characteristics of the sequential injection system are kept as any new artifact is added to the manifold and system reconfiguration is not required. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated by the phytic acid determination in food samples. For this specific application, AG1-X8 was selected as ion exchanger, and a solution containing Cl- and Fe(III)-salicylate complex was used as eluant and spectrophotometric reagent.

  20. Multilayered particle-packed column: Evaluation and comparison with monolithic and core-shell particle columns for the determination of red azo dyes in Sequential Injection Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chocholouš, Petr; Gil, Renato; Acebal, Carolina C; Kubala, Viktor; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr

    2017-03-01

    A recently presented new type of "multilayered" organic-inorganic hybrid silica particle packed column YMC-Triart C18 (50 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used for the development of a sequential injection chromatography method for determination of five azo dyes (Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan orange G, and para red) in selected food seasonings. The use of a novel sorbent brings attractive features, reduced backpressure, and broader chemical stability together with high separation performance, which are discussed and compared with that of three types of columns typically used in medium-pressure flow chromatography techniques (classic monolithic, narrow monolithic, and core-shell particle columns). The separation was performed in gradient elution mode created by the zone mixing of two mobile phases (acetonitrile/water 90:10, 1.5 mL + acetonitrile/water 100:0, 2.3 mL) at a flow rate of 0.60 mL/min and time of analysis <9.5 min. The spectrophotometric detection wavelengths were set to 400, 480, and 500 nm. The high performance of the developed method with multilayered particle column was well documented and the results indicate a broad capability of sequential injection chromatography. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Determination of dasatinib in the tablet dosage form by ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Aroa Garcia; Taraba, Lukáš; Hraníček, Jakub; Kozlík, Petr; Coufal, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Dasatinib is a novel oral prescription drug proposed for treating adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia. Three analytical methods, namely ultra high performance liquid chromatography, capillary zone electrophoresis, and sequential injection analysis, were developed, validated, and compared for determination of the drug in the tablet dosage form. The total analysis time of optimized ultra high performance liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis methods was 2.0 and 2.2 min, respectively. Direct ultraviolet detection with detection wavelength of 322 nm was employed in both cases. The optimized sequential injection analysis method was based on spectrophotometric detection of dasatinib after a simple colorimetric reaction with folin ciocalteau reagent forming a blue-colored complex with an absorbance maximum at 745 nm. The total analysis time was 2.5 min. The ultra high performance liquid chromatography method provided the lowest detection and quantitation limits and the most precise and accurate results. All three newly developed methods were demonstrated to be specific, linear, sensitive, precise, and accurate, providing results satisfactorily meeting the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry, and can be employed for the routine determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient in the tablet dosage form. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Intra-articular Steroid Injection for Frozen Shoulder: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials With Trial Sequential Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaying; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Shaohua; Li, Hong; Jiang, Jia; Chen, Shiyi; Chen, Jiwu

    2017-07-01

    Intra-articular steroid injection is a common intervention for frozen shoulder (FS). This review aimed to illustrate the effects of intra-articular steroid injection for FS. Systematic review and meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intra-articular steroid injection with no injection or sham injections for FS. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores were the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included passive external rotation, abduction, flexion, internal rotation, and functional scores. Complication rates were the safety outcome measure. Comparisons were performed with mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Three time intervals were analyzed: 4 to 6 weeks, 12 to 16 weeks, and 24 to 26 weeks postintervention. Trial sequential analysis was used to verify the pooled results. Line charts were drawn to view the recovery trend in both the intervention and control groups. Eight RCTs with 416 patients were included. Compared with controls, patients who received intra-articular steroid injection had significantly reduced VAS pain scores at 4 to 6 weeks (MD, 1.28 cm [95% CI, 0.75 to 1.82]), 12 to 16 weeks (MD, 1.00 cm [95% CI, 0.47 to 1.52]), and 24 to 26 weeks (MD, 0.65 cm [95% CI, 0.19 to 1.10]) postinjection. Trial sequential analysis confirmed the pooled results at 4 to 6 weeks and 12 to 16 weeks but not at 24 to 26 weeks. Patients who received intra-articular steroid injection had improved passive external rotation, abduction, and flexion and Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) scores at all 3 time intervals, as well as improved American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores at 12 to 16 weeks (MD, 12.20 [95% CI, 2.55 to 21.85]). No difference was noticed in Constant scores (MD, 5.70 [95% CI, -0.59 to 11.99]) or internal rotation except at 12 to 16 weeks (MD, 0.81° [95% CI, 0.18° to 1.44°]) and 24 to 26 weeks (MD, 3.88° [95% CI, 0.51

  3. Microbially Enhanced Oil Recovery by Sequential Injection of Light Hydrocarbon and Nitrate in Low- And High-Pressure Bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Suri, Navreet; Stanislav, Paul; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2015-10-20

    Microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) often involves injection of aqueous molasses and nitrate to stimulate resident or introduced bacteria. Use of light oil components like toluene, as electron donor for nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB), offers advantages but at 1-2 mM toluene is limiting in many heavy oils. Because addition of toluene to the oil increased reduction of nitrate by NRB, we propose an MEOR technology, in which water amended with light hydrocarbon below the solubility limit (5.6 mM for toluene) is injected to improve the nitrate reduction capacity of the oil along the water flow path, followed by injection of nitrate, other nutrients (e.g., phosphate) and a consortium of NRB, if necessary. Hydrocarbon- and nitrate-mediated MEOR was tested in low- and high-pressure, water-wet sandpack bioreactors with 0.5 pore volumes of residual oil in place (ROIP). Compared to control bioreactors, those with 11-12 mM of toluene in the oil (gained by direct addition or by aqueous injection) and 80 mM of nitrate in the aqueous phase produced 16.5 ± 4.4% of additional ROIP (N = 10). Because toluene is a cheap commodity chemical, HN-MEOR has the potential to be a cost-effective method for additional oil production even in the current low oil price environment.

  4. A sequential injection method for the fluorimetric determination of aluminum in drinking water using 8-hydroxy-7-(4-sulfo-1-naphthylazo)-5-quinoline sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Al-Kindy, Salma M Z; Al-Ghamari, Salwa S; Suliman, Fakhr Eldin O

    2007-12-31

    A robust and simple sequential injection (SI) method for the assay of aluminum ions in drinking water is described. The method is based on the complex formation between aluminum and 8-hydroxy-7-(4-sulfo-1-naphthylazo)-5-quinoline sulfonic acid (HSNQ). The fluorescence of the complex is monitored at an emission wavelength of 492 nm with excitation at 357 nm. The HSNQ concentration, aspirated reagent and sample volumes were optimized simultaneously using 3(3) full factorial design. The optimum operating conditions are aspirated sample and reagent volumes of 90 and 70 microL, respectively, and HSNQ concentration of 20 microM. With these conditions linear calibration curves were obtained from 100 to 800 ppb. The detection limit was 4 ppb. The maximum relative standard deviation of the method was 1.43% (n=5). The method was successfully applied for the determination of aluminum in drinking water samples.

  5. Miniaturizing and automation of free acidity measurements for uranium (VI)-HNO3 solutions: Development of a new sequential injection analysis for a sustainable radio-analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Néri-Quiroz, José; Canto, Fabrice; Guillerme, Laurent; Couston, Laurent; Magnaldo, Alastair; Dugas, Vincent

    2016-10-01

    A miniaturized and automated approach for the determination of free acidity in solutions containing uranium (VI) is presented. The measurement technique is based on the concept of sequential injection analysis with on-line spectroscopic detection. The proposed methodology relies on the complexation and alkalimetric titration of nitric acid using a pH 5.6 sodium oxalate solution. The titration process is followed by UV/VIS detection at 650nm thanks to addition of Congo red as universal pH indicator. Mixing sequence as well as method validity was investigated by numerical simulation. This new analytical design allows fast (2.3min), reliable and accurate free acidity determination of low volume samples (10µL) containing uranium/[H(+)] moles ratio of 1:3 with relative standard deviation of <7.0% (n=11). The linearity range of the free nitric acid measurement is excellent up to 2.77molL(-1) with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.995. The method is specific, presence of actinide ions up to 0.54molL(-1) does not interfere on the determination of free nitric acid. In addition to automation, the developed sequential injection analysis method greatly improves the standard off-line oxalate complexation and alkalimetric titration method by reducing thousand fold the required sample volume, forty times the nuclear waste per analysis as well as the analysis time by eight fold. These analytical parameters are important especially in nuclear-related applications to improve laboratory safety, personnel exposure to radioactive samples and to drastically reduce environmental impacts or analytical radioactive waste.

  6. On-line simultaneous and rapid separation of anions and cations from a single sample using dual-capillary sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Adam J; Guijt, Rosanne M; Macka, Mirek; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Johns, Cameron; Hilder, Emily F; Dicinoski, Greg W; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Haddad, Paul R; Breadmore, Michael C

    2013-06-05

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) approach has been developed for the simultaneous rapid separation and identification of common environmental inorganic anions and cations from a single sample injection. The method utilised a sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument (SI-CE) with capacitively-coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D) constructed in-house from commercial-off-the-shelf components. Oppositely charged analytes from a single sample plug were simultaneously injected electrokinetically onto two separate capillaries for independent separation and detection. Injection was automated and may occur from a syringe or be directly coupled to an external source in a continuous manner. Software control enabled high sample throughput (17 runs per hour for the target analyte set) and the inclusion of an isolation valve allowed the separation capillaries to be flushed, increasing throughput by removing slow migrating species as well as improving repeatability. Various environmental and industrial samples (subjected only to filtering) were analysed in the laboratory with a 3 min analysis time which allowed the separation of 23 inorganic and small organic anions and cations. Finally, the system was applied to an extended automated analysis of Hobart Southern Water tap water for a period of 48 h. The overall repeatability of the migration times of a 14 analyte standard sample was less than 0.74% under laboratory conditions. LODs ranged from 5 to 61 μg L(-1). The combination of automation, high confidence of peak identification, and low limits of detection make this a useful system for the simultaneous identification of a range of common inorganic anions and cations for discrete or continuous monitoring applications.

  7. Sequential injection chromatography with post-column reaction/derivatization for the determination of transition metal cations in natural water samples.

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Jarošová, Patrícia; Chocholouš, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the applicability of Sequential Injection Chromatography for the determination of transition metals in water is evaluated for the separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) cations. Separations were performed using a Dionex IonPAC™ guard column (50mm×2mm i.d., 9 µm). Mobile phase composition and post-column reaction were optimized by modified SIMPLEX method with subsequent study of the concentration of each component. The mobile phase consisted of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as analyte-selective compound, sodium sulfate, and formic acid/sodium formate buffer. Post-column addition of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol was carried out for spectrophotometric detection of the analytes׳ complexes at 530nm. Approaches to achieve higher robustness, baseline stability, and detection sensitivity by on-column stacking of the analytes and initial gradient implementation as well as air-cushion pressure damping for post-column reagent addition were studied. The method allowed the rapid separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) within 6.5min including pump refilling and aspiration of sample and 1mmol HNO3 for analyte stacking on the separation column. High sensitivity was achieved applying an injection volume of up to 90µL. A signal repeatability of<2% RSD of peak height was found. Analyte recovery evaluated by spiking of different natural water samples was well suited for routine analysis with sub-micromolar limits of detection.

  8. Highly sensitive sequential injection determination of p-aminophenol in paracetamol formulations with 18-molybdodiphosphate heteropoly anion based on elimination of Schlieren effect.

    PubMed

    Vishnikin, Andriy B; Al-Shwaiyat, Mohammed K E A; Petrushina, Galina A; Tsiganok, Ludmila P; Andruch, Vasil; Bazel, Yaroslav R; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr

    2012-07-15

    A highly sensitive, precise and automated method using sequential injection analysis to assay quantitatively low levels of the p-aminophenol (PAP) in paracetamol formulations has been developed. A solution containing PAP and paracetamol is injected into an acetate buffer carrier stream and merged on-line with 18-molybdodiphosphate heteropoly complex reagent to form a specific blue derivative that is subsequently detected spectrophotometrically at 820nm. The procedure has been optimized mainly with respect to measurement sensitivity. It is based on the leveling off of the refraction indices of the liquids mixed in the flow system by the careful matching of the refractive index of the reagent solution with that of the carrier and sample solutions. Amount as low as 0.5μmolL(-1) of PAP, which corresponds to the 0.001% of PAP in paracetamol tablets, can be reliably determined using the proposed method, which is clearly below the specification limits recommended for PAP determination in paracetamol drug and tablet formulations (50ppm or 0.005% (w/w)). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of paracetamol formulations spiked with PAP and determination of PAP content in Rapidol tablets past their expiration date both by proposed SIA and reference HPLC methods.

  9. Automated sample preparation based on the sequential injection principle. Solid-phase extraction on a molecularly imprinted polymer coupled on-line to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Theodoridis, Georgios; Zacharis, Constantinos K; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Themelis, Demetrius G; Economou, Anastasios

    2004-03-19

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) prepared using caffeine, as a template, was validated as a selective sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE), within an automated on-line sample preparation method. The polymer produced was packed in a polypropylene cartridge, which was incorporated in a flow system prior to the HPLC analytical instrumentation. The principle of sequential injection was utilised for a rapid automated and efficient SPE procedure on the MIP. Samples, buffers, washing and elution solvents were introduced to the extraction cartridge via a peristaltic pump and a multi-position valve, both controlled by appropriate software developed in-house. The method was optimised in terms of flow rates, extraction time and volume. After extraction, the final eluent from the extraction cartridge was directed to the injection loop and was subsequently analysed on HPLC. The overall set-up facilitated unattended operation, operation and improved both mixing fluidics and method development flexibility. This system may be readily built in the laboratory and can be further used as an automated platform for on-line sample preparation.

  10. Use of sequential sampling of amphipod abundance to classify the biotic integrity of acid-sensitive lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Robert

    1992-03-01

    A sequential sampling program using previously published zoobenthos data is described for ubiquitous, cost-effective biomonitoring of the effects of lake acidification. Spring densities of the littoral amphipod Hyalella azteca are quantitatively sorted into five abundance catagories. An essential step in the a priori definition of decision criteria is the stratification of proportional densities per unit macrophyte biomass in relation to aqueous total phosphorus concentrations. Density rankings were related to lake acidity and to detailed lake-specific information on patterns of Hyalella life history and acid tolerance. Incorporation of Hyalella abundance as a potential metric for the assessment of the biological integrity of acid-sensitive waters is recommended. The temporal integration of transient changes in spring meltwater chemistry is an important rationale for the development of such biomonitoring procedures.

  11. On-line sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis for near-real-time monitoring of extracellular lactate in cell culture flasks.

    PubMed

    Alhusban, Ala A; Gaudry, Adam J; Breadmore, Michael C; Gueven, Nuri; Guijt, Rosanne M

    2014-01-03

    Cell culture has replaced many in vivo studies because of ethical and regulatory measures as well as the possibility of increased throughput. Analytical assays to determine (bio)chemical changes are often based on end-point measurements rather than on a series of sequential determinations. The purpose of this work is to develop an analytical system for monitoring cell culture based on sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis (SI-CE) with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). The system was applied for monitoring lactate production, an important metabolic indicator, during mammalian cell culture. Using a background electrolyte consisting of 25mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, 35mM cyclohexyl-2-aminoethanesulfonic acid with 0.02% poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) at pH 8.65 and a multilayer polymer coated capillary, lactate could be resolved from other compounds present in media with relative standard deviations 0.07% for intraday electrophoretic mobility and an analysis time of less than 10min. Using the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293, lactate concentrations in the cell culture medium were measured every 20min over 3 days, requiring only 8.73μL of sample per run. Combining simplicity, portability, automation, high sample throughput, low limits of detection, low sample consumption and the ability to up- and outscale, this new methodology represents a promising technique for near real-time monitoring of chemical changes in diverse cell culture applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated expanded granular sludge bed and sequential batch reactor treating beet sugar industrial wastewater and recovering bioenergy.

    PubMed

    Justo, Ambuchi John; Junfeng, Liu; Lili, Shan; Haiman, Wang; Lorivi, Moirana Ruth; Mohammed, Mohammed O A; Xiangtong, Zhou; Yujie, Feng

    2016-10-01

    The exponential rise in energy demand vis-à-vis depletion of mineral oil resources has accelerated recovery of bioenergy from organic waste. In this study, a laboratory-scale anaerobic (An)/aerobic (Ar) system comprising of expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR) was constructed to treat beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) 1665 mg L(-1) while harnessing methane gas. The EGSB reactor generated methane at the rate of 235 mL/g COD added, with considerably higher than previously reported methane content of 86 %. Meanwhile, contaminants were successfully reduced in the combined An/Ar system, realizing a removal rate of more than 71.4, 97.3, 97.7, and 99.3 % of organic matter as total phosphorus, total nitrogen, biological oxygen demand (BOD), and soluble COD, respectively. Microbial community analysis showed that the bacterial genus Clostridium sp. and archaeal genus Methanosaeta sp. dominated the EGSB reactor, while Rhodobacter sp. dominance was observed in the SBR. The obtained experimental results indicate that the integration of expanded granular sludge bed and sequential batch reactor in treating BSIW obtained competitively outstanding performance.

  13. Multimodal sensory integration during sequential eating--linking chewing activity, aroma release, and aroma perception over time.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Ségolène; Blancher, Guillaume

    2012-10-01

    The respective effects of chewing activity, aroma release from a gelled candy, and aroma perception were investigated. Specifically, the study aimed at 1) comparing an imposed chewing and swallowing pattern (IP) and free protocol (FP) on panelists for in vivo measurements, 2) investigating carryover effects in sequential eating, and 3) studying the link between instrumental data and their perception counterpart. Chewing activity, in-nose aroma concentration, and aroma perception over time were measured by electromyography, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and time intensity, respectively. Model gel candies were flavored at 2 intensity levels (low-L and high-H). The panelists evaluated 3 sequences (H then H, H then L, and L then H) in duplicates with both IP and FP. They scored aroma intensity over time while their in-nose aroma concentrations and their chewing activity were measured. Overall, only limited advantages were found in imposing a chewing and swallowing pattern for instrumental and sensory data. In addition, the study highlighted the role of brain integration on perceived intensity and dynamics of perception, in the framework of sequential eating without rinsing. Because of the presence of adaptation phenomena, contrast effect, and potential taste and texture cross-modal interaction with aroma perception, it was concluded that dynamic in-nose concentration data provide only one part of the perception picture and therefore cannot be used alone in prediction models.

  14. Developmental 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) impairs sequential and spatial but not cued learning independent of growth, litter effects or injection stress.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael T; Morford, LaRonda L; Wood, Sandra L; Rock, Stephanie L; McCrea, Anne E; Fukumura, Masao; Wallace, Tanya L; Broening, Harry W; Moran, Mary S; Vorhees, Charles V

    2003-04-04

    Previously, we have shown that rats administered MDMA from postnatal (P) days 11-20 had reductions in body weight during the period of treatment and as adults they had deficits in sequential and spatial learning and memory. In the present study, to control for weight reductions, we used litters with double the number of offspring to induce growth restriction comparable to that of standard size litters treated with MDMA. Litters were treated twice daily from P11 to 20 with vehicle or MDMA (20 mg/kg) or only weighed. Males, but not females, exposed to MDMA had longer latencies and more errors in the Cincinnati water maze compared to males of the other treatments. In the Morris water maze (210 cm pool, 10x10 cm platform), the MDMA animals were impaired relative to all other treatments during acquisition. Only the MDMA females showed deficits when the platform was shifted to a new location, however, both MDMA males and females were impaired when the location of the platform was again shifted and a reduced platform (5x5 cm) used. No differences were observed in the ability to swim a straight channel, locate a platform with a cue, or the endocrine response to forced swim among the treatment groups. No differences were seen between animals injected with saline and those only weighed. The data suggest that factors, such as growth retardation, multiple injections, or the composition of the litter, do not affect the development of learning and memory impairments resulting from P11 to 20 MDMA exposure. The large litter approach offers a novel method to control for undernutrition during the preweaning period in rodents.

  15. Square wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry automated by sequential injection analysis Potentialities and limitations exemplified by the determination of methyl parathion in water samples.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Luciana B O; Masini, Jorge C

    2008-01-14

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of a sequential injection method to automate the determination of methyl parathion by square wave adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry exploiting the concept of monosegmented flow analysis to perform in-line sample conditioning and standard addition. Accumulation and stripping steps are made in the sample medium conditioned with 40 mmolL(-1) Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 10) in 0.25 molL(-1) NaNO3. The homogenized mixture is injected at a flow rate of 10 microLs(-1) toward the flow cell, which is adapted to the capillary of a hanging drop mercury electrode. After a suitable deposition time, the flow is stopped and the potential is scanned from -0.3 to -1.0V versus Ag/AgCl at frequency of 250 Hz and pulse height of 25 mV. The linear dynamic range is observed for methyl parathion concentrations between 0.010 and 0.50 mgL(-1), with detection and quantification limits of 2 and 7 microgL(-1), respectively. The sampling throughput is 25 h(-1) if the in line standard addition and sample conditioning protocols are followed, but this frequency can be increased up to 61 h(-1) if the sample is conditioned off-line and quantified using an external calibration curve. The method was applied for determination of methyl parathion in spiked water samples and the accuracy was evaluated either by comparison to high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection, or by the recovery percentages. Although no evidences of statistically significant differences were observed between the expected and obtained concentrations, because of the susceptibility of the method to interference by other pesticides (e.g., parathion, dichlorvos) and natural organic matter (e.g., fulvic and humic acids), isolation of the analyte may be required when more complex sample matrices are encountered.

  16. Measurements of arsenite and arsenate contained in mining river waters and leached from contaminated sediments by sequential hydride generation flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Md Abul; Takaki, Mari; Jodai, Takuma; Toda, Kei

    2011-06-15

    In this work, a new analytical method for gasifiable compounds based on sequential hydride generation flow injection analysis (SHGFIA) was applied to water analysis and leaching investigation. For water analysis, it was confirmed that 1 μg L(-1) As(III) and As(V) were stable for a few days when EDTA was added in the sample waters. Dissolved As(III) and total arsenic (As(III)+As(V)) were converted to AsH(3) in neutral and acidic medium, respectively, to transfer to a miniature gas scrubber (100 μL in absorber volume). The collected arsenic was successively measured by flow analysis based on molybdenum blue chemistry. With this system, changes in As(III) and As(V) concentrations of water placed with arsenic-contaminated-sediment was monitored in near real time. From these data, kinetic analyses were carried out and kinetic constant was obtained from plot of ln{(C(∞)-C)/C(∞)} where C and C(∞) were leached arsenic concentration and its final concentration, respectively. It was found that rate of As(III) leaching was much faster than that of As(V) while As(V) leached more in amount compared to As(III). In this work, it was demonstrated that kinetic investigation is also one of the important application of flow analysis. The SHGFIA system showed excellent performance for leaching analysis of arsenic with discrimination of As(III) and As(V).

  17. Automated determination of total captopril in urine by liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization coupled to on-line solid phase extraction in a sequential injection manifold.

    PubMed

    Karakosta, Theano D; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2012-01-15

    The present study reports a new liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of the anti-hypertension drug captopril (CAP) in human urine. After its separation from the sample matrix in a reversed phase HPLC column, CAP reacts with the thiol-selective reagent ethyl-propiolate (EP) in a post-column configuration and the formed thioacrylate derivative is detected at 285 nm. Automated 4-fold preconcentration of the analyte prior to analysis was achieved by an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) step using a sequential injection (SI) manifold. The Oasis HLB SPE cartridges offered quantitative recoveries and effective sample cleaning by applying a simple SPE protocol. The limits of detection and quantitation were 10 μg L(-1) and 35 μg L(-1) respectively. The percent recoveries for the analysis of human urine samples ranged between 90 and 96% and 95 and 104% using aqueous and matrix matched calibration curves respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in fishery and aquaculture products using sequential solid phase extraction and large volume injection gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dasheng; Lin, Yuanjie; Feng, Chao; Wang, Dongli; Qiu, Xinlei; Jin, Yu'e; Xiong, Libei; Jin, Ying; Wang, Guoquan

    2014-01-15

    A new method was developed to determine polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishery and aquaculture products. Samples were extracted by an accelerated solvent extraction system and cleaned up by sequential solid phase extraction (SPE) including dispersive SPE (D-SPE) and tandem SPE. PBDEs and PCBs were analyzed by a large-volume injection gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-QqQ-MS/MS). Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9958) was achieved. Method detection limits (MDLs) were 0.16-3.3pgg(-1) (wet weight, ww) for PBDEs and 0.13-0.97pgg(-1)ww for PCBs. Mean recoveries were 60-140% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 20% in weever fish, scallop and shrimp samples spiked at a lower level of 13-31pgg(-1)ww and a higher level of 50-125pgg(-1)ww. Certified reference materials were analyzed with acceptable results. The method reduced solvent consumption, analytical time and labor, and is suitable for the routine analysis of PBDEs and PCBs in fishery and aquaculture products.

  19. A Simple Automated Method for the Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Infant Formula and Milk Powder Using Sequential Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pistón, Mariela; Mollo, Alicia; Knochen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    A fast and efficient automated method using a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system, based on the Griess, reaction was developed for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formulas and milk powder. The system enables to mix a measured amount of sample (previously constituted in the liquid form and deproteinized) with the chromogenic reagent to produce a colored substance whose absorbance was recorded. For nitrate determination, an on-line prereduction step was added by passing the sample through a Cd minicolumn. The system was controlled from a PC by means of a user-friendly program. Figures of merit include linearity (r2 > 0.999 for both analytes), limits of detection (0.32 mg kg−1 NO3-N, and 0.05 mg kg−1 NO2-N), and precision (sr%) 0.8–3.0. Results were statistically in good agreement with those obtained with the reference ISO-IDF method. The sampling frequency was 30 hour−1 (nitrate) and 80 hour−1 (nitrite) when performed separately. PMID:21960750

  20. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts.

  1. Tyrosinase biosensor for benzoic acid inhibition-based determination with the use of a flow-batch monosegmented sequential injection system.

    PubMed

    Kochana, Jolanta; Kozak, Joanna; Skrobisz, Agata; Woźniakiewicz, Michał

    2012-07-15

    Amperometric tyrosinase based biosensor for benzoic acid determination with the use of a flow-batch monosegmented sequential injection system is proposed. The functioning of the biosensor is based on the inhibition effect of benzoic acid on the biocatalytic activity of tyrosinase, polyphenol oxidase. In the biosensor, tyrosinase is entrapped in titania gel modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and Nafion. The procedure of optimization of experimental conditions affecting the biosensor response, as well as its analytical characteristics and results of the approach verification using synthetic samples and a reference material are presented. The developed biosensor exhibits linear range up to 2.46μM, good sensitivity toward benzoic acid (1.06μAμM(-1)) and low detection limit (0.03μM). The approach has been applied to benzoic acid determination in a real beverage sample giving the result consistent with that obtained using the HPLC method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A 400 MHz Wireless Neural Signal Processing IC With 625 × On-Chip Data Reduction and Reconfigurable BFSK/QPSK Transmitter Based on Sequential Injection Locking.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kok-Hin; Wu, Tong; Liu, Xiayun; Yang, Zhi; Heng, Chun-Huat

    2017-03-03

    An 8-channel wireless neural signal processing IC, which can perform real-time spike detection, alignment, and feature extraction, and wireless data transmission is proposed. A reconfigurable BFSK/QPSK transmitter (TX) at MICS/MedRadio band is incorporated to support different data rate requirement. By using an Exponential Component-Polynomial Component (EC-PC) spike processing unit with an incremental principal component analysis (IPCA) engine, the detection of neural spikes with poor SNR is possible while achieving 625× data reduction. For the TX, a dual-channel at 401 MHz and 403.8 MHz are supported by applying sequential injection locked techniques while attaining phase noise of -102 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset. From the measurement, error vector magnitude (EVM) of 4.60%/9.55% with power amplifier (PA) output power of -15 dBm is achieved for the QPSK at 8 Mbps and the BFSK at 12.5 kbps. Fabricated in 65 nm CMOS with an active area of 1 mm (2), the design consumes a total current of 5  ∼ 5.6 mA with a maximum energy efficiency of 0.7 nJ/b.

  3. A green analytical method for rapid determination of pectin degree of esterification using micro sequential injection lab-on-valve system.

    PubMed

    Naghshineh, Mahsa; Larsen, Jan; Georgiou, Constantinos; Olsen, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    A novel method for automated determination pectin degree of esterification (DE) using micro sequential injection lab-on-valve (μSI-LOV) system is developed. A face-centered central composite response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimise system parameters. A calibration graph for determination of non-esterified galacturonic acid (GalA) content in pectin solutions with linear range of 0.08-0.34% (w/v) and the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.057% (w/v) under optimal condition was achieved. The difference between concentrations (w/v, %) of total GalA and non-esterified GalA was applied to estimate DE (%) of pectin samples. Results indicated a good agreement (tstat

  4. Automatic On-line Solid-phase Extraction-Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Exploiting Sequential Injection Analysis for Trace Vanadium, Cadmium and Lead Determination in Human Urine Samples.

    PubMed

    Giakisikli, Georgia; Ayala Quezada, Alejandro; Tanaka, Junpei; Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Murakami, Hiroya; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-01-01

    A fully automated sequential injection column preconcentration method for the on-line determination of trace vanadium, cadmium and lead in urine samples was successfully developed, utilizing electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). Polyamino-polycarboxylic acid chelating resin (Nobias chelate PA-1) packed into a handmade minicolumn was used as a sorbent material. Effective on-line retention of chelate complexes of analytes was achieved at pH 6.0, while the highest elution effectiveness was observed with 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 in the reverse phase. Several analytical parameters, like the sample acidity, concentration and volume of the eluent as well as the loading/elution flow rates, have been studied, regarding the efficiency of the method, providing appropriate conditions for the analysis of real samples. For a 4.5 mL sample volume, the sampling frequency was 27 h(-1). The detection limits were found to be 3.0, 0.06 and 2.0 ng L(-1) for V(V), Cd(II) and Pb(II), respectively, with the relative standard deviations ranging between 1.9 - 3.7%. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing a certified reference material (Seronorm(TM) trace elements urine) and spiked urine samples.

  5. Rapid automated assay of anti-oxidation/radical-scavenging activity of natural substances by sequential injection technique (SIA) using spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Polásek, Miroslav; Skála, Petr; Opletal, Lubomír; Jahodár, Ludek

    2004-07-01

    A PC-controlled sequential injection analysis (SIA) system equipped with a spectrophotometric diode-array detector is used for rapid monitoring and evaluation of antioxidation/radical scavenging activity of biological samples. The automated method is based on the known reaction of stable 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) with antioxidants in organic or aqueous-organic media resulting in bleaching of DPPH due to its "quenching" by the interaction with the analytes. The decrease of the absorbance of DPPH (compared to blank experiment carried out with water-ethanol 1:1 instead of the test solution) measured at 525 nm is related to concentration of an antioxidant in the test solution. With the optimised SIA procedure it is possible to detect down to micromolar concentrations of model antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and rutin and to evaluate the concentration of these antioxidants in the micromolar to millimolar range. The sample throughput is 45 h(-1). Thanks to its rapidity and sensitivity, the proposed SIA method is suitable for performing routine screening tests for the presence of various antioxidants in large series of lyophilised herbal or mushroom extracts (the amount of sample needed for the analysis is several milligrams).

  6. Performance of different preconcentration columns used in sequential injection analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for multielemental determination in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, María. S.; Velarte, Rosario; Castillo, Juan R.

    2002-03-01

    A simple, versatile and economical method of sequential injection analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with matrix removal in two different ion-exchange resins for the determination of Al, As, Co, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb and V is reported. The resins used, both of which contain the iminodiacetic acid functional group, were Chelex 100 and Metpac CC-1. With both resins, a matrix removal step (alkaline and alkaline-earth metals) with ammonium acetate is required before elution of the analytes with 2 M HNO 3. The procedure was validated by analyzing CASS-3 seawater reference material and good agreement was found with the certified values. Precision ( n=8) for the nine elements was in the range 0.8-4.9% for the Chelex 100 column and the recoveries ranged from 87.4 to 107.9%, except for Cu (78.7%) and Pb (74.9%), owing to the formation of hydroxides. For the Metpac CC-1 column, precision for the nine elements was in the range 1.2-7.1% and the recoveries between 91.7 and 109.3%, except for Al (127.2%), Co (118.5%) and Ni (127.5%) due to contamination problems.

  7. Highly reproducible SERS detection in sequential injection analysis: real time preparation and application of photo-reduced silver substrate in a moving flow-cell.

    PubMed

    El-Zahry, Marwa R; Genner, Andreas; Refaat, Ibrahim H; Mohamed, Horria A; Lendl, Bernhard

    2013-11-15

    This paper reports an improved way for performing highly reproducible surface enhanced Raman scattering of different analytes using an automated flow system. The method uses a confocal Raman microscope to prepare SERS active silver spots on the window of a flow cell by photo-reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of citrate. Placement of the flow cell on an automated x and y stages of the Raman microscope allows to prepare a fresh spot for every new measurement. This procedure thus efficiently avoids any carry over effects which might result from adsorption of the analyte on the SERS active material and enables highly reproducible SERS measurements. For reproducible liquid handling the used sequential injection analysis system as well as the Raman microscope was operated by the flexible LabVIEW based software ATLAS developed in our group. Quantitative aspects were investigated using Cu(PAR)2 as a model analyte. Concentration down to 5×10(-6) M provided clear SERS spectra, a linear concentration dependence of the SERS intensities at 1333 cm(-1) was obtained from 5×10(-5) to 1×10(-3) with a correlation coefficient r=0.999. The coefficient of variation of the method Vxo was found to be 5.6% and the calculated limit of detection 1.7×10(-5) M. The results demonstrate the potential of SERS spectroscopy to be used as a molecular specific detector in aqueous flow systems.

  8. A simple automated method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formula and milk powder using sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Pistón, Mariela; Mollo, Alicia; Knochen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    A fast and efficient automated method using a sequential injection analysis (SIA) system, based on the Griess, reaction was developed for the determination of nitrate and nitrite in infant formulas and milk powder. The system enables to mix a measured amount of sample (previously constituted in the liquid form and deproteinized) with the chromogenic reagent to produce a colored substance whose absorbance was recorded. For nitrate determination, an on-line prereduction step was added by passing the sample through a Cd minicolumn. The system was controlled from a PC by means of a user-friendly program. Figures of merit include linearity (r(2) > 0.999 for both analytes), limits of detection (0.32 mg kg(-1) NO(3)-N, and 0.05 mg kg(-1) NO(2)-N), and precision (s(r)%) 0.8-3.0. Results were statistically in good agreement with those obtained with the reference ISO-IDF method. The sampling frequency was 30 hour(-1) (nitrate) and 80 hour(-1) (nitrite) when performed separately.

  9. Sequential injection kinetic spectrophotometric determination of quaternary mixtures of carbamate pesticides in water and fruit samples using artificial neural networks for multivariate calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ning; Fan, Shihua

    2009-12-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric determination of a quaternary carbamate pesticide mixture consisting of carbofuran, propoxur, metolcarb and fenobucarb using sequential injection analysis (SIA). The procedure was based upon the different kinetic properties between the analytes reacted with reagent in flow system in the non-stopped-flow mode, in which their hydrolysis products coupled with diazotized p-nitroaniline in an alkaline medium to form the corresponding colored complexes. The absorbance data from SIA peak time profile were recorded at 510 nm and resolved by the use of back-propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms for multivariate quantitative analysis. The experimental variables and main network parameters were optimized and each of the pesticides could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg mL -1, at a sampling frequency of 18 h -1. The proposed method was compared to other spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of mixtures of carbamate pesticides, and it was proved to be adequately reliable and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the four pesticide residues in water and fruit samples, obtaining the satisfactory results based on recovery studies (84.7-116.0%).

  10. Selected reaction monitoring LC-MS determination of idoxifene and its pyrrolidinone metabolite in human plasma using robotic high-throughput, sequential sample injection.

    PubMed

    Onorato, J M; Henion, J D; Lefebvre, P M; Kiplinger, J P

    2001-01-01

    The generation of large numbers of samples during early drug discovery has increased the demand for rapid and selective methods of analysis. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS), because of its sensitivity, selectivity, and robustness, has emerged as a powerful tool in the pharmaceutical industry for many analytical needs. This work presents a high-throughput selected reaction monitoring LC-MS bioanalytical method for the determination of idoxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, and its pyrrolidinone metabolite in clinical human plasma samples. The described method uses short, small-bore columns, high flow rates, and elevated HPLC column temperatures to perform LC separations of idoxifene and its metabolite within 10 s/sample. Sequential injections were accomplished with a 215/889 multiple probe liquid handler (Gilson, Inc.), which aspirates eight samples simultaneously and performs its rinse cycle parallel to sample injection, resulting in minimum lag time between injections. This high-throughput method was applied to the determination of idoxifene and its metabolite in clinical human plasma samples. Sample preparation employed liquid/liquid extraction in the 96-well format. Method validation included determination of intra- and interassay accuracy and precision values, recovery studies, autosampler stability, and freeze-thaw stability. The LOQ obtained was 10 ng/mL for idoxifene and 30 ng/mL for the metabolite. Using idoxifene-d5 as an internal standard, idoxifene showed acceptable accuracy and precision values at QC level 1 (QC1, 15 ng/mL), level 2 (QC2, 100 ng/mL), and level 3 (QC3, 180 ng/mL) (85.0% accuracy +/- 12.0% precision, 95.1 +/- 4.9%, and 90.3 +/- 4.7%, respectively). The pyrrolidinone metabolite also showed acceptable accuracy and precision values (using no internal standard for quantitation) at QC1 (60 ng/mL), QC2 (100 ng/mL), and QC3 (180 ng/mL) (104.9 +/- 14.4%, 91.1 +/- 13.0%, and 90.8 +/- 12.2%, respectively). The

  11. Integrated injection seeded terahertz source and amplifier for time-domain spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maysonnave, J; Jukam, N; Ibrahim, M S M; Maussang, K; Madéo, J; Cavalié, P; Dean, P; Khanna, S P; Steenson, D P; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Tignon, J; Dhillon, S S

    2012-02-15

    We used a terahertz (THz) quantum cascade laser (QCL) as an integrated injection seeded source and amplifier for THz time-domain spectroscopy. A THz input pulse is generated inside a QCL by illuminating the laser facet with a near-IR pulse from a femtosecond laser and amplified using gain switching. The THz output from the QCL is found to saturate upon increasing the amplitude of the THz input power, which indicates that the QCL is operating in an injection seeded regime.

  12. The integration of sequential aiming movements: Switching hand and direction at the first target.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G P; Khan, Michael A; Mottram, Thomas M; Adam, Jos J; Buckolz, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Movement times to a single target are typically shorter compared to when movement to a second target is required. This one target movement time advantage has been shown to emerge when participants use a single hand throughout the target sequence and when there is a switch between hands at the first target. Our goal was to investigate the lacuna in the movement integration literature surrounding the interactive effects between switching hands and changing movement direction at the first target. Participants performed rapid hand movements in five conditions; movements to a single target; two target movements with a single hand in which the second target required an extension or reversal in direction; and movements to two targets where the hands were switched at the first target and the second target required an extension or reversal in direction. The significance of including these latter two (multiple hand-multiple direction) movements meant that for the first time research could differentiate between peripheral and central processes within movement integration strategies. Reaction times were significantly shorter in the single task compared to the two target tasks. More importantly, movement times to the first target were significantly shorter in the single target task compared to all two target tasks (reflecting the so-called one target advantage), except when the second movement was a reversal movement with the same hand. These findings demonstrate for the first time the contrasting effects of movement integration at central and peripheral levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Regrowth-free integration of injection locked slotted laser with an electroabsorption modulator.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Niall P; Caro, Ludovic; Dernaika, Mohamad; Peters, Frank H

    2017-02-20

    Optical injection locking was used to red shift an integrated semiconductor laser up to 30 nm away from the main free running lasing mode. This injection locking of the laser beyond its band edge enabled its integration with an electroabsorption modulator to produce a 2.5 Gb/s eye diagram. The electroabsorption modulator was shown to have a 3 dB bandwidth of 5.5 GHz, which was limited by the contact capacitance. This paper demonstrates that such devices could be applied in a regrowth free, monolithic coherent wavelength division multiplexing transmitter.

  14. Integrated Fuel Injection and Mixing System with Impingement Cooling Face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansour, Adel B. (Inventor); Harvey, Rex J. (Inventor); Tacina, Robert R. (Inventor); Laing, Peter (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An atomizing injector includes a metering set having a swirl chamber, a spray orifice and one or more feed slots etched in a thin plate. The swirl chamber is etched in a first side of the plate and the spray orifice is etched through a second side to the center of the swirl chamber. Fuel feed slots extend non-radially to the swirl chamber. The injector also includes integral swirler structure. The swirler structure includes a cylindrical air swirler passage, also shaped by etching, through at least one other thin plate. The cylindrical air swirler passage is located in co-axial relation to the spray orifice of the plate of the fuel metering set such that fuel directed through the spray orifice passes through the air swirler passage and swirling air is imparted to the fuel such that the fuel has a swirling component of motion. At least one air feed slot is provided in fluid communication with the air swirler passage and extends in non-radial relation thereto. Air supply passages extend through the plates of the metering set and the swirler structure to feed the air feed slot in each plate of the swirler structure.

  15. Signaling integration in the rugae growth zone directs sequential SHH signaling center formation during the rostral outgrowth of the palate.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Ian C; O'Brien, Timothy P

    2009-12-01

    Evolution of facial morphology arises from variation in the activity of developmental regulatory networks that guide the formation of specific craniofacial elements. Importantly, the acquisition of novel morphology must be integrated with a phylogenetically inherited developmental program. We have identified a unique region of the secondary palate associated with the periodic formation of rugae during the rostral outgrowth of the face. Rugae function as SHH signaling centers to pattern the elongating palatal shelves. We have found that a network of signaling genes and transcription factors is spatially organized relative to palatal rugae. Additionally, the first formed ruga is strategically positioned at the presumptive junction of the future hard and soft palate that defines anterior-posterior differences in regional growth, mesenchymal gene expression, and cell fate. We propose a molecular circuit integrating FGF and BMP signaling to control proliferation and differentiation during the sequential formation of rugae and inter-rugae domains in the palatal epithelium. The loss of p63 and Sostdc1 expression and failed rugae differentiation highlight that coordinated epithelial-mesenchymal signaling is lost in the Fgf10 mutant palate. Our results establish a genetic program that reiteratively organizes signaling domains to coordinate the growth of the secondary palate with the elongating midfacial complex.

  16. Path-integral Monte Carlo simulations for electronic dynamics on molecular chains. I. Sequential hopping and super exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlbacher, Lothar; Ankerhold, Joachim; Escher, Charlotte

    2004-12-01

    An improved real-time quantum Monte Carlo procedure is presented and applied to describe the electronic transfer dynamics along molecular chains. The model consists of discrete electronic sites coupled to a thermal environment which is integrated out exactly within the path integral formulation. The approach is numerically exact and its results reduce to known analytical findings (Marcus theory, golden rule) in proper limits. Special attention is paid to the role of superexchange and sequential hopping at lower temperatures in symmetric donor-bridge-acceptor systems. In contrast to previous approximate studies, superexchange turns out to play a significant role only for extremely high-lying bridges where the transfer is basically frozen or for extremely low temperatures where for weaker dissipation a description in terms of rate constants is no longer feasible. For bridges with increasing length an algebraic decrease of the yield is found for short as well as for long bridges. The approach can be extended to electronic systems with more complicated topologies including impurities and in presence of external time-dependent forces.

  17. A novel dual-valve sequential injection manifold (DV-SIA) for automated liquid-liquid extraction. Application for the determination of picric acid.

    PubMed

    Skrlíková, Jana; Andruch, Vasil; Sklenárová, Hana; Chocholous, Petr; Solich, Petr; Balogh, Ioseph S

    2010-05-07

    A novel dual-valve sequential injection system (DV-SIA) for online liquid-liquid extraction which resolves the main problems of LLE utilization in SIA has been designed. The main idea behind this new design was to construct an SIA system by connecting two independent units, one for aqueous-organic mixture flow and the second specifically for organic phase flow. As a result, the DV-SIA manifold consists of an Extraction unit and a Detection unit. Processing a mixture of aqueous-organic phase in the Extraction unit and a separated organic phase in the Detection unit solves the problems associated with the change of phases having different affinities to the walls of the Teflon tubing used in the SI-system. The developed manifold is a simple, user-friendly and universal system built entirely from commercially available components. The system can be used for a variety of samples and organic solvents and is simple enough to be easily handled by operators less familiar with flow systems. The efficiency of the DV-SIA system is demonstrated by the extraction of picric acid in the form of an ion associate with 2-[2-(4-methoxy-phenylamino)-vinyl]-1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium reagent, with subsequent spectrophotometric detection. The suggested DV-SIA concept can be expected to stimulate new experiments in analytical laboratories and can be applied to the elaboration of procedures for the determination of other compounds extractable by organic solvents. It could thus form a basis for the design of simple, single-purpose commercial instruments used in LLE procedures.

  18. Rapid determination of plutonium isotopes in environmental samples using sequential injection extraction chromatography and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Miró, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    This article presents an automated method for the rapid determination of 239Pu and 240Pu in various environmental samples. The analytical method involves the in-line separation of Pu isotopes using extraction chromatography (TEVA) implemented in a sequential injection (SI) network followed by detection of isolated analytes with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method has been devised for the determination of Pu isotopes at environmentally relevant concentrations, whereby it has been successfully applied to the analyses of large volumes/amounts of samples, for example, 100-200 g of soil and sediment, 20 g of seaweed, and 200 L of seawater following analyte preconcentration. The investigation of the separation capability of the assembled SI system revealed that up to 200 g of soil or sediment can be treated using a column containing about 0.70 g of TEVA resin. The analytical results of Pu isotopes in the reference materials showed good agreement with the certified or reference values at the 0.05 significance level. Chemical yields of Pu ranged from 80 to 105%, and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium, mercury and lead were all above 10(4). The duration of the in-line extraction chromatographic run was <1.5 h, and the proposed setup was able to handle up to 20 samples (14 mL each) in a fully automated mode using a single chromatographic column. The SI manifold is thus suitable for rapid and automated determination of Pu isotopes in environmental risk assessment and emergency preparedness scenarios.

  19. Sequential injection analysis (SIA)-chemiluminescence determination of indomethacin using tris[(2,2'-bipyridyl)]ruthenium(III) as reagent and its application to semisolid pharmaceutical dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Mervartová, Katerina; Polásek, Miroslav; Calatayud, José Martínez

    2007-09-26

    Automated sequential injection (SIA) method for chemiluminescence (CL) determination of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin (I) was devised. The CL radiation was emitted in the reaction of I (dissolved in aqueous 50% v/v ethanol) with intermediate reagent tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(III) (Ru(bipy)(3)(3+)) in the presence of acetate. The Ru(bipy)(3)(3+) was generated on-line in the SIA system by the oxidation of 0.5mM tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bipy)(3)(2+)) with Ce(IV) ammonium sulphate in diluted sulphuric acid. The optimum sequence, concentrations, and aspirated volumes of reactant zones were: 15 mM Ce(IV) in 50mM sulphuric acid 41 microL, 0.5 mM Ru(bipy)(3)(2+) 30 microL, 0.4M Na acetate 16 microL and I sample 15 microL; the flow rates were 60 microLs(-1) for the aspiration into the holding coil and 100 microLs(-1) for detection. Calibration curve relating the intensity of CL (peak height of the transient CL signal) to concentration of I was curvilinear (second order polynomial) for 0.1-50 microM I (r=0.9997; n=9) with rectilinear section in the range 0.1-10 microM I (r=0.9995; n=5). The limit of detection (3sigma) was 0.05 microM I. Repeatability of peak heights (R.S.D., n=10) ranged between 2.4% (0.5 microM I) and 2.0% (7 microM I). Sample throughput was 180 h(-1). The method was applied to determination of 1 to 5% of I in semisolid dosage forms (gels and ointments). The results compared well with those of UV spectrophotometric method.

  20. Method development for the determination of arsenic by sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry using long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Punrat, Eakkasit; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Kaneta, Takashi; Motomizu, Shoji; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2013-11-15

    An automated method has been developed for determining the concentration of inorganic arsenic. The technique uses sequential injection/anodic stripping voltammetry with a long-lasting gold-modified screen-printed carbon electrode. The long-lasting gold electrode was electrochemically deposited onto a screen-printed carbon electrode at a potential of -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl in a supporting electrolyte solution of 1M hydrochloric acid. Under optimal conditions and the applied potentials, the electrode demonstrated that it can be used for a long time without a renewal process. The linear range for the determination of arsenic(III) was 1-100 μg L(-1), and the limit of detection (LOD) in standard solutions was as low as 0.03 μg L(-1) for a deposition time of 120 s and sample volume of 1 mL. This method was used to determine the concentration of arsenic(III) in water samples with satisfactory results. The LOD in real samples was found to be 0.5 μg L(-1). In addition, speciation between arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) has been achieved with the proposed method using deposition potentials of -0.5 V and -1.5 V for the determination of the arsenic(III) concentration and the total arsenic concentration, respectively; the results were acceptable. The proposed method is an automated system that offers a less expensive alternative for determining trace amounts of inorganic arsenic. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G

    2009-06-30

    A simple, sensitive and powerful on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system was developed as an alternative approach for on-line metal preconcentration and separation, using extraction solvent at microlitre volume. The potentials of this novel schema, coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), were demonstrated for trace copper and lead determination in water samples. The stream of methanol (disperser solvent) containing 2.0% (v/v) xylene (extraction solvent) and 0.3% (m/v) ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (chelating agent) was merged on-line with the stream of sample (aqueous phase), resulting a cloudy mixture, which was consisted of fine droplets of the extraction solvent dispersed entirely into the aqueous phase. By this continuous process, metal chelating complexes were formed and extracted into the fine droplets of the extraction solvent. The hydrophobic droplets of organic phase were retained into a microcolumn packed with PTFE-turnings. A portion of 300 microL isobutylmethylketone was used for quantitative elution of the analytes, which transported directly to the nebulizer of FAAS. All the critical parameters of the system such as type of extraction solvent, flow-rate of disperser and sample, extraction time as well as the chemical parameters were studied. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for copper and lead was 560 and 265, respectively. For copper, the detection limit and the precision (R.S.D.) were 0.04 microg L(-1) and 2.1% at 2.0 microg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively, while for lead were 0.54 microg L(-1) and 1.9% at 30.0 microg L(-1) Pb(II), respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples.

  2. Two-column sequential injection chromatography--new approach for fast and effective analysis and its comparison with gradient elution chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chocholous, Petr; Satínský, Dalibor; Sklenárová, Hana; Solich, Petr

    2010-05-23

    This work presents novel approach in low-pressure chromatography flow systems--two-column Sequential Injection Chromatography (2-C SIC) and its comparison with gradient elution chromatography on the same instrument. The system was equipped with two different chromatographic columns (connected to selection valve in parallel design) for isocratic separation and determination of all components in composed anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical preparation (tablets). The sample was first injected on the first column of length 30 mm where less retained analytes were separated and then the sample was injected on the second column of length 10 mm where more retained analytes were separated. The SIC system was based on a commercial SIChrom manifold (8-port high-pressure selection valve and medium-pressure syringe pump with 4 mL reservoir) (FIAlab, USA) with two commercially available monolithic columns the "first column" Chromolith Flash RP-18e (25 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. with guard column 5 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and the "second column" Chromolith RP-18e (10 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) and CCD UV-vis detector USB 4000 with micro-volume 1.0 cm Z flow cell. Two mobile phases were used for analysis (one for each column). The mobile phase 1 used for elution of paracetamol, caffeine and salicylic acid (internal standard) was acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v, the water part of pH 3.5 adjusted with acetic acid), flow rate was 0.9 mL min(-1) (volume 3.0 mL of mobile phase per analysis). The mobile phase 2 used for elution of propyphenazone was acetonitrile/water (30:70, v/v); flow rate was 1.2 mL min(-1) (volume 1.5 mL of mobile phase per analysis). Absorbance was monitored at 210 nm. Samples were prepared by dissolving of one tablet in 30% acetonitrile and 10 microL of filtered supernatant was injected on each column (2 x 10 microL). The chromatographic resolution between all compounds was >1.45 and analysis time was 5.5 min under the optimal conditions. Limits of detection were determined at 0.4 microg m

  3. Sequential lateral solidification of silicon thin films on low-k dielectrics for low temperature integration

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, Fabio Hlaing, Htay; Kymissis, Ioannis; Gates, Stephen M.; Edelstein, Daniel C.; Limanov, Alexander B.; Im, James S.

    2014-12-15

    We present the excimer laser crystallization of amorphous silicon on a low dielectric constant (low-k) insulator for very large scale integration monolithic 3D integration and demonstrate that low dielectric constant materials are suitable substrates for 3D integration through laser crystallization of silicon thin films. We crystallized 100 nm amorphous silicon on top of SiO{sub 2} and SiCOH (low-k) dielectrics, at different material thicknesses (1 μm, 0.75 μm, and 0.5 μm). The amorphous silicon crystallization on low-k dielectric requires 35% less laser energy than on an SiO{sub 2} dielectric. This difference is related to the thermal conductivity of the two materials, in agreement with one dimensional simulations of the crystallization process. We analyzed the morphology of the material through defect-enhanced microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analysis. SEM micrographs show that polycrystalline silicon is characterized by micron-long grains with an average width of 543 nm for the SiO{sub 2} sample and 570 nm for the low-k samples. Comparison of the Raman spectra does not show any major difference in film quality for the two different dielectrics, and polycrystalline silicon peaks are closely placed around 517 cm{sup −1}. From X-ray diffraction analysis, the material crystallized on SiO{sub 2} shows a preferential (111) crystal orientation. In the SiCOH case, the 111 peak strength decreases dramatically and samples do not show preferential crystal orientation. A 1D finite element method simulation of the crystallization process on a back end of line structure shows that copper (Cu) damascene interconnects reach a temperature of 70 °C or lower with a 0.5 μm dielectric layer between the Cu and the molten Si layer, a favorable condition for monolithic 3D integration.

  4. Monolithic integration of electroabsorption modulators and tunnel injection distributed feedback lasers using quantum well intermixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Zhu, Hong-Liang; Wang, Wei

    2010-12-01

    Electroabsorption modulators combining Franz-Keldysh effect and quantum confined Stark effect have been monolithically integrated with tunnel-injection quantum-well distributed feedback lasers using a quantum well intermixing method. Superior characteristics such as extinction ratio and temperature insensitivity have been demonstrated at wide temperature ranges.

  5. Development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction procedure with GC-FID for analysis of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluent.

    PubMed

    Pruksatrakul, Thapanee; Phoopraintra, Pattamaporn; Wilairat, Prapin; Chaiyen, Pimchai; Chantiwas, Rattikan

    2017-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, such as acetic, propionic, butyric, iso-valeric and valeric acids, play an important role in methanogenesis activity for biogas production processes. Thus, simple and rapid procedures for monitoring the levels of short-chain fatty acids are requisite for sustaining biogas production. This work presents the development of a sequential injection-liquid microextraction (SI-LME) procedure with GC-FID analysis for determination of short-chain fatty acids. GC-FID was employed for detection of the short-chain fatty acids. Calibration curves were linear with good coefficients of determination (r(2)>0.999), using methacrylic acid as the internal standard. Limits of quantification (LOQ) were in the range of 0.03-0.19mM. The SI-LME procedure employed tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME) as the extracting solvent. Various SI-LME conditions were investigated and optimized to obtain the highest recovery of extraction. With these optimized conditions, an extraction recovery of the five key short-chain fatty acids of 67-90% was obtained, with less than 2% RSD (n=3). The final SI-LME procedure employed two fluidic zones of TBME with a single aqueous fluidic zone of sample sandwiched between the TBME zones, with 5 cycles of flow reversal at a flow rate of 5µL/s for the extraction process. Intra- and inter-day precision values were 0.5-4.0% RSD and 3.3-4.8% RSD, respectively. Accuracy based on percentage of sample recovery were in the range of 69-96, 102-107, and 82-101% (n=4) for acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the measurement of short-chain fatty acids in palm oil mill effluents used in biogas production in a factory performing palm oil extraction process. The SI-LME method provides improved extraction performance with high precision, and is both simple and rapid with its economical extraction technique. The SI-LME procedure with GC-FID has strong potential for use as a quality control process for monitoring

  6. Online sequential-injection chromatography with stepwise gradient elution: a tool for studying the simultaneous adsorption of herbicides on soil and soil components.

    PubMed

    Urio, Ricardo de Prá; Infante, Carlos M C; Masini, Jorge C

    2013-08-21

    The adsorption of triazine herbicides simazine (SIM), atrazine (ATR), and propazine (PRO) as well as the metabolites deisopropylatrazine (DIA), deethylatrazine (DEA), and 2-hydroxyatrazine (HAT) on soil, humic acid, and soil modified with humic acidic was studied by sequential-injection chromatography with UV detection at 223 nm. An online monitoring system was assembled, which was composed of a tangential filter and a peristaltic pump for the circulation of the soil (25 g L(-1)) or humic acid (2.5 g L(-1)) suspensions. A stepwise gradient elution separated the compounds using three mobile phases whose compositions were 28, 40, and 50% (v v(-1)) methanol in 1.25 mmol L(-1) ammonium acetate buffer, pH 4.7. The sampling throughput was about six analyses per hour; the linear dynamic range was between 100 and 1000 μg L(-1) for all of the studied compounds. The detection limits varied from 9 μg L(-1) for ATR to 36 μg L(-1) for DEA. At contact times <2 h, humic acid was the material with a higher adsorptive capacity (from 1470 ± 43 μg g(-1) for DIA to 2380 ± 51 μg g(-1) for PRO). In soil, HAT exhibited the highest adsorption (23.8 ± 0.2 μg g(-1)). The presence of humic acid in the soil increased the adsorption of ATR (14 ± 1 to 23 ± 2 μg g(-1)) and PRO (21.5 ± 0.5 to 24.0 ± 0.2 μg g(-1)), decreased the adsorption of HAT (23.8 ± 0.2 to 18 ± 2 μg g(-1)), and did not affect DIA and DEA. The adsorption of SIM was negligible in all of the sorbents studied. Simazine is the herbicide with the greatest potential for leaching to water bodies followed by DEA and DIA.

  7. Integrated Simulation of an Aspheric Lens Combining Injection Moulding Analysis with Ray Tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Keun; Joo, Wonjong

    2007-05-01

    The present study covers an integrated simulation method for injection-moulded plastic lenses by combining a ray tracing simulation with a finite element (FE) analysis of injection moulding. Traditional ray tracing methods have based on the assumption that the optical properties of a lens are homogeneous throughout the entire volume. This assumption is to a certain extent unrealistic for injection-moulded plastic lenses because material properties vary at every point due to the injection moulding effects. To take into account the effects of the inhomogeneous optical properties of the moulded lens, a new ray tracing scheme is proposed in conjunction with an FE analysis of the injection moulding. A numerical scheme is developed to estimate the distribution of refractive indices from injection moulding analysis, and to calculate ray paths on every element layer with more realistic information of the refractive indices. A fully three-dimensional FE analysis is then performed for the aspheric lens moulding process. Through the FE analysis, the distribution of the refractive indices of the lens can be obtained on every mesh point. This information is then used to calculate the ray paths based on the FE mesh of which nodal points have unique index values. The proposed tracing scheme is implemented on the tracing of an aspheric lens, and its validity is ascertained through experimental verification.

  8. The Sequential Aerosol Technique: A Major Component in an Integrated Strategy of Intervention against Riverine Tsetse in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Yahaya; Cecchi, Giuliano; Kgori, Patrick M.; Marcotty, Tanguy; Mahama, Charles I.; Abavana, Martin; Anderson, Benita; Paone, Massimo; Mattioli, Raffaele; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-01-01

    Background An integrated strategy of intervention against tsetse flies was implemented in the Upper West Region of Ghana (9.62°–11.00° N, 1.40°–2.76° W), covering an area of ≈18,000 km2 within the framework of the Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign. Two species were targeted: Glossina tachinoides and Glossina palpalis gambiensis. Methodology/Principal Findings The objectives were to test the potentiality of the sequential aerosol technique (SAT) to eliminate riverine tsetse species in a challenging subsection (dense tree canopy and high tsetse densities) of the total sprayed area (6,745 km2) and the subsequent efficacy of an integrated strategy including ground spraying (≈100 km2), insecticide treated targets (20,000) and insecticide treated cattle (45,000) in sustaining the results of tsetse suppression in the whole intervention area. The aerial application of low-dosage deltamethrin aerosols (0.33–0.35 g a.i/ha) was conducted along the three main rivers using five custom designed fixed-wings Turbo thrush aircraft. The impact of SAT on tsetse densities was monitored using 30 biconical traps deployed from two weeks before until two weeks after the operations. Results of the SAT monitoring indicated an overall reduction rate of 98% (from a pre-intervention mean apparent density per trap per day (ADT) of 16.7 to 0.3 at the end of the fourth and last cycle). One year after the SAT operations, a second survey using 200 biconical traps set in 20 sites during 3 weeks was conducted throughout the intervention area to measure the impact of the integrated control strategy. Both target species were still detected, albeit at very low densities (ADT of 0.27 inside sprayed blocks and 0.10 outside sprayed blocks). Conclusions/Significance The SAT operations failed to achieve elimination in the monitored section, but the subsequent integrated strategy maintained high levels of suppression throughout the intervention area, which will

  9. Sequential elution process

    DOEpatents

    Kingsley, I.S.

    1987-01-06

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for the separation of complex mixtures of carbonaceous material by sequential elution with successively stronger solvents. In the process, a column containing glass beads is maintained in a fluidized state by a rapidly flowing stream of a weak solvent, and the sample is injected into this flowing stream such that a portion of the sample is dissolved therein and the remainder of the sample is precipitated therein and collected as a uniform deposit on the glass beads. Successively stronger solvents are then passed through the column to sequentially elute less soluble materials. 1 fig.

  10. Buffer direct injection readout integrated circuit design for dual band infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tai-Ping; Lu, Yi-Chuan; Shieh, Hsiu-Li; Tang, Shiang-Feng; Lin, Wen-Jen

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes dual-mode buffer direct injection (BDI) and direct injection (DI) readout circuit design. The DI readout circuit has the advantage of being a simple circuit, requiring a small layout area, and low power consumption. The internal resistance of the photodetector will affect the photocurrent injection efficiency. We used a buffer amplifier to design the BDI readout circuit since it would reduce the input impedance and raise the injection efficiency. This paper will discuss and analyze the power consumption, injection efficiency, layout area, and circuit noise. The circuit is simulated using a TSMC 0.35 um Mixed Signal 2P4M CMOS 5 V process. The dimension of the pixel area is 30×30 μm. We have designed a 10×8 array for the readout circuit of the interlaced columns. The input current ranges from 1 nA to 10 nA, when the measurement current is 10 pA to 10 nA. The integration time was varied. The circuit output swing was 2 V. The total root mean square noise voltage was 4.84 mV. The signal to noise ratio was 52 dB, and the full chip circuit power consumption was 9.94 mW.

  11. InP photonic integrated externally injected gain switched optical frequency comb.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Pascual, M Deseada; Vujicic, Vidak; Braddell, Jules; Smyth, Frank; Anandarajah, Prince M; Barry, Liam P

    2017-02-01

    We report on an InP photonic integrated circuit for the generation of an externally injected gain switched optical frequency comb. The device is fully characterized and generates a comb with frequency spacing ranging from 6 to 10 GHz, good noise properties that include relative intensity noise of <-130  dB/Hz and linewidth of 1.5 MHz, and a high phase correlation between comb lines. These characteristics, in conjunction with the compactness and cost efficiency of the integrated device, demonstrate the quality of the resultant comb source for numerous applications.

  12. On-chip pressure injection for integration of infrared-mediated DNA amplification with electrophoretic separation.

    PubMed

    Easley, Christopher J; Karlinsey, James M; Landers, James P

    2006-05-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membrane valves were utilized for diaphragm pumping on a PDMS-glass hybrid microdevice in order to couple infrared-mediated DNA amplification with electrophoretic separation of the products in a single device. Specific amplification products created during non-contact, infrared (IR) mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were injected via chip-based diaphragm pumping into an electrophoretic separation channel. Channel dimensions were designed for injection plug shaping via preferential flow paths, which aided in minimizing the plug widths. Unbiased injection of sample could be achieved in as little as 190 ms, decreasing the time required with electrokinetic injection by two orders of magnitude. Additionally, sample stacking was promoted using laminar or biased-laminar loading to co-inject either water or low ionic strength DNA marker solution along with the PCR-amplified sample. Complete baseline resolution (Res = 2.11) of the 80- and 102-bp fragments of pUC-18 DNA marker solution was achieved, with partially resolved 257- and 267-bp fragments (Res = 0.56), in a separation channel having an effective length of only 3.0 cm. This resolution was deemed adequate for many PCR amplicon separations, with the added advantage of short separation time-typically complete in <120 s. Decreasing the amount of glass surrounding the PCR chamber reduced the DNA amplification time, yielding a further enhancement in analysis speed, with heating and cooling rates as high as 13.4 and -6.4 degrees C s(-1), respectively. With the time requirements greatly reduced for each step, it was possible to seamlessly couple IR-mediated amplification, sample injection, and separation/detection of a 278-bp fragment from the invA gene of <1000 starting copies of Salmonella typhimurium DNA in approximately 12 min on a single device, representing the fastest PCR-ME integration achieved to date.

  13. Wide bandwidth chaotic signal generation in a monolithically integrated semiconductor laser via optical injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xue-Mei; Zhong, Zhu-Qiang; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Lu, Dan; Qiu, Hai-Ying; Xia, Guang-Qiong; Wu, Zheng-Mao

    2015-11-01

    Wide bandwidth chaotic signal generation in a three-section monolithically integrated semiconductor laser (MISL) under external optical injection is investigated experimentally. Through evaluating the effective bandwidth of chaotic signals, the influences of the optical injection on the bandwidth of chaotic signal from the MISL are analyzed. The experimental results indicate that, for the currents of the DFB section (IDFB) and the phase section (IP) are fixed at 70.00 mA and 34.00 mA, respectively, the effective bandwidth of chaos signal generated by the solitary MISL reaches its maximum value of 14.36 GHz when the current of the amplification section (IA) takes 23.22 mA. After an external optical injection is introduced into the MISL, the effective bandwidth of the generated chaotic signal can be beyond 2.5 times of the maximum value. Furthermore, the effects of the injection strength and the frequency detuning on the effective bandwidth of the generated chaotic signal are also discussed.

  14. Investigation of caprock integrity during high-volume injection into the Utsira formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Wangen, M.; Bjørnarå, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Utsira formation is a large offshore saline aquifer in the North Sea that is considered a likely candidate for storage of CO2 emissions. Currently, the Utsira is host to the longest operating CO2 storage project, the Sleipner project, which has injected 1 Mt CO2/y since 1996. The entire Utsira formation has an estimated storage capacity of 15 Gt, which is equal to 300 Sleipner-sized projects in simultaneous operation for the next 50 years. Injectivity into the Utsira is exceptionally good, and no pressurization has been observed at Sleipner. The formation is over 100-m thick and comprised of unconsolidated sand with high porosity and permeability (30-40% and 1-3 Darcy). The Nordland shale has been characterized as a high-quality seal that is regionally thick, extensive and absent of significant faults. Significant scale-up of CO2 injection into the Utsira is required to increase storage of regional CO2 emissions well beyond what is currently stored today. Full utilization of the Utsira storage capacity would result in injection rates >100 Mt/y, significantly larger than Sleipner. Despite the lack of pressure effects at Sleipner, higher injection rates will likely lead to pressure build-up in the Utsira. Relatively little is known about the magnitude of pressure build-up and resulting impact on caprock integrity with high-volume injection. The problem is complex, involving multiphase flow and mechanical deformation of the storage reservoir and the surrounding formations, and covers large spatial scales, ranging several hundred kilometers in lateral extent. There are significant challenges in applying fully coupled hydromechanical simulators to problems of this scale. The computational effort required to solve a resolved is significant, and efforts to reduce the complexity of the model are needed. In this study, simplified modeling approaches are investigated. A reduced order multiphase flow model coupled with a geomechanical model results in greater efficiency

  15. The Sequential Integration of Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of the Sequential Model and a Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Jenny; Tomba, Elena; Fava, Giovanni A

    2016-02-01

    A number of randomized controlled trials in major depressive disorder have employed a sequential model, which consists of the use of pharmacotherapy in the acute phase and of psychotherapy in its residual phase. The aim of this review was to provide an updated meta-analysis of the efficacy of this approach in reducing the risk of relapse in major depressive disorder and to place these findings in the larger context of treatment selection. Keyword searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library from inception of each database through October 2014. Randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of the administration of psychotherapy after successful response to acute-phase pharmacotherapy in the treatment of adults with major depressive disorder were considered for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Thirteen high-quality studies with 728 patients in a sequential treatment arm and 682 in a control treatment arm were included. All studies involved cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The pooled risk ratio for relapse/recurrence was 0.781 (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.671-0.909; number needed to treat=8), according to the random-effects model, suggesting a relative advantage in preventing relapse/recurrence compared with control conditions. A significant effect of CBT during continuation of antidepressant drugs compared with antidepressants alone or treatment as usual (risk ratio: 0.811; 95% CI=0.685-0.961; number needed to treat=10) was found. Patients randomly assigned to CBT who had antidepressants tapered and discontinued were significantly less likely to experience relapse/recurrence compared with those assigned to either clinical management or continuation of antidepressant medication (risk ratio: 0.674; 95% CI=0.482-0.943; number needed to treat=5). The sequential integration of CBT and pharmacotherapy is a viable strategy for preventing relapse in major depressive disorder. The current indications for the application of

  16. Impact of Thermal Stresses on Wellbore Integrity during CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, P.; Walsh, S.; Morris, J.; Carroll, S.; Hao, Y.; Iyer, J.; Torsater, M.; Gawel, K.; Todorovic, J.

    2015-12-01

    Thermal stresses caused by injection of cold CO2 into warmer storage reservoirs could create leakage pathways out of the storage reservoir. Although few studies have been conducted to investigate the well bore integrity subjected to thermal cycling during CO2injection, a systematic investigation on thermally induced expansion and contraction affecting the debonding and cracking of the well barrier materials has not yet been performed. In this work, we have analyzed the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the well barrier materials undergoing repeated thermal cycling using a multiscale, multiphysics platform named GEOS. More specifically, we model the modes of failure during thermal cycling to assess the temperature range for minimal impact on well integrity. A finite element solver was used for the geomechanics and a finite volume solver was used for the thermal diffusion. Results of the initiation and propagation of fractures due to temperature variations in the cement sheath are presented. Preliminary results suggest that radial fracture develops as the cement is heated while debonding occurs in the casing-cement and cement-rock interfaces during the cooling period. The effects of different confinement conditions based on in-situ stresses were also analyzed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under the Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. This work has been produced with support from the BIGCCS Centre, performed under the Norwegian research program Centres for Environment-friendly Energy Research (FME) and the KPN project "Ensuring well integrity during CO2 injection". The authors acknowledge the following partners for their contributions: Gassco, Shell, Statoil, TOTAL, GDF SUEZ and the Research Council of Norway (193816/S60 and 23389).

  17. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism's chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  18. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1995-07-18

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA of a target organism is disclosed. A first DNA segment homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. The first segment has a first restriction enzyme site on either side. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction (class IIS) enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes. 9 figs.

  19. Free flow isotachophoresis in an injection moulded miniaturised separation chamber with integrated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Victoria N; Baldock, Sara J; Croasdell, Laura A; Dillon, Leonard A; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nick J; Thomas, C L Paul; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2007-07-06

    An injection moulded free flow isotachophoresis (FFITP) microdevice with integrated carbon fibre loaded electrodes with a separation chamber of 36.4mm wide, 28.7 mm long and 100 microm deep is presented. The microdevice was completely fabricated by injection moulding in carbon fibre loaded polystyrene for the electrodes and crystal polystyrene for the remainder of the chip and was bonded together using ultrasonic welding. Two injection moulded electrode designs were compared, one with the electrode surface level with the separation chamber and one with a recessed electrode. Separations of two anionic dyes, 0.2mM each of amaranth and acid green and separations of 0.2mM each of amaranth, bromophenol blue and glutamate were performed on the microdevice. Flow rates of 1.25 ml min(-1) for the leading and terminating electrolytes were used and a flow rate of 0.63 ml min(-1) for the sample. Electric fields of up to 370 V cm(-1) were applied across the separation chamber. Joule heating was not found to be significant although out-gassing was observed at drive currents greater than 3 mA.

  20. Caprock Integrity during Hydrocarbon Production and CO2 Injection in the Goldeneye Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana; Zimmerman, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a key technology for addressing climate change and maintaining security of energy supplies, while potentially offering important economic benefits. UK offshore, depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs have the potential capacity to store significant quantities of carbon dioxide, produced during power generation from fossil fuels. The Goldeneye depleted gas condensate field, located offshore in the UK North Sea at a depth of ~ 2600 m, is a candidate for the storage of at least 10 million tons of CO2. In this research, a fully coupled, full-scale model (50×20×8 km), based on the Goldeneye reservoir, is built and used for hydro-carbon production and CO2 injection simulations. The model accounts for fluid flow, heat transfer, and deformation of the fractured reservoir. Flow through fractures is defined as two-dimensional laminar flow within the three-dimensional poroelastic medium. The local thermal non-equilibrium between injected CO2 and host reservoir has been considered with convective (conduction and advection) heat transfer. The numerical model has been developed using standard finite element method with Galerkin spatial discretisation, and finite difference temporal discretisation. The geomechanical model has been implemented into the object-oriented Imperial College Geomechanics Toolkit, in close interaction with the Complex Systems Modelling Platform (CSMP), and validated with several benchmark examples. Fifteen major faults are mapped from the Goldeneye field into the model. Modal stress intensity factors, for the three modes of fracture opening during hydrocarbon production and CO2 injection phases, are computed at the tips of the faults by computing the I-Integral over a virtual disk. Contact stresses -normal and shear- on the fault surfaces are iteratively computed using a gap-based augmented Lagrangian-Uzawa method. Results show fault activation during the production phase that may affect the fault's hydraulic conductivity

  1. Sequential cloning of chromosomes

    SciTech Connect

    Lacks, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    A method for sequential cloning of chromosomal DNA and chromosomal DNA cloned by this method are disclosed. The method includes the selection of a target organism having a segment of chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned. A first DNA segment, having a first restriction enzyme site on either side. homologous to the chromosomal DNA to be sequentially cloned is isolated. A first vector product is formed by ligating the homologous segment into a suitably designed vector. The first vector product is circularly integrated into the target organism`s chromosomal DNA. The resulting integrated chromosomal DNA segment includes the homologous DNA segment at either end of the integrated vector segment. The integrated chromosomal DNA is cleaved with a second restriction enzyme and ligated to form a vector-containing plasmid, which is replicated in a host organism. The replicated plasmid is then cleaved with the first restriction enzyme. Next, a DNA segment containing the vector and a segment of DNA homologous to a distal portion of the previously isolated DNA segment is isolated. This segment is then ligated to form a plasmid which is replicated within a suitable host. This plasmid is then circularly integrated into the target chromosomal DNA. The chromosomal DNA containing the circularly integrated vector is treated with a third, retrorestriction enzyme. The cleaved DNA is ligated to give a plasmid that is used to transform a host permissive for replication of its vector. The sequential cloning process continues by repeated cycles of circular integration and excision. The excision is carried out alternately with the second and third enzymes.

  2. Gigascale Silicon Photonic Transmitters Integrating HBT-based Carrier-injection Electroabsorption Modulator Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Enjin

    Demand for more bandwidth is rapidly increasing, which is driven by data intensive applications such as high-definition (HD) video streaming, cloud storage, and terascale computing applications. Next-generation high-performance computing systems require power efficient chip-to-chip and intra-chip interconnect yielding densities on the order of 1Tbps/cm2. The performance requirements of such system are the driving force behind the development of silicon integrated optical interconnect, providing a cost-effective solution for fully integrated optical interconnect systems on a single substrate. Compared to conventional electrical interconnect, optical interconnects have several advantages, including frequency independent insertion loss resulting in ultra wide bandwidth and link latency reduction. For high-speed optical transmitter modules, the optical modulator is a key component of the optical I/O channel. This thesis presents a silicon integrated optical transmitter module design based on a novel silicon HBT-based carrier injection electroabsorption modulator (EAM), which has the merits of wide optical bandwidth, high speed, low power, low drive voltage, small footprint, and high modulation efficiency. The structure, mechanism, and fabrication of the modulator structure will be discussed which is followed by the electrical modeling of the post-processed modulator device. The design and realization of a 10Gbps monolithic optical transmitter module integrating the driver circuit architecture and the HBT-based EAM device in a 130nm BiCMOS process is discussed. For high power efficiency, a 6Gbps ultra-low power driver IC implemented in a 130nm BiCMOS process is presented. The driver IC incorporates an integrated 27-1 pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) generator for reliable high-speed testing, and a driver circuit featuring digitally-tuned pre-emphasis signal strength. With outstanding drive capability, the driver module can be applied to a wide range of carrier

  3. Investigations on injection molded, glass-fiber reinforced polyamide 6 integral foams using breathing mold technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roch, A.; Kehret, L.; Huber, T.; Henning, F.; Elsner, P.

    2015-05-01

    Investigations on PA6-GF50 integral foams have been carried out using different material systems: longfiber- and shortfiber-reinforced PA6 as well as unreinforced PA6 as a reference material. Both chemical and physical blowing agents were applied. Breathing mold technology (decompression of the mold) was selected for the foaming process. The integral foam design, which can be conceived as a sandwich structure, helps to save material in the neutral axis area and maintains a distance between load-bearing, unfoamed skin layers. For all test series an initial mold gap of 2.5 mm was chosen and the same amount of material was injected. In order to realize different density reductions, the mold opening stroke was varied. The experiments showed that, at a constant mass per unit area, integral polyamide 6 foams have a significantly higher bending stiffness than compact components, due to their higher area moment of inertia after foaming. At a constant surface weight the bending stiffness in these experiments could be increased by up to 600 %. Both shortfiber- and longfiber-reinforced polyamide 6 showed an increase in energy absorption during foaming.

  4. Rapid sequential injections of hyperpolarized [1-¹³C]pyruvate in vivo using a sub-kelvin, multi-sample DNP polarizer.

    PubMed

    Hu, Simon; Larson, Peder E Z; Vancriekinge, Mark; Leach, Andrew M; Park, Ilwoo; Leon, Christine; Zhou, Jenny; Shin, Peter J; Reed, Galen; Keselman, Paul; von Morze, Cornelius; Yoshihara, Hikari; Bok, Robert A; Nelson, Sarah J; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2013-05-01

    The development of hyperpolarized technology utilizing dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has enabled the rapid measurement of (13)C metabolism in vivo with very high SNR. However, with traditional DNP equipment, consecutive injections of a hyperpolarized compound in an animal have been subject to a practical minimum time between injections governed by the polarization build-up time, which is on the order of an hour for [1-(13)C]pyruvate. This has precluded the monitoring of metabolic changes occurring on a faster time scale. In this study, we demonstrated the ability to acquire in vivo dynamic magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data in normal rats with a 5 min interval between injections of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate using a prototype, sub-Kelvin dynamic nuclear polarizer with the capability to simultaneously polarize up to 4 samples and dissolve them in rapid succession. There were minimal perturbations in the hyperpolarized spectra as a result of the multiple injections, suggesting that such an approach would not confound the investigation of metabolism occurring on this time scale. As an initial demonstration of the application of this technology and approach for monitoring rapid changes in metabolism as a result of a physiological intervention, we investigated the pharmacodynamics of the anti-cancer agent dichloroacetate (DCA), collecting hyperpolarized data before administration of DCA, 1 min after administration, and 6 min after administration. Dramatic increases in (13)C-bicarbonate were detected just 1 min (as well as 6 min) after DCA administration.

  5. Reusable EGaIn-Injected Substrate-Integrated-Waveguide Resonator for Wireless Sensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Muhammad Usman; Lim, Sungjoon

    2015-01-01

    The proposed structure in this research is constructed on substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology and has a mechanism that produces 16 different and distinct resonant frequencies between 2.45 and 3.05 GHz by perturbing a fundamental TE10 mode. It is a unique method for producing multiple resonances in a radio frequency planar structure without any extra circuitry or passive elements is developed. The proposed SIW structure has four vertical fluidic holes (channels); injecting eutectic gallium indium (EGaIn), also known commonly as liquid metal (LM), into these vertical channels produces different resonant frequencies. Either a channel is empty, or it is filled with LM. In total, the combination of different frequencies produced from four vertical channels is 16. PMID:26569257

  6. Bidirectional Data Injection Operation of Hybrid Integrated SOA MZI All-Optical Wavelength Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Masaharu; Nishimura, Kohsuke; Inohara, Ryo; Usami, Masashi

    2007-02-01

    A bidirectional data signal input scheme of a semiconductor optical amplifier Mach Zehnder interferometer (SOA MZI) wavelength converter was proposed and experimentally verified for a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ)-format signal. Theoretical analyses reveal that it is possible to mitigate the patterning effect induced by cross-gain modulation (XGM) by utilizing the difference of the ratio between the XGM and cross-phase modulation on the injection directions of data signals. A hybrid integrated SOA MZI all-optical wavelength converter, in which the coupling loss between the SOA and the silica waveguide was as small as 1 dB owing to a unique active alignment technique, was used for the experiment. We have verified the superior characteristics of the proposed operation scheme for the first time. Error-free wavelength-conversion operation for an NRZ signal at 40 Gb/s was confirmed.

  7. Cognitive Behavioral Theories Used to Explain Injection Risk Behavior Among Injection Drug Users: A Review and Suggestions for the Integration of Cognitive and Environmental Models

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBT) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. We review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive literature search was conducted in Spring 2007. In total 33 studies were reviewed—26 epidemiological and 7 intervention studies. Findings suggest that some theoretical constructs have received fairly consistent support (e.g., self-efficacy, social norms), while others have yielded inconsistent or null results (e.g., perceived susceptibility, knowledge, behavioral intentions, perceived barriers, perceived benefits, response efficacy, perceived severity). We offer some possible explanations for these inconsistent findings, including differences in theoretical constructs and measures across studies and a need to examine the environmental structures that influence risky behaviors. Greater integration of CBT with a risk environment perspective may yield more conclusive findings and more effective interventions in the future. PMID:20705809

  8. Automatic detection and measurement of structures in fetal head ultrasound volumes using sequential estimation and Integrated Detection Network (IDN).

    PubMed

    Sofka, Michal; Zhang, Jingdan; Good, Sara; Zhou, S Kevin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2014-05-01

    Routine ultrasound exam in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy involves manually measuring fetal head and brain structures in 2-D scans. The procedure requires a sonographer to find the standardized visualization planes with a probe and manually place measurement calipers on the structures of interest. The process is tedious, time consuming, and introduces user variability into the measurements. This paper proposes an automatic fetal head and brain (AFHB) system for automatically measuring anatomical structures from 3-D ultrasound volumes. The system searches the 3-D volume in a hierarchy of resolutions and by focusing on regions that are likely to be the measured anatomy. The output is a standardized visualization of the plane with correct orientation and centering as well as the biometric measurement of the anatomy. The system is based on a novel framework for detecting multiple structures in 3-D volumes. Since a joint model is difficult to obtain in most practical situations, the structures are detected in a sequence, one-by-one. The detection relies on Sequential Estimation techniques, frequently applied to visual tracking. The interdependence of structure poses and strong prior information embedded in our domain yields faster and more accurate results than detecting the objects individually. The posterior distribution of the structure pose is approximated at each step by sequential Monte Carlo. The samples are propagated within the sequence across multiple structures and hierarchical levels. The probabilistic model helps solve many challenges present in the ultrasound images of the fetus such as speckle noise, signal drop-out, shadows caused by bones, and appearance variations caused by the differences in the fetus gestational age. This is possible by discriminative learning on an extensive database of scans comprising more than two thousand volumes and more than thirteen thousand annotations. The average difference between ground truth and automatic

  9. In vivo transduction of primitive mobilized hematopoietic stem cells after intravenous injection of integrating adenovirus vectors

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Maximilian; Saydaminova, Kamola; Yumul, Roma; Krishnan, Rohini; Liu, Jing; Nagy, Eniko-Eva; Singh, Manvendra; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Cattaneo, Roberto; Uckert, Wolfgang; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Haworth, Kevin G.; Kiem, Hans-Peter; Ehrhardt, Anja; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

    2016-01-01

    Current protocols for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapy, involving the transplantation of ex vivo genetically modified HSPCs are complex and not without risk for the patient. We developed a new approach for in vivo HSPC transduction that does not require myeloablation and transplantation. It involves subcutaneous injections of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor/AMD3100 to mobilize HSPCs from the bone marrow (BM) into the peripheral blood stream and the IV injection of an integrating, helper-dependent adenovirus (HD-Ad5/35++) vector system. These vectors target CD46, a receptor that is uniformly expressed on HSPCs. We demonstrated in human CD46 transgenic mice and immunodeficient mice with engrafted human CD34+ cells that HSPCs transduced in the periphery home back to the BM where they stably express the transgene. In hCD46 transgenic mice, we showed that our in vivo HSPC transduction approach allows for the stable transduction of primitive HSPCs. Twenty weeks after in vivo transduction, green fluorescent protein (GFP) marking in BM HSPCs (Lin−Sca1+Kit− cells) in most of the mice was in the range of 5% to 10%. The percentage of GFP-expressing primitive HSPCs capable of forming multilineage progenitor colonies (colony-forming units [CFUs]) increased from 4% of all CFUs at week 4 to 16% at week 12, indicating transduction and expansion of long-term surviving HSPCs. Our approach was well tolerated, did not result in significant transduction of nonhematopoietic tissues, and was not associated with genotoxicty. The ability to stably genetically modify HSPCs without the need of myeloablative conditioning is relevant for a broader clinical application of gene therapy. PMID:27554082

  10. Microwave generation in an electro-absorption modulator integrated with a DFB laser subject to optical injection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ning Hua; Zhang, Hong Guang; Man, Jiang Wei; Zhu, Hong Liang; Ke, Jian Hong; Liu, Yu; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Hai Qing; Xie, Liang; Wang, Wei

    2009-11-23

    This paper presents a new technique to generate microwave signal using an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) integrated with a distributed feedback (DFB) laser subject to optical injection. Experiments show that the frequency of the generated microwave can be tuned by changing the wavelength of the external laser or adjusting the bias voltage of the EAM. The frequency response of the EAM is studied and found to be unsmooth due to packaging parasitic effects and four-wave mixing effect occurring in the active layer of the DFB laser. It is also demonstrated that an EA modulator integrated in between two DFB lasers can be used instead of the EML under optical injection. This integrated chip can be used to realize a monolithically integrated tunable microwave source.

  11. Activated Protein C Enhances Human Keratinocyte Barrier Integrity via Sequential Activation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Tie2*

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Meilang; Chow, Shu-Oi; Dervish, Suat; Chan, Yee-Ka Agnes; Julovi, Sohel M.; Jackson, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    Keratinocytes play a critical role in maintaining epidermal barrier function. Activated protein C (APC), a natural anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory and endothelial barrier protective properties, significantly increased the barrier impedance of keratinocyte monolayers, measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and FITC-dextran flux. In response to APC, Tie2, a tyrosine kinase receptor, was rapidly activated within 30 min, and relocated to cell-cell contacts. APC also increased junction proteins zona occludens, claudin-1 and VE-cadherin. Inhibition of Tie2 by its peptide inhibitor or small interfering RNA abolished the barrier protective effect of APC. Interestingly, APC did not activate Tie2 through its major ligand, angiopoietin-1, but instead acted by binding to endothelial protein C receptor, cleaving protease-activated receptor-1 and transactivating EGF receptor. Furthermore, when activation of Akt, but not ERK, was inhibited, the barrier protective effect of APC on keratinocytes was abolished. Thus, APC activates Tie2, via a mechanism requiring, in sequential order, the receptors, endothelial protein C receptor, protease-activated receptor-1, and EGF receptor, which selectively enhances the PI3K/Akt signaling to enhance junctional complexes and reduce keratinocyte permeability. PMID:21173154

  12. Memetic computing through bio-inspired heuristics integration with sequential quadratic programming for nonlinear systems arising in different physical models.

    PubMed

    Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Kiani, Adiqa Kausar; Shehzad, Azam; Zameer, Aneela

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bio-inspired computing is exploited for solving system of nonlinear equations using variants of genetic algorithms (GAs) as a tool for global search method hybrid with sequential quadratic programming (SQP) for efficient local search. The fitness function is constructed by defining the error function for systems of nonlinear equations in mean square sense. The design parameters of mathematical models are trained by exploiting the competency of GAs and refinement are carried out by viable SQP algorithm. Twelve versions of the memetic approach GA-SQP are designed by taking a different set of reproduction routines in the optimization process. Performance of proposed variants is evaluated on six numerical problems comprising of system of nonlinear equations arising in the interval arithmetic benchmark model, kinematics, neurophysiology, combustion and chemical equilibrium. Comparative studies of the proposed results in terms of accuracy, convergence and complexity are performed with the help of statistical performance indices to establish the worth of the schemes. Accuracy and convergence of the memetic computing GA-SQP is found better in each case of the simulation study and effectiveness of the scheme is further established through results of statistics based on different performance indices for accuracy and complexity.

  13. Integrated experimental and simulation study of the response to sequential treatment with erlotinib and gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ubezio, Paolo; Falcetta, Francesca; Carrassa, Laura; Lupi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The combination of erlotinib with gemcitabine is one of the most promising therapies for advanced pancreatic cancer. Aiming at optimizing this combination, we analyzed in detail the response to sequential treatments with erlotinib → gemcitabine and gemcitabine → erlotinib with an 18 h interval, adopting a previously established experimental/computational approach to quantify the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects at G1, S and G2M checkpoints. This assessment was achieved by contemporary fits of flow cytometric and time-lapse experiments in two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (BxPC-3 and Capan-1) with a mathematical model reproducing the fluxes of cells through the cycle during and after treatment. The S-phase checkpoint contributes in the response to erlotinib, suggesting that the G1 arrest may hamper S-phase cytotoxicity. The response to gemcitabine was driven by the dynamics of the progressive resumption from the S-phase arrest after drug washout. The effects induced by single drugs were used to simulate combined treatments, introducing changes when required. Gemcitabine → erlotinib was more than additive in both cell lines, strengthening the cytostatic effects on cells recovering from the arrest induced by gemcitabine. The interval in the erlotinib → gemcitabine sequence enabled to overcome the antagonist effect of G1 block on gemcitabine efficacy and improved the outcome in Capan-1 cells. PMID:26909860

  14. A Novel System for Simultaneous or Sequential Integration of Multiple Gene-Loading Vectors into a Defined Site of a Human Artificial Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Hara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    Human artificial chromosomes (HACs) are gene-delivery vectors suitable for introducing large DNA fragments into mammalian cells. Although a HAC theoretically incorporates multiple gene expression cassettes of unlimited DNA size, its application has been limited because the conventional gene-loading system accepts only one gene-loading vector (GLV) into a HAC. We report a novel method for the simultaneous or sequential integration of multiple GLVs into a HAC vector (designated as the SIM system) via combined usage of Cre, FLP, Bxb1, and φC31 recombinase/integrase. As a proof of principle, we first attempted simultaneous integration of three GLVs encoding EGFP, Venus, and TdTomato into a gene-loading site of a HAC in CHO cells. These cells successfully expressed all three fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microcell-mediated transfer of HACs enabled the expression of those fluorescent proteins in recipient cells. We next demonstrated that GLVs could be introduced into a HAC one-by-one via reciprocal usage of recombinase/integrase. Lastly, we introduced a fourth GLV into a HAC after simultaneous integration of three GLVs by FLP-mediated DNA recombination. The SIM system expands the applicability of HAC vectors and is useful for various biomedical studies, including cell reprogramming. PMID:25303219

  15. A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-VLLC integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Shing; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Bo-Rui; Lin, Hung-Hsien; Lin, Dai-Hua

    2016-04-01

    A hybrid lightwave transmission system based on light injection/optoelectronic feedback techniques and fiber-visible laser light communication (VLLC) integration is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. To be the first one of its kind in employing light injection and optoelectronic feedback techniques in a fiber-VLLC integration lightwave transmission system, the light is successfully directly modulated with Community Access Television (CATV), 16-QAM, and 16-QAM-OFDM signals. Over a 40 km SMF and a 10 m free-space VLLC transport, good performances of carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)/composite second-order (CSO)/composite triple-beat (CTB)/bit error rate (BER) are achieved for CATV/16-QAM/16-QAM-OFDM signals transmission. Such a hybrid lightwave transmission system would be very useful since it can provide broadband integrated services including CATV, Internet, and telecommunication services over both distribute fiber and in-building networks.

  16. Development of a sequential injection dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction system for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry by using a hydrophobic sorbent material: determination of lead and cadmium in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G

    2010-05-23

    A novel on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system coupled to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for metal preconcentration in micro-scale, eliminating the laborious and time consuming procedure of phase separation with centrifugation. The potentials of the system were demonstrated for trace lead and cadmium determination in water samples. An appropriate disperser solution which contains the extraction solvent (xylene) and the chelating agent (ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate) in methanol is mixed on-line with the sample solution (aqueous phase), resulting thus, a cloudy solution, which is consisted of fine droplets of xylene, dispersed throughout the aqueous phase. Three procedures are taking place simultaneously: cloudy solution creation, analyte complex formation and extraction from aqueous phase into the fine droplets of xylene. Subsequently the droplets were retained on the hydrophobic surface of PTFE-turnings into the column. A part of 30 microL of the eluent (methyl isobutyl ketone) was injected into furnace graphite for analyte atomization and quantification. The sampling frequency was 10 h(-1), and the obtained enrichment factor was 80 for lead and 34 for cadmium. The detection limit was 10 ng L(-1) and 2 ng L(-1), while the precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) was 3.8% (at 0.5 microg L(-1)) and 4.1% (at 0.03 microg L(-1)) for lead and cadmium respectively. The proposed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials and was applied to the analysis of natural waters.

  17. LabVIEW-based sequential-injection analysis system for the determination of trace metals by square-wave anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry on mercury-film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Economou, Anastasios; Voulgaropoulos, Anastasios

    2003-01-01

    The development of a dedicated automated sequential-injection analysis apparatus for anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and adsorptive stripping voltammetry (AdSV) is reported. The instrument comprised a peristaltic pump, a multiposition selector valve and a home-made potentiostat and used a mercury-film electrode as the working electrodes in a thin-layer electrochemical detector. Programming of the experimental sequence was performed in LabVIEW 5.1. The sequence of operations included formation of the mercury film, electrolytic or adsorptive accumulation of the analyte on the electrode surface, recording of the voltammetric current-potential response, and cleaning of the electrode. The stripping step was carried out by applying a square-wave (SW) potential-time excitation signal to the working electrode. The instrument allowed unattended operation since multiple-step sequences could be readily implemented through the purpose-built software. The utility of the analyser was tested for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II) and zinc(II) by SWASV and of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and uranium(VI) by SWAdSV.

  18. Highly sensitive determination of cadmium and lead in leached solutions from ceramic ware by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry coupled with sequential injection-based solid phase extraction method.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minoru; Teshima, Norio; Sakai, Tadao; Joichi, Yasutaka; Motomizu, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    A fully automated pretreatment system based on sequential injection solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Auto-Pret-GFAAS system) was developed to determine trace amounts of cadmium and lead. A handmade minicolumn packed with a chelating resin was used for the preconcentration of both metals. All protocol for the on-line SPE method was controlled by home-made software. A trigger switch that was placed next to the graphite furnace was used to synchronize the home-made software with built-in software in the GFAAS. One milliliter of sample solution was flowed through into the minicolumn, the analytes were collected and concentrated on the solid phase, and the analytes were eluted with nitric acid (3 M), and detected by GFAAS. The limits of detection (3sigma) for cadmium and lead were 0.20 and 2.6 ng L(-1), respectively. The sample throughput was 47 h(-1) for 1 mL sample loading. The proposed sensitive method with the original Auto-Pret-GFAAS system was applied to the determination of cadmium and lead in tap water and in leached solutions from ceramic ware using 4% acetic acid.

  19. Integration of High-Charge-Injection-Capacity Electrodes onto Polymer Softening Neural Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Arreaga-Salas, David E; Avendaño-Bolívar, Adrian; Simon, Dustin; Reit, Radu; Garcia-Sandoval, Aldo; Rennaker, Robert L; Voit, Walter

    2015-12-09

    Softening neural interfaces are implanted stiff to enable precise insertion, and they soften in physiological conditions to minimize modulus mismatch with tissue. In this work, a high-charge-injection-capacity iridium electrode fabrication process is detailed. For the first time, this process enables integration of iridium electrodes onto softening substrates using photolithography to define all features in the device. Importantly, no electroplated layers are utilized, leading to a highly scalable method for consistent device fabrication. The iridium electrode is metallically bonded to the gold conductor layer, which is covalently bonded to the softening substrate via sulfur-based click chemistry. The resulting shape-memory polymer neural interfaces can deliver more than 2 billion symmetric biphasic pulses (100 μs/phase), with a charge of 200 μC/cm(2) and geometric surface area (GSA) of 300 μm(2). A transfer-by-polymerization method is used in combination with standard semiconductor processing techniques to fabricate functional neural probes onto a thiol-ene-based, thin film substrate. Electrical stability is tested under simulated physiological conditions in an accelerated electrical aging paradigm with periodic measurement of electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and charge storage capacity (CSC) at various intervals. Electrochemical characterization and both optical and scanning electron microscopy suggest significant breakdown of the 600 nm-thick parylene-C insulation, although no delamination of the conductors or of the final electrode interface was observed. Minor cracking at the edges of the thin film iridium electrodes was occasionally observed. The resulting devices will provide electrical recording and stimulation of the nervous system to better understand neural wiring and timing, to target treatments for debilitating diseases, and to give neuroscientists spatially selective and specific tools to interact with the body. This approach has uses for

  20. Injection and waveguiding properties in SU8 nanotubes for sub-wavelength regime propagation and nanophotonics integration.

    PubMed

    Bigeon, John; Huby, Nolwenn; Duvail, Jean-Luc; Bêche, Bruno

    2014-05-21

    We report photonic concepts related to injection and sub-wavelength propagation in nanotubes, an unusual but promising geometry for highly integrated photonic devices. Theoretical simulation by the finite domain time-dependent (FDTD) method was first used to determine the features of the direct light injection and sub-wavelength propagation regime within nanotubes. Then, the injection into nanotubes of SU8, a photoresist used for integrated photonics, was successfully achieved by using polymer microlensed fibers with a sub-micronic radius of curvature, as theoretically expected from FDTD simulations. The propagation losses in a single SU8 nanotube were determined by using a comprehensive set-up and a protocol for optical characterization. The attenuation coefficient has been evaluated at 1.25 dB mm(-1) by a cut-back method transposed to such nanostructures. The mechanisms responsible for losses in nanotubes were identified with FDTD theoretical support. Both injection and cut-back methods developed here are compatible with any sub-micronic structures. This work on SU8 nanotubes suggests broader perspectives for future nanophotonics.

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Theories Used to Explain Injection Risk Behavior among Injection Drug Users: A Review and Suggestions for the Integration of Cognitive and Environmental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karla Dawn; Unger, Jennifer B.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBTs) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. The authors review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive…

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Theories Used to Explain Injection Risk Behavior among Injection Drug Users: A Review and Suggestions for the Integration of Cognitive and Environmental Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Karla Dawn; Unger, Jennifer B.; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Injection drug users (IDUs) are at risk for HIV and viral hepatitis, and risky injection behavior persists despite decades of intervention. Cognitive behavioral theories (CBTs) are commonly used to help understand risky injection behavior. The authors review findings from CBT-based studies of injection risk behavior among IDUs. An extensive…

  3. Towards the Integration of Dark- and Photo-Fermentative Waste Treatment. 4. Repeated Batch Sequential Dark- and Photofermentation using Starch as Substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinavichene, T. V.; Belokopytov, B. F.; Laurinavichius, K. S.; Khusnutdinova, A. N.; Seibert, M.; Tsygankov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    In this study we demonstrated the technical feasibility of a prolonged, sequential two-stage integrated process under a repeated batch mode of starch fermentation. In this durable scheme, the photobioreactor with purple bacteria in the second stage was fed directly with dark culture from the first stage without centrifugation, filtration, or sterilization (not demonstrated previously). After preliminary optimization, both the dark- and the photo-stages were performed under repeated batch modes with different process parameters. Continuous H{sub 2} production in this system was observed at a H{sub 2} yield of up to 1.4 and 3.9 mole mole{sup -1} hexose during the dark- and photo-stage, respectively (for a total of 5.3 mole mole{sup -1} hexose), and rates of 0.9 and 0.5 L L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, respectively. Prolonged repeated batch H{sub 2} production was maintained for up to 90 days in each stage and was rather stable under non-aseptic conditions. Potential for improvements in these results are discussed.

  4. A new numerical approach to solve Thomas-Fermi model of an atom using bio-inspired heuristics integrated with sequential quadratic programming.

    PubMed

    Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Zameer, Aneela; Khan, Aziz Ullah; Wazwaz, Abdul Majid

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel bio-inspired computing approach is developed to analyze the dynamics of nonlinear singular Thomas-Fermi equation (TFE) arising in potential and charge density models of an atom by exploiting the strength of finite difference scheme (FDS) for discretization and optimization through genetic algorithms (GAs) hybrid with sequential quadratic programming. The FDS procedures are used to transform the TFE differential equations into a system of nonlinear equations. A fitness function is constructed based on the residual error of constituent equations in the mean square sense and is formulated as the minimization problem. Optimization of parameters for the system is carried out with GAs, used as a tool for viable global search integrated with SQP algorithm for rapid refinement of the results. The design scheme is applied to solve TFE for five different scenarios by taking various step sizes and different input intervals. Comparison of the proposed results with the state of the art numerical and analytical solutions reveals that the worth of our scheme in terms of accuracy and convergence. The reliability and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are validated through consistently getting optimal values of statistical performance indices calculated for a sufficiently large number of independent runs to establish its significance.

  5. High-throughput sequential injection method for simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in environmental solids using macroporous anion-exchange chromatography, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Roos, Per; Miró, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid and simultaneous determination of plutonium and neptunium in soil, sediment, and seaweed, with detection via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A chromatographic column packed with a macroporous anion exchanger (AG MP-1 M) was incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system for the efficient retrieval of plutonium, along with neptunium, from matrix elements and potential interfering nuclides. The sorption and elution behavior of plutonium and neptunium onto AG MP-1 M resin was compared with a commonly utilized AG 1-gel-type anion exchanger. Experimental results reveal that the pore structure of the anion exchanger plays a pivotal role in ensuring similar separation behavior of plutonium and neptunium along the separation protocol. It is proven that plutonium-242 ((242)Pu) performs well as a tracer for monitoring the chemical yield of neptunium when using AG MP-1 M resin, whereby the difficulties in obtaining a reliable and practicable isotopic neptunium tracer are overcome. An important asset of the SI setup is the feasibility of processing up to 100 g of solid substrates using a small-sized (ca. 2 mL) column with chemical yields of neptunium and plutonium being ≥79%. Analytical results of three certified/standard reference materials and two solid samples from intercomparison exercises are in good agreement with the reference values at the 0.05 significance level. The overall on-column separation can be completed within 3.5 h for 10 g of soil samples. Most importantly, the anion-exchange mini-column suffices to be reused up to 10-fold with satisfactory chemical yields (>70%), as demanded in environmental monitoring and emergency scenarios, making the proposed automated assembly well-suited for unattended and high-throughput analysis.

  6. Development of a fully automated sequential injection solid-phase extraction procedure coupled to liquid chromatography to determine free 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid in human urine.

    PubMed

    León, Zacarías; Chisvert, Alberto; Balaguer, Angel; Salvador, Amparo

    2010-04-07

    2-Hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulphonic acid, commonly known as benzophenone-3 (BZ3) and benzophenone-4 (BZ4), respectively, are substances widely used as UV filters in cosmetic products in order to absorb UV radiation and protect human skin from direct exposure to the deleterious wavelengths of sunlight. As with other UV filters, there is evidence of their percutaneous absorption. This work describes an analytical method developed to determine trace levels of free BZ3 and BZ4 in human urine. The methodology is based on a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure for clean-up and pre-concentration, followed by the monitoring of the UV filters by liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection (LC-UV). In order to improve not only the sensitivity and selectivity, but also the precision of the method, the principle of sequential injection analysis was used to automate the SPE process and to transfer the eluates from the SPE to the LC system. The application of a six-channel valve as an interface for the switching arrangements successfully allowed the on-line connection of SPE sample processing with LC analysis. The SPE process for BZ3 and BZ4 was performed using octadecyl (C18) and diethylaminopropyl (DEA) modified silica microcolumns, respectively, in which the analytes were retained and eluted selectively. Due to the matrix effects, the determination was based on standard addition quantification and was fully validated. The relative standard deviations of the results were 13% and 6% for BZ3 and BZ4, respectively, whereas the limits of detection were 60 and 30 ng mL(-1), respectively. The method was satisfactorily applied to determine BZ3 and BZ4 in urine from volunteers that had applied a sunscreen cosmetic containing both UV filters.

  7. Hole Injection from Schottky Gate in Ion-Implanted GaAs Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, Dima D.; Young, Lawrence

    1992-05-01

    Measurements of currents for a GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) when a negative bias was applied to a nearby ohmic contact (sidegate) showed that significant hole injection from the gate occurs for large negative sidegate voltages. This is in agreement with a proposed model, in which the presence of an inversion layer under the Schottky gate due to the pinning of the Fermi level at the channel surface causes hole injection into the channel when the gate is positively biased with respect to the sidegate. Upon increasing negative sidegate voltage the substrate-channel depletion region is expanded, and consequently, the neutral region of the channel is shrunk. This results in more holes being injected into the substrate from the gate.

  8. On-chip integrated multi-thermo-actuated microvalves of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) for microflow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiming; He, Qiaohong; Ma, Dan; Chen, Hengwu

    2010-04-30

    An array of thermo-actuated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) multivalves was designed and fabricated to perform volume-based sample injection for microflow injection analysis on a glass microfluidic chip. The PNIPAAm monolithic plug valves were prepared inside the vinylized glass channels by photopolymerization in water-ethanol (1:1) medium using 2-hydroxy-2-methyl propiophenone (Darocure-1173) as the initiator and a photo-mask for micropattern transferring. Experimental conditions for the photopolymerization were studied, and the thermo-responsive behavior of the synthesized monolithic plug valves was investigated. To perform active heating and cooling of the on-chip integrated thermo-actuated valves, micro-Peltier devices were used and operation times of 3-s for opening and 7-s for closing were obtained. In the close status, a 2-mm long monolithic plug valve could endure a pressure of no higher than 0.45 MPa. The volume-based sample and reagent injector was composed of two groups of valves (total valve number of 5) and two loops. When the two groups of valves were alternatively opened and closed via thermo-actuation, the sampling loops were able to be switched between loading and injection position without any mechanical moving parts. Cooperating with syringe pumps, the microfluidic chip with the integrated sample injector has been demonstrated for microflow injection chemiluminescence detection of hydrogen peroxide. For a sampling volume of 6 nL, linear response was observed over the H(2)O(2) concentration range of 0-2 mmol L(-1), and a precision of 0.6% (RSD, n=11) was achieved for a standard H(2)O(2) solution 2 mmol L(-1). Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prescription drug monitoring program data tracking of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in integrated dual diagnosis care involving injectable naltrexone

    PubMed Central

    Sajid, Ayesha; Whiteman, Aaron; Bell, Richard L.; Greene, Marion S.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fourfold increases in opioid prescribing and dispensations over 2 decades in the U.S. has paralleled increases in opioid addictions and overdoses, requiring new preventative, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This study examines Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) tracking as a novel measure of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in a university‐affiliated integrated mental health‐addiction treatment clinic. Methods Repeated measure parametrics examined PDMP and urine drug screening (UDS) data before and after first injection for all patients (N = 68) who received at least one long‐acting naltrexone injection (380 mg/IM) according to diagnostic groupings of having either (i) alcohol (control); (ii) opioid; or (iii) combined alcohol and opioid use disorders. Results There were no group differences post‐injection in treatment days, injections delivered, or treatment service encounters. UDS and PDMP measures of opioid exposures were greater in opioid compared to alcohol‐only patients. Post‐first injection, UDS's positive for opioids declined (p < .05) along with PDMP measures of opioid prescriptions (p < .001), doses (p < .01), types (p < .001), numbers of dispensing prescribers (p < .001) and pharmacies (p < .001). Opioid patients without alcohol disorders showed the best outcomes with 50% to 80% reductions in PDMP‐measures of opioids, down to levels of alcohol‐only patients. Conclusions This study shows PDMP utility for measuring opioid addiction treatment outcomes, supporting the routine use of PDMPs in clinical and research settings. Scientific Significance These findings demonstrate that opioid addiction in patients with complex addictions and mental illnesses comorbidities can show effective treatment responses as measured by PDMP tracking of decreases in opioid prescriptions to those patients. (Am J Addict 2016;25:557–564) PMID:27647699

  10. [Impact of sperm DNA and acrosome integrity and acrosome reaction rate on outcomes of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection].

    PubMed

    He, Yongzhi; Li, Dawen; Cheng, Junping; Huo, Zhongchao; Huang, Hongyi; Xiao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of sperm DNA integrity rate, acrosome integrity rate and acrosome reaction rate on the outcomes of rescue intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This retrospective analysis was conducted among 97 infertile couples receiving rescue ICSI due to failure of in vitro fertilization procedures in our Reproductive Medicine Center. Of these 97 women, 41 had clinical pregnancy and 56 did not, and the effects of sperm DNA integrity rate (estimated by DNA fragmentation index, DFI), acrosome integrity rate and acrosome reaction rate on rescue ICSI outcomes were analyzed. No significant difference was found in paternal age, testosterone value, testicular volume, FSH, female patient' age or the number of eggs retrieved between the two groups (P>0.05), but the infertility years was significantly shorter in the pregnancy group than in the non-pregnancy group (P<0.05). The fertilization rate and cleavage rate were similar between the two groups (P>0.05), but the good embryo rate was significantly higher in the pregnancy group (P<0.05). The sperm DNA integrity or acrosome reaction rate did not differ significantly between the two groups (P>0.05), but the acrosome integrity rate was significantly higher in the pregnancy group (P<0.05). The sperm DNA integrity rate, acrosome integrity or acrosome reaction rate were not correlated with the fertilization rate, cleavage rate or good embryo rate (P>0.05). The pregnancy rate, twin and single fetus rates were 42.3%, 10.3% and 32.0% in this cohort after recue ICSI, respectively. Rescue ICSI is an effective treatment after failed in vitro fertilization procedure, and sperm acrosome integrity rate is associated with the outcome of rescue ICSI.

  11. An apparatus for the determination of volatile analytes by stopped-flow injection analysis using an integrated fiber optic detector.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; Růzicka, J; Christian, G D; Olson, D C

    1994-03-01

    A new method for the analysis of volatile analytes using a stopped-flow injection system originating from either a gas or liquid phase has been developed. It uses an integrated fiber optic detector which also serves as a reactor. This system combines the advantages of gas diffusion and stopped-flow, making the overall assay very sensitive. Both gas streams and aqueous solutions containing ammonia were analyzed. The limits of detection are 40 ppb for gas phase analysis and 1.0 ppm for aqueous phase analysis.

  12. Sequential injection anodic stripping voltammetry with monosegmented flow and in-line UV digestion for determination of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) in water samples.

    PubMed

    Siriangkhawut, Watsaka; Grudpan, Kate; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    A cost-effective sequential injection system incorporating with an in-line UV digestion for breakdown of organic matter prior to voltammetric determination of Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) on a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) of a small scale voltammetric cell was developed. A low-cost small scale voltammetric cell was fabricated from disposable pipet tip and microcentrifuge tube with volume of about 3 mL for conveniently incorporated with the SI system. A home-made UV digestion unit was fabricated employing a small size and low wattage UV lamps and flow reactor made from PTFE tubing coiled around the UV lamp. An in-line single standard calibration or a standard addition procedure was developed employing a monosegmented flow technique. Performance of the proposed system was tested for in-line digestion of model water samples containing metal ions and some organic ligands such as strong organic ligand (EDTA) or intermediate organic ligand (humic acid). The wet acid digestion method (USEPA 3010a) was used as a standard digestion method for comparison. Under the optimum conditions, with deposition time of 180 s, linear calibration graphs in range of 10-300 μg L(-1) Zn(II), 5-200 μg L(-1) Cd(II), 10-200 μg L(-1) Pb(II), 20-400 μg L(-1) Cu(II) were obtained with detection limit of 3.6, 0.1, 0.7 and 4.3 μg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation were 4.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 4.7% for seven replicate analyses of 27 μg L(-1) Zn(II), 13 μg L(-1) Cd(II), 13 μg L(-1) Pb(II) and 27 μg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively. The system was validated by certified reference material of trace metals in natural water (SRM 1640 NIST). The developed system was successfully applied for speciation of Cd(II) Pb(II) and Cu(II) in ground water samples collected from nearby zinc mining area.

  13. Stacked Sequential Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    a constant factor of K + 2. (To see this, note sequential stacking requires training K+2 classifiers: the classifiers f1, . . . , fK used in cross...on the non- sequential learners (ME and VP) but improves per- formance of the sequential learners (CRFs and VPH - MMs) less consistently. This pattern

  14. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Luzio, Alessandro; Natali, Dario; Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Kim, Dong-Yu; Noh, Yong-Young; Caironi, Mario

    2014-04-01

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μe) and hole (μh) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μh = 0.29 cm2/V s and μe = 0.001 cm2/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μe = 0.12 cm2/V s and μh = 8 × 10-4 cm2/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  15. Sequential changes of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function in myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: a long-term and integrative study.

    PubMed

    Chagoya de Sánchez, V; Hernández-Muñoz, R; López-Barrera, F; Yañez, L; Vidrio, S; Suárez, J; Cota-Garza, M D; Aranda-Fraustro, A; Cruz, D

    1997-12-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is the second cause of mortality in most countries, therefore, it is important to know the evolution and sequence of the physiological and biochemical changes involved in this pathology. This study attempts to integrate these changes and to correlate them in a long-term model (96 h) of isoproterenol-induced myocardial cell damage in the rat. We achieved an infarct-like damage in the apex region of the left ventricle, occurring 12-24 h after isoproterenol administration. The lesion was defined by histological criteria, continuous telemetric ECG recordings, and the increase in serum marker enzymes, specific for myocardial damage. A distinction is made among preinfarction, infarction, and postinfarction. Three minutes after drug administration, there was a 60% increase in heart rate and a lowering of blood pressure, resulting possibly in a functional ischemia. Ultrastructural changes and mitochondrial swelling were evident from the first hour of treatment, but functional alterations in isolated mitochondria, such as decreases in oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient, ATP synthesis, and membrane potential, were noticed only 6 h after drug administration and lasted until 72 h later. Mitochondrial proteins decreased after 3 h of treatment, reaching almost a 50% diminution, which was maintained during the whole study. An energy imbalance, reflected by a decrease in energy charge and in the creatine phosphate/creatine ratio, was observed after 30 min of treatment; however, ATP and total adenine nucleotides diminished clearly only after 3 h of treatment. All these alterations reached a maximum at the onset of infarction and were accompanied by damage to the myocardial function, drastically decreasing left ventricular pressure and shortening the atrioventricular interval. During postinfarction, a partial recovery of energy charge, creatine phosphate/creatine ratio, membrane potential, and myocardial function occurred, but not of mitochondrial

  16. Whole breast and excision cavity radiotherapy plan comparison: Conformal radiotherapy with sequential boost versus intensity-modulated radiation therapy with a simultaneously integrated boost

    SciTech Connect

    Small, Katherine; Kelly, Chris; Beldham-Collins, Rachael; Gebski, Val

    2013-03-15

    A comparative study was conducted comparing the difference between (1) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) to the whole breast with sequential boost excision cavity plans and (2) intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to the whole breast with simultaneously integrated boost to the excision cavity. The computed tomography (CT) data sets of 25 breast cancer patients were used and the results analysed to determine if either planning method produced superior plans. CT data sets from 25 past breast cancer patients were planned using (1) CRT prescribed to 50 Gy in 25 fractions (Fx) to the whole-breast planning target volume (PTV) and 10 Gy in 5Fx to the excision cavity and (2) IMRT prescribed to 60 Gy in 25Fx, with 60 Gy delivered to the excision cavity PTV and 50 Gy delivered to the whole-breast PTV, treated simultaneously. In total, 50 plans were created, with each plan evaluated by PTV coverage using conformity indices, plan maximum dose, lung dose, and heart maximum dose for patients with left-side lesions. CRT plans delivered the lowest plan maximum doses in 56% of cases (average CRT = 6314.34 cGy, IMRT = 6371.52 cGy). They also delivered the lowest mean lung dose in 68% of cases (average CRT = 1206.64 cGy, IMRT = 1288.37 cGy) and V20 in 88% of cases (average CRT = 20.03%, IMRT = 21.73%) and V30 doses in 92% of cases (average CRT = 16.82%, IMRT = 17.97%). IMRT created more conformal plans, using both conformity index and conformation number, in every instance, and lower heart maximum doses in 78.6% of cases (average CRT = 5295.26 cGy, IMRT = 5209.87 cGy). IMRT plans produced superior dose conformity and shorter treatment duration, but a slightly higher planning maximum and increased lung doses. IMRT plans are also faster to treat on a daily basis, with shorter fractionation.

  17. [A short infusion or a bolus injection of contrast medium in i.v. urography. Comparative density measurements in the kidney pelvic-caliceal system using sequential computed tomography].

    PubMed

    Kaltenborn, H; Klose, P; Klose, K; Schmiedel, E

    1993-06-01

    The rate of contrast injection during i.v. urography may vary considerably (bolus injection or drip infusion). The effect of 5 rates of injection (6, 12, 18, 36 and 72 ml/min) on the contrast density in the renal collecting system was examined over a period of 30 minutes. Measurements showed an inter-individual difference of more than 200% in each group. The intra-individual variations for different rates of injection were very slight; individual concentration in the kidney for a given dose depends only slightly on the rate of injection. There is no statistically significant improvement in contrast values as a result of a bolus injection. The reduced incidence of side effects justifies the use of bolus injections but pressure injections are unnecessary from a diagnostic point view.

  18. A simple microfluidic integrated with an optical sensor for micro flow injection colorimetric determination of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Supharoek, Sam-ang; Youngvises, Napaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for fabricating a microfluidic platform was developed. A printed circuit board (PCB) was used to make a master mold for replicating a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. The master mold was fabricated by a simple photolithographic method, employing a photoresist dry film. The process did not use hazardous chemicals, a clean room or any expensive instrument. The PDMS microchannel was clamped with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates, where a light emitting diode (LED) as a light source and a light dependent resistor (LDR) as a light sensor were attached to form a simple optical sensor. The system was successfully employed as a micro flow injection analysis for the determination of glutathione in dietary supplement samples. A linear calibration graph in the range of 5.0 - 60.0 mg L(-1) glutathione was obtained with a detection limit of 0.01 mg L(-1). The system provided a sample throughput of 48 h(-1), with microliter consumption of the reagent.

  19. Organic integrated circuits for information storage based on ambipolar polymers and charge injection engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Natali, Dario; Luzio, Alessandro; Caironi, Mario E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu; Noh, Yong-Young E-mail: yynoh@dongguk.edu

    2014-04-14

    Ambipolar semiconducting polymers, characterized by both high electron (μ{sub e}) and hole (μ{sub h}) mobility, offer the advantage of realizing complex complementary electronic circuits with a single semiconducting layer, deposited by simple coating techniques. However, to achieve complementarity, one of the two conduction paths in transistors has to be suppressed, resulting in unipolar devices. Here, we adopt charge injection engineering through a specific interlayer in order to tune injection into frontier energy orbitals of a high mobility donor-acceptor co-polymer. Starting from field-effect transistors with Au contacts, showing a p-type unbalanced behaviour with μ{sub h} = 0.29 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub e} = 0.001 cm{sup 2}/V s, through the insertion of a caesium salt interlayer with optimized thickness, we obtain an n-type unbalanced transistor with μ{sub e} = 0.12 cm{sup 2}/V s and μ{sub h} = 8 × 10{sup −4} cm{sup 2}/V s. We applied this result to the development of the basic pass-transistor logic building blocks such as inverters, with high gain and good noise margin, and transmission-gates. In addition, we developed and characterized information storage circuits like D-Latches and D-Flip-Flops consisting of 16 transistors, demonstrating both their static and dynamic performances and thus the suitability of this technology for more complex circuits such as display addressing logic.

  20. A Hyaluronan-Based Injectable Hydrogel Improves the Survival and Integration of Stem Cell Progeny following Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballios, Brian G; Cooke, Michael J; Donaldson, Laura; Coles, Brenda L K; Morshead, Cindi M; van der Kooy, Derek; Shoichet, Molly S

    2015-06-09

    The utility of stem cells and their progeny in adult transplantation models has been limited by poor survival and integration. We designed an injectable and bioresorbable hydrogel blend of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC) and tested it with two cell types in two animal models, thereby gaining an understanding of its general applicability for enhanced cell distribution, survival, integration, and functional repair relative to conventional cell delivery in saline. HAMC improves cell survival and integration of retinal stem cell (RSC)-derived rods in the retina. The pro-survival mechanism of HAMC is ascribed to the interaction of the CD44 receptor with HA. Transient disruption of the retinal outer limiting membrane, combined with HAMC delivery, results in significantly improved rod survival and visual function. HAMC also improves the distribution, viability, and functional repair of neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs). The HAMC delivery system improves cell transplantation efficacy in two CNS models, suggesting broad applicability. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paper-based enzyme immobilization for flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with reagent-loaded cartridge toward portable modular device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Swee Ngin; Ge, Liya; Tan, Hsih Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Gao, Jinrong; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-20

    Paper-based enzyme immobilization for a flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with a reagent-loaded cartridge toward a portable device was developed. A paper disk was immobilized with enzyme, then it was integrated in a flow cell as an electrochemical biosensor. A silicon tube reagent-loaded cartridge was integrated into the system, a complicated procedure was simplified as a one-click operation toward development for point-of-care applications. In this research, glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed as a model enzyme, silver ion as an inhibition reagent for GOx, and EDTA as a regeneration reagent. When GOx was inhibited by silver ions, glucose was introduced for electrochemical measurements before and after inhibited enzyme regeneration and the difference was caused by silver inhibition. The modular device has great potential for other applications, e.g., detection of enzyme activity and substrate. The platform based on double-test mode provided accurate results due to elimination of an average or control value in comparison with classical routine approaches.

  2. Integrated host and viral transcriptome analyses reveal pathology and inflammatory response mechanisms to ALV-J injection in SPF chickens.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xi; Wang, Yan; Tian, Kai; Ye, Fei; Yin, Huadong; Zhao, Xiaoling; Xu, Hengyong; Huang, Yong; Liu, Haibo; Hsieh, John C F; Lamont, Susan J; Zhu, Qing

    2017-04-12

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) is detrimental to poultry health and causes substantial economic losses from mortality and decreased performance. Because tumorigenesis is a complex mechanism, the regulatory architecture of the immune system is likely to include the added dimensions of modulation by miRNAs and long-noncoding RNA (lncRNA). To characterize the response to ALV challenge, we developed a novel methodology that combines four datasets: mRNA expression and the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) layer chickens were infected with ALV-J or maintained as non-injected controls. Spleen samples were collected at 40 days post injection (dpi), and sequenced. There were 864 genes, 7 miRNAs and 17 lncRNAs differentially expressed between infected and non-infected birds. The combined analysis of the 4 RNA expression datasets revealed that ALV infection is detected by pattern-recognition receptors (TLR9 and TLR3) leading to a type-I IFN mediated innate immune response that is modulated by IRF7 and IRF1. Co-expression network analysis of mRNA with miRNA, lncRNA and virus genes identified key elements within the complex networks utilized during ALV response. The integration of information from the host transcriptomic, epigenetic and virus response also has the potential to provide deeper insights into other host-pathogen interactions.

  3. Integration of FTTH and GI-POF in-house networks based on injection locking and direct-detection techniques.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hsiao-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han; Li, Chung-Yi; Su, Heng-Sheng; Hsu, Chin-Tai

    2011-03-28

    An integration of fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) and graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) in-house networks based on injection-locked vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) and direct-detection technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Sufficient low bit error rate (BER) values were obtained over a combination of 20-km single-mode fiber (SMF) and 50-m GI-POF links. Signal qualities satisfy the worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) requirement with data signals of 20 Mbps/5.8 GHz and 70 Mbps/10 GHz, respectively. Since our proposed network does not use sophisticated and expensive RF devices in premises, it reveals a prominent one with simpler and more economic advantages. Our proposed architecture is suitable for the SMF-based primary and GI-POF-based in-house networks.

  4. Fertilizability and chromosomal integrity of frozen-thawed Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni) spermatozoa intracytoplasmically injected into mouse oocytes.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Tateno, H; Kusakabe, H; Matsuoka, T; Kamiguchi, Y; Fujise, Y; Ishikawa, H; Ohsumi, S; Fukui, Y

    2007-02-01

    Prior to attempting the in vitro production of embryos in the Bryde's whale (Balaenoputera edeni), we investigated whether spermatozoa can retain the capacity for oocyte activation and pronucleus formation as well as chromosomal integrity under cryopreservation by using intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into mouse oocytes. Regardless of motility and viability, whale spermatozoa efficiently led to the activation of mouse oocytes (90.3-97.4%), and sperm nuclei successfully transformed into male pronucleus within activated ooplasm (87.2-93.6%). Chromosome analysis at the first cleavage metaphase (M) of the hybrid zygotes revealed that a majority (95.2%) of motile spermatozoa had the normal chromosome complement, while the percentage of chromosomal normality was significantly reduced to 63.5% in immotile spermatozoa and 50.0% in dead spermatozoa due to the increase in structural chromosome aberrations. This is the first report showing that motile Bryde's whale spermatozoa are competent to support embryonic development.

  5. Sequential document visualization.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yi; Dillon, Joshua; Lebanon, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Documents and other categorical valued time series are often characterized by the frequencies of short range sequential patterns such as n-grams. This representation converts sequential data of varying lengths to high dimensional histogram vectors which are easily modeled by standard statistical models. Unfortunately, the histogram representation ignores most of the medium and long range sequential dependencies making it unsuitable for visualizing sequential data. We present a novel framework for sequential visualization of discrete categorical time series based on the idea of local statistical modeling. The framework embeds categorical time series as smooth curves in the multinomial simplex summarizing the progression of sequential trends. We discuss several visualization techniques based on the above framework and demonstrate their usefulness for document visualization.

  6. Implementing reduced-risk integrated pest management in fresh-market cabbage: influence of sampling parameters, and validation of binomial sequential sampling plans for the cabbage looper (Lepidoptera Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Burkness, Eric C; Hutchison, W D

    2009-10-01

    Populations of cabbage looper, Trichoplusiani (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), were sampled in experimental plots and commercial fields of cabbage (Brasicca spp.) in Minnesota during 1998-1999 as part of a larger effort to implement an integrated pest management program. Using a resampling approach and the Wald's sequential probability ratio test, sampling plans with different sampling parameters were evaluated using independent presence/absence and enumerative data. Evaluations and comparisons of the different sampling plans were made based on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions generated for each plan and through the use of a decision probability matrix. Values for upper and lower decision boundaries, sequential error rates (alpha, beta), and tally threshold were modified to determine parameter influence on the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. The following parameters resulted in the most desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions; action threshold of 0.1 proportion of plants infested, tally threshold of 1, alpha = beta = 0.1, upper boundary of 0.15, lower boundary of 0.05, and resampling with replacement. We found that sampling parameters can be modified and evaluated using resampling software to achieve desirable operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Moreover, management of T. ni by using binomial sequential sampling should provide a good balance between cost and reliability by minimizing sample size and maintaining a high level of correct decisions (>95%) to treat or not treat.

  7. Syringe-injectable mesh electronics integrate seamlessly with minimal chronic immune response in the brain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Hong, Guosong; Fu, Tian-Ming; Yang, Xiao; Schuhmann, Thomas G; Viveros, Robert D; Lieber, Charles M

    2017-06-06

    Implantation of electrical probes into the brain has been central to both neuroscience research and biomedical applications, although conventional probes induce gliosis in surrounding tissue. We recently reported ultraflexible open mesh electronics implanted into rodent brains by syringe injection that exhibit promising chronic tissue response and recording stability. Here we report time-dependent histology studies of the mesh electronics/brain-tissue interface obtained from sections perpendicular and parallel to probe long axis, as well as studies of conventional flexible thin-film probes. Confocal fluorescence microscopy images of the perpendicular and parallel brain slices containing mesh electronics showed that the distribution of astrocytes, microglia, and neurons became uniform from 2-12 wk, whereas flexible thin-film probes yield a marked accumulation of astrocytes and microglia and decrease of neurons for the same period. Quantitative analyses of 4- and 12-wk data showed that the signals for neurons, axons, astrocytes, and microglia are nearly the same from the mesh electronics surface to the baseline far from the probes, in contrast to flexible polymer probes, which show decreases in neuron and increases in astrocyte and microglia signals. Notably, images of sagittal brain slices containing nearly the entire mesh electronics probe showed that the tissue interface was uniform and neurons and neurofilaments penetrated through the mesh by 3 mo postimplantation. The minimal immune response and seamless interface with brain tissue postimplantation achieved by ultraflexible open mesh electronics probes provide substantial advantages and could enable a wide range of opportunities for in vivo chronic recording and modulation of brain activity in the future.

  8. Sector Tests of a Low-NO(sub x), Lean, Direct- Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combustor Concept Conducted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.; Wey, Chang-Lie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    The low-emissions combustor development described is directed toward advanced high pressure aircraft gas-turbine applications. The emphasis of this research is to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high-power conditions and to maintain carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons at their current low levels at low power conditions. Low-NOx combustors can be classified into rich-burn and lean-burn concepts. Lean-burn combustors can be further classified into lean-premixed-prevaporized (LPP) and lean direct injection (LDI) concepts. In both concepts, all the combustor air, except for liner cooling flow, enters through the combustor dome so that the combustion occurs at the lowest possible flame temperature. The LPP concept has been shown to have the lowest NOx emissions, but for advanced high-pressure-ratio engines, the possibility of autoignition or flashback precludes its use. LDI differs from LPP in that the fuel is injected directly into the flame zone, and thus, it does not have the potential for autoignition or flashback and should have greater stability. However, since it is not premixed and prevaporized, good atomization is necessary and the fuel must be mixed quickly and uniformly so that flame temperatures are low and NOx formation levels are comparable to those of LPP. The LDI concept described is a multipoint fuel injection/multiburning zone concept. Each of the multiple fuel injectors has an air swirler associated with it to provide quick mixing and a small recirculation zone for burning. The multipoint fuel injection provides quick, uniform mixing and the small multiburning zones provide for reduced burning residence time, resulting in low NOx formation. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers, and fuel manifold into a single element. The multipoint concept combustor was demonstrated in a 15 sector test. The configuration tested had 36

  9. An Integrated Approach Linking Process to Structural Modeling With Microstructural Characterization for Injections-Molded Long-Fiber Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Bapanapalli, Satish K.; Smith, Mark T.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Frame, Barbara; Norris, Robert E.; Phelps, Jay; Tucker III, Charles L.; Jin, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jin

    2008-09-01

    The objective of our work is to enable the optimum design of lightweight automotive structural components using injection-molded long fiber thermoplastics (LFTs). To this end, an integrated approach that links process modeling to structural analysis with experimental microstructural characterization and validation is developed. First, process models for LFTs are developed and implemented into processing codes (e.g. ORIENT, Moldflow) to predict the microstructure of the as-formed composite (i.e. fiber length and orientation distributions). In parallel, characterization and testing methods are developed to obtain necessary microstructural data to validate process modeling predictions. Second, the predicted LFT composite microstructure is imported into a structural finite element analysis by ABAQUS to determine the response of the as-formed composite to given boundary conditions. At this stage, constitutive models accounting for the composite microstructure are developed to predict various types of behaviors (i.e. thermoelastic, viscoelastic, elastic-plastic, damage, fatigue, and impact) of LFTs. Experimental methods are also developed to determine material parameters and to validate constitutive models. Such a process-linked-structural modeling approach allows an LFT composite structure to be designed with confidence through numerical simulations. Some recent results of our collaborative research will be illustrated to show the usefulness and applications of this integrated approach.

  10. A tetra-layer microfluidic system for peptide affinity screening through integrated sample injection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weizhi; Huang, Yanyan; Jin, Yulong; Liu, Guoquan; Chen, Yi; Ma, Huimin; Zhao, Rui

    2013-05-21

    A novel integrated microfluidic system was designed and fabricated for affinity peptide screening with in situ detection. A tetra-layer microfluidic hybrid chip containing two top eccentric diffluent layers, an inter-layer and a bottom screening layer, was developed as the core device of the system. The eccentric diffluent layers were ingeniously invented for the vertical sample delivery from 2 top-inlets into 12 bottom-inlets, which eliminated the use of excessive accessories and complicated pipelines currently used in other systems. By using six pH gradient generators, the magnetic bead-based screening in 36 parallel chambers was simultaneously carried out under 6 different pH conditions from 5.4 to 8.2. This allowed simultaneous screening of 6 compounds and each under 6 different pH conditions. The fabricated chip system was applied to screening of affinity peptides towards β-endorphin antibody. The affinities of the peptide ligands to the antibody were assessed by on-chip confocal detection. The results from the screening study using this system indicated that the pentapeptide with the sequence of YGGFL had the highest affinity towards β-endorphin antibody at pH 7.1, which was further confirmed by the ELISA assay using a 96-well plate format. This microfluidic screening system is automatic, low-cost and reusable for not only peptide screening but also other bioactive compounds screening towards target molecules.

  11. Design and integration of a generic disposable array-compatible sensor housing into an integrated disposable indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Bastian E; Schickling, Benjamin; Prokop, Jürgen; Piotter, Volker; Rapp, Michael; Länge, Kerstin

    2011-10-01

    We describe an integration strategy for arbitrary sensors intended to be used as biosensors in biomedical or bioanalytical applications. For such devices ease of handling (by a potential end user) as well as strict disposable usage are of importance. Firstly we describe a generic array compatible polymer sensor housing with an effective sample volume of 1.55 μl. This housing leaves the sensitive surface of the sensor accessible for the application of biosensing layers even after the embedding. In a second step we show how this sensor housing can be used in combination with a passive disposable microfluidic chip to set up arbitrary 8-fold sensor arrays and how such a system can be complemented with an indirect microfluidic flow injection analysis (FIA) system. This system is designed in a way that it strictly separates between disposable and reusable components- by introducing tetradecane as an intermediate liquid. This results in a sensor system compatible with the demands of most biomedical applications. Comparative measurements between a classical macroscopic FIA system and this integrated indirect microfluidic system are presented. We use a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor as an exemplary detector in this work.

  12. Challenges and opportunities to integrating family members of injection drug users into harm reduction efforts within the Atlantic Canadian context.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Lois A; Dykeman, Margaret; Gahagan, Jacqueline; Karabanow, Jeff; Parker, Joanne

    2011-09-01

    This paper explores injection drug users' (IDUs) relationships with non-drug using family members in order to understand the potential opportunities for, and challenges to, having these family members provide harm reduction services (e.g., clean syringes). The qualitative data for this paper were drawn from a larger study of IDUs' relationships with key individuals in their lives (e.g., friends, family members). Interviews were conducted with 115 IDUs from across Atlantic Canada living in both urban and rural areas. IDUs report that their relationships with family members are variable and dynamic, often changing over time. IDUs and family members engage in a variety of strategies to protect themselves from the multiple harms associated with drug use. Several strategies of self-protection (e.g., discontinuing all contact) are antithetical to the provision of harm reduction supports by family members. However, other strategies are based on continued contact, providing a potential opportunity for the integration of harm reduction approaches. Some family members not only have contact but provide supports (e.g., emotional support, housing) thus potentially facilitating the integration of harm reduction. In a few instances, family members already provide harm reduction supports (e.g., safe space to use). Conceptualizing addictions as a health and social justice issue, and providing appropriate interventions, may reduce some of the harms experienced by users and family members thus encouraging sustained relationships and greater integration of harm reduction approaches into the relationship. Targeted education to family members about harm reduction may also further encourage their involvement in such efforts. Likewise, supporting family members who are already providing harm reduction supports will likely assist in the scaling-up of harm reduction efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of trehalose on DNA integrity of freeze-dried boar sperm, fertilization, and embryo development after intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    PubMed

    Men, Nguyen Thi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakai, Michiko; Fukuda, Atsunori; Tanihara, Fuminori; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Linh, Nguyen Viet; Nguyen, Bui Xuan; Nagai, Takashi; Tajima, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    Freeze-drying (FD) medium containing ethylene glycol-bis(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) is reported to be beneficial for maintenance of sperm DNA integrity after FD. Recently, trehalose has also been reported to have notable ability to stabilize the protein structure and biomembranes of sperm in a dry state. In this study, we examined the effect of a combination of EGTA and different concentrations of trehalose in FD medium on sperm DNA integrity and the in vitro development of IVM porcine oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using freeze-dried boar sperm. Ejaculated sperm from a boar were suspended in basic FD medium supplemented with 0, 3.75, 7.5, 15, 30, 60, or 90 mM trehalose and freeze-dried. After rehydration, the sperm in all groups were subjected to DNA damage detection using a Halomax kit. It was found that the level of DNA damage in 15-mM group was significantly lower than that in 0-mM group, and no difference was observed between the 15-, 7.5-, and 3.75-mM groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in the DNA damage level among 0, 3.75 mM, and other groups treated with trehalose. When freeze-dried sperm were used for ICSI, the fertilization rates and blastocyst formation rates (observed at 10 hours and 6 days of IVC after ICSI, respectively) in the 7.5- and 15-mM groups were not different from those in 0-mM group. These results suggest that FD medium supplemented with trehalose at appropriate concentrations improves sperm DNA integrity, but does not improve fertilization and preimplantation embryo development of IVM oocytes following ICSI.

  14. Evaluation of Brine Migration Risks Due to CO2 Injection - an Integrated Natural and Social Science Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noack, V.; Kissinger, A.; Class, H.; Knopf, S.; Konrad, W.; Scheer, D.

    2014-12-01

    Evaluation of possible risks for shallow groundwater systems caused by brine displacement due to CO2 injection requires an investigation of possible vertical pathways in regional-scale structural settings. The project CO2BRIM investigates this crucial issue in collaboration with external stakeholders to integrate expert feedback on migration scenarios. To evaluate possible brine displacement scenarios we construct a regional-scale 3D structural model based on data which represent a typical geological setting of the North German Basin. The model has a horizontal size of 39 km times 58 km and includes 11 geological layers from the Permian Zechstein salt up to the Quaternary. It comprises an anticlinal structure on top of a salt pillow and an elongated salt wall that dissect the overburden. For the risk scenarios we include discontinuities in the regionally important Rupelian aquitard (Tertiary) and a transition zone along the salt flank as such discontinuities are supposed to provide permeable pathways for brines which could reach shallow drinking water horizons. Based on this model we develop scenarios in which we vary for example hydro-geological parameters of the geological discontinuities, the injection rate and the initial state of the system in terms of the salinity distribution. Furthermore we compare different levels of model complexity with regard to the physical processes considered and their effects on our results. During the process of scenario development, external experts were invited to participate and share knowledge and concerns on both brine migration risks and possible migration paths and mechanisms. The results may help in site selection as they provide improved knowledge of pressure build-up in the reservoir and the overburden for such complex geological systems. Additionally, we want to identify the level of model complexity which is sufficient for this kind of setting with regard to the limited data availability at hand for the far field.

  15. A Low NO(x) Lean-Direct Injection, Multipoint Integrated Module Combuster Concept for Advanced Aircraft Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert; Wey, Changlie; Laing, Peter; Mansour, Adel

    2002-01-01

    A low NO(x) emissions combustor has been demonstrated in flame-tube tests. A multipoint, lean-direct injection concept was used. Configurations were tested that had 25- and 36- fuel injectors in the size of a conventional single fuel injector. An integrated-module approach was used for the construction where chemically etched laminates, diffusion bonded together, combine the fuel injectors, air swirlers and fuel manifold into a single element. Test conditions were inlet temperatures up to 810 K, inlet pressures up to 2760 kPa, and flame temperatures up to 2100 K. A correlation was developed relating the NO(x) emissions with the inlet temperature, inlet pressure, fuel-air ratio and pressure drop. Assuming that 10 percent of the combustion air would be used for liner cooling and using a hypothetical engine cycle, the NO(x) emissions using the correlation from flame-tube tests were estimated to be less than 20 percent of the 1996 ICAO standard.

  16. Sequential Bayesian Detection: A Model-Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E J; Candy, J V

    2007-08-13

    Sequential detection theory has been known for a long time evolving in the late 1940's by Wald and followed by Middleton's classic exposition in the 1960's coupled with the concurrent enabling technology of digital computer systems and the development of sequential processors. Its development, when coupled to modern sequential model-based processors, offers a reasonable way to attack physics-based problems. In this chapter, the fundamentals of the sequential detection are reviewed from the Neyman-Pearson theoretical perspective and formulated for both linear and nonlinear (approximate) Gauss-Markov, state-space representations. We review the development of modern sequential detectors and incorporate the sequential model-based processors as an integral part of their solution. Motivated by a wealth of physics-based detection problems, we show how both linear and nonlinear processors can seamlessly be embedded into the sequential detection framework to provide a powerful approach to solving non-stationary detection problems.

  17. Sequential Bayesian Detection: A Model-Based Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V

    2008-12-08

    Sequential detection theory has been known for a long time evolving in the late 1940's by Wald and followed by Middleton's classic exposition in the 1960's coupled with the concurrent enabling technology of digital computer systems and the development of sequential processors. Its development, when coupled to modern sequential model-based processors, offers a reasonable way to attack physics-based problems. In this chapter, the fundamentals of the sequential detection are reviewed from the Neyman-Pearson theoretical perspective and formulated for both linear and nonlinear (approximate) Gauss-Markov, state-space representations. We review the development of modern sequential detectors and incorporate the sequential model-based processors as an integral part of their solution. Motivated by a wealth of physics-based detection problems, we show how both linear and nonlinear processors can seamlessly be embedded into the sequential detection framework to provide a powerful approach to solving non-stationary detection problems.

  18. An integrative technique based on synergistic coremoval and sequential recovery of copper and tetracycline with dual-functional chelating resin: roles of amine and carboxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chen; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tai-Peng; Li, Ai-Min

    2013-11-27

    A novel chelating resin (R-AC) bearing dual-functional groups (amino and carboxyl groups) was self-synthesized and it showed superior properties on synergistic coremoval of Cu(II) and tetracycline (TC) to commercial resins (amine, carboxyl, and hydrophobic types), which was deeply investigated by equilibrium and kinetic tests in binary, preloading, and saline systems. The adsorption of TC on R-AC was markedly enhanced when coexisted with Cu(II), up to 13 times of that in sole system, whereas Cu(II) uptake seldom decreased in the copresence of TC. Decomplexing-bridging, which included [Cu-TC] decomplexing and [R-Cu] bridging for TC, was demonstrated as the leading mechanism for the synergistic coremoval of Cu(II) and TC. Carboxyl groups of R-AC played a dominant role in decomplexing of [Cu-TC] complex and releasing free TC. Cu(II) coordinated with amine groups of R-AC was further proved to participate in bridging interaction with free TC, and the bridging stoichiometric ratio ([NH-Cu]: TC) possibly was 2:1. About 96.9% of TC and 99.3% of Cu could be sequentially recovered with dilute NaOH followed by HCl. Considering stable application for five cycles in simulated and practical wastewater, R-AC shows great potential in green and simple coremoval of antibiotic and heavy metal ions.

  19. Sequential inductive learning

    SciTech Connect

    Gratch, J.

    1996-12-31

    This article advocates a new model for inductive learning. Called sequential induction, it helps bridge classical fixed-sample learning techniques (which are efficient but difficult to formally characterize), and worst-case approaches (which provide strong statistical guarantees but are too inefficient for practical use). Learning proceeds as a sequence of decisions which are informed by training data. By analyzing induction at the level of these decisions, and by utilizing the only enough data to make each decision, sequential induction provides statistical guarantees but with substantially less data than worst-case methods require. The sequential inductive model is also useful as a method for determining a sufficient sample size for inductive learning and as such, is relevant to learning problems where the preponderance of data or the cost of gathering data precludes the use of traditional methods.

  20. Sequential dependencies in driving.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H; Mozer, Michael C; Trivedi, Mohan M

    2012-07-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find significant sequential effects in pedal-press response times that depend on the history of recent stimuli and responses. Response times are slowed up to 100 ms in particular cases, a delay that has dangerous practical consequences. Further, we observe a significant number of history-related pedal misapplications, which have recently been noted as a cause for concern in the automotive safety community. By anticipating these consequences of sequential context, driver assistance systems could mitigate the effects of performance degradations and thus critically improve driver safety. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Mapping of change in cerebral glucose utilization using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose double injection and the constrained weighted-integration method

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, K. |; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Yasuhara, Yoshifumi; Evans, A.C.; Gjedde, A.

    1996-12-01

    The authors developed a method for mapping the change in cerebral glucose utilization at two different physiological states using [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) double injection and the constrained weighted-integration method. They studied young normal subjects without (baseline-baseline group, n = 5) and with (baseline-stimulation group, n = 5) vibrotactile stimulation of the fingertips of the right hand. Dynamic scans were performed using positron emission tomography (PET) following an initial dose (the first session, 0--30 min) and an additional dose (the second session, 30--60 min). The parametric images of the net clearance of FDG from blood to brain (K*), unidirectional blood-to-brain clearance (K*{sub 1}) and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMR{sub glc}) of the two sessions were generated. The averaged subtraction (second minus first session) and t-statistic images were generated, which were rendered into Talairach`s sterotaxic coordinates and merged with the averaged magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) image. In the baseline-baseline group, regional K*, K*{sub 1}, and CMR{sub glc} in the first and second sessions were strongly correlated (r{sup 2} = 0.953, 0.935, and 0.951, respectively, n = 340). In the baseline-stimulation group, significant increases in these estimates were obtained in the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex (SI) (from 3.43 {+-} 0.78 to 4.02 {+-} 1.01 ml/100 g/min for K*, 7.85 {+-} 1.88 to 9.09 {+-} 1.71 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 28.0 {+-} 5.9 to 32.3 {+-} 5.5 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}), while there were no significant changes in the ipsilateral SI (from 3.45 {+-} 0.84 to 3.39 {+-} 0.72 ml/100 g/min for K*, 8.17 {+-} 2.33 to 8.37 {+-} 1.75 ml/100 g/min for K*{sub 1}, and 29.5 {+-} 8.1 to 29.1 {+-} 8.2 {micro}mol/100 g/min for CMR{sub glc}). Significant increases in K* and CMR{sub glc} in the contralateral SI were clearly demonstrated in the t-statistic image.

  2. Application of sequential filters in optical spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kazakov, B.N.; Mikheev, A.V.; Safiullin, G.M.

    1995-09-01

    Problems concerned with the application of the signal expansion in terms of rectangular functions in optical spectroscopy are considered. It is shown that a synchronous integrator is a simple and efficient filter of rectangular signals (sequential filter), and its operation is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the use of sequential filters instead of conventional harmonic ones allows one to extend the possibilities of optical spectrometers and not only to achieve a high sensitivity in recording optical spectra, but also to measure the lifetimes of excited states and to select the luminescence spectra of the centers with different lifetimes. 27 ref., 9 figs.

  3. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories—episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  4. Sequential Reliability Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiting, Mindert H.

    1991-01-01

    A method is proposed for sequential evaluation of reliability of psychometric instruments. Sample size is unfixed; a test statistic is computed after each person is sampled and a decision is made in each stage of the sampling process. Results from a series of Monte-Carlo experiments establish the method's efficiency. (SLD)

  5. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  6. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  7. Sequential memory: Binding dynamics.

    PubMed

    Afraimovich, Valentin; Gong, Xue; Rabinovich, Mikhail

    2015-10-01

    Temporal order memories are critical for everyday animal and human functioning. Experiments and our own experience show that the binding or association of various features of an event together and the maintaining of multimodality events in sequential order are the key components of any sequential memories-episodic, semantic, working, etc. We study a robustness of binding sequential dynamics based on our previously introduced model in the form of generalized Lotka-Volterra equations. In the phase space of the model, there exists a multi-dimensional binding heteroclinic network consisting of saddle equilibrium points and heteroclinic trajectories joining them. We prove here the robustness of the binding sequential dynamics, i.e., the feasibility phenomenon for coupled heteroclinic networks: for each collection of successive heteroclinic trajectories inside the unified networks, there is an open set of initial points such that the trajectory going through each of them follows the prescribed collection staying in a small neighborhood of it. We show also that the symbolic complexity function of the system restricted to this neighborhood is a polynomial of degree L - 1, where L is the number of modalities.

  8. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe and an automatic injection device, and as a ... etanercept injection.If your medication comes in a prefilled syringe or automatic injection device, use each syringe or ...

  9. Eyewitness confidence in simultaneous and sequential lineups: a criterion shift account for sequential mistaken identification overconfidence.

    PubMed

    Dobolyi, David G; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-12-01

    Confidence judgments for eyewitness identifications play an integral role in determining guilt during legal proceedings. Past research has shown that confidence in positive identifications is strongly associated with accuracy. Using a standard lineup recognition paradigm, we investigated accuracy using signal detection and ROC analyses, along with the tendency to choose a face with both simultaneous and sequential lineups. We replicated past findings of reduced rates of choosing with sequential as compared to simultaneous lineups, but notably found an accuracy advantage in favor of simultaneous lineups. Moreover, our analysis of the confidence-accuracy relationship revealed two key findings. First, we observed a sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect: despite an overall reduction in false alarms, confidence for false alarms that did occur was higher with sequential lineups than with simultaneous lineups, with no differences in confidence for correct identifications. This sequential mistaken identification overconfidence effect is an expected byproduct of the use of a more conservative identification criterion with sequential than with simultaneous lineups. Second, we found a steady drop in confidence for mistaken identifications (i.e., foil identifications and false alarms) from the first to the last face in sequential lineups, whereas confidence in and accuracy of correct identifications remained relatively stable. Overall, we observed that sequential lineups are both less accurate and produce higher confidence false identifications than do simultaneous lineups. Given the increasing prominence of sequential lineups in our legal system, our data argue for increased scrutiny and possibly a wholesale reevaluation of this lineup format. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helfritch, D.J.; Bortz, S.J.; Beittel, R.

    1994-03-01

    The integrated Dry Injection Process (IDIP) consists of combustion modification using low NO{sub x} burners to reduce NO{sub x} emissions, dry injection of hydrated line at economizer temperatures for primary capture of SO{sub 2}, dry injection of a commercial grade sodium bicarbonate at the air heater exit for additional SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal, and humidification for precipitator conditioning. IDIP offers the potential for simultaneously achieving 90% SO{sub 2} removal, and 65% NO{sub x} removal from a high sulfur flue gas. The process is well suited for new or retrofit applications since it can be incorporated within existing economizer and downstream ductwork. Subscale tests were performed in order to identify the best calcium and sodium sorbents. These tests involved the injection of calcium hydroxide and sodium sorbents at various points of the flue gas system downstream of a 0.25 MM BTU/hr. coal fired combustor, and the gas residence times, cooling rates and temperatures were comparable to those found for full-scale utility boilers. These tests verified that a high surface area hydrated lime provides maximum sorbent utilization and identified an alcohol-water hydrated lime as yielding the highest surface area and the best SO{sub 2} removal capability. The tests also identified sodium bicarbonate to be somewhat more effective than sodium sesquicarbonate for SO{sub 2} removal. The proof of concept demonstration was conducted on the large combustor at the Riley Stoker Research Facility in Worcester, MA. When economically compared to conventional limestone slurry scrubbing on a 300 MW plant, the dry injection process shows lower capital cost but higher operating cost. Hydrated lime injection can be less costly than limestone scrubbing when two or more of the following conditions exist: plant is small (less than 100MW); yearly operating hours are small (less than 3000); and the remaining plant lifetime is small (less than 10 years).

  11. Quantitative volumetric analysis of gliomas with sequential MRI and ¹¹C-methionine PET assessment: patterns of integration in therapy planning.

    PubMed

    Arbizu, Javier; Tejada, S; Marti-Climent, J M; Diez-Valle, R; Prieto, E; Quincoces, G; Vigil, C; Idoate, M A; Zubieta, J L; Peñuelas, I; Richter, J A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the volumetric integration patterns of standard MRI and (11)C-methionine positron emission tomography (PET) images in the surgery planning of gliomas and their relationship to the histological grade. We studied 23 patients with suspected or previously treated glioma who underwent preoperative (11)C-methionine PET because MRI was imprecise in defining the surgical target contour. Images were transferred to the treatment planning system, coregistered and fused (BrainLAB). Tumour delineation was performed by (11)C-methionine PET thresholding (vPET) and manual segmentation over MRI (vMRI). A 3-D volumetric study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of each modality to tumour target volume. All cases were surgically treated and histological classification was performed according to WHO grades. Additionally, several biopsy samples were taken according to the results derived either from PET or from MRI and analysed separately. Fifteen patients had high-grade tumours [ten glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and five anaplastic), whereas eight patients had low-grade tumours. Biopsies from areas with high (11)C-methionine uptake without correspondence in MRI showed tumour proliferation, including infiltrative zones, distinguishing them from dysplasia and radionecrosis. Two main PET/MRI integration patterns emerged after analysis of volumetric data: pattern vMRI-in-vPET (11/23) and pattern vPET-in-vMRI (9/23). Besides, a possible third pattern with differences in both directions (vMRI-diff-vPET) could also be observed (3/23). There was a statistically significant association between the tumour classification and integration patterns described above (p < 0.001, κ = 0.72). GBM was associated with pattern vMRI-in-vPET (9/10), low-grade with pattern vPET-in-vMRI (7/8) and anaplastic with pattern vMRI-diff-vPET (3/5). The metabolically active tumour volume observed in (11)C-methionine PET differs from the volume of MRI by showing areas

  12. Development of a gel-to-gel electro-kinetic pinched injection method for an integrated micro-fluidic based DNA analyser.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Jennifer A; Robinson, Sarah; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-10-12

    An integrated gel supported micro-fluidic system is reported, in which PCR products can be efficiently injected into a capillary electrophoresis device. The gel supported system is designed to provide greater stability to reagents during long periods of dormancy, enabling the mass production of one use chips encapsulating all required reagents at the time of manufacturing. This simultaneously diminishes the risk of sample contamination, and reduces the amount of external hardware required for auxiliary flow control, thus increasing the potential for portability. After PCR amplification was performed in a polysaccharide gel matrix, the PCR product was injected into the separation gel polymer matrix by executing a capillary-based electro-kinetic pinched injection across a gel-to-gel interface. The gel-to-gel system delivered a precise and accurate plug into the separation polymer, which offered more stable electro-kinetic control of the sample compared to solution based methodology even when bubbles were present in the system. Suitable voltage control was proven to provide a repeatable electro-kinetic injection of PCR product sufficient for an on-chip separation of multiple loci by capillary electrophoresis.

  13. Hyaluronan injection in murine osteoarthritis prevents TGFbeta 1-induced synovial neovascularization and fibrosis and maintains articular cartilage integrity by a CD44-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The mechanism by which intra-articular injection of hyaluronan (HA) ameliorates joint pathology is unknown. Animal studies have shown that HA can reduce synovial activation, periarticular fibrosis and cartilage erosion; however, its specific effects on the different cell types involved remain unclear. We have used the TTR (TGFbeta1 injection and Treadmill Running) model of murine osteoarthritis (OA), which exhibits many OA-like changes, including synovial activation, to examine in vivo tissue-specific effects of intra-articular HA. Methods The kinetics of clearance of fluorotagged HA from joints was examined with whole-body imaging. Naïve and treated knee joints were examined macroscopically for cartilage erosion, meniscal damage and fibrosis. Quantitative histopathology was done with Safranin O for cartilage and with Hematoxylin & Eosin for synovium. Gene expression in joint tissues for Acan, Col1a1, Col2a1, Col3a1, Col5a1, Col10a1, Adamts5 and Mmp13 was done by quantitative PCR. The abundance and distribution of aggrecan, collagen types I, II, III, V and X, ADAMTS5 and MMP13 were examined by immunohistochemistry. Results Injected HA showed a half-life of less than 2 h in the murine knee joint. At the tissue level, HA protected against neovascularization and fibrosis of the meniscus/synovium and maintained articular cartilage integrity in wild-type but not in Cd44 knockout mice. HA injection enhanced the expression of chondrogenic genes and proteins and blocked that of fibrogenic/degradative genes and proteins in cartilage/subchondral bone, whereas it blocked activation of both groups in meniscus/synovium. In all locations it reduced the expression/protein for Mmp13 and blocked Adamts5 expression but not its protein abundance in the synovial lining. Conclusions The injection of HA, 24 h after TGFbeta1 injection, inhibited the cascade of OA-like joint changes seen after treadmill use in the TTR model of OA. In terms of mechanism, tissue protection by

  14. Sequential measurements of conjugate observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, Claudio; Heinosaari, Teiko; Toigo, Alessandro

    2011-07-01

    We present a unified treatment of sequential measurements of two conjugate observables. Our approach is to derive a mathematical structure theorem for all the relevant covariant instruments. As a consequence of this result, we show that every Weyl-Heisenberg covariant observable can be implemented as a sequential measurement of two conjugate observables. This method is applicable both in finite- and infinite-dimensional Hilbert spaces, therefore covering sequential spin component measurements as well as position-momentum sequential measurements.

  15. The Activity-Integrated Method for Quality Assessment of Reduning Injection by On-Line DPPH-CE-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Er-wei; He, Jun; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE–DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection. PMID:25181475

  16. Using tunnel junctions to grow monolithically integrated optically pumped semipolar III-nitride yellow quantum wells on top of electrically injected blue quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Kowsz, Stacy J; Young, Erin C; Yonkee, Benjamin P; Pynn, Christopher D; Farrell, Robert M; Speck, James S; DenBaars, Steven P; Nakamura, Shuji

    2017-02-20

    We report a device that monolithically integrates optically pumped (20-21) III-nitride quantum wells (QWs) with 560 nm emission on top of electrically injected QWs with 450 nm emission. The higher temperature growth of the blue light-emitting diode (LED) was performed first, which prevented thermal damage to the higher indium content InGaN of the optically pumped QWs. A tunnel junction (TJ) was incorporated between the optically pumped and electrically injected QWs; this TJ enabled current spreading in the buried LED. Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition enabled the growth of InGaN QWs with high radiative efficiency, while molecular beam epitaxy was leveraged to achieve activated buried p-type GaN and the TJ. This initial device exhibited dichromatic optically polarized emission with a polarization ratio of 0.28. Future improvements in spectral distribution should enable phosphor-free polarized white light emission.

  17. Sequential/parallel production of potential Malaria vaccines--A direct way from single batch to quasi-continuous integrated production.

    PubMed

    Luttmann, Reiner; Borchert, Sven-Oliver; Mueller, Christian; Loegering, Kai; Aupert, Florian; Weyand, Stephan; Kober, Christian; Faber, Bart; Cornelissen, Gesine

    2015-11-10

    An intensification of pharmaceutical protein production processes can be achieved by the integration of unit operations and application of recurring sequences of all biochemical process steps. Within optimization procedures each individual step as well as the overall process has to be in the focus of scientific interest. This paper includes a description of the development of a fully automated production plant, starting with a two step upstream followed by a four step downstream line, including cell clarification, broth cleaning with microfiltration, product concentration with ultrafiltration and purification with column chromatography. Recursive production strategies are developed where a cell breeding, the protein production and the whole downstream is operated in series but also in parallel, each main operation shifted by one day. The quality and reproducibility of the recursive protein expression is monitored on-line by Golden Batch and this is controlled by Model Predictive Multivariate Control (MPMC). As a demonstration process the production of potential Malaria vaccines with Pichia pastoris is under investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Building and exhumation of the Western Carpathians: New constraints from sequentially restored, balanced cross sections integrated with low-temperature thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelluccio, Ada; Mazzoli, Stefano; Andreucci, Benedetta; Jankowski, Leszek; Szaniawski, Rafał; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Western Carpathian orogeny has been the subject of intense scientific debate due to the occurrence of enigmatic features, leading several authors to provide contrasting geological models. In this paper, a new interpretation for the tectonic evolution of the Western Carpathians is provided based on the following: (i) an analysis of the stratigraphy of the Mesozoic-Tertiary successions across the thrust belt domains, (ii) a reappraisal of the stratigraphy and sedimentology of the "tectonic mélange" (i.e., the so-called Pieniny Klippen Belt) marking the suture between the Inner and Outer Carpathians, and (iii) the construction of a series of balanced and restored cross sections, validated by 2-D forward modeling. Our analysis provides a robust correlation of the stratigraphy from the Outer to the Inner Carpathians, independently of the occurrence of oceanic lithosphere in the area, and allows for the reinterpretation of the tectonic relationships among the Inner Carpathians, the Outer Carpathians, and the Pieniny Klippen Belt and the exhumation mechanisms affecting this orogenic belt. In order to constrain the evolution during the last 20 Ma, our model also integrates previously published and new apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He data. These latter indicate a middle-late Miocene exhumation of the Pieniny Klippen Belt. In this study, the recent regional uplift of the Pieniny Klippen Belt is described for the first time using a 2-D kinematic model for the tectonic evolution of the Western Carpathians.

  19. Optoelectronic cross-injection locking of a dual-wavelength photonic integrated circuit for low-phase-noise millimeter-wave generation.

    PubMed

    Kervella, Gaël; Van Dijk, Frederic; Pillet, Grégoire; Lamponi, Marco; Chtioui, Mourad; Morvan, Loïc; Alouini, Mehdi

    2015-08-01

    We report on the stabilization of a 90-GHz millimeter-wave signal generated from a fully integrated photonic circuit. The chip consists of two DFB single-mode lasers whose optical signals are combined on a fast photodiode to generate a largely tunable heterodyne beat note. We generate an optical comb from each laser with a microwave synthesizer, and by self-injecting the resulting signal, we mutually correlate the phase noise of each DFB and stabilize the beatnote on a multiple of the frequency delivered by the synthesizer. The performances achieved beat note linewidth below 30 Hz.

  20. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pegfilgrastim comes as a solution (liquid) in prefilled injection syringes and in a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you are using pegfilgrastim to ...

  1. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  2. Ondansetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Zofran® Injection ... Ondansetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and surgery. Ondansetron is in a ... medications: or any of the ingredients in ondansetron injection. Ask your pharmacist for a list of the ...

  3. Reliable VLSI sequential controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, S.; Maki, G.; Shamanna, M.

    1990-01-01

    A VLSI architecture for synchronous sequential controllers is presented that has attractive qualities for producing reliable circuits. In these circuits, one hardware implementation can realize any flow table with a maximum of 2(exp n) internal states and m inputs. Also all design equations are identical. A real time fault detection means is presented along with a strategy for verifying the correctness of the checking hardware. This self check feature can be employed with no increase in hardware. The architecture can be modified to achieve fail safe designs. With no increase in hardware, an adaptable circuit can be realized that allows replacement of faulty transitions with fault free transitions.

  4. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Matteucci, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto; Zór, Kinga; Emnéus, Jenny; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We compare ultrasonic welding (UW) and thermal bonding (TB) for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM) microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones obtained using TB. Parameters such as metal thickness of electrodes, depth of electrode embedding, delivered power, and height of energy directors (for UW), as well as pressure and temperature (for TB), were systematically studied to evaluate the two bonding methods and requirements for optimal electrochemical performance. The presented technology is intended for easy and effective integration of polymeric Lab-on-Chip systems to encourage their use in research, commercialization and education. PMID:27801809

  5. Comparison of Ultrasonic Welding and Thermal Bonding for the Integration of Thin Film Metal Electrodes in Injection Molded Polymeric Lab-on-Chip Systems for Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Matteucci, Marco; Heiskanen, Arto; Zór, Kinga; Emnéus, Jenny; Taboryski, Rafael

    2016-10-27

    We compare ultrasonic welding (UW) and thermal bonding (TB) for the integration of embedded thin-film gold electrodes for electrochemical applications in injection molded (IM) microfluidic chips. The UW bonded chips showed a significantly superior electrochemical performance compared to the ones obtained using TB. Parameters such as metal thickness of electrodes, depth of electrode embedding, delivered power, and height of energy directors (for UW), as well as pressure and temperature (for TB), were systematically studied to evaluate the two bonding methods and requirements for optimal electrochemical performance. The presented technology is intended for easy and effective integration of polymeric Lab-on-Chip systems to encourage their use in research, commercialization and education.

  6. Marker Sequential Test (MaST) design.

    PubMed

    Freidlin, Boris; Korn, Edward L; Gray, Robert

    2014-02-01

    New targeted anticancer therapies often benefit only a subset of patients with a given cancer. Definitive evaluation of these agents may require phase III randomized clinical trial designs that integrate evaluation of the new treatment and the predictive ability of the biomarker that putatively determines the sensitive subset. We propose a new integrated biomarker design, the Marker Sequential Test (MaST) design, that allows sequential testing of the treatment effect in the biomarker subgroups and overall population while controlling the relevant type I error rates. After defining the testing and error framework for integrated biomarker designs, we review the commonly used approaches to integrated biomarker testing. We then present a general form of the MaST design and describe how it can be used to provide proper control of false-positive error rates for biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subgroups. The operating characteristics of the MaST design are compared by analytical methods and simulations to the sequential subgroup-specific design that sequentially assesses the treatment effect in the biomarker subgroups. Practical aspects of MaST design implementation are discussed. The MaST design is shown to have higher power relative to the sequential subgroup-specific design in situations where the treatment effect is homogeneous across biomarker subgroups, while preserving the power for settings where treatment benefit is limited to biomarker-positive subgroup. For example, in the time-to-event setting considered with 30% biomarker-positive prevalence, the MaST design provides up to a 30% increase in power in the biomarker-positive and biomarker-negative subgroups when the treatment benefits all patients equally, while sustaining less than a 2% loss of power against alternatives where the benefit is limited to the biomarker-positive subgroup. The proposed design is appropriate for settings where it is reasonable to assume that the treatment will not be

  7. Integrating qualitative and quantitative characterization of traditional Chinese medicine injection by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-yuan; Xiao, Xue; Luo, Juan-min; Fu, Chan; Wang, Qiao-wei; Wang, Yi-ming; Liang, Qiong-lin; Luo, Guo-an

    2014-06-01

    The present study aims to describe and exemplify an integrated strategy of the combination of qualitative and quantitative characterization of a multicomponent mixture for the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections with the example of Danhong injection (DHI). The standardized chemical profile of DHI has been established based on liquid chromatography with diode array detection. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray multistage tandem ion-trap mass spectrometry have been developed to identify the major constituents in DHI. The structures of 26 compounds including nucleotides, phenolic acids, and flavonoid glycosides were identified or tentatively characterized. Meanwhile, the simultaneous determination of seven marker constituents, including uridine, adenosine, danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, rosmarinic acid, and salvianolic acid B, in DHI was performed by multiwavelength detection based on high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The integrated qualitative and quantitative characterization strategy provided an effective and reliable pattern for the comprehensive and systematic characterization of the complex traditional Chinese medicine system.

  8. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Boniva® Injection ... Ibandronate injection is used to treat osteoporosis (a condition in which the bones become thin and weak and break ... Ibandronate injection comes as a solution (liquid) to be injected into a vein by a doctor or nurse in ...

  9. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Leuprolide injection comes as a long-acting suspension (Lupron) that is injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) by a doctor or nurse in a medical ... Depot-4 month, Lupron Depot-6 Month). Leuprolide injection also comes as a long-acting suspension (Eligard) that is injected subcutaneously (just under ...

  10. Integration of Physical Design and Sequential Optimization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-06

    synchronous digital cir- cuits. A sufficient condition for the solution to the optimal clock scheduling problem in the face of process variations is given... Optimization For Lagrangian Dual 1: k← 0 2: x,y← argminx,y L(x,y,k) 3: while KKT conditions are not satisfied do 4: k←max(0,k+ γ ·g(x,y)) 5: x,y← argminx,y L(x...associated with the clock distribution tree in a digital synchronous circuit. A model for this problem and a sufficient condition for its optimal solution is

  11. Generalized random sequential adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarjus, G.; Schaaf, P.; Talbot, J.

    1990-12-01

    Adsorption of hard spherical particles onto a flat uniform surface is analyzed by using generalized random sequential adsorption (RSA) models. These models are defined by releasing the condition of immobility present in the usual RSA rules to allow for desorption or surface diffusion. Contrary to the simple RSA case, generalized RSA processes are no longer irreversible and the system formed by the adsorbed particles on the surface may reach an equilibrium state. We show by using a distribution function approach that the kinetics of such processes can be described by means of an exact infinite hierarchy of equations reminiscent of the Kirkwood-Salsburg hierarchy for systems at equilibrium. We illustrate the way in which the systems produced by adsorption/desorption and by adsorption/diffusion evolve between the two limits represented by ``simple RSA'' and ``equilibrium'' by considering approximate solutions in terms of truncated density expansions.

  12. Quantitative perceived depth from sequential monocular decamouflage.

    PubMed

    Brooks, K R; Gillam, B J

    2006-03-01

    We present a novel binocular stimulus without conventional disparity cues whose presence and depth are revealed by sequential monocular stimulation (delay > or = 80 ms). Vertical white lines were occluded as they passed behind an otherwise camouflaged black rectangular target. The location (and instant) of the occlusion event, decamouflaging the target's edges, differed in the two eyes. Probe settings to match the depth of the black rectangular target showed a monotonic increase with simulated depth. Control tests discounted the possibility of subjects integrating retinal disparities over an extended temporal window or using temporal disparity. Sequential monocular decamouflage was found to be as precise and accurate as conventional simultaneous stereopsis with equivalent depths and exposure durations.

  13. Student Storytelling through Sequential Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, David

    2007-01-01

    If you are interested in using sequential art forms such as comic books in your EFL classroom, this article is full of helpful advice. Reading sequential art is beneficial because students can work with authentic texts with real language and graphic support. Students can also apply research and cultural knowledge to the creation of their own…

  14. Exploratory Sequential Data Analysis: Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Penelope M.; Fisher, Carolanne

    1994-01-01

    Explains exploratory sequential data analysis (ESDA) and outlines ESDA characteristics that could help human-computer interaction investigators using sequential data make better conceptual and methodological choices. Behavioral, cognitive, and social factors are considered, and failures of expertise, time management, and databased problems are…

  15. Multi-Attribute Sequential Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearden, J. Neil; Connolly, Terry

    2007-01-01

    This article describes empirical and theoretical results from two multi-attribute sequential search tasks. In both tasks, the DM sequentially encounters options described by two attributes and must pay to learn the values of the attributes. In the "continuous" version of the task the DM learns the precise numerical value of an attribute when she…

  16. Efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and exercise-based rehabilitation programme, administered as isolated or integrated therapeutic regimens for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Saccomanno, Maristella F; Donati, Fabrizio; Careri, Silvia; Bartoli, Matteo; Severini, Gabriele; Milano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and exercise-based rehabilitation (EBR) programme, administered as isolated or integrated for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. One hundred sixty-five patients affected by moderate degrees of knee OA were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (HA) underwent three HA injections (one every 2 weeks); group 2 (EBR) underwent 20 treatment sessions in a month of an individualized programme; and group 3 (HA + EBR) received both treatments simultaneously. Primary outcome was the Italian version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index; secondary outcome was the evaluation of active range of movement (AROM). All patients were evaluated before and 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Two patients in each group were lost to follow-up. No adverse events occurred. All groups experienced improvements at 1-month follow-up. No further improvements could be detected within groups over time. At 1-month follow-up, WOMAC pain subscale showed significant improvement in group 3 compared to group 1 (p = 0.043). WOMAC pain, stiffness and function subscales showed that group 2 significantly worsened between 1 and 6 months after treatment (p = 0.004, p = 0.026 and p = 0.025, respectively). AROM revealed no significant differences between and within groups over time. Intra-articular HA injections and individualized rehabilitation programmes administered in isolation or in combination are effective in improving knee function and pain relief. The combined treatment showed the greatest pain relief at 1-month follow-up compared to either in isolation. Compared to the previous studies, this is the first study, which proposed an EBR programme tailored to the compartment of the knee joint most involved in the degenerative process. I.

  17. Preservation of Geometrical Integrity of Supersolidus-Liquid-Phase-Sintered SKD11 Tool Steels Prepared with Powder Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, K. H.; Hwang, K. S.

    2011-07-01

    The powder injection molded SKD11 tool steels often manifest shape retention problems during supersolidus liquid phase sintering due to the difficulties in controlling the amount of liquid phase. The typical temperature range for the sintering of SKD11 is only 10 K, between 1503 and 1513 K (1230 and 1240 °C), and this narrow sintering range demands a special furnace with very uniform temperature distribution. Through the addition of carbides, in particular TiC, this problem is resolved by enlarging the liquid + γ + carbide region in the phase diagram and by impeding the grain growth with the carbides. The resulting sintering window is broadened to 40 K, between 1513 and 1553 K (1240 and 1280 °C). The relevant mechanisms on the improvement of shape retention are discussed with a focus on the effect of carbide addition on the changes in the phase diagram and the microstructure. A guideline for the selection of effective carbides is also proposed based on the experimental results and the phase diagram analyses.

  18. Proof of concept testing of an integrated dry injection system for SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control: Quarterly progress report, January--March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Helfritch, D. J.; Beittel, R.; Bortz, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The team of Cottrell Environment Sciences, KVB and Riley Stoker will conduct a proof a concept demonstration of an Integrated Dry Injection Process. The process consists of combustion modification using low NO/sub x/ burners to reduce NO/sub x/ (i.e., NO + NO/sub 2/) emissions, dry injection of hydrated lime at economizer temperatures for primary capture of SO/sub 2/, and addition of a commercial grade sodium bicarbonate at the air heater exit for additional SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ removal. This concept is illustrated.The process offers the potential for simultaneously achieving 90+% SO/sub 2/ removal, and 75+% NO/sub x/ removal from a high sulfur flue gas, and is well suited for new or retrofit applications since it can be incorporated within the existing economizer and downstream duct. Capital costs are kept to a minimum since no large system components such as catalytic beds, spray dryers or scrubbers are required. The proof of concept demonstration will be conducted in the large combustor at the Riley Stoker research facility in Worcester, MA. 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Investigation of injection dose and camera integration time on quantifying pharmacokinetics of a Cy5.5-GX1 probe with dynamic fluorescence imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yunpeng; Chen, Xueli; Yin, Jipeng; Kang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Guodong; Zhang, Xianghan; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Liang, Jimin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the influence of a tracer injection dose (ID) and camera integration time (IT) on quantifying pharmacokinetics of Cy5.5-GX1 in gastric cancer BGC-823 cell xenografted mice. Based on three factors, including whether or not to inject free GX1, the ID of Cy5.5-GX1, and the camera IT, 32 mice were randomly divided into eight groups and received 60-min dynamic fluorescence imaging. Gurfinkel exponential model (GEXPM) and Lammertsma simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) combined with a singular value decomposition analysis were used to quantitatively analyze the acquired dynamic fluorescent images. The binding potential (Bp) and the sum of the pharmacokinetic rate constants (SKRC) of Cy5.5-GX1 were determined by the SRTM and EXPM, respectively. In the tumor region, the SKRC value exhibited an obvious trend with change in the tracer ID, but the Bp value was not sensitive to it. Both the Bp and SKRC values were independent of the camera IT. In addition, the ratio of the tumor-to-muscle region was correlated with the camera IT but was independent of the tracer ID. Dynamic fluorescence imaging in conjunction with a kinetic analysis may provide more quantitative information than static fluorescence imaging, especially for a priori information on the optimal ID of targeted probes for individual therapy.

  20. Application of direct-injection detector integrated with the multi-pumping flow system to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index.

    PubMed

    Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Iwanowicz, Magdalena; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kojło, Anatol

    2016-03-10

    In this work, we present a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method based on direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with the multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index. In this flow system, the sample and the reagents are injected directly into the cone-shaped detection cell placed in front of the photomultiplier window. Such construction of the detection chamber allows for fast measurement of the CL signal in stopped-flow conditions immediately after mixing the reagents. The proposed DID-CL-MPFS method is based on the chemiluminescence of nanocolloidal manganese(IV)-hexametaphosphate-ethanol system. The application of ethanol as a sensitizer, eliminated the use of carcinogenic formaldehyde. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the chemiluminescence intensities are proportional to the concentration of gallic acid in the range from 5 to 350 ng mL(-1). The DID-CL-MPFS method offers a number of advantages, including low limit of detection (0.80 ng mL(-1)), high precision (RSD = 3.3%) and high sample throughput (144 samples h(-1)) as well as low consumption of reagents, energy and low waste generation. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the total polyphenol index (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) in a variety of plant-derived food samples (wine, tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs, spices).

  1. Method for sequential injection of liquid samples for radioisotope separations

    DOEpatents

    Egorov, Oleg B.; Grate, Jay W.; Bray, Lane A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a method of separating a short-lived daughter isotope from a longer lived parent isotope, with recovery of the parent isotope for further use. Using a system with a bi-directional pump and one or more valves, a solution of the parent isotope is processed to generate two separate solutions, one of which contains the daughter isotope, from which the parent has been removed with a high decontamination factor, and the other solution contains the recovered parent isotope. The process can be repeated on this solution of the parent isotope. The system with the fluid drive and one or more valves is controlled by a program on a microprocessor executing a series of steps to accomplish the operation. In one approach, the cow solution is passed through a separation medium that selectively retains the desired daughter isotope, while the parent isotope and the matrix pass through the medium. After washing this medium, the daughter is released from the separation medium using another solution. With the automated generator of the present invention, all solution handling steps necessary to perform a daughter/parent radionuclide separation, e.g. Bi-213 from Ac-225 "cow" solution, are performed in a consistent, enclosed, and remotely operated format. Operator exposure and spread of contamination are greatly minimized compared to the manual generator procedure described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/789,973, now U.S. Pat. No. 5,749,042, herein incorporated by reference. Using 16 mCi of Ac-225 there was no detectable external contamination of the instrument components.

  2. Sequential MRI Study of Graft Integrity and Signal Following Pediatric All-epiphyseal ACL Reconstruction: Does the “Sharp Turn” at the Socket of the Distal Femoral Aperture Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Tuca, Maria; Greditzer, Harry Gus; Gausden, Elizabeth Bishop; Uppstrom, Tyler J.; Potter, Hollis G.; Cordasco, Frank A.; Green, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    . Perigraft scarring tended to reduce with follow-up (p=0.057) though not significantly, while synovitis had a significant reduction over time (p=0.01). On average, normalized SI showed no significant differences between measurements taken in different regions of the graft (p=0.58). When comparing the graft SI from 1st to 2nd MRI, no significant differences were found in any of the locations: femoral tunnel (p=0.14), proximal turn (p=0.11), midsubstance (p=0,29), intra-articular distal (p=0.10), or tibial tunnel (p=0.15). All 16 athletes returned to their prior sport at the same level of performance without re-injury. Conclusion: ACL grafts in skeletally immature patients with all-epiphyseal reconstructions maintain a stable intensity signaling at long term MRI follow-up, with no significant signal reduction over time. Despite the sharp turn created at the distal femoral socket aperture in physeal-sparing reconstructions, no particular anatomic location of the graft presents significantly different signal intensity over others. This is the first sequential mri study in pediatric epiphyseal acl reconstructions demonstrating postoperative maintenance of graft integrity and graft signal.

  3. Adaptive sequential controller

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Xing, J.; Butler, N.G.; Rodriguez, A.

    1994-11-01

    An adaptive sequential controller for controlling a circuit breaker or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer. 15 figs.

  4. Adaptive sequential controller

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Xing, Jian; Butler, Nicholas G.; Rodriguez, Alonso

    1994-01-01

    An adaptive sequential controller (50/50') for controlling a circuit breaker (52) or other switching device to substantially eliminate transients on a distribution line caused by closing and opening the circuit breaker. The device adaptively compensates for changes in the response time of the circuit breaker due to aging and environmental effects. A potential transformer (70) provides a reference signal corresponding to the zero crossing of the voltage waveform, and a phase shift comparator circuit (96) compares the reference signal to the time at which any transient was produced when the circuit breaker closed, producing a signal indicative of the adaptive adjustment that should be made. Similarly, in controlling the opening of the circuit breaker, a current transformer (88) provides a reference signal that is compared against the time at which any transient is detected when the circuit breaker last opened. An adaptive adjustment circuit (102) produces a compensation time that is appropriately modified to account for changes in the circuit breaker response, including the effect of ambient conditions and aging. When next opened or closed, the circuit breaker is activated at an appropriately compensated time, so that it closes when the voltage crosses zero and opens when the current crosses zero, minimizing any transients on the distribution line. Phase angle can be used to control the opening of the circuit breaker relative to the reference signal provided by the potential transformer.

  5. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... body and causes pain, swelling, and damage) including: rheumatoid arthritis (condition in which the body attacks its own ... doctor.If golimumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may also be injected intravenously (into a ...

  6. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... If you are using adalimumab injection to treat rheumatoid arthritis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  7. Ipilimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while receiving ipilimumab injection, call your doctor. Ipilimumab injection may cause your baby to be born too early or to die before birth.

  8. Teniposide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in men. You should not become pregnant or breast-feed while you are receiving teniposide injection. If you or your partner become pregnant while receiving teniposide injection, call your doctor. Teniposide may harm the fetus.

  9. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who ... with doxorubicin. Dexrazoxane injection (Totect) is used to decrease damage to the skin and tissues that may ...

  10. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Colistimethate injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work ...

  11. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  12. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition. Keep all appointments to receive natalizumab injection even if you feel well. ... tests to check your body's response to natalizumab injection.It is important ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  13. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking opioid medications, you should stop using methylnaltrexone injection as well.You should stop taking other laxative medications when you start using methylnaltrexone injection. However, be sure to let your doctor know ...

  14. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to treat the symptoms associated with advanced prostate cancer. Triptorelin injection (Triptodur) is used to treat central ... a medical office or clinic. When used for prostate cancer, an injection of 3.75 mg of triptorelin ( ...

  15. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  16. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  17. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron injection should not be used to prevent ... a single injection just before the end of surgery or as soon as nausea or vomiting occurs. ...

  18. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Levoleucovorin injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of cancer. Levoleucovorin injection is also used to treat people ...

  19. Etelcalcetide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Etelcalcetide injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid ... blood when the kidneys are not working properly.) Etelcalcetide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  20. Dupilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes the ... use other medications for their condition or whose eczema has not responded to other medications. Dupilumab injection ...

  1. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic reactions. Methylprednisolone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis (a disease in which the ... laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using methylprednisolone injection.If you ...

  2. Clindamycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your treatment with clindamycin injection or during the first several months after your treatment is finished: watery or bloody stools, diarrhea, stomach cramps, or fever.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving clindamycin injection.

  3. Obinutuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Obinutuzumab injection is used with chlorambucil (Leukeran) to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Obinutuzumab injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pralatrexate injection is used to treat peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL; a form of cancer that begins in a ... come back after treatment with other medications. Pralatrexate injection has not been shown to help people who ...

  6. Cyanocobalamin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cyanocobalamin injection is used to treat and prevent a lack of vitamin B12 that may be caused by any ... organs) and permanent damage to the nerves. Cyanocobalamin injection also may be given as a test to ...

  7. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Paclitaxel injection manufactured with human albumin is used to treat breast cancer that has not improved or that has come back after treatment with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to ...

  8. Peramivir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Peramivir injection is used to treat some types of influenza infection ('flu') in people who have had symptoms of ... flu for no longer than 2 days. Peramivir injection is in a class of medications called neuraminidase ...

  9. Cefotetan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefotetan injection is used to treat infections of the lungs, skin, bones, joints, stomach area, blood, female reproductive organs, and urinary tract. Cefotetan injection is also used before surgery to prevent infections. ...

  10. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who ... that removes LDL from the blood), but mipomersen injection should not be used along with this treatment. ...

  11. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romiplostim injection is used to increase the number of platelets (cells that help the blood to clot) in order ... low number of platelets in the blood). Romiplostim injection should only be used in people who cannot ...

  12. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrocortisone injection is used to treat symptoms of low corticosteroid levels (lack of certain substances that are usually produced ... also used to treat severe allergic reactions. Hydrocortisone injection is used in the management of multiple sclerosis ( ...

  13. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palivizumab injection is used to help prevent respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; common virus that can cause serious lung infections) ... or have certain heart or lung diseases. Palivizumab injection is not used to treat the symptoms of ...

  14. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large amounts of alcohol to avoid drinking again. Naltrexone injection is also used along with counseling and social ...

  15. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tesamorelin injection is used to decrease the amount of extra fat in the stomach area in adults with human ... fat in certain areas of the body). Tesamorelin injection is not used to help with weight loss. ...

  16. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Tigecycline injection used to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a ... area between the chest and the waist). Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that ...

  17. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Eculizumab injection is used to treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH: a type of anemia in which too many red ... oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic ...

  18. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pembrolizumab injection is used to treat melanoma (a type of skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery or ... spread to other parts of the body. Pembrolizumab injection is also used to treat a certain type ...

  19. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  20. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  1. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  2. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  3. Time-Window Sequential Analysis: An Introduction for Pediatric Psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Abbe Marrs; Berlin, Kristoffer S.; Bakeman, Roger; Kain, Zeev N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Pediatric psychologists are often interested in interactions among individuals (e.g., doctors and patients, parents and children). Most research examining the nature of these interactions has used correlational analyses. Sequential analysis provides greater detail on contingencies during interactions and the way that interactions play out over time. The purpose of this article is to offer a non-technical introduction to sequential analyses for pediatric psychologists. Methods A more recent derivation of the basic method, called time-window sequential analysis, is introduced and distinguished from other forms of sequential analysis. Results A step-by-step pediatric psychology example of time-window sequential analysis is provided and the integration of sequential analysis with traditional statistical methods is discussed. An example of physician–child interaction during anesthesia induction is used to illustrate the technique. Conclusion Sequential analysis is a technique that is useful to pediatric psychologists who are interested in contingencies among data collected over time. PMID:20392791

  4. Self-aligned BCB planarization method for high-frequency signal injection in a VCSEL with an integrated modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marigo-Lombart, Ludovic; Doucet, Jean-Baptiste; Lecestre, Aurélie; Reig, Benjamin; Rousset, Bernard; Thienpont, Hugo; Panajotov, Krassimir; Almuneau, Guilhem

    2016-04-01

    The huge increase of datacom capacities requires lasers sources with more and more bandwidth performances. Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSEL) in direct modulation is a good candidate, already widely used for short communication links such as in datacenters. Recently several different approaches have been proposed to further extend the direct modulation bandwidth of these devices, by improving the VCSEL structure, or by combining the VCSEL with another high speed element such as lateral slow light modulator or transistor/laser based structure (TVCSEL). We propose to increase the modulation bandwidth by vertically integrating a continuous-wave VCSEL with a high-speed electro-modulator. This vertical structure implies multiple electrodes with sufficiently good electrical separation between the different input electrical signals. This high frequency modulation requires both good electrical insulation between metal electrodes and an optimized design of the coplanar lines. BenzoCyclobutene (BCB) thanks to its low dielectric constant, low losses, low moisture absorption and good thermal stability, is often used as insulating layer. Also, BCB planarization offers the advantages of simpler and more reliable technological process flow in such integrated VCSEL/modulator structures with important reliefs. As described by Burdeaux et al. a degree of planarization (DOP) of about 95% can be achieved by simple spin coating whatever the device thickness. In most of the cases, the BCB planarization process requires an additional photolithography step in order to open an access to the mesa surface, thus involving a tight mask alignment and resulting in a degraded planarization. In this paper, we propose a self-aligned process with improved BCB planarization by combining a hot isostatic pressing derived from nanoimprint techniques with a dry plasma etching step.

  5. Cidofovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in babies whose mothers received cidofovir injection during pregnancy. You should not use cidofovir injection while you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant unless your doctor decides that this is the best treatment for your condition.Cidofovir injection has caused tumors ...

  6. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Albiglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use albiglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using albiglutide injection without talking ...

  7. Nalbuphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of nalbuphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... nalbuphine injection.You may receive nalbuphine injection in a hospital, ...

  8. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Liraglutide injection (Victoza) is not used to treat type 1 ... does not cure it. Continue to use liraglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using liraglutide injection without talking ...

  9. Meperidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of meperidine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... meperidine injection.If you have used meperidine injection for longer ...

  10. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood) when other medications did not control levels well enough. Dulaglutide injection is not used to treat type 1 diabetes ( ... does not cure it. Continue to use dulaglutide injection even if you feel well. Do not stop using dulaglutide injection without talking ...

  11. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of morphine injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side effects that you experience. Talk to your doctor about how you are feeling ... with morphine injection.If you have used morphine injection for longer ...

  12. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Busulfex® Injection ... Busulfan injection is used to treat a certain type of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML; a type of cancer of ... of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with the medication. ...

  13. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence.

    PubMed

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2016-09-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed 'sequential decision bias' and 'sequential design bias', are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models of meta-analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence-based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  15. Sequential Testing: Basics and Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-01

    103-109 44. A. Wald , Sequential Analysis, John Wiley and Sons, 1947 45. A Wald and J. Wolfowitz , "Optimum Character of The Sequential Probability Ratio...work done by A. Wald [44].. Wald’s work on sequential analysis can be used virtually’without modification in a situation where decisions are made... Wald can be used. The decision to accept, reject, or continue the test depends on: 8 < (8 0/el)r exp [-(1/01 - 1/0 0 )V(t)] < A (1) where 0 and A are

  16. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  17. Cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance and antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive drug users in Vietnam's injection-driven HIV epidemics.

    PubMed

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Duong, Anh Thuy; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Vu, Phu Xuan; Mills, Steve; Houston, Stan; Jacobs, Philip

    2012-10-01

    Drug use negatively affects adherence to and outcomes of antiretroviral treatment (ART). This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of integrating methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) with ART for HIV-positive drug users (DUs) in Vietnam. A decision analytical model was developed to compare the costs and consequences of 3 HIV/AIDS treatment strategies for DUs: (1) only ART, (2) providing ART and MMT in separated sites (ART-MMT), and (3) integrating ART and MMT with direct administration (DAART-MMT). The model was parameterized using empirical data of costs and outcomes extracted from the MMT and ART cohort studies in Vietnam, and international published sources. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the model's robustness. The base-case analysis showed that the cost-effectiveness ratio of ART, DAART-MMT, and ART-MMT strategies was USD 1358.9, 1118.0 and 1327.1 per 1 Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY), equivalent to 1.22, 1.00, and 1.19 times Gross Domestic Product per capita (GDPpc). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for DAART-MMT and ART-MMT versus ART strategy was 569.4 and 1227.8, approximately 0.51 and 1.10 times GDPpc/QALY. At the willingness to pay threshold of 3 times GDPpc, the probability of being cost-effective of DAART-MMT versus ART was 86.1%. These findings indicated that providing MMT along with ART for HIV-positive DUs is a cost-effective intervention in Vietnam. Integrating MMT and ART services could facilitate the use of directly observed therapy that supports treatment adherence and brings about clinically important improvements in health outcomes. This approach is also incrementally cost-effective in this large injection-driven HIV epidemic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequential Events Control System (SECS) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation will cover the Sequential Events Control System (SECS), which is the Apollo spacecraft subsystem that controls the automatically sequenced functions during the mission and during any a borts that could be performed. Included in this presentation are its general architecture, its integration into and use of the spacecraft' s other systems, and details on the functions it is responsible for c ontrolling during the mission. The objectives are to describe the system's architecture, the major components in the system, and the major system functions.

  19. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  20. Augment railgun and sequential discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, K.

    1993-01-01

    Proprietary R&D efforts toward the creation of tactical weapon systems-applicable railguns are presented. Attention is given to measures taken for projectile velocity maximization and sequential-discharge operation, and to an augmenting railgun which has demonstrated a 66-percent efficiency improvement over the two-rail baseline railgun system. This device is characterized by strong interaction between capacitor bank submodules during sequential discharge.

  1. Time-lapse integrated geophysical imaging of magmatic injections and fluid-induced fracturing causing Campi Flegrei 1983-84 Unrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Siena, Luca; Crescentini, Luca; Amoruso, Antonella; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Castellano, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Geophysical precursors measured during Unrest episodes are a primary source of geophysical information to forecast eruptions at the largest and most potentially destructive volcanic calderas. Despite their importance and uniqueness, these precursors are also considered difficult to interpret and unrepresentative of larger eruptive events. Here, we show how novel geophysical imaging and monitoring techniques are instead able to represent the dynamic evolution of magmatic- and fluid-induced fracturing during the largest period of Unrest at Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy (1983-1984). The time-dependent patterns drawn by microseismic locations and deformation, once integrated by 3D attenuation tomography and absorption/scattering mapping, model injections of magma- and fluid-related materials in the form of spatially punctual microseismic bursts at a depth of 3.5 km, west and offshore the city of Pozzuoli. The shallowest four kilometres of the crust work as a deformation-based dipolar system before and after each microseismic shock. Seismicity and deformation contemporaneously focus on the point of injection; patterns then progressively crack the medium directed towards the second focus, a region at depths 1-1.5 km south of Solfatara. A single high-absorption and high-scattering aseismic anomaly marks zones of fluid storage overlying the first dipolar centre. These results provide the first direct geophysical signature of the processes of aseismic fluid release at the top of the basaltic basement, producing pozzolanic activity and recently observed via rock-physics and well-rock experiments. The microseismicity caused by fluids and gasses rises to surface via high-absorption north-east rising paths connecting the two dipolar centres, finally beingq being generally expelled from the maar diatreme Solfatara structure. Geophysical precursors during Unrest depict how volcanic stress was released at the Campi Flegrei caldera during its period of highest recorded seismicity

  2. The Western Carpathians fold and thrust belt and its relationships with the inner zone of the orogen: constraints from sequentially restored, balanced cross-sections integrated with low-temperature thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoli, Stefano; Castelluccio, Ada; Andreucci, Benedetta; Jankowski, Leszek; Ketcham, Richard A.; Szaniawski, Rafal; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2017-04-01

    The Western Carpathians are the northernmost, W-E-trending branch of a more than 1500 km long, curved orogen. Traditionally, the Western Carpathians have been divided into two distinct parts, namely the Inner Carpathians (including basement nappes) and the Outer Carpathians fold and thrust belt. These two major domains are separated by the so-called 'Pieniny Klippen Belt', a narrow zone of intensely deformed and sheared Mesozoic to Palaeogene rocks. In this contribution, a new interpretation for the tectonic evolution of the Western Carpathians is provided based on: (i) the analysis of the stratigraphy of the Mesozoic-Tertiary successions across the different orogenic domains; (ii) the construction of a series of balanced and restored cross-sections, validated by 2D forward modeling; and (iii) the integration of a large thermochronometric dataset (apatite fission tracks and apatite and zircon (U-Th-(Sm))/He ages). The latter work included thermo-kinematic modeling using FetKin, a finite element solver that takes as input a series of balanced cross-sections. The software solves the heat flow equations in 2D together with the predicted thermochronometric ages, which can be compared with the measured data. Moreover, the spatial distribution of burial depths, cooling ages and the rate of exhumation were correlated with heat flow, topographic relief, crustal and lithospheric thickness. This process allowed us to obtain the cooling history along each section and test the response of low-temperature thermochronometers to the changes in the thrust belt geometry produced by fault activity and topography evolution. Our sequentially restored, balanced cross-sections, showing a mix of thin-skinned thrusting and thick-skinned tectonic inversion involving the reactivation of pre-existing basement normal faults, effectively unravel the tectonic evolution of the thrust belt-foreland basin system. Our analysis provides a robust correlation of the stratigraphy from the Outer to the

  3. A Bayesian Theory of Sequential Causal Learning and Abstract Transfer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hongjing; Rojas, Randall R; Beckers, Tom; Yuille, Alan L

    2016-03-01

    Two key research issues in the field of causal learning are how people acquire causal knowledge when observing data that are presented sequentially, and the level of abstraction at which learning takes place. Does sequential causal learning solely involve the acquisition of specific cause-effect links, or do learners also acquire knowledge about abstract causal constraints? Recent empirical studies have revealed that experience with one set of causal cues can dramatically alter subsequent learning and performance with entirely different cues, suggesting that learning involves abstract transfer, and such transfer effects involve sequential presentation of distinct sets of causal cues. It has been demonstrated that pre-training (or even post-training) can modulate classic causal learning phenomena such as forward and backward blocking. To account for these effects, we propose a Bayesian theory of sequential causal learning. The theory assumes that humans are able to consider and use several alternative causal generative models, each instantiating a different causal integration rule. Model selection is used to decide which integration rule to use in a given learning environment in order to infer causal knowledge from sequential data. Detailed computer simulations demonstrate that humans rely on the abstract characteristics of outcome variables (e.g., binary vs. continuous) to select a causal integration rule, which in turn alters causal learning in a variety of blocking and overshadowing paradigms. When the nature of the outcome variable is ambiguous, humans select the model that yields the best fit with the recent environment, and then apply it to subsequent learning tasks. Based on sequential patterns of cue-outcome co-occurrence, the theory can account for a range of phenomena in sequential causal learning, including various blocking effects, primacy effects in some experimental conditions, and apparently abstract transfer of causal knowledge. Copyright © 2015

  4. Sequential Syndrome Decoding of Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.

    1984-01-01

    The algebraic structure of convolutional codes are reviewed and sequential syndrome decoding is applied to those codes. These concepts are then used to realize by example actual sequential decoding, using the stack algorithm. The Fano metric for use in sequential decoding is modified so that it can be utilized to sequentially find the minimum weight error sequence.

  5. Human sympathetic and vagal baroreflex responses to sequential nitroprusside and phenylephrine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudas, L.; Crossman, A. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Halliwill, J. R.; Tahvanainen, K. U.; Kuusela, T. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated a method of baroreflex testing involving sequential intravenous bolus injections of nitroprusside followed by phenylephrine and phenylephrine followed by nitroprusside in 18 healthy men and women, and we drew inferences regarding human sympathetic and vagal baroreflex mechanisms. We recorded the electrocardiogram, photoplethysmographic finger arterial pressure, and peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity. We then contrasted least squares linear regression slopes derived from the depressor (nitroprusside) and pressor (phenylephrine) phases with 1) slopes derived from spontaneous fluctuations of systolic arterial pressures and R-R intervals, and 2) baroreflex gain derived from cross-spectral analyses of systolic pressures and R-R intervals. We calculated sympathetic baroreflex gain from integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity and diastolic pressures. We found that vagal baroreflex slopes are less when arterial pressures are falling than when they are rising and that this hysteresis exists over pressure ranges both below and above baseline levels. Although pharmacological and spontaneous vagal baroreflex responses correlate closely, pharmacological baroreflex slopes tend to be lower than those derived from spontaneous fluctuations. Sympathetic baroreflex slopes are similar when arterial pressure is falling and rising; however, small pressure elevations above baseline silence sympathetic motoneurons. Vagal, but not sympathetic baroreflex gains vary inversely with subjects' ages and their baseline arterial pressures. There is no correlation between sympathetic and vagal baroreflex gains. We recommend repeated sequential nitroprusside followed by phenylephrine doses as a simple, efficientmeans to provoke and characterize human vagal and sympathetic baroreflex responses.

  6. Human sympathetic and vagal baroreflex responses to sequential nitroprusside and phenylephrine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudas, L.; Crossman, A. A.; Morillo, C. A.; Halliwill, J. R.; Tahvanainen, K. U.; Kuusela, T. A.; Eckberg, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated a method of baroreflex testing involving sequential intravenous bolus injections of nitroprusside followed by phenylephrine and phenylephrine followed by nitroprusside in 18 healthy men and women, and we drew inferences regarding human sympathetic and vagal baroreflex mechanisms. We recorded the electrocardiogram, photoplethysmographic finger arterial pressure, and peroneal nerve muscle sympathetic activity. We then contrasted least squares linear regression slopes derived from the depressor (nitroprusside) and pressor (phenylephrine) phases with 1) slopes derived from spontaneous fluctuations of systolic arterial pressures and R-R intervals, and 2) baroreflex gain derived from cross-spectral analyses of systolic pressures and R-R intervals. We calculated sympathetic baroreflex gain from integrated muscle sympathetic nerve activity and diastolic pressures. We found that vagal baroreflex slopes are less when arterial pressures are falling than when they are rising and that this hysteresis exists over pressure ranges both below and above baseline levels. Although pharmacological and spontaneous vagal baroreflex responses correlate closely, pharmacological baroreflex slopes tend to be lower than those derived from spontaneous fluctuations. Sympathetic baroreflex slopes are similar when arterial pressure is falling and rising; however, small pressure elevations above baseline silence sympathetic motoneurons. Vagal, but not sympathetic baroreflex gains vary inversely with subjects' ages and their baseline arterial pressures. There is no correlation between sympathetic and vagal baroreflex gains. We recommend repeated sequential nitroprusside followed by phenylephrine doses as a simple, efficientmeans to provoke and characterize human vagal and sympathetic baroreflex responses.

  7. Development of Maltodextrin-Based Immediate-Release Tablets Using an Integrated Twin-Screw Hot-Melt Extrusion and Injection-Molding Continuous Manufacturing Process.

    PubMed

    Puri, Vibha; Brancazio, Dave; Desai, Parind M; Jensen, Keith D; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2017-07-04

    The combination of hot-melt extrusion and injection molding (HME-IM) is a promising process technology for continuous manufacturing of tablets. However, there has been limited research on its application to formulate crystalline drug-containing immediate-release tablets. Furthermore, studies that have applied the HME-IM process to molded tablets have used a noncontinuous 2-step approach. The present study develops maltodextrin (MDX)-based extrusion-molded immediate-release tablets for a crystalline drug (griseofulvin) using an integrated twin-screw HME-IM continuous process. At 10% w/w drug loading, MDX was selected as the tablet matrix former based on a preliminary screen. Furthermore, liquid and solid polyols were evaluated for melt processing of MDX and for impact on tablet performance. Smooth-surfaced tablets, comprising crystalline griseofulvin solid suspension in the amorphous MDX-xylitol matrix, were produced by a continuous process on a twin-screw extruder coupled to a horizontally opening IM machine. Real-time HME process profiles were used to develop automated HME-IM cycles. Formulation adjustments overcame process challenges and improved tablet strength. The developed MDX tablets exhibited adequate strength and a fast-dissolving matrix (85% drug release in 20 min), and maintained performance on accelerated stability conditions. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the integrity of the reinforced concrete structure repaired by epoxy injection using simulated transfer function of impact-echo response

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chia-Chi; Yu, Chih-peng; Wu, Jiunn-Hong; Hsu, Keng-Tsan; Ke, Ying-Tsu

    2014-02-18

    Cracks and honeycombs are often found inside reinforced concrete (RC) structure caused by excessive external force, or improper casting of concrete. The repairing method usually involves epoxy injection. The impact-echo method, which is a sensitive for detecting of the interior voids, may not be applicable to assess the integrity of the repaired member as both air and epoxy are less in acoustic impedances. In this study, the repaired RC structure was evaluated by the simulated transfer function of the IE displacement waveform where the R-wave displacement waveform is used as a base of a simulated force-time function. The effect of different thickness of the epoxy layer to the amplitude corresponding to the interface is studied by testing on specimen containing repaired naturally delaminated cracks with crack widths about 1 mm, 3 mm and 5 mm. The impact-echo responses were compared with the drilling cores at the test positions. The results showed the cracks were not fully filled with epoxy when the peak amplitude corresponding to the interface dropped less than 20%. The peak corresponding to the thicker epoxy layer tends to be larger in amplitude. A field study was also performed on a column damaged by earthquake before and after repairing.

  9. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your doctor may adjust your dose of hydromorphone injection during your treatment, depending on how well your pain is controlled and on the side ... to have pain after you finish the hydromorphone injection, call your doctor.It ... you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  10. Ixabepilone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor will order laboratory tests to see how well your liver is working before and during your treatment. If the tests show that you have liver problems, your doctor will probably not give you ixabepilone injection and capecitabine (Xeloda). Treatment with both ixabepilone injection ...

  11. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of cancers of the immune system that first appear as skin rashes) in people who have already been treated with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. It ...

  12. Nusinersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Nusinersen injection is used for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (an inherited condition that reduces muscle strength and movement). Nusinersen injection is in a class of medications called antisense ... a certain protein necessary for the muscles and nerves to work normally.

  13. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  14. Blocking for Sequential Political Experiments.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ryan T; Moore, Sally A

    2013-10-01

    In typical political experiments, researchers randomize a set of households, precincts, or individuals to treatments all at once, and characteristics of all units are known at the time of randomization. However, in many other experiments, subjects "trickle in" to be randomized to treatment conditions, usually via complete randomization. To take advantage of the rich background data that researchers often have (but underutilize) in these experiments, we develop methods that use continuous covariates to assign treatments sequentially. We build on biased coin and minimization procedures for discrete covariates and demonstrate that our methods outperform complete randomization, producing better covariate balance in simulated data. We then describe how we selected and deployed a sequential blocking method in a clinical trial and demonstrate the advantages of our having done so. Further, we show how that method would have performed in two larger sequential political trials. Finally, we compare causal effect estimates from differences in means, augmented inverse propensity weighted estimators, and randomization test inversion.

  15. A bit serial sequential circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, S.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    Normally a sequential circuit with n state variables consists of n unique hardware realizations, one for each state variable. All variables are processed in parallel. This paper introduces a new sequential circuit architecture that allows the state variables to be realized in a serial manner using only one next state logic circuit. The action of processing the state variables in a serial manner has never been addressed before. This paper presents a general design procedure for circuit construction and initialization. Utilizing pass transistors to form the combinational next state forming logic in synchronous sequential machines, a bit serial state machine can be realized with a single NMOS pass transistor network connected to shift registers. The bit serial state machine occupies less area than other realizations which perform parallel operations. Moreover, the logical circuit of the bit serial state machine can be modified by simply changing the circuit input matrix to develop an adaptive state machine.

  16. The VIRGO injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondu, F.; Brillet, A.; Cleva, F.; Heitmann, H.; Loupias, M.; Man, C. N.; Trinquet, H.; Virgo Collaboration

    2002-04-01

    The VIRGO injection system, designed to provide a stable single-frequency 20 W laser to the VIRGO interferometer, is under commissioning. All functions have been demonstrated to work close to requirements, and the integration of all of them is in progress.

  17. Complementary sequential measurements generate entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coles, Patrick J.; Piani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present a paradigm for capturing the complementarity of two observables. It is based on the entanglement created by the interaction between the system observed and the two measurement devices used to measure the observables sequentially. Our main result is a lower bound on this entanglement and resembles well-known entropic uncertainty relations. Besides its fundamental interest, this result directly bounds the effectiveness of sequential bipartite operations—corresponding to the measurement interactions—for entanglement generation. We further discuss the intimate connection of our result with two primitives of information processing, namely, decoupling and coherent teleportation.

  18. Abaloparatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a natural human hormone called parathyroid hormone (PTH). It works by causing the body to build ... container.You should know that abaloparatide injection may cause dizziness, lightheadedness, and fainting when you get up ...

  19. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  20. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  1. Acyclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chickenpox in the past) in people with weak immune systems. It is also used to treat first-time ... from time to time) in people with normal immune systems. Acyclovir injection is used to treat herpes simplex ...

  2. Doxercalciferol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxercalciferol injection is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism (a condition in which the body produces too much parathyroid hormone [PTH; a natural substance needed to control the amount of calcium in ...

  3. Evolocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector from the refrigerator and allow it to ... before using it. Do not warm the prefilled syringe or prefilled autoinjector in hot water, microwave, or place in ...

  4. Ixekizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe, and as a prefilled autoinjector to inject subcutaneously ( ... dispose of the puncture-resistant container.Remove the prefilled syringe or autoinjector from the refrigerator. Place it on ...

  5. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... how to inject this medication.Remove the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen from the refrigerator and allow it ... hours or longer. Do not put the prefilled syringe or prefilled dosing pen back in the refrigerator after it ...

  6. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Daclizumab comes as a solution (liquid) in a prefilled syringe to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). It is ... or tattooed.Never reuse or share needles or prefilled syringes of medication. Throw away used syringes in a ...

  7. Sarilumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive any vaccines. You should not receive any vaccinations while you are using sarilumab injection without talking ... pregnant, tellyour doctor before the baby receives any vaccinations.if you are having surgery, including dental surgery, ...

  8. Zidovudine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... zidovudine injection does not cure HIV, it may decrease your chance of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) ... sex and making other life-style changes may decrease the risk of transmitting (spreading) the HIV virus ...

  9. Rasburicase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as tumors break down) in people with certain types of cancer who are being treated with chemotherapy medications. Rasburicase injection is in a class of medications called enzymes. It works by breaking down uric acid so ...

  10. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  11. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... ropinirole (Requip); medications for anxiety, blood pressure, or mental illness; medications for seizures such as carbamazepine (Carbatrol, Epitol, ...

  12. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that begins in the female reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is ... comes as a powder to be mixed with liquid to be injected intravenously (into a vein) by ...

  13. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  14. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  15. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... completed for up to 52 weeks. When trastuzumab injection is used to treat stomach cancer, it is usually given once every 3 weeks. The length of your treatment depends on how well your body responds to the medication and the ...

  16. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  17. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a natural ...

  18. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause ... are allergic to doxycycline, minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin, Solodyn), tetracycline (Achromycin V), any other medications, or any of ...

  19. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  20. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  1. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. Omalizumab is also used to treat chronic hives without a known cause that cannot successfully be ... is not used to treat other forms of hives or allergic conditions. Omalizumab injection is in a ...

  2. Plerixafor Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... used along with a granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) medication such as filgrastim (Neupogen) or pegfilgrastim ( ... injection will begin after you have received a G-CSF medication once a day for 4 days, ...

  3. Avelumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a medical facility or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... Avelumab injection may cause serious reactions during the infusion of the medication. You may be given other ...

  4. Alemtuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, the medication is usually given three times weekly on alternate days (usually Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) ... that you eat foods that are rich in iron such as meats, leafy green vegetables, and fortified ...

  5. Dinutuximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat neuroblastoma (a cancer that begins in nerve cells) in children who have responded to other treatments. Dinutuximab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by killing cancer cells.

  6. Cyclosporine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who have received kidney, liver, and heart transplants. Cyclosporine injection should only be used to treat people who are unable to take cyclosporine by mouth. ...

  7. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  8. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction. Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  9. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that ... that leads to blurry vision and vision loss), diabetic macular edema (an eye disease caused by diabetes that can ...

  10. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  11. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  12. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  13. Gemcitabine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with surgery. Gemcitabine is also used to treat cancer of the pancreas that has spread to other parts of the ... 4 weeks. When gemcitabine is used to treat cancer of pancreas it may be injected once every week. The ...

  14. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications to control certain types of seizures in people who cannot take oral medications. Lacosamide ... If you suddenly stop using lacosamide injection, your seizures may happen more often. Your doctor will probably ...

  15. Pegloticase Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor if you have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (an inherited blood disease). Your doctor may test you for G6PD deficiency before you start to receive pegloticase injection. If ...

  16. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  17. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Oxytocin injection is used to begin or improve contractions during labor. Oxytocin also is used to reduce bleeding after childbirth. ... other medications or procedures to end a pregnancy. Oxytocin is in a class of medications called oxytocic ...

  18. Edaravone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which the nerves that control muscle movement slowly die, causing the muscles to shrink and ...

  19. Pentamidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Pentamidine injection is used to treat pneumonia caused by a fungus called Pneumocystis carinii. It is in a class of medications called antiprotozoals. It works by stopping the growth of protozoa that can cause pneumonia.

  20. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... or along with other medications to control abnormal movements in people who have Parkinsonian syndrome (a disorder of the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not ...

  1. Docetaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to docetaxel injection or drugs made with polysorbate 80, an ingredient found in some medications. Ask ... if a medication you are allergic to contains polysorbate 80. If you experience any of the following ...

  2. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much ... Octreotide long-acting injection is used to control acromegaly, carcinoid tumors, and VIP-omas in people who ...

  3. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  4. Granisetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with other medications to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy that may occur immediately ...

  5. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become ...

  6. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may have this procedure if you have: Macular degeneration : An eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central ... injection References American Academy of Ophthalmology. Age-related macular degeneration PPP - updated 2015. Aao.org web site. Updated ...

  7. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; and infections of the skin, ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin injection ...

  8. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  9. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  10. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  11. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in adults or serious skin infections caused by bacteria in adults and children 1 year of age ... called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work ...

  12. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  13. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  14. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  15. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  16. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  17. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  18. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  19. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  20. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  1. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  2. Fractionation of plutonium in environmental and bio-shielding concrete samples using dynamic sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2010-03-01

    Fractionation of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239,240)Pu) in environmental samples (i.e. soil and sediment) and bio-shielding concrete from decommissioning of nuclear reactor were carried out by dynamic sequential extraction using an on-line sequential injection (SI) system combined with a specially designed extraction column. Plutonium in the fractions from the sequential extraction was separated by ion exchange chromatography and measured using alpha spectrometry. The analytical results show a higher mobility of plutonium in bio-shielding concrete, which means attention should be paid to the treatment and disposal of nuclear waste from decommissioning.

  3. A wireless sequentially actuated microvalve system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seung-Ki; Yoon, Yong-Kyu; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Seo, Soonmin; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2013-04-01

    A wireless microvalve system was fabricated based on induction heating for flow control in microfluidics by sequential valve opening. In this approach, we used paraffin wax as a flow plug, which can be changed from solid to liquid with adjacent heating elements operated by induction heating. Programmable opening of valves was devised by using different thermal responses of metal discs to a magnetic field. Copper and nickel discs with a diameter of 2.5 mm and various thicknesses (50, 100 and 200 µm) were prepared as heating elements by a laser cutting method, and they were integrated in the microfluidic channel as part of the microvalve. A calorimetric test was used to measure the thermal properties of the discs in terms of kinds of metal and disc thickness. Sequential openings of the microvalves were performed using the difference in the thermal response of 100 µm thick copper disc and 50 µm thick nickel disc for short-interval openings and 200 µm thick copper disc and 100-µm-thick nickel disc for long-interval openings. The thermal effect on fluid samples as a result of induction heating of the discs was studied by investigating lysozyme denaturation. More heat was generated in heating elements made of copper than in those made of nickel, implying differences in the thermal response of heating elements made of copper and nickel. Also, the thickness of the heating elements affected the thermal response in the elements. Valve openings for short intervals of 1-5 s and long intervals of 15-23 s were achieved by using two sets of heating elements. There was no significant change in lysozyme activity by increasing the temperature of the heating discs. This study demonstrates that a wireless sequentially actuated microvalve system can provide programmed valve opening, portability, ease of fabrication and operation, disposability, and low cost.

  4. Diesel fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1986-04-22

    A fuel injection pump is described of the multiple plunger spill port type for an automotive type internal combustion engine, the pump including at least four axially spaced engine camshaft driven pump plungers grouped in pairs and sequentially and in succession moved in one direction through a fuel pumping stroke and oppositely through a fuel intake stroke. A fuel pressurization/supply chamber is contiquous to the end of each plunger for pressurization of the fuel therein or supply of fuel thereto from a supply passage upon coordinate movement of the plunger, fill/spill passage means connected to a single fuel return spill port and in parallel flow relationship to each of the plunger bores as a function of the position of the plungers, each plunger having a pair of internal passages connected at all times to its chamber and alternately alignable with the supply or fill/spill passage means as a function of the position of the plunger. A fuel discharge passage is operatively connecting each of the chambers to an individual engine cylinder, a single spill port control valve movable to block or permit the spill of fuel through the spill port to a return line to control the pressurization of fuel in all of the fuel chambers and associated discharge passages, a single solenoid connected to the spill control valve for moving it to block or unblock the spill port, and a single shuttle valve operatively associated with all of the fill/spill passage means and spill port reciprocably movable between positions to sequentially connect the plunger chambers one at a time in succession to the spill port during the pumping pressurization stroke of its plunger for the injection of fuel to an individual cylinder while the other chambers are in various stages of being refilled with fuel and preparing for pressurization upon successive actuation of the plungers by the camshaft.

  5. MEDICAL INJECTION

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-06-10

    S62-08371 (1962) --- The automatic medical injectors carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts spacesuit. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  7. Sequential Effects in Essay Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attali, Yigal

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to previous research on sequential ratings of student performance, this study found that professional essay raters of a large-scale standardized testing program produced ratings that were drawn toward previous ratings, creating an assimilation effect. Longer intervals between the two adjacent ratings and higher degree of agreement with…

  8. Evaluation Using Sequential Trials Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Mark E.; Ralls, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Although dental school faculty as well as practitioners are interested in evaluating products and procedures used in clinical practice, research design and statistical analysis can sometimes pose problems. Sequential trials methods provide an analytical structure that is both easy to use and statistically valid. (Author/MLW)

  9. Sequential triangulation of orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, M.; Junkins, J. L.; Turner, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of structuring the satellite photogrammetric triangulation as an iterative Extended Kalman estimation algorithm is demonstrated. Comparative numerical results of the sequential against batch estimation algorithm are presented. Difficulty of accurately modeling of the attitude motion is overcome by utilizing the on-board angular rate measurements. Solutions of the differential equations and the evaluation of state transition matrix are carried out numerically.

  10. Injection overview

    SciTech Connect

    Prestwich, S.

    1983-12-01

    The test program was initiated at the Raft River Geothermal Field in southern Idaho in September 1982. A series of eight short-term injection and backflow tests, followed by a long-term injection test, were conducted on one well in the field. Tracers were added during injection and monitored during backflow as well. The principal objective was to determine if tracers could be effectively used as a means to assess reservoir characteristics in a one-well test. The test program resulted in a unique data set which shows promise as a means to improve understanding of the reservoir characteristics. In December 1982, an RFP was issued to obtain an industrial partner to obtain follow-on data on the injection/backflow technique in a second field, and to study any alternate advanced concepts for injection testing which the industrial community might recommend. The East Mesa Geothermal Field was selected for the second test series. Two wells were utilized for testing, and a series of ten tests were conducted in July and August 1983, aimed principally at further evaluation of the injection/backflow technique.

  11. Exploring the potential of sequential simulation.

    PubMed

    Powell, Polly; Sorefan, Zinah; Hamilton, Sara; Kneebone, Roger; Bello, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Several recent papers have highlighted the need for better integrated care to improve health care for children and families. Our team spent a year exploring the potential of 'Sequential Simulation' (SqS) as a teaching tool to address this need with young people and multidisciplinary teams. SqS allows the simulation of a series of key events or 'crunch points' that come together to represent the patient journey, and highlights the impact of individuals on this journey. The pilot SqS was based on an adolescent with asthma - a common condition that requires excellent multidisciplinary care with the patient at the centre. The SqS was designed using transportable sets and audio-visual equipment to create realism. Actors were employed to play the roles of the young person and mother and health professionals played themselves. The SqS was run at different events with varied audiences, including young people, health professionals and teachers. It was used to explore the difficulties that can arise during a patient journey, the importance of communication throughout, and to highlight the significance of each individual in the patient experience. The SqS was met with enthusiasm and felt to be an innovative and effective way of promoting better teamwork and communication. It was well received at a school asthma education event for pupils and community teams, demonstrating its varied potential. The year was the first step in the introduction of this exciting new concept that has the potential to help promote better integrated care for paediatric patients and their families. Our team spent a year exploring the potential of 'Sequential Simulation' as a teaching tool [to provide better integrated care]. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Unsupervised Sequential Outlier Detection With Deep Architectures.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weining; Cheng, Yu; Xiao, Cao; Chang, Shiyu; Huang, Shuai; Liang, Bin; Huang, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Unsupervised outlier detection is a vital task and has high impact on a wide variety of applications domains, such as image analysis and video surveillance. It also gains long-standing attentions and has been extensively studied in multiple research areas. Detecting and taking action on outliers as quickly as possible are imperative in order to protect network and related stakeholders or to maintain the reliability of critical systems. However, outlier detection is difficult due to the one class nature and challenges in feature construction. Sequential anomaly detection is even harder with more challenges from temporal correlation in data, as well as the presence of noise and high dimensionality. In this paper, we introduce a novel deep structured framework to solve the challenging sequential outlier detection problem. We use autoencoder models to capture the intrinsic difference between outliers and normal instances and integrate the models to recurrent neural networks that allow the learning to make use of previous context as well as make the learners more robust to warp along the time axis. Furthermore, we propose to use a layerwise training procedure, which significantly simplifies the training procedure and hence helps achieve efficient and scalable training. In addition, we investigate a fine-tuning step to update all parameters set by incorporating the temporal correlation in the sequence. We further apply our proposed models to conduct systematic experiments on five real-world benchmark data sets. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model, compared with other state-of-the-art approaches.

  13. [Integrity].

    PubMed

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  14. Dynamics of Sequential Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Huerta, Ramón; Afraimovich, Valentin

    2006-11-01

    We suggest a new paradigm for intelligent decision-making suitable for dynamical sequential activity of animals or artificial autonomous devices that depends on the characteristics of the internal and external world. To do it we introduce a new class of dynamical models that are described by ordinary differential equations with a finite number of possibilities at the decision points, and also include rules solving this uncertainty. Our approach is based on the competition between possible cognitive states using their stable transient dynamics. The model controls the order of choosing successive steps of a sequential activity according to the environment and decision-making criteria. Two strategies (high-risk and risk-aversion conditions) that move the system out of an erratic environment are analyzed.

  15. Sequential effects: Superstition or rational behavior?

    PubMed

    Yu, Angela J; Cohen, Jonathan D

    In a variety of behavioral tasks, subjects exhibit an automatic and apparently suboptimal sequential effect: they respond more rapidly and accurately to a stimulus if it reinforces a local pattern in stimulus history, such as a string of repetitions or alternations, compared to when it violates such a pattern. This is often the case even if the local trends arise by chance in the context of a randomized design, such that stimulus history has no real predictive power. In this work, we use a normative Bayesian framework to examine the hypothesis that such idiosyncrasies may reflect the inadvertent engagement of mechanisms critical for adapting to a changing environment. We show that prior belief in non-stationarity can induce experimentally observed sequential effects in an otherwise Bayes-optimal algorithm. The Bayesian algorithm is shown to be well approximated by linear-exponential filtering of past observations, a feature also apparent in the behavioral data. We derive an explicit relationship between the parameters and computations of the exact Bayesian algorithm and those of the approximate linear-exponential filter. Since the latter is equivalent to a leaky-integration process, a commonly used model of neuronal dynamics underlying perceptual decision-making and trial-to-trial dependencies, our model provides a principled account of why such dynamics are useful. We also show that parameter-tuning of the leaky-integration process is possible, using stochastic gradient descent based only on the noisy binary inputs. This is a proof of concept that not only can neurons implement near-optimal prediction based on standard neuronal dynamics, but that they can also learn to tune the processing parameters without explicitly representing probabilities.

  16. On Disturbed Sequential Hypothesis Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    procedures over the classical single sensor schemes. 14. SUBJECT TERMS iS NUMBER OF PAGES Sensor Fusion, Signal Processing, Detection Comunication 150...matrix. Proakis [28] described the random walk formulation approach and derived the exact distribution of the test length T and the ASN for quantized...Trans. Inform. Theory vol. IT-26, No. 2, pp. 255-259, March 1980. 141 [28] J. G. Proakis , "Exact distribution functions of test length for sequential

  17. Sequential feline esophageal nutrient blood flow: perfusion measurements in vivo.

    PubMed

    Harell, G S; Anderson, M F; Bradley, B; Zboralske, F F

    1976-01-01

    The utilization of a catheter semiconductor beta detector (CASRAD) to perform in vivo, sequential, esophageal nutrient blood flow distribution studies in cats is described. A diffusable radioisotope, Rubidium 86 (86Rb), was injected intravenously and the CASRAD placed within the esophageal lumen. The distribution of 86Rb remained stable within the feline esophagus for sufficient time to allow for counting at 1.5 cm levels in the esophagus. The accuracy limitations of the CASRAD system were assessed by comparing the in vivo, recorded distribution of 86Rb with the esophageal distribution of 86Rb as determined by a well-type scintillation counter. The distribution throughout most of the esophagus was similar by both techniques. Sequential esophageal studies performed with the CASRAD showed less variability than existed in the biological differences between cats and the methodology of obtaining and counting tissue by well-type scintillation counter (mean coefficient of variation 11.6% versus coefficient of variation 23.1%).

  18. Blocking for Sequential Political Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    In typical political experiments, researchers randomize a set of households, precincts, or individuals to treatments all at once, and characteristics of all units are known at the time of randomization. However, in many other experiments, subjects “trickle in” to be randomized to treatment conditions, usually via complete randomization. To take advantage of the rich background data that researchers often have (but underutilize) in these experiments, we develop methods that use continuous covariates to assign treatments sequentially. We build on biased coin and minimization procedures for discrete covariates and demonstrate that our methods outperform complete randomization, producing better covariate balance in simulated data. We then describe how we selected and deployed a sequential blocking method in a clinical trial and demonstrate the advantages of our having done so. Further, we show how that method would have performed in two larger sequential political trials. Finally, we compare causal effect estimates from differences in means, augmented inverse propensity weighted estimators, and randomization test inversion. PMID:24143061

  19. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to ganciclovir injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  20. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to pertuzumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  1. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the treatment.If you are using mitoxantrone injection for MS, you should know that it controls MS but does not cure it. Continue to receive treatments even if you feel well. Talk to your doctor if you no longer ...

  2. Olaratumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... your pharmacist any questions you have about olaratumab injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or ...

  3. Reslizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the infusion or for a short period of time after the infusion has finished.You will receive each injection of reslizumab in a doctor's office or medical facility. You will stay in the office for some time after you receive the medication so your doctor ...

  4. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications called glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  5. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you have or have ever had diabetes, high blood pressure, a heart attack, or a stroke.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while using pegaptanib injection, ...

  6. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  7. Syringe injectable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  8. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  9. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  10. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control systems: Advanced retractable injection lance SNCR test report. NOELL ARIL test period: April 20, 1995--December 21, 1995; DPSC test period: August 16--26, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Muzio, L.J.; Smith, R.A.; Hunt, T.

    1997-04-01

    The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, a 100 MWe down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emission through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the third phase of SNCR tests, where an additional injection location was installed to increase the low-load NOx removal performance. The new injectors consist of a pair of retractable in-furnace lances which were designed to provide a high degree of load following flexibility through on-line adjustments of the injection angle. With the new lances, NOx removals in excess of 35% are achievable at the same load and HN{sub 3} slip limit. At loads of 43 to 60 MWe, NOx removals with the lances range from 37--52%. At loads greater than 60 MWe, the wall-injection location is more efficient, and at loads of 70 to 100 MWe, NOx removals range from 37--41%. The coal mill-in-service pattern was found to have a large effect on both NOx removal and NH{sub 3} slip for injection at the new lance location. At 60 MWe, the NOx removal at the 10 ppm NH{sub 3} slip limit ranges from 28--52% depending on the mill-in-service pattern. Biasing the coal mills to provide uniform combustion conditions ahead of the injection location was found to be the best option for improving SNCR system performance under these conditions.

  11. Deltoid Injections of Risperidone Long-acting Injectable in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Jorge A.; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Background Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Methods Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. Results In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Conclusion Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites. PMID:21779538

  12. Deltoid injections of risperidone long-acting injectable in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Jorge A; Rusch, Sarah; Thyssen, An; Palumbo, Joseph M; Kushner, Stuart

    2011-06-01

    Risperidone long-acting injectable was previously approved for treatment of schizophrenia as biweekly injections in the gluteal muscle only. We present data on local injection-site tolerability and safety of risperidone long-acting injectable and comparability of systemic exposure of deltoid versus gluteal injections. Risperidone long-acting injectable was administered in an open-label, single-dose, two-way crossover study, with patients randomized to receive either 25mg gluteal/37.5mg deltoid crossover in two treatment periods or 50mg gluteal/50mg deltoid injections crossover; each treatment period was separated by an 85-day observation period (Study 1) and an open-label, multiple-dose study (4 sequential 37.5mg or 50mg deltoid injections every 2 weeks) (Study 2). The pharmacokinetic results from both the studies have already been published. In Study 1 (n=170), the majority of patients had no local injection-site findings, based on investigator and patient-rated evaluations. In Study 2 (n=53), seven of the 51 patients who received at least two deltoid injections discontinued (primary endpoint). However, none of the discontinuations were due to injection-site related reasons. The 90-percent upper confidence limit of the true proportion of injection-site issue withdrawals was 5.7 percent. No moderate or severe injection-site reactions were reported. Intramuscular injections via the deltoid and gluteal sites are equivalent routes of administration of risperidone long-acting injectable with respect to local injection-site tolerability. The overall safety and tolerability profile of risperidone long-acting injectable was comparable when administered as an intramuscular injection in the deltoid (37.5mg and 50mg) and gluteal (25mg and 50mg) sites.

  13. Method for the sequential online analysis of enzyme reactions based on capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanfang; Xu, Liangliang; Zhao, Wenwen; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2012-03-20

    We have developed an easy-to-operate and effective method for performing the sequential online analysis of enzyme reactions based on capillary electrophoresis (CE). The system was constructed by passing two capillaries through a sample vial at a distance of 5 μm between the capillary ends. Direct online sample injection and sequential CE analysis were achieved by periodically switching the high-voltage power supply off and on, without any physical disturbance of the capillary inlet. The sample was injected via concentration diffusion with in-column derivatization of the amino acids occurring at the interface of the capillaries. High reproducibility of the sequential injections was demonstrated with relative standard deviation values (n = 20) of 1.01%, 1.25%, and 0.80% for peak height, peak area, and migration time, respectively. Sequential online CE enzyme assay of a glutamate pyruvate transaminase catalyzed enzyme reaction was carried out by simultaneously monitoring the substrate consumption and the product formation every 30 s from the beginning to the end of the reaction. The Michaelis constants for the reaction were obtained and were found to be in good agreement with the results of traditional off-line enzyme assays. Our method has great potential for usage in sequential online CE analysis of chemical reactions with in-column chemical derivatization of the analytes for ultraviolet or laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  14. Subcutaneous (SQ) injections

    MedlinePlus

    SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection ... NIH. Giving a subcutaneous injection . Rockville, MD. National ... of Health and Human Services NIH publications; 2015. Available ...

  15. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1997-04-01

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  16. Integration of a Novel Injectable Nano Calcium Sulfate/Alginate Scaffold and BMP2 Gene-Modified Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Bone Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaoning; Dziak, Rosemary; Mao, Keya; Genco, Robert; Swithart, Mark; Li, Chunyi

    2013-01-01

    The repair of craniofacial bone defects is surgically challenging due to the complex anatomical structure of the craniofacial skeleton. Current strategies for bone tissue engineering using a preformed scaffold have not resulted in the expected clinical regeneration due to difficulty in seeding cells into the deep internal space of scaffold, and the inability to inject them in minimally invasive surgeries. In this study, we used the osteoconductive and mechanical properties of nano-scale calcium sulfate (nCS) and the biocompatibility of alginate to develop the injectable nCS/alginate (nCS/A) paste, and characterized the effect of this nCS/A paste loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene-modified rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on bone and blood vessel growth. Our results showed that the nCS/A paste was injectable under small injection forces. The mechanical properties of the nCS/A paste were increased with an increased proportion of alginate. MSCs maintained their viability after the injection, and MSCs and BMP2 gene-modified MSCs in the injectable pastes remained viable, osteodifferentiated, and yielded high alkaline phosphatase activity. By testing the ability of this injectable paste and BMP2-gene-modified MSCs for the repair of critical-sized calvarial bone defects in a rat model, we found that BMP2-gene-modified MSCs in nCS/A (nCS/A+M/B2) showed robust osteogenic activity, which resulted in consistent bone bridging of the bone defects. The vessel density in nCS/A+M/B2 was significantly higher than that in the groups of blank control, nCS/A alone, and nCS/A mixed with MSCs (nCS/A+M). These results indicate that BMP2 promotes MSCs-mediated bone formation and vascularization in nCS/A paste. Overall, the results demonstrated that the combination of injectable nCS/A paste and BMP2-gene-modified MSCs is a new and effective strategy for the repair of bone defects. PMID:22994418

  17. Integration of a novel injectable nano calcium sulfate/alginate scaffold and BMP2 gene-modified mesenchymal stem cells for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoning; Dziak, Rosemary; Mao, Keya; Genco, Robert; Swihart, Mark; Swithart, Mark; Li, Chunyi; Yang, Shuying

    2013-02-01

    The repair of craniofacial bone defects is surgically challenging due to the complex anatomical structure of the craniofacial skeleton. Current strategies for bone tissue engineering using a preformed scaffold have not resulted in the expected clinical regeneration due to difficulty in seeding cells into the deep internal space of scaffold, and the inability to inject them in minimally invasive surgeries. In this study, we used the osteoconductive and mechanical properties of nano-scale calcium sulfate (nCS) and the biocompatibility of alginate to develop the injectable nCS/alginate (nCS/A) paste, and characterized the effect of this nCS/A paste loaded with bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) gene-modified rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on bone and blood vessel growth. Our results showed that the nCS/A paste was injectable under small injection forces. The mechanical properties of the nCS/A paste were increased with an increased proportion of alginate. MSCs maintained their viability after the injection, and MSCs and BMP2 gene-modified MSCs in the injectable pastes remained viable, osteodifferentiated, and yielded high alkaline phosphatase activity. By testing the ability of this injectable paste and BMP2-gene-modified MSCs for the repair of critical-sized calvarial bone defects in a rat model, we found that BMP2-gene-modified MSCs in nCS/A (nCS/A+M/B2) showed robust osteogenic activity, which resulted in consistent bone bridging of the bone defects. The vessel density in nCS/A+M/B2 was significantly higher than that in the groups of blank control, nCS/A alone, and nCS/A mixed with MSCs (nCS/A+M). These results indicate that BMP2 promotes MSCs-mediated bone formation and vascularization in nCS/A paste. Overall, the results demonstrated that the combination of injectable nCS/A paste and BMP2-gene-modified MSCs is a new and effective strategy for the repair of bone defects.

  18. Random sequential adsorption on fractals.

    PubMed

    Ciesla, Michal; Barbasz, Jakub

    2012-07-28

    Irreversible adsorption of spheres on flat collectors having dimension d < 2 is studied. Molecules are adsorbed on Sierpinski's triangle and carpet-like fractals (1 < d < 2), and on general Cantor set (d < 1). Adsorption process is modeled numerically using random sequential adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The paper concentrates on measurement of fundamental properties of coverages, i.e., maximal random coverage ratio and density autocorrelation function, as well as RSA kinetics. Obtained results allow to improve phenomenological relation between maximal random coverage ratio and collector dimension. Moreover, simulations show that, in general, most of known dimensional properties of adsorbed monolayers are valid for non-integer dimensions.

  19. The Sequential Parameter Optimization Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Lasarczyk, Christian; Preuss, Mike

    The sequential parameter optimization toolbox (SPOT) is one possible implementation of the SPO framework introduced in Chap. 2. It has been successfully applied to numerous heuristics for practical and theoretical optimization problems. We describe the mechanics and interfaces employed by SPOT to enable users to plug in their own algorithms. Furthermore, two case studies are presented to demonstrate how SPOT can be applied in practice, followed by a discussion of alternative metamodels to be plugged into it.We conclude with some general guidelines.

  20. A high speed sequential decoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lum, H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The performance and theory of operation for the High Speed Hard Decision Sequential Decoder are delineated. The decoder is a forward error correction system which is capable of accepting data from binary-phase-shift-keyed and quadriphase-shift-keyed modems at input data rates up to 30 megabits per second. Test results show that the decoder is capable of maintaining a composite error rate of 0.00001 at an input E sub b/N sub o of 5.6 db. This performance has been obtained with minimum circuit complexity.

  1. Sequential ranging: How it works

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugh, Harold W.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is directed to the users of data from the Sequential Ranging Assembly (SRA), and to others who have a general interest in range measurements. It covers the hardware, the software, and the processes used in acquiring range data; it does not cover analytical aspects such as the theory of modulation, detection, noise spectral density, and other highly technical subjects. In other words, it covers how ranging is done, but not the details of why it works. The publication also includes an appendix that gives a brief discussion of PN ranging, a capability now under development.

  2. Vertically integrated approaches to large scale CO2 storage: Evaluating long-term storage security of CO2 injection in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasda, S. E.; Nordbotten, J.; Celia, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    Storage security of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. During the injection and early post-injection periods, CO2 leakage may occur along faults and leaky wells, but this risk may be partly managed by proper site selection and sensible deployment of monitoring and remediation technologies. On the other hand, long-term storage security is an entirely different risk management problem—one that is dominated by a mobile CO2 plume that may travel over very large spatial and temporal scales before it is trapped by different physical and chemical processes. The primary trapping mechanisms are capillary and solubility trapping, which evolve over thousands to tens of thousands of years and can immobilize a significant portion of the mobile, free-phase CO2 plume. However, these processes are complex, involving a combination of small and large spatial scales over varying time scales. Solubility trapping is a prime example of this complexity, where small-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO2 region leads to convective mixing that has that has a significant effect on the large-scale dissolution process over very long time scales. Using appropriate models that can capture both large and small-scale effects is essential for understanding the role of dissolution and convective mixing on the long-term storage security of CO2 sequestration operations. There are several approaches to modeling long-term CO2 trapping mechanisms. One modeling option is the use of traditional numerical methods, which are often highly sophisticated models that can handle multiple complex phenomena with high levels of accuracy. However, these complex models quickly become prohibitively expensive for the type of large-scale, long-term modeling that is necessary for risk assessment applications such as the late post-injection period. We present an alternative modeling option, the VESA model, that combines

  3. Sleep memory processing: the sequential hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Giuditta, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    According to the sequential hypothesis (SH) memories acquired during wakefulness are processed during sleep in two serial steps respectively occurring during slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. During SWS memories to be retained are distinguished from irrelevant or competing traces that undergo downgrading or elimination. Processed memories are stored again during REM sleep which integrates them with preexisting memories. The hypothesis received support from a wealth of EEG, behavioral, and biochemical analyses of trained rats. Further evidence was provided by independent studies of human subjects. SH basic premises, data, and interpretations have been compared with corresponding viewpoints of the synaptic homeostatic hypothesis (SHY). Their similarities and differences are presented and discussed within the framework of sleep processing operations. SHY’s emphasis on synaptic renormalization during SWS is acknowledged to underline a key sleep effect, but this cannot marginalize sleep’s main role in selecting memories to be retained from downgrading traces, and in their integration with preexisting memories. In addition, SHY’s synaptic renormalization raises an unsolved dilemma that clashes with the accepted memory storage mechanism exclusively based on modifications of synaptic strength. This difficulty may be bypassed by the assumption that SWS-processed memories are stored again by REM sleep in brain subnuclear quantum particles. Storing of memories in quantum particles may also occur in other vigilance states. Hints are provided on ways to subject the quantum hypothesis to experimental tests. PMID:25565985

  4. Quantum estimation via sequential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Kato, Airi N.; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2015-11-01

    The problem of estimating a parameter of a quantum system through a series of measurements performed sequentially on a quantum probe is analyzed in the general setting where the underlying statistics is explicitly non-i.i.d. We present a generalization of the central limit theorem in the present context, which under fairly general assumptions shows that as the number N of measurement data increases the probability distribution of functionals of the data (e.g., the average of the data) through which the target parameter is estimated becomes asymptotically normal and independent of the initial state of the probe. At variance with the previous studies (Guţă M 2011 Phys. Rev. A 83 062324; van Horssen M and Guţă M 2015 J. Math. Phys. 56 022109) we take a diagrammatic approach, which allows one to compute not only the leading orders in N of the moments of the average of the data but also those of the correlations among subsequent measurement outcomes. In particular our analysis points out that the latter, which are not available in usual i.i.d. data, can be exploited in order to improve the accuracy of the parameter estimation. An explicit application of our scheme is discussed by studying how the temperature of a thermal reservoir can be estimated via sequential measurements on a quantum probe in contact with the reservoir.

  5. Principle and basic property of the sequential flow pump.

    PubMed

    Hara, Shintaro; Maeno, Erina; Li, Xinyang; Yurimoto, Terumi; Isoyama, Takashi; Saito, Itsuro; Ono, Toshiya; Abe, Yusuke

    2017-04-19

    In the emergency care field, early treatment of acute heart or respiratory failure has been a global concern. In severe cases, patients are frequently required to be on an extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) life support. To make the ECMO system more compact and portable, we proposed a sequential flow-type centrifugal pump named the sequential flow pump (SFP). In this study, principle and basic properties of this novel blood pump were examined by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis and an experimental model. In the SFP, fluid is given centrifugal force sequentially twice with a single closed impeller. This sequential pressurization mechanism enables high-pressure output without high impeller speed. To realize easy integration of a blood pump with an artificial lung, the inlet and outlet ports are located at lateral side and center of the pump, respectively, which is the reverse configuration of conventional centrifugal pumps. The computational model was composed for CFD analysis and the experimental model was developed for the experiment of the actual pump. For both models, dimension of the impeller and volute was designed to be equal. In the CFD analysis, the SFP could generate higher performance than the single pressurization model with the same rotational speed of the impeller. Basic property of the experimental model was very similar to that of the computational model. The results showed the possibility that the SFP would be more suitable for the compact ECMO system than conventional centrifugal pumps.

  6. Sequential probing and dilatation in canalicular stenosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongyeop; Kim, Hochang

    2015-11-01

    To assess the usefulness of sequential probing for diagnosing lacrimal canalicular stenosis, and the effectiveness of bicanalicular silicone intubation after sequential dilatation in treatment. Canalicular stenosis was diagnosed by sequential probing in 22 patients (22 eyes) who were misdiagnosed as canalicular obstruction. The patients were treated by bicanalicular silicone intubation after sequential dilatation. Anatomical improvements and functional relief of epiphora were evaluated. In addition, complications were evaluated. The average age of the 22 patients was 57 years, and the average follow-up period was 13 months. The silicone tube was left in place for an average of 14 weeks. The anatomical success rate was 100 %. Fifty-four percent of patients achieved complete relief of epiphora, 32 % partial relief, and 14 % no relief. There were no complications. Sequential probing is an useful diagnostic method for canalicular stenosis. Bicanalicular silicone intubation after sequential dilatation is a simple and effective treatment, and could be performed as primary procedure for canalicular stenosis before invasive surgery.

  7. A novel sequential process for remediating rare-earth wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cui, Mingcan; Jang, Min; Kang, Kyounglim; Kim, Dukmin; Snyder, Shane A; Khim, Jeehyeong

    2016-02-01

    A novel and economic sequential process consisting of precipitation, adsorption, and oxidation was developed to remediate actual rare-earth (RE) wastewater containing various toxic pollutants, including radioactive species. In the precipitation step, porous air stones (PAS) containing waste oyster shell (WOS), PASWOS, was prepared and used to precipitate most heavy metals with >97% removal efficiencies. The SEM-EDS analysis revealed that PAS plays a key role in preventing the surface coating of precipitants on the surface of WOS and in releasing the dissolved species of WOS successively. For the adsorption step, a polyurethane (PU) impregnated by coal mine drainage sludge (CMDS), PUCMDS, was synthesized and applied to deplete fluoride (F), arsenic (As), uranium (U), and thorium (Th) that remained after precipitation. The continuous-mode sequential process using PAS(WOS), PU(CMDS), and ozone (O3) had 99.9-100% removal efficiencies of heavy metals, 99.3-99.9% of F and As, 95.8-99.4% of U and Th, and 92.4% of COD(Cr) for 100 days. The sequential process can treat RE wastewater economically and effectively without stirred-tank reactors, pH controller, continuous injection of chemicals, and significant sludge generation, as well as the quality of the outlet met the EPA recommended limits.

  8. Conditioning with delayed vitamin injections.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J; Ervin, F R; Yorke, C H; Koelling, R A

    1967-02-10

    Rats deficient in thiamine were allowed to drink saccharin-fla vored water. They were then given an injection of thiamine which caused their intake of the nonnutritive fluid to increase. Delay of the intramuscular injection up to 30 minutes had no effect upon the acquisition of this condi tioning. Presumably, this delay reflects specialization in the central integrative mechanisms which serve these afferent modalities.

  9. Developing a Self-Report-Based Sequential Analysis Method for Educational Technology Systems: A Process-Based Usability Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    The development of a usability evaluation method for educational systems or applications, called the self-report-based sequential analysis, is described herein. The method aims to extend the current practice by proposing self-report-based sequential analysis as a new usability method, which integrates the advantages of self-report in survey…

  10. Developing a Self-Report-Based Sequential Analysis Method for Educational Technology Systems: A Process-Based Usability Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Hou, Huei-Tse

    2015-01-01

    The development of a usability evaluation method for educational systems or applications, called the self-report-based sequential analysis, is described herein. The method aims to extend the current practice by proposing self-report-based sequential analysis as a new usability method, which integrates the advantages of self-report in survey…

  11. Anatomic diagnosis of congenital heart disease. A practical approach based on the sequentiality principle.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Salazar, Jorge; Curi-Curi, Pedro; Ramírez-Marroquín, Samuel; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Munoz-Castellanos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Based on the sequentiality principle, this review proposes a practical method that allows the systematization of the anatomic diagnosis of congenital heart disease. We emphasize the need to use sequential connection between the different cardiac segments: atria, ventricles and great arteries. Five ordered steps are defined, which include determination of atrial situs and of the connection features between the ventricles and the great arteries. Related lesions and some additional special features are a second stage in the sequential analysis of congenital heart disease, which is also important for the integral diagnosis.

  12. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed

  13. Sequential detection of web defects

    DOEpatents

    Eichel, Paul H.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Stalker, K. Terry; Yee, Amy A.

    2001-01-01

    A system for detecting defects on a moving web having a sequential series of identical frames uses an imaging device to form a real-time camera image of a frame and a comparitor to comparing elements of the camera image with corresponding elements of an image of an exemplar frame. The comparitor provides an acceptable indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically identical; and a defective indication if the pair of elements are determined to be statistically not identical. If the pair of elements is neither acceptable nor defective, the comparitor recursively compares the element of said exemplar frame with corresponding elements of other frames on said web until one of the acceptable or defective indications occur.

  14. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-14

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and 1/0 through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample 1/0 drivers. This is a Framework library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modelling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Ha) applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed

  15. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.

  16. Sequential power-up circuit

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A sequential power-up circuit for starting several electrical load elements in series to avoid excessive current surge, comprising a voltage ramp generator and a set of voltage comparators, each comparator having a different reference voltage and interfacing with a switch that is capable of turning on one of the load elements. As the voltage rises, it passes the reference voltages one at a time and causes the switch corresponding to that voltage to turn on its load element. The ramp is turned on and off by a single switch or by a logic-level electrical signal. The ramp rate for turning on the load element is relatively slow and the rate for turning the elements off is relatively fast. Optionally, the duration of each interval of time between the turning on of the load elements is programmable.

  17. Sequentially Executed Model Evaluation Framework

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-20

    Provides a message passing framework between generic input, model and output drivers, and specifies an API for developing such drivers. Also provides batch and real-time controllers which step the model and I/O through the time domain (or other discrete domain), and sample I/O drivers. This is a library framework, and does not, itself, solve any problems or execute any modeling. The SeMe framework aids in development of models which operate on sequential information, such as time-series, where evaluation is based on prior results combined with new data for this iteration. Has applications in quality monitoring, and was developed as part of the CANARY-EDS software, where real-time water quality data is being analyzed for anomalies.

  18. Sequential power-up circuit

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-06-02

    A sequential power-up circuit for starting several electrical load elements in series to avoid excessive current surge, comprising a voltage ramp generator and a set of voltage comparators, each comparator having a different reference voltage and interfacing with a switch that is capable of turning on one of the load elements. As the voltage rises, it passes the reference voltages one at a time and causes the switch corresponding to that voltage to turn on its load element. The ramp is turned on and off by a single switch or by a logic-level electrical signal. The ramp rate for turning on the load element is relatively slow and the rate for turning the elements off is relatively fast. Optionally, the duration of each interval of time between the turning on of the load elements is programmable. 2 figs.

  19. Sequential visibility-graph motifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacovacci, Jacopo; Lacasa, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    Visibility algorithms transform time series into graphs and encode dynamical information in their topology, paving the way for graph-theoretical time series analysis as well as building a bridge between nonlinear dynamics and network science. In this work we introduce and study the concept of sequential visibility-graph motifs, smaller substructures of n consecutive nodes that appear with characteristic frequencies. We develop a theory to compute in an exact way the motif profiles associated with general classes of deterministic and stochastic dynamics. We find that this simple property is indeed a highly informative and computationally efficient feature capable of distinguishing among different dynamics and robust against noise contamination. We finally confirm that it can be used in practice to perform unsupervised learning, by extracting motif profiles from experimental heart-rate series and being able, accordingly, to disentangle meditative from other relaxation states. Applications of this general theory include the automatic classification and description of physical, biological, and financial time series.

  20. Sequential micellar electrokinetic chromatography analysis of racemization reaction of alanine enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Fu, Rao; Liu, Lina; Guo, Yingna; Guo, Liping; Yang, Li

    2014-02-28

    A novel method for online monitoring racemization reaction of alanine (Ala) enantiomers was developed, by combining sequential sample injection and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) technique. Various conditions were investigated to optimize the sequential injection, Ala derivatization and MEKC chiral separation of d-/l-Ala. High reproducibility of the sequential MEKC analysis was demonstrated by analyzing the standard Ala samples, with relative standard deviation values (n=20) of 1.35%, 1.98%, and 1.09% for peak height, peak area and migration time, respectively. Ala racemization was automatically monitored every 40s from the beginning to the end of the reaction, by simultaneous detection of the consumption of the substrate enantiomer and the formation of the product enantiomer. The Michaelis constants of the racemization reaction were obtained by the sequential MEKC method, and were in good agreement with those obtained by traditional off-line enzyme assay. Our study indicated that the present sequential MEKC method can perform fast, efficient, accurate and reproducible analysis of racemization reaction of amino acids, which is of great importance for the determination of the activity of racemase and thus understanding its metabolic functions.

  1. An integrated analysis of five double-blind, randomized controlled trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of a hyaluronan product for intra-articular injection in osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Strand, V; Conaghan, P G; Lohmander, L S; Koutsoukos, A D; Hurley, F L; Bird, H; Brooks, P; Day, R; Puhl, W; Band, P A

    2006-09-01

    Five double-blind, randomized, saline-controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the United States marketing application for an intra-articular hyaluronan (IA-HA) product for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. We report an integrated analysis of the primary Case Report Form (CRF) data from these trials. Trials were similar in design, patient population and outcome measures - all included the Lequèsne Algofunctional Index (LI), a validated composite index of pain and function, evaluating treatment over 3 months. Individual patient data were pooled; a repeated measures analysis of covariance was performed in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Analyses utilized both fixed and random effects models. Safety data from the five RCTs were summarized. A total of 1155 patients with radiologically confirmed knee OA were enrolled: 619 received three or five IA-HA injections; 536 received "placebo" saline injections. In the active and control groups, mean ages were 61.8 and 61.4 years; 62.4% and 58.8% were women; baseline total Lequèsne scores 11.03 and 11.30, respectively. Integrated analysis of the pooled data set found a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.001) in total Lequèsne score with hyaluronan (HA) (-2.68) vs placebo (-2.00); estimated difference -0.68 (95% CI: -0.56 to -0.79), effect size 0.20. Additional modeling approaches confirmed robustness of the analyses. This integrated analysis demonstrates that multiple design factors influence the results of RCTs assessing efficacy of intra-articular (IA) therapies, and that integrated analyses based on primary data differ from meta-analyses using transformed data.

  2. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  3. Trial Sequential Methods for Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Wood, John

    2014-01-01

    Statistical methods for sequential meta-analysis have applications also for the design of new trials. Existing methods are based on group sequential methods developed for single trials and start with the calculation of a required information size. This works satisfactorily within the framework of fixed effects meta-analysis, but conceptual…

  4. Measuring Sequential Processing Skills in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest D.

    This study investigates (1) the relationship of two potentially valuable measures of sequential processing to each other and to a measure of digit span, and (2) the relationships among tests of sequential processing and other measures of cognitive functioning. Subjects were 188 first grade students who had been screened in kindergarten for risk of…

  5. Borehole and Caprock integrity - Pre-Failure Permeability Response to Stress Change of Storage Domain Rocks (Caprocks, Barriers to Fluid Flow, and Reservoir) Caused by CO2 Injection: an Experimental and Analytical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, P. J.; Faulkner, D. R.; Worden, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    Field trials into CO2 sequestration are currently being undertaken at the In Salah gas field, Algeria. As a part of a wider project, we are experimentally investigating the geomechanical and geochemical effects of CO2 sequestration on storage domain rocks. Detailed experimental studies of the development of permeability in storage domain rocks during reactive fluid flow are essential to understand borehole and caprock integrity on short term timescales during injection of CO2. The experiments are needed to help constrain larger-scale models that predict bulk fluid flow within the storage system. It has been demonstrated from experiments and modeling that accumulation of microfractures under differential stress before rock failure occurs systematically and leads to enhanced porosity, permeability and fracture surface area. (Mitchell and Faulkner, 2008). Changes in stress affecting storage domain rocks can occur on short-term, production timescales from drilling the boreholes and from injection of CO2. Increasing pore fluid pressure will reduce the effective stress, bringing the rocks closer to failure and potentially increasing permeability. Creation of boreholes for injection will change the stress field and lead to greater differential stresses, bringing the rocks closer to failure and potentially increasing permeability beyond that of the far field stress state. These stress changes will affect fluid flow properties of storage domain rocks, which in turn may facilitate CO2 migration and escape from the intended structure. We present results from direct experimental evaluation of permeability evolution for these stress changes on samples of low porosity rock from the In Salah CO2 storage site, representing a barrier to fluid flow, and samples of a sandstone representing a porous reservoir rock. Pre-failure stress changes associated with CO2 injection leads to increased rock permeability for intact rock, by up to 2 orders of magnitude in these samples.

  6. Social Influences in Sequential Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Schöbel, Markus; Rieskamp, Jörg; Huber, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    People often make decisions in a social environment. The present work examines social influence on people’s decisions in a sequential decision-making situation. In the first experimental study, we implemented an information cascade paradigm, illustrating that people infer information from decisions of others and use this information to make their own decisions. We followed a cognitive modeling approach to elicit the weight people give to social as compared to private individual information. The proposed social influence model shows that participants overweight their own private information relative to social information, contrary to the normative Bayesian account. In our second study, we embedded the abstract decision problem of Study 1 in a medical decision-making problem. We examined whether in a medical situation people also take others’ authority into account in addition to the information that their decisions convey. The social influence model illustrates that people weight social information differentially according to the authority of other decision makers. The influence of authority was strongest when an authority's decision contrasted with private information. Both studies illustrate how the social environment provides sources of information that people integrate differently for their decisions. PMID:26784448

  7. Online Sequential Extreme Learning Machine With Kernels.

    PubMed

    Scardapane, Simone; Comminiello, Danilo; Scarpiniti, Michele; Uncini, Aurelio

    2015-09-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM) was recently proposed as a unifying framework for different families of learning algorithms. The classical ELM model consists of a linear combination of a fixed number of nonlinear expansions of the input vector. Learning in ELM is hence equivalent to finding the optimal weights that minimize the error on a dataset. The update works in batch mode, either with explicit feature mappings or with implicit mappings defined by kernels. Although an online version has been proposed for the former, no work has been done up to this point for the latter, and whether an efficient learning algorithm for online kernel-based ELM exists remains an open problem. By explicating some connections between nonlinear adaptive filtering and ELM theory, in this brief, we present an algorithm for this task. In particular, we propose a straightforward extension of the well-known kernel recursive least-squares, belonging to the kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) family, to the ELM framework. We call the resulting algorithm the kernel online sequential ELM (KOS-ELM). Moreover, we consider two different criteria used in the KAF field to obtain sparse filters and extend them to our context. We show that KOS-ELM, with their integration, can result in a highly efficient algorithm, both in terms of obtained generalization error and training time. Empirical evaluations demonstrate interesting results on some benchmarking datasets.

  8. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage.

    PubMed

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Mi, Tian; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2014-01-01

    Integrating data from multiple sources is a crucial and challenging problem. Even though there exist numerous algorithms for record linkage or deduplication, they suffer from either large time needs or restrictions on the number of datasets that they can integrate. In this paper we report efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage which handle any number of datasets and outperform previous algorithms. Our algorithms employ hierarchical clustering algorithms as the basis. A key idea that we use is radix sorting on certain attributes to eliminate identical records before any further processing. Another novel idea is to form a graph that links similar records and find the connected components. Our sequential and parallel algorithms have been tested on a real dataset of 1,083,878 records and synthetic datasets ranging in size from 50,000 to 9,000,000 records. Our sequential algorithm runs at least two times faster, for any dataset, than the previous best-known algorithm, the two-phase algorithm using faster computation of the edit distance (TPA (FCED)). The speedups obtained by our parallel algorithm are almost linear. For example, we get a speedup of 7.5 with 8 cores (residing in a single node), 14.1 with 16 cores (residing in two nodes), and 26.4 with 32 cores (residing in four nodes). We have compared the performance of our sequential algorithm with TPA (FCED) and found that our algorithm outperforms the previous one. The accuracy is the same as that of this previous best-known algorithm.

  9. Efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah-Al; Mi, Tian; Aseltine, Robert; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Integrating data from multiple sources is a crucial and challenging problem. Even though there exist numerous algorithms for record linkage or deduplication, they suffer from either large time needs or restrictions on the number of datasets that they can integrate. In this paper we report efficient sequential and parallel algorithms for record linkage which handle any number of datasets and outperform previous algorithms. Methods Our algorithms employ hierarchical clustering algorithms as the basis. A key idea that we use is radix sorting on certain attributes to eliminate identical records before any further processing. Another novel idea is to form a graph that links similar records and find the connected components. Results Our sequential and parallel algorithms have been tested on a real dataset of 1 083 878 records and synthetic datasets ranging in size from 50 000 to 9 000 000 records. Our sequential algorithm runs at least two times faster, for any dataset, than the previous best-known algorithm, the two-phase algorithm using faster computation of the edit distance (TPA (FCED)). The speedups obtained by our parallel algorithm are almost linear. For example, we get a speedup of 7.5 with 8 cores (residing in a single node), 14.1 with 16 cores (residing in two nodes), and 26.4 with 32 cores (residing in four nodes). Conclusions We have compared the performance of our sequential algorithm with TPA (FCED) and found that our algorithm outperforms the previous one. The accuracy is the same as that of this previous best-known algorithm. PMID:24154837

  10. Double tracer autoradiographic method for sequential evaluation of regional cerebral perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, H.; Tsuji, S.; Oba, H.; Kinuya, K.; Terada, H.; Sumiya, H.; Shiba, K.; Mori, H.; Hisada, K.; Maeda, T. )

    1989-01-01

    A new double tracer autoradiographic method for the sequential evaluation of altered regional cerebral perfusion in the same animal is presented. This method is based on the sequential injection of two tracers, {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime and N-isopropyl-({sup 125}I)p-iodoamphetamine. This method is validated in the assessment of brovincamine effects on regional cerebral perfusion in an experimental model of chronic brain ischemia in the rat. The drug enhanced perfusion recovery in low-flow areas, selectively in surrounding areas of infarction. The results suggest that this technique is of potential use in the study of neuropharmacological effects applied during the experiment.

  11. Bioinspired Nanocomplex for Spatiotemporal Imaging of Sequential mRNA Expression in Differentiating Neural Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:25494492

  12. Bioinspired nanocomplex for spatiotemporal imaging of sequential mRNA expression in differentiating neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Zhongliang; Wang, He-Fang; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Fu; Li, Weitao; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2014-12-23

    Messenger RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating cellular activities. The expression dynamics of specific mRNA contains substantial information on the intracellular milieu. Unlike the imaging of stationary mRNAs, real-time intracellular imaging of the dynamics of mRNA expression is of great value for investigating mRNA biology and exploring specific cellular cascades. In addition to advanced imaging methods, timely extracellular stimulation is another key factor in regulating the mRNA expression repertoire. The integration of effective stimulation and imaging into a single robust system would significantly improve stimulation efficiency and imaging accuracy, producing fewer unwanted artifacts. In this study, we developed a multifunctional nanocomplex to enable self-activating and spatiotemporal imaging of the dynamics of mRNA sequential expression during the neural stem cell differentiation process. This nanocomplex showed improved enzymatic stability, fast recognition kinetics, and high specificity. With a mechanism regulated by endogenous cell machinery, this nanocomplex realized the successive stimulating motif release and the dynamic imaging of chronological mRNA expression during neural stem cell differentiation without the use of transgenetic manipulation. The dynamic imaging montage of mRNA expression ultimately facilitated genetic heterogeneity analysis. In vivo lateral ventricle injection of this nanocomplex enabled endogenous neural stem cell activation and labeling at their specific differentiation stages. This nanocomplex is highly amenable as an alternative tool to explore the dynamics of intricate mRNA activities in various physiological and pathological conditions.

  13. Multienzyme kinetics and sequential metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wienkers, Larry C; Rock, Brooke

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are the catalysts of biological systems and are extremely efficient. A typical enzyme accelerates the rate of a reaction by factors of at least a million compared to the rate of the same reaction in the absence of the enzyme. In contrast to traditional catalytic enzymes, the family of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are catalytically promiscuous, and thus they possess remarkable versatility in substrates. The great diversity of reactions catalyzed by CYP enzymes appears to be based on two unique properties of these heme proteins, the ability of their iron to exist under multiple oxidation states with different reactivities and a flexible active site that can accommodate a wide variety of substrates. Herein is a discussion of two distinct types of kinetics observed with CYP enzymes. The first example is of CYP complex kinetic profiles when multiple CYP enzymes form the sample product. The second is sequential metabolism, in other words, the formation of multiple products from one CYP enzyme. Given the degree of CYP enzyme promiscuity, it is hardly surprising that there is also a high degree of complex kinetic profiles generated during the catalytic cycle.

  14. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-08-24

    Here, we study the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods and leading to a discretisation bias, with the step-size level hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretisation levels ${\\infty}$ >h0>h1 ...>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence of probability distributions. A sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. In conclusion, it is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context.

  15. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    DOE PAGES

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; ...

    2016-08-24

    Here, we study the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods and leading to a discretisation bias, with the step-size level hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretisation levelsmore » $${\\infty}$$ >h0>h1 ...>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence of probability distributions. A sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. In conclusion, it is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context.« less

  16. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Beskos, Alexandros; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody; Tempone, Raul; Zhou, Yan

    2016-08-24

    Here, we study the approximation of expectations w.r.t. probability distributions associated to the solution of partial differential equations (PDEs); this scenario appears routinely in Bayesian inverse problems. In practice, one often has to solve the associated PDE numerically, using, for instance finite element methods and leading to a discretisation bias, with the step-size level hL. In addition, the expectation cannot be computed analytically and one often resorts to Monte Carlo methods. In the context of this problem, it is known that the introduction of the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method can reduce the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error. This is achieved via a telescoping identity associated to a Monte Carlo approximation of a sequence of probability distributions with discretisation levels ${\\infty}$ >h0>h1 ...>hL. In many practical problems of interest, one cannot achieve an i.i.d. sampling of the associated sequence of probability distributions. A sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) version of the MLMC method is introduced to deal with this problem. In conclusion, it is shown that under appropriate assumptions, the attractive property of a reduction of the amount of computational effort to estimate expectations, for a given level of error, can be maintained within the SMC context.

  17. Sequential binary collision ionization mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Boeyen, R. W.; Watanabe, N.; Doering, J. P.; Moore, J. H.; Coplan, M. A.; Cooper, J. W.

    2004-03-01

    Fully differential cross sections for the electron-impact ionization of the magnesium 3s orbital have been measured in a high-momentum-transfer regime wherein the ionization mechanisms can be accurately described by simple binary collision models. Measurements where performed at incident-electron energies from 400 to 3000 eV, ejected-electron energies of 62 eV, scattering angle of 20 °, and momentum transfers of 2 to 5 a.u. In the out-of-plane geometry of the experiment the cross section is observed far off the Bethe ridge. Both first- and second-order processes can be clearly distinguished as previously observed by Murray et al [Ref. 1] and Schulz et al [Ref. 2]. Owing to the relatively large momentum of the ejected electron, the second order processes can be modeled as sequential binary collisions involving a binary elastic collision between the incident electron and ionic core and a binary knock-out collision between the incident electron and target electron. At low incident-electron energies the cross section for both first and second order processes are comparable, while at high incident energies second-order processes dominate. *Supported by NSF under grant PHY-99-87870. [1] A. J. Murray, M. B. J. Woolf, and F. H. Read J. Phys. B 25, 3021 (1992). [2] M. Schulz, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, H. Kollmus, D. H. Madison. S. Jones and J. Ullrich, Nature 422, 48 (2003).

  18. Geographic variability in HIV and injection drug use in Ukraine: Implications for integration and expansion of drug treatment and HIV care

    PubMed Central

    Zaller, Nickolas; Mazhnaya, Alonya; Larney, Sarah; Islam, Zahed; Shost, Alyona; Prokhorova, Tatiana; Rybak, Natasha; Flanigan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Ukraine has the highest HIV burden of any European country with much of the current HIV epidemic concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and their sexual partners. Opiate substitution therapy (OST) is limited in Ukraine and expansion of OST is urgently needed to help stem the tide of the HIV epidemic. Methods We accessed publicly available data in Ukraine in order to explore geographic variability with respect to prevalence of HIV, PWIDs and OST programmes. Results The regions of Ukraine with the largest number of opioid dependent persons (the south and eastern portions of the country) correspond to the regions with the highest HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. The number of opioid PWIDs per 100,000 population as well as the number of all OST treatment slots per 100,000 varied significantly across the three HIV prevalence categories. Overall, the proportion of individuals receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) was quite low: average across categories: 7.3% and 0.4%, respectively. Additionally, less than half of OST patients receiving MMT or BMT were HIV positive patients. Conclusion There is significant geographic variability in both numbers of HIV positive individuals and numbers of PWIDs across Ukraine, however, there may be a more concentrated epidemic among PWIDs in many regions of the country. Scale up of addiction treatment for PWID, especially OST, can have a significant impact on preventing injection related morbidity, such as HIV and HCV infection. Ukraine can learn from the mistakes other nations have made in denying critical treatment opportunities to PWID. PMID:25304049

  19. Geographic variability in HIV and injection drug use in Ukraine: implications for integration and expansion of drug treatment and HIV care.

    PubMed

    Zaller, Nickolas; Mazhnaya, Alonya; Larney, Sarah; Islam, Zahed; Shost, Alyona; Prokhorova, Tatiana; Rybak, Natasha; Flanigan, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Ukraine has the highest HIV burden of any European country with much of the current HIV epidemic concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and their sexual partners. Opiate substitution therapy (OST) is limited in Ukraine and expansion of OST is urgently needed to help stem the tide of the HIV epidemic. We accessed publicly available data in Ukraine in order to explore geographic variability with respect to prevalence of HIV, PWIDs and OST programmes. The regions of Ukraine with the largest number of opioid dependent persons (the south and eastern portions of the country) correspond to the regions with the highest HIV prevalence and HIV incidence. The number of opioid PWIDs per 100,000 population as well as the number of all OST treatment slots per 100,000 varied significantly across the three HIV prevalence categories. Overall, the proportion of individuals receiving either methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) was quite low: average across categories: 7.3% and 0.4%, respectively. Additionally, less than half of OST patients receiving MMT or BMT were HIV positive patients. There is significant geographic variability in both numbers of HIV positive individuals and numbers of PWIDs across Ukraine, however, there may be a more concentrated epidemic among PWIDs in many regions of the country. Scale up of addiction treatment for PWID, especially OST, can have a significant impact on preventing injection related morbidity, such as HIV and HCV infection. Ukraine can learn from the mistakes other nations have made in denying critical treatment opportunities to PWID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DESIGN OF A HIGH COMPRESSION, DIRECT INJECTION, SPARK-IGNITION, METHANOL FUELED RESEARCH ENGINE WITH AN INTEGRAL INJECTOR-IGNITION SOURCE INSERT, SAE PAPER 2001-01-3651

    EPA Science Inventory

    A stratified charge research engine and test stand were designed and built for this work. The primary goal of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of using a removal integral injector ignition source insert which allows a convenient method of charging the relative locat...