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Sample records for integrated vitrinite reflectance

  1. Rotational reflectance of dispersed vitrinite from the Arkoma basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Weesner, C.M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Rotational reflectance of dispersed vitrinite provides superior documentation of thermal maturity and a capability for interpreting relative timing between thermal and kinematic events in Arkoma Basin strata characterized by vitrinite reflectances up to 5%. Rotational reflectance (R(rot)) is a more precise and less ambiguous index of thermal maturity than maximum (R'(max)), minimum (R(min)), and random (R(ran)) reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance anisotropy becomes sufficiently large to be measurable (using a microscope equipped with an automated rotating polarizer) at ???2% R(rot) and increases following a power function with increasing thermal maturity. Rotational reflectance data can be used to infer the shape of the vitrinite reflectance indicating surface (i.e. indicatrix) and, in turn, to enhance interpretations of the timing between thermal maxima and compressional tectonic events. Data from three wells in the Arkoma Basin Ouachita frontal thrust belt are used as examples. The absence of offsets in measured R(rot) across thrust faults combined with a predominance of uniaxial vitrinite in the thrust faulted part of the section suggest thermal maximum postdated thrust faulting in the western Ouachita frontal thrust belt of Oklahoma. In contrast, the general absence of offsets in measured R(rot) across thrust faults combined with a predominance of biaxial vitrinite in the thrust faulted part of the section suggest that the thermal maximum was coeval with thrust faulting in the eastern Ouachita frontal thrust belt of Arkansas. The presence of biaxial vitrinite in an allochthonous section and uniaxial vitrinite in an underlying, autochthonous section suggests that the thermal maximum was coeval with listric thrust faulting in the central Arkoma Basin of Oklahoma, and that rotational reflectance data can be used as a strain indicator to detect subtle decollement zones.

  2. Integrated Vitrinite Reflectance and Apatite Fission Track Thermocronology of the Lower Karoo rocks in the Moatize Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Cogné, Nathan; Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Raul; Marques, João

    2014-05-01

    The Karoo in Mozambique is represented by Late Carboniferous to Late Triassic sediments that were deposited in rift basins that fringe or developed between Proterozoic cratons. In Tete Province, central-west Mozambique, the Karoo is well represented along the Zambezi river valley forming several intra-cratonic basins separated by horsts consisting of igneous and high grade metamorphic Proterozoic rocks. One of the main horst blocks is located between the Cahora Bassa region and Tete city, separating the Middle Zambezi Basin and the Lower Zambezi Basin. The area of study is located in the Moatize Basin, one of many small basins that form the Lower Zambezi Basin. The stratigraphy of this basin consists of several sedimentary formations that record changes in depositional environment and palaeoclimate from glacial (Vúzi Formation - Lower Permian) at the base, through wet to temperate in the middle (Moatize Formation - Lower Permian), to warm arid at the top of the succession (Matinde and Cádzi formations - Middle to Upper Permian). The Upper Karoo volcanics of Early Jurassic age do not crop out in the Moatize Basin. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Moatize Basin is the richness of coal deposits present in the Lower Permian Moatize Formation. Two coal exploration boreholes (DW123 - T.D. 489 m and DW132 - T.D. 516 m) drilled in the Moatize Basin were studied by means of vitrinite reflectance (VR) and apatite fission track analysis (AFTA), in order to assess their burial and uplift histories. The two boreholes intersected only Moatize Formation lithologies. VR increases in the two borehole sections from ca. 1.30-1.32 % Ro at the top to ca. 1.52-1.69 % Ro at the bottom, indicating medium to low volatile coal rank. Modelled VR data from the two boreholes indicate palaeogeothermal gradients between 40 and 56ºC/km, possible related to basin forming processes. Fission track ages increase from 84 Ma and 102 Ma at the bottom to 138 Ma and 146 Ma at the top

  3. Seismic slip propagation along a fault in the Shimanto accretionary prism detected by vitrinite reflectance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, M.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Hirose, T.

    2011-12-01

    Quantitative assessment of heat generation along faults during fault movement is of primary importance in understanding the dynamics of earthquakes. Last several years localized heat anomaly in a fault zone due to rapid seismic sliding has been detected by various analyses of fault zone materials, such as ferromagnetic resonance signal (Fukuchi et al., 2005), trace elements and isotopes (e.g., Ishikawa et al., 2008) and mineralogical change of clay (e.g., Hirono et al., 2008) and vitrinite reflectance (O'Hara, 2004). Here we report a heat anomaly found in a fault zone in the Shimanto accretionary complex by vitrinite reflectance measurements. Mature faults in nature mostly experience multiple seismic events, resulting in integrated heat anomaly. Thus, in addition to vitrinite reflectance measurements across natural faults, we performed high-velocity friction experiments on a mixture of quartz and vitrinite grains to evaluate how multiple rapid-slip events affect vitrinite reflectance in a fault zone. A localized heat anomaly is found in one of fault zones which are developed within a mélange unit in the Cretaceous Shimanto belt, SW Japan. A principle slip zone with thickness of ~5 mm forms within cataclastic damage zone with thickness of ~3 m. The slip zone is mainly composed of well-foliated clay minerals. Host rocks are characterized by a block-in-matrix texture: aligned sandstone and chert blocks embedded in mudstone matrix. We measured vitrinite reflectance across the fault zone by the same method as reported in Sakaguchi et al., (2011). The measurement reveals that the principle slip zone underwent localized temperature of more than 220°C, while background temperature of both damage zone and host rocks is ~170°C. Since fault motion along most active faults occurs seismological, that inevitably generates frictional heat, the localized heat anomaly is possibly caused by the rapid seismic slip. In order to evaluate the change in vitrinite reflectance by

  4. Can fault slip affect vitrinite reflectance without heat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, P. M.; Kitamura, M.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Hirose, T.

    2012-12-01

    Vitrinite reflectance, R, is a measure of the thermal maturation of coal and has become a tantalizing method for inferring the effects of frictional heating within fault zones. Recent studies, however, suggest the method as commonly applied overpredicts peak fault zone temperatures [Kitamura et al., 2012; Fulton and Harris, 2012]. One unaddressed question in interpreting fault zone vitrinite reflectance data in terms of frictional heating and earthquake and tsunami hazard is whether fault slip can increase R values without significant frictional heating. Here we evaluate the non-thermal effects of fault slip on R values through laboratory friction experiments on saturated simulated gouge mixtures of 90% bentonite clay and 10% vitrinite-rich coal. The coal material, San Miguel Lignite mined from Christine, TX, has a very low starting vitrinite reflectance of Rmax = 0.20 ± 0.03% such that it is highly susceptible and sensitive to changes in maturation. The experiments are run under anoxic conditions at 1 MPa normal stress. Two series of experiments are conducted: one in which several experiments are run with the same total displacement of 3 or 10 m and differ in their average displacement rate ranging from 1.3 to 1307 mm/s, and another series of experiments with the same displacement rate of 1.3 mm/s and with differing total displacements ranging from 0.3 to 10 m. In all experiments temperatures measured at the edge of the gouge zone do not increase by more than 15 oC during the experiment, which is hundreds of degrees less than what is expected to have any thermal effect on the reflectance. Using an oil-immersion microscope with a microspot lighting system (spot size 1.6 μm), both the maximum and minimum reflectance, Rmax and Rmin, was measured on all vitrinite grains larger than ~ 5μm within thin sections cut orthogonal to both the slip direction and sample gouge layer. Analysis of the results suggests the possibility of a very subtle increase of <0.05% with

  5. New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

  6. The thermal history of the Karoo Moatize-Minjova Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique: An integrated vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission track thermochronology study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Paulo; Cogné, Nathan; Chew, David M.; Rodrigues, Bruno; Jorge, Raul C. G. S.; Marques, João; Jamal, Daud; Vasconcelos, Lopo

    2015-12-01

    The Moatize-Minjova Basin is a Karoo-aged rift basin located in the Tete Province of central Mozambique along the present-day Zambezi River valley. In this basin the Permian Moatize and Matinde formations consist of interbedded carbonaceous mudstones and sandstones with coal seams. The thermal history has been determined using rock samples from two coal exploration boreholes (ca. 500 m depth) to constrain the burial and exhumation history of the basin. Organic maturation levels were determined using vitrinite reflectance and spore fluorescence/colour. Ages and rates of tectonic uplift and denudation have been assessed by apatite fission track analysis. The thermal history was modelled by inverse modelling of the fission track and vitrinite reflectance data. The Moatize Formation attained a coal rank of bituminous coals with low to medium volatiles (1.3-1.7%Rr). Organic maturation levels increase in a linear fashion downhole in the two boreholes, indicating that burial was the main process controlling peak temperature maturation. Calculated palaeogeothermal gradients range from 59 °C/km to 40 °C/km. According to the models, peak burial temperatures were attained shortly (3-10 Ma) after deposition. Apatite fission track ages [146 to 84 Ma (Cretaceous)] are younger than the stratigraphic age. Thermal modelling indicates two episodes of cooling and exhumation: a first period of rapid cooling between 240 and 230 Ma (Middle - Upper Triassic boundary) implying 2500-3000 m of denudation; and a second period, also of rapid cooling, from 6 Ma (late Miocene) onwards implying 1000-1500 m of denudation. The first episode is related to the main compressional deformation event within the Cape Fold Belt in South Africa, which transferred stress northwards on pre-existing transtensional fault systems within the Karoo rift basins, causing tectonic inversion and uplift. During the Mesozoic and most of the Cenozoic the basin is characterized by very slow cooling. The second period

  7. Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Wind River Basin, Central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 mi2 in central Wyoming. The basin boundaries are defined by fault-bounded Laramide uplifts that surround it, including the Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains to the north, Wind River Range to the west, Granite Mountains to the south, and Casper Arch to the east. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Wind River Basin. One hundred and nineteen samples were collected from Jurassic through Tertiary rocks, mostly coal-bearing strata, in an effort to better understand and characterize the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks.

  8. RMSRo: A vitrinite reflectance model consistent with the temperature-apatite fission track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Søren B.; Clausen, Ole R.; McGregor, Eoin D.

    2014-05-01

    Observed temperature, vitrinite reflectance and apatite fission tracks provide different but related information regarding temperature history. Their combined use in borehole heat flow determination as well as thermal and tectonic reconstruction requires a set of predictive models which are internally consistent. While the temperature-fission track system seems well-calibrated, several different vitrinite reflectance models exist. Although variability in vitrinite reflectance values is related to natural variations in the organic material such as; initial composition, depositional environment, degree of oxygenation etc., the most important factor affecting the construction of vitrinite reflectance models is bias in the geological temperature history of the samples used for calibration. Here we add to the vitrinite reflectance calibration data set of Suggate (1998) with more borehole data and construct a kinetic vitrinite reflectance model by minimizing the root mean square (RMS) distance between the calibration data set and model predictions. We validate this kinetic model on wells in the North Sea which have maximum temperature at the present day, and on two wells in the eastern North Sea, which have experience cooling since the early Eocene thermal maximum. The two latter wells have unusually high quality temperature, vitrinite reflectance and fission track data, and it appears that the independently derived RMSRo-model is consistent with the temperature-apatite fission track system. Keywords: vitrinite reflectance, basin analysis, thermal history, hydrocarbon exploration, apatite fission tracks Suggate, R.P., 1998. Relations between depth of burial, vitrinite reflectance and geothermal gradient. Journal of Petroleum Geology, v. 21(1), January 1998, 5-32.

  9. Paleothermal structure of the Nankai inner accretionary wedge estimated from vitrinite reflectance of cuttings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, Rina; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Ashi, Juichiro

    2017-08-01

    The paleothermal structure and tectonic evolution of an accretionary prism is basic information for understanding subduction zone seismogenesis. To evaluate the entire paleotemperature profile of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site C0002 located in the off-Kumano region of the Nankai Trough and penetrate the inner accretionary wedge down to 3058.5 m below the seafloor (mbsf), we performed a vitrinite reflectance analysis for cuttings and core samples during IODP expeditions 338 and 348: Nankai Trough seismogenic zone experiment. Although vitrinite reflectance values (Ro) tend to increase with depth, two reversals of these values suggested the existence of thrust fault zones with sufficient displacements to offset the paleothermal structure. The estimated maximum paleotemperatures are 42-70°C at 1200-1300 mbsf, 44-100°C at 1600-2400 mbsf, and 56-115°C at 2600-3000 mbsf, respectively. These temperatures roughly coincide with estimated modern temperatures; however, at a smaller scale, the reconstructed partial paleogeothermal gradient (˜60-150°C/km) recorded at the hanging- and footwall of the presumed thrust fault zone is higher than the modern geothermal gradient (˜30-40°C/km). This high paleogeothermal gradient was possibly obtained prior to subduction, reflecting the large heat flow of the young Philippine Sea Plate.

  10. Suppressed vitrinite reflectance in the Ferron coalbed gas fairway, central Utah: Possible influence of overpressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quick, J.C.; Tabet, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical and thermoplastic properties of coals in the Ferron coalbed methane fairway indicate that coals in the north are of higher rank than coals in the south. Measured vitrinite reflectance does not accurately show this variation of coal rank. Although vitrinite reflectance in the southern and central part of the fairway is consistent with other measures of coal rank, suppressed vitrinite reflectance is observed in the north where methane contents are relatively high. This coincidence of suppressed reflectance and relatively high coalbed methane yields may be significant. We speculate that the suppressed reflectance values result from a burial history where overpressure developed during the early stages of coalification and persisted until recent uplift and cooling; such instances may be diagnostic of prospective coalbed methane targets elsewhere. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The influence of extractable organic matter on vitrinite reflectance suppression: A survey of kerogen and coal types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Lewan, M.D.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The vitrinite reflectance suppression literature shows that while bitumen impregnation of the vitrinite group is often invoked as a significant contributor to suppression, its existence is not often supported by petrological evidence. This study examines bitumen impregnation as a factor in vitrinite suppression by comparing the vitrinite reflectance of source rock and coal samples before and after solvent-extraction. Bitumen, often defined as organic matter soluble or extractable in certain organic solvents, should be removed by Soxhlet method solvent extraction using chloroform. Removing the extractable bitumen should restore the suppressed reflectance to its true higher value. However, the solvent extracted samples averaged 0.014% Rv less than that of the unextracted samples. We conclude from these results and from other published data that reflectance suppression by bitumen impregnation in the vitrinite maceral group, above the huminite stage of gelification, is seemingly a rare phenomenon and whose effect on suppressing vitrinite reflectance is typically negligible. ?? 2006.

  12. Determining the composition of coal concentrate mixtures by measuring the vitrinite reflectance indices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhil'sanova, G.P.

    1984-11-01

    Shortage of coking coals has led to increasing interest in identifying suitable coals for coking blends. In many countries vitrinite reflectance measurement has been used for on-line assessment of charge characteristics. In the USSR this method is gaining in popularity and the paper quotes an example involving reflectance measurements at 100 points on a polished seam sample section, using microscope and multiplier, to produce a histogram. Four blends were prepared, each corresponding to standard gas coal (35%) and fat coal (65%) requirements, to define blend components. The fat coal showed vitrinite reflectance between 0.85 and 0.97%, and the gas coal >0.97%.

  13. Implications from vitrinite reflectance in two profiles of Coastal Range, Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lih Kae, Chim; Loung-Yie, Tsai; Chung-Pai, Chang; Horng-Yen, Yen; Jiun-Yee, Yen; Ying-San, Liou

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan orogeny was formed by the oblique collision of Luzon arc with the Eurasian continent. The collision started from north and propagated to south. The eroded sediments from Taiwan Orogeny dispersed at adjacent fore arc basin areas. Clay mineralogy and illite crystallinity measurements in Madagida section, southern coastal range indicate illite/smectite decrease and illite crystallinity increase gradationally from old lower section to young upper section. This phenomenon can not record the in-situ burial temperature only reflect the materials being derived from Taiwan central range to adjacent basins. In this study, we try to measure the mudstones samples collected from other sections in coastal range. We chose two profile, Fengpin section and Loho section fore study. These two sections located in northern and central coastal range respectively, 10 and 11 samples were collected for each section. Maceral and carbonaceous materials were extracted do into pellet for measurements of vitrinite reflectance. We use vitrinite reflectance to deduce the basin thermal history. Some sample strata also contain coalified woods and can be analysed to constraint the in-situ burial thermal record. In Loho section, the older Pliocene Fanshuliao Formation samples decrease gradationally to younger whereas the Pleistocene Paliwan Formation samples increase gradationally vitrinite reflectance upward. Beside the younger Pleistocene strata, the Lichi Mélange and the normal sedimentary sequence Paliwan and Fanshuliao Formation revealed significant variation in vitrinite reflectance. However in Fengpin section, we found two significant vitrinite reflectance gaps, this two significant gaps imply evidence of faults. The field geological structure measurement and Raman Spectrocopy carbonaceous materials (RSCM) could be good constraints with the vitrinite reflectance data.

  14. Vitrinite equivalent reflectance of Silurian black shales from the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek; Spunda, Karol; Trela, Wiesław

    2014-12-01

    A number of independent methods have been used to measure the thermal maturity of Silurian rocks from the Holy Cross Mountains in Poland. Black shales are characterized by diverse TOC values varying from 0.24-7.85%. Having calculated vitrinite equivalent reflectance using three different formulas, we propose that the most applicable values for the Silurian rocks are those based on Schmidt et al. (2015) equation. Based on this formula, the values range from % 0.71 VReqvVLR (the vitrinite equivalent reflectance of the vitrinite-like macerals) to % 1.96 VReqvVLR. Alternative, complementary methods including Rock Eval pyrolysis and parameters based on organic compounds (CPI, Pr/n-C17, Ph/n-C18, MPI1, and MDR) from extracts did not prove adequate as universal thermal maturity indicators. We have confirmed previous suggestions that Llandovery shales are the most likely Silurian source rocks for the generation of hydrocarbons in the HCM.

  15. Thermal considerations in inferring frictional heating from vitrinite reflectance and implications for shallow coseismic slip within the Nankai Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, P. M.; Harris, R. N.

    2011-12-01

    Frictional properties within the upper few kilometers of subduction zones are generally thought to inhibit rupture propagation. Understanding whether rupture propagates to the surface during large megathrust earthquakes is important for characterizing tsunami hazard. Recent vitrinite reflectance analysis by Sakaguchi et al. [2011] on IODP cores from the megasplay and frontal thrust of the Nankai Subduction Zone have been interpreted to suggest that these faults reached temperatures ~ 380 oC, considerably larger than background values, implying they hosted coseismic slip at shallow depths. Analysis of other temperature proxies on the megasplay by Hirono et al. [2009], however, suggest temperatures have not exceeded 300 oC and are inconclusive as to whether the fault slipped coseismically. Here we evaluate the effects of frictional heat generation on the spatial distribution of vitrinite reflectance and the sensitivity to slip zone thickness, slip duration, and the cumulative effects of numerous events. Using this analysis we show how the vitrinite reflectance data from Nankai can be reconciled with the inorganic chemistry data. We also integrate our resulting heat generation estimates with friction data from these faults to place quantitative constraints on the characteristic amount of slip each has supported during large earthquakes. These results suggest both faults experienced large coseismic slip, with the megasplay hosting considerably more than the frontal thrust. Our results provide insight into the shallow slip behavior of large megathrust earthquakes and their associated geologic signature, and have important implications for earthquake and tsunami hazard. Hirono, T. et al. (2009), Estimation of temperature rise in a shallow slip zone of the megasplay fault in the Nankai Trough, Tectonophysics, 478, 215-220, doi: 10.1016/j.tecto.2009.08.001. Sakaguchi, A. et al. (2011), Seismic slip propagation to the updip end of plate boundary subduction interface faults

  16. Standardization of vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale petroleum systems: How accurate are my Ro data?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance generally is considered the most robust thermal maturity parameter available for application to hydrocarbon exploration and petroleum system evaluation. However, until 2011 there was no standardized methodology available to provide guidelines for vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale. Efforts to correct this deficiency resulted in publication of ASTM D7708-11: Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite dispersed in sedimentary rocks. In 2012-2013, an interlaboratory exercise was conducted to establish precision limits for the measurement technique. Six samples, representing a wide variety of shale, were tested in duplicate by 28 analysts in 22 laboratories from 14 countries. Samples ranged from immature to overmature (Ro 0.31-1.53%), from organic-rich to organic-lean (1-22 wt.% total organic carbon), and contained Type I (lacustrine), Type II (marine), and Type III (terrestrial) kerogens. Repeatability values (difference between repetitive results from same operator, same conditions) ranged from 0.03-0.11% absolute reflectance, whereas reproducibility values (difference between results obtained on same test material by different operators, different laboratories) ranged from 0.12-0.54% absolute reflectance. Repeatability and reproducibility degraded consistently with increasing maturity and decreasing organic content. However, samples with terrestrial kerogens (Type III) fell off this trend, showing improved levels of reproducibility due to higher vitrinite content and improved ease of identification. Operators did not consistently meet the reporting requirements of the test method, indicating that a common reporting template is required to improve data quality. The most difficult problem encountered was the petrographic distinction of solid bitumens and low-reflecting inert macerals from vitrinite when vitrinite occurred with reflectance ranges overlapping the other components. Discussion among

  17. Implications from vitrinite reflectance in the fore arc sequence of Coastal Range, Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chim, L. K.; Tsai, L. Y.; Yen, J. Y.; Chang, C. P.; Liou, Y. S.; Horng-Yen, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The Luzon arc and Eurasian arc-continental collision caused Taiwan orogeny propagating from north to south. Illite crystallinity in Madagida sections, southern coastal range showed the old age samples gradually increased upward had been reported in previous studies. These results indicated the origin of metamorphic signal can be preserve. In this study, five cross-river sections were chosen from north to south of coastal range: Shuilien north, Tingzhulou, Loho, Sanshien, and Madagida. Then, macerals from mudstones and/or coalified woods were extracted and made into pallets for vitrinite reflectance measurement. Sanshien, Loho and Madagida section mudstone extracted samples show that vitrinite reflectance increased gradationally from the older Fanshuliao Formation to the younger Paliwan Formation. On the other hand, Shuilien north and Tingzhulou sections do not show any significant change in vitrinite reflectance. However, coalified woods pellets showed vitrinite reflectance decrease gradually from older to younger parts in the Loho section, Sanshien section and Madagida section. Some of the Implications about the depositional sequence of coastal range can be derived.

  18. Rotational reflectance properties of Arkoma Basin dispersed vitrinite: insights for understanding reflectance populations in high thermal maturity regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, D.W.; Bensley, D.F.; Hathon, L.A.; Kastens, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis and interpretation of dispersed vitrinite reflectance data in regions of high thermal maturity (> 2% vitrinite reflectance) have been equivocal partly because of an increase in width and complexity of reflectance histograms with increasing mean reflectance. Such complexity is illustrated by random reflectance (Rran) data from the Arkoma Basin that display a linear increase in standard deviation of Rran with an increase in mean Rran from 1 to 5%. Evaluating how much of the dispersion in these data is the result of vitrinite anisotropy and how much is the result of mixing of kerogen populations by sedimentary processes and/or sampling procedures has been problematic. Automated collection of reflectance data during polarizer rotation provides preliminary data for solution of this problem. Rotational reflectance data collected from a subset of Arkoma Basin samples reveal positive, linear relationships among maximum (R???max), random (Rran), rotational (Rrot), and minimum (R???min) reflectance, as well as a systematic increase in bireflectance (R???max-R???min) with increasing reflectance. R???max and Rrot display lower standard deviations and narrower, more nearly unimodal histograms than Rran and R???min, suggesting that R???max and Rrot are superior (less ambiguous) indices of thermal maturity. These data patterns are inferred to be mostly an indication of increasing vitrinite anisotropy with increasing thermal maturity, suggesting that the linear covariance observed between mean Rran and standard deviation in dispersed organic data sets from regions of high thermal maturity may be explained mostly as the result of increasing vitrinite anisotropy with increasing thermal maturity. ?? 1993.

  19. Thermal considerations in inferring frictional heating from vitrinite reflectance and implications for shallow coseismic slip within the Nankai Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, Patrick M.; Harris, Robert N.

    2012-06-01

    Frictional properties within the upper few kilometers of subduction zones are generally thought to inhibit rupture propagation. Understanding whether large rapid slip propagates to the surface during megathrust earthquakes is important for characterizing tsunami hazard. Recent vitrinite reflectance analysis by Sakaguchi et al. (2011) on cores from the NanTroSEIZE drilling transect at the Nankai Trough, Japan, has been interpreted to suggest that these faults reached temperatures ˜380 °C, considerably larger than background temperature values, implying they hosted coseismic slip at shallow depths. Analysis of other temperature proxies on the megasplay by Hirono et al. (2009), however, suggests temperatures have not exceeded 300 °C and is inconclusive as to whether the fault slipped at high velocity. We evaluate the effects of frictional heat generation on the spatial distribution of vitrinite reflectance, its sensitivity to slip zone thickness and slip duration, and the cumulative effects of numerous events. We build on the analysis of Sakaguchi et al. (2011) by estimating frictional heating scenarios that are consistent with both the peak and spatial extent of anomalous vitrinite reflectance data. Our results imply coseismic slip magnitudes of several 10s of meters. Peak temperature estimates from the vitrinite reflectance data can be reconciled with the other geochemical constraints only by assuming the vitrinite reflectance results from the cumulative effects of multiple earthquakes. However, this results in unrealistically large estimates of total displacement. Our results imply that current understanding of how vitrinite reflectance is affected by fault slip is incomplete.

  20. Paleotemperature of the Nankai accretionary prism estimated by vitrinite reflectance of carbonaceous materials retrieved during the IODP Expedition 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuchi, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ashi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 348 took place from 13 September 2013 to 29 January 2014. During the Exp. 348, cuttings, mud gas, and logging data were collected from Holes C0002N and C0002P down to 3058.5 mbsf. Cores were collected from 2163 to 2218 mbsf of Hole C0002P. Three lithologic units were identified at Site C0002 based on geological and geochemical characteristics of core and cuttings samples: Unit III (875.5-975.5 mbsf in Hole C0002N), Unit IV (975.5-1665.5 mbsf in Hole C0002N), and Unit V (1665.5-2325.5 mbsf in Hole C0002N, and 1965.5-3058.5 mbsf in Hole C0002P) (Tobin et al., 2015). To evaluate whole thermal structure of the Site C0002, we performed vitrinite reflectance analysis for cuttings samples collected every ~100 m, and for borehole core samples collected every ~10 m of Hole C0002N and C0002P. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) is an indicator to estimate maximum paleotemperature, which has been widely applied to reveal tectonic evolution of on-land accretionary complex in Southwest Japan (e.g. Underwood et al., 1992; Ohomori et al., 1997) and thermal anomalies along fault slip zones reflecting frictional heating due to seismic slip (e.g. Sakaguchi et al., 2011). This is the first study that applied vitrinite analyses systematically to the deep portion of modern accretionary prisms. In this presentation, we report preliminary results of vitrinite reflectance analysis. Ro values are 0.15 to 0.20 in Unit III (forearc basin strata), 0.21 to 0.27 in Unit IV (accretionary prism strata), and 0.26 to 0.38 in Unit V (hemipelagic sediment), respectively. In general, Ro values tend to be gradually and continuously increasing with depth. Estimated paleotemperatures are ~67°C in Unit IV and ~77°C in Unit V. Estimated paleotemperatures are lower than estimated modern temperatures based on borehole temperature measurements and their downward extrapolations (Sugihara et al., 2014). Gaps on

  1. Preliminary vitrinite reflectance study of the post-Acadian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formation, northern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Malinconico, M.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Vitrinite reflectance was measured on plant fossils from the Devonian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formations in northern Maine in order to assess the degree and possible history of thermal maturation of these post-Acadian intermontane basin deposits, generally considered to be unmetamorphosed. The Middle Devonian Mapleton Formation, west of Presque Isle, lies within the prehnite-pumpellyite terrane of northeastern Aroostook County in which the degree of metamorphism increases from west to east. Vitrinite reflectance from the quarry'' plant fossil locality has a reflectance of 1.4%, which is slightly higher than the death line'' of oil and indicates a maximum paleotemperature of ca. 120--150 C. If not due to burial alone, this very low grade metamorphism may be due to (1) intrusion of nearby teschenite dikes or (2) the Maritime Disturbance of the Pennsylvanian. Based on conodont alteration indices and vitrinite and graptolite reflectance, the degree of thermal maturation of pre-Acadian Ordovician to Lower Devonian formations decreases rapidly several kilometers west of the prehnite-analcime isograd; the lowest rank rocks, in a northeast-trending ban from Square Lake to Mud Lake have paleotemperatures in the range of 60--90 C, the birth line'' of oil. In the post- orogenic Lower Devonian Trout Valley Formation immediately north of Mt. Katahdin, two samples about seven kilometers apart have anthracite grade reflectances of 3.0% and 8.2% respectively. Both localities are near andesite sills. Importantly, the smooth nongranular non-coked texture of these samples suggests that all or part of the Trout Valley Formation had been heated by an unidentified thermal event to temperatures above the coking range of coal before being subjected to later very local contact metamorphism by dikes and sills.

  2. Multiple cooling episodes in the Central Tarim (Northwest China) revealed by apatite fission track analysis and vitrinite reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jian; Qiu, Nansheng; Song, Xinying; Li, Huili

    2016-06-01

    Apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance are integrated for the first time to study the cooling history in the Central Tarim, northwest China. The paleo-temperature profiles from vitrinite reflectance data of the Z1 and Z11 wells showed a linear relationship with depth, suggesting an approximately 24.8 °C/km paleo-geothermal gradient and 2700-3900 m of erosion during the Early Mesozoic. The measured apatite fission track ages from well Z2 in the Central Tarim range from 39 to 159 Ma and effectively record the Meso-Cenozoic cooling events that occurred in Central Tarim. Moreover, two cooling events at 190-140 Ma in the Early Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and 80-45 Ma in the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene revealed by measured AFT data and thermal modeling results are related to the collisions of the Qiangtang-Lhasa terranes and the Greater India Plate with the southern margin of the Eurasian Plate, respectively. This study provides new insights into the tectonic evolution of the Tarim Basin (and more broadly Central Asia) and for hydrocarbon generation and exploration in the Central Tarim.

  3. A surface vitrinite reflectance anomaly related to Bell Creek oil field, Montana, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Dalziel, M.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements from surface samples of mudrock and coal show anomalously high values over the Bell Creek oil field. The average vitrinite reflectance (Rm) increases to a maximum of 0.9 percent over the field against background values of about 0.3 percent. The Rm anomaly coincides with a geochemical anomaly indicated by diagenetic magnetite in surface rocks and a geobiologic anomaly indicated by ethane-consuming bacteria. These samples were taken from the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek and Paleocene Fort Union Formations which form an essentially conformable sequence. The depositional environment is similar in both formations, and we expect little variation in the source and composition of the organic matter. The surface R m should be approximately constant because of a uniform thermal history across the field. Temperature studies over local oil fields with similar geology suggest the expected thermal anomaly would be less than 10?C (50?F), which is too small to account for the significantly higher rank over the field. Coal clinkers are rare in the vicinity of Bell Creek and an Rm anomaly caused by burning of the thin, discontinuous coal seams is unlikely. The limited topographic relief, less than 305 m (1,000 ft), over the shallow-dipping homoclinal structure and the poor correlation between Rm and sample locality elevation (r = -0.2) indicate that the Rm anomaly is not due to burial, deformation and subsequent erosion. We conjecture that activity by petroleum-metabolizing bacteria is a possible explanation of the Rm anomaly. Microseepage from oil reservoirs supports large colonies of these organisms, some of which can produce enzymes that can cleave hydrocarbon side-chains on the kerogen molecule. The loss of these side chains causes condensation of the ring structures (Stach and others, 1982) and consequently increases its reflectance. These data indicate that vitrinite reflectance may be a useful tool to explore for stratigraphic traps in the

  4. The low vitrinite reflectance observed in the Miocene formations in S. E. Asia - suppressed or cooler thermal history

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuo, Nakayama )

    1996-01-01

    The vitrinite reflectance data in the Miocene formations in S. E. Asia are found too low relative to the measured bottom hole temperatures and lower than the vitrinite reflectance values predicted by basin modeling. Such observation appears on the data from Khmer Trough, Vietnam offshore, South China Sea, and Japan Sea. Two possibilities are accounted for: (1) the vitrinite reflectance is suppressed under the certain conditions such as over pressure or the existence of generated oil, and (2) the paleo-heat flow in the area was significantly lower than we postulated as a rift basin. The latter possibility has been rarely considered, however, one of the sites indicates that only suppression cannot recover the differences, but also the effect of low paleo-heat flow is necessary. It is considered the heat flow was high at the initial stage of forming a rift and it exponentially decreased, then it increased recently to indicate a relatively high heat regime at present stage. Introducing such assumption could solve the observed low value of vitrinite reflectance. Although this conclusion must be verified by other inorganic source such as Apatite Fission Track Analysis or X-ray diffraction of clays (smectite/ illite transformation), the thermal history with low heat flow would affect significantly the timing of oil/gas generation and expulsion. Thus the observation of less mature vitrinite lead us a new exploration strategy for the area.

  5. The low vitrinite reflectance observed in the Miocene formations in S.E. Asia - suppressed or cooler thermal history?

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuo, Nakayama

    1996-12-31

    The vitrinite reflectance data in the Miocene formations in S. E. Asia are found too low relative to the measured bottom hole temperatures and lower than the vitrinite reflectance values predicted by basin modeling. Such observation appears on the data from Khmer Trough, Vietnam offshore, South China Sea, and Japan Sea. Two possibilities are accounted for: (1) the vitrinite reflectance is suppressed under the certain conditions such as over pressure or the existence of generated oil, and (2) the paleo-heat flow in the area was significantly lower than we postulated as a rift basin. The latter possibility has been rarely considered, however, one of the sites indicates that only suppression cannot recover the differences, but also the effect of low paleo-heat flow is necessary. It is considered the heat flow was high at the initial stage of forming a rift and it exponentially decreased, then it increased recently to indicate a relatively high heat regime at present stage. Introducing such assumption could solve the observed low value of vitrinite reflectance. Although this conclusion must be verified by other inorganic source such as Apatite Fission Track Analysis or X-ray diffraction of clays (smectite/ illite transformation), the thermal history with low heat flow would affect significantly the timing of oil/gas generation and expulsion. Thus the observation of less mature vitrinite lead us a new exploration strategy for the area.

  6. Paleo-thermal condition of the shallow mega-splay fault based on vitrinite reflectance: Core analysis of IODP NanTroSEIZE stage 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, A.; Chester, F. M.; Fabbri, O.; Goldsby, D. L.; Li, C.; Kimura, G.; Tsutsumi, A.; Ujiie, K.; Yamaguchi, A.; Curewitz, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) Expedition 316 (Kimura, et al., 2009) drilled and cored in shallow portion of Tonankai earthquake area. Seismic and tsunami inversion studies combined with seismic reflection research strongly suggested that the splay fault drilled at Site C0004 slipped during the 1944 Tonankai M 8.2 earthquake (Park et al., 2002) and generated a tsunami. Moore et al. (2007) also suggested recent historical and geological accumulation of displacement along the fault on the basis of 3-D seismic reflection investigation (Kinoshita et al., 2009). The core sample, penetrating the slope sediments, prism, splay fault, and underthrust sediments was obtained to clarify the character and behavior of the shallow portion of the megasplay fault. The megasplay fault was defined by biostratigraphic age inversion and structural features in the core sample (Kinoshita et al., 2009). The fault zone is characterized by fractured/brecciated zone, and some of narrow microbreccia zones are occurred within fault breccia zone (Kinoshita et al., 2009). The vitrinite reflectance is one of geothermometer for sedimentary rock. The thermal difference between the hanging wall and footwall concerns with cumulative displacement of the fault. Detailed analysis around the shear zone is expected for detection of local shear heat (Sakaguchi et al., 2007). The core of C0004 involves many of immature coals, and this study use partial bituminized coal for analysis. Re-worked coal fragments having trapezoid or round sharp were classified under microscope. Eight samples with 320 particles of vitrinites are measured along the core of C0004. The values of vitrinite reflectance are approximately 0.2 % from top to bottom of the core. No difference was found between the hanging wall and footwall of the splay fault. Because these reflectance values are close to lower limit of this method, the thermal difference might not be

  7. Preliminary Gulf Coast Coalbed Methane Exploration Maps: Depth to Wilcox, Apparent Wilcox Thickness and Vitrinite Reflectance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Charles E.; Biewick, Laura R.; Warwick, Peter D.; SanFilipo, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Strong economic controls on the viability of coalbed methane (CBM) prospects make coal geometry and coal property maps key elements in identifying sweet spots and production fairways. Therefore, this study seeks to identify the apparent prospective areas for CBM exploration in the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) lignite and coalbeds by mapping net coal thickness, depth to coal, and coal rank (vitrinite reflectance). Economic factors are not considered in this CBM prospects study. Given the comparatively extensive gas pipeline and other production infrastructure development in the Gulf Coast Region, these factors seem less a control compared to other areas. However, open leasable public lands are minimal or nonexistent in the Gulf Coast region and access to the CBM prospects could be a problem.

  8. A comparison of vitrinite reflectance measurements made on whole-rock and dispersed organic matter concentrate mounts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.

    1996-01-01

    A comparison of mean-random vitrinite reflectance (R(v-r)) values calculated from measurements on polished whole-rock and on concentrates of dispersed organic matter (DOM) mounts of the same samples generally show little difference. Compared to measurements on DOM mounts, R(v-r) measurements by the same microscopist on corresponding whole-rock samples are up to a few tenths of a percent lower over the range of 0.6-3.2% R(v-r) and have a slightly higher standard deviation. Whole-rock mounts have an advantage over DOM mounts in the identification of first-cycle vitrinite and differentiation of solid bitumen from vitrinite.

  9. Thermal history of Alberta deep basin: a comparative study of fluid inclusion and vitrinite reflectance data

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, B.J.; Nesbitt, B.E.; Longstaffe, F.J.

    1989-03-01

    The thermal history of the Alberta Deep basin, the gas-saturated westernmost part of the Western Canada sedimentary basin, has been studied by analyzing fluid inclusions in diagenetic cements and comparing the results with coal maturity data. Analyses of fluid inclusions in diagenetic quartz and calcite cements from Lower Cretaceous conglomerates and sandstones indicate that the fluids which precipitated these minerals attained temperatures of at least 190/degree/C. These fluids had salinities of 2-3 wt % equivalent NaCl and were CH/sub 4/ saturated. Time-temperature calculations for vitrinite reflectance data from coal interbeds using the Lopatin-Waples method indicate maximum burial temperatures of only 145/degree/-155/degree/C. The discrepancy in the results from the two types of temperature determinations suggests that either fluids in the conglomerates were 40/degree/C hotter than the ambient rock temperature or the correlation of coal maturity with maximum burial temperature is inaccurate. If the first scenario is correct, hot fluids would have had to have moved through permeable conglomerate beds and bedding plane fractures at a rate fast enough such that their heat was not substantially dissipated along the pathway. If the second scenario is correct, a paleogeothermal gradient of 38/degree/c/km (vs. the present-day 27/degree/C/km) is indicated and a time-temperature index can be calibrated to vitrinite reflectance data specifically for the Alberta Deep basin (1.4 % R/sub 0/ correlates to 190/degree/C). With the available data, neither scenario can be conclusively proven. In either case, unexpectedly high temperatures (190/degree/C) indicate the redistribution of heat by fluid flow in the Falher and Cadotte Members in the Alberta Deep basin.

  10. Evolution of the Cerro Prieto geothermal system as interpreted from vitrinite reflectance under isothermal conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Bostick, N.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Temperature estimates from reflectance data in the Cerro Prieto system correlate with modern temperature logs and temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry indicating that the temperature in the central portion of the Cerro Prieto System is now at its historical maximum. Isoreflectance lines formed by contouring vitrinite reflectance data for a given isothermal surface define an imaginary surface that indicates an apparent duration of heating in the system. The 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface has a complex dome-like form suggesting a localized heat source that has caused shallow heating in the central portion of this system. Isoreflectance lines relative to this 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface define a zone of low reflectance roughly corresponding to the crest of the isothermal surface. Comparison of these two surfaces suggest that the shallow heating in the central portion of Cerro Prieto is young relative to the heating (to 250/sup 0/C) on the system margins. Laboratory and theoretical models of hydrothermal convection cells suggest that the form of the observed 250/sup 0/C isothermal surface and the reflectance surface derived relative to it results from the convective rise of thermal fluids under the influence of a regional hydrodynamic gradient that induces a shift of the hydrothermal heating effects to the southwest.

  11. Vitrinite reflectance data for the Greater Green River basin, southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2002-01-01

    The Greater Green River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 25,000 square miles in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Law, 1996). In addition, an extensive overpressured basin - centered gas accumulation has also been identified in Cretaceous and Tertiary reservoirs by numerous researchers including Law (1984a, 1996), Law and others (1980, 1989), McPeek (1981), and Spencer (1987). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Greater Green River Basin. One hundred eighty-six samples were collected from Cretaceous and Tertiary coalbearing strata (figs. 1 and 2) in an effort to better understand and characterize the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Two samples were from core, one from outcrop, and the remainder from well cuttings. These data were collected to supplement previously published data by Law (1984b), Pawlewicz and others (1986), Merewether and others (1987), and Garcia-Gonzalez and Surdam (1995) and are presented in table 1.

  12. Frictional Heating Recoded in Vitrinite Reflectance Within Coal Material Concentrated Layer: the Cretaceous Shimanto Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyohiko, M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hirose, T.; Kitamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    Frictional heating by faulting is related to effective friction coefficient, displacement, and thickness of fault. Geological records of frictional heating have been measured from some faults by various methods and applied to reconstructions of the fault slip behaviors (i.e., Fulton et al., 2012). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) is one of the methods to detect the geological records of frictional heating. Vitrinite is a kind of coal maceral. Degree of coalification is related to Ro. In the previous studies, using Ro, frictional heating was identified along some faults including shallow deocollement and mega-splay fault in Nankai trough (Sakaguchi et al., 2011). The similar geological evidence can be observed in exhumed accretionary complexes. In this study, we tried to detect the evidence of frictional heating along minor faults developed in an exhumed accretionary complex using Ro. A coal concentrated layer was found in an exhumed accretionary complex, Shimanto Belt, SW Japan. The thickness of the coal concentrated layer is about 80 cm. Some faults are developed within the coal concentrated layer. Thickness of the faults is about a few mm to 1 cm. The coal concentrated layer is appropriate to examine the distribution of Ro. I measured Ro from samples collected around and outside of the layer. Ro of the sample more than 3cm away from the fault was about 1.0% in average. This value is corresponds the background value in this area. On the other hand, Ro of the samples within 3 cm from the fault shows bimodal distribution in histogram representing 1.0% and 1.2% at the peaks. This higher peak can indicate the frictional heating by faulting. Temperature by frictional heating was estimated from Ro following methods of O'Hara (2004), Fulton et al (2012) and Kitamura et al (2013). O'Hara (2004) set cooling rates as 100c/Ma and 0.035, 1.0c/s. Fulton et al. (2012) calculated temperature evolution at and around a fault on the basis of frictional heating and heat diffusion. Both

  13. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  14. Vitrinite reflectance data for the Permian Basin, west Texas and southeast New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark; Barker, Charles E.; McDonald, Sargent

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of vitrinite reflectance (Ro) data based on analyses of samples of drill cuttings collected from 74 boreholes spread throughout the Permian Basin of west Texas and southeast New Mexico (fig. 1). The resulting data consist of 3 to 24 individual Ro analyses representing progressively deeper stratigraphic units in each of the boreholes (table 1). The samples, Cambrian-Ordovician to Cretaceous in age, were collected at depths ranging from 200 ft to more than 22,100 ft.The R0 data were plotted on maps that depict three different maturation levels for organic matter in the sedimentary rocks of the Permian Basin (figs. 2-4). These maps show depths at the various borehole locations where the R0 values were calculated to be 0.6 (fig. 2), 1.3 (fig. 3), and 2.0 (fig. 4) percent, which correspond, generally, to the onset of oil generation, the onset of oil cracking, and the limit of oil preservation, respectively.The four major geologic structural features within the Permian Basin–Midland Basin, Delaware Basin, Central Basin Platform, and Northwest Shelf (fig. 1) differ in overall depth, thermal history and tectonic style. In the western Delaware Basin, for example, higher maturation is observed at relatively shallow depths, resulting from uplift and eastward basin tilting that began in the Mississippian and ultimately exposed older, thermally mature rocks. Maturity was further enhanced in this basin by the emplacement of early and mid-Tertiary intrusives. Volcanic activity also appears to have been a controlling factor for maturation of organic matter in the southern part of the otherwise tectonically stable Northwest Shelf (Barker and Pawlewicz, 1987). Depths to the three different Ro values are greatest in the eastern Delaware Basin and southern Midland Basin. This appears to be a function of tectonic activity related to the Marathon-Ouachita orogeny, during the Late-Middle Pennsylvanian, whose affects were widespread across the Permian

  15. New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Fox and Dolton, 1989, 1996a, b; De Bruin, 1993). In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs (Johnson and Finn, 1998; Johnson and others, 1999). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey's assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Bighorn Basin. These new data supplement previously published data by Nuccio and Finn (1998), and Yin (1997), and lead to a better understanding and characterization of the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Eighty-nine samples of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (fig. 2) were collected and analyzed - 15 samples were from outcrops around the margins of the basin and 74 samples were well cuttings (fig. 1). Forty-one of the samples were shale, two were carbonaceous shale, and the remainder from coal. All samples were analyzed by vitrinite reflectance to determine levels of thermal maturation. Preparation of samples for reflectance analysis required (1) crushing the larger pieces into 0.25-to 1-mm pieces, (2) casting the pieces with epoxy in pre-cut and drilled plugs, and (3) curing the samples overnight. Subsequently, a four-step grinding and polishing process was implemented that included sanding with progressively finer sandpaper (60 and 600 grit) followed with a two-step polishing process (0.3 and 0.05 micron). Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined at 500 X magnification using plane-polarized incident white light and a 546-nm monochromatic filter in immersion oil. For samples containing

  16. Influence of particle and surface quality on the vitrinite reflectance of dispersed organic matter: Comparative exercise using data from the qualifying system for reflectance analysis working group of ICCP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrego, A.G.; Araujo, C.V.; Balke, A.; Cardott, B.; Cook, A.C.; David, P.; Flores, D.; Hamor-Vido, M.; Hiltmann, W.; Kalkreuth, W.; Koch, J.; Kommeren, C.J.; Kus, J.; Ligouis, B.; Marques, M.; Mendonca, Filho J.G.; Misz, M.; Oliveira, L.; Pickel, W.; Reimer, K.; Ranasinghe, P.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Vieth, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a qualifying system for reflectance analysis has been the scope of a working group within the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) since 1999, when J. Koch presented a system to qualify vitrinite particles according to their size, proximity to bright components and homogeneity of the surface. After some years of work aimed at improving the classification system using photomicrographs, it was decided to run a round robin exercise on microscopy samples. The classification system tested consists of three qualifiers ranging from excellent to low quality vitrinites with an additional option for unsuitable vitrinites. This paper reports on the results obtained by 22 analysts who were asked to measure random reflectance readings on vitrinite particles assigning to each reading a qualifier. Four samples containing different organic matter types and a variety of vitrinite occurrences have been analysed. Results indicated that the reflectance of particles classified as excellent, good or poor compared to the total average reflectance did not show trends to be systematically lower or higher for the four samples analysed. The differences in reflectance between the qualifiers for any given sample were lower than the scatter of vitrinite reflectance among participants. Overall, satisfactory results were obtained in determining the reflectance of vitrinite in the four samples analysed. This was so for samples having abundant and easy to identify vitrinites (higher plant-derived organic matter) as well as for samples with scarce and difficult to identify particles (samples with dominant marine-derived organic matter). The highest discrepancies were found for the organic-rich oil shales where the selection of the vitrinite population to measure proved to be particularly difficult. Special instructions should be provided for the analysis of this sort of samples. The certainty of identification of the vitrinite associated with the vitrinite

  17. Measured reflectance suppressed by thin-film interference of crude oil smeared on glass - as on vitrinite in coal or petroliferous rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bostick, Neely

    2011-01-01

    The tool of measuring "vitrinite reflectance" under a microscope has great value in petroleum exploration and coal utilization, and the reflectance is a simple number, such as 1.4% Ro, with some slight variations depending on technique. Sample collection, preparation and measurement are simple and many sedimentary rocks yield vitrinite. However, the reported number can lead one astray if its origin and quality are not fully understood. I analyze here just one factor, "smear" of crude oil on the polished surface (from the sample), which may reduce reflectance because of thin-film interference. Some other causes of error are listed in an addendum to this note.

  18. Organic metamorphism in the Lower Mississippian-Upper Devonian Bakken shales. Part 1: Rock-Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, L.C.; Daws, T.; Pawlewicz, M.

    1986-01-01

    The Williston basin is an intracratonic basin extending across parts of several states, principally North Dakota, on the US/Canadian frontier. A sequence of up to 16 000 ft of Phanerozoic rocks exists in the basin; the Bakken formation is a relatively thin clastic unit composed of three members, of which the middle one is a black shale. Both core chip and cutting chip samples from a series of widely-distributed well locations were taken for laboratory analysis. Pyrolysis data showed 'wide variations' in maturity indices in samples from equivalent depths at different well locations. This suggests that a number of different palaeoheat-flow regimes have existed in the basin, resulting in the optimization of hydrocarbon formation processes at varying depths at different localities. The vitrinite reflectance profiles presented illustrate the expected trend of linearly-increasing maturity with depth to around 6500 ft. Between 6700 and 10 000 ft, however, this trend is interrupted by two 'reversals'. It is suggested that these reversals are due to suppression of the vitrinite reflectance values in samples with high concentrations of H-rich organic matter, and that they may therefore be associated with transitions from 'terrestrial-derived' to marine-depositional conditions. Consequently, the precise identification of the thresholds of intense hydrocarbon generation within the basin is problematic.-J.M.H.

  19. Fluid-inclusion technique for determining maximum temperature in calcite and its comparison to the vitrinite reflectance geothermometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Goldstein, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The hypothesis that aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite can be used to establish maximum temperature (Tpeak) is tested. Fluid inclusion Th, mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rm), and present-day Tpeak from 46 diverse geologic systems that have been at Tpeak from 104 to 106 yr have been compiled. Present Tpeak ranged from 65 to 345??C, Th modes and means ranged from 59 to 350??C, and Rm data ranged from 0.4% to 4.6%, spanning the temperature and thermal maturity range associated with burial diagenesis, hydrothermal alteration, and low-grade metamorphism. Plots of Th and Tpeak data for systems thought to be currently at maximum temperature demonstrate close agreement between Th and present Tpeak in sedimentary basins. The relation suggests that Th of aqueous fluid inclusions in calcite may be a useful measure of maximum temperature. This study also compared Th to mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rm). Th correlates well with Rm and results in a curve similar to Rm vs. Tpeak calibrations determined by other workers. Strong correlation between Tpeak and Rm in these systems suggests that maximum temperature is the major control on thermal maturation. -after Authors

  20. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter A, Rock-Eval and vitrinite reflectance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Leigh C.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Daws, Ted A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of ROCK-EVAL and vitrinite reflectance analyses of a large sample base from more than 70 wells located in three oil-rich California petroleum basins are reported. The cores from these wells have a wide range of present-day burial temperatures (40 ? to 220 ? C). The rocks in these basins were deposited under highly variable conditions, sometimes resulting in substantially different organic matter (OM) types in rocks tens of meters vertically apart from each other in one well. The kinetic response of these different OM types to equivalent wellknown burial histories is a pivotal point of this study. In the Los Angeles and Ventura Basins, rock organic-richness significantly increased with depth, as did kerogen hydrogen content, and the percentage of fine-grained versus coarsegrained rocks. The shales in these basins are perceived as containing primarily hydrogen-rich amorphous OM. In actuality, the shallowest 2,000 to 3,000 m of rocks in the basins, and at least the upper 6,000 m of rocks in parts of the Los Angeles Basin central syncline, are dominated by type III/IV OM. In the Los Angeles Basin, mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation commences in the type III/IV OM at present-day burial temperatures of 85 ? to 110 ? C, most likely around 100 ? C, and is largely complete by 220 ? C. In the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin, mainstage HC generation commences in type III/IV OM at 150 ? C and is also largely complete by 220 ? C. In the Ventura Basin, mainstage HC generation commences above 140 ? C in type III/IV OM. The apparent lower temperatures for commencement of HC generation in the Los Angeles Basin are attributed to the fact that parts of the basin were cooled from maximal burial temperatures by increased meteoric water flows during the last glaciations. All aspects of organic metamorphism, including mainstage HC generation, are strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogenrich OM in these basins. For example, ROCK-EVAL data suggest that mainstage HC

  1. Thermal maturity trends from rock-eval and vitrinite reflectance analysis on potential source rocks in eastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, C.E.; Peterson, J.A.; Poole, F.G. )

    1991-06-01

    Organic geochemical and petrographic analyses of potential source rock samples taken from 30 drill holes penetrating Cenozoic basins of the Basin and Range province in eastern Nevada indicate two distinct trends in thermal maturity, as expressed by vitrinite reflectance equivalent (VRE). VRE is any coal rank or other thermal maturity parameter converted to its equivalent in vitrinite reflectance units using correlation charts. One trend is an increase with depth from about 2% VRE at 500 ft to 5% VRE at 12,000 ft, which is supermature with respect to oil generation. The other trend consists of mature rocks that have a nearly uniform VRE of about 0.7% ({plus minus}0.2%) from the near surface to a depth of 12,000 ft. Both the lower and the higher range geothermal gradients measured across the area, about 0.4 to 2.5F/100 ft (8 to 45C/km), correspond with the mature and supermature trends, respectively. The authors attribute these trends to two major thermal environments common within these Cenozoic basins. The supermature trend results from high geothermal gradients found near igneous intrusions, faulted contacts of uplifted metamorphic core complexes, or other heat sources. The mature trend characterized by near-zero VRE gradients results from groundwater recharge which produces cool temperatures at depth and low geothermal gradients. These generalizations should be applied with caution to any specific area because they are based on a composite VRE depth curve and, in some localities, may not represent realistic interpretation. However, VRE profiles within individual drill holes within the region generally follow one of these trends.

  2. Paleo-stress and temperatures based on calcite twin and vitrinite reflectance in the Nojima Fault, SW Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosono, N.; Furuta, K.; Sakaguchi, A.

    2016-12-01

    The seismogenic fault must experience rupture propagation and frictional slip during earthquakes. The record of this process can be estimated from heat and stress records at principal shear zone of fault. In recent, some methods were developed to detect heat and stress from fault rocks. The organic materials in sediment are delicate with heating to be sensitive geo-thermometer. The vitrinite reflectance and Raman spectra analysis were applied for detection of fault heating. The mechanical twin of calcite depends on shear stress, and twin density method is proposed to estimate paleo-stress for fault rock in brittle regime. The Nojima Fault develops at Awaji Island SW Japan is the seismogenic fault of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The Nojima Fault strikes northeast - south west and bounds Ryoke Granite and Pleistocene Osaka Groups. The Ryoke Granite thrusts up the Osaka Group and suffers deformation more than several ten meters. This damage zone is characterized by brittle failure, and some cracks are filled with fine calcite minerals. The Osaka Group is composed of a sandstone and silt layers, and contacts with Ryoke Granite at silt layer. The fault related folds are observed around the fault zone, and some granite blokes are scattered within the Osaka Group . In micro structure, possible principal shear zone of narrow dark seem of 5 mm in thickness is developed within the silt layer of the Osaka Group. Some coal laminas are included in the Osaka Group, and the vitrinite reflectance was approximately 0.2%. The estimated paleo-temperature of the host rock is approximately several ten degrees. Such low temperature of the sediment must be obtained shallow burial depth, and the sediment may record recent fault activity. Low temperature host rock can detect small signal of frictional heat.

  3. The thermal heating temperature of Chelungpu-fault gouge in TCDP Hole-C core from vitrinite reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Hung, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu Drilling Project (TCDP) drilled three holes penetrating the Chelungpu-fault (holes A, B and C) which generated the large Chi-Chi earthquake, and identified a 12-cm slip layer near the depth of 1,138 m of hole-C. In my previous research, I use the grain size distribution to calculate the fracture energy of Chi-chi earthquake. And now, I use the vitrinite reflectance to analyze the history highest temperature events. Vitriite is one of the primary components of coals and most sedimentary kerogens. It is the product from the cell- wall material and woody tissue of plant under the high temperature and high pressure process. The study of vitrinite reflectance is a key method for identifying the temperature history of sediments in sedimentary basins. It is used to analyze the maturation rank of the organic. However, we can use the same idea and build the thermal model to fit our slip zone samples. Here, we extract the organic part from the TCDP fault gouge and make the appropriate samples for our observation easily and clearly. We got totally 14 samples: we named them PSZ-1 to PSZ-11, which are from the bottom to the top of fault gouge, and PSZ-1 is the major slip zone of 1999 Chi-chi earthquake; Host-39 and Host-43, which are from the host rock above and under the fault gouge; and the last one is the from the scrap of fault gouge, which is unidentified from the fault gouge. For our results of observation, we found the average of reflectance (Ro) for PSZ-1 is 1.3, and the maximum reflectance (Rmax) is 1.7. But the Ro for PSZ-2 to PSZ-4 are between 0.6 to 1.0. The result shows that there is an exact high value for major slip zone, and the values of nearby samples suddenly drop. It means the heating energy affected only in a small range, and it focused on the slip zone. Even though, the result of 1.7 is not so high in the sedimentary condition under the long-time process. But in a short time system, like fault zone slip, it need a very high temperature

  4. Rock-Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance results from the Sheep Creek 1 well, Susitna basin, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Richard G.; Lillis, Paul G.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    We used Rock-Eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance to examine the petroleum source potential of rock samples from the Sheep Creek 1 well in the Susitna basin of south-central Alaska. The results show that Miocene nonmarine coal, carbonaceous shale, and mudstone are potential sources of hydrocarbons and are thermally immature with respect to the oil window. In the samples that we studied, coals are more organic-rich and more oil-prone than carbonaceous shales and silty mudstones, which appear to be potential sources of natural gas. Lithologically similar rocks may be present in the deeper parts of the subsurface Susitna basin located west of the Sheep Creek 1 well, where they may have been buried deeply enough to generate oil and (or) gas. The Susitna basin is sparsely drilled and mostly unexplored, and no commercial production of hydrocarbons has been obtained. However, the existence of potential source rocks of oil and gas, as shown by our Rock-Eval results, suggests that undiscovered petroleum accumulations may be present in the Susitna basin.

  5. Rock-eval pyrolysis and vitrinite reflectance trends in the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rimmer, S.M.; Cantrell, D.J.; Gooding, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    Within eastern Kentucky, organic petrographic and geochemical data indicate a southeastwards increase in maturation of the Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale (Devonian-Mississippian). Reflectance levels of dispersed organic material in the Cleveland Shale increase from 0.5% in the outcrop belt in central Kentucky, to slightly over 1.0% in Pike County, eastern Kentucky. A decrease in fluorescence intensity of liptinitic components, such as Tasmanites, accompanies this reflectance increase, as does a shift in fluorescence color of the alginite towards the red. In the highest rank areas, fluorescence is almost absent. Groundmass fluorescence is observed also, and follows trends similar to those shown by the alginite. Kerogen in the Cleveland Shale is primarily Type II, as indicated by petrographic observations and Rock-Eval data. Total organic carbon contents of this shale decrease from over 12% in the outcrop belt, to less than 2% in the eastern-most part of the study area. Source rock potential ranges from good to very good, with the highest potentials occurring in the outcrop belt. Tmax values for this unit increase from under 430??C in the outcrop belt to over 450??C in the southeast, confirming the increase in maturation trends indicated by vitrinite reflectance data. Both petrographic and geochemical maturation parameters place the Cleveland Shale of eastern Kentucky within the oil window. Comparison with maturation data for Pennsylvanian-age coals upsection suggests that maturation indices are retarded, or suppressed, in the Devonian shales. The level of maturation indicated for the Cleveland may be problematical considering that the Ohio Shale is a major gas-producer in this area. ?? 1993.

  6. Vitrinite reflectance data for Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 square miles in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected from Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin to better characterize the thermal maturity and petroleum potential of these rocks. Ninety-eight samples from Lower Cretaceous and lowermost Upper Cretaceous strata were collected from well cuttings from wells stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Core Research Center in Lakewood, Colorado.

  7. Major variations in vitrinite reflectance and consolidation characteristics within a post-middle Miocene forearc basin, central Japan: A geodynamical implication for basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, Nana; Yamamoto, Yuzuru; Wang, Qian; Kurimoto, Yuhei; Zhang, Feng; Takemura, Takato

    2017-07-01

    Forearc basin sediments near the ocean-ward margin preserve tectonic information related to plate subduction. The post-middle Miocene Boso forearc basin, central Japan, records major differences in structure, paleo-maximum temperature, and consolidation state between below (Miura Group) and above (Kazusa Group) the Kurotaki Unconformity, which formed at ca. 3 Ma. Many fault systems below the unconformity are characterized by a disaggregation-band-like inner fabric that apparently formed soon after sedimentation, whereas there are few of this type of fault system above the unconformity. Vitrinite reflectance values (Ro) are 0.38%-0.44% and 0.22%-0.25% below and above the unconformity, respectively. The consolidation yield stress (pc) in the Miura Group (23.7 MPa in the Anno Formation; 31.0 MPa in the Amatsu Formation) is much greater than that in the Kazusa Group (7.5, 7.6 and 9.6 MPa in the Umegase, Ohtadai and Kiwada formations, respectively). These clear differences in vitrinite reflectance and consolidation characteristics above and below the unconformity are attributed to a forearc basin evolution, which resulted in the Miura Group being geothermally matured, tectonically compacted, uplifted, and eroded (500 m in maximum) before sedimentation of the Kazusa Group. The forearc basin, especially near the trench-slope break, records structural and physical properties reflecting the plate-tectonic environment and the development of the trench-slope.

  8. FTIR absorption indices for thermal maturity in comparison with vitrinite reflectance R0 in type-II kerogens from Devonian black shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lis, G.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    2005-01-01

    FTIR absorbance signals in kerogens and macerals were evaluated as indices for thermal maturity. Two sets of naturally matured type-II kerogens from the New Albany Shale (Illinois Basin) and the Exshaw Formation (Western Canada Sedimentary Basin) and kerogens from hydrous pyrolysis artificial maturation of the New Albany Shale were characterized by FTIR. Good correlation was observed between the aromatic/aliphatic absorption ratio and vitrinite reflectance R 0. FTIR parameters are especially valuable for determining the degree of maturity of marine source rocks lacking vitrinite. With increasing maturity, FTIR spectra express four trends: (i) an increase in the absorption of aromatic bands, (ii) a decrease in the absorption of aliphatic bands, (iii) a loss of oxygenated groups (carbonyl and carboxyl), and (iv) an initial decrease in the CH2/CH3 ratio that is not apparent at higher maturity in naturally matured samples, but is observed throughout increasing R0 in artificially matured samples. The difference in the CH2/CH 3 ratio in samples from natural and artificial maturation at higher maturity indicates that short-term artificial maturation at high temperatures is not fully equivalent to slow geologic maturation at lower temperatures. With increasing R0, the (carboxyl + carbonyl)/aromatic carbon ratio generally decreases, except that kerogens from the Exshaw Formation and from hydrous pyrolysis experiments express an intermittent slight increase at medium maturity. FTIR-derived aromaticities correlate well with R0, although some uncertainty is due to the dependence of FTIR parameters on the maceral composition of kerogen whereas R0 is solely dependent on vitrinite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Implications for organic maturation studies of evidence of a geologically rapid increase and stabilization of vitrinite reflectance at peak temperature: Cerro Prieto geothermal system, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    A short-term rapid heating and cooling of the rock in well M-94 below 1300 m was caused by a pulse of hot water passing through the edge of the Cerro Prieto, Mexico, geothermal system. Below 1300 m, the peak paleotemperatures were about 225-250??C, but equilibrium well log temperatures indicate a decrease to 150-210??C at present. This hot water pulse sharply increased vitrinite reflectance to levels comparable to those measured in the central part of the system, even though studies of apatite fission-track annealing indicate that the duration of heating was only 100-101 yr in M-94, in contrast to 103-104 yr in the central part of the system. The quick change of the vitrinite reflectance geothermometer indicates that thermal maturation reactions can stabilize, after a geologically short period of heating, to a level consistent with peak temperature under moderate to high-temperature diagenesis in open, fluid-rich, geothermal systems. -from Author

  10. An empirical determination of the minimum number of measurements needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance of disseminated organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    In coal samples, published recommendations based on statistical methods suggest 100 measurements are needed to estimate the mean random vitrinite reflectance (Rv-r) to within ??2%. Our survey of published thermal maturation studies indicates that those using dispersed organic matter (DOM) mostly have an objective of acquiring 50 reflectance measurements. This smaller objective size in DOM versus that for coal samples poses a statistical contradiction because the standard deviations of DOM reflectance distributions are typically larger indicating a greater sample size is needed to accurately estimate Rv-r in DOM. However, in studies of thermal maturation using DOM, even 50 measurements can be an unrealistic requirement given the small amount of vitrinite often found in such samples. Furthermore, there is generally a reduced need for assuring precision like that needed for coal applications. Therefore, a key question in thermal maturation studies using DOM is how many measurements of Rv-r are needed to adequately estimate the mean. Our empirical approach to this problem is to compute the reflectance distribution statistics: mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis in increments of 10 measurements. This study compares these intermediate computations of Rv-r statistics with a final one computed using all measurements for that sample. Vitrinite reflectance was measured on mudstone and sandstone samples taken from borehole M-25 in the Cerro Prieto, Mexico geothermal system which was selected because the rocks have a wide range of thermal maturation and a comparable humic DOM with depth. The results of this study suggest that after only 20-30 measurements the mean Rv-r is generally known to within 5% and always to within 12% of the mean Rv-r calculated using all of the measured particles. Thus, even in the worst case, the precision after measuring only 20-30 particles is in good agreement with the general precision of one decimal place recommended for mean Rv

  11. Kinky vitrinite reflectance well profiles: evidence of paleopore pressure in low-permeability, gas-bearing sequences in Rocky Mountain foreland basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Nuccio, V.F.; Barker, C.E.

    1989-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance (Rm) profiles of wells drilled in abnormally pressured, low-permeability gas-bearing sequences in Rocky Mountain foreland basins are commonly non-linear with two or more nonparallel segments. These kinky profiles are most likely due to perturbations of the thermal gradient caused by contrasting heat transfer processes associated with the development of abnormally high pressures. We interpret the intersection of the shallow and intermediate Rm segments to mark the approximate original boundary between normal-pressured, water-bearing rocks and underlying overpressured gas- and water-bearing rocks. The intersection of the intermediate and deep Rm segments marks the approximate original boundary between overpressured gas- and water-bearing rocks and underlying overpressured gas-bearing rocks. However, because overpressuring is a transient condition that eventually evolves into normal pressuring or underpressuring, these intersections may not coincide with the present top of abnormal pressuring. -from Authors

  12. Temperature determination between 50 and 270 °C through fluid inclusion microthermometry and vitrinite reflectance values in the External parts of the Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullis, J.; Wolf, M.; Ferreiro Mählmann, R.

    2003-04-01

    Fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures in prismatic and synkinematically grown fibre quartz from 40 Alpine fissures in external parts of the Central Alps were compared with the vitrinite maturation rank determined by vitrinite reflectance %R_r / Rmax of the surrounding rocks. As the measured higher hydrocarbon- (HHC) and methane-bearing water-rich fluid inclusions are related to water-bearing higher hydrocarbon- and methane-rich fluid inclusions controlled by fluid immiscibility, their homogenization temperatures reveal entrapping temperatures. Earliest prismatic (without decrepitated fluid inclusions) and fibrous quartz growth in diagenetic and low-grade metamorphic rocks occure close to the maximum heating temperatures. The homogenization temperatures of higher hydrocarbon-bearing water-rich fluid inclusions can be used as a geothermometer between 50 and 200 ^oC, and corroborating prior work for methane-saturated water-rich fluids to the upper limit of the methan stability = 270 ^oC (Mullis, 1979, Mullis et al., 2002). The process of vitrinite maturation is irreversible and the level of organic maturity is basically the product of temperature and time; pressure has a minor influence (Ernst and Ferreiro Mählmann, in press). Based on experimental data, numerical kinetic models and maturity inversion techniques it is possible to derive thermal histories from vitrininte reflectance data in sedimentary basins and also in orogenic belts as recently demonstrated for some Helvetic units (Arkai et al., 2002). Thus determined diagenetic to metamorphic temperatures, calibrated through fluid inclusion microthermometry give a much higher direct control to maturity models used. In the temperature range from 50 to 270 ^oC, the following relationship between fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and vitrinite reflectance for an orogenic belt like the external parts of the Central Alps have been established: 150 ^oC VR = 1.3 ± 0.2 % End of the oil window; oil/wet gas

  13. Preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for samples from Upper and Lower Cretaceous strata, Maverick Basin, south Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Gesserman, Rachel M.; Ridgley, Jennie L.

    2009-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Pearsall Formation, a regionally occurring limestone and shale interval of 500-600-ft maximum thickness (Rose, 1986), is being evaluated as part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in onshore Lower Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The purpose of this report is to release preliminary vitrinite and bitumen reflectance, total organic carbon, and pyrolysis data for Pearsall Formation, Glen Rose Formation, Hosston Formation, Austin Group, and Eagle Ford Group samples from the Maverick Basin in south Texas in order to aid in the characterization of these strata in this area. The preliminary nature of this report and the data contained herein reflect that the assessment and characterization of these samples is a work currently in progress. Pearsall Formation subdivisions are, in ascending stratigraphic order, the Pine Island Shale, James Limestone, and Bexar Shale Members (Loucks, 2002). The Lower Cretaceous Glen Rose Formation is also part of the USGS Lower Cretaceous assessment and produces oil in the Maverick Basin (Loucks and Kerans, 2003). The Hosston Formation was assessed by the USGS for undiscovered oil and gas resources in 2006 (Dyman and Condon, 2006), but not in south Texas. The Upper Cretaceous Austin Group is being assessed as part of the USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Upper Cretaceous strata of the northern Gulf of Mexico and, along with the Upper Cretaceous Eagle Ford Group, is considered to be an important source rock in the Smackover-Austin-Eagleford Total Petroleum System (Condon and Dyman, 2006). Both the Austin Group and the Eagle Ford Group are present in the Maverick Basin in south Texas (Rose, 1986).

  14. The Paleozoic tectonothermal evolution of the Bachu Uplift of the Tarim Basin, NW China: Constraints from (U-Th)/He ages, apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Nansheng; Jiang, Guang; Mei, Qinghua; Chang, Jian; Wang, Shengjun; Wang, Jiyang

    2011-06-01

    This study uses a new application of the apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry technique to investigate the thermal history and tectonic uplift of sedimentary basins. Based on measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages, apatite fission track data and equivalent vitrinite reflectance measurements of borehole core samples, the thermal history of the Bachu Uplift of the Tarim Basin was modeled. Our analysis indicates a complicated thermal history in the Bachu Uplift region during the Paleozoic. The thermal gradient initially increased from 28-30 °C/km in the Cambrian period to 30-33 °C/km in the Ordovician period and increased up to 33-34 °C/km in the Silurian period. The thermal gradient began to decrease during the Devonian period and was estimated to be approximately 30 °C/km during the Late Devonian and the Early Carboniferous periods. The low thermal gradient phase was followed by an additional high gradient phase from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian when the gradient was approximately 32 °C/km. Thermal gradients in the Paleozoic were substantially different than the present-day gradient (21 °C/km). Tectonothermal modeling results also revealed uplift events in the Bachu Uplift region that shifted from south to north (e.g., ˜150 Ma to ˜100 Ma) and from west to east (e.g., ˜250 Ma to ˜150 Ma). This thermal evolution of the Bachu Uplift is consistent with its tectonic progression. The thermal spike in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian periods could be related to magmatic activities in the Early Permian period. The Paleozoic thermal history of the Bachu Uplift region of the Tarim Basin could not be reconstructed properly due to a lack of reliable thermal indicators in the Lower Paleozoic successions, and a poor understanding of the thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic source rocks during the Paleozoic has hindered petroleum exploration in this area. This study provides a new Paleozoic thermal history and shows that the Paleozoic

  15. Macromolecule simulation and CH4 adsorption mechanism of coal vitrinite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Song; Yan-ming, Zhu; Wu, Li

    2017-02-01

    The microscopic mechanism of interactions between CH4 and coal macromolecules is of significant practical and theoretical importance in CBM development and methane storage. Under periodic boundary conditions, the optimal energy configuration of coal vitrinite, which has a higher torsion degree and tighter arrangement, can be determined by the calculation of molecular mechanics (MM) and molecular dynamics (MD), and annealing kinetics simulation based on ultimate analysis, 13C NMR, FT IR and HRTEM. Macromolecular stabilization is primarily due to the van der Waals energy and covalent bond energy, mainly consisting of bond torsion energy and bond angle energy. Using the optimal configuration as the adsorbent, GCMC simulation of vitrinite adsorption of CH4 is conducted. A saturated state is reached after absorbing 17 CH4s per coal vitrinite molecule. CH4 is preferentially adsorbed on the edge, and inclined to gathering around the branched chains of the inner vitrinite sites. Finally, the adsorption parameters are calculated through first principle DFT. The adsorbability order is as follows: aromatic structure> heteroatom rings > oxygen functional groups. The adsorption energy order is as follows: Top < Bond < Center, Up < Down. The order of average RDF better reflects the adsorption ability and that of [-COOH] is lower than those of [sbnd Cdbnd O] and [Csbnd Osbnd C]. CH4 distributed in the distance of 0.99-16 Å to functional groups in the type of monolayer adsorption and the average distance order manifest as [sbnd Cdbnd O] (1.64 Å) < [Csbnd Osbnd C] (1.89 Å) < [sbnd COOH] (3.78 Å) < [-CH3] (4.11 Å) according to the average RDF curves. CH4 enriches around [sbnd Cdbnd O] and [Csbnd O-C] whereas is rather dispersed about [-COOH] and [CH3]. Simulation and experiment data are both in strong agreement with the Langmuir and D-A isothermal adsorption model and the D-A model fit better than Langmuir model. Preferential adsorption sites and orientations in vitrinite are

  16. Evidence of organic-inorganic interactions during thermal maturation of vitrinite: Constraints from hydrothermal experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Eglinton, L.B.; Ong, Yea-Ling; Seewald, J.S.

    1996-10-01

    A series of hydrothermal experiments were conducted to determine the role of aqueous fluid chemistry during the development of vitrinite reflectance in subsurface environments. Samples of Wyodak Coal (90% vitrinite) and unconsolidated sediment from Middle Valley, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge were heated at 225 to 375{degrees}C at 350 bars with a variety of fluid compositions of varying pH, fS{sub 2} and redox. The n-alkane and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions in generated bitumen and loss of phenols in residual vitrinite were monitored in all experiments to allow correlation of chemical transformations with the development of vitrinite reflectance. The results suggest that vitrinite maturation is enhanced by increased levels of dissolved sulfur species in intermediate oxidation states. Theoretical calculations indicate that the absolute abundance and relative distribution of dissolved sulfur species are sensitive functions of fluid pH and redox. These results may account for some commonly observed fluctuations in vitrinite maturation and suggest that kinetic models used to predict the evolution of vitrinite reflectance may need to account for subsurface chemical environments in addition to time and temperature.

  17. Simulations and experimental investigations of the competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on low-rank coal vitrinite.

    PubMed

    Yu, Song; Bo, Jiang; Jiahong, Li

    2017-09-16

    The mechanism for the competitive adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on coal vitrinite (DV-8, maximum vitrinite reflectance R o,max = 0.58%) was revealed through simulation and experimental methods. A saturated state was reached after absorbing 17 CH4 or 22 CO2 molecules per DV-8 molecule. The functional groups (FGs) on the surface of the vitrinite can be ranked in order of decreasing CH4 and CO2 adsorption ability as follows: [-CH3] > [-C=O] > [-C-O-C-] > [-COOH] and [-C-O-C-] > [-C=O] > [-CH3] > [-COOH]. CH4 and CO2 distributed as aggregations and they were both adsorbed at the same sites on vitrinite, indicating that CO2 can replace CH4 by occupying the main adsorption sites for CH4-vitrinite. High temperatures are not conducive to the adsorption of CH4 and CO2 on vitrinite. According to the results of density functional theory (DFT) and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) calculations, vitrinite has a higher adsorption capacity for CO2 than for CH4, regardless of whether a single-component or binary adsorbate is considered. The equivalent adsorption heat (EAH) of CO2-vitrinite (23.02-23.17) is higher than that of CH4-vitrinite (9.04-9.40 kJ/mol). The EAH of CO2-vitrinite decreases more rapidly with increasing temperature than the EAH of CH4-vitrinite does, indicating in turn that the CO2-vitrinite bond weakens more quickly with increasing temperature than the CH4-vitrinite bond does. Simulation data were found to be in good accord with the corresponding experimental results.

  18. Reflections on 'autistic integrity'.

    PubMed

    Russell, Barbara

    2012-03-01

    Autism, particularly its moderate to severe forms, has prompted considerable scientific study and clinical involvement because the associated behaviours imply disconnections with valued features of a 'good' life, such as close relationships, enjoyment, and adaptability. Proposed causes of autism involve potent philosophical concepts including consciousness, identity, mind, and relationality. The concept of autistic integrity is used by Barnbaum in The Ethics of Autism: Among Them, But Not of Them to help provide moral justification to stop efforts to cure adults with autism, especially if the cause is presumed to be a lack of a theory of mind.(1) This article has two goals: (1) to apply four familiar definitions or characterizations of integrity to the case of moderate to severe autism, and (2) to examine whether autistic integrity does provide the moral justification Barnbaum seeks.

  19. (Vitrinites of Mesozoic, Cenozoic, and Paleozoic coals)

    SciTech Connect

    Faizullina, E.M.; Lapo, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    In the reported experiment, the vitrinites of the coalification stages from B to A have been studied by IR spectrometry. A comparison of the intensities of the absorption bands of equally coalified vitrinites of different ages has shown that they differ mainly in their content of stretching vibrations of aliphatic CH and CH/sub 2/ groups (absorption bands at 2930 and 2860 cm/sup -1/) and the stretching vibrations of C.0 groups (band close to 1700 cm/sup -1/). A high absorption in the vitrinites of Mesozoic and Cenozoic coals due to aliphatic CH and CH/sub 2/ groups as compared with the vitrinities of Paleozoic coals has been found. The laws established previously in the coalification series for the vitrinites of Paleozoic coals have also been confirmed for the vitrinites of Meso-Cenozoic coals. 13 refs.

  20. Postimpact heat conduction and compaction-driven fluid flow in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure based on downhole vitrinite reflectance data, ICDP-USGS Eyreville deep core holes and Cape Charles test holes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malinconico, M.L.; Sanford, W.E.; Wright, Horton W.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance data from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP)-U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eyreville deep cores in the centralcrater moat of the Chesapeake Bay impact structure and the Cape Charles test holes on the central uplift show patterns of postimpact maximum-temperature distribution that result from a combination of conductive and advective heat flow. Within the crater-fill sediment-clast breccia sequence at Eyreville, an isoreflectance (-0.44% Ro) section (525-1096 m depth) is higher than modeled background coastal-plain maturity and shows a pattern typical of advective fluid flow. Below an intervening granite slab, a short interval of sediment-clast breccia (1371-1397 m) shows a sharp increase in reflectance (0.47%-0.91% Ro) caused by conductive heat from the underlying suevite (1397-1474 m). Refl ectance data in the uppermost suevite range from 1.2% to 2.1% Ro. However, heat conduction alone is not sufficient to affect the temperature of sediments more than 100 m above the suevite. Thermal modeling of the Eyreville suevite as a 390 ??C cooling sill-like hot rock layer supplemented by compaction- driven vertical fluid flow (0.046 m/a) of cooling suevitic fluids and deeper basement brines (120 ??C) upward through the sediment breccias closely reproduces the measured reflectance data. This scenario would also replace any marine water trapped in the crater fill with more saline brine, similar to that currently in the crater, and it would produce temperatures sufficient to kill microbes in sediment breccias within 450 m above the synimsuevite. A similar downhole maturity pattern is present in the sediment-clast breccia over the central uplift. High-reflectance (5%-9%) black shale and siltstone clasts in the suevite and sediment-clast breccia record a pre-impact (Paleozoic?) metamorphic event. Previously published maturity data in the annular trough indicate no thermal effect there from impact-related processes. ?? 2009 The

  1. Mapping the chemistry of resinite, funginite and associated vitrinite in coal with micro-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y; Caro, L D; Mastalerz, M; Schimmelmann, A; Blandón, A

    2013-01-01

    Micro-FTIR mapping is a powerful tool for nondestructive, in situ chemical characterization of coal macerals at high resolution. In this study, the chemistry of resinite, funginite and associated vitrinite is characterized via reflectance micro-FTIR for Cenozoic high volatile C bituminous coals from Colombia. In comparison with the micro-FTIR spectra of vitrinite and inertinite, the corresponding spectra of liptinite macerals in the same coals are characterized by stronger aliphatic CH(x) absorbance at 3000-2800 and 1460-1450 cm⁻¹, but less intense aromatic C=C ring stretching vibration and aromatic CH(x) out-of-plane deformation at 700-900 cm⁻¹. The aliphatic components in resinite have the longest carbon chains and are least branched, bestowing the highest hydrocarbon generation potential on resinite among the three macerals studied. In contrast, funginite exhibits the strongest aromatic character, the highest aromaticity, the lowest 'A' factor values and the lowest C=O/C=C ratios among the three maceral groups. Vitrinite generally displays intermediate chemical characteristics. Reflectance micro-FTIR mapping of coal samples further confirms the aliphatic character of resinite and the aromatic nature of funginite. In addition, chemical mapping of resinite and adjacent vitrinite shows that vitrinite immediately adjacent to resinite displays higher aliphatic CH(x) stretching intensity than more distant vitrinite, suggesting that chemical components from resinite can diffuse over short distances into adjacent vitrinite, specifically causing hydrogen enrichment. It needs to be pointed out, however, that the region of influence is localized and limited to a narrow zone, whose extent likely depends on resinite's properties, such as its size and aliphatic material content. This way, the chemical map of resinite and associated vitrinite provides direct evidence of the intermaceral effects occurring during the peat forming stage or during later coalification. No

  2. Thermal maturity patterns (conodont color alteration index and vitrinite reflectance) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin: a major revision of USGS Map I-917-E using new subsurface collections: Chapter F.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the CAI isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of this report are to present revised CAI isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The CAI isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the CAI-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The CAI data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the CAI data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front (fig. 1). Vitrinite reflectance, based on dispersed vitrinite in Devonian black shale, is another important parameter for estimating the thermal maturity in pre-Pennsylvanian-age rocks of the Appalachian basin (Streib, 1981; Cole and others, 1987; Gerlach and Cercone, 1993; Rimmer and others, 1993; Curtis and Faure, 1997). This chapter also presents a revised percent vitrinite reflectance (%R0) isograd map based on dispersed vitrinite recovered from selected Devonian black shales. The Devonian black shales used for the vitrinite studies reported herein also were analyzed by RockEval pyrolysis and total organic

  3. Bidirectional reflection effects in practical integrating spheres.

    PubMed

    Mahan, J R; Walker, J A; Stancil, M M

    2015-10-20

    Integrating spheres play a central role in radiometric instrument calibration, surface optical property measurement, and radiant source characterization. Our work involves a simulation, based on the Monte Carlo ray-trace (MCRT) of bidirectional reflections within a practical integrating sphere pierced with two viewing ports. We used data from the literature to create an empirical model for the bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRF) of Spectralon suitable for use in the MCRT environment. The ratio of power escaping through the two openings is shown to vary linearly with wall absorptivity for both diffuse and bidirectional reflections. The sensitivity of this ratio to absorptivity is shown to be less when reflections are weakly bidirectional.

  4. Intersections of Writing, Reflection, and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Anne J.; Stassen, Martha L. A.

    2016-01-01

    In fall 2010, the University of Massachusetts Amherst instituted a new upper-division General Education requirement, the Integrative Experience (IE), designed to help students integrate the various components of their undergraduate experience and reflect upon their learning and development as a result of those experiences, both key dimensions of…

  5. Intersections of Writing, Reflection, and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Anne J.; Stassen, Martha L. A.

    2016-01-01

    In fall 2010, the University of Massachusetts Amherst instituted a new upper-division General Education requirement, the Integrative Experience (IE), designed to help students integrate the various components of their undergraduate experience and reflect upon their learning and development as a result of those experiences, both key dimensions of…

  6. Chemistry and origin of minor and trace elements in vitrinite concentrates from a rank series from the eastern United States, England, and Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Bostick, N.H.; Fletcher, J.D.; Dulong, F.T.; Brown, F.W.; Brown, Z.A.; Krasnow, M.R.; Romankiw, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    A rank series consisting of twelve vitrinite concentrates and companion whole-coal samples from mined coal beds in the eastern United States, England, and Australia were analyzed for C, H, N, O, ash, and 47 trace and minor elements by standard elemental, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and direct-current-arc spectrographic (DCAS) techniques. The reflectance of vitrinite, atomic H:C and O:C, and ash-free carbon data were used to determine ranks that range from high-volatile C bituminous coal to meta-anthracite. A van Krevelen (atomic H:C vs. O:C) diagram of the vitrinite concentrates shows a smooth curve having its lowest point at H:C = 0.18 and O:C = 0.01. This improves the van Krevelen diagram by the addition of our vitrinite concentrate from meta-anthracite from the Narragansett basin of New England. Boron content (400-450 ppm) in two Illinois basin vitrinite concentrates was about an order of magnitude higher than B contents in other concentrates analyzed. We attribute this to marine origin or hydrothermal activity. The alkaline-earth elements Ca, Mg and Ba (DCAS) have higher concentrations in our vitrinite concentrates from bituminous coals of the Appalachian basin, than they do in vitrinite concentrates from the marine-roofed bituminous coals of the Illinois basin; therefore, a nonmarine origin for these alkaline-earth elements is postulated for the Appalachian basin coals. An ion-exchange mechanism due to high concentrations of these elements as ions in diagenetic water, but probably not recent ground water, may be responsible for the relatively high values of these elements in Appalachian concentrates. Higher concentrations of Ni and Cr in one of the English vitrinite concentrates and of Zr in the Australian concentrate probably indicate organic association and detrital influence, respectively. ?? 1989.

  7. A new fault-thermometer based on vitrinite maturation by coseismic frictional heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Manami; Mukoyoshi, Hideki; Hirose, Takehiro

    2014-05-01

    To detect frictional heating effects along faults provides key insight into the dynamics of earthquakes and faulting [e.g., Brodsky et al., 2010]. Evidence of substantial frictional heating along a fault is also a reliable indicator determining whether a fault has slipped at high velocity in the past, which is crucial for assessing earthquake and tsunami hazard. The reflectance (R) measurement of vitrinite, one of the primary components of coals, has been considered a possible thermometer of fault zones, especially in accretionary wedges where vitrinite fragments are common [e.g., Sakaguchi et al., 2011]. Under normal burial conditions, vitrinite reflectance (R) increases by irreversible maturation reaction as temperature is elevated and thus sensitively records the maximum temperature to which the vitrinite is subjected. However, the commonly used kinetic models of vitrinite maturation [e.g., Sweeney and Burnham, 1990] may not yield accurate estimates of the peak temperature in a fault zone resulting from fast frictional heating rates [Kitamura et al., 2012; Fulton and Harris, 2012]. Thus, we performed high-velocity friction experiments aimed at revealing coal maturation by frictional heat generated at slip velocities representative of natural earthquakes up to 1.3 m/s. Our experimental results indicate that coal can mature in typical earthquake rise time (e.g., ~10 seconds) and R increases exponentially with increasing peak temperature [Kitamura et al., 2012]. In addition to these results, we will present the effects of water, atmosphere condition (oxygenic/anoxic), and initial R value and grain size of coal on coal maturation during coseismic faulting, and eventually propose a new fault-thermometer based on coal maturation by rapid frictional heating. Using the correlation between R and temperature rises we estimate the dynamic friction during coseismic faulting in the shallow portions of a megasplay fault in the Nankai trough. The fault zone has a ~20 mm

  8. Completely integrable systems and groups generated by reflections

    PubMed Central

    Gutkin, Eugene; Sutherland, Bill

    1979-01-01

    We introduce a class of quantum Hamiltonian systems with δ-function potential, related to groups generated by reflections. They generalize the system of equal elastic particles on the line. We show that these systems are completely integrable and we integrate them explicitly. Then we apply our technique to obtain identities for groups generated by reflections. PMID:16592731

  9. Reflecting "As If": An Integrative Process in Couples Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    An integration of Adlerian and social constructionist ideas, the reflecting "as if" technique asks clients to take a reflective step backward to consider perceptual and behavioral alternatives as a prelude to their acting as if they were the couple they desire to be. This article describes the reflecting as if technique and provides a…

  10. Distribution of nitrogen species during vitrinite pyrolysis and gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.Y.; Li, W.Y.; Chang, L.P.; Feng, J.; Zhao, W.; Xie, K.C.

    2006-08-15

    The formation of HCN and NH3 during pyrolysis in Ar and gasification in CO{sub 2} and steam/Ar was investigated. Vitrinites were separated and purified from different rank coal from lignite to anthracite. Pyrolysis and gasification were carried out in the drop-tube/fixed-bed reactor at temperatures of 600-900{sup o}C. Results showed that with increase of reaction temperature the yield of HCN increased significantly during pyrolysis and gasification. Decrease of coal rank also increased the yield of HCN. Vitrinite from lower rank of coal with high volatile content released more HCN. The yield of NH3 was the highest at 800 {sup o}C during pyrolysis and gasification. And the yield of NH3 from gasification in steam/Ar was far higher than that from gasification in CO{sub 2}, where the hydrogen radicals play a key role. Nitrogen retained in char was also investigated. The yield of char-N decreased with an increase of pyrolysis temperature. Vitrinite from lower rank coal had lower yield of char-N than that from the high rank coal.

  11. A New Dynamical Reflection Algebra and Related Quantum Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avan, Jean; Ragoucy, Eric

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new dynamical reflection algebra, distinct from the previous dynamical boundary algebra and semi-dynamical reflection algebra. The associated Yang-Baxter equations, coactions, fusions, and commuting traces are derived. Explicit examples are given and quantum integrable Hamiltonians are constructed. They exhibit features similar to the Ruijsenaars-Schneider Hamiltonians.

  12. Hydrocarbon source potential and maturation in eocene New Zealand vitrinite-rich coals: Insights from traditional coal analyses, and Rock-Eval and biomarker studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newman, J.; Price, L.C.; Johnston, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    The results of traditional methods of coal characterisation (proximate, specific energy, and ultimate analyses) for 28 Eocene coal samples from the West Coast of New Zealand correspond well with biomarker ratios and Rock-Eval analyses. Isorank variations in vitrinite fluorescence and reflectance recorded for these samples are closely related to their volatile-matter content, and therefore indicate that the original vitrinite chemistry is a key controlling factor. By contrast, the mineral-matter content and the proportion of coal macerals present appear to have had only a minor influence on the coal samples' properties. Our analyses indicate that a number of triterpane biomarker ratios show peak maturities by high volatile bituminous A rank; apparent maturities are then reversed and decline at the higher medium volatile bituminous rank. The Rock-Eval S1 +S2 yield also maximizes by high volatile bituminous A rank, and then declines; however, this decline is retarded in samples with the most hydrogen-rich (perhydrous) vitrinites. These Rock-Eval and biomarker trends, as well as trends in traditional coal analyses, are used to define the rank at which expulsion of gas and oil occurs from the majority of the coals. This expulsion commences at high volatile A bituminous rank, and persists up to the threshold of medium volatile bituminous rank (c. 1.1% Ro ran. or 1.2% Ro max in this sample set), where marked hydrocarbon expulsion from perhydrous vitrinites begins to take place.

  13. Scaffolding Students' Knowledge Integration: Prompts for Reflection in KIE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2000-01-01

    Encouraging students to be autonomous is an important goal of the Scaffolded Knowledge Integration (SKI) framework. Investigates learning and design questions. Indicates that prompting students to reflect significantly increases knowledge integration in science projects. Shows that self-monitoring prompts, which encourage planning for and…

  14. Specific and Individuated Death Reflection Fosters Identity Integration

    PubMed Central

    Cozzolino, Philip J.; Sedikides, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Identity integration is the process wherein a person assimilates multiple or conflicting identities (e.g., beliefs, values, needs) into a coherent, unified self-concept. Three experiments examined whether contemplating mortality in a specific and individuated manner (i.e., via the death reflection manipulation) facilitated outcomes indicative of identity integration. Participants in the death reflection condition (vs. control conditions) considered positive and negative life experiences as equally important in shaping their current identity (Experiment 1), regarded self-serving values and other-serving values as equally important life principles (Experiment 2), and were equally motivated to pursue growth-oriented and security-oriented needs (Experiment 3). Death reflection motivates individuals to integrate conflicting aspects of their identity into a coherent self-concept. Given that identity integration is associated with higher well-being, the findings have implications for understanding the psychological benefits of existential contemplation. PMID:27152863

  15. Experimental Rate Study of Vitrinite Maturation as a Function of Temperature, Time, Starting Material, Aqueous Fluid Pressure, and Oxygen Fugacity: Corroboration of Prior Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.; Mählmann, R. F.

    2002-05-01

    Kinetic studies were performed on disaggregated samples of gymnosperm and angiosperm huminite at 2.0 kbar aqueous fluid pressure and oxygen fugacities defined by hematite-magnetite and magnetite + quartz-fayalite solid buffers. Individual experiments lasted from 5-204 days. The rate of vitrinite reflectance (VR) increase was evaluated at 200, 250, 300, and 400oC isotherms; experimentally determined, approximately steady-state values for the mean percentage Rmax are 0.54, 0.74, 1.10, and 2.25, respectively. The overall activation energy governing the kinetics of several devolatilization reactions responsible for increase in VR measured in our experiments is 21.8+/- 0.3 kJ/mol. Combined with earlier rate studies conducted by Dalla Torre et al. (1997), we conclude that the rate of vitrinite maturation is unaffected by oxidation state, "wet" versus "dry" conditions, and the nature of the starting lignitic material. To a small extent, elevated lithostatic pressure retards the rate of increase in VR. These new run data demonstrate that VR is chiefly a function of temperature and time. In support of most earlier field, theoretical, and laboratory studies, our research indicates that, for all but geologically insignificant times intervals, vitrinite reflectance is an appropriate proxy for host-rock burial temperature.

  16. Directional Hemispherical Reflectance for Spectralon by Integration of its Bidirectional Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haner, David A.; McGuckin, Brendan T.; Menzies, Robert T.; Bruegge, Carol J.; Duval, Valerie

    1998-06-01

    The directional hemispherical reflectance is obtained for Spectralon, the material chosen for onboard radiometric calibration of the multiangle imaging spectroradiometer, at laser wavelengths of 442, 632.8, and 859.9 nm. With p - and s -polarized incident light and for an angle of incidence of 45 , the bidirectional reflectance distribution function was measured over a polar angle range of 1 85 and a range of azimuthal angles of 0 180 in 10 increments. The resultant directional hemispherical reflectance is found by integration to be 1.00 0.01 at 442 nm, 0.953 0.01 at 632.8 nm, and 0.956 0.01 at 859.9 nm. The experimental methodology and the data analysis are presented together with a full discussion of the primary experimental errors.

  17. Directional-hemispherical reflectance for spectralon by integration of its bidirectional reflectance.

    PubMed

    Haner, D A; McGuckin, B T; Menzies, R T; Bruegge, C J; Duval, V

    1998-06-20

    The directional-hemispherical reflectance is obtained for Spectralon, the material chosen for onboard radiometric calibration of the multiangle imaging spectroradiometer, at laser wavelengths of 442, 632.8, and 859.9 nm. With p- and s-polarized incident light and for an angle of incidence of 45 degrees , the bidirectional reflectance distribution function was measured over a polar angle range of 1-85 degrees and a range of azimuthal angles of 0-180 degrees in 10 degrees increments. The resultant directional-hemispherical reflectance is found by integration to be 1.00 ? 0.01 at 442 nm, 0.953 ? 0.01 at 632.8 nm, and 0.956 ? 0.01 at 859.9 nm. The experimental methodology and the data analysis are presented together with a full discussion of the primary experimental errors.

  18. IR spectrum simulation of molecular structure model of Shendong coal vitrinite by using quantum chemistry method.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jian-Bo; Wang, Ying; Li, Feng-Hai; Yi, Gui-Yun; Zeng, Fan-Gui; Guo, Hong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The structure of coal needs to be understood from a molecular point of view for clean, effective and high value-added utilization of coal. In the literature, molecular structure model of Shendong coal vitrinite (SV) was established by the authors on the basis of experimental results of ultimate analysis and 13C NMR, and the calculated 13C NMR spectrum of SV model was consistent with the experimental spectrum. In order to further verify the accuracy of SV structure model established by the authors, the infrared spectrum of SV structure model was calculated using quantum chemistry semi-empirical VAMP in this thesis. The results showed that the peak shape of calculated IR spectrum of SV structure model was similar to the experiment's, but the wave number of calculated IR spectrum was obviously higher than that of experimental spectrum. According to the calculated results for model compounds by using the same method, calculated vibrational frequency was higher than that of experiment for the same functional groups. Hence, the calculated IR spectrum should be corrected. After correction the calculated IR spectrum of SV structure model matched well with the experimental spectrum. In other words, the SV structure model can truly reflect the structure characteristics of SV.

  19. Molecular simulation of CH4/CO2/H2O competitive adsorption on low rank coal vitrinite.

    PubMed

    Yu, Song; Bo, Jiang; Wu, Li

    2017-07-21

    The competitive adsorptions of CH4/CO2/H2O on coal vitrinite (DV-8, C214H180O24N2) were computed based on density function theory (DFT) and grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC). The adsorption process reaches the saturation state after adsorbing 17 CH4s, 22 CO2s, and 35 H2Os per C214H180O24N2 respectively. The optimal configurations of CH4-vitrinite, CO2-vitrinite, and H2O-vitrinite respectively manifest as aromatic(1)/T(2)/rT(3) (1 adsorption location, 2 adsorption sites and T here represents sites above the carbon atom and the heteroatom, 3 adsorption orientation and rT here means the orientations of three hydrogen atoms pointing to vitrinite), aromatic/T/v (v represents the orientations perpendicular to the plane of vitrinite), and aromatic/rV/T (rV represents an oxygen atom pointing to the vitrinite surface). The GCMC results show that high temperature is not conducive to the vitrinite's adsorption of adsorbates and the adsorption capacity order is H2O > CO2 > CH4 (263-363 K) in the one-component, binary, and ternary adsorbate systems. The optimal configurations of vitrinite are similar to graphite/graphene, while ΔE is significantly lower than graphite/graphene. Simulation data are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. Disk-integrated reflection light curves of planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Munoz, A.

    2014-03-01

    The light scattered by a planet atmosphere contains valuable information on the planet's composition and aerosol content. Typically, the interpretation of that information requires elaborate radiative transport models accounting for the absorption and scattering processes undergone by the star photons on their passage through the atmosphere. I have been working on a particular family of algorithms based on Backward Monte Carlo (BMC) integration for solving the multiple-scattering problem in atmospheric media. BMC algorithms simulate statistically the photon trajectories in the reverse order that they actually occur, i.e. they trace the photons from the detector through the atmospheric medium and onwards to the illumination source following probability laws dictated by the medium's optical properties. BMC algorithms are versatile, as they can handle diverse viewing and illumination geometries, and can readily accommodate various physical phenomena. As will be shown, BMC algorithms are very well suited for the prediction of magnitudes integrated over a planet's disk (whether uniform or not). Disk-integrated magnitudes are relevant in the current context of exploration of extrasolar planets because spatial resolution of these objects will not be technologically feasible in the near future. I have been working on various predictions for the disk-integrated properties of planets that demonstrate the capacities of the BMC algorithm. These cases include the variability of the Earth's integrated signal caused by diurnal and seasonal changes in the surface reflectance and cloudiness, or by sporadic injection of large amounts of volcanic particles into the atmosphere. Since the implemented BMC algorithm includes a polarization mode, these examples also serve to illustrate the potential of polarimetry in the characterization of both Solar System and extrasolar planets. The work is complemented with the analysis of disk-integrated photometric observations of Earth and Venus

  1. Molecular model and ReaxFF molecular dynamics simulation of coal vitrinite pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Zhu, Yan-ming; Wang, Geoff; Wang, Yang; Liu, Yu

    2015-08-01

    Vitrinite in coal, the mainly generating methane maceral, plays an important role in hydrocarbon generation of coal. This study aims at obtaining products formation mechanism of vitrinite pyrolysis, and hence determining the chemical bond, molecular liquefaction activity, and reactions mechanism of methane and C2-4 during pyrolysis. The ReaxFF molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was carried out at temperature of 1500 K in order to investigate the mechanism of vitrinite pyrolysis. Initially, a minimum energy conformational structure model was constrained by a combination of elemental and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) literature data. The model analysis shows the chemical and physical parameters of vitrinite pyrolysis are broadly consistent with the experimental data. Based on the molecular model, ReaxFF MD simulations further provide information of unimolecule such as bond length, and chemical shift, and hence the total population and energy of main products. Molecules bond and pyrolysis fragments, based on active bond analyzed, revealed pyrolysis products of single vitrinite molecule with aliphatic C-C bond, especially ring and chain aliphatic as liquefaction activity. The molecular cell whose density is 0.9 g/cm(3) with lowest energy accords with the experimental density 1.33 g/cm(3). The content of main products after pyrolysis, classifying as CH4, H2O, and H2, was changed along with the increasing temperature. The gas molecule, fragments and generation pathways of CO2, H2, CH4, and C2H6 were also elucidated. These results show agreement with experimental observations, implying that MD simulation can provide reasonable explanation for the reaction processes involved in coal vitrinite pyrolysis. Thus the mechanism of coal hydrocarbon generation was revealed at the molecular level.

  2. Examining integrative thinking through the transformation of students' written reflections into concept webs.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Brittany; Montplaisir, Lisa

    2012-12-01

    A shift is currently taking place in which explicit connections between content are being emphasized. Biology is not an isolated discipline, yet undergraduate courses frequently focus on discrete knowledge. Students often engage in rote learning, struggle with transforming and applying content. Integrative thinking occurs when students recognize connections to content. Written reflections provide students with the opportunity to demonstrate this thinking. We transformed student-written reflections into concept webs to gain insights into how students connect biological concepts. We were interested in determining if characteristics of integrative thinking develop through reflections. The results indicate a significant relationship between concepts and integrated relationships. Integrative thinking varied but declined overall. Concept webs allow for an examination of student integrative thinking through the transformation of reflection and provide insights into the connections and relationships that students draw between biological concepts. Reflections can transform learning by facilitating and allowing for the evaluation of integrative thinking.

  3. Integration of reflectances and thermography imagery for transport infrastructures diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignatti, S.; Palombo, A.; Pascucci, S.; Santini, F.

    2012-04-01

    The integrated use of reflectances and thermography to study and diagnostic of transport infrastructures has been applied on the Musumeci Bridge (Potenza, Italy) test site as a fast and non-destructive tool in the framework of the Integrated System for Transport Infrastructures surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing (ISTIMES) project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call "ICT and Security" of the Seventh Framework Programme, in order to extract appropriate information and make useful decisions [1]. The applied hyperspectral imagery is primarily suited for the detection and characterization of alterations and defects in the structures' surface, whereas by means of thermography it is possible to attain near real-time information about the internal structure such as a bridge. Hyperspectral data is able to discriminate materials on the basis of their different patterns of wavelength-specific absorption; in fact, they are successfully used for identifying minerals and rocks, as well as detecting surface materials properties [2]. For this study we used the HySpex VNIR-1600 and the SWIR-320 hyperspectral scanners (see details in Table 1) located beneath the Musmeci Bridge thus being able to acquire the structure. The hyperspectral data processing has allowed to derive indication/parameters related to the status of the structure surface, i.e. by means of the detection of the surface weathering status of the iron (i.e. iron oxides such as limonite/goethite) used to reinforce the cement structure and the occurring detachments of the cement covering the iron. This assessment can be used to foresee more severe damages of the armed concrete. Concerning the rationale for using a high sensitivity Infrared camera in the MWIR range (3.5-5 micron; see Table 1) for the Musumeci test site is based on the fact that the high radiometric resolution of the thermal images time series allows analyzing the structure homogeneity and the cohesion of

  4. Integrating 3D Printing into an Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Course: Reflections on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Pamela; McCartney, Holly

    2017-01-01

    This reflection on practice describes a case study integrating 3D printing into a creativity course for preservice teachers. The theoretical rationale is discussed, and the steps for integration are outlined. Student responses and reflections on the experience provide the basis for our analysis. Examples and resources are provided, as well as a…

  5. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  6. SUBMICROSCOPIC ( less than 1 mu m) MINERAL CONTENTS OF VITRINITES IN SELECTED BITUMINOUS COAL BEDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Chao, E.C.T.; Thompson, C.L.; Wandless, M.-V.; Dulong, F.T.; Larson, R.R.; Neuzil, S.G.; ,

    1983-01-01

    An important aspect of the petrographic description of coal is the characterization of coal quality, including chemical attributes. For geologic investigations, data on the concentrations, distribution, and modes of occurrence of minor and trace elements provide a basis for reconstructing the probable geochemical environment of the swamp material that was converted into peat, and the geochemical conditions that prevailed during and subsequent to coalification. We have been using electron (EPMA) and proton (PIXE) microprobe analytical methods to obtain data on the chemical characteristics of specific coal constituents in their original associations within coal samples. The present study is aimed at evaluation of the nature of mineral occurrences and heterogeneous elemental concentrations within vitrinites. Vitrinites are usually the most abundant, and therefore most important, maceral group in bituminous coal. 8 refs.

  7. Integrating Service-Learning Pedagogy: A Faculty Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carracelas-Juncal, Carmen; Bossaller, Jenny; Yaoyuneyong, Gallayanee

    2009-01-01

    Research on service-learning has focused mainly on student outcomes. However, this study addresses the transformative change that three faculty members from different disciplines experienced during a semester-long fellowship on service-learning as a pedagogical method. Through their personal reflections, the authors show how service-learning and…

  8. Using a Reflective Court Report to Integrate and Assess Reflective Practice in Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    In an Australian legal education context, there is minimal research on designing and implementing a court report as a summative assessment task. This journal article attempts to fill this gap by reflecting on the journey of a legal educator who pioneered a court report for a core final year course in a Bachelor of Laws program with large cohorts…

  9. A rapid method for concentrating sedimentary organic matter for vitrinite reflectance analysis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    The tecnique discussed in this paper utilizes crushing, high-speed blending, and ultrasonic treatment to mechanically disaggregate rock and release the sedimentary organic matter (OM) in a suitable heavy liquid. This new method can provide freeze-dried concentrated OM in approximately 8 to 24 hours (longer time is necessary for removing carbonate). Under optimal conditions, it is possible to concentrate the OM and prepare a hardened epoxy microscope slide in about 24 hours. Subsequent grinding, polishing, and drying allows microscopic examination of the organic concentrate the next day.-from Author

  10. Combining Critical Reflection and Design Thinking to Develop Integrative Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, M. Ann; Dehler, Gordon E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for advancing grounded curricula, which explicitly link theory and pedagogy, and executing them in authentic and multidisciplinary settings as a means to facilitate student growth into integrative learners. We describe the development of a student-centered learning experience that combines elements of critical management…

  11. Combining Critical Reflection and Design Thinking to Develop Integrative Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, M. Ann; Dehler, Gordon E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we argue for advancing grounded curricula, which explicitly link theory and pedagogy, and executing them in authentic and multidisciplinary settings as a means to facilitate student growth into integrative learners. We describe the development of a student-centered learning experience that combines elements of critical management…

  12. Bichromatic tuning of reflection bands in integrated CLC reflectors for optical switches, gates, and logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shing-Trong; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Ho, Shau-Jung; Li, Ming-Shian

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the bichromatic tuning of cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) reflection bands from reflectors containing chiral azo dopants. Because the chiral azo molecules change their helical twist power in reversible photoisomerization, the reflection bands of the CLCs are modulated using purple and green laser beams. The CLC reflectors are integrated into an optical gate that can be used to modulate output spectra. We also apply the integrated system in optical switching and logic.

  13. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  14. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  15. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  16. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  17. 21 CFR 862.2400 - Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Densitometer/scanner (integrating, reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. 862.2400 Section 862.2400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG..., reflectance, TLC, or radiochromatogram) for clinical use. (a) Identification. A densitometer/scanner...

  18. Blended Delivery and Online Assessment: Scaffolding Student Reflections in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Ingrid; Beatson, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents a teaching innovation addressing the challenges of embedding and assessing reflective practice in work-integrated learning, specifically marketing internships. We identify four issues relating to this problem: lack of knowledge or skill for reflection, limitations of physical journals, facilitation of different forms of…

  19. Blended Delivery and Online Assessment: Scaffolding Student Reflections in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Ingrid; Beatson, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents a teaching innovation addressing the challenges of embedding and assessing reflective practice in work-integrated learning, specifically marketing internships. We identify four issues relating to this problem: lack of knowledge or skill for reflection, limitations of physical journals, facilitation of different forms of…

  20. Integral Observations of the Reflection Component of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The data were analyzed by Dr. Fabian's student Adrian Turner and included in his thesis (completed Sept 2004). We did not detect MCG-6 using the then current software and the spectrum of the Circinus galaxy turned out to be even worse then the published BeppoSAX spectrum. We decided not to do any more work on it. We were contacted about the data in March by Thierry Courvoisier (the data were thea public) as he had a student, Simona Soidi, working on a compilation of spectra. Dr. Fabian sent them the chapter from Adrian's thesis and we provided some general comments on what they were doing on 6 objects. This has since been accepted for publication with Fabian as a co-author. A paper on the Integral AGN catalogue appeared on astro-ph a few days ago which contains an detection of MCG-6 with a very poor spectrum. We didn't detect it because the software back then required a source to be detected within something like 30 min exposure in order to work. Integral is NOT very sensitive.

  1. Temporal integration reflected by frequency following response in auditory brainstem.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Ye, Datian

    2015-01-01

    Auditory temporal integration (ATI) has been widely described in psychoacoustic studies, especially for loudness perception. Loudness increases with increasing sound duration for durations up to a time constant about 100 ~ 200 ms, and then loudness becomes saturated with more duration increase. However, the electrophysiological mechanism underlying the ATI phenomenon has not been well understood. To investigate ATI at the brainstem level of auditory system and its relationship to cortical and behavioral ATI, frequency follow response (FFR) was acquired in our study. Simultaneously, ATI in auditory cortex was evaluated by cortical response P1. Behavioral loudness and electrophysiological measures were estimated from normal-hearing young adults for vowel /a/ whose durations varied from 50 ms to 175 ms. Significant effects of stimulus duration were found both on FFR and P1 amplitudes. Linear regression analysis revealed that as stimulus duration increased, brainstem FFR amplitude was significantly associated with cortical P1 amplitude and behavioral loudness, which confirmed the existence of temporal integration in auditory brainstem. Moreover, behavioral loudness ATI was better predicted using brainstem and cortical measures together than merely using each one separately, indicating an interplay and coordination for ATI across the three levels along auditory pathway.

  2. Integral Observations of the Reflection Component of Seyfert Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabian, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    The data were analyzed by Dr. Fabian's student Adrian Turner and included in his thesis (completed Sept 2004). We did not detect MCG-6 using the then current software and the spectrum of the Circinus galaxy turned out to be even worse then the published BeppoSAX spectrum. We decided not to do any more work on it. We were contacted about the data in March by Thierry Courvoisier (the data were thea public) as he had a student, Simona Soidi, working on a compilation of spectra. Dr. Fabian sent them the chapter from Adrian's thesis and we provided some general comments on what they were doing on 6 objects. This has since been accepted for publication with Fabian as a co-author. A paper on the Integral AGN catalogue appeared on astro-ph a few days ago which contains an detection of MCG-6 with a very poor spectrum. We didn't detect it because the software back then required a source to be detected within something like 30 min exposure in order to work. Integral is NOT very sensitive.

  3. Reflection-phase spectra of cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Junichi; Okuda, Hiroki; Kintaka, Kenji; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo

    2017-07-01

    A cavity-resonator-integrated guided-mode resonance filter (CRIGF) consisting of waveguide gratings on a transparent substrate can provide not only a narrowband reflection spectrum but also a steep reflection-phase spectrum. Reflection-phase spectra of CRIGFs were discussed in detail theoretically with an analytical expression. It was found that CRIGFs can be categorized into two types showing a phase variation of 2π rad, namely, reflection-phase rotation, or no rotation. On the other hand, the same structure on a high-reflection mirror, instead of the transparent substrate, normally shows the rotation. The two types of CRIGFs were designed and fabricated with different core thicknesses so that theoretically predicted reflection-phase characteristics with and without rotation could be demonstrated experimentally.

  4. Petrography of Permian "Gondwana" coals from boreholes in northwestern Bangladesh, based on semiautomated reflectance scanning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bostick, N.H.; Betterton, W.J.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Nazrul, Islam M.

    1991-01-01

    Drilling through Quaternary alluvium and Tertiary cover at low-gravity anomalies in northwestern Bangladesh showed the presence of Permian sedimentary rocks in depressions that may be as much as a thousand meters deep in the crystalline basement. These Permian strata include low-sulfur, high-volatile bituminous coals in beds as thick as 15 m. The maceral group composition of these coals was determined by semiautomated reflectance scanning with a motorized microscope stage, rather than by point counting. This method was chosen to give objectively recorded raw analytical data and to provide a graphical picture of each sample. The coals are mostly "Gondwana" type (poorly layered "plum pudding" with abundant minerals and inertinite in a vitrinite groundmass) that would be classed as semi-dull (inerto-gelitite) coals. However, six samples have more than 70% vitrinite. None of the samples would be classed as sapropelic (liptinitic). The upper, middle, and lower main seams in borehole GDH-45 were sampled in 10 benches (0.1-3 m thick) each. Inertinite ranges from 7 to 100 vol% (mineral free basis) in individual benches, but composite seam averages are 41, 54 and 67%. Inertinite increases toward the top of two main seams so the bottom would yield the most valuable first mine slices. Some benches with extremely high inertinite content, such as the top 7 m of the lower thick seam, might be mined specially for blending with foreign low-inert coals to increase coke strength. The free swelling index reaches 7.5 in several vitrinite-rich benches, which can indicate good coking coal. Much of the vitrinite is fluorescent, which indicates secondary bituminization characteristic of vitrinite in good coking coals. Ash yields range from 8 to 52%, with composite seam averages of 15, 14 and 24%. Rare visible pyrite is in veinlets or small nodules; framboids and dispersed pyrite are absent. In borehole GDH-40 near Barapukuria (200-500 m depth), the mean random reflectance of vitrinite "A

  5. Primitive Auditory Memory Is Correlated with Spatial Unmasking That Is Based on Direct-Reflection Integration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huahui; Kong, Lingzhi; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2013-01-01

    In reverberant rooms with multiple-people talking, spatial separation between speech sources improves recognition of attended speech, even though both the head-shadowing and interaural-interaction unmasking cues are limited by numerous reflections. It is the perceptual integration between the direct wave and its reflections that bridges the direct-reflection temporal gaps and results in the spatial unmasking under reverberant conditions. This study further investigated (1) the temporal dynamic of the direct-reflection-integration-based spatial unmasking as a function of the reflection delay, and (2) whether this temporal dynamic is correlated with the listeners’ auditory ability to temporally retain raw acoustic signals (i.e., the fast decaying primitive auditory memory, PAM). The results showed that recognition of the target speech against the speech-masker background is a descending exponential function of the delay of the simulated target reflection. In addition, the temporal extent of PAM is frequency dependent and markedly longer than that for perceptual fusion. More importantly, the temporal dynamic of the speech-recognition function is significantly correlated with the temporal extent of the PAM of low-frequency raw signals. Thus, we propose that a chain process, which links the earlier-stage PAM with the later-stage correlation computation, perceptual integration, and attention facilitation, plays a role in spatially unmasking target speech under reverberant conditions. PMID:23658664

  6. The integration of blended learning into an occupational therapy curriculum: a qualitative reflection.

    PubMed

    Barnard-Ashton, Paula; Rothberg, Alan; McInerney, Patricia

    2017-08-17

    This paper presents a critical reflection of the integration of Blended Learning (BL) into an undergraduate occupational therapy curriculum which was delivered through Problem Based Learning (PBL). This is a qualitative reflection of a Participatory Action Research (PAR) study using Brookfield's model for critical reflection of an educator's practice. The model uses four 'lenses' through which to focus enquiry: Lens 1) our autobiography as a learner of practice; Lens 2) our learners' eyes; Lens 3) our colleagues' experiences; and Lens 4) the theoretical literature. Grounded theory analysis was applied to the data. The factors that contributed to successful integration of technology and e-Learning into an existing curriculum, the hurdles that were navigated along the way, and how these influenced decisions and innovation are explored. The core categories identified in the data were "drivers of change" and "outcomes of BL integration". Key situations and pivotal events are highlighted for their role in the process that led to the project maturing. Each lens reflects the successes and hurdles experienced during the study. Brookfield's model provides an objective method of reflection which showed that despite the hurdles, e-Learning was successfully integrated into the curriculum.

  7. Optimized setup for integral refractive index direct determination applying digital holographic microscopy by reflection and transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frómeta, M.; Moreno, G.; Ricardo, J.; Arias, Y.; Muramatsu, M.; Gomes, L. F.; Palácios, G.; Palácios, F.; Velázquez, H.; Valin, J. L.; Ramirez Q, L.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper the integral refractive index of a microscopic sample was directly measured by applying Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) capturing transmission and reflection holograms simultaneously, of the same sample's region, using Mach-Zehnder and Michelson micro interferometers for transmission and reflection holograms capture and modeling the 3D sample in a medium of known refractive index nm. The system was calibrated using standard polystyrene sphere immersed in water with known diameter and refractive index, and the method was applied for erythrocyte integral refractive index determination. The results are in accordance with predicted, the measurements error of the order of ± 0.005 in absolute values.

  8. Uncertainty in vertically integrated liquid water content due to radar reflectivity observation error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Mark N.; Andrieu, Herve; Krajewski, Witold F.

    1995-01-01

    Radar reflectivity is used to estimate meteorological quantities such as rainfall rate, liquid water content, and the related quantity, vertically integrated liquid (VIL) water content. The estimation of any of these quantities depends on several assumptions related to the characteristics of the physical processes controlling the occurrence and character of water in the atmosphere. Additionally, there are many sources of error associated with radar observations, such as those due to brighthand, hail, and drop size distribution approximations. This work addresses one error of interest, the radar reflectivity observation error; other error sources are assumed to be corrected or negligible. The result is a relationship between the uncertainty in VIL water content and radar reflectivity measurement error. An example application illustrates the estimation of VIL uncertainty from typical radar reflectivity observations and indicates that the coefficient of variation in VIL is much larger than the coefficient of variation in radar reflectivity.

  9. Activity in part of the neural correlates of consciousness reflects integration.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan

    2017-07-25

    Integration is commonly viewed as a key process for generating conscious experiences. Accordingly, there should be increased activity within the neural correlates of consciousness when demands on integration increase. We used fMRI and "informational masking" to isolate the neural correlates of consciousness and measured how the associated brain activity changed as a function of required integration. Integration was manipulated by comparing the experience of hearing simple reoccurring tones to hearing harmonic tone triplets. The neural correlates of auditory consciousness included superior temporal gyrus, lateral and medial frontal regions, cerebellum, and also parietal cortex. Critically, only activity in left parietal cortex increased significantly as a function of increasing demands on integration. We conclude that integration can explain part of the neural activity associated with the generation conscious experiences, but that much of associated brain activity apparently reflects other processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Integrating Research-Based and Practice-Based Knowledge through Workplace Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Per; Nordstrom, Gunilla; Ellstrom, Per-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present a theoretical framework with the aim of contributing to improved understanding of how reflection can provide a mechanism to integrate research-based knowledge with the pre-existing practice-based knowledge. Design/methodology/approach: The paper begins with an explanation of important concepts: research-based…

  11. Undergraduate Reflective Journaling in Work Integrated Learning: Is It Relevant to Professional Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Susan; Francis-Coad, Jacqueline; Connaughton, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the research findings from a study reviewing graduates' opinions on completing online reflective journaling tasks during work integrated learning as an undergraduate. The study was divided into two parts with an initial focus group conducted with six physiotherapy graduates seven months following graduation. Findings from the…

  12. Integrating Formative Portfolio Assessment, Reflective Practice, and Cognitive Coaching into Preservice Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geltner, Beverley B.

    An innovative approach to the preparation of school administrators is described in which instructor and student come together in a learning situation that integrates three core components: (1) formative portfolio assessment; (2) reflective practice; and (3) cognitive apprenticeship. The operation and impact of this approach are illustrated through…

  13. A Critical Reflection on Integrating Informational Technology into EFL Curriculum: An EFL Teacher's Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the reflective practices of integrating informational technology into English curriculum of an EFL (English as a foreign language) teacher in Taiwan over a decade. The teaching experiences have been reconstructed and represented through first person narrative inquiry, highlighting the conflicts the teacher encountered, the…

  14. Faculty Reflections on the Process of Building an Integrated Preclerkship Curriculum: A New School Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalil, Mohammed K.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    This is a reflective essay based on the experience of developing a structure and function module within a new integrated medical curriculum. Our hope is that the insights we gained during a 4-yr journey in a new medical school will be transferable to others engaged with curriculum development. Here, we present an interpretive analysis of our…

  15. Students' Reflections on Industry Placement: Comparing Four Undergraduate Work-Integrated Learning Streams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Karen; Mylonas, Aliisa; Benckendorff, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares four work-integrated learning (WIL) streams embedded in a professional Development course for tourism, hospitality and event management students. Leximancer was used to analyze key themes emerging from reflective portfolios completed by the 137 students in the course. Results highlight that student learning outcomes and…

  16. A Critical Reflection on My Learning and Its Integration into My Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Sally

    2016-01-01

    This paper, "A critical reflection on my learning and its integration into my professional practice," was successfully submitted for a Master's programme at the University of Bath (UK) in 2010, whilst Sally was working full-time as a teacher in a large secondary school in an English town 10 miles from the city of Bath. Sally died of a…

  17. Chemistry and origin of minor and trace elements in selected vitrinite concentrates from bituminous and anthracitic coals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.; Lyons, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Twelve hand-picked vitrinite concentrates and companion whole-coal samples were analyzed for trace and minor elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and direct-current-arc spectrographic techniques (DCAS). The vitrinite concentrates contained 94 to nearly 100 vol.% vitrinite compared to 71-95 vol.% in the companion whole coals. The ash contents of the vitrinite concentrates were 2 to more than 190 times less than the ash contents of the companion whole coals. Organic and inorganic affinities were determined by comparing the elemental concentrations in the vitrinite concentrates to the concentrations in the companion whole coals. The ratios of these concentrations for 33 selected elements are shown in Figure 1. Ratios greater than 1 indicate organic affinity, and ratios less than 1 indicate inorganic affinity. Br and W generally showed organic affinity in all samples in this study. In the nine samples from the eastern United States (Fig. 1A-C) less than one-fourth of the trace elements show organic affinity compared to nearly one-half for the three English and Australian samples (Fig. 1D). The elements that generally show organic affinity in the non-U.S.A. samples studied include As, Cs, Hf, and Ni, which have generally inorganic affinities in the U.S.A. samples, and Cr, Sb, Se, and U, which have mixed (both organic and inorganic) affinities, in the U.S.A. coals studied, has an inorganic affinity in the English coals studied. B shows organic affinity in the samples from the Illinois basin (Fig. 1C). For the samples studied, Ba shows organic affinity in the Appalachian basin bituminous coals (Fig. 1B), inorganic affinity in the Illinois basin coals, and overall mixed affinities. In all the samples studied, Cu, Mn, Na, Sr, Ta, V, and Zn show mixed affinities, and A1, Co, Eu, Fe, Ga, K, La, Mg, Sc, Si, Th, Ti, and Ub have generally inorganic affinity. ?? 1990.

  18. Caking of medium rank, low vitrinite coal types and their blends during pyrolysis under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, S.C.; Ooms, A.; Slaghuis, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    Bituminous coals of medium rank (RoV 0.6--0.7) with a low vitrinite content show, as a rule, no propensities to caking when heated at atmospheric pressure. It was found, however, that this property of coal changes when heated under elevated pressures. Standard caking tests (e.g., ASTM D 720-91) were found inadequate to assess caking propensities under pressure. Caking of coal at pressures up to 26 bar under different dynamic gas atmospheres was investigated. Argon, carbon dioxide, syngas (H{sub 2} + CO) and steam were used. It was found that, independent of gas type, mild to extensive caking of these coals occurred. A series of experiments at 26 bar Argon pressure was conducted on several coals from the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. The caking propensity of each individual coal was assessed as well as that of various blends. Depending on the type of coal and the blending ratio, it was found that caking was not necessarily proportional to that of the individual coals in the blends. Attenuation or synergism occurred in certain blends. The caking of coal depends mainly on the rank and vitrinite content. Ash content, oxidation and devolatilized coal (due to dolerite intrusions) contribute to lower caking propensities. It is known that caking of coal can seriously influence the operation of a fixed bed coal reactor such as a Lurgi gasifier. Even mild caking of coal will change the particle size distribution in the reactor. This in turn will affect the permeability and gas flow distribution through such a reactor. With the knowledge of the caking propensity of individual coal types, blends of coals can be optimized to reduce caking and subsequently enhance gasifier operation.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of refractive index distribution and topography by integrated transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chaojie; Di, Jianglei; Zhang, Jiwei; Li, Ying; Xi, Teli; Li, Enpu; Zhao, Jianlin

    2016-11-20

    We propose a method for simultaneously measuring dynamic changes of the refractive index distribution and surface topography, which integrates the transmission and reflection digital holographic microscopy based on polarization and angular multiplexing techniques. The complex amplitudes of the transmitted and reflected object waves can be simultaneously retrieved. The phase information of the reflected object wave is directly used to determine the topography of the specimen which corresponds to its physical thickness. Assuming that the refractive index distribution is uniform in the direction of the specimen thickness, the refractive index distribution can be deduced from the phase distributions of the transmitted and reflected object waves without any approximation. The refractive index distribution and dynamic changes of the topography of a tiny deionized water droplet have been measured for the availability of the proposed method.

  20. Reflective electronic portfolios: a design process for integrating liberal and professional studies and experiential education.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Lorna M; Blackmer, Betsey; Canali, Alicia; Dimarco, Rosemarie; Russell, Alicia; Aman, Susan; Rossi, Jessica; Sloane, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process used to create and pilot-test a customized reflective electronic portfolio (e-portfolio) that integrates learning across three distinct components of an entry-level 6.5 year Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program. During the 2004-2005 academic year, a pilot test was conducted with 10 students, representative of all 6.5 years in the DPT program. Development of our reflective e-portfolio model consisted of four stages: design a paper-based portfolio model to organize and create linkages among the liberal studies, professional, and experiential components of a DPT program; transform the model into an electronic format; create a demonstration e-portfolio tutorial; and evaluate the e-portfolio model via pilot testing. An interdepartmental team of faculty from physical therapy (PT), cooperative education, educational technology, and two PT students developed the e-portfolio model to map, visualize, and create linkages for student learning. Input to assist with the model design process was gathered from PT faculty and students through three focus groups. Data were collected on student experiences with the e-portfolio through written surveys at three points during the project and through face-to-face discussion. Written reflection, integral to the model, required students to reflect on artifacts selected from existing academic and experiential materials. Our project resulted in the generation of a reflective e-portfolio and tutorial customized for DPT students. Evaluation by users indicated that the reflective e-portfolio helped them organize and integrate academic and experiential learning and illuminate developmental transitions. Further research with a larger sample is indicated to examine the impact of e-portfolios on student learning and professional development.

  1. Standardization of reflectance measurements in dispersed organic matter: results of an exercise to improve interlaboratory agreement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Araujo, Carla Viviane; Borrego, Angeles G.; Bouzinos, Antonis; Cardott, Brian; Cook, Alan C.; Eble, Cortland; Flores, Deolinda; Gentzis, Thomas; Gonçalves, Paula Alexandra; Filho, João Graciano Mendonça; Hámor-Vidó, Mária; Jelonek, Iwona; Kommeren, Kees; Knowles, Wayne; Kus, Jolanta; Mastalerz, Maria; Menezes, Taíssa Rêgo; Newman, Jane; Pawlewicz, Mark; Pickel, Walter; Potter, Judith; Ranasinghe, Paddy; Read, Harold; Reyes, Julito; Rodriguez, Genaro De La Rosa; de Souza, Igor Viegas Alves Fernandes; Suarez-Ruiz, Isabel; Sýkorová, Ivana; Valentine, Brett J.

    2015-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance generally is considered the most robust thermal maturity parameter available for application to hydrocarbon exploration and petroleum system evaluation. However, until 2011 there was no standardized methodology available to provide guidelines for vitrinite reflectance measurements in shale. Efforts to correct this deficiency resulted in publication of ASTM D7708: Standard test method for microscopical determination of the reflectance of vitrinite dispersed in sedimentary rocks. In 2012-2013, an interlaboratory exercise was conducted to establish precision limits for the D7708 measurement technique. Six samples, representing a wide variety of shale, were tested in duplicate by 28 analysts in 22 laboratories from 14 countries. Samples ranged from immature to overmature (0.31-1.53% Ro), from organic-lean to organic-rich (1-22 wt.% total organic carbon), and contained Type I (lacustrine), Type II (marine), and Type III (terrestrial) kerogens. Repeatability limits (maximum difference between valid repetitive results from same operator, same conditions) ranged from 0.03-0.11% absolute reflectance, whereas reproducibility limits (maximum difference between valid results obtained on same test material by different operators, different laboratories) ranged from 0.12-0.54% absolute reflectance. Repeatability and reproducibility limits degraded consistently with increasing maturity and decreasing organic content. However, samples with terrestrial kerogens (Type III) fell off this trend, showing improved levels of reproducibility due to higher vitrinite content and improved ease of identification. Operators did not consistently meet the reporting requirements of the test method, indicating that a common reporting template is required to improve data quality. The most difficult problem encountered was the petrographic distinction of solid bitumens and low-reflecting inert macerals from vitrinite when vitrinite occurred with reflectance ranges overlapping

  2. Beyond integrating social sciences: Reflecting on the place of life sciences in empirical bioethics methodologies.

    PubMed

    Mertz, Marcel; Schildmann, Jan

    2017-07-21

    Empirical bioethics is commonly understood as integrating empirical research with normative-ethical research in order to address an ethical issue. Methodological analyses in empirical bioethics mainly focus on the integration of socio-empirical sciences (e.g. sociology or psychology) and normative ethics. But while there are numerous multidisciplinary research projects combining life sciences and normative ethics, there is few explicit methodological reflection on how to integrate both fields, or about the goals and rationales of such interdisciplinary cooperation. In this paper we will review some drivers for the tendency of empirical bioethics methodologies to focus on the collaboration of normative ethics with particularly social sciences. Subsequently, we argue that the ends of empirical bioethics, not the empirical methods, are decisive for the question of which empirical disciplines can contribute to empirical bioethics in a meaningful way. Using already existing types of research integration as a springboard, five possible types of research which encompass life sciences and normative analysis will illustrate how such cooperation can be conceptualized from a methodological perspective within empirical bioethics. We will conclude with a reflection on the limitations and challenges of empirical bioethics research that integrates life sciences.

  3. Terahertz time domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy with an integrated prism system.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Atsushi; Kawada, Yoichi; Yasuda, Takashi; Akiyama, Koichiro; Takahashi, Hironori

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrated attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy with an integrated prism system that included a terahertz emitter, a terahertz receiver, and an ATR prism. The ATR prism had two internal off-axis parabolic mirrors for, respectively, collimating and focusing the terahertz waves. The Fresnel loss at each interface was reduced, and the total propagation efficiency was 3.36 times larger than when using a non-integrated prism system. The refractive index of water samples calculated from the experimental data showed good agreement with values reported in the literature.

  4. An Integrative Professional Theory and Practice Paper: Personal Reflections from the Journey through Clinical Pastoral Education.

    PubMed

    McLean, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    CPE is an experience-based approach to learning spiritual care which combines clinical care with qualified supervision, in-class education and group reflection (CASC--http://www.spiritualcare.ca/). Through didactic seminars, group presentations and personal reading there is opportunity for the student to acquire, apply and integrate relevant theoretical information into their practice. Written for my CPE Specialist application, this paper describes how, through the course of advanced CPE education, I learn to utilize and integrate theory into my clinical work. Beginning with three strands--authenticity, listening and storytelling--I then discuss how the behavioural sciences and theology inform my practice. Focusing on empathy, I speak of the application of disclosure, the use of counter-transference as a diagnostic tool, and the place of therapeutic termination. Group theory, family systems theory, theological reflection, liturgical ministry, and multi-faith practices are considered.

  5. Creating a Whole Greater than the Sum of Its Parts: Fostering Integrative Learning with a Reflective ePortfolio Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Thomas Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This research explores one university's effort to facilitate integrative learning with a reflective ePortfolio process. Integrative learning is conceptualized using a multi-theoretical construct consisting of transfer of learning, reflective practice, and self-authorship. As part of the evaluation of this process, students completed a pre-survey…

  6. Creating a Whole Greater than the Sum of Its Parts: Fostering Integrative Learning with a Reflective ePortfolio Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Thomas Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This research explores one university's effort to facilitate integrative learning with a reflective ePortfolio process. Integrative learning is conceptualized using a multi-theoretical construct consisting of transfer of learning, reflective practice, and self-authorship. As part of the evaluation of this process, students completed a pre-survey…

  7. Using collaborative reflection to build technology integration skills among preservice elementary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Tom John

    This study examines the role of collaborative reflection on teaching practice in shaping preservice elementary teachers' understanding of technology in the science classroom. In a phenomenographic study of qualitative data sources, the study looks at the conceptions about technology integration of fourteen undergraduate elementary education students working as teaching assistants in a technology-rich biology content course. Participants were selected for one of three sample groups. One group reflected on the use of technology in the biology classroom as individuals, while the other two reflected in collaborative groups. Data sources included transcribed interviews and collaborative reflection meetings, electronic reflective journal entries, classroom observations, pre- and post-surveys to assess technology integration knowledge, a review of documents used in planning for the course, and the researchers field notes and reflexive journal. Analysis involved open coding techniques and testing of themes and patterns in checklist, case-level, and time-ordered matrices. A cross-case analysis included creation of detailed narrative cases featuring one member of each of the sample groups that provided a contextualized view of the development of the participants' ideas about technology integration in the science classroom. The findings suggest that preservice teachers view instructional technology as a tool that supports teacher-led presentations and student-driven technological information delivery systems, but not as a tool for fostering inquiry learning. Data suggests that this view of technology integration is a product of a wide range of common experiences, such as the use of technology for projects and assignments, university coursework in educational technology, methods courses, field experiences, and the teachers and professors who serve as role models for technology use. The findings also suggest that collaborative reflection on teaching practice helps preservice

  8. Integrated reflectivity measurements of hydrogen phthalate crystals for high-resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zastrau, U.; Förster, E.

    2014-09-01

    The integrated x-ray reflectivity of Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KAP) and Rubidium Hydrogen Phthalate (RAP) crystals is studied at a photon energy of (1740±14) eV using a double-crystal setup. The absolute measured reflectivities are in < 5% agreement with the values predicted by the dynamic diffraction theory for perfect crystals when absorption is included. Within 4% experimental error margins, specimen that were exposed to ambient conditions over many years show identical reflectivity as specimen that were cleaved just before the measurement. No differences are observed between cleaving off a 10 μm surface layer and splitting the entire crystal bulk of 2 mm thickness. We conclude that at 1.7 keV photon energy the penetration depth of ~ 1 μm is large compared to a potentially deteriorated surface layer of a few 10 nm.

  9. Calculating the reflected radiation error between turbine blades and vanes based on double contour integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Chi; Li, Dong; Gao, Shan; Daniel, Ketui

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a CFD (Computation Fluid Dynamic) simulation and experimental results for the reflected radiation error from turbine vanes when measuring turbine blade's temperature using a pyrometer. In the paper, an accurate reflection model based on discrete irregular surfaces is established. Double contour integral method is used to calculate view factor between the irregular surfaces. Calculated reflected radiation error was found to change with relative position between blades and vanes as temperature distribution of vanes and blades was simulated using CFD. Simulation results indicated that when the vanes suction surface temperature ranged from 860 K to 1060 K and the blades pressure surface average temperature is 805 K, pyrometer measurement error can reach up to 6.35%. Experimental results show that the maximum pyrometer absolute error of three different targets on the blade decreases from 6.52%, 4.15% and 1.35% to 0.89%, 0.82% and 0.69% respectively after error correction.

  10. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  11. Reflective Pedagogy: The Integration of Methodology and Subject-Matter Content in a Graduate-Level Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakeman, Rick C.; Henderson, Markesha M.; Howard, Lionel C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical reflection on how we, instructors of a graduate-level course in higher education administration, sought to integrate theoretical and subject-matter content and research methodology. Our reflection, guided by autoethnography and teacher reflection, challenged both our assumptions about curriculum design and our…

  12. A Practice-Based Approach to Student Reflection in the Workplace during a Work-Integrated Learning Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Christopher; Dean, Bonnie Amelia

    2013-01-01

    In the Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) curriculum, reflection on workplace activities is widely used to support student learning. Recent critiques have demonstrated the limitations of current approaches to support students' reflective learning of workplace practices. By employing a practice-based approach, we seek to refocus WIL reflection on…

  13. Flash Lamp Integrating Sphere Technique for Measuring the Dynamic Reflectance of Shocked Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Gerald; La Lone, Brandon; Veeser, Lynn; Hixson, Rob; Holtkamp, David

    2013-07-08

    Accurate reflectance (R) measurements of metals undergoing shock wave compression can benefit high pressure research in several ways. For example, pressure dependent reflectance measurements can be used to deduce electronic band structure, and discrete changes with pressure or temperature may indicate the occurrence of a phase boundary. Additionally, knowledge of the wavelength dependent emissivity (1 -R, for opaque samples) of the metal surface is essential for accurate pyrometric temperature measurement because the radiance is a function of both the temperature and emissivity. We have developed a method for measuring dynamic reflectance in the visible and near IR spectral regions with nanosecond response time and less than 1.5% uncertainty. The method utilizes an integrating sphere fitted with a xenon flash-lamp illumination source. Because of the integrating sphere, the measurements are insensitive to changes in surface curvature or tilt. The in-situ high brightness of the flash-lamp exceeds the sample’s thermal radiance and also enables the use of solid state detectors for recording the reflectance signals with minimal noise. Using the method, we have examined the dynamic reflectance of gallium and tin subjected to shock compression from high explosives. The results suggest significant reflectance changes across phase boundaries for both metals. We have also used the method to determine the spectral emissivity of shock compressed tin at the interface between tin and a LiF window. The results were used to perform emissivity corrections to previous pyrometry data and obtain shock temperatures of the tin/LiF interface with uncertainties of less than 2%.

  14. Electrophysiological correlates reflect the integration of model-based and model-free decision information.

    PubMed

    Eppinger, Ben; Walter, Maik; Li, Shu-Chen

    2017-01-03

    In this study, we investigated the interplay of habitual (model-free) and goal-directed (model-based) decision processes by using a two-stage Markov decision task in combination with event-related potentials (ERPs) and computational modeling. To manipulate the demands on model-based decision making, we applied two experimental conditions with different probabilities of transitioning from the first to the second stage of the task. As we expected, when the stage transitions were more predictable, participants showed greater model-based (planning) behavior. Consistent with this result, we found that stimulus-evoked parietal (P300) activity at the second stage of the task increased with the predictability of the state transitions. However, the parietal activity also reflected model-free information about the expected values of the stimuli, indicating that at this stage of the task both types of information are integrated to guide decision making. Outcome-related ERP components only reflected reward-related processes: Specifically, a medial prefrontal ERP component (the feedback-related negativity) was sensitive to negative outcomes, whereas a component that is elicited by reward (the feedback-related positivity) increased as a function of positive prediction errors. Taken together, our data indicate that stimulus-locked parietal activity reflects the integration of model-based and model-free information during decision making, whereas feedback-related medial prefrontal signals primarily reflect reward-related decision processes.

  15. Using laser micro mass spectrometry with the LAMMA-1000 instrument for monitoring relative elemental concentrations in vitrinite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morelli, J.J.; Hercules, D.M.; Lyons, P.C.; Palmer, C.A.; Fletcher, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The variation in relative elemental concentrations among a series of coal macerals belonging to the vitrinite maceral group was determined using laser micro mass spectrometry (LAMMS). Variations in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V concentrations among the coals were determined using the LAMM A-1000 instrument. LAMMS analysis is not limited to these elements; their selection illustrates the application of the technique. Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V have minimal site-to-site variance in the vitrinite macerals of the studied coals as measured by LAMMS. The LAMMS data were compared with bulk elemental data obtained by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and D. C. arc optical emission spectroscopy (DCAS) in order to determine the reliability of the LAMMS data. The complex nature of the ionization phenomena in LAMMS and the lack of standards characterized on a microscale makes obtaining quantitative elemental data within the ionization microvolume difficult; however, we demonstrate that the relative variation of an element among vitrinites from different coal beds in the eastern United States can be observed using LAMMS in a "bulk" mode by accumulating signal intensities over several microareas of each vitrinite. Our studies indicate gross changes (greater than a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the element) can be monitored when the elemental concentration is significantly above the detection limit. "Bulk" mode analysis was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of future elemental LAMMS microanalyses. The primary advantage of LAMMS is the inherent spatial resolution, ~ 20 ??m for coal. Two different vitrite bands in the Lower Bakerstown coal bed (CLB-1) were analyzed. The analysis did not establish any certain concentration differences in Ba, Cr, Ga, Sr, Ti, and V between the two bands. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Integrated X-Ray Reflectivity Measurements for Elliptically Curved PET Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M J; Ross, P W; Regan, P W; Magoon, J; Shoup, M J; Barrios, M A; Emig, J A; Fournier, K B

    2012-04-26

    Spectroscopy provides valuable information about the temperature and density of a compressed pellet in a plasma. Elliptically curved pentaerythritol (PET) crystals are used as components for spectrometers. Their elliptical geometry gives several advantages related to spectral energy range, source focus, and spectral image compression.[1] The crystal curvature increases the spectrometer throughput but at the cost of a loss in resolution. Four different crystals are used in a spectrometer at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) target chamber at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the elliptical PET crystals in the snout of a NIF target diagnostic shown in Figure 2. The spectrum from the crystals is captured by four image plates located behind the crystals. A typical mandrel, the darkened section, upon which the PET crystal is glued, is shown in Figure 3, which also shows the complete ellipse. There are four elliptical segment types, each having the same major axis but a different minor axis. The crystals are 150 mm long in the diffraction direction and 25.4 mm high. Two crystals of each type were calibrated. The throughput for each spectrometer is determined by the integrated reflectivity of the PET crystal.[1] The goal of this effort was to measure the reflectivity curve of the PET curved crystal at several energies and determine the integrated reflectivity and the curve width as a function of the X-ray spectral energy and location on the ellipse where the beam strikes.

  17. Promoting collaboration skills on reflection concept through multimedia-based integrated instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermawan, Hermawan; Siahaan, Parsaoran; Suhendi, Endi; Samsudin, Achmad

    2017-05-01

    Multimedia-Based Integrated Instructions (MBI2) has been developed to promote the collaboration skills on reflection concepts turn into more real and meaningful learning. The initial design of MBI2 in the form of a multimedia computer that allows users to explore the concept of the overall reflectance of the light through the conceptual and practical aspects that have been developed. MBI2has been developed to promoteone of the skills that the 21st-century skills to students'junior high school that is collaboration skill in order to compete in the future life. The ability to collaborate is divided into five aspects, namely contributions, time management, problem-solving, working with others and research techniques. Research methods utiliseed in this study is an exploration and instructional development 4D model (define, design, develop and disseminate). Based on data analysis, it can be concluded that the development of integrated multimedia-based instruction (MBI2) on the concept of reflection through the 4D developing model was effectively to enhance collaboration skills of students'junior high school.

  18. Elimination of single-beam substitution error in diffuse reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Luka; Majaron, Boris

    2014-02-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) of biological samples are commonly measured using an integrating sphere (IS). To account for the incident light spectrum, measurement begins by placing a highly reflective white standard against the IS sample opening and collecting the reflected light. After replacing the white standard with the test sample of interest, DRS of the latter is determined as the ratio of the two values at each involved wavelength. However, such a substitution may alter the fluence rate inside the IS. This leads to distortion of measured DRS, which is known as single-beam substitution error (SBSE). Barring the use of more complex experimental setups, the literature states that only approximate corrections of the SBSE are possible, e.g., by using look-up tables generated with calibrated low-reflectivity standards. We present a practical method for elimination of SBSE when using IS equipped with an additional reference port. Two additional measurements performed at this port enable a rigorous elimination of SBSE. Our experimental characterization of SBSE is replicated by theoretical derivation. This offers an alternative possibility of computational removal of SBSE based on advance characterization of a specific DRS setup. The influence of SBSE on quantitative analysis of DRS is illustrated in one application example.

  19. The refraction and reflection laws from a complete integral of the eikonal equation and Huygens’ principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ramos, Jorge; Alejandro Juárez-Reyes, Salvador; Marcelino-Aranda, Mariana; Ortega-Vidals, Paula; Silva-Ortigoza, Gilberto; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón; Suárez-Xique, Román

    2015-01-01

    In this work we assume that we have two given optical media with constant refraction indexes, which are separated by an arbitrary refracting surface. In one of the optical media we place a point light source at an arbitrary position. The aim of this work is to use a particular complete integral of the eikonal equation and Huygens’ principle to obtain the refraction and reflection laws. We remark that this complete integral associates a new point light source with each light ray that arrives at the refracting surface. This means that by using only this complete integral it is not possible to determine the direction of propagation of the refracted light rays; the direction of propagation is obtained by imposing two extra conditions on the complete integral which are equivalent to Huygens’ principle (in two dimensions, only one condition is needed). Finally, we establish the connection between the complete integral used here and that derived by using the k-function procedure introduced by Stavroudis, which works with plane wavefronts instead of spherical ones.

  20. Measurement and models of bent KAP(001) crystal integrated reflectivity and resolution (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loisel, G. P.; Wu, M.; Stolte, W.; Kruschwitz, C.; Lake, P.; Dunham, G. S.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Advanced Light Source beamline-9.3.1 x-rays are used to calibrate the rocking curve of bent potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals in the 2.3-4.5 keV photon-energy range. Crystals are bent on a cylindrically convex substrate with a radius of curvature ranging from 2 to 9 in. and also including the flat case to observe the effect of bending on the KAP spectrometric properties. As the bending radius increases, the crystal reflectivity converges to the mosaic crystal response. The X-ray Oriented Programs (xop) multi-lamellar model of bent crystals is used to model the rocking curve of these crystals and the calibration data confirm that a single model is adequate to reproduce simultaneously all measured integrated reflectivities and rocking-curve FWHM for multiple radii of curvature in both 1st and 2nd order of diffraction.

  1. Measurement and models of bent KAP(001) crystal integrated reflectivity and resolution (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Loisel, G. P. Wu, M.; Lake, P.; Dunham, G. S.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Stolte, W.; Kruschwitz, C.

    2016-11-15

    The Advanced Light Source beamline-9.3.1 x-rays are used to calibrate the rocking curve of bent potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals in the 2.3-4.5 keV photon-energy range. Crystals are bent on a cylindrically convex substrate with a radius of curvature ranging from 2 to 9 in. and also including the flat case to observe the effect of bending on the KAP spectrometric properties. As the bending radius increases, the crystal reflectivity converges to the mosaic crystal response. The X-ray Oriented Programs (XOP) multi-lamellar model of bent crystals is used to model the rocking curve of these crystals and the calibration data confirm that a single model is adequate to reproduce simultaneously all measured integrated reflectivities and rocking-curve FWHM for multiple radii of curvature in both 1st and 2nd order of diffraction.

  2. Which medicine? Whose standard? Critical reflections on medical integration in China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruiping; Holliday, Ian

    2007-01-01

    There is a prevailing conviction that if traditional medicine (TRM) or complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) are integrated into healthcare systems, modern scientific medicine (MSM) should retain its principal status. This paper contends that this position is misguided in medical contexts where TRM is established and remains vibrant. By reflecting on the Chinese policy on three entrenched forms of TRM (Tibetan, Mongolian and Uighur medicines) in western regions of China, the paper challenges the ideology of science that lies behind the demand that all traditional forms of medicine be evaluated and reformed according to MSM standards. Tibetan medicine is used as a case study to indicate the falsity of a major premise of the scientific ideology. The conclusion is that the proper integrative system for TRM and MSM is a dual standard based system in which both TRM and MSM are free to operate according to their own medical standards. PMID:17664302

  3. Integration of Spectral Reflectance across the Plumage: Implications for Mating Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Laczi, Miklós; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs; Hegyi, Gergely

    2011-01-01

    Background In complex sexual signaling systems such as plumage color, developmental or genetic links may occur among seemingly distinct traits. However, the interrelations of such traits and the functional significance of their integration rarely have been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the parallel variation of two reflectance descriptors (brightness and UV chroma) across depigmented and melanized plumage areas of collared flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis), and the possible role of integrated color signals in mate acquisition. We found moderate integration in brightness and UV chroma across the plumage, with similar correlation structures in the two sexes despite the strong sexual dichromatism. Patterns of parallel color change across the plumage were largely unrelated to ornamental white patch sizes, but they all showed strong assortative mating between the sexes. Comparing different types of assortative mating patterns for individual spectral variables suggested a distinct role for plumage-level color axes in mate acquisition. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that the plumage-level, parallel variation of coloration might play a role in mate acquisition. This study underlines the importance of considering potential developmental and functional integration among apparently different ornaments in studies of sexual selection. PMID:21853088

  4. Investigating Preservice Elementary Science Teacher Reflective Thinking Using Integrated Media Case-Based Instruction in Elementary Science Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abell, Sandra K.; Bryan, Lynn A.; Anderson, Maria A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates preservice elementary teachers' theories about science teaching and learning through their reflections on integrated media case-based instruction. Constructs a profile of the teachers' images of themselves as future science teachers. Contains 43 references. (DDR)

  5. Constitution of Drop-Tube-Generated Coal Chars from Vitrinite- and Inertinite-Rich South African Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, Enette B.; Mitchell, Gareth D.; Wang, Juan; Winans, Randall E.; Mathews, Jonathan P.

    2016-01-21

    The structural transformations of coal and the resultant char morphologies are strongly dependent on the initial structure and degree of thermoplasticity achieved during coal-to-char transition. These are a function of petrographic composition, rank, particle size, and heating rate and strongly affect combustion behavior. This study compares the devolatilization and subsequent combustion behavior of an inertinite-rich (87.7% dmmf) and a vitrinite-rich (91.8% dmmf) South African coal, wet-screened to a narrow particle size distribution of 200 x 400 mesh. Pyrolysis chars were generated under rapid-heating conditions (104-105 °C/s) in a drop-tube reactor to closely resemble chars generated in pulverized combustion conditions. The inertinite-rich coal took ~ 400 ms to devolatilize in the drop-tube, compared to only ~ 240 ms for the vitrinite-rich sample. The chemical and physical structure (the constitution) of the chars were investigated through a range of chemical, physical, and optical characteristics including the maceral differences, and high ash yields. To evaluate the combustion reactivity non-isothermal burn-out profiles were obtained through thermogravimetrical analyses (TGA) in air. The vitrinite-rich char had on average 20% higher reaction rates than the inertinite-rich char under the various combustion conditions. The char samples were de-ashed with HCl and HF acid which resulted in an increase in combustion reactivity. The maximum reaction rate of the high-ash (36% ash yield) inertinite-rich char increased with 80% after de-ashing. While the vitrinite-rich char with an ash yield of 15%, had a 20% increase in reactivity after de-ashing. The ash acted as a barrier, and the removal of ash most likely increased the access to reactive surface area. The chemical and physical structures of the chars were characterized through a range of different analytical techniques to quantify the factors contributing to reactivity differences. The morphologies of the chars

  6. Integration of Audio Visual Multimedia for Special Education Pre-Service Teachers' Self Reflections in Developing Teaching Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sediyani, Tri; Yufiarti; Hadi, Eko

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop a model of learning by integrating multimedia and audio-visual self-reflective learners. This multimedia was developed as a tool for prospective teachers as learners in the education of children with special needs to reflect on their teaching competencies before entering the world of education. Research methods to…

  7. Apparent Negative Reflection with the Gradient Acoustic Metasurface by Integrating Supercell Periodicity into the Generalized Law of Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingyi; Zhao, Wenyu; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2016-12-01

    As the two dimensional version of the functional wavefront manipulation metamaterial, metasurface has become a research hot spot for engineering the wavefront at will with a subwavelength thickness. The wave scattered by the gradient metasurface, which is composed by the periodic supercells, is governed by the generalized Snell’s law. However, the critical angle that derived from the generalized Snell’s law circles the domain of the incident angles that allow the occurrence of the anomalous reflection and refraction, and no free space scattering waves could exist when the incident angle is beyond the critical angle. Here we theoretically demonstrate that apparent negative reflection can be realized by a gradient acoustic metasurface when the incident angle is beyond the critical angle. The underlying mechanism of the apparent negative reflection is understood as the higher order diffraction arising from the interaction between the local phase modulation and the non-local effects introduced by the supercell periodicity. The apparent negative reflection phenomena has been perfectly verified by the calculated scattered acoustic waves of the reflected gradient acoustic metasurface. This work may provide new freedom in designing functional acoustic signal modulation devices, such as acoustic isolator and acoustic illusion device.

  8. Apparent Negative Reflection with the Gradient Acoustic Metasurface by Integrating Supercell Periodicity into the Generalized Law of Reflection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingyi; Zhao, Wenyu; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2016-12-05

    As the two dimensional version of the functional wavefront manipulation metamaterial, metasurface has become a research hot spot for engineering the wavefront at will with a subwavelength thickness. The wave scattered by the gradient metasurface, which is composed by the periodic supercells, is governed by the generalized Snell's law. However, the critical angle that derived from the generalized Snell's law circles the domain of the incident angles that allow the occurrence of the anomalous reflection and refraction, and no free space scattering waves could exist when the incident angle is beyond the critical angle. Here we theoretically demonstrate that apparent negative reflection can be realized by a gradient acoustic metasurface when the incident angle is beyond the critical angle. The underlying mechanism of the apparent negative reflection is understood as the higher order diffraction arising from the interaction between the local phase modulation and the non-local effects introduced by the supercell periodicity. The apparent negative reflection phenomena has been perfectly verified by the calculated scattered acoustic waves of the reflected gradient acoustic metasurface. This work may provide new freedom in designing functional acoustic signal modulation devices, such as acoustic isolator and acoustic illusion device.

  9. Apparent Negative Reflection with the Gradient Acoustic Metasurface by Integrating Supercell Periodicity into the Generalized Law of Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bingyi; Zhao, Wenyu; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2016-01-01

    As the two dimensional version of the functional wavefront manipulation metamaterial, metasurface has become a research hot spot for engineering the wavefront at will with a subwavelength thickness. The wave scattered by the gradient metasurface, which is composed by the periodic supercells, is governed by the generalized Snell’s law. However, the critical angle that derived from the generalized Snell’s law circles the domain of the incident angles that allow the occurrence of the anomalous reflection and refraction, and no free space scattering waves could exist when the incident angle is beyond the critical angle. Here we theoretically demonstrate that apparent negative reflection can be realized by a gradient acoustic metasurface when the incident angle is beyond the critical angle. The underlying mechanism of the apparent negative reflection is understood as the higher order diffraction arising from the interaction between the local phase modulation and the non-local effects introduced by the supercell periodicity. The apparent negative reflection phenomena has been perfectly verified by the calculated scattered acoustic waves of the reflected gradient acoustic metasurface. This work may provide new freedom in designing functional acoustic signal modulation devices, such as acoustic isolator and acoustic illusion device. PMID:27917909

  10. Investigation of structural characteristics of coals. Two parameters of the electron absorption of coals and their connection with reflectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.K.; Rys'yanova, N.D.; Plastun, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed for obtaining reflectance spectra of coals in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions utilising diffuse scattering of light. This enabled the determination of electron spectra to be considerably simplified. The method was used to evaluate changes in electron spectra of vitrinites with rank, using reflectance measurement as the determinant.

  11. Faculty reflections on the process of building an integrated preclerkship curriculum: a new school perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    This is a reflective essay based on the experience of developing a structure and function module within a new integrated medical curriculum. Our hope is that the insights we gained during a 4-yr journey in a new medical school will be transferable to others engaged with curriculum development. Here, we present an interpretive analysis of our personal experiences together with some original research data and a synthesis of the literature. We will argue that a focus on teaching faculty is the key to successful curriculum integration and suggest an agenda for faculty development. Our essay begins by exploring what curriculum integration really means and what its purpose might be. Our case study explores the challenges of building a shared understanding among stakeholders and of negotiating learning outcomes and methods of teaching as well as the process of developing content and assessment. We feel that many of our experiences in the new medical school are applicable in other settings, such as curriculum reform in established schools and for developers of competency-based premedical curricula. We conclude with recommendations to assist other curriculum planners and teachers by offering some benefits of hindsight. PMID:25179608

  12. Application of mirror reflection principle for numerical modeling of uniform slab brightness coefficients by using linear singular integral equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smokty, Oleg I.

    2017-02-01

    The mirror reflection principle and radiation field photometrical invariants given by the author have been applied to find uniform slab brightness coefficients by using modified linear singular integral equations. On this basis, certain mathematical aspects of the numerical realization of the angular discretization method to solve the linear singular integral equations for brightness coefficients photometrical invariants of an arbitrary optical thickness homogeneous slab.

  13. Fully integrated reflection-mode photoacoustic/two-photon microscopy in vivo (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Liang; Song, Wei; Zhang, Yang; Zheng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Using a water-immersion optical objective in conjunction with a miniature 40-MHz ultrasonic transducer, we developed reflection-mode photoacoustic microscopy with a transverse resolution as high as 320 nm. Here, we further integrated two-photon microscopy capability into the system to enable multimodality in vivo biomedical imaging at submicron resolution. As a result, the system is capable of tri-modality label-free imaging of microvasculature, collagen, and cell morphology, based on the contrast of optical absorption, second-harmonic generation, and autofluorescence, respectively. In addition, we demonstrated simultaneous microscopic imaging of neuron and microvasculature in the brain cortex of a living mouse, which may offer new opportunities for studying the mechanisms of neurovascular coupling.

  14. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  15. A novel finite element method for the modeling of multiple reflections in photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ging, John A.; O'Dowd, Ronan

    2006-04-01

    The complex transverse waveguide geometries of integrated photonic devices warrant the application of intricate Numerical Methods when modelling these types of Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLC). To aggravate the problem, difficulties also arise when dealing with back-reflections at interfaces, counter-propagating signals and other associated losses. Routines such as the Finite Element Method (FEM) and Finite Difference Method (FDM) are utilised in simulating the propagation of light through the core waveguide structures of these PLCs. In this paper a novel FEM reliant upon device cross-sectional symmetry is proposed, developed and discussed in regards to its advantages in precision over other procedures. Upon completion of this analysis, the propagation constant and effective refractive indices are known and extensions may be employed to accurately model propagation through the device and outline any reflections or losses that may ensue. A clear and concise review of some of the foremost available schemes is also presented here. These techniques, such as the Bidirectional Eigenmode Propagation Method (BEP) and the Beam Propagation Method (BPM) will be discussed and an effective and precise 3-dimensional model is presented. Due to the myriad of available techniques and algorithms, a comparative study is drawn, listing the advantages and failures of the major methods while suggesting improvements to their application. Necessary considerations such as simulation time and the trade-off between computer memory requirements and accuracy of the solution are also acknowledged.

  16. Chimeras in leaky integrate-and-fire neural networks: effects of reflecting connectivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigkri-DeSmedt, Nefeli Dimitra; Hizanidis, Johanne; Schöll, Eckehard; Hövel, Philipp; Provata, Astero

    2017-07-01

    The effects of attracting-nonlocal and reflecting connectivity are investigated in coupled Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) elements, which model the exchange of electrical signals between neurons. Earlier investigations have demonstrated that repulsive-nonlocal and hierarchical network connectivity can induce complex synchronization patterns and chimera states in systems of coupled oscillators. In the LIF system we show that if the elements are nonlocally linked with positive diffusive coupling on a ring network, the system splits into a number of alternating domains. Half of these domains contain elements whose potential stays near the threshold and they are interrupted by active domains where the elements perform regular LIF oscillations. The active domains travel along the ring with constant velocity, depending on the system parameters. When we introduce reflecting coupling in LIF networks unexpected complex spatio-temporal structures arise. For relatively extensive ranges of parameter values, the system splits into two coexisting domains: one where all elements stay near the threshold and one where incoherent states develop, characterized by multi-leveled mean phase velocity profiles.

  17. Fully integrated reflection-mode photoacoustic, two-photon, and second harmonic generation microscopy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Zhan, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Song, Liang

    2016-01-01

    The ability to obtain comprehensive structural and functional information from intact biological tissue in vivo is highly desirable for many important biomedical applications, including cancer and brain studies. Here, we developed a fully integrated multimodal microscopy that can provide photoacoustic (optical absorption), two-photon (fluorescence), and second harmonic generation (SHG) information from tissue in vivo, with intrinsically co-registered images. Moreover, using a delicately designed optical-acoustic coupling configuration, a high-frequency miniature ultrasonic transducer was integrated into a water-immersion optical objective, thus allowing all three imaging modalities to provide a high lateral resolution of ~290 nm with reflection-mode imaging capability, which is essential for studying intricate anatomy, such as that of the brain. Taking advantage of the complementary and comprehensive contrasts of the system, we demonstrated high-resolution imaging of various tissues in living mice, including microvasculature (by photoacoustics), epidermis cells, cortical neurons (by two-photon fluorescence), and extracellular collagen fibers (by SHG). The intrinsic image co-registration of the three modalities conveniently provided improved visualization and understanding of the tissue microarchitecture. The reported results suggest that, by revealing complementary tissue microstructures in vivo, this multimodal microscopy can potentially facilitate a broad range of biomedical studies, such as imaging of the tumor microenvironment and neurovascular coupling. PMID:27576922

  18. Fully integrated reflection-mode photoacoustic, two-photon, and second harmonic generation microscopy in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Yang; Zhan, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Song, Liang

    2016-08-01

    The ability to obtain comprehensive structural and functional information from intact biological tissue in vivo is highly desirable for many important biomedical applications, including cancer and brain studies. Here, we developed a fully integrated multimodal microscopy that can provide photoacoustic (optical absorption), two-photon (fluorescence), and second harmonic generation (SHG) information from tissue in vivo, with intrinsically co-registered images. Moreover, using a delicately designed optical-acoustic coupling configuration, a high-frequency miniature ultrasonic transducer was integrated into a water-immersion optical objective, thus allowing all three imaging modalities to provide a high lateral resolution of ~290 nm with reflection-mode imaging capability, which is essential for studying intricate anatomy, such as that of the brain. Taking advantage of the complementary and comprehensive contrasts of the system, we demonstrated high-resolution imaging of various tissues in living mice, including microvasculature (by photoacoustics), epidermis cells, cortical neurons (by two-photon fluorescence), and extracellular collagen fibers (by SHG). The intrinsic image co-registration of the three modalities conveniently provided improved visualization and understanding of the tissue microarchitecture. The reported results suggest that, by revealing complementary tissue microstructures in vivo, this multimodal microscopy can potentially facilitate a broad range of biomedical studies, such as imaging of the tumor microenvironment and neurovascular coupling.

  19. Oscillatory activity in auditory cortex reflects the perceptual level of audio-tactile integration

    PubMed Central

    Plöchl, Michael; Gaston, Jeremy; Mermagen, Tim; König, Peter; Hairston, W. David

    2016-01-01

    Cross-modal interactions between sensory channels have been shown to depend on both the spatial disparity and the perceptual similarity between the presented stimuli. Here we investigate the behavioral and neural integration of auditory and tactile stimulus pairs at different levels of spatial disparity. Additionally, we modulated the amplitudes of both stimuli in either a coherent or non-coherent manner. We found that both auditory and tactile localization performance was biased towards the stimulus in the respective other modality. This bias linearly increases with stimulus disparity and is more pronounced for coherently modulated stimulus pairs. Analyses of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity at temporal–cortical sources revealed enhanced event-related potentials (ERPs) as well as decreased alpha and beta power during bimodal as compared to unimodal stimulation. However, while the observed ERP differences are similar for all stimulus combinations, the extent of oscillatory desynchronization varies with stimulus disparity. Moreover, when both stimuli were subjectively perceived as originating from the same direction, the reduction in alpha and beta power was significantly stronger. These observations suggest that in the EEG the level of perceptual integration is mainly reflected by changes in ongoing oscillatory activity. PMID:27647158

  20. Monolithic integration of active and second-order nonlinear functionality in Bragg reflection waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijlani, Bhavin J.

    2011-07-01

    This thesis explored the theory, design, fabrication and characterization of AlGaAs Bragg reflection waveguides (BRW) towards the goal of a platform for monolithic integration of active and optically nonlinear devices. Through integration of a diode laser and nonlinear phase-matched cavity, the possibility of on-chip nonlinear frequency generation was explored. Such integrated devices would be highly useful as a robust, alignment free, small footprint and electrically injected alternative to bulk optic systems. A theoretical framework for modal analysis of arbitrary 1-D photonic crystal defect waveguides is developed. This method relies on the transverse resonance condition. It is then demonstrated in the context of several types of Bragg reflection waveguides. The framework is then extended to phase-match second-order nonlinearities and incorporating quantum-wells for diode lasers. Experiments within a slab and ridge waveguide demonstrated phase-matched Type-I second harmonic generation at fundamental wavelength of 1587 and 1600 nm, respectively; a first for this type of waveguide. For the slab waveguide, conversion efficiency was 0.1 %/W. In the more strongly confined ridge waveguides, efficiency increased to 8.6 %/W owing to the increased intensity. The normalized conversion efficiency was estimated to be at 600 %/Wcm2. Diode lasers emitting at 980 nm in the BRW mode were also fabricated. Verification of the Bragg mode was performed through imaging the near- field of the mode. Propagation loss of this type of mode was measured directly for the first time at ≈ 14 cm-1. The lasers were found to be very insensitive with characteristic temperature at 215 K. Two designs incorporating both laser and phase-matched nonlinearity within the same cavity were fabricated, for degenerate and non-degenerate down-conversion. Though the lasers were sub-optimal, a parametric fluorescence signal was readily detected. Fluorescence power as high as 4 nW for the degenerate design

  1. Detection of frictional heat in seismic faults by coal reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, M.; Mukoyoshi, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Hirose, T.

    2012-12-01

    Quantitative assessment of heat generation along a fault during coseismic faulting is of primary importance in understanding the dynamics of earthquakes. Evidence of substantial frictional heating along a fault is also a reliable indicator determining whether a fault has slipped at high velocity in the past, which is crucial for assessing earthquake and tsunami hazard. The reflectance measurement of vitrinite (one of the primary components of coals) has been considered a possible geothermometer of fault zones, especially in accretionary wedges where vitrinite fragments are common [e.g., Sakaguchi et al., 2011]. Under normal burial conditions, vitrinite reflectance (Ro) increases by irreversible maturation reaction as temperature is elevated and thus sensitively records the maximum temperature to which the vitrinite is subjected. However, the commonly used kinetic models of vitrinite maturation [e.g., Sweeney and Burnham, 1990] may not yield accurate estimates of the peak temperature in a fault zone resulting from fast frictional heating rates [Fulton and Harris, 2012]. Whether or not coal can mature in typical earthquake rise time (e.g., ~10 seconds) remains uncertain. Here we present the results of friction experiments aimed at revealing coal maturation by frictional heat generated at slip velocities representative of natural earthquakes of up to 1.3 m/s. All friction experiments were conducted on a mixture of 90 wt% quartz powder and 10 wt% coal grains for simulated fault gouge at three different velocities of 0.0013 m/s, 0.65 m/s and 1.3 m/s, a constant normal stress of 1.0 MPa and ~15 m displacement under anoxic, dry nitrogen atmosphere at room temperature. We also measured temperature in the gouge zone during faulting by thermocouples. The initial coal fragments consist of vitrinite, inertinite and liptinite. Although liptinite was easy to identify microscopically, it was difficult to discriminate between vitrinite and inertinite grains as their grain size

  2. Image segmentation for integrated multiphoton microscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy imaging of human skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guannan; Lui, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-invasive cellular imaging of the skin in vivo can be achieved in reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and multiphoton microscopy (MPM) modalities to yield complementary images of the skin based on different optical properties. One of the challenges of in vivo microscopy is the delineation (i.e., segmentation) of cellular and subcellular architectural features. Methods In this work we present a method for combining watershed and level-set models for segmentation of multimodality images obtained by an integrated MPM and RCM imaging system from human skin in vivo. Results Firstly, a segmentation model based on watershed is introduced for obtaining the accurate structure of cell borders from the RCM image. Secondly,, a global region based energy level-set model is constructed for extracting the nucleus of each cell from the MPM image. Thirdly, a local region-based Lagrange Continuous level-set approach is used for segmenting cytoplasm from the MPM image. Conclusions Experimental results demonstrated that cell borders from RCM image and boundaries of cytoplasm and nucleus from MPM image can be obtained by our segmentation method with better accuracy and effectiveness. We are planning to use this method to perform quantitative analysis of MPM and RCM images of in vivo human skin to study the variations of cellular parameters such as cell size, nucleus size and other mophormetric features with skin pathologies. PMID:25694949

  3. The kinetics of sterane biological marker release and degradation processes during the hydrous pyrolysis of vitrinite kerogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, G. D.; Wang, G. Y.; Eglinton, T. I.; Home, A. K.; Petch, G. S.

    1990-09-01

    The hydrous pyrolysis of a mineral-free vitrinite kerogen (Dinantian coal Lower Carboniferous, North East England) has been carried out at four temperatures (270, 300, 330, and 350°C) for heating times ranging from 2 to 648 h. No significant differences in the epimer-based maturation parameters 20S/(20S + 20R)-5α(H),14α(H),17α(H) C 29 non-rearranged steranes and 22S/(22S+22R)-17α(H), 21β(H) homohopanes were found for a comparison between "expelled oil" and "bitumen" fractions in the resulting pyrolysates. A deuterated model compound ((20R)-5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-[2,2,4,4-d 4] cholestane) was added to a number of preextracted kerogens (vitrinite, Kimmeridge, Messel and Monterey) and the mixtures were heated under typical hydrous pyrolysis conditions. These experiments showed that direct chiral isomerisation at C-20 in the non-rearranged steranes appears to be relatively unimportant during hydrous pyrolysis which has also been suggested by other recent studies on geological samples.A kinetic model comprising consecutive release and degradation processes was derived to measure first-order rate coefficients from the bi-exponential concentration-time functions of both the (20R)-and (20S)-5α(H),14α(H),17α(H) C 29 "free" steranes in the vitrinite kerogen pyrolysates. This data was then used to calculate preliminary Arrhenius parameters for release ((20S): ΔEa = 125 ± 30 kJ mol -1, A ≈ 4.7 × 10 5 s -1;(20R): ΔEa = 151 ± 39 kJ mol -1, A ≈ 2.7 × 10 9 s -1) and degradation ((20S): ΔEa = 104 ± 22 kJ mol -1, A ≈ 5.8 × 10 3 s -1; (20R): Δa = 87 ± 6 kJ mol -1, A ≈ 2.2 × 10 2 s -1) of the above individual isomers and the values were found to be consistent with a free-radical chain mechanism. This work helps in the greater understanding of the important biomarker reactions that prevail in hydrous pyrolysis experiments.

  4. Neural activity in macaque parietal cortex reflects temporal integration of visual motion signals during perceptual decision making.

    PubMed

    Huk, Alexander C; Shadlen, Michael N

    2005-11-09

    Decision-making often requires the accumulation and maintenance of evidence over time. Although the neural signals underlying sensory processing have been studied extensively, little is known about how the brain accrues and holds these sensory signals to guide later actions. Previous work has suggested that neural activity in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) of the monkey brain reflects the formation of perceptual decisions in a random dot direction-discrimination task in which monkeys communicate their decisions with eye-movement responses. We tested the hypothesis that decision-related neural activity in LIP represents the time integral of the momentary motion "evidence." By briefly perturbing the strength of the visual motion stimulus during the formation of perceptual decisions, we tested whether this LIP activity reflected a persistent, integrated "memory" of these brief sensory events. We found that the responses of LIP neurons reflected substantial temporal integration. Brief pulses had persistent effects on both the monkeys' choices and the responses of neurons in LIP, lasting up to 800 ms after appearance. These results demonstrate that LIP is involved in neural time integration underlying the accumulation of evidence in this task. Additional analyses suggest that decision-related LIP responses, as well as behavioral choices and reaction times, can be explained by near-perfect time integration that stops when a criterion amount of evidence has been accumulated. Temporal integration may be a fundamental computation underlying higher cognitive functions that are dissociated from immediate sensory inputs or motor outputs.

  5. When a Game Supports Prevocational Math Education but Integrated Reflection Does Not

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Vrugte, J.; de Jong, T.; Wouters, P.; Vandercruysse, S.; Elen, J.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2015-01-01

    The present study addressed the effectiveness of an educational math game for improving proportional reasoning in prevocational education, and examined the added value of support in the form of reflection. The study compared four conditions: the game with reflection prompts, the game with reflection prompts plus procedural information, the game…

  6. Enhancing Capacity for Success in the Creative Industries: Undergraduate Student Reflections on the Implementation of Work-Integrated Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Ryan; Daniel, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on ongoing research-led teaching in the area of creative industries in higher education. Specifically it reports on key work-integrated learning strategies designed to better prepare graduates for the employment sector. The creative industries sector is complex and competitive, characterized by non-linear career paths driven…

  7. Integration of fluorescence and reflectance visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images for detection of aflatoxins in corn kernels

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products has been an important and long-standing problem around the world. Produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus, aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic. This study investigated the integration of fluorescence and reflectance visibl...

  8. Integration of force reflection with tactile sensing for minimally invasive robotics-assisted tumor localization.

    PubMed

    Talasaz, A; Patel, R V

    2013-01-01

    Tactile sensing and force reflection have been the subject of considerable research for tumor localization in soft-tissue palpation. The work presented in this paper investigates the relevance of force feedback (presented visually as well as directly) during tactile sensing (presented visually only) for tumor localization using an experimental setup close to one that could be applied for real robotics-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The setup is a teleoperated (master-slave) system facilitated with a state-of-the-art minimally invasive probe with a rigidly mounted tactile sensor at the tip and an externally mounted force sensor at the base of the probe. The objective is to capture the tactile information and measure the interaction forces between the probe and tissue during palpation and to explore how they can be integrated to improve the performance of tumor localization. To quantitatively explore the effect of force feedback on tactile sensing tumor localization, several experiments were conducted by human subjects to locate artificial tumors embedded in the ex vivo bovine livers. The results show that using tactile sensing in a force-controlled environment can realize, on average, 57 percent decrease in the maximum force and 55 percent decrease in the average force applied to tissue while increasing the tumor detection accuracy by up to 50 percent compared to the case of using tactile feedback alone. The results also show that while visual presentation of force feedback gives straightforward quantitative measures, improved performance of tactile sensing tumor localization is achieved at the expense of longer times for the user. Also, the quickness and intuitive data mapping of direct force feedback makes it more appealing to experienced users.

  9. Technology Integration Coursework and Finding Meaning in Pre-Service Teachers' Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce; Miller, Brant G.; Amador, Julie; Desjardins, Christopher David; Hall, Cassidy

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to inform teacher preparation programs regarding technology integration by understanding (1) relationships between tasks with specific technologies and pre-service teachers' critical thinking about technology integration and (2) relationships between how pre-service teachers are critically thinking about technology integration and…

  10. Technology Integration Coursework and Finding Meaning in Pre-Service Teachers' Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmons, Royce; Miller, Brant G.; Amador, Julie; Desjardins, Christopher David; Hall, Cassidy

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to inform teacher preparation programs regarding technology integration by understanding (1) relationships between tasks with specific technologies and pre-service teachers' critical thinking about technology integration and (2) relationships between how pre-service teachers are critically thinking about technology integration and…

  11. Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. III - A reanalysis using improved leaf models and a new canopy integration scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Berry, J. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Field, C. B.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    The theoretical analyses of Sellers (1985, 1987), which linked canopy spectral reflectance properties to (unstressed) photosynthetic rates and conductances, are critically reviewed and significant shortcomings are identified. These are addressed in this article principally through the incorporation of a more sophisticated and realistic treatment of leaf physiological processes within a new canopy integration scheme. The results indicate that area-averaged spectral vegetation indices, as obtained from coarse resolution satellite sensors, may give good estimates of the area-integrals of photosynthesis and conductance even for spatially heterogenous (though physiologically uniform) vegetation covers.

  12. Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. III - A reanalysis using improved leaf models and a new canopy integration scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Berry, J. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Field, C. B.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    The theoretical analyses of Sellers (1985, 1987), which linked canopy spectral reflectance properties to (unstressed) photosynthetic rates and conductances, are critically reviewed and significant shortcomings are identified. These are addressed in this article principally through the incorporation of a more sophisticated and realistic treatment of leaf physiological processes within a new canopy integration scheme. The results indicate that area-averaged spectral vegetation indices, as obtained from coarse resolution satellite sensors, may give good estimates of the area-integrals of photosynthesis and conductance even for spatially heterogenous (though physiologically uniform) vegetation covers.

  13. The perceived familiarity gap hypothesis: examining how media attention and reflective integration relate to perceived familiarity with nanotechnology in Singapore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edmund W. J.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2015-05-01

    Public level of familiarity with nanotechnology partly determines their acceptance or rejection of the technology. This study examines the differential influence of public attention to science news in the media and reflective integration on perceived familiarity with nanotechnology among people in the higher and lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups in Singapore. Significant three-way interactions among education, science news attention, and reflective integration variables were found. Attention to television science news narrowed the level of perceived familiarity with nanotechnology between the higher and lower SES groups for those who engaged in high elaborative processing. Science newspaper attention, on the other hand, widened the familiarity gap between the higher and lower SES groups among those who engaged in high elaborative processing. Two-way interaction among education and elaborative processing were found—elaborative processing closed the familiarity gap between higher and lower SES groups. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  14. Effects of air pollution on cell membrane integrity, spectral reflectance and metal and sulfur concentrations in lichens

    SciTech Connect

    Garty, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kloog, N.; Karnieli, A.

    1997-07-01

    The fruticose lichen Ramalina duriaei is generally considered to be sensitive to air pollution. In the present study the authors sought to determine whether thalli of this lichen collected in a remote unpolluted site (the HaZorea Forest, northeast Israel) and transplanted to the Ashdod region (southwest Israel) could provide information on the quality of the air in this area. For this purpose, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, Fe, S, Ca, Mg, Na, and K were determined in in situ thalli collected in the HaZorea Forest in March 1993 and in in situ and transplanted thalli retrieved in June 1993. The concentration of these elements in R. duriaei thalli was analyzed in comparison with physiological parameters such as the integrity of cell membranes, chlorophyll content, and alterations in reflectance responses from lichen thalli. Thalli transplanted to several industrial sites in the town of Ashdod for a period of 100 d accumulated high concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, S, Mg, Na, Ca, and K. The concentration of S in thalli transplanted to the Ashdod region was found to correlate with damage caused to cell membranes and showed and inverse correlation with the chlorophyll content and with the reflectance response of the lichen. The electrical conductivity values corresponding to membrane integrity in the lichen thallus showed an inverse correlation with the ratio of chlorophyll a to pheophytin a, indicating the integrity of the photobiontic chlorophyll and with normalized-difference vegetation index values corresponding to the reflectance response of the thallus. The chlorophyll integrity correlated with the reflectance response. Magnesium accumulated in the lichen thalli in dusty sites and was found to correlate with damage caused to membranes.

  15. Computerised mirror therapy with Augmented Reflection Technology for early stroke rehabilitation: clinical feasibility and integration as an adjunct therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoermann, Simon; Ferreira Dos Santos, Luara; Morkisch, Nadine; Jettkowski, Katrin; Sillis, Moran; Devan, Hemakumar; Kanagasabai, Parimala S; Schmidt, Henning; Krüger, Jörg; Dohle, Christian; Regenbrecht, Holger; Hale, Leigh; Cutfield, Nicholas J

    2017-07-01

    New rehabilitation strategies for post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation employing visual stimulation show promising results, however, cost-efficient and clinically feasible ways to provide these interventions are still lacking. An integral step is to translate recent technological advances, such as in virtual and augmented reality, into therapeutic practice to improve outcomes for patients. This requires research on the adaptation of the technology for clinical use as well as on the appropriate guidelines and protocols for sustainable integration into therapeutic routines. Here, we present and evaluate a novel and affordable augmented reality system (Augmented Reflection Technology, ART) in combination with a validated mirror therapy protocol for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. We evaluated components of the therapeutic intervention, from the patients' and the therapists' points of view in a clinical feasibility study at a rehabilitation centre. We also assessed the integration of ART as an adjunct therapy for the clinical rehabilitation of subacute patients at two different hospitals. The results showed that the combination and application of the Berlin Protocol for Mirror Therapy together with ART was feasible for clinical use. This combination was integrated into the therapeutic plan of subacute stroke patients at the two clinical locations where the second part of this research was conducted. Our findings pave the way for using technology to provide mirror therapy in clinical settings and show potential for the more effective use of inpatient time and enhanced recoveries for patients. Implications for Rehabilitation Computerised Mirror Therapy is feasible for clinical use Augmented Reflection Technology can be integrated as an adjunctive therapeutic intervention for subacute stroke patients in an inpatient setting Virtual Rehabilitation devices such as Augmented Reflection Technology have considerable potential to enhance stroke rehabilitation.

  16. A geological evidence of very low frequency earthquake inferred from vitrinite thermal records across a microfault within on-land accretionary complex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hirose, T.; Hamada, Y.; Kitamura, M.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of friction heat associated with fault slip is controlled by friction, slip distance and fault thickness. Nature of fault slip can be estimated from the record of frictional heating along a fault (e.g., Fulton et al., 2012). Purpose of this study is to detect the record of frictional heating along a microfault observed in on-land accretionary complex, Shimanto Belt, SW Japan using vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and to examine the characteristics of fault slip in deeper subduction zone. The study area is located in Nonokawa formation, the Cretaceous Shimanto Belt, in Kochi Prefecture, Southwest Japan. We found a carbonaceous material concentrated layer (CMCL) in the formation. Some micro-faults cut the layer. The thickness of CMCL is about 3-4m. Ro of host rock is about 0.98-1.1% and of fault rock is over 1.2%. Kitamura et al. (2012) pointed out that fracturing energy may control the high Ro within fault zone. To avoid the effect of fracturing on Ro, we tired to detect a diffusion pattern of frictional heating in host rocks. Distribution of Ro is mapped in thin sections to make the Ro-distance pattern perpendicular to the fault plane. Within the fracture zone, abnormally high Ro (about 2.0% or above) was observed. Ro was 1.25% at the wall of fracture zone and decreases to 1.1% at about 5cm from the wall. We interpreted that the Ro-distance pattern was resulted from the thermal diffusion. Using this diffusion pattern, the characteristic fault parameters, such as friction, slip rate and rise time (Tr) was examined. We set parameters Q (= friction times slip rate). We have simulated frictional heating and Ro maturation on the basis of the method by Sweeny and Burnham (1990). Grid search was conducted to find the best fitted combination of Q and Tr at the smallest residual between simulated Ro and observed Ro. In the result, we estimated about 1500 (Pa m/s) of Q and about 130000(s) of Tr. Because the base temperature is about 185˚C based on the 1.1% of Ro, the

  17. Integrated Reflection Seismic Monitoring and Reservoir Modeling for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    John Rogers

    2011-12-31

    The US DOE/NETL CCS MVA program funded a project with Fusion Petroleum Technologies Inc. (now SIGMA) to model the proof of concept of using sparse seismic data in the monitoring of CO{sub 2} injected into saline aquifers. The goal of the project was to develop and demonstrate an active source reflection seismic imaging strategy based on deployment of spatially sparse surface seismic arrays. The primary objective was to test the feasibility of sparse seismic array systems to monitor the CO{sub 2} plume migration injected into deep saline aquifers. The USDOE/RMOTC Teapot Dome (Wyoming) 3D seismic and reservoir data targeting the Crow Mountain formation was used as a realistic proxy to evaluate the feasibility of the proposed methodology. Though the RMOTC field has been well studied, the Crow Mountain as a saline aquifer has not been studied previously as a CO{sub 2} sequestration (storage) candidate reservoir. A full reprocessing of the seismic data from field tapes that included prestack time migration (PSTM) followed by prestack depth migration (PSDM) was performed. A baseline reservoir model was generated from the new imaging results that characterized the faults and horizon surfaces of the Crow Mountain reservoir. The 3D interpretation was integrated with the petrophysical data from available wells and incorporated into a geocellular model. The reservoir structure used in the geocellular model was developed using advanced inversion technologies including Fusion's ThinMAN{trademark} broadband spectral inversion. Seal failure risk was assessed using Fusion's proprietary GEOPRESS{trademark} pore pressure and fracture pressure prediction technology. CO{sub 2} injection was simulated into the Crow Mountain with a commercial reservoir simulator. Approximately 1.2MM tons of CO{sub 2} was simulated to be injected into the Crow Mountain reservoir over 30 years and subsequently let 'soak' in the reservoir for 970 years. The relatively small plume developed from this

  18. The Promise of Integrated English Curriculum: Teachers' and Head Teachers' Reactions and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoma, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    The current Kenyan secondary English curriculum (2002) has adopted an integrated approach not only to teaching, but also to the assessment of English language and Literature. This re-organisation is meant to improve the standards of teaching and performance in English. However, national performance in integrated English has remained consistently…

  19. The Use of Technologies for Teaching Dentistry in Brazil: Reflections from an Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Henrique Salustiano; Bariani, Rita Catia; Kubo, Hatsuo; Leal, Tais Pereira; Ilinsky, Roberta; Borges, Thalita; Faltin, Kurt, Jr.; Ortolani, Cristina Lucia Feijó

    2017-01-01

    This article is an integrative review regarding the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) for teaching Dentistry. Thus, the article aimed to analyze papers that show the use of these technologies as resources and tools for learning. The stages in the elaboration of this integrative review were: establishing the guiding question…

  20. Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) Cost-Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) are designed to prevent space launch vehicles from flight through environments conducive to natural or triggered lightning and are used for all U.S. government and commercial launches at government and civilian ranges. They are maintained by a committee known as the NASA/USAF Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP). The previous LLCC for anvil cloud, meant to avoid triggered lightning, have been shown to be overly restrictive. Some of these rules have had such high safety margins that they prohibited flight under conditions that are now thought to be safe 90% of the time, leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. The LLCC for anvil clouds was upgraded in the summer of 2005 to incorporate results from the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) experiment at the Eastern Range (ER). Numerous combinations of parameters were considered to develop the best correlation of operational weather observations to in-cloud electric fields capable of rocket triggered lightning in anvil clouds. The Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) was the best metric found. Dr. Harry Koons of Aerospace Corporation conducted a risk analysis of the VAHIRR product. The results indicated that the LLCC based on the VAHIRR product would pose a negligible risk of flying through hazardous electric fields. Based on these findings, the Kennedy Space Center Weather Office is considering seeking funding for development of an automated VAHIRR algorithm for the new ER 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) RadTec 431250 weather radar and Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars. Before developing an automated algorithm, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to determine the frequency with which VAHIRR would have allowed a launch to safely proceed during weather conditions otherwise deemed "red" by the Launch Weather Officer. To do this, the AMU manually calculated VAHIRR values based on candidate cases from past launches with known anvil cloud

  1. Wavelength-independent integrated focus sensor using a reflection twin micro-Fresnel lens.

    PubMed

    Shiono, T; Setsune, K

    1989-12-01

    A compact focus sensor constructed with thin film components such as a reflection twin micro-Fresnel lens and a photodetector is proposed. This sensor has a folded optical path and is insensitive to wavelength shift. Theoretical analysis indicates that the optical performance of reflection Fresnel lenses can be improved in comparison with a conventional transmission micro-Fresnel lens. The reflection twin Fresnel lens was fabricated using electron-beam lithography and exhibited diffraction-limited focusing performance with high (71%) efficiency. It was demonstrated that the focus sensor had excellent spot displacement characteristics in agreement with theoretical results, and a focus error signal was detected. This focus sensor could be useful for the optical head of an optical disk system.

  2. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  3. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agency-wide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  4. Internal Structure of Vitrinite and Sporinite in the View of Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy Using the Example of Coal from the Seam 405 of the Upper-Silesian Coal Basin (USCB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorek, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the internal structure of vitrinite and sporinite obtained from coal from the seam 405. The examinations were performed with the use of infrared spectroscopy in the micro-area (micro-FTIR). Studies have shown that vitrinite is characterized by lower content of aliphatic components and greater content of aromatic components than sporinite. Sporinite is characterized by longer and less branched aliphatic chains than vitrinite. It was found that vitrinite internal structure is characterized by a greater relative content of aromatic than aliphatic components. The degree of condensation of aromatic rings in structure of vitrinite increases, when the coal rank rises. Studies have shown that the transformation of the vitrinite internal structure towards a structure characterized by a greater degree condensation of aromatic components proceeds at the cost of restructuring the aliphatic groups and is related to the restructuring of the aromatic systems. The structure of sporinite is characterized by a greater participation of aliphatic bonds as compared to aromatic bonds. The relative content of the aliphatic components decreases together with increase of aromatic hydrogen functional group CHar content in the internal structure of sporinite when the coal rank rises. The aliphatic bonds in the sporinite are subject to restructuring. The aliphatic chains are getting increasingly shorter.

  5. - and Longwave Infrared Total and Diffuse Reflectance Measurements Using AN Integrating Sphere with a Two-Sample Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Juette, Michael; Simon, Arno

    2010-06-01

    We report here improved methodologies for the use of the Bruker A 562-G integrating sphere for quantitative total and diffuse reflectance measurements. The sphere has an internal diameter of 75 mm and the interior surface is coated with matte gold. It has an input port (20 mm diameter), top (32 mm) and bottom (19 mm) sample ports, all on a sphere circumference defined by a vertical plane than includes the sphere center, and a baffled port (10 mm) for an MCT detector (2 mm x 2 mm), that is on a sphere circumference defined by a horizontal plane that includes the sphere center. An interior flip mirror is used to direct light from the input port to either the top or bottom sample ports. The sphere sits in the sample compartment of a benchtop Fourier transform spectrometer. Total reflectance measurements are made by placing the sample in one of the sample ports and blocking the other sample port with a matte gold reference material, recording spectra with the flip mirror pointed towards the sample and then towards the reference material, and then ratio-ing the two spectra. Using this method excellent agreement (< 2% difference) was observed between measurements made using the Bruker sphere and FTIR and reported values for five NIST-calibrated total reflectance standards. Diffuse reflectance measurements are made by placing the sample in one of the sample ports and leaving the other port open to allow the specular reflection component of the sample to exit the sphere, recording spectra with the flip mirror pointing towards the sample and then towards a point on the sphere wall. The two spectra are again ratioed. The diffuse spectrum is thus the total spectrum less the specular component. In the shortwave infrared, where there is sufficient overlap, total and diffuse measurements using the Bruker sphere and FTIR compare favorably with results from a Varian Spectralon-coated integrating sphere and Cary 5000i spectrometer for a number of different materials.

  6. A New Theory-to-Practice Model for Student Affairs: Integrating Scholarship, Context, and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason, Robert D.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we synthesize existing theory-to-practice approaches within the student affairs literature to arrive at a new model that incorporates formal and informal theory, institutional context, and reflective practice. The new model arrives at a balance between the rigor necessary for scholarly theory development and the adaptability…

  7. Constructivist Approach to Teacher Education: An Integrative Model for Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijaya Kumari, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    The theory of constructivism states that learning is non-linear, recursive, continuous, complex and relational--Despite the difficulty of deducing constructivist pedagogy from constructivist theories, there are models and common elements to consider in planning new program. Reflective activities are a common feature of all the programs of…

  8. A New Theory-to-Practice Model for Student Affairs: Integrating Scholarship, Context, and Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason, Robert D.; Kimball, Ezekiel W.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we synthesize existing theory-to-practice approaches within the student affairs literature to arrive at a new model that incorporates formal and informal theory, institutional context, and reflective practice. The new model arrives at a balance between the rigor necessary for scholarly theory development and the adaptability…

  9. Thinking about Thinking: Integrating Self-Reflection into an Academic Literacy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granville, Stella; Dison, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the work done with first year students doing a course in English for Academic Purposes at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. It is concerned with encouraging students to develop meta-cognitive reflective skills as a means to enhancing learning and developing higher order thinking. This work emphasizes the…

  10. Thinking about Thinking: Integrating Self-Reflection into an Academic Literacy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granville, Stella; Dison, Laura

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the work done with first year students doing a course in English for Academic Purposes at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg. It is concerned with encouraging students to develop meta-cognitive reflective skills as a means to enhancing learning and developing higher order thinking. This work emphasizes the…

  11. A study of the relationship between reflective writing and critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowicki, Mark Adam

    This study examined the role of reflective journal writing on the development of critical thinking in seventh grade integrated science students. The students participating in this study were part of four science classes taught by the same instructor, using the same curriculum and methods employed during this study. The larger working group consisted of 69 seventh grade students who were allowed to participate in this study by virtue of a signed consent form. The 12 students who comprised the smaller writing group were selected from the larger working group. The smaller, criterion-based writing group was selected from the working group based on their level of critical thinking as indicated on the pre-test instrument. The study utilized several methods of data collection. Data were collected through analyses of student journal entries, class discussions, and a pre and posttest instrument to measure a student's level of critical thinking. All participants were given code names to mask their identity. The findings of this study indicate that a majority of the students' ability to think critically appeared to improve after 18 weeks of reflective journal writing. However, no relationship was found between a student's level of critical thinking and his or her ability to write reflectively. Although many participants did improve their level of reflective writing and critical thinking, there was no direct relationship found between the two skills. This study provided some evidence that reflective journal writing is beneficial for students although some benefits may be intangible. The attitudes of many students toward writing improved, and there was a noticeable increase in students' willingness to share their thoughts and respond to questions in class. Practice in reflective writing also contributed to improved writing skills by the participants. Additionally, there are five recommendations for further research derived from this study.

  12. Oscillatory neuronal activity reflects lexical-semantic feature integration within and across sensory modalities in distributed cortical networks.

    PubMed

    van Ackeren, Markus J; Schneider, Till R; Müsch, Kathrin; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2014-10-22

    Research from the previous decade suggests that word meaning is partially stored in distributed modality-specific cortical networks. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which semantic content from multiple modalities is integrated into a coherent multisensory representation. Therefore we aimed to characterize differences between integration of lexical-semantic information from a single modality compared with two sensory modalities. We used magnetoencephalography in humans to investigate changes in oscillatory neuronal activity while participants verified two features for a given target word (e.g., "bus"). Feature pairs consisted of either two features from the same modality (visual: "red," "big") or different modalities (auditory and visual: "red," "loud"). The results suggest that integrating modality-specific features of the target word is associated with enhanced high-frequency power (80-120 Hz), while integrating features from different modalities is associated with a sustained increase in low-frequency power (2-8 Hz). Source reconstruction revealed a peak in the anterior temporal lobe for low-frequency and high-frequency effects. These results suggest that integrating lexical-semantic knowledge at different cortical scales is reflected in frequency-specific oscillatory neuronal activity in unisensory and multisensory association networks.

  13. A room with a view of integrity and professionalism: personal reflections on teaching responsible conduct of research in the neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Bell, Emily

    2015-04-01

    Neuroscientists are increasingly put into situations which demand critical reflection about the ethical and appropriate use of research tools and scientific knowledge. Students or trainees also have to know how to navigate the ethical domains of this context. At a time when neuroscience is expected to advance policy and practice outcomes, in the face of academic pressures and complex environments, the importance of scientific integrity comes into focus and with it the need for training at the graduate level in the responsible conduct of research (RCR). I describe my experience teaching RCR in a graduate neuroscience program and identify three personal reflections where further dialogue could be warranted: (1) mobilizing a common set of competencies and virtues standing for professionalism in the neurosciences; (2) tailoring RCR for the neurosciences and empowering students through the active engagement of mentors; (3) soliciting shared responsibility for RCR training between disciplines, institutions and governmental or funding agencies.

  14. Seismic images of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt, Arctic Alaska, from an integrated seismic reflection/refraction experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levander, A.; Fuis, G.S.; Wissinger, E.S.; Lutter, W.J.; Oldow, J.S.; Moore, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    We describe results of an integrated seismic reflection/refraction experiment across the Brooks Range and flanking geologic provinces in Arctic Alaska. The seismic acquisition was unusual in that reflection and refraction data were collected simultaneously with a 700 channel seismograph system deployed numerous times along a 315 km profile. Shot records show continuous Moho reflections from 0-180 km offset, as well as numerous upper- and mid-crustal wide-angle events. Single and low-fold near-vertical incidence common midpoint (CMP) reflection images show complex upper- and middle-crustal structure across the range from the unmetamorphosed Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA) in the north, to the metamorphic belts in the south. Lower-crustal and Moho reflections are visible across the entire reflection profile. Travel-time inversion of PmP arrivals shows that the Moho, at 33 km depth beneath the North Slope foothills, deepens abruptly beneath the EMA to a maximum of 46 km, and then shallows southward to 35 km at the southern edge of the range. Two zones of upper- and middle-crustal reflections underlie the northern Brooks Range above ~ 12-15 km depth. The upper zone, interpreted as the base of the EMA, lies at a maximum depth of 6 km and extends over 50 km from the range front to the north central Brooks Range where the base of the EMA outcrops above the metasedimentary rocks exposed in the Doonerak window. We interpret the base of the lower zone, at ~ 12 km depth, to be from carbonate rocks above the master detachment upon which the Brooks Range formed. The seismic data suggest that the master detachment is connected to the faults in the EMA by several ramps. In the highly metamorphosed terranes south of the Doonerak window, the CMP section shows numerous south-dipping events which we interpret as a crustal scale duplex involving the Doonerak window rocks. The basal detachment reflections can be traced approximately 100 km, and dip southward from about 10-12 km

  15. Reflections on Integrative Curriculum: A Conversation with Camille Barr and Molly Maloy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Richard R.

    1999-01-01

    Interviews two principals of middle schools using integrated curriculum: Molly Maloy of Carver Academy, Waco, Texas, and Camille Barr of Brown Barge Middle School, Pensacola, Florida. Considers issues of transforming theory into daily practice, reforming and developing curriculum, and building teacher leadership. Provides backgrounds on the…

  16. The Teacher Technology Integration Experience: Practice and Reflection in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Dana; Mong, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the technology integration practices of teachers in the classroom often did not match their teaching styles. Researchers concluded that this was due, at least partially, to external barriers that prevented teachers from using technology in ways that matched their practiced teaching style. Many of these barriers,…

  17. Researchers' Reflections on What Is Missing from Work-Integrated Learning Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patricia M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the lack of attention to negative findings that has been found in cooperative education research and with issues that have been ignored by work integrated learning researchers. A review of the literature, an informal survey, and instances from the writer's experience provided many examples of negative results and…

  18. Integration of Personal/Professional Self (IPPS) through Reflective/Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Patricia G.; Cheung, Monit

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method in vivo exploratory study examines the learning strategies that prepare students for social work practice and shows that these strategies can make a measurable difference. Though many authors have called for self-awareness to promote cultural sensitivity, the concept of the integrated personal/professional self has not previously…

  19. Cross-Cultural Influences on Teacher Education Reform: Reflections on Implementing the Integrated Curriculum in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saud, Udin; Johnston, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The major focus of the paper is devoted to describing a five-year study of the initial implementation of a nationally adopted integrated curriculum course as it was implemented in one university teacher education programme in Indonesia and, subsequently, the challenges faced in developing a field-based course that built on the university course.…

  20. The Teacher Technology Integration Experience: Practice and Reflection in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Dana; Mong, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that the technology integration practices of teachers in the classroom often did not match their teaching styles. Researchers concluded that this was due, at least partially, to external barriers that prevented teachers from using technology in ways that matched their practiced teaching style. Many of these barriers,…

  1. Reflections and Experiences of Student Paramedics Undertaking International Work-Integrated Learning Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Paul; Thyer, Liz; Van Nugteren, Ben; Mitchell, Glen; Werner, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    International work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly common in health-related programs in Australian universities. Paramedicine programs are beginning to explore international WIL in line with the globalization of paramedicine as a profession and the national higher education emphasis on outward bound learning experiences. Using…

  2. Interprofessional collaboration - a matter of differentiation and integration? Theoretical reflections based in the context of Norwegian childcare.

    PubMed

    Willumsen, Elisabeth

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents a selection of theoretical approaches illuminating some aspects of interprofessional collaboration, which will be related to theory of contingency as well as to the concepts of differentiation and integration. Theories that describe collaboration on an interpersonal as well as inter-organizational level are outlined and related to dynamic and contextual factors. Implications for the organization of welfare services are elucidated and a categorization of internal and external collaborative forms is proposed. A reflection model is presented in order to analyse the degree of integration in collaborative work and may serve as an analytical tool for addressing the linkage between different levels of collaboration and identifying opportunities and limitations. Some implications related to the legal mandate(s) given to childcare agencies are discussed in relation to the context of childcare in Norway.

  3. Integration between well logging and seismic reflection techniques for structural a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Adel K.; Ghazala, Hosni H.; Mohamed, Lamees

    2016-12-01

    Abu El Gharadig basin is located in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt. Geophysical investigation in the form of thirty (3D) seismic lines and well logging data of five wells have been analyzed in the oil field BED-1 that is located in the northwestern part of Abu El Gharadig basin in the Western Desert of Egypt. The reflection sections have been used to shed more light on the tectonic setting of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rocks. While the well logging data have been analyzed for delineating the petrophysical characteristics of the two main reservoirs, Bahariya and Kharita Formations. The constructed subsurface geologic cross sections, seismic sections, and the isochronous reflection maps indicate that the area is structurally controlled by tectonic trends affecting the current shape of Abu El Gharadig basin. Different types of faults are well represented in the area, particularly normal one. The analysis of the average and interval velocities versus depth has shown their effect by facies changes and/or fluid content. On the other hand, the derived petrophysical parameters of Bahariya and Kharita Formations vary from well to another and they have been affected by the gas effect and/or the presence of organic matter, complex lithology, clay content of dispersed habitat, and the pore volume.

  4. Study of a prehistoric landslide using seismic reflection methods integrated with geological data in the Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tingey, B.E.; McBride, J.H.; Thompson, T.J.; Stephenson, W.J.; South, J.V.; Bushman, M.

    2007-01-01

    An integration of geological and geophysical techniques characterizes the internal and basal structure of a landslide along the western margin of the Wasatch Mountains in northern Utah, USA. The study area is within a region of planned and continuing residential development. The Little Valley Landslide is a prehistoric landslide as old as 13??ka B.P. Drilling and trenching at the site indicate that the landslide consists of chaotic and disturbed weathered volcanic material derived from Tertiary age volcanic rocks that comprise a great portion of the Wasatch Range. Five short high-resolution common mid-point seismic reflection profiles over selected portions of the site examine the feasibility of using seismic reflection to study prehistoric landslides in the Wasatch Mountain region. Due to the expected complexity of the near-surface geology, we have pursued an experimental approach in the data processing, examining the effects of muting first arrivals, frequency filtering, model-based static corrections, and seismic migration. The results provide a framework for understanding the overall configuration of the landslide, its basal (failure) surface, and the structure immediately underlying this surface. A glide surface or de??collement is interpreted to underlie the landslide suggesting a large mass movement. The interpretation of a glide surface is based on the onset of coherent reflectivity, calibrated by information from a borehole located along one of the seismic profiles. The glide surface is deepest in the center portion of the landslide and shallows up slope, suggesting a trough-like feature. This study shows that seismic reflection techniques can be successfully used in complex alpine landslide regions to (1) provide a framework in which to link geological data and (2) reduce the need for an extensive trenching and drilling program. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Integration of SH seismic reflection and Love-wave dispersion data for shear wave velocity determination over quick clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comina, Cesare; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.; Polom, Ulrich; Socco, Laura Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Quick clay is a water-saturated formation originally formed through flocculation and deposition in a marine to brackish environment. It is subsequently leached to low salinity by freshwater flow. If its strength decreases, then the flocculated structure collapses leading to landslides of varying destructiveness. Leaching can result in a reduction of the undisturbed shear strength of these clays and suggestions exist that a reduction in shear wave velocities is also possible. Integration of SH seismic reflection and Love-wave dispersion data was undertaken, in an area near the Göta River in southwest Sweden, to evaluate the potential of shear wave velocity imaging for detecting quick clays. Seismic reflection processing evidenced several geologically interesting interfaces related to the probable presence of quick clays (locally confirmed by boreholes) and sand-gravelly layers strongly contributing to water circulation within them. Dispersion data were extracted with a Gaussian windowing approach and inverted with a laterally constrained inversion using a priori information from the seismic reflection imaging. The inversion of dispersion curves has evidenced the presence of a low velocity layer (lvl, with a velocity reduction of ca. 30 per cent) probably associable to quick clays. This velocity reduction is enough to produce detectable phase-velocity differences in the field data and to achieve a better velocity resolution if compared to reflection seismic velocity analyses. The proposed approach has the potential of a comprehensive determination of the shear wave velocity distribution in the shallow subsurface. A sensitivity analysis of Love-wave dispersion data is also presented underlining that, despite limited dispersion of the data set and the velocity-reducing effect of quick-clay leaching, the proposed interpretation procedure arises as a valuable approach in quick clay and other lvl identification.

  6. Crustal structure of Montserrat and Surrounding Area From Integrated Onshore, Ocean Bottom and Multichannel Reflection Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minshull, T. A.; Paulatto, M.; Baptie, B.; Dean, S. M.; Hammond, J. O.; Henstock, T. J.; Kenedi, C. L.; Malin, P.; Peirce, C.; Ryan, G.; Shalev, E.; Sparks, S. R.; Voigt, B.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic tomography of active volcanic islands can provide information about the size and distribution of intrusions, the response of the lithosphere to edifice loading, the extent to which material has been added on top of versus within the pre-existing crust, and the presence of magma chambers. In December 2007, we carried out such an experiment at the island of Montserrat. Seismic signals were generated by a tuned 8- airgun 2600 cu in. array fired at a 60 s (c. 140 m) interval along a series of radial and circular paths around the island. Shots were recorded on 237 land stations and 10 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs). OBSs were equipped with a hydrophone and a 4.5 Hz 3-component geophone or a 2 Hz vertical geophone and were deployed at 750-1100 m water depths from a 13-m boat, predominantly to the leeward, western side of the island. Shots were also recorded on a 600 m, 48-channel streamer. First arrivals are identifiable in OBS data at offsets up to 50 km, corresponding to rays turning beneath the island at a depth of about 9 km. Other observed phases include p-waves turning in the upper sediment layer, basement reflections, a reflection from a shallow interface in the sediments and a reflection from 15-20 km depth, possibly corresponding to the Moho. We will show examples of OBS data, their integration with reflection data to determine the shape of the basement surface around the island, and some initial models of the deeper structure.

  7. 30-m Land Surface Albedo by Integrating Landsat directional reflectance and MODIS anisotropic information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuai, Y.; Masek, J. G.; Gao, F.; Schaaf, C.; Williams, C. A.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Land surface albedo as a key physical variable determining the solar energy absorbed by the land surface, and can affect climate through ecosystem feedback processes. Some studies have highlighted that positive radiative forcing (warming) induced by increased forest cover and decreased albedo in temperate and boreal forest regions could offset the negative forcing expected from carbon sequestration (Betts 2000). However, these studies have not used data at the spatial resolution of human land dynamics (e.g. 30m Landsat resolution). Therefore, there is a need for improved estimates of land surface albedo at high resolution to fully understand the role of land cover change in climate forcing and carbon cycle. Following our initial "concurrent" approach applied to Landsat data acquired during the post-2000 MODIS era (Shuai et al.2011), we have developed a "pre-MODIS era" approach to generate 30-meter albedos using Landsat surface directional reflectance (1970s-2000) and Look-Up-Tables (LUT) of anisotropy information extracted from MODIS BRDF data. We use a NLCD (National Land Cover Dataset)-class-based LUT for non-disturbed land cover. Disturbed forest patches are identified from the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) and North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) datasets. For each category, high quality MODIS BRDF parameters (MCD43A1 product) are retrieved and used to populate the LUT. Each entry in the LUT reflects a unique combination of land cover type, disturbance age and type, season/month, and sensor bands. The initial BRDF LUT generated for the Pacific Northwest of the United States exhibits various BRDF evolution trajectories for disturbed classes, including different recovery trajectories for fire and non-fire disturbance. The albedo-to-nadir-ratio method (Shuai et al., 2011) is applied to the BRDF LUT to calculate spectral albedos, followed by a narrow-to-broadband conversion (Liang 2000) to generate broad-band shortwave albedo. Our preliminary

  8. Integrating in situ reflectance with satellite imagery to determine chlorophyll and turbidity for inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Tina

    The overall objective of this study was to use hyperspectral field spectra to find possible spectral regions in which chlorophyll- a and turbidity could be identified to assist in the assessment and monitoring of water quality using satellite remote sensing technology. Using statistical analysis between the mean reflectance values measured with the GER1500 field spectroradiometer across the spectrum and the concentrations of chlorophyll-a (mug/L) and turbidity (NTU) acquired simultaneously, regression analyses were applied to determine the best wavelengths for determining the concentration of these parameters. Each regression model (512 in total) corresponded to a measured wavelength of the GER1500 field spectrometer. The achieved correlations presented as R2 values against wavelengths, indicated the regions with high correlation values, chlorophyll-a , and turbidity. Based on the results from this study and by matching the spectral bands of the field spectroradiometer with those of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite sensor, several suitable spectral regions were determined for monitoring water quality in Kentucky Lake. For chlorophyll- a, the spectral region of 0.45-0.52 mum (TM band 1), and for turbidity the region 0.52-0.60 mum (TM bands 1 and 2) were determined to be suitable wavelengths to determine such data. In this study, the wavelengths of 700 nm and 675 nm from the GER1500 spectroradiometer were found to be the most suitable wavelengths for predicting chlorophyll-a concentrations. Correlation analysis between remotely sensed data and chlorophyll- a data indicated the possibility of mapping chlorophyll- a concentrations accurately. The wavelengths that represented the difference of 770.82nm-742.60nm correlated best to turbidity (R2 = 0.74).

  9. Reflections on integrating theories of adult education into a medical school faculty development course.

    PubMed

    Pololi, Linda; Clay, Maria C.; Lipkin, Mack; Hewson, Mariana; Kaplan, Craig; Frankel, Richard M.

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a three-day course model for medical school faculty designed to promote self-directed learning, teaching skills, personal awareness and interdisciplinary collegiality. The training program described was conducted three times in our medical school. Fifty-eight faculty from 11 clinical departments have participated in this intensive experience of learning how to teach, based on principles of learner-centered learning and adult education theory. Participants defined their own learning objectives and worked collaboratively in facilitated small groups to develop teaching skills. Reflection groups engaged in discussion on critical incidents of experience as teachers and learners, and promoted awareness regarding personal approaches to teaching. Qualitative and quantitative data showed that the course was effective in: (1) providing an academically and emotionally safe environment for learning; (2) enabling participants to recognize and value learner-centered learning; (3) increasing participant personal awareness, and (4) promoting interdisciplinary collegiality. End-of-course data assessing the following course attributes, using a five-point scale, where 1 was 'not effective' and 5 was 'very effective', showed: (a) exploration of needs: mean 4.20 +/- SD 0.91; (b) interactive sharing of ideas; mean 4.60 +/- SD 0.58; (c) opportunity to receive feedback: mean 4.26 +/- SD 0.80; (d) opportunity to practice new skills; mean 4.11 +/- SD 0.72. In terms of participation in further faculty development, 92% of participants committed themselves to continue the work begun at the course. It was concluded that the faculty development program created a safe, learner-centered environment for participants that promoted both awareness of and commitment to self-directed learning, and facilitated teaching skill development and interdisciplinary collegiality. Our three-day course appears to be highly effective in initiating a long-term faculty

  10. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication).

    PubMed

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-12-30

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient.

  11. Influence of diffuse reflectance measurement accuracy on the scattering coefficient in determination of optical properties with integrating sphere optics (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Horibe, Takuro; Ishii, Katsunori; Fukutomi, Daichi

    2015-01-01

    An estimation error of the scattering coefficient of hemoglobin in the high absorption wavelength range has been observed in optical property calculations of blood-rich tissues. In this study, the relationship between the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement in the integrating sphere and calculated scattering coefficient was evaluated with a system to calculate optical properties combined with an integrating sphere setup and the inverse Monte Carlo simulation. Diffuse reflectance was measured with the integrating sphere using a small incident port diameter and optical properties were calculated. As a result, the estimation error of the scattering coefficient was improved by accurate measurement of diffuse reflectance. In the high absorption wavelength range, the accuracy of diffuse reflectance measurement has an effect on the calculated scattering coefficient. PMID:26877594

  12. A common N400 EEG component reflecting contextual integration irrespective of symbolic form.

    PubMed

    Fogelson, Noa; Loukas, Constantinos; Brown, John; Brown, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) waves modulated by context have been identified about 400 ms after presentation of a new semantic stimulus, such as a word or a number, within a prior context. However, it is not known if any component of these waves arises from a common brain system activated by different symbolic forms. Multichannel EEG recordings were performed in 10 healthy subjects during the presentation of lexical and numerical series with congruent and incongruent endings. EEG was analysed using a combination of independent component and cluster analysis. Contextual integration of semantic stimuli elicited a negative independent component at around 400 ms that shared the same pattern of spatio-temporal covariation across numerical series and sentences within single subjects. This independent component was bigger following incongruent endings. These data provide evidence that one element of the activity contributing to the N400 is common to different symbolic forms. One component of the brain systems evaluating the semantic inter-relationship of new stimuli with prior context may be common to different symbolic forms.

  13. Structure of the Gabon Margin from integrated seismic reflection and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupré, Stéphanie; Cloetingh, Sierd; Bertotti, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    In the South Gabon Basin, deep multi-channel seismic reflection and gravity modeling analysis have shed light on key features of the structure of the margin. The thinned continental crust beneath the Gabon Margin appears to be composed of two distinct layers, separated by a clear, strong and more or less continuous reflector running in the 7-10 s TWT window. The lower crust is characterized by a higher density, intermediate between the lower values of the upper crust and the denser values of the mantle. The lower crust is irregularly shaped and presents lateral thickness variations along the direction of thinning and along the coast. In the offshore thinned continental domain, the lower and upper crust form a 20-25 km thick body. Crustal thicknesses point to a relatively sharp and narrow transition, along a few tens of kilometers, between the unthinned and the thinned continental crust. The high density layer identified offshore Gabon presents similar characteristics in density, geometry and spatial distribution, as the underplated magmatic bodies observed along volcanic margins, e.g. along the South Atlantic Namibia Margin or the North Atlantic Vøring Margin. Although this lower crustal body could possibly represent ultra mafic serpentinized rocks or high grade metamorphic crustal rocks, we suggest that it could be composed of mafic rocks. Magmas resulting from partial melting during rifting may underplate the crust and/or be intruded in the lower crust through a system of dykes and sills. In this view, the present-day crustal thicknesses along rifted margins, characterized by magmatic underplating and/or intrusion, are not representative of the thinning that the crust experienced during rifting. Results of this study point to relatively shallow sedimentary basins along the South Gabon Margin. The deepest offshore depocenters located under the westernmost side of the continental platform appear to be associated with the deepest syn-rift basins These basins seem

  14. Seismic image of the Cantabrian Mountains in the western extension of the Pyrenees from integrated ESCIN reflection and refraction data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.; Fernández-Viejo, G.; Pérez-Estaún, A.; Álvarez-Marrón, J.; Escin Group

    1996-10-01

    Integrated analysis of normal-incidence and large-aperture seismic reflection data collected in 1992 and 1993 within the Spanish ESCIN and complementary projects provide a first complete NS crustal transect across the Northern Iberian Peninsula and continental margin. Images of the crustal structure of the Cantabrian Mountains and their transition to the Duero basin and to the Cantabrian margin are obtained from: (a) a 65-km-long vertical reflection profile ESCIN-2 on land; (b) a 200-km-long reversed refraction profile; and (c) wide-angle recordings of the marine ESCIN-4 profile. Consistent results between reflectivity pattern and velocity-depth distribution reveal important lateral variations in the deep structure. The reflective crust imaged in the ESCIN-2 profile changes its attitude from sub-horizontal beneath the Duero basin to north-dipping beyond the Mountain front. Basement thrusts are observed in the upper crust merging into a detachment at 6 s (TWT) and may have triggered the Alpine uplift of the range. The Moho is identified at the bottom of the reflective lower crust and deepens from 12 to 15 s at the northern end of the profile, about 35 km inland. Modelling of the refraction data laterally extends the seismic image and provides evidence for Variscan crustal features beneath the Duero basin. Northwards, the velocity in the lower crust decreases and the Moho, constrained by the wide-angle data from profile ESCIN-2, deepens to about 60 km ending abruptly at the shoreline. The velocity-depth model is constrained along the Asturian platform up to the continental slope, where the crust-mantle boundary is located at 24 km depth. This 'margin Moho' shows a progressive deepening southwards, and extends to the coast where it is found at 30 km depth. The present seismic data support an important Alpine reworking and thickening of the crust under the Cantabrian Mountains. The onshore/offshore transition is marked by an imbrication of two crusts of very

  15. Time-integrated photoluminescence and pump-probe reflection spectroscopy of Si doped InN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanta, Antaryami; Jang, Der-Jun Wang, Ming-Sung; Tu, L. W.

    2014-01-28

    Temperature and excitation power dependent time-integrated photoluminescence of Si doped InN thin films are investigated. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra at low temperatures are described by single emission peak ensued due to “free-to-bound” recombination; whereas PL spectra at higher temperatures above 150 K are characterized by both “band-to-band” and “free-to-bound” transition. Carrier dynamics of Si doped InN thin films is studied using pump-probe reflection spectroscopy at room temperature. The hot electron cooling process is well described by electron-electron scattering. The dependence of the hot electron cooling rate on total electron density shows sublinear to linear behavior with increase of background electron density. The variation of the carrier recombination lifetime with total electron density implicates the dominance of the defect-related nonradiative recombination channel over other recombination processes.

  16. Ultra-thin GaAs single-junction solar cells integrated with a reflective back scattering layer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weiquan; Becker, Jacob; Liu, Shi; Kuo, Ying-Shen; Li, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Yong-Hang; Landini, Barbara; Campman, Ken

    2014-05-28

    This paper reports the proposal, design, and demonstration of ultra-thin GaAs single-junction solar cells integrated with a reflective back scattering layer to optimize light management and minimize non-radiative recombination. According to our recently developed semi-analytical model, this design offers one of the highest potential achievable efficiencies for GaAs solar cells possessing typical non-radiative recombination rates found among commercially available III-V arsenide and phosphide materials. The structure of the demonstrated solar cells consists of an In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P/GaAs/In{sub 0.49}Ga{sub 0.51}P double-heterostructure PN junction with an ultra-thin 300 nm thick GaAs absorber, combined with a 5 μm thick Al{sub 0.52}In{sub 0.48}P layer with a textured as-grown surface coated with Au used as a reflective back scattering layer. The final devices were fabricated using a substrate-removal and flip-chip bonding process. Solar cells with a top metal contact coverage of 9.7%, and a MgF{sub 2}/ZnS anti-reflective coating demonstrated open-circuit voltages (V{sub oc}) up to 1.00 V, short-circuit current densities (J{sub sc}) up to 24.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, and power conversion efficiencies up to 19.1%; demonstrating the feasibility of this design approach. If a commonly used 2% metal grid coverage is assumed, the anticipated J{sub sc} and conversion efficiency of these devices are expected to reach 26.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and 20.7%, respectively.

  17. L'integration des savoirs theoriques a la pratique par l'analyse reflexive: Formation a la gestion de classe (The Integration of Theoretical Knowledge with the Practice of Reflective Analysis: Formation of Class Management).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Noella

    1999-01-01

    Explores whether reflective analysis promotes integration of theoretical knowledge presented in a course on motivation, with the practice of classroom management during a practice teaching round. Analyzes narrative accounts of practice where subjects recorded observations and reflections of experiences. Results indicate the presence of principal…

  18. L'integration des savoirs theoriques a la pratique par l'analyse reflexive: Formation a la gestion de classe (The Integration of Theoretical Knowledge with the Practice of Reflective Analysis: Formation of Class Management).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Noella

    1999-01-01

    Explores whether reflective analysis promotes integration of theoretical knowledge presented in a course on motivation, with the practice of classroom management during a practice teaching round. Analyzes narrative accounts of practice where subjects recorded observations and reflections of experiences. Results indicate the presence of principal…

  19. Development of a reflected optical fiber system for measuring oxygen saturation in an integrated artificial heart-lung system.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Toshitaka; Saito, Tomohiko; Kihara, Tatsuya; Takatani, Setsuo; Funakubo, Akio

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a blood oxygen saturation (OS) monitoring system for use with an integrated artificial heart-lung system (IAHLS). The OS monitoring system consists of two paired optical fiber probes (OFPs) and a measurement system. To investigate the effect of the OFP configuration and incident light wavelength on the relationship between OS and the reflectance ratio for wavelengths of 810 and 645 nm, we performed theoretical analyses of the relationship between OS and R810/R645 using a diffusion equation. The prototype OFP located on the blood outlet port of our IAHLS housing was evaluated using an in vitro test. An OS range of 65-100% was adjusted to supply oxygen and nitrogen gas to the IAHLS. The blood flow rate was maintained at 3 L/min by the rotational speed of an impeller in the IAHLS. The OS-corrected blood from the IAHLS was measured using a commercial gas analyzer. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between the theoretical ratio of R810/R645 and OS, and between measured OS and the reflectance ratio of R810/R645 were 0.97 and 0.78, respectively. In conclusion, we confirmed that the development of this oximetry system is applicable for IAHLS.

  20. Reflectance measurements of well cuttings from Ashley and Bradley Counties, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ratchford, Michael E.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined for twenty-three well cuttings samples from Ashley and Bradley Counties, Arkansas, to evaluate coal rank and coalbed gas potential in the Desha Basin of the southern Missisissippi Embayment. Samples were selected from the Norman F. Williams Well Sample Library using geophysical logs to identify coaly shale and coal intervals from conventional oil and gas wells. Results indicate that maturation of vitrinite ranges from lignite to subbituminous B in the Wilcox Group (Paleocene-Eocene) at depths of 1400 to 2300 feet, and from subbituminous C to subbituminous A/high volatile bituminous C in the Trinity Group/Hosston Formation (Lower Cretaceous) at depths of 3000 to 3100 feet.

  1. Secretinite-Reflectance and chemical data from two high volatile bituminous coals (Upper Carboniferous) of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Secretinite - a maceral of the inertinite group as recognized by the ICCP in 1996- is a noncellular maceral of seed fern origin. New reflectance data indicate that this maceral has primary anisotropy with bireflectances of 0.4% to 0.9% in high-volatile B bituminous (Ro = 0.6%) Carboniferous coal of North America. The highest reflectance is in cross-section as opposed to longitudinal section. Characteristic feature of secretinite is the virtual absence of Si and Al, unlike that in associated vitrinite. This indicates the absence of submicron aluminosilicates in secretinite and their presence in vitrinites. Secretinite is highly aromatic as indicated by low O/C ratios and high contribution of aromatic hydrogen bands detected by FTIR analysis. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Esophagogastric Junction Contractility Integral Reflect the Anti-reflux Barrier Dysfunction in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chenxi; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Yuwen; Tan, Niandi; Cui, Yi; Chen, Minhu; Xiao, Yinglian

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Anti-reflux barrier dysfunction is one of the primary mechanisms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pathogenesis. The esophagogastric junction contractile integral (EGJ-CI) is a new metric adopted to evaluate the EGJ contractility, which implies the anti-reflux barrier function. The aim of the current study was to validate this new metric in patients with GERD and its correlation with the esophageal acid exposure, as well as the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor treatment. Methods Ninety-eight patients with GERD and 21 healthy controls were included in the study. Upper endoscopy, high-resolution manometry (HRM) and 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring were performed in all patients. Three respiration cycles were chosen at the initial HRM resting frame and the value computed with distal contractile integral tool was then divided by the duration of the cycles to yield EGJ-CI. All the patients were treated with esomeprazole 20 mg twice-daily for 8 weeks. Results EGJ-CI was lower in the patients with GERD than that of the controls (P < 0.05). For patients with GERD, EGJ-CI was lower in those with hiatal hernia (P < 0.05). The new metric correlated with esophageal acid exposure in the supine position (P < 0.05), and it also negatively correlated to the total reflux episodes (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference on EGJ-CI between patients with and without response to the esomeprazole treatment (P = 0.627). Conclusions EGJ-CI reflected the dysfunction of the anti-reflux barrier in patients with GERD, but it had little impact on the esomeprazole response. PMID:27426485

  3. Reflecting on the structure of soil classification systems: insights from a proposal for integrating subsoil data into soil information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dondeyne, Stefaan; Juilleret, Jérôme; Vancampenhout, Karen; Deckers, Jozef; Hissler, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Classification of soils in both World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB) and Soil Taxonomy hinges on the identification of diagnostic horizons and characteristics. However as these features often occur within the first 100 cm, these classification systems convey little information on subsoil characteristics. An integrated knowledge of the soil, soil-to-substratum and deeper substratum continuum is required when dealing with environmental issues such as vegetation ecology, water quality or the Critical Zone in general. Therefore, we recently proposed a classification system of the subsolum complementing current soil classification systems. By reflecting on the structure of the subsoil classification system which is inspired by WRB, we aim at fostering a discussion on some potential future developments of WRB. For classifying the subsolum we define Regolite, Saprolite, Saprock and Bedrock as four Subsolum Reference Groups each corresponding to different weathering stages of the subsoil. Principal qualifiers can be used to categorize intergrades of these Subsoil Reference Groups while morphologic and lithologic characteristics can be presented with supplementary qualifiers. We argue that adopting a low hierarchical structure - akin to WRB and in contrast to a strong hierarchical structure as in Soil Taxonomy - offers the advantage of having an open classification system avoiding the need for a priori knowledge of all possible combinations which may be encountered in the field. Just as in WRB we also propose to use principal and supplementary qualifiers as a second level of classification. However, in contrast to WRB we propose to reserve the principal qualifiers for intergrades and to regroup the supplementary qualifiers into thematic categories (morphologic or lithologic). Structuring the qualifiers in this manner should facilitate the integration and handling of both soil and subsoil classification units into soil information systems and calls for paying

  4. Removing the effect of blooming from potential energy measurement by employing total internal reflection microscopy integrated with video microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Feng; Gong, Xiangjun; He, Chuanxin; Ngai, To

    2017-10-01

    Total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) measures the interactions between a colloidal particle and a flat surface in aqueous solution. Recently, TIRM has further integrated with video microscopy (VM) and enabled the simultaneous measurements of multi-particle colloid-surface interactions in the same ensemble. However, there still remain challenges about accurate image acquisition due to blooming. Blooming means the number of photons reaching the detector exceeds its maximum capacity, and the excess photons will either spill to adjacent pixels or not be counted, leading to an obstacle from precise determination of intensity. Our result shows that blooming gives rise to a deviation of the measured potential energy from the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verway, and Overbeek (DLVO). Therefore, a correction method was developed in this work to deduce the real intensity from the experimental measurement. The relationship between scattered light intensity and exposure time deviates from linearity when blooming occurs. A correction equation was developed to recover the real intensity, which was then confirmed by the accordance between the corresponding potential energy profiles and the DLVO theory. This correction method is suitable for VM systems of colloidal probes illuminated by scattered light, broadening the application of VM imaging to investigate colloidal interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  6. Integrating Chlorophyll fapar and Nadir Photochemical Reflectance Index from EO-1/Hyperion to Predict Cornfield Daily Gross Primary Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Cook, Bruce D.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Kustas, William P.; Russ, Andrew L.; Prueger, John H.; Yao, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The concept of light use efficiency (Epsilon) and the concept of fraction of photosynthetically active ration (PAR) absorbed for vegetation photosynthesis (PSN), i.e., fAPAR (sub PSN), have been widely utilized to estimate vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP). It has been demonstrated that the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) is empirically related to e. An experimental US Department of Agriculture (USDA) cornfield in Maryland was selected as our study field. We explored the potential of integrating fAPAR(sub chl) (defined as the fraction of PAR absorbed by chlorophyll) and nadir PRI (PRI(sub nadir)) to predict cornfield daily GPP. We acquired nadir or near-nadir EO-1/Hyperion satellite images that covered the cornfield and took nadir in-situ field spectral measurements. Those data were used to derive the PRI(sub nadir) and fAPAR (sub chl). The fAPAR (sub chl) is retrieved with the advanced radiative transfer model PROSAIL2 and the Metropolis approach, a type of Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation procedure. We define chlorophyll light use efficiency Epsilon (sub chl) as the ratio of vegetation GPP as measured by eddy covariance techniques to PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (Epsilon(sub chl) = GPP/APAR (sub chl). Daily Epsilon (sub chl) retrieved with the EO-1 Hyperion images was regressed with a linear equation of PRI (sub nadir) Epsilon (sub chl) = Alpha × PRI (sub nadir) + Beta). The satellite Epsilon(sub chl- PRI (sub nadir) linear relationship for the cornfield was implemented to develop an integrated daily GPP model [GPP = (Alpha × PRI(sub nadir) + Beta) × fAPAR (sub chl) × PAR], which was evaluated with fAPAR (sub chl) and PRI (sub nadir) retrieved from field measurements. Daily GPP estimated with this fAPAR (sub chl-) PRI (nadir) integration model was strongly correlated with the observed tower in-situ daily GPP (R(sup 2) = 0.93); with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.71 g C mol-(sup -1) PPFD and coefficient of variation (CV) of 16

  7. Are Integrated Portfolio Systems the Answer? An Evaluation of a Web-Based Portfolio System to Improve Preservice Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Diler; Adadan, Emine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated web-based portfolio system, namely the BOUNCE System, which primarily focuses on improving preservice teachers' reflective thinking skills. BOUNCE©, the software component of the system, was designed and developed to support a teaching practice model including a cycle of activities to be…

  8. Are Integrated Portfolio Systems the Answer? An Evaluation of a Web-Based Portfolio System to Improve Preservice Teachers' Reflective Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oner, Diler; Adadan, Emine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of an integrated web-based portfolio system, namely the BOUNCE System, which primarily focuses on improving preservice teachers' reflective thinking skills. BOUNCE©, the software component of the system, was designed and developed to support a teaching practice model including a cycle of activities to be…

  9. Making the Case for the Creation of an Academic Honesty and Integrity Culture in Higher Education: Reflections and Suggestions for Reducing the Rise in Student Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavico, Frank J.; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.

    2009-01-01

    Using an example from the work of one university in the United States, this case is principally an essay of reflections, thoughts, questions, and suggestions for the creation of an academic honesty and integrity culture in higher education institutions. The authors provide their thoughts and insights from their combined 30 years of teaching and…

  10. Fluid inclusion and vitrinite-reflectance geothermometry compared to heat-flow models of maximum paleotemperature next to dikes, western onshore Gippsland Basin, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.; Bone, Y.; Lewan, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    Nine basalt dikes, ranging from 6 cm to 40 m thick, intruding the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Strzelecki Group, western onshore Gippsland Basin, were used to study maximum temperatures (Tmax) reached next to dikes. Tmax was estimated from fluid inclusion and vitrinitereflectance geothermometry and compared to temperatures calculated using heat-flow models of contact metamorphism. Thermal history reconstruction suggests that at the time of dike intrusion the host rock was at a temperature of 100-135??C. Fracture-bound fluid inclusions in the host rocks next to thin dikes ( 1.5, using a normalized distance ratio used for comparing measurements between dikes regardless of their thickness. In contrast, the pattern seen next to the thin dikes is a relatively narrow zone of elevated Rv-r. Heat-flow modeling, along with whole rock elemental and isotopic data, suggests that the extended zone of elevated Rv-r is caused by a convection cell with local recharge of the hydrothermal fluids. The narrow zone of elevated Rv-r found next to thin dikes is attributed to the rise of the less dense, heated fluids at the dike contact causing a flow of cooler groundwater towards the dike and thereby limiting its heating effects. The lack of extended heating effects suggests that next to thin dikes an incipient convection system may form in which the heated fluid starts to travel upward along the dike but cooling occurs before a complete convection cell can form. Close to the dike contact at X/D 1.5. ?? 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacteria-like bodies in coalified Carboniferous xylem-enigmatic microspheroids or possible evidence of microbial saprophytes in a vitrinite precursor?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    Possible fossil cocci, both solitary and diplococcus types, have been discovered in coalified tissue (xylem) from coal balls and bituminous coal of Carboniferous age. Most of the presumed bacteria are microspheroids 1-2.5 ??m in diameter and were found in partly degraded humic tissue (xylem) from a medullosan seed fern preserved in a coal ball (Herrin No. 6 coal bed, Westphalian D), an indication that they may have been saprotrophs (decay causing). The same kind of bodies were also found in coalified xylem from the Pittsburgh coal bed (early Stephanian). Whatever the origin of the bacteria-like bodies, they provide direct evidence of secondary organic components in tissue that gives rise to vitrinite and fusinite, major macerals of bituminous and anthracitic coals. ?? 1991.

  12. Integrating Reflection Seismic, Gravity and Magnetic Data to Reveal the Structure of Crystalline Basement: Implications for Understanding Rift Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenhart, Antje; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.; Bell, Rebecca E.; Duffy, Oliver B.; Fossen, Haakon; Gawthorpe, Robert L.

    2016-04-01

    Numerous rifts form above crystalline basement containing pervasive faults and shear zones. However, the compositional and mechanical heterogeneity within crystalline basement and the geometry and kinematics of discrete and pervasive basement fabrics are poorly understood. Furthermore, the interpretation of intra-crustal structures beneath sedimentary basins is often complicated by limitations in the depth of conventional seismic imaging, the commonly acoustically transparent nature of basement, limited well penetrations, and complex overprinting of multiple tectonic events. Yet, a detailed knowledge of the structural and lithological complexity of crystalline basement rocks is crucial to improve our understanding of how rifts evolve. Potential field methods are a powerful but perhaps underutilised regional tool that can decrease interpretational uncertainty based solely on seismic reflection data. We use petrophysical data, high-resolution 3D reflection seismic volumes, gridded gravity and magnetic data, and 2D gravity and magnetic modelling to constrain the structure of crystalline basement offshore western Norway. Intra-basement structures are well-imaged on seismic data due to relatively shallow burial of the basement beneath a thin (<3.5 km) sedimentary cover. Variations in basement composition were interpreted from detailed seismic facies analysis and mapping of discrete intra-basement reflections. A variety of data filtering and isolation techniques were applied to the original gravity and magnetic data in order to enhance small-scale field variations, to accentuate formation boundaries and discrete linear trends, and to isolate shallow and deep crustal anomalies. In addition, 2D gravity and magnetic data modelling was used to verify the seismic interpretation and to further constrain the configuration of the upper and lower crust. Our analysis shows that the basement offshore western Norway is predominantly composed of Caledonian allochthonous nappes

  13. Integration of Quartz Crystal Microbalance-Dissipation and Reflection-Mode Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors for Biomacromolecular Interaction Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferhan, Abdul Rahim; Jackman, Joshua A; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-12-20

    The combination of label-free, surface-sensitive measurement techniques based on different physical principles enables detailed characterization of biomacromolecular interactions at solid-liquid interfaces. To date, most combined measurement systems have involved experimental techniques with similar probing volumes, whereas the potential of utilizing techniques with different surface sensitivities remains largely unexplored, especially for data interpretation. Herein, we report a combined measurement approach that integrates a conventional quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation (QCM-D) setup with a reflection-mode localized surface plasmon (LSPR) sensor. Using this platform, we investigate vesicle adsorption on a titanium oxide-coated sensing substrate along with the amphipathic, α-helical (AH) peptide-induced structural transformation of surface-adsorbed lipid vesicles into a supported lipid bilayer (SLB) as a model biomacromolecular interaction. While the QCM-D and LSPR signals both detected mass uptake arising from vesicle adsorption, tracking the AH peptide-induced structural transformation revealed more complex measurement responses based on the different surface sensitivities of the two techniques. In particular, the LSPR signal recorded an increase in optical mass near the sensor surface which indicated SLB formation, whereas the QCM-D signals detected a significant loss in net acoustic mass due to excess lipid and coupled solvent leaving the probing volume. Importantly, these measurement capabilities allowed us to temporally distinguish the process of SLB formation at the sensor surface from the overall structural transformation process. Looking forward, these label-free measurement capabilities to simultaneously probe adsorbates at multiple length scales will provide new insights into complex biomacromolecular interactions.

  14. Enhancing Inquiry, Evidence-Based Reflection, and Integrative Learning with the Lifelong ePortfolio Process: The Implementation of Integrative ePortfolios at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Nancy McCoy

    2013-01-01

    Reflection plays a critical role in moving learning to the next level of inquiry. Stony Brook University has adopted an approach to using ePortfolios within the curriculum that emphasizes reflection. Stony Brook University successfully piloted ePortfolios in the Fall 2010 Semester and discovered their use facilitated the inquiry process for the…

  15. Enhancing Inquiry, Evidence-Based Reflection, and Integrative Learning with the Lifelong ePortfolio Process: The Implementation of Integrative ePortfolios at Stony Brook University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Nancy McCoy

    2013-01-01

    Reflection plays a critical role in moving learning to the next level of inquiry. Stony Brook University has adopted an approach to using ePortfolios within the curriculum that emphasizes reflection. Stony Brook University successfully piloted ePortfolios in the Fall 2010 Semester and discovered their use facilitated the inquiry process for the…

  16. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  17. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  18. Use of 2D images of depth and integrated reflectivity to represent the severity of demineralization in cross-polarization optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kenneth H.; Chan, Andrew C.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Fried, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the potential of cross-polarization optical coherence tomography (CP-OCT) to quantify the severity of early caries lesions (tooth decay) on tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study is to show that 2D images of the lesion depth and the integrated reflectivity can be used to accurately represent the severity of early lesions. Simulated early lesions of varying severity were produced on tooth samples using simulated lesion models. Methods were developed to convert the 3D CP-OCT images of the samples to 2D images of the lesion depth and lesion integrated reflectivity. Calculated lesion depths from OCT were compared with lesion depths measured from histological sections examined using polarized light microscopy. The 2D images of the lesion depth and integrated reflectivity are well suited for visualization of early demineralization. Polarized light micrographs (PLM) of one of the histological sections from a tooth exposed to demineralization for 48 hrs. (A) PLM image of entire thin section (B) magnified PLM image of region of interest. PMID:24307350

  19. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  20. Music plus Music Integration: A Model for Music Education Policy Reform That Reflects the Evolution and Success of Arts Integration Practices in 21st Century American Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scripp, Lawrence; Gilbert, Josh

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the special case of integrative teaching and learning in music as a model for 21st century music education policy reform based on the principles that have evolved out of arts integration research and practices over the past century and informed by the recent rising tide of evidence of music's impact on brain capacity and…

  1. Teaching health science students foundation motivational interviewing skills: use of motivational interviewing treatment integrity and self-reflection to approach transformative learning.

    PubMed

    M, Schoo A; S, Lawn; E, Rudnik; C, Litt J

    2015-12-21

    Many undergraduate and graduate-entry health science curricula have incorporated training in motivational interviewing (MI). However, to effectively teach skills that will remain with students after they graduate is challenging. The aims of this study were to find out self-assessed MI skills of health students and whether reflecting on the results can promote transformative learning. Thirty-six Australian occupational therapy and physiotherapy students were taught the principles of MI, asked to conduct a motivational interview, transcribe it, self-rate it using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) tool and reflect on the experience. Student MI skills were measured using the reported MITI subscores. Student assignments and a focus group discussion were analysed to explore the student experience using the MITI tool and self-reflection to improve their understanding of MI principles. Students found MI challenging, although identified the MITI tool as useful for promoting self-reflection and to isolate MI skills. Students self-assessed their MI skills as competent and higher than scores expected from beginners. The results inform educational programs on how MI skills can be developed for health professional students and can result in transformative learning. Students may over-state their MI skills and strategies to reduce this, including peer review, are discussed. Structured self-reflection, using tools such as the MITI can promote awareness of MI skills and compliment didactic teaching methods.

  2. Integrating Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Issues, Reflections, and Ways Forward. Teaching and Learning in Science Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.; Venville, Grady, Ed.; Wallace, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    How can curriculum integration of school science with the related disciplines of technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) enhance students' skills and their ability to link what they learn in school with the world outside the classroom? Featuring actual case studies of teachers' attempts to integrate their curriculum, their reasons for doing…

  3. A Case Study of the Application of SAMR and TPACK for Reflection on Technology Integration into Two Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Jason Theodore

    2016-01-01

    As emerging technology continues to enter the social studies classroom, teachers need to approach integration of such technology in a systematic manner to ensure that such technology enhances the learning of their students. Currently, scholars of technology integration advocate for the use of one of two different models, either SAMR or TPACK. This…

  4. Integrating Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics: Issues, Reflections, and Ways Forward. Teaching and Learning in Science Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennie, Leonie, Ed.; Venville, Grady, Ed.; Wallace, John, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    How can curriculum integration of school science with the related disciplines of technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) enhance students' skills and their ability to link what they learn in school with the world outside the classroom? Featuring actual case studies of teachers' attempts to integrate their curriculum, their reasons for doing…

  5. A Case Study of the Application of SAMR and TPACK for Reflection on Technology Integration into Two Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Jason Theodore

    2016-01-01

    As emerging technology continues to enter the social studies classroom, teachers need to approach integration of such technology in a systematic manner to ensure that such technology enhances the learning of their students. Currently, scholars of technology integration advocate for the use of one of two different models, either SAMR or TPACK. This…

  6. Integration of single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy into ultrasound-guided endoscopic lung cancer staging of mediastinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; van der Leest, Cor; Aerts, Joachim G J V; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Kascáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M; Amelink, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    We describe the incorporation of a single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy probe into the endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure utilized for lung cancer staging. A mathematical model is developed to extract information about the physiological and morphological properties of lymph tissue from single-fiber reflectance spectra, e.g., microvascular saturation, blood volume fraction, bilirubin concentration, average vessel diameter, and Mie slope. Model analysis of data from a clinical pilot study shows that the single-fiber reflectance measurement is capable of detecting differences in the physiology between normal and metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, the clinical data show that probe manipulation within the lymph node can perturb the in vivo environment, a concern that must be carefully considered when developing a sampling strategy. The data show the feasibility of this novel technique; however, the potential clinical utility has yet to be determined.

  7. Integration of single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy into ultrasound-guided endoscopic lung cancer staging of mediastinal lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; van der Leest, Cor; Aerts, Joachim G. J. V.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Kaščáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Amelink, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    We describe the incorporation of a single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy probe into the endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure utilized for lung cancer staging. A mathematical model is developed to extract information about the physiological and morphological properties of lymph tissue from single-fiber reflectance spectra, e.g., microvascular saturation, blood volume fraction, bilirubin concentration, average vessel diameter, and Mie slope. Model analysis of data from a clinical pilot study shows that the single-fiber reflectance measurement is capable of detecting differences in the physiology between normal and metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, the clinical data show that probe manipulation within the lymph node can perturb the in vivo environment, a concern that must be carefully considered when developing a sampling strategy. The data show the feasibility of this novel technique; however, the potential clinical utility has yet to be determined.

  8. Integrating solar induced flourescence and the photochemical reflectance index for estimating gross primary production in a cornfield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The utilization of remotely sensed observations for light use efficiency (LUE) and tower-based gross primary production (GPP) estimates was studied in a USDA cornfield. Nadir hyperspectral reflectance measurements were acquired at canopy level during a collaborative field campaign conducted in four ...

  9. Portable instrument that integrates irradiation with fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopies during clinical photodynamic therapy of cutaneous disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottrell, W. J.; Oseroff, A. R.; Foster, T. H.

    2006-06-01

    We report a portable clinical instrument for delivering photodynamic therapy (PDT) while performing noninvasive spectroscopic monitoring in vivo. Using an off-surface probe, the instrument delivers the treatment beam to a user-defined field on the skin and performs reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies at two regions within this field. The instrument is being used to monitor photosensitizer fluorescence photobleaching, fluorescent photoproduct kinetics, blood volume, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation during a pilot clinical trial of 5-aminolevulinic acid-PDT treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Protoporphyrin IX and photoproduct fluorescence excited by the 633nm PDT treatment laser is collected between 655 and 800nm. During a series of brief treatment interruptions at programable time points, white light reflectance spectra between 475 and 800nm are acquired. Fluorescence spectra are corrected for the effects of absorption and scattering, informed by the reflectance measurements, and then decomposed into known fluorophore contributions in real time using a robust singular value decomposition fitting routine. Reflectance spectra additionally provide information on blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation. Monitoring blood oxygenation and implicit dose metrics such as photosensitizer photobleaching during PDT allows the improved interpretation of clinical results and is helping to guide the treatment protocol for an anticipated low-irradiance PDT clinical trial of BCC.

  10. Integration of P- and SH-wave high-resolution seismic reflection and micro-gravity techniques to improve interpretation of shallow subsurface structure: New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, C.E.; McBride, J.H.; Pugin, Andre J.M.; Ravat, D.; Biswas, S.; Nelson, W.J.; Larson, T.H.; Sargent, S.L.; Fillerup, M.A.; Tingey, B.E.; Wald, L.; Northcott, M.L.; South, J.V.; Okure, M.S.; Chandler, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Shallow high-resolution seismic reflection surveys have traditionally been restricted to either compressional (P) or horizontally polarized shear (SH) waves in order to produce 2-D images of subsurface structure. The northernmost Mississippi embayment and coincident New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) provide an ideal laboratory to study the experimental use of integrating P- and SH-wave seismic profiles, integrated, where practicable, with micro-gravity data. In this area, the relation between "deeper" deformation of Paleozoic bedrock associated with the formation of the Reelfoot rift and NMSZ seismicity and "shallower" deformation of overlying sediments has remained elusive, but could be revealed using integrated P- and SH-wave reflection. Surface expressions of deformation are almost non-existent in this region, which makes seismic reflection surveying the only means of detecting structures that are possibly pertinent to seismic hazard assessment. Since P- and SH-waves respond differently to the rock and fluid properties and travel at dissimilar speeds, the resulting seismic profiles provide complementary views of the subsurface based on different levels of resolution and imaging capability. P-wave profiles acquired in southwestern Illinois and western Kentucky (USA) detect faulting of deep, Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous reflectors while coincident SH-wave surveys show that this deformation propagates higher into overlying Tertiary and Quaternary strata. Forward modeling of micro-gravity data acquired along one of the seismic profiles further supports an interpretation of faulting of bedrock and Cretaceous strata. The integration of the two seismic and the micro-gravity methods therefore increases the scope for investigating the relation between the older and younger deformation in an area of critical seismic hazard. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated X-ray testing of the electro-optical breadboard model for the XMM reflection grating spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, J.V.; Craig, W.; Decker, T.; Aarts, H.; Boggende, T. den; Brinkman, A.C.; Burkert, W.; Brauninger, H.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Dubbeldam, L.

    1994-07-12

    X-ray calibration of the Electro-Optical Breadboard Model (EOBB) of the XXM Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been carried out at the Panter test facility in Germany. The EOBB prototype optics consisted of a four-shell grazing incidence mirror module followed by an array of eight reflection gratings. The dispersed x-rays were detected by an array of three CCDs. Line profile and efficiency measurements where made at several energies, orders, and geometric configurations for individual gratings and for the grating array as a whole. The x-ray measurements verified that the grating mounting method would meet the stringent tolerances necessary for the flight instrument. Post EOBB metrology of the individual gratings and their mountings confirmed the precision of the grating boxes fabrication. Examination of the individual grating surface`s at micron resolution revealed the cause of anomalously wide line profiles to be scattering due to the crazing of the replica`s surface.

  12. Testing a model of facilitated reflection on network feedback: a mixed method study on integration of rural mental healthcare services for older people

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Muir Cochrane, Eimear; Dawson, Suzanne; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; O'Kane, Deb; Gerace, Adam; McPhail, Ruth; Sparkes, Deb; Fuller, Michelle; Reed, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test a management model of facilitated reflection on network feedback as a means to engage services in problem solving the delivery of integrated primary mental healthcare to older people. Design Participatory mixed methods case study evaluating the impact of a network management model using organisational network feedback (through social network analysis, key informant interviews and policy review). Intervention A model of facilitated network reflection using network theory and methods. Setting A rural community in South Australia. Participants 32 staff from 24 services and 12 senior service managers from mental health, primary care and social care services. Results Health and social care organisations identified that they operated in clustered self-managed networks within sectors, with no overarching purposive older people's mental healthcare network. The model of facilitated reflection revealed service goal and role conflicts. These discussions helped local services to identify as a network, and begin the problem-solving communication and referral links. A Governance Group assisted this process. Barriers to integrated servicing through a network included service funding tied to performance of direct care tasks and the lack of a clear lead network administration organisation. Conclusions A model of facilitated reflection helped organisations to identify as a network, but revealed sensitivity about organisational roles and goals, which demonstrated that conflict should be expected. Networked servicing needed a neutral network administration organisation with cross-sectoral credibility, a mandate and the resources to monitor the network, to deal with conflict, negotiate commitment among the service managers, and provide opportunities for different sectors to meet and problem solve. This requires consistency and sustained intersectoral policies that include strategies and funding to facilitate and maintain health and social care networks in rural

  13. Testing a model of facilitated reflection on network feedback: a mixed method study on integration of rural mental healthcare services for older people.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Jeffrey; Oster, Candice; Muir Cochrane, Eimear; Dawson, Suzanne; Lawn, Sharon; Henderson, Julie; O'Kane, Deb; Gerace, Adam; McPhail, Ruth; Sparkes, Deb; Fuller, Michelle; Reed, Richard L

    2015-11-11

    To test a management model of facilitated reflection on network feedback as a means to engage services in problem solving the delivery of integrated primary mental healthcare to older people. Participatory mixed methods case study evaluating the impact of a network management model using organisational network feedback (through social network analysis, key informant interviews and policy review). A model of facilitated network reflection using network theory and methods. A rural community in South Australia. 32 staff from 24 services and 12 senior service managers from mental health, primary care and social care services. Health and social care organisations identified that they operated in clustered self-managed networks within sectors, with no overarching purposive older people's mental healthcare network. The model of facilitated reflection revealed service goal and role conflicts. These discussions helped local services to identify as a network, and begin the problem-solving communication and referral links. A Governance Group assisted this process. Barriers to integrated servicing through a network included service funding tied to performance of direct care tasks and the lack of a clear lead network administration organisation. A model of facilitated reflection helped organisations to identify as a network, but revealed sensitivity about organisational roles and goals, which demonstrated that conflict should be expected. Networked servicing needed a neutral network administration organisation with cross-sectoral credibility, a mandate and the resources to monitor the network, to deal with conflict, negotiate commitment among the service managers, and provide opportunities for different sectors to meet and problem solve. This requires consistency and sustained intersectoral policies that include strategies and funding to facilitate and maintain health and social care networks in rural communities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  14. Thinking Skills by Design: Using a Capstone ePortfolio to Promote Reflection, Critical Thinking, and Curriculum Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Cathleen; Van Zile-Tamsen, Carol; Emerson, Cheryl A.; Herzog, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A capstone ePortfolio is a digital space where students can gather and integrate their learning experiences from their undergraduate careers into a meaningful whole, demonstrate their growth as learners, and connect their learning to the world. The process of creating a capstone ePortfolio equips students with the digital composition skills…

  15. Disk-resolved spectral reflectance properties of Phobos from 0.3-3.2 micron: Preliminary integrated results from Phobos 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murchie, Scott L.; Erard, Stephane; Langevin, Yves; Britt, Daniel T.; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Mustard, John F.; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    The Phobos 2 mission provided multispectral observations of Phobos over a large wavelength range and with relatively high spectral resolution. Here, researchers integrate results from three multispectral detectors by determining the ultraviolet-visible near infrared spectral properties of color and brightness features recognized in VSK TV images. Researchers present evidence that there are two fundamental spectral units within the region of overlapping coverage by the detectors. They describe the units' spectral and reflectance properties and discuss the implications of these results for the composition of Phobos.

  16. Crustal structure of Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas: A model based on integration of COCORP reflection profiles and regional geophysical data

    SciTech Connect

    Lillie, R.J.; de Voogd, B.; Brewer, J.A.; Brown, L.D.; Kaufman, S.; Nelson, K.D.; Oliver, J.E.; Viele, G.W.

    1983-06-01

    COCORP deep seismic reflection profiles across the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas suggest that a large fraction of the crust in this region is composed of tectonically thickened Paleozoic sediments (and metasediments). Reflections representing a southward-thickening wedge of layered rock on the northern portions of the survey are associated with approximately 12 km (39,000 ft) of Carboniferous flysch overlying thin, lower to middle Paleozoic shelf strata in the Frontal thrust zone. Toward the interior of the mountain belt, the Benton uplift is a broad antiform, apparently cored by crystalline basement at depths below 7 km (23,000 ft). Beneath the southern Ouachitas and the adjacent Gulf coastal plain, a zone of south-dipping reflections probably represents at least 14 km (46,000 ft) of tectonically thickened, lower to middle Paleozoic off-shelf strata and Carboniferous flysch. Regional Bouguer gravity data show a minimum coincident with the thickest accumulation of flysch in the Frontal thrust zone. To the south, the Benton uplift lies on a steep gravity gradient which is continuous along most of the Ouachita trend and which may be analogous to a gradient observed along the Appalachian chain. The Ouachita gravity signature can be modeled as a southward shallowing of the Moho (from 40 km (131,000 ft) in northern Arkansas to about 30 km (98,000 ft) just south of the Ouachitas), coincident with the tectonic thickening of the Paleozoic strata interpreted from the COCORP data. The resulting crustal section can be interpreted as the remnants of an early Paleozoic passive margin which was subducted beneath a thick accretionary wedge in Carboniferous time. The Benton uplift is viewed as a late-stage involvement of crystalline basement in foreland thrusting as the margin entered the south-dipping subduction zone.

  17. Integrating seismic reflection and geological data and interpretations across an internal basement massif: The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Hatcher, R.D.; Stephenson, W.J.; Hooper, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The southern Appalachian Pine Mountain window exposes 1.1 Ga Grenvillian basement and its metasedimentary Paleozoic(?) cover through the allochthonous Inner Piedmont. The issue of whether the crustal block inside the window was either transported above the master Appalachian (late Alleghanian) de??collement or is an autochthonous block that was overridden by the de??collement has been debated for some time. New detrital zircon geochronologic data from the cover rocks inside the window suggest this crustal block was derived from Gondwana but docked with Laurentia before the Alleghanian event. Reprocessed deep seismic reflection data from west-central Georgia (pre- and poststack noise reduction, amplitude variation analysis, and prestack depth migration) indicate that a significant band of subhorizontal reflections occurs almost continuously beneath the window collinear with the originally recognized de??collement reflections north of the window. A marked variation in the de??collement image, from strong and coherent north of the window to more diffuse directly beneath the window, is likely a partial consequence of the different geology between the Inner Piedmont and the window. The more diffuse image beneath the window may also result from imaging problems related to changes in topography and fold of cover (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio). Two alternative tectonic models for the Pine Mountain window can partially account for the observed variation in the de??collement reflectivity. (1) The Pine Mountain block could be truncated below by a relatively smooth continuation of the de??collement. The window would thus expose an allochthonous basement duplex or horse-block thrust upward from the south along the Late Proterozoic rifted continental margin. (2) The window represents localized exhumation of autochthonous basement and cover along a zone of distributed intrabasement shearing directly beneath the window. Either model is viable if only reflector geometry is

  18. Ethics in the classroom: a reflection on integrating ethical discussions in an introductory course in computer programming.

    PubMed

    Smolarski, D C; Whitehead, T

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, we describe our recent approaches to introducing students in a beginning computer science class to the study of ethical issues related to computer science and technology. This consists of three components: lectures on ethics and technology, in-class discussion of ethical scenarios, and a reflective paper on a topic related to ethics or the impact of technology on society. We give both student reactions to these aspects, and instructor perspective on the difficulties and benefits in exposing students to these ideas.

  19. Integrating Solar Induced Fluorescence and the Photochemical Reflectance Index for Estimating Gross Primary Production in a Cornfield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yen-Ben; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Zhang, Qingyuan; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Corp, Lawrence A.; Cook, Bruce D.; Kustas, William P.; Daughtry, Criag S.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of remotely sensed observations for light use efficiency (LUE) and tower-based gross primary production (GPP) estimates was studied in a USDA cornfield. Nadir hyperspectral reflectance measurements were acquired at canopy level during a collaborative field campaign conducted in four growing seasons. The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and solar induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), were derived. SIF retrievals were accomplished in the two telluric atmospheric oxygen absorption features centered at 688 nm (O2-B) and 760 nm (O2-A). The PRI and SIF were examined in conjunction with GPP and LUE determined by flux tower-based measurements. All of these fluxes, environmental variables, and the PRI and SIF exhibited diurnal as well as day-to-day dynamics across the four growing seasons. Consistent with previous studies, the PRI was shown to be related to LUE (r2 = 0.54 with a logarithm fit), but the relationship varied each year. By combining the PRI and SIF in a linear regression model, stronger performances for GPP estimation were obtained. The strongest relationship (r2 = 0.80, RMSE = 0.186 mg CO2/m2/s) was achieved when using the PRI and SIF retrievals at 688 nm. Cross-validation approaches were utilized to demonstrate the robustness and consistency of the performance. This study highlights a GPP retrieval method based entirely on hyperspectral remote sensing observations.

  20. Integrated healthcare for chronically ill. Reflections on the gap between science and practice and how to bridge the gap

    PubMed Central

    van der Vlegel-Brouwer, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    Integrated care offers an opportunity to address healthcare efficiency and effectiveness concerns and is especially relevant for elderly patients with different chronic illnesses. In current care standards for chronic care focus is often on one disease. The chronic care model (CCM) is used as the basis of integrated care programs. It identifies essential components that encourage high-quality chronic disease care, involving the community and health system and including self-management support, delivery system design, decision support, and clinical information systems. Improvements in those interrelated components can produce system reform in which informed, activated patients interact with prepared, proactive practice teams. There is however a lack of research evidence for the impact of the chronic care model as a full model. Integrated care programs have widely varying definitions and components and failure to recognize these variations leads to inappropriate conclusions about the effectiveness of these programs and to inappropriate application of research results. It seems important to carefully consider the type and amount of data that are collected within the disease management programs for several purposes, as well as the methods of data collection. Understanding and changing the behavior of complex dynamic chronic care system requires an appreciation of its key patterns, leverage points and constraints. A different theoretical framework, that embraces complexity, is required. Research should be design-based, context bound and address relationships among agents in order to provide solutions that address locally defined demands and circumstances. PMID:23882168

  1. Integrated healthcare for chronically ill. Reflections on the gap between science and practice and how to bridge the gap.

    PubMed

    van der Vlegel-Brouwer, Wilma

    2013-04-01

    Integrated care offers an opportunity to address healthcare efficiency and effectiveness concerns and is especially relevant for elderly patients with different chronic illnesses. In current care standards for chronic care focus is often on one disease. The chronic care model (CCM) is used as the basis of integrated care programs. It identifies essential components that encourage high-quality chronic disease care, involving the community and health system and including self-management support, delivery system design, decision support, and clinical information systems. Improvements in those interrelated components can produce system reform in which informed, activated patients interact with prepared, proactive practice teams. There is however a lack of research evidence for the impact of the chronic care model as a full model. Integrated care programs have widely varying definitions and components and failure to recognize these variations leads to inappropriate conclusions about the effectiveness of these programs and to inappropriate application of research results. It seems important to carefully consider the type and amount of data that are collected within the disease management programs for several purposes, as well as the methods of data collection. Understanding and changing the behavior of complex dynamic chronic care system requires an appreciation of its key patterns, leverage points and constraints. A different theoretical framework, that embraces complexity, is required. Research should be design-based, context bound and address relationships among agents in order to provide solutions that address locally defined demands and circumstances.

  2. Post-operative rotator cuff integrity, based on Sugaya's classification, can reflect abduction muscle strength of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahito; Collin, Phillipe; Josseaume, Thierry; Lädermann, Alexandre; Goto, Hideyuki; Sugimoto, Katumasa; Otsuka, Takanobu

    2017-06-22

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is common in structural and qualitative assessment of the rotator cuff post-operatively. Rotator cuff integrity has been thought to be associated with clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-observer reliability of cuff integrity (Sugaya's classification) and assess the correlation between Sugaya's classification and the clinical outcome. It was hypothesized that Sugaya's classification would show good reliability and good correlation with the clinical outcome. Post-operative MR images were taken two years post-operatively, following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. For assessment of inter-rater reliability, all radiographic evaluations for the supraspinatus muscle were done by two orthopaedic surgeons and one radiologist. Rotator cuff integrity was classified into five categories, according to Sugaya's classification. Fatty infiltration was graded into four categories, based on the Fuchs' classification grading system. Muscle hypotrophy was graded as four grades, according to the scale proposed by Warner. The clinical outcome was assessed according to the constant scoring system pre-operatively and 2 years post-operatively. Of the sixty-two consecutive patients with full-thickness rotator cuff tears, fifty-two patients were reviewed in this study. These subjects included twenty-three men and twenty-nine women, with an average age of fifty-seven years. In terms of the inter-rater reliability between orthopaedic surgeons, Sugaya's classification showed the highest agreement [ICC (2.1) = 0.82] for rotator cuff integrity. The grade of fatty infiltration and muscle atrophy demonstrated good agreement, respectively (0.722 and 0.758). With regard to the inter-rater reliability between orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist, Sugaya's classification showed good reliability [ICC (2.1) = 0.70]. On the other hand, fatty infiltration and muscle hypotrophy classifications demonstrated fair and moderate agreement

  3. Extensional Tectonics and Paleoclimate of the Albertine and Edward Rifts: Constraints from Integrated Seismic Reflection and Topographic Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, T.; McGlue, M. M.; Scholz, C. A.; Kasande, R.; Mugisha, F.

    2004-12-01

    Lakes Albert and Edward are among the largest lakes in Africa and form substantial reservoirs for tropical precipitation within the Upper Nile Watershed (UNW), the equatorial headwaters supporting annual discharge of the main Nile River into the Mediterranean Sea. Extensional processes forming Lakes Albert and Edward have driven landscape evolution, manifested in significant topography and reversed drainages networks. Consequently, the UNW, including Lakes Albert, Edward, Victoria, and Kyoga, and their riverine connections, provide an important case study for drainage basin evolution in actively extending continental lithosphere. In addition to multiple scales of tectonic deformation, high frequency climate change affects the basins in the UNW, which record moisture signals from both the Indian and Atlantic Oceans. Paleoclimate proxy data indicate the desiccation of Lake Victoria and cessation of Victoria Nile flow during the Last Glacial Maximum (22 - 18 ka). However, the response of Lakes Albert and Edward during this time period is not fully resolved. In 2003, 1600 line km of multichannel seismic reflection and high resolution echo-sounder data were collected from Lake Albert, while 200 km of 1 kHz seismic reflection data were collected from Lake Edward. In conjunction with recently released digital elevation models, we investigate both tectonic and climatic processes operative in the basins. In Lake Albert, we are able to map depth to pre-rift basement, basin boundary fault as well as intrabasinal fault geometries that control both bathymetry and sediment distribution. Shallow reflections suggest desiccation of the lake, probably during the LGM; these results tie well with published sediment core data. Acoustic data from Lake Edward record two regression events, although this lake apparently escaped LGM desiccation, and may contain a complete, high-resolution archive of Quaternary climate change in its deep-water sequences. Our interpretations provide another

  4. Detection of premature browning in ground beef with an integrated optical-fibre based sensor using reflection spectroscopy and fibre Bragg grating technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Farrell, M.; Sheridan, C.; Lewis, E.; Zhao, W. Z.; Sun, T.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Kerry, J.; Jackman, N.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports on an optical fibre based sensor system to detect the occurrence of premature browning in ground beef. Premature browning (PMB) occurs when, at a temperature below the pasteurisation temperature of 71°C, there are no traces of pink meat left in the patty. PMB is more frequent if poorer quality beef or beef that has been stored under imperfect conditions. The experimental work pertaining to this paper involved cooking fresh meat and meat that has been stored in a freezer for, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months and recording the reflected spectra and temperature at the core of the product, during the cooking process, in order to develop a classifier based on the spectral response and using a Self-Organising Map (SOM) to classify the patties into one of four categories, based on their colour. Further tests were also carried out on developing an all-optical fibre sensor for measuring both the temperature and colour in a single integrated probe. The integrated probe contains two different sensor concepts, one to monitor temperature, based on Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) technology and a second for meat quality, based on reflection spectroscopy in the visible wavelength range.

  5. A New Program in pain medicine for medical students: Integrating core curriculum knowledge with emotional and reflective development

    PubMed Central

    Murinson, Beth B.; Nenortas, Elizabeth; Mayer, R. Sam; Mezei, Lina; Kozachik, Sharon; Nesbit, Suzanne; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.; Campbell, James N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Improvements in clinical pain care have not matched advances in scientific knowledge, and innovations in medical education are needed. Several streams of evidence indicate that pain education needs to address both the affective and cognitive dimensions of pain. Our aim was to design and deliver a new course in pain establishing foundation-level knowledge while comprehensively addressing the emotional development needs in this area. Setting 118 first year medical students at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Outcome measures Performance was measured by multiple choice tests of pain knowledge, attendance, reflective pain portfolios and satisfaction measures. Results Domains of competence in pain knowledge included central and peripheral pain signaling, pharmacological management of pain with standard analgesic medications, neuromodulating agents and opioids; cancer pain, musculoskeletal pain, nociceptive, inflammatory, neuropathic, geriatric, and pediatric pain. Socio-emotional development (portfolio) work focused on increasing awareness of pain affect in self and others and enhancing the commitment to excellence in pain care. Reflections included observations on a brief pain experience (cold pressor test), the multi-dimensionality of pain, the role of empathy and compassion in medical care, the positive characteristics of pain-care role models, the complex feelings engendered by pain and addiction including frustration and disappointment, and aspirations and commitments in clinical medicine. The students completing feedback expressed high levels of interest in pain medicine as a result of the course. Discussion We conclude that a four-day pain course incorporating sessions with pain- specialists, pain medicine knowledge, and design-built elements to strengthen emotional skills is an effective educational approach. PMID:21276187

  6. An integrated model for the effects of self-reflection and clinical experiential learning on clinical nursing performance in nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pai, Hsiang-Chu

    2016-10-01

    The use of clinical simulation in undergraduate nursing programs in Taiwan has gradually increased over the past 5years. Previous research has shown that students' experience of anxiety during simulated laboratory sessions influences their self-reflection and learning effectiveness. Thus, further study that tracks what influences students' clinical performance in actual clinical sites is vital. The aim of the study is to develop an integrated model that considers the associations among anxiety, self-reflection, and learning effectiveness and to understand how this model applies to student nurses' clinical performance while on clinical placement. This study used a correlational and longitudinal study design. The 80 nursing students, who ranged in age from 19 to 21 (mean=20.38, SD=0.56), were recruited from a nursing school in southern Taiwan. Data were collected during three phases of implementation using four questionnaires. During the first phase, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Simulation Learning Effectiveness Scale (SLES), and Self-Reflection and Insight Scale (SRIS) were used after students completed the simulation course in the school simulation laboratory. Nursing students also completed the Holistic Nursing Competence Scale at 2months (Phase 2) and 4months (Phase 3) after clinical practice experience. In Phase 3, students again completed the STAI and SRIS. Partial least squares (PLS), a structural equation modeling (SEM) procedure, was used to test the research model. The findings showed that: (1) at the start of the simulation laboratory, anxiety had a significant negative effect on students' simulation learning effectiveness (SLE; β=-0.14, p<0.05) and on self-reflection with insight (SRI; β=-0.52, p<0.01). Self-reflection also had a significant positive effect on simulation learning effectiveness (β=0.37, p<0.01). Anxiety had a significant negative effect on students' nursing competence during the first 2months of practice in a clinical

  7. Shallow subsurface structure of the Wasatch fault, Provo segment, Utah, from integrated compressional and shear-wave seismic reflection profiles with implications for fault structure and development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.; Odum, J.K.; Worley, D.M.; South, J.V.; Brinkerhoff, A.R.; Keach, R.W.; Okojie-Ayoro, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vibroseis compressional and experimental hammer-source, shear-wave, seismic reflection profiles across the Provo segment of the Wasatch fault zone in Utah reveal near-surface and shallow bedrock structures caused by geologically recent deformation. Combining information from the seismic surveys, geologic mapping, terrain analysis, and previous seismic first-arrival modeling provides a well-constrained cross section of the upper ~500 m of the subsurface. Faults are mapped from the surface, through shallow, poorly consolidated deltaic sediments, and cutting through a rigid bedrock surface. The new seismic data are used to test hypotheses on changing fault orientation with depth, the number of subsidiary faults within the fault zone and the width of the fault zone, and the utility of integrating separate elastic methods to provide information on a complex structural zone. Although previous surface mapping has indicated only a few faults, the seismic section shows a wider and more complex deformation zone with both synthetic and antithetic normal faults. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of a combined shallow and deeper penetrating geophysical survey, integrated with detailed geologic mapping to constrain subsurface fault structure. Due to the complexity of the fault zone, accurate seismic velocity information is essential and was obtained from a first-break tomography model. The new constraints on fault geometry can be used to refine estimates of vertical versus lateral tectonic movements and to improve seismic hazard assessment along the Wasatch fault through an urban area. We suggest that earthquake-hazard assessments made without seismic reflection imaging may be biased by the previous mapping of too few faults. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  8. Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  9. Integrating Explicit Learning about the Culture of Science into the Pre-Service Teacher Curriculum through Readings and Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Teachers provide foundational science experiences that spark interest in some students to pursue science and serve as an endpoint for others. For both groups, getting a glimpse into the culture of science is important to their futures as citizens, but this glimpse is not something all teachers are equipped to offer. Explicit instruction in the culture of science is generally not part of college-level science courses; to reach future teachers, it should be incorporated into the curriculum for pre-service teachers. I have incorporated readings from Visionlearning's peer-reviewed, freely available, web-based Process of Science series (http://www.visionlearning.com/en/library/Process-of-Science/49) into my class for pre-service middle-level and secondary science teachers. The readings describe the development of the culture and process of science using deeply embedded examples of scientists and their work. Students reflected on each reading by describing what they learned and something they will use in their future teaching. Responses were graded for thoughtfulness and completeness and later compiled. In general, students with more science courses had a better initial understanding of the culture of science and found the readings engaging stories that explained in more depth what they already knew. However, all students reported learning some fundamental aspects of the culture and nature of science. Most commonly, they learned scientific language, often words with both colloquial and scientific definitions: theory, hypothesis, law, uncertainty, error, confidence. Other learning gains were reported in defining the difference between scientific controversy and social controversy over science, interactions between historical events and the scientific enterprise, how much scientists work in groups and interact at meetings, and the role that funding plays in guiding research. On their own, students struggled to describe explicit ways to incorporate these concepts into their

  10. Determination of petrophysical properties of geothermal reservoirs in southern Denmark by integrating information from well logs and reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Marie L.; Balling, Niels; Bording, Thue S.; Clausen, Ole R.

    2013-04-01

    determination of reservoir characteristics in combination with a neural network seismic attribute analysis (courtesy of OpendTect) of seismic reflection data available in the area which are both 2D and 3D industrial seismic data, recently acquired. By this combined data analysis we develop procedures for reducing the risk of drilling tight reservoirs as well as for getting a better understanding of the geological evolution of potential geothermal reservoir units.

  11. Upper Crustal Structure above Off-axis Magma Lenses at RIDGE-2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Study Site from 3D Multichannel Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Carton, H. D.; Newman, K. R.; Canales, J.; Nedimovic, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The 2008 multi-streamer 3D seismic reflection experiment conducted aboard the R/V Marcus Langseth at the RIDGE-2000 East Pacific Rise Integrated Study Site reveals prominent near-axis crustal reflectors on both the east and west flanks of the ridge crest which are interpreted as off-axis melt lenses (OAML) injected at mid-crustal levels. These OAML are probable sites of off-axis volcanism and provide potential heat sources for localized hydrothermal circulation on the ridge flanks, which we speculate may affect off-axis upper crustal structure. To investigate the effect of OAML on the upper crustal structure, we choose two across-axis lines above a prominent OAML on the east flank of the ridge that is present in the southernmost part of our study area: Line 1428P across the middle part of the OAML near 9° 38’N and Line 1476P across the northern end of this OAML near 9° 39’N. Initial analysis includes 2D processing to produce seismic reflection images for each line and 1D travel time modeling on CMP super gathers to characterize Layer 2A and upper Layer 2B velocity structure. Comparison of seismic reflection images and upper crustal velocity structure for the two lines shows a decrease in Layer 2A thickness by 150m and a decrease in the uppermost 2B velocity by 10-20% above the central portion of OAML. We attribute these local anomalies to alteration associated with off-axis hydrothermal circulation driven by the OAML where enhanced precipitation of alteration minerals may seal porosity within lowermost Layer 2A, converting it to lower velocity uppermost Layer 2B. To further constrain the velocity structure of Layer 2A and Layer 2B, we conduct 2D P-wave tomography with downward continued shot gathers along the studied lines (Harding et al, 2007). The downward continued shot gathers simulate seismic sources and receivers located near the seafloor, and therefore provide travel time information from near-offset refractions that are normally obscured by the

  12. 3D modeling of the Buhi debris avalanche deposit of Iriga Volcano, Philippines by integrating shallow-seismic reflection and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minimo, Likha G.; Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar Francisco A.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical models for simulating volcanic debris avalanches commonly lack a critical initiation parameter, the source volume, which is difficult to estimate without data on the deposit thickness. This, in turn, limits how rheology can be characterized for simulating flow. Leapfrog Geo, a 3D geological modeling software, was used to integrate shallow-seismic reflection profiles with field and borehole data to determine the volume of the Buhi debris avalanche and the pre-collapse structure of Iriga Volcano. Volumes of the deposit calculated in this way are 34-71% larger than previous estimates. This technique may improve models of debris avalanches elsewhere in the world, and more precisely depict landslide runout and lateral extent, thus improving disaster prevention and mitigation for the many cities located near volcanoes.

  13. The `What is a system' reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity for high school students' understanding of complex systems in human biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of 'systems language' amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade-one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end. The first part of the interview is dedicated to guiding the students through comparing their two concept maps and by means of both explicit and non-explicit teaching. Our study showed that the explicit guidance in comparing the two concept maps was more effective than the non-explicit, eliciting a variety of different, more specific, types of interactions and patterns (e.g. 'hierarchy', 'dynamism', 'homeostasis') in the students' descriptions of the human body system. The reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity was found to be an effective tool for assessing the subjects' conceptual models of 'system complexity', and for identifying those aspects of a system that are most commonly misunderstood.

  14. [Integrity].

    PubMed

    Gómez Rodríguez, Rafael Ángel

    2014-01-01

    To say that someone possesses integrity is to claim that that person is almost predictable about responses to specific situations, that he or she can prudentially judge and to act correctly. There is a closed interrelationship between integrity and autonomy, and the autonomy rests on the deeper moral claim of all humans to integrity of the person. Integrity has two senses of significance for medical ethic: one sense refers to the integrity of the person in the bodily, psychosocial and intellectual elements; and in the second sense, the integrity is the virtue. Another facet of integrity of the person is la integrity of values we cherish and espouse. The physician must be a person of integrity if the integrity of the patient is to be safeguarded. The autonomy has reduced the violations in the past, but the character and virtues of the physician are the ultimate safeguard of autonomy of patient. A field very important in medicine is the scientific research. It is the character of the investigator that determines the moral quality of research. The problem arises when legitimate self-interests are replaced by selfish, particularly when human subjects are involved. The final safeguard of moral quality of research is the character and conscience of the investigator. Teaching must be relevant in the scientific field, but the most effective way to teach virtue ethics is through the example of the a respected scientist.

  15. The priming of priming: Evidence that the N400 reflects context-dependent post-retrieval word integration in working memory.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Karsten; Royle, Phaedra; Drury, John E; Fromont, Lauren A

    2017-06-09

    Which cognitive processes are reflected by the N400 in ERPs is still controversial. Various recent articles (Lau et al., 2008; Brouwer et al., 2012) have revived the idea that only lexical pre-activation processes (such as automatic spreading activation, ASA) are strongly supported, while post-lexical integrative processes are not. Challenging this view, the present ERP study replicates a behavioral study by McKoon and Ratcliff (1995) who demonstrated that a prime-target pair such as finger - hand shows stronger priming when a majority of other pairs in the list share the analogous semantic relationship (here: part-whole), even at short stimulus onset asynchronies (250ms). We created lists with four different types of semantic relationship (synonyms, part-whole, category-member, and opposites) and compared priming for pairs in a consistent list with those in an inconsistent list as well as unrelated items. Highly significant N400 reductions were found for both relatedness priming (unrelated vs. inconsistent) and relational priming (inconsistent vs. consistent). These data are taken as strong evidence that N400 priming effects are not exclusively carried by ASA-like mechanisms during lexical retrieval but also include post-lexical integration in working memory. We link the present findings to a neurocomputational model for relational reasoning (Knowlton et al., 2012) and to recent discussions of context-dependent conceptual activations (Yee and Thompson-Schill, 2016). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stimulus Value Signals in Ventromedial PFC Reflect the Integration of Attribute Value Signals Computed in Fusiform Gyrus and Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; O'Doherty, John P.

    2013-01-01

    We often have to make choices among multiattribute stimuli (e.g., a food that differs on its taste and health). Behavioral data suggest that choices are made by computing the value of the different attributes and then integrating them into an overall stimulus value signal. However, it is not known whether this theory describes the way the brain computes the stimulus value signals, or how the underlying computations might be implemented. We investigated these questions using a human fMRI task in which individuals had to evaluate T-shirts that varied in their visual esthetic (e.g., color) and semantic (e.g., meaning of logo printed in T-shirt) components. We found that activity in the fusiform gyrus, an area associated with the processing of visual features, correlated with the value of the visual esthetic attributes, but not with the value of the semantic attributes. In contrast, activity in posterior superior temporal gyrus, an area associated with the processing of semantic meaning, exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, both areas exhibited functional connectivity with an area of ventromedial prefrontal cortex that reflects the computation of overall stimulus values at the time of decision. The results provide supporting evidence for the hypothesis that some attribute values are computed in cortical areas specialized in the processing of such features, and that those attribute-specific values are then passed to the vmPFC to be integrated into an overall stimulus value signal to guide the decision. PMID:23678116

  17. Comparison of Reflectance Measurements Acquired with a Contact Probe and an Integration Sphere: Implications for the Spectral Properties of Vegetation at a Leaf Level

    PubMed Central

    Potůčková, Markéta; Červená, Lucie; Kupková, Lucie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Lukeš, Petr; Hanuš, Jan; Novotný, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy in visible and infrared regions is an important tool for studies dealing with plant ecophysiology and early recognition of plant stress due to changing environmental conditions. Leaf optical properties are typically acquired with a spectroradiometer coupled with an integration sphere (IS) in a laboratory or with a contact probe (CP), which has the advantage of operating flexibility and the provision of repetitive in-situ reflectance measurements. Experiments comparing reflectance spectra measured with different devices and device settings are rarely reported in literature. Thus, in our study we focused on a comparison of spectra collected with two ISs on identical samples ranging from a Spectralon and coloured papers as reference standards to vegetation samples with broadleaved (Nicotiana Rustica L.) and coniferous (Picea abies L. Karst.) leaf types. First, statistical measures such as mean absolute difference, median of differences, standard deviation and paired-sample t-test were applied in order to evaluate differences between collected reflectance values. The possibility of linear transformation between spectra was also tested. Moreover, correlation between normalised differential indexes (NDI) derived for each device and all combinations of wavelengths between 450 nm and 1800 nm were assessed. Finally, relationships between laboratory measured leaf compounds (total chlorophyll, carotenoids and water content), NDI and selected spectral indices often used in remote sensing were studied. The results showed differences between spectra acquired with different devices. While differences were negligible in the case of the Spectralon and they were possible to be modelled with a linear transformation in the case of coloured papers, the spectra collected with the CP and the ISs differed significantly in the case of vegetation samples. Regarding the spectral indices calculated from the reflectance data collected with the three devices, their mean

  18. Comparison of Reflectance Measurements Acquired with a Contact Probe and an Integration Sphere: Implications for the Spectral Properties of Vegetation at a Leaf Level.

    PubMed

    Potůčková, Markéta; Červená, Lucie; Kupková, Lucie; Lhotáková, Zuzana; Lukeš, Petr; Hanuš, Jan; Novotný, Jan; Albrechtová, Jana

    2016-10-28

    Laboratory spectroscopy in visible and infrared regions is an important tool for studies dealing with plant ecophysiology and early recognition of plant stress due to changing environmental conditions. Leaf optical properties are typically acquired with a spectroradiometer coupled with an integration sphere (IS) in a laboratory or with a contact probe (CP), which has the advantage of operating flexibility and the provision of repetitive in-situ reflectance measurements. Experiments comparing reflectance spectra measured with different devices and device settings are rarely reported in literature. Thus, in our study we focused on a comparison of spectra collected with two ISs on identical samples ranging from a Spectralon and coloured papers as reference standards to vegetation samples with broadleaved (Nicotiana Rustica L.) and coniferous (Picea abies L. Karst.) leaf types. First, statistical measures such as mean absolute difference, median of differences, standard deviation and paired-sample t-test were applied in order to evaluate differences between collected reflectance values. The possibility of linear transformation between spectra was also tested. Moreover, correlation between normalised differential indexes (NDI) derived for each device and all combinations of wavelengths between 450 nm and 1800 nm were assessed. Finally, relationships between laboratory measured leaf compounds (total chlorophyll, carotenoids and water content), NDI and selected spectral indices often used in remote sensing were studied. The results showed differences between spectra acquired with different devices. While differences were negligible in the case of the Spectralon and they were possible to be modelled with a linear transformation in the case of coloured papers, the spectra collected with the CP and the ISs differed significantly in the case of vegetation samples. Regarding the spectral indices calculated from the reflectance data collected with the three devices, their mean

  19. Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyn, Brenda

    2006-01-01

    Integrated learning is an exciting adventure for both teachers and students. It is not uncommon to observe the integration of academic subjects such as math, science, and language arts. However, educators need to recognize that movement experiences in physical education also can be linked to academic curricula and, may even lead the…

  20. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  1. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  2. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan & SE Brazilian margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Horn, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been applied to the S Angolan and SE Brazilian margins to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type. Knowledge of these margin parameters are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the S Angolan and SE Brazilian rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Gravity anomaly inversion, incorporating a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction, has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated for profiles Lusigal 12 and ISE-01 on the Iberian margin. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola deep seismic reflection lines. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along the seismic profiles. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the ION-GXT BS1-575 profile, which crosses the Sao Paulo Plateau and Florianopolis Ridge of the SE Brazilian margin, predict the COB to be located SE of the Florianopolis Ridge. Integrated quantitative analysis shows no evidence for exhumed mantle on this margin profile. The joint inversion technique predicts oceanic crustal thicknesses of between 7 and 8 km thickness with

  3. Dermoscopy-guided reflectance confocal microscopy of skin using high-NA objective lens with integrated wide-field color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickensheets, David L.; Kreitinger, Seth; Peterson, Gary; Heger, Michael; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Reflectance Confocal Microscopy, or RCM, is being increasingly used to guide diagnosis of skin lesions. The combination of widefield dermoscopy (WFD) with RCM is highly sensitive (~90%) and specific (~ 90%) for noninvasively detecting melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions. The combined WFD and RCM approach is being implemented on patients to triage lesions into benign (with no biopsy) versus suspicious (followed by biopsy and pathology). Currently, however, WFD and RCM imaging are performed with separate instruments, while using an adhesive ring attached to the skin to sequentially image the same region and co-register the images. The latest small handheld RCM instruments offer no provision yet for a co-registered wide-field image. This paper describes an innovative solution that integrates an ultra-miniature dermoscopy camera into the RCM objective lens, providing simultaneous wide-field color images of the skin surface and RCM images of the subsurface cellular structure. The objective lens (0.9 NA) includes a hyperhemisphere lens and an ultra-miniature CMOS color camera, commanding a 4 mm wide dermoscopy view of the skin surface. The camera obscures the central portion of the aperture of the objective lens, but the resulting annular aperture provides excellent RCM optical sectioning and resolution. Preliminary testing on healthy volunteers showed the feasibility of combined WFD and RCM imaging to concurrently show the skin surface in wide-field and the underlying microscopic cellular-level detail. The paper describes this unique integrated dermoscopic WFD/RCM lens, and shows representative images. The potential for dermoscopy-guided RCM for skin cancer diagnosis is discussed.

  4. Individual variation in intentionality in the mind-wandering state is reflected in the integration of the default-mode, fronto-parietal, and limbic networks.

    PubMed

    Golchert, Johannes; Smallwood, Jonathan; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Seli, Paul; Huntenburg, Julia M; Liem, Franziskus; Lauckner, Mark E; Oligschläger, Sabine; Bernhardt, Boris C; Villringer, Arno; Margulies, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    Mind-wandering has a controversial relationship with cognitive control. Existing psychological evidence supports the hypothesis that episodes of mind-wandering reflect a failure to constrain thinking to task-relevant material, as well the apparently alternative view that control can facilitate the expression of self-generated mental content. We assessed whether this apparent contradiction arises because of a failure to consider differences in the types of thoughts that occur during mind-wandering, and in particular, the associated level of intentionality. Using multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis, we examined the cortical organisation that underlies inter-individual differences in descriptions of the spontaneous or deliberate nature of mind-wandering. Cortical thickness, as well as functional connectivity analyses, implicated regions relevant to cognitive control and regions of the default-mode network for individuals who reported high rates of deliberate mind-wandering. In contrast, higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering were associated with cortical thinning in parietal and posterior temporal regions in the left hemisphere (which are important in the control of cognition and attention) as well as heightened connectivity between the intraparietal sulcus and a region that spanned limbic and default-mode regions in the ventral inferior frontal gyrus. Finally, we observed a dissociation in the thickness of the retrosplenial cortex/lingual gyrus, with higher reports of spontaneous mind-wandering being associated with thickening in the left hemisphere, and higher repots of deliberate mind-wandering with thinning in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that the intentionality of the mind-wandering state depends on integration between the control and default-mode networks, with more deliberation being associated with greater integration between these systems. We conclude that one reason why mind-wandering has a controversial relationship

  5. Dermoscopy-guided reflectance confocal microscopy of skin using high-NA objective lens with integrated wide-field color camera

    PubMed Central

    Dickensheets, David L.; Kreitinger, Seth; Peterson, Gary; Heger, Michael; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2017-01-01

    Reflectance Confocal Microscopy, or RCM, is being increasingly used to guide diagnosis of skin lesions. The combination of widefield dermoscopy (WFD) with RCM is highly sensitive (~90%) and specific (~ 90%) for noninvasively detecting melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions. The combined WFD and RCM approach is being implemented on patients to triage lesions into benign (with no biopsy) versus suspicious (followed by biopsy and pathology). Currently, however, WFD and RCM imaging are performed with separate instruments, while using an adhesive ring attached to the skin to sequentially image the same region and co-register the images. The latest small handheld RCM instruments offer no provision yet for a co-registered wide-field image. This paper describes an innovative solution that integrates an ultra-miniature dermoscopy camera into the RCM objective lens, providing simultaneous wide-field color images of the skin surface and RCM images of the subsurface cellular structure. The objective lens (0.9 NA) includes a hyperhemisphere lens and an ultra-miniature CMOS color camera, commanding a 4 mm wide dermoscopy view of the skin surface. The camera obscures the central portion of the aperture of the objective lens, but the resulting annular aperture provides excellent RCM optical sectioning and resolution. Preliminary testing on healthy volunteers showed the feasibility of combined WFD and RCM imaging to concurrently show the skin surface in wide-field and the underlying microscopic cellular-level detail. The paper describes this unique integrated dermoscopic WFD/RCM lens, and shows representative images. The potential for dermoscopy-guided RCM for skin cancer diagnosis is discussed.

  6. Integrating seismic-reflection and sequence-stratigraphic methods to characterize the hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system in southeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system (FAS) is receiving increased attention as a result of regulatory restrictions on water-supply withdrawals and treated wastewater management practices. The South Florida Water Management District’s Regional Water Availability Rule, adopted in 2007, restricts urban withdrawals from the shallower Biscayne aquifer to pre-April 2006 levels throughout southeast Florida. Legislation adopted by the State of Florida requires elimination of ocean outfalls of treated wastewater by 2025. These restrictions have necessitated the use of the more deeply buried FAS as an alternate water resource to meet projected water-supply shortfalls, and as a repository for the disposal of wastewater via Class I deep injection wells and injection of reclaimed water. Some resource managers in Broward County have expressed concern regarding the viability of the FAS as an alternative water supply due to a lack of technical data and information regarding its long-term sustainability. Sustainable development and management of the FAS for water supply is uncertain because of the potential risk posed by structural geologic anomalies (faults, fractures, and karst collapse structures) and knowledge gaps in the stratigraphy of the system. The integration of seismic-reflection and borehole data into an improved geologic and hydrogeologic framework will provide a better understanding of the structural and stratigraphic features that influence groundwater flow and contaminant transport.

  7. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  8. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  9. Submerged Reflectance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    at 450 and viewed at 0* (i.e., viewed nor1al to the surface). Instruments for performing this particular bi-directional reflectance measurement are...are described below. 3.1 THEORY OF ABSOLUTE SUBMERGED REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENT An absolute measurement of the reflectance of a surface can be obtained by...relative reflectance measurement is shown in Figure 2. The irradiance across the target will vary within the field of view of the photometer because

  10. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian & S Angolan margins from integrated quantitative analysis of deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Horn, B.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure, continent-ocean boundary (COB) location and magmatic type are of critical importance for understanding rifted continental margin formation processes and in evaluating petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration. The OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type of the SE Brazilian and S Angolan rifted continental margins are much debated; exhumed and serpentinised mantle have been reported at these margins. Integrated quantitative analysis using deep seismic reflection data and gravity inversion have been used to determine OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type for the SE Brazilian and S Angolan margins. Gravity inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning. Residual Depth Anomaly (RDA) analysis has been used to investigate OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries and subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning. These techniques have been validated on the Iberian margin for profiles IAM9 and ISE-01. In addition a joint inversion technique using deep seismic reflection and gravity anomaly data has been applied to the ION-GXT BS1-575 SE Brazil and ION-GXT CS1-2400 S Angola. The joint inversion method solves for coincident seismic and gravity Moho in the time domain and calculates the lateral variations in crustal basement densities and velocities along profile. Gravity inversion, RDA and subsidence analysis along the S Angolan ION-GXT CS1-2400 profile has been used to determine OCT structure and COB location. Analysis suggests that exhumed mantle, corresponding to a magma poor margin, is absent beneath the allochthonous salt. The thickness of earliest oceanic crust, derived from gravity and deep seismic reflection data is approximately 7km. The joint inversion predicts crustal basement densities and seismic velocities which are

  11. Integrated geochemical and basin modeling approach to hydrocarbon systems analysis, Bohai Basin, People Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Gardemal, M.; Sofer, Z.; Womer, M.; Sun Xiao Hong

    1996-12-31

    An integrated hydrocarbon systems evaluation was undertaken in the Bozhong and Liaodong Bay areas of the Bohai Basin in an effort to delineate trends and clarify risks for value-based bid decisions. The Bohai Basin is part of the North China Basin (currently producing >1.2 MMBO/D), which is an intracontinental rift basin 200,000 km{sup 2} in size and contains up to 11 km of Tertiary continental to lacustrine rocks. Geochemical analyses of biomarker data (GC/MS) from 43 oils and rock extracts from 41 wells indicate that two main types of lacustrine oils, both generated from the Shahejie 3 Formation, can be distinguished. One type, from the Upper Shahejie 3, has algal affinities, high relative gammacerane content, and is generated and expelled at vitrinite reflectance equivalents (VRE) of 0.5 to 0.6 %, based on sterane isomer ratios. The other oil type, from the Lower Shahejie 3, has higher bacterial relative to algal input, lower relative gammacerane content, and is generated and expelled at 0.8 to 0.9 % VRE. Basin modeling studies and migration pathway analyses were integrated with results from the geochemical work to calibrate the thermal model, estimate timing of generation and expulsion, and calculate potential resources available for migration to traps. A rifting heat flow thermal model was calibrated to measured maturity data (Ro, Tmax, and VRE from sterane ratios) and corrected bottom hole temperature data for 30 wells throughout the basin. The time of major Tertiary rifting was estimated at 55-38 mybp, and beta stretching factors of 1.6 to 2.0 were used. Continuous down-well estimates of hydrocarbon yields for resource estimates were calculated from an empirical relationship between measured TOC and Hydrogen Indices (HI) from well samples and{Delta} log R calculations of TOC and HI.

  12. Integrated geochemical and basin modeling approach to hydrocarbon systems analysis, Bohai Basin, People Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Gardemal, M.; Sofer, Z.; Womer, M. ); Sun Xiao Hong )

    1996-01-01

    An integrated hydrocarbon systems evaluation was undertaken in the Bozhong and Liaodong Bay areas of the Bohai Basin in an effort to delineate trends and clarify risks for value-based bid decisions. The Bohai Basin is part of the North China Basin (currently producing >1.2 MMBO/D), which is an intracontinental rift basin 200,000 km[sup 2] in size and contains up to 11 km of Tertiary continental to lacustrine rocks. Geochemical analyses of biomarker data (GC/MS) from 43 oils and rock extracts from 41 wells indicate that two main types of lacustrine oils, both generated from the Shahejie 3 Formation, can be distinguished. One type, from the Upper Shahejie 3, has algal affinities, high relative gammacerane content, and is generated and expelled at vitrinite reflectance equivalents (VRE) of 0.5 to 0.6 %, based on sterane isomer ratios. The other oil type, from the Lower Shahejie 3, has higher bacterial relative to algal input, lower relative gammacerane content, and is generated and expelled at 0.8 to 0.9 % VRE. Basin modeling studies and migration pathway analyses were integrated with results from the geochemical work to calibrate the thermal model, estimate timing of generation and expulsion, and calculate potential resources available for migration to traps. A rifting heat flow thermal model was calibrated to measured maturity data (Ro, Tmax, and VRE from sterane ratios) and corrected bottom hole temperature data for 30 wells throughout the basin. The time of major Tertiary rifting was estimated at 55-38 mybp, and beta stretching factors of 1.6 to 2.0 were used. Continuous down-well estimates of hydrocarbon yields for resource estimates were calculated from an empirical relationship between measured TOC and Hydrogen Indices (HI) from well samples and[Delta] log R calculations of TOC and HI.

  13. Development and evaluation of an automated reflectance microscope system for the petrographic characterization of bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, D. S.; Davis, A.

    1980-10-01

    The development of automated coal petrographic techniques will lessen the demands on skilled personnel to do routine work. This project is concerned with the development and successful testing of an instrument which will meet these needs. The fundamental differences in reflectance of the three primary maceral groups should enable their differentiation in an automated-reflectance frequency histogram (reflectogram). Consequently, reflected light photometry was chosen as the method for automating coal petrographic analysis. Three generations of an automated system (called Rapid Scan Versions I, II and III) were developed and evaluated for petrographic analysis. Their basic design was that of a reflected-light microscope photometer with an automatic stage, interfaced with a minicomputer. The hardware elements used in the Rapid Scan Version I limited the system's flexibility and presented problems with signal digitization and measurement precision. Rapid Scan Version II was designed to incorporate a new microscope photometer and computer system. A digital stepping stage was incorporated into the Rapid Scan Version III system. The precision of reflectance determination of this system was found to be +- 0.02 percent reflectance. The limiting factor in quantitative interpretation of Rapid Scan reflectograms is the resolution of reflectance populations of the individual maceral groups. Statistical testing indicated that reflectograms were highly reproducible, and a new computer program, PETAN, was written to interpret the curves for vitrinite reflectance parameters ad petrographic.

  14. Combined Light Microscopy and Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Integration of Biofilm Structure, Distribution, and Chemistry at Solid-Liquid Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Suci, P. A.; Siedlecki, K. J.; Palmer, R. J.; White, D. C.; Geesey, G. G.

    1997-01-01

    Reflected differential interference contrast microscopy and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to obtain complementary data on the structural and chemical properties of a biofilm. This information was obtained nondestructively, quasisimultaneously, and in real time, thereby permitting the verification of time-dependent relationships between the biofilm's population structure, distribution, and interfacial chemistry. The approach offers opportunities to examine these relationships on a variety of substrata in the presence of a bulk aqueous phase under controlled hydrodynamic conditions. PMID:16535743

  15. Reflections/Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gillian; Gorman, Arlene; Junco, Carol; Martinez, Miriam; Perez, Bertha; Torres, Azucena; Tschoepe, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Offers reflections on lingering issues raised in this themed issue on the "Gardendale Family": maintaining the integrity of the family; issues of time; curriculum standards; and effects on the rest of the school. Offers a bibliography of works considering the global concerns which prompted the formation of the Gardendale Family. (SR)

  16. Reflecting on Reflecting on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses three broad themes--reflection, power, and negotiation--that are evidenced in all of the articles in this issue. In this article, the author tries to transgress the articles at some middling altitude to seek some broader thematics. His observations about reflection, power, and negotiation do transcend individual efforts,…

  17. Application of reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infrared analysis to the study of coal macerals: An example from the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of the reflectance micro-Fourier Transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) technique for analyzing the distribution of functional groups in coal macerals is discussed. High quality of spectra, comparable to those obtained using other FTIR techniques (KBr pellet and transmission micro-FTIR), indicate this technique can be applied to characterizing functional groups under most conditions. The ease of sample preparation, the potential to analyze large intact samples, and ability to characterize organic matter in areas as small as 20 ??m are the main advantages of reflectance micro-FTIR. The quantitative aspects of reflectance micro-FTIR require further study. The examples from the coal seams of the Mist Mountain Formation, British Columbia show that at high volatile bituminous rank, reflectance micro-FTIR provides valuable information on the character of aliphatic chains of vitrinite and liptinite macerals. Because the character of aliphatic chains influences bond disassociation energies, such information is useful from a hydrocarbon generation viewpoint. In medium volatile bituminous coal liptinite macerals are usually not detectable but this technique can be used to study the degree of oxidation and reactivity of vitrinite and semifusinite.

  18. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R.; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al1 Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice. PMID:27293232

  19. The Effect of Reflective Activities on Reflective Thinking Ability in an Undergraduate Pharmacy Curriculum.

    PubMed

    Tsingos-Lucas, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Schneider, Carl R; Smith, Lorraine

    2016-05-25

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of integrating reflective practice activities into a second-year undergraduate pharmacy curriculum and their impact on reflective thinking ability. Design. A cross-over design with repeated measures was employed. Newly developed reflective modules based on real hospital and community pharmacy cases were integrated into the second-year pharmacy practice curriculum. A novel strategy, the Reflective Ability Clinical Assessment (RACA), was introduced to enhance self- and peer reflection. Assessment. Student responses (n=214) to the adapted Kember et al(1) Reflective Thinking Questionnaire (RTQ) were compared before and after reflective activities were undertaken. Significant improvement in three indicators of reflective thinking was shown after students engaged in reflective activities. Conclusion. Integration of reflective activities into a pharmacy curriculum increased the reflective thinking capacity of students. Enhancing reflective thinking ability may help students make better informed decisions and clinical judgments, thus improving future practice.

  20. The "What Is a System" Reflection Interview as a Knowledge Integration Activity for High School Students' Understanding of Complex Systems in Human Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of "systems language" amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade--one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end.…

  1. The "What Is a System" Reflection Interview as a Knowledge Integration Activity for High School Students' Understanding of Complex Systems in Human Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of "systems language" amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade--one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end.…

  2. Fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy and hyper-spectral image spectroscopy: two integrated techniques for the study of the Madonna dei Fusi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casini, A.; Bacci, M.; Cucci, C.; Lotti, F.; Porcinai, S.; Picollo, M.; Radicati, B.; Poggesi, M.; Stefani, L.

    2005-06-01

    Reflectance spectroscopy supplies fundamental information for investigating art objects and diagnosing their state of conservation. Until recently, reflectance spectra could be measured only on samples taken from the art objects. Recent progresses in fiber optics reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) and image spectroscopy (IS) have made it possible, however, to perform non-invasive measurements. Moreover, the two techniques can supply data in large enough quantities as to make the use of sophisticated statistical methods significant for detecting variations due to ageing and degradation. FORS and IS are, in a sense, complementary techniques as the former provides information on single points, while the latter provides 2-D maps from which the reflectance spectrum of each pixel can be displayed. Both FORS and IS were applied in the case study on the Lansdowne version of the Madonna dei fusi (Madonna of the Yarnwinder). In particular, IS was realized by means of a hyper-spectral scanner recently assembled at the "Nello Carrara" Istituto di Fisica Applicata. The characteristics of the scanner are: 0.1 mm spatial sampling over a 1x1 m2 surface and ~1 nm spectral sampling in the wavelength range from 400 nm to 900 nm. The information provided by these two techniques was consistent with what supplied by the non-invasive techniques employed by the other teams participating in the case study, in particular as regards the pigments, the preparatory layer, the binding medium, and the previous restoration works.

  3. Reflectance Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The overall goal of this work has been to develop a set of computational tools and media abstractions for the terrain bidirectional reflectance problem. The modeling of soil and vegetation surfaces has been emphasized with a gradual increase in the complexity of the media geometries treated. Pragmatic problems involved in the combined modeling of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric effects have been of interest and one of the objectives has been to describe the canopy reflectance problem in a classical radiative transfer sense permitting easier inclusion of our work by other workers in the radiative transfer field.

  4. Towards Effective International Work-Integrated Learning Practica in Development Studies: Reflections on the Australian Consortium for "In-Country" Indonesian Studies' Development Studies Professional Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosser, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, overseas work-integrated learning practica have become an increasingly important part of development studies curricula in "Northern" universities. This paper examines the factors that shape pedagogical effectiveness in the provision of such programmes, focusing on the case of the Australian Consortium for…

  5. Neutron reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice; Menelle, Alain

    2015-10-01

    The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples) and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  6. Surface albedo from bidirectional reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Irons, J. R.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of integrating over discrete wavelength bands is examined to estimate total shortwave bidirectional reflectance of vegetated and bare soil surfaces. Methods for estimating albedo from multiple angle, discrete wavelength band radiometer measurements are studied. These methods include a numerical integration technique and the integration of an empirically derived equation for bidirectional reflectance. It is concluded that shortwave albedos estimated through both techniques agree favorably with the independent pyranometer measurements. Absolute rms errors are found to be 0.5 percent or less for both grass sod and bare soil surfaces.

  7. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  8. Integration of seismic-reflection and well data to assess the potential impact of stratigraphic and structural features on sustainable water supply from the Floridan aquifer system, Broward County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and Broward County water managers commenced a 3.5-year cooperative study in July 2012 to refine the geologic and hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system (FAS) in Broward County. A lack of advanced stratigraphic knowledge of the physical system and structural geologic anomalies (faults and fractures originating from tectonics and karst-collapse structures) within the FAS pose a risk to the sustainable management of the resource. The principal objective of the study is to better define the regional stratigraphic and structural setting of the FAS in Broward County. The objective will be achieved through the acquisition, processing, and interpretation of new seismic-reflection data along several canals in Broward County. The interpretation includes integration of the new seismic-reflection data with existing seismic-reflection profiles along Hillsboro Canal in Broward County and within northeast Miami-Dade County, as well as with data from nearby FAS wellbores. The scope of the study includes mapping the geologic, hydrogeologic, and seismic-reflection framework of the FAS, and identifying stratigraphic and structural characteristics that could either facilitate or preclude the sustainable use of the FAS as an alternate water supply or a treated effluent repository. In addition, the investigation offers an opportunity to: (1) improve existing groundwater flow models, (2) enhance the understanding of the sensitivity of the groundwater system to well-field development and upconing of saline fluids, and (3) support site selection for future FAS projects, such as Class I wells that would inject treated effluent into the deep Boulder Zone.

  9. Direct characterization of the energy level alignments and molecular components in an organic hetero-junction by integrated photoemission spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Shin, Weon-Ho; Bulliard, Xavier; Park, Jong Hwan; Kim, Seyun; Chung, Jae Gwan; Kim, Yongsu; Heo, Sung; Kim, Seong Heon

    2016-08-01

    A novel, direct method for the characterization of the energy level alignments at bulk-heterojunction (BHJ)/electrode interfaces on the basis of electronic spectroscopy measurements is proposed. The home-made in situ photoemission system is used to perform x-ray/ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS), reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) and inverse photoemission spectroscopy of organic-semiconductors (OSCs) deposited onto a Au substrate. Through this analysis system, we are able to obtain the electronic structures of a boron subphthalocyanine chloride:fullerene (SubPC:C60) BHJ and those of the separate OSC/electrode structures (SubPC/Au and C60/Au). Morphology and chemical composition analyses confirm that the original SubPC and C60 electronic structures remain unchanged in the electrodes prepared. Using this technique, we ascertain that the position and area of the nearest peak to the Fermi energy (EF = 0 eV) in the UPS (REELS) spectra of SubPC:C60 BHJ provide information on the highest occupied molecular orbital level (optical band gap) and combination ratio of the materials, respectively. Thus, extracting the adjusted spectrum from the corresponding SubPC:C60 BHJ UPS (REELS) spectrum reveals its electronic structure, equivalent to that of the C60 materials. This novel analytical approach allows complete energy-level determination for each combination ratio by separating its electronic structure information from the BHJ spectrum.

  10. The integration of single fiber reflectance (SFR) spectroscopy during endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) in pancreatic masses: a feasibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegehuis, Paulien L.; Boogerd, Leonora S. F.; Inderson, Akin; Veenendaal, Roeland A.; Bonsing, Bert A.; Amelink, Arjen; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Dijkstra, Jouke; Robinson, Dominic J.

    2016-03-01

    EUS-FNA can be used for pathological confirmation of a suspicious pancreatic mass. However, performance depends on an on-site cytologist and time between punction and final pathology results can be long. SFR spectroscopy is capable of extracting biologically relevant parameters (e.g. oxygenation and blood volume) in real-time from a very small tissue volume at difficult locations. In this study we determined feasibility of the integration of SFR spectroscopy during EUSFNA procedures in pancreatic masses. Patients with benign and malignant pancreatic masses who were scheduled for an EUS-FNA were included. The working guide wire inside the 19 gauge endoscopic biopsy needle was removed and the sterile single fiber (300 μm core and 700 μm outer diameter, wide-angle beam, NA 0.22) inserted through the needle. Spectroscopy measurements in the visiblenear infrared wavelength region (400-900 nm) and autofluorescence measurements (excitation at 405 nm) were taken three times, and subsequently cytology was obtained. Wavelength dependent optical properties were compared to cytology results. We took measurements in 13 patients with corresponding cytology results (including mucinous tumor, ductal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine tumor, and pancreatitis). In this paper we show the first analyzed results comparing normal pancreatic tissue with cancerous tissue in the same patient. We found a large difference in blood volume fraction, and blood oxygenation was higher in normal tissue. Integration of SFR spectroscopy is feasible in EUS-FNA procedures, the workflow hardly requires changes and it takes little time. The first results differentiating normal from tumor tissue are promising.

  11. The Mirror and the Canyon: Reflected Images, Echoed Voices How Evidence of GW's Performing Arts Integration Model Is Used to Build Support for Arts Education Integration and to Promote Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellrodt, John Charles; Fico, Maria; Harnett, Susanne; Ramsey, Lori Gerstein; Lopez, Angelina

    2014-01-01

    The Global Writes (GW) model is a well-designed performing arts integrated literacy program that builds local and global support among students, teachers, and arts partners through the use of innovative technologies. Through local partnerships between schools and arts organizations forged by GW, classroom teachers and local teaching artists build…

  12. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  13. Integration of 2D and 3D reflection seismic data with deep boreholes in the Kevitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, northern Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivisto, Emilia; Malehmir, Alireza; Voipio, Teemu; Wijns, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Kevitsa is a large disseminated sulphide Ni-Cu-PGE deposit hosted by the Kevitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion in northern Finland and dated as about 2.06 Ga old. The Geological Survey of Finland first discovered the Kevitsa deposit in 1987. Open pit mining by Kevitsa Mining Oy/First Quantum Minerals Ltd. commenced in June 2012. The final pit depth is planned to be 550-600 m. The estimated ore reserves of the Kevitsa intrusion are about 240 million tones (using a nickel cut-off grade of 0.1%). The expected life-of-mine is 20-30 years. More than 400 hundred holes have been drilled in the Kevitsa area, but most are concentrated close to the known deposit and do not provide a comprehensive understanding of the extent of the intrusion. The basal contact of the intrusion is penetrated by only about 30 drill holes, most of which are shallow. A better knowledge of the geometry of the intrusion would provide a framework for near-mine and deep exploration in the area. An exact knowledge on the basal contact of the intrusion would also provide an exploration target for the contact-type mineralization that is often more massive and richer in Ni-Cu. In December 2007, a series of 2D reflection seismic profiles was acquired in the Kevitsa area. It consisted of four connected survey lines between 6 and 11 km long. In 2010, the initial positive results of the 2D seismic survey led Kevitsa Mining Oy/First Quantum Minerals Ltd. to initiate a 3D reflection seismic survey. The 3D seismic survey is limited to the closer vicinity of the known deposit, while the 2D seismic survey was designed to provide a more regional view of the Kevitsa intrusive complex. The main aims of the 2D and 3D seismic surveys were to delineate the shape and extent of the ore-bearing Kevitsa intrusion and the geometry of some of the host rock and surrounding units, and extract information about the larger-scale structures and structures important for mine-planning purposes. The 2D and 3D seismic data were used to

  14. 'What makes an excellent mental health doctor?' A response integrating the experiences and views of service users with critical reflections of psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Gunasekara, Imani; Patterson, Sue; Scott, James G

    2017-05-03

    While therapeutic relationships are appropriately recognised as the foundation of mental health service, service users commonly report suboptimal experiences. With shared understanding critical to improvement in practice, we explored service users' experiences and expectations of psychiatrists and consultations, engaging psychiatrists throughout the process. Using an iterative qualitative approach we co-produced a response to the question 'what makes an excellent mental health doctor?' Experiences and expectations of psychiatrists were explored in interviews with 22 service users. Data collection, analysis and interpretation were informed by consultation with peer workers. Findings were contextualised in formal consultations with psychiatrists. As 'masters of their craft', excellent mental health doctors engage authentically with service users as people (not diagnoses). They listen, validate experiences and empathise affectively and cognitively. They demonstrate phronesis, applying clinical knowledge compassionately. Psychiatrists share service users' aspiration of equitable partnership but competing demands and 'professional boundaries' constrain engagement. Consistent delivery of the person-centred, recovery-oriented care promoted by policy and sought by service users will require substantial revision of the structure and priorities of mental health services. The insights and experiences of service users must be integral to medical education, and systems must provide robust support to psychiatrists. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Reflectance measurements on cavity radiators.

    PubMed

    Jones, O C; Forno, C

    1971-12-01

    A knowledge of the emissivity of a cavity radiator may be deduced from reflectance measurements, but these may be difficult to make if the cavity has a small aperture and low reflectance. The use of a He-Ne laser as a source facilitates such measurements. Results are presented for one ceramic and three metallic cavities that have been used in photometric and spectroradoimetric standards work. An integrating sphere method appears more satisfactory than a goniophotometric approach.

  16. Enabling honest reflection: a review.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, Naomi; Gishen, Faye

    2017-09-20

    Reflective practice provides a backbone to professionalism, a commitment to lifelong learning and competency-based education in the form of reflective portfolios. Changes in health care culture have promoted a move towards openness and reflection on challenging clinical encounters. Engagement with reflection has historically proved challenging to clinical educators. This Faculty Development Review examines this using a case study from the UK in which a postgraduate trainee was asked to disclose their reflective portfolio by a patient's legal representation. Critics have consequently questioned whether the educational benefit of reflection warrants these potential legal implications. In the context of pressure from accrediting bodies to demonstrate evidence of reflection, how can learners face this potential conflict of professional versus legal repercussions? We combine professional guidance from the UK and educational rationale from international settings to produce a guide for good practice. We offer guidance on facilitating reflection for learners in an open and honest way without diluting educationally effective critical reflection. Themes of anonymity, taking a balanced approach, seeking senior advice, focusing on learning outcomes and role-modelling are discussed. How can learners face this potential conflict of professional versus legal repercussions? Integrating reflection within the curriculum improves engagement and is key to experiential learning. Clinical educators should be aware of legal and professional guidance applicable to their own context. Both educators and learners should be aware that written reflection is an educational not a clinical tool, and so requires little or no patient-identifiable data, thereby ensuring safer reflective practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  17. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  18. Making Reflective Practice More Concrete through Reflective Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Lana

    2008-01-01

    Reflective decision making is an important component in a teacher's professional expertise, and aptness for integrating it into professional practice can be nurtured in most teachers. This article uses vignettes from student teachers' journals to describe four modes of thinking that can provide a useful framework for fostering growth in novice and…

  19. PRM: A database of planetary reflection matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stam, D. M.; Batista, S. F. A.

    2014-04-01

    We present the PRM database with reflection matrices of various types of planets. With the matrices, users can calculate the total, and the linearly and circularly polarized fluxes of incident unpolarized light that is reflected by a planet for arbitrary illumination and viewing geometries. To allow for flexibility in these geometries, the database does not contain the elements of reflection matrices, but the coefficients of their Fourier series expansion. We describe how to sum these coefficients for given illumination and viewing geometries to obtain the local reflection matrix. The coefficients in the database can also be used to calculate flux and polarization signals of exoplanets, by integrating, for a given planetary phase angle, locally reflected fluxes across the visible part of the planetary disk. Algorithms for evaluating the summation for locally reflected fluxes, as applicable to spatially resolved observations of planets, and the subsequent integration for the disk-integrated fluxes, as applicable to spatially unresolved exoplanets are also in the database

  20. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  1. Reflections of a Rural Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Judi L.

    2010-01-01

    Some ethical dilemmas are more prevalent or more complicated to resolve in rural practice. In this practice note, I share some of the reflections that have helped me to unpack some of the ethical complications of overlapping relationships and objectivity, community pressure and integrity, generalist practice and competency, interdisciplinary…

  2. Three-dimensional structure of the greater Los Angeles basin: Insights from transects and models that integrate industry seismic reflection profiles, well logs, surface geology, and relocated earthquake catalogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Suess, M. P.; Rivero, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    We describe the geometry and activity of major, seismogenic fault systems in the Los Angeles basin and adjacent offshore areas using regional seismic reflection transects and three-dimensional structural and velocity models. The seismic transects, which integrates relocated earthquakes, focal mechanisms, and well control, image several active fault systems (Palos Verdes, Newport-Inglewood, Compton, Las Cienegas, Elysian Park, Puente Hills, Whittier, Oceanside, etc.) that threaten the Los Angeles metropolitan region. The models describe the three dimensional geometry and kinematic interaction of these faults systems, and incorporate 35,000 km of industry seismic reflection data, more than 1,000 well logs, surface geology, and re-located earthquake catalogs. The Los Angeles basin lies at the juncture of the Transverse and Peninsular Ranges, and thus contains fault systems that belong to both of these tectonic provinces. The southern basin and Inner California Borderlands are dominated by northwest-southeast trending strike-slip and blind-thrust systems, parallel to the grain of the Peninsular Ranges, that partition oblique convergence. Many of these structures are reactivated normal faults that formed during Neogene rifting of the southern California margin. In contrast, the northern Los Angeles basin is dominated by east-west trending thrust and strike-slip systems that accommodate north-south shortening. These faults are part of the Transverse Ranges province, and locally dissect older Peninsular Range trends that are carried northward by motion along the San Andreas and related strike-slip fault systems. We consider the implications of these tectonic models for regional earthquake hazards assessment.

  3. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills.

  4. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  5. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  6. Absolute measurement of hyperspectral and angular reflection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jisoo

    2014-09-20

    A new instrument for absolute measurement of hyperspectral and angular reflection is presented. The instrument determines absolute values of angular reflection quantities in a wavelength range from 380 to 780 nm with a 3 nm spectral resolution by using a white source and a CCD-based spectroradiometer. Through uncertainty evaluation, the measurement uncertainty is determined as 1.4%-2.9% (k=2) for white diffuse material of Spectralon. The gonioreflectometric determination and an integrating-sphere-based reflection measurement traceable to KRISS spectral reflectance scale are compared by determining hemispherical reflectance, which results in agreement in their uncertainties.

  7. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  8. Quality Self-Reflection through Reflection Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gun, Bahar

    2011-01-01

    This research study discusses the importance of "reflection training" in teacher education programmes. The main premise of the study is that although teachers are constantly encouraged to "reflect" on their teaching, they are unable to do so effectively unless they are specifically trained in how to reflect (they tend to "react" rather than…

  9. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  10. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  11. Student Teaching: Reflections of a Relentless Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiles, Julia; Pinholster, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This action research article shares the story of a student teacher and the arduous, but rewarding process of self-reflection. The authors integrate real life examples of the implementation of self-reflective strategies of a student teacher with self-efficacy, teacher life cycle, and effectiveness literature to analyze the student teacher's…

  12. Becoming a Reflective Student Affairs Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviews with 12 student affairs administrators revealed that respondents were applied theorists and reflective practitioners; action phase of reflective process was integral to decision making; respondents believed their thinking patterns remained constant throughout life; formal education played minimal role in helping administrators become…

  13. Teaching Critical Reflection to Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Gavan Peter Longley; Kenny, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    Critical reflection is a highly valued and widely applied learning approach in higher education. There are many benefits associated with engaging in critical reflection, and it is often integrated into the design of graduate level courses on university teaching as a life-long learning strategy to help ensure that learners build their capacity as…

  14. Student Teaching: Reflections of a Relentless Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiles, Julia; Pinholster, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This action research article shares the story of a student teacher and the arduous, but rewarding process of self-reflection. The authors integrate real life examples of the implementation of self-reflective strategies of a student teacher with self-efficacy, teacher life cycle, and effectiveness literature to analyze the student teacher's…

  15. Exploration of a Reflective Practice Rubric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Karen; James, Kimberley; Noy, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Work integrated learning (WIL) educators using reflective practice to facilitate student learning require a set of standards that works within the traditional assessment frame of Higher Education, to ascertain the level at which reflective practice has been demonstrated. However, there is a paucity of tested assessment instruments that provide…

  16. Reflective Communication: Cultivating Mindsight through Nurturing Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Daniel J.; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article integrates ideas about mindsight, developed by Daniel Siegel, with those of reflective supervision in the zero-to-three field. The authors explore how the flow of energy and information in the context of nurturing relationships through reflective supervision supports the capacity to develop mindsight. Mindsight is the ability to have…

  17. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  18. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  19. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported here…

  20. Understanding reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Jacqueline Sian; Dosser, Isabel

    2016-05-04

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives use feedback as an opportunity for reflection and learning, to improve practice. The NMC revalidation process stipulates that practitioners provide examples of how they have achieved this. To reflect in a meaningful way, it is important to understand what is meant by reflection, the skills required, and how reflection can be undertaken successfully. Traditionally, reflection occurs after an event encountered in practice. The authors challenge this perception, suggesting that reflection should be undertaken before, during and after an event. This article provides practical guidance to help practitioners use reflective models to write reflective accounts. It also outlines how the reflective process can be used as a valuable learning tool in preparation for revalidation.

  1. Reflecting on reflection: a personal encounter.

    PubMed

    Glen, S; Clark, A; Nicol, M

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports a retrospective study of a Senior Lecturer in Nursing Studies experience of supervising a student teacher who, as part of her teaching placement experience, utilised 'Critically Reflective Analysis of an Educational Event' as a means to assess her teaching in the practice setting. The Senior Lecturer and student nurse teacher used an external 'advisor' to facilitate their meta-reflection on the theoretical perspectives that informed the process in which they were engaged. The paper raises the following questions for consideration--What is the link between ability to reflect and quality of practice? Is it possible to utilise reflective tutorials as a means of assessing professional competence whilst at the same time encouraging personal and professional development? Is the ability to reflect on practice dependent on the context? Should we assume that all practitioners have the necessary skills to supervise students in practice and what preparation and support is needed? The paper demonstrates that by introducing 'Critically Reflective Analysis of an Education Event' into the student teachers' curriculum the role of both supervisor and student teacher was challenged and changed. The paper also demonstrates that reflective tutorials are not wholly a retrospective business. They are creative, or recreative of a teaching experience, as well as to some extent representing it. Finally, even if one cannot speak in Kuhnian parlance, of a conceptual revolution, it would seem legitimate to say, in Schon's terms, that the contextual frame in which professional problems are addressed has undergone significant change.

  2. Understanding the processes of writing papers reflectively.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Krishna; Naidoo, Jennie

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the writing of research papers using reflective frameworks. Reflective practice is integral to professional education and development. However, healthcare students, academics and practitioners have given limited attention to how to write reflectively. In addition, there are limited resources on the practical aspects of writing papers reflectively. The following major databases were searched: PubMed, Medline, King's Library, Excerpta Medica Database, Department of Health database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The searches were conducted using 'free text' and 'index' terms. Only relevant papers published in English were reviewed and scrutinised. Unpublished reports, internal publications, snowballing from the reference lists and personal contacts were also included in the search. This is a review paper that critiques the frameworks used for reflective practice. Writing papers reflectively is a complex task. Healthcare professionals and researchers need to understand the meaning of reflection and make appropriate use of reflective frameworks. Demystifying the process of reflectively writing papers will help professionals develop skills and competencies. IMPLICATION FOR RESEARCH/PRACTICE: This article provides a practical guide to reflection and how nursing and allied healthcare students, academics and practitioners can practise it. The paper identifies four generic stages in frameworks: description, assessment, evaluation and action, which are illustrated by annotated 'skeletal' examples. It is hoped that this will assist the process of reflective practice, writing and learning.

  3. Reflections in art

    PubMed Central

    CAVANAGH, PATRICK; CHAO, JESSICA; WANG, DINA

    2009-01-01

    When artists depict a mirror in a painting, it necessarily lacks the most obvious property of a mirror: as we move around the painting of the mirror, the reflections we see in it do not change. And yet representations of mirrors and other reflecting surfaces can be quite convincing in paintings. Here, we will examine the rules of reflection, the many ways that painters can break those rules without losing the impression of reflection and the rules that cannot be broken. The rules that govern the perception of reflection are a small subset of the physical rules of reflection. PMID:18534102

  4. Ethics and academic integrity.

    PubMed

    Milton, Constance L

    2015-01-01

    Academics from across the globe must navigate ever-increasing demands for research, practice, and educational productivity. With the increased demands, nurse faculty must choose value priorities and actions that reflect academic integrity. What does it mean to choose actions that reflect personal integrity in the academic arena? This article begins an important nursing philosophical and theoretical discussion that members and future members of the discipline of nursing must reflect upon and grapple with as they consider what it potentially means to act with straight thinking and integrity in academics.

  5. A method for assessing reflective journal writing.

    PubMed

    Plack, Margaret M; Driscoll, Maryanne; Blissett, Sylvene; McKenna, Raymond; Plack, Thomas P

    2005-01-01

    Reflection is widely accepted as a learning tool and is considered integral to professional practice. Journal writing is advocated in facilitating reflection, yet little is written about how to assess reflection in journals. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method of assessing the elements of reflection in journals and to determine whether, and to what level, reflection occurs in journals. Twenty-seven physical therapy students maintained written reflective journals throughout three of their four eight-week clinical affiliations. The students were introduced to concepts of reflective practice with definitions of terms and reflective questions before their second affiliation. A coding schema was developed to assess the journals. Three raters assessed forty-three journals. The text of each journal was analyzed for evidence of nine elements of reflection, and each journal was categorized as showing no evidence of reflection, evidence of reflection, or evidence of critical reflection. Descriptive statistics were used to demonstrate evidence of reflection. Reliability between each pair of raters was assessed using percent agreement, phi coefficients, and gamma statistics. Interrater reliability of all raters was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC[2,1]). Results showed that the raters assessed 95.3%-100% of the journals as showing at least one element of reflection. The percent agreement between rater pairs for the nine elements of reflection ranged from 65.1% to 93.0%, the phi coefficient ranged from 0.08 to 0.81, and the ICC(2,1) values used to assess reliability among the three raters on each element ranged from 0.03 to 0.72. Averaging the assessment of the three raters for the overall journal, 14.7% of the journals were assessed as showing no evidence of reflection, 43.4% as showing evidence of reflection, and 41.9% as showing evidence of critical reflection. The percent agreement between rater pairs for the overall assessment

  6. Towards a Theory of the Ecology of Reflection: Reflective Practice for Experiential Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Marina; ; Coulson, Debra; McMaugh, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Reflective practice is widely adopted across the field of experience-based learning subjects in higher education, including practicums, work-integrated learning, internships, service learning and community participation. This adoption of reflective practice implies that it supports student learning through experience. When reviewing the evidence…

  7. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  8. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  9. Scaffolding students' reflection for science learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Elizabeth Anna

    Research in recent decades has emphasized the importance of reflection for students learning science, but educators have not reached consensus on the most effective ways to promote reflection, nor has a mechanism explaining the effects of reflection been accepted. Furthermore, many have put forth technology as a vehicle for improving student learning, yet others discount its ability to facilitate real reflection. This research determines whether reflection prompts promote knowledge integration for students working on science projects and what level of prompt specificity best supports students in that endeavor. The Knowledge Integration Environment (KIE) affords investigation of computer-delivered prompts for students completing complex projects. This research takes place in the context of the KIE software and curriculum as used in an eighth grade physical science class. Pilot research on prompts indicated that focusing students on reflection significantly increased knowledge integration. A basic question unanswered by the pilot research was: As students work on projects like those used in KIE, do they merely need to be prompted to reflect, or do they need guidance in determining what to reflect about? The prompts contrasted in this research differ in their specificity. Some students received directed prompts aimed at fostering planning and self-monitoring, while others received generic 'stop and think' prompts. The investigations describe the gross effects of reflection prompts, then attempt to identify a mechanism behind those effects through characterizing the kinds of reflection they elicit and the beliefs about science and learning science of individuals using the prompts. I argue that by engaging in reflection, students identify weaknesses in their knowledge and then are more ready and able to link and distinguish their ideas. Generic prompts are more effective than directed prompts at engaging students in these knowledge integration processes. Autonomous

  10. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  11. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  12. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  13. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  14. An integrated quantitative basin study of the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Zhihuai; Lerche, I. )

    1991-03-01

    Using one- and two-dimensional basin modeling codes, the geological processes of sedimentary deposition, compaction, fluid flow, and paleoheat flux have been simulated in the NAWR, Alaska. To reconstruct the thermal history, the thrusting feature of the area has been allowed for and the thermal indicator (vitrinite reflectance) has been used in an inverse mode to estimate the impact of the thrust development. For the evolution of the coastal plain in the area, an inverse flexural plate model was applied to assess the subsidence of the postrift phase and the deformation and erosion events since Cretaceous. In this study, both well and seismic data were used, and the results were shown to be consistent with geologic data.

  15. Mercury - Surface composition from the reflection spectrum.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccord, T. B.; Adams, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    The reflection spectrum for the integral disk of the planet Mercury was measured and was found to have a constant positive slope from 0.32 to 1.05 micrometers, except for absorption features in the infrared. The reflectivity curve matches closely the curve for the lunar upland and mare regions. Thus, the surface of Mercury is probably covered with a lunar-like soil rich in dark glasses of high iron and titanium content. Pyroxene is probably the dominant mafic mineral.

  16. Mercury: surface composition from the reflection spectrum.

    PubMed

    McCord, T B; Adams, J B

    1972-11-17

    The reflection spectrum for the integral disk of the planet Mercury was measured and was found to have a constant positive slope from 0.32 to 1.05 micrometers, except for absorption features in the infrared. The reflectivity curve matches closely the curve for the lunar upland and mare regions. Thus, the surface of Mercury is probably covered with a lunar-like soil rich in dark glasses of high iron and titanium content. Pyroxene is probably the dominant mafic mineral.

  17. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  18. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  19. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  20. Bottom Reflection Coefficient.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SONAR SIGNALS, *UNDERWATER SOUND SIGNALS, SOUND TRANSMISSION, ACOUSTIC ATTENUATION, REVERBERATION, TRANSMISSION LOSS, ACOUSTIC REFLECTION, SOUND RANGING, BOTTOM LOSS, DEEP SCATTERING LAYERS, BOTTOM BOUNCE .

  1. Reflective Baffles For Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, Warren A.

    1994-01-01

    Nonimaged light causing unacceptable heating rejected instead of absorbed. Precise reflective baffles incorporated into reflective telescope to prevent undesired portion of incident light from entering sensitive optical and electronic instruments in focal region of main reflector. In original intended application, telescope and associated instruments placed in geostationary orbit to observe selected area of Earth; undesired light solar reflected from adjacent areas of Earth or coming directly from Sun when line of sight to Sun lies near field of view. Terrestrial optical instruments also improved by installation of reflective baffles.

  2. X-ray Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, A. C.; Ross, R. R.

    2010-12-01

    Material irradiated by X-rays produces backscattered radiation which is commonly known as the Reflection Spectrum. It consists of a structured continuum, due at high energies to the competition between photoelectric absorption and electron scattering enhanced at low energies by emission from the material itself, together with a complex line spectrum. We briefly review the history of X-ray reflection in astronomy and discuss various methods for computing the reflection spectrum from cold and ionized gas, illustrated with results from our own work reflionx. We discuss how the reflection spectrum can be used to obtain the geometry of the accretion flow, particularly the inner regions around black holes and neutron stars.

  3. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  4. Experiential learning in women's health: medical student reflections.

    PubMed

    Carr, Sandra; Carmody, Dianne

    2006-08-01

    Reflection on clinical experience is used by medical students to enhance the development of clinical practice skills and professional behaviours in the area of obstetrics and gynaecology. It is applied through small-group reflective tutorials, writing reflective summaries and one-to-one discussion of reflections with staff. To identify the levels of critical reflection achieved and explore the emergent themes in students' written reflections. Thematic analysis was undertaken to document the recurring emergent themes on which students chose to reflect and the depth of reflection students achieved. Most students reflected on clinical, communication and reasoning skills, lack of medical knowledge, and the development of their own and others' professional practice. The 4 levels of reflection students demonstrated were: listing, where students only state the clinical experience; describing, where students describe the clinical experience, including what they did well and what they did not; applying, where students discuss what they need to change and how to develop, and integrating, where students apply reflection to future clinical practice. Few respondents demonstrated the ability to reflect to the level of integration except with facilitated discussion. The range of experiences on which students reflected was appropriate. The information obtained from the emergent themes has been useful for programme development. At the end of the process students were still not reflecting at the level of integration. This affirms that reflectivity is a skill that develops throughout life. Evaluating the level of reflection achieved and discussing this explicitly with the student may be instrumental in helping the student develop his or her reflective capacity further.

  5. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  6. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  7. Reflection in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a medical-education perspective that I will hope complement other disciplinary perspectives in examining the value of reflection for learning in tertiary education. The paper outlines some of the theoretical strands of reflective practice facilitated in a unique course subject for professionalism and patient safety, within the…

  8. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  9. Rethinking Reflection: Teachers' Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study conducted with a teacher focus group asked to read and discuss their responses to selected published teacher narratives of reflective practice. The teachers challenged features of practitioner reflection presented in several of the reading selections as not representative of how they experienced…

  10. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech);…

  11. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  12. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  13. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech);…

  14. Ultraviolet reflective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Composition consists of dispersion of barium sulphate in aqueous solution of water-soluble inorganic binder. Binder is selected from group consisting of alkali metal sulphates. Coating exhibits high reflectance of ultraviolet light to wavelengths of approximately 200.0 nm, which compares favorably with high reflectance of virgin barium sulphate power.

  15. Reflections on Critical Incidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiel, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on the reporting of critical incidents as a tool for self-reflection in a program to train English-as-a-Second-language (ESL) secondary school teachers in Malaysia. Case studies of critical incidents highlight the potential value of encouraging ESL trainee teachers to record, analyze, and reflect on significant personal events in their…

  16. Rethinking Reflection: Teachers' Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study conducted with a teacher focus group asked to read and discuss their responses to selected published teacher narratives of reflective practice. The teachers challenged features of practitioner reflection presented in several of the reading selections as not representative of how they experienced…

  17. Analysis of reflectance characteristics of selected plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaszczuk, Miroslawa; Mierczyk, Zygmunt; Zygmunt, Marek; Piotrowski, Wieslaw; Mierczyk, Jadwiga

    2011-06-01

    The paper presents reflectance characteristics of plants. The objects of the research were the selected plants, taking the various levels of organization and structure into consideration, as well as the state of plant health and growth. Reflectance spectrum was analyzed in the range of wavelengths from 0,2 to 2,5 μm. The values of reflectance for three wavelengths (λ1=850 nm, λ2=905 nm, λ3=1550 nm) were analyzed with the particular emphasis. The sample tests were performed immediately after biological material taking and in the several 24-hour time intervals. The time intervals enabled the process of plants wilting and drying. The reflectance measurements were repeated until the moment of plant complete dried out. All measurements were performed with the use of the spectrometer Lambda 900 (Perkin Elmer) equipped with the 150 mm integrating sphere PELA1001 dedicated for the measurements of the hemispherical reflectance both of diffuse and specular type. On the basis of the obtained results one calculated the values of signal ratios for the three selected wavelengths: 850/1550nm, 905/1550nm, and 850/905nm. The collected spectra and reflectance characteristics enabled the analyses of both results similarities and differences, which enabled the determination of the reflectance changes tendency associated with the typical processes occurring in plants. The analyses of plants reflectance characteristics were made for the use of the laser system for identification of terrain elements and their physico-chemical properties.

  18. The use of reflection in emergency medicine education.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Aaron W; Gorgas, Diane; Greenberger, Sarah; Jacques, Andrew; Khandelwal, Sorabh

    2012-08-01

    Reflection is a cognitive process in which new information and experiences are integrated into existing knowledge structures and mental models, resulting in meaningful learning. Reflection often occurs after an experience is over, promoting professional development and lifelong learning. However, a reflective emergency physician (EP) is also able to apply reflection in real time: self-monitoring, coping with the unexpected, and quickly thinking on his or her feet to solve complicated, unique, and challenging clinical problems. Reflection is a skill that can be taught and developed in medical education. Evidence demonstrating the value of teaching reflection is emerging that substantiates longstanding educational theories. While a few educators have started to explore the use of reflection for emergency medicine (EM) learners, the potential for broader application exists. This review summarizes the literature regarding reflection in medical education and provides a basic primer for teaching reflection.

  19. Reflection as an Indicator of Cognitive Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Petrea

    2014-01-01

    In the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model, cognitive presence indicators can be used to evaluate the quality of inquiry in a discussion forum. Engagement in critical thinking and deep knowledge can occur through reflective processes. When learners move through the four phases of cognitive presence (triggering, exploration, integration, resolution),…

  20. A Reflective Protocol for Mathematics Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy Jeanne; Virag, Lisa; Morales, Sara

    2011-01-01

    How can a teacher use the practice of reflection to create rich mathematical learning environments that are engaging to students? In such environments, one can hear and see a seamless integration of Problem Solving, Reasoning and Proof, Communication, making mathematical Connections, and Representation (the NCTM Process Standards) through Number…

  1. Reflection as an Indicator of Cognitive Presence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Petrea

    2014-01-01

    In the Community of Inquiry (CoI) model, cognitive presence indicators can be used to evaluate the quality of inquiry in a discussion forum. Engagement in critical thinking and deep knowledge can occur through reflective processes. When learners move through the four phases of cognitive presence (triggering, exploration, integration, resolution),…

  2. Increasing maturity of kerogen type II reflected by alkylbenzene distribution from pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lis, G.P.; Mastalerz, Maria; Schimmelmann, A.

    2008-01-01

    A series of Late Devonian to Early Mississippian type II kerogens with vitrinite reflectance values Ro 0.29-2.41% were analyzed using py-GC-MS. In addition, a low maturity kerogen with Ro 0.44% was separated into fractions via density gradient centrifugation, followed by py-GC-MS of the alginite and amorphinite maceral concentrates. Alkylbenzenes and n-alk-1-ene/n-alkane doublets represented the main compound classes identified in all pyrolysates. The pyrolysate from alginite featured 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene and toluene as the two most prominent alkylbenzenes. In contrast, alkylbenzenes in pyrolysates from amorphinite and low maturity bulk kerogens with Ro 0.29-0.63% were dominated by 1,2,3,4-tetramethylbenzene. With increasing thermal maturity, pyrolysates were increasingly dominated by (i) alkylbenzenes with fewer methyl groups, namely by tri- and dimethylbenzenes at medium maturity (Ro 0.69-1.19%), and (ii) by toluene at higher maturity (Ro 1.30-2.41%). With increasing maturity of kerogen type II, the decreasing abundance of highly methyl-substituted alkylbenzenes and the parallel increase in less methyl-substituted alkylbenzenes in flash pyrolysates suggest that demethylation is an important chemical process in the thermal maturation of kerogen type II. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reflective and refractive objects for mixed reality.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Martin; Traxler, Christoph; Winklhofer, Christoph; Wimmer, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel rendering method which integrates reflective or refractive objects into a differential instant radiosity (DIR) framework usable for mixed-reality (MR) applications. This kind of objects are very special from the light interaction point of view, as they reflect and refract incident rays. Therefore they may cause high-frequency lighting effects known as caustics. Using instant-radiosity (IR) methods to approximate these high-frequency lighting effects would require a large amount of virtual point lights (VPLs) and is therefore not desirable due to real-time constraints. Instead, our approach combines differential instant radiosity with three other methods. One method handles more accurate reflections compared to simple cubemaps by using impostors. Another method is able to calculate two refractions in real-time, and the third method uses small quads to create caustic effects. Our proposed method replaces parts in light paths that belong to reflective or refractive objects using these three methods and thus tightly integrates into DIR. In contrast to previous methods which introduce reflective or refractive objects into MR scenarios, our method produces caustics that also emit additional indirect light. The method runs at real-time frame rates, and the results show that reflective and refractive objects with caustics improve the overall impression for MR scenarios.

  4. Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior.

    PubMed

    Strack, Fritz; Deutsch, Roland

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a 2-systems model that explains social behavior as a joint function of reflective and impulsive processes. In particular, it is assumed that social behavior is controlled by 2 interacting systems that follow different operating principles. The reflective system generates behavioral decisions that are based on knowledge about facts and values, whereas the impulsive system elicits behavior through associative links and motivational orientations. The proposed model describes how the 2 systems interact at various stages of processing, and how their outputs may determine behavior in a synergistic or antagonistic fashion. It extends previous models by integrating motivational components that allow more precise predictions of behavior. The implications of this reflective-impulsive model are applied to various phenomena from social psychology and beyond. Extending previous dual-process accounts, this model is not limited to specific domains of mental functioning and attempts to integrate cognitive, motivational, and behavioral mechanisms.

  5. Amplified total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dogariu, A; Wang, L J

    2003-02-24

    Totally internal reflected beams can be amplified if the lowerindex medium has gain. We analyze the reflection and refraction of light, and analytically derive the expression for the Goos-Hänchen shifts of a Gaussian beam incident on a lower-index medium, both active and absorptive. We examine the energy flow and the Goos-Hänchen shifts for various cases. The analytical results are consistent with the numerical results. For the TE mode, the Goos-Hänchen shift for the transmitted beam is exactly half of that of the reflected beam, resulting in a "1/2" rule.

  6. GNSS Ocean Reflected Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeg, P.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean reflected signals from the GNSS satellites (received at low-Earth orbiting satellites, airplanes and fixed mountain locations) describe the ocean surface mean height, waves, roughness, spectral reflectivity and emissivity. The estimated accuracy of the average surface height is of the order of 10 cm for smooth conditions. Thus global observations could be an important new contribution to long-term variations of the ocean mean height as well as the monitoring of ocean mesoscale eddies, which result in sea-height changes much larger than the accuracy of the GNSS technique for reflected signals. The ocean reflected signals can be divided into two set of measurements, 1) high elevation measurements (equal to low incidence angles) and 2) low elevation grazing angle measurements. For the first type the ocean reflection cross-section has a limited extent. The reflected signal is coherent with smaller errors due to ocean waves, sampling rate and the internal processing method of the receiver. For low elevations, the signal reveals the incoherent scatter process at the reflection zone. To quantify the potential of the GNSS signals for determining spectral reflectivity at low elevations, we present ocean reflection GPS measurements from the Haleakala Summit on Maui, Hawaii, revealing the spectral characteristics of both the direct satellite signal and the ocean reflected signal for low elevation angles. The characteristics of the reflected signal depend on the scattering properties of the sea surface and the footprint of the reflection zone. While the footprint size and shape in turn depends on the signal incidence angle, the ocean mean tilt, and the relative velocities of transmitter and receiver to the reflection point. Thus the scattering properties of the sea surface are related to the sea surface roughness. We present the spectral properties of the signals as received by a high precision GPS instrument, simultaneously in both phase-locked mode and open-loop raw

  7. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  8. Science Experimenter: Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Forrest M., III

    1991-01-01

    Provides construction details for a simple reflectometer that can be utilized for the observational technique known as reflectance spectroscopy. Includes background discussion, applications, calibrating techniques, and typical results. (JJK)

  9. Instructors' Teaching Practice Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angulo, Luis Miguel Villar; de la Rosa, Olga Maria Alegre

    2006-01-01

    Twelve instructors' reflections lead to engagement and proactivity in pedagogical knowledge, thus building an analytical approach which is fundamental to the development of university professional practice. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  10. Encouraging Counsellor Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, David; Asch, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Describes the evolution and testing of an "attributes checklist" tool for assisting counselor development. These attributes relate to characteristics of case notes that indicate evidence of counselor reflection and consideration of the counseling process. (Author/GCP)

  11. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  12. Total internal reflection photonic crystal prism.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Abashin, Maxim; Blair, John; Wu, Qi; Park, Wounjhang; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Summers, Christopher J

    2007-06-25

    An integrated total internal reflection prism is demonstrated that generates a transversely localized evanescent wave along the boundary between a photonic crystal and an etched out trench. The reflection can be described by either the odd symmetry of the Bloch wave or a tangential momentum matching condition. In addition, the Bloch wave propagates through the photonic crystal in a negative refraction regime, which manages diffraction within the prism. A device with three input channels has been fabricated and tested that illuminates different regions of the reflection interface. The reflected wave is then sampled by a photonic wire array, where the individual channels are resolved. Heterodyne near field scanning optical microscopy is used to characterize the spatial phase variation of the evanescent wave and its decay constant.

  13. Suppressing Display Cockpit Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Rudolf

    1987-09-01

    Modern aircraft displays with relatively high visual brightness levels present day and night sensor images (generated by electro-optical systems) to crew members for navigation and fire control purposes. A heads out display (HOD) on a cathode ray tube (CRT) screen, while effective for one crew member, may distract or irritate another crew member if the image is reflected off a canopy panel into his eyes, particularly at night. This paper presents one solution applied to canopy reflection suppression encountered in the U.S. Army's APACHE Advanced Attack Helicopter where the co-pilot's HOD reflections interfered with the pilot's vision. When the co-pilot would move his head away from the screen, the reflected image path to the pilot, sitting above and behind the co-pilot, would no longer be blocked and distract him. A variety of polarizers were studied and the problem was solved by placing a linear polarizer over the CRT with its axis crossed relative to the skipping vector of the reflection, letting the canopy panel act as an analyzer. Reflected luminance was reduced by more than 25 times.

  14. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  15. Reflection of a birth reflections midwife.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Meg

    2015-10-01

    Supporting a woman's emotional recovery following what can sometimes be a traumatic event is becoming an important part of postnatal care. That simple question, "How was the birth?" can be the first step in allowing a woman to acknowledge and voice her innermost anxieties around the birth of her baby, and put her on the right path towards feeling better about it, if need be. The birth reflections service has been running in our area for almost six years and its purpose is two fold: firstly it provides women with a safe environment in which to talk about their labour and birth, where they can become better informed about the birth and where they can express themselves freely. Secondly, it provides first hand feedback for the maternity service about the care that's been given, enabling us to change practice for the better.

  16. Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mann, Karen; Gordon, Jill; MacLeod, Anna

    2009-10-01

    The importance of reflection and reflective practice are frequently noted in the literature; indeed, reflective capacity is regarded by many as an essential characteristic for professional competence. Educators assert that the emergence of reflective practice is part of a change that acknowledges the need for students to act and to think professionally as an integral part of learning throughout their courses of study, integrating theory and practice from the outset. Activities to promote reflection are now being incorporated into undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing medical education, and across a variety of health professions. The evidence to support and inform these curricular interventions and innovations remains largely theoretical. Further, the literature is dispersed across several fields, and it is unclear which approaches may have efficacy or impact. We, therefore, designed a literature review to evaluate the existing evidence about reflection and reflective practice and their utility in health professional education. Our aim was to understand the key variables influencing this educational process, identify gaps in the evidence, and to explore any implications for educational practice and research.

  17. Tectonic history in the Fort Worth Basin, north Texas, derived from well-log integration with multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys: implications for paleo and present-day seismicity in the basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M. B.; Hornbach, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production in the Fort Worth Basin (FWB) in north Texas have accelerated in the last 10 years due to the success of unconventional gas production. Here, hydraulic fracturing wastewater is disposed via re-injection into deep wells that penetrate Ordovician carbonate formations. The rise in wastewater injection has coincided with a marked rise in earthquake rates, suggesting a causal relationship between industry practices and seismicity. Most studies addressing this relationship in intraplate regions like the FWB focus on current seismicity, which provides an a-posteriori assessment of the processes involved. 3D seismic reflection data contribute complementary information on the existence, distribution, orientation and long-term deformation history of faults that can potentially become reactivated by the injection process. Here we present new insights into the tectonic evolution of faults in the FWB using multiple 3D seismic reflection surveys in the basin, west of the Dallas Fort-Worth Metroplex, where high-volume wastewater injection wells have increased most significantly in number in the past few years. The datasets image with remarkable clarity the 3,300 m-thick sedimentary rocks of the basin, from the crystalline basement to the Cretaceous cover, with particular detail of the Paleozoic section. The data, interpreted using coincident and nearby wells to correlate seismic reflections with stratigraphic markers, allow us to identify faults, extract their orientation, length and displacements at several geologic time intervals, and therefore, reconstruct the long-term deformation history. Throughout the basin, the data show that all seismically detectable faults were active during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian, but that displacement amounts drop below data resolution ( 7 m) in the post-Pennsylvanian deposits. These results indicate that faults have been inactive for at least the past 300 Ma, until the recent 2008 surge in

  18. Radar reflectivity of titan.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Grossman, A W; Butler, B J; Slade, M A

    1990-05-25

    The present understanding of the atmosphere and surface conditions on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, including the stability of methane, and an application of thermodynamics leads to a strong prediction of liquid hydrocarbons in an ethane-methane mixture on the surface. Such a surface would have nearly unique microwave reflection properties due to the low dielectric constant. Attempts were made to obtain reflections at a wavelength of 3.5 centimeters by means of a 70-meter antenna in California as the transmitter and the Very Large Array in New Mexico as the receiving instrument. Statistically significant echoes were obtained that show Titan is not covered with a deep, global ocean of ethane, as previously thought. The experiment yielded radar cross sections normalized by the Titan disk of 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.78 +/- 0.15, and 0.25 +/- 0.15 on three consecutive nights during which the sub-Earth longitude on Titan moved 50 degrees. The result for the combined data for the entire experiment is 0.35 +/- 0.08. The cross sections are very high, most consistent with those of the Galilean satellites; no evidence of the putative liquid ethane was seen in the reflection data. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 meters would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the detection limit of the experiment. The measured emissivity at similar wavelengths of about 0.9 is somewhat inconsistent with the high reflectivity.

  19. Integrative Learning: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Jeannie Brown

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a study of undergraduate students in an academic program focused on integrative learning rather than interdisciplinarity. One aspect of this study included how students defined integrative learning. This participant-shaped understanding of integrative learning was broad and reflected a continuum of…

  20. Interference reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barr, Valarie A; Bunnell, Stephen C

    2009-12-01

    Interference reflection microscopy (IRM) is an optical technique used to study cell adhesion or cell mobility on a glass coverslip. The interference of reflected light waves generates images with high contrast and definition. IRM can be used to examine almost any cell that will rest upon a glass surface, although it is most useful in examining sites of close contact between a cell and substratum. This unit presents methods for obtaining IRM images of cells with particular emphasis on IRM imaging with a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), as most LSCM are already capable of recording these images without any modification of the instrument. Techniques are presented for imaging fixed and live cells, as well as simultaneous multi-channel capture of fluorescence and reflection images. Copyright 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  2. Radar reflectivity of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Grossman, A. W.; Butler, B. J.; Slade, M. A.

    1990-05-01

    The low dielectric constant of the liquid hydrocarbon and ethane-methane surface mixture of Titan has as a direct consequence a set of unique microwave-reflection properties which were sought out at 3.5-cm wavelength, using a 70-m transmitting antenna in conjunction with the VLA as a receiving instrument. The statistically significant echoes obtained indicate that Titan is not covered with a deep global ocean of ethane. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 m would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the experiment's detection limit.

  3. Focused crossed Andreev reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, H.; Brataas, A.; Waintal, X.; Bauer, G. E. W.

    2011-03-01

    We consider non-local transport mediated by Andreev reflection in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) connected to one superconducting and two normal metal terminals. A robust scheme is presented for observing crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) between the normal metal terminals based on electron focusing by weak perpendicular magnetic fields. At slightly elevated temperatures the CAR signature can be easily distinguished from a background of quantum interference fluctuations. The CAR-induced entanglement between electrons can be switched on and off over large distances by the magnetic field.

  4. Binary phase digital reflection holograms - Fabrication and potential applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, N. C., Jr.; Angus, J. C.; Coffield, F. E.; Edwards, R. V.; Mann, J. A., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A novel technique for the fabrication of binary-phase computer-generated reflection holograms is described. By use of integrated circuit technology, the holographic pattern is etched into a silicon wafer and then aluminum coated to make a reflection hologram. Because these holograms reflect virtually all the incident radiation, they may find application in machining with high-power lasers. A number of possible modifications of the hologram fabrication procedure are discussed.

  5. Guiding Moral Behavior through a Reflective Learning Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedberg, Patricia R.

    2017-01-01

    Reflective learning practice embedded across the business curriculum is a powerful way to equip students with intentionally formed moral habits of the mind and heart. This article explores why and how to apply reflective learning to the teaching of business ethics. To act with integrity in complicated work organizations, students need skills and…

  6. "The Fly on the Wall" Reflecting Team Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prest, Layne E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adapts reflecting team concept, a practical application of constructivist ideas, for use in group supervision. Evolving model includes a focus on the unique "fly on the wall" perspective of the reflecting team. Trainees are introduced to a multiverse of new ideas and perspectives in a context which integrates some of the most challenging…

  7. "The Fly on the Wall" Reflecting Team Supervision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prest, Layne E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Adapts reflecting team concept, a practical application of constructivist ideas, for use in group supervision. Evolving model includes a focus on the unique "fly on the wall" perspective of the reflecting team. Trainees are introduced to a multiverse of new ideas and perspectives in a context which integrates some of the most challenging…

  8. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  9. Reflections: Children and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cianciolo, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Six educational leaders--Patricia J. Cianciolo, Lee Bennett Hopkins, Nancy Larrick, Alan C. Purves, Morton Schindel, and James R. Squire--offer reflections on signficiant developments in children's literature during the 1970s, their hopes for the 1980s, and references that constitute required reading for elementary language arts teachers. (ET)

  10. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  11. Reflections: Children and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cianciolo, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Six educational leaders--Patricia J. Cianciolo, Lee Bennett Hopkins, Nancy Larrick, Alan C. Purves, Morton Schindel, and James R. Squire--offer reflections on signficiant developments in children's literature during the 1970s, their hopes for the 1980s, and references that constitute required reading for elementary language arts teachers. (ET)

  12. Reflections on 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ramon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the events that took place in the year 1972. The author was a junior at the University of New Mexico back then, refusing to eat or buy grapes and lettuce, picketing grocers who did not carry United Farm Workers of America produce. He and his buddies cast their votes against granting Richard Nixon a second…

  13. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  14. Renew, Reflect, and Refresh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Is that the sound of the last bus leaving the schoolyard? Or the staff's collective sigh of relief? School's out. Now it's time to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow teachers to renew, reflect, and refresh. The National Science Education Standards reminds us, "Becoming an effective science teacher…

  15. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  16. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  17. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  18. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  19. Reflecting on Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  20. Reflections on 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ramon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the events that took place in the year 1972. The author was a junior at the University of New Mexico back then, refusing to eat or buy grapes and lettuce, picketing grocers who did not carry United Farm Workers of America produce. He and his buddies cast their votes against granting Richard Nixon a second…

  1. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  2. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  3. Reflecting on Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  4. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  5. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  6. Personal Reflection: Teaching's Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ray

    2009-01-01

    This personal reflection describes events at the Appalachian State University that celebrated the Darwin Bicentennial throughout the 2008-2009 academic year. Prominent speakers and writers joined with a film series, theatre productions, and art exhibits to focus on Darwin and his scientific discoveries. The Darwin Bicentennial provided the members…

  7. Reflecting through Peshkin's I's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Reflection is an appropriate way of accounting for professional practice and is a standard way in which one can "become better acquainted with one's own story". Defining "subjectivity" as "the quality of an investigator that affects the results of observational investigation", Peshkin highlights the requirement for…

  8. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  9. Reflections on "Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Felix

    1974-01-01

    The elitist, professional, and philosophical elements of higher education are reflected upon with stress on the differences between higher education and higher learning, where education is concerned with giving wider groups a share in a broad image of man, and learning is concerned with increasing specialization. (JH)

  10. The Reflective Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Donald R.

    1995-01-01

    Challenges the assumption that extensive training is required to develop effective skills in psychotherapy and psychodiagnosis. It is argued that educators of researchers in psychology should examine common assumptions about the nature of psychology practice and consider conceptions of professional work that emphasize reflection in action and…

  11. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  12. Reflection processing of crosshole GPR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Tronicke, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Crosshole ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys are frequently used for obtaining a detailed understanding of the subsurface as it is required in many hydrological and engineering applications. Such surveys are typically evaluated based on various tomographic approaches resulting in smoothed models of the governing subsurface physical parameters. On the contrary, reflection-based imaging methods provide information on subsurface structures by interpreting distinct reflection events originating from subsurface interfaces. Therefore, both methods provide complementary information for subsurface characterization. However, the additional information originating from reflected events is rarely used to improve the interpretation of crosshole GPR data sets. We present a processing approach for crosshole GPR data that provides a subsurface image of the reflected energy between two boreholes. Our approach is largely based on concepts known from crosshole seismic imaging at the reservoir scale. Our major processing steps include the application of fk-based wavefield separation of up- and down going events and the application of a generalized form of the Kirchhoff integral to migrate the reflected energy back to its origin. We evaluate our processing approach using synthetic examples of varying complexity and demonstrate its applicability to a field data example recorded at a well known geophysical testing site. Furthermore, we compare our reflection processing result with the results of a travel-time tomography.

  13. Oral health students as reflective practitioners: changing patterns of student clinical reflections over a period of 12 months.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Annetta K L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of reflection shown by bachelor of oral health students in relation to their clinical and professional practice. Reflective learning was embedded as a topic in the oral health curriculum within the discipline of dental hygiene practice. Reflective journal writing was integrated with clinical practice and linked with assessment requirements. Students' reflective writing was analyzed thematically to elucidate levels of reflection based on Boud's 4 Rs of Reflection (review, react, relate and respond) over a period of 12 months. Differences in the levels of reflection at different time intervals were examined. Students' ability to critically reflect improved over the period of 12 months. The predominant level of reflection changed from primarily descriptive and superficial at the start of the academic year to primarily critical and relational by the end. As expected, the highest level of critical reflection (respond) occurred infrequently, although it became more frequent as the academic year progressed. Bachelor of oral health students do reflect critically. Regular reflective writing contributed to the development of critical reflective skills in the context of clinical and professional development.

  14. Extracting infrared absolute reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan

    2012-06-01

    Absolute reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, absolute reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the absolute reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.

  15. Wall reflection of a viscous vortex ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sa, J. Y.; Chang, K. S.; Liu, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    The behavior of a viscous axisymmetric vortex ring being reflected from a wall is investigated. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations formulated in terms of the vorticity function and vector potential are numerically integrated by implicit finite difference methods. To specify the vector potential at a far boundary from the wall, the existing integral method used so far only for an unbounded domain is modified by a kind of image method. The trajectory of the vortex ring calcualted as a result closely resembles that observable from the experiment.

  16. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  17. In situ ultrasound-assisted preparation of Fe3O4@MnO2 core-shell nanoparticles integrated with ion co-precipitation for multielemental analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourbala-Tafti, Elaheh; Romero, Vanesa; Lavilla, Isela; Dadfarnia, Shayesteh; Bendicho, Carlos

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a new analytical approach based on in situ ultrasound-assisted preparation of manganese dioxide coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@MnO2 NPs) was applied for extraction and preconcentration of Ni, Cu, Zn, Tl, Pb, Bi and Se. The Fe3O4@MnO2 core-shell nanocomposite was synthesized by application of high-intensity sonication to an aqueous reaction medium in the presence of the target analytes, which are trapped during NPs formation. In this way, synthesis of the nanosorbent and extraction can be simultaneously accomplished within only 30 s. After the extraction step, the resulting Fe3O4@MnO2 NPs enriched with the target analytes were separated by an external magnetic field, so that filtration or centrifugation steps were unnecessary. A 10 μL aliquot of the solid phase was deposited onto a sample carrier (quartz reflector) and directly analyzed by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) without the need for an elution step. A comprehensive characterization of the Fe3O4@MnO2 NPs was carried out by transmission electron microscopy and TXRF. Detection limits ranged from 0.19 to 0.98 μg L- 1 depending on the analyte. Enrichment factors in the range of 402-540 were obtained. The repeatability expressed as relative standard deviation was around 1.7% (N = 5). The accuracy of the proposed method was assessed by analyzing the certified reference material BCR®-610 (groundwater). An effective, simple, rapid and sensitive procedure for multielemental analysis of water samples was accomplished.

  18. Force reflecting hand controller for manipulator teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryfogle, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    A force reflecting hand controller based upon a six degree of freedom fully parallel mechanism, often termed a Stewart Platform, has been designed, constructed, and tested as an integrated system with a slave robot manipulator test bed. A force reflecting hand controller comprises a kinesthetic device capable of transmitting position and orientation commands to a slave robot manipulator while simultaneously representing the environmental interaction forces of the slave manipulator back to the operator through actuators driving the hand controller mechanism. The Stewart Platform was chosen as a novel approach to improve force reflecting teleoperation because of its inherently high ratio of load generation capability to system mass content and the correspondingly high dynamic bandwidth. An additional novelty of the program was to implement closed loop force and torque control about the hand controller mechanism by equipping the handgrip with a six degree of freedom force and torque measuring cell. The mechanical, electrical, computer, and control systems are discussed and system tests are presented.

  19. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  20. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    PubMed

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  1. Landsat surface reflectance data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1972. Users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change and require consistent radiometric data processed to the highest science standards. In support of the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, the U.S. Geological Survey has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change studies. One such product is Landsat surface reflectance.

  2. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOEpatents

    Shafer, David R.

    2000-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  3. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  4. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  5. Colour Reflection Holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Paul Matthew

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The fidelity of colour reproduction achievable in reflection holograms is analysed by an in depth experimental and theoretical treatment. The experimental work consists of a comparison of materials and development of techniques for producing colour reflection holograms. Colour reflection holograms were recorded using a suitable material and various types of three-band laser illumination. Holograms recorded with the combinations 458, 529, and 633 nm or 458, 529, and 647 nm reproduced a full range of colours accurately, including yellow, dark blue, and purple images, which was impossible by previous methods. A theoretical model of the colour reproduction by holograms incorporates colour rendering analysis, effects of bandwidth, a new definition of signal to noise ratio, wavelength shifting, and colour balance. The model compares octagons formed by points on a CIE diagram corresponding to eight Munsell coloured chips when reproduced by the holographic image and when illuminated by a standard light source. Figures of merit of average vector length between image and object colours and gamut area size are considered. The theory compares well with holograms recorded of the Munsell chips using eight different sets of recording wavelengths. Holographic image colour reproduction for all possible recording wavelengths is predicted by the model. From this analysis, optimum wavelength combinations are obtained that support experimental results. In conclusion, a new definition of true colour holography is suggested that considers the quality of colour reproduction of a holographic image compared to colours viewed under normal conditions.

  6. High temperature reflectance of hyperpure slip cast silica. [for Outer Planet Entry Probe reflective heat shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillow, C. F.; Schmitt, R. J.; Blome, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to optically characterize hyperpure slip cast silica at elevated temperatures is described. This sintered ceramic material is being used in the development of a reflective heat shield for the Outer Planet Entry Probe. A unique high temperature integrating sphere reflectometer is described and reflectance data in the spectral range 0.23-2.3 micron are presented at temperatures up to 1427 C in air and helium environments. Kubelka-Munk (K-M) scattering and absorptance coefficients (K and S), using the Reichman extension of the K-M theory, are presented as is a unique method of obtaining K and S from the Reichman equations using only reflectance data. The hyperpure slip cast silica material was found to retain its high diffuse reflectance at temperatures up to 1204 C, with slight degradation occurring at higher temperatures.

  7. A reflective learning framework to evaluate CME effects on practice reflection.

    PubMed

    Leung, Kit H; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland; Weston, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The importance of reflective practice is recognized by the adoption of a reflective learning model in continuing medical education (CME), but little is known about how to evaluate reflective learning in CME. Reflective learning seldom is defined in terms of specific cognitive processes or observable performances. Competency-based evaluation rarely is used for evaluating CME effects. To bridge this gap, reflective learning was defined operationally in a reflective learning framework (RLF). The operationalization supports observations, documentation, and evaluation of reflective learning performances in CME, and in clinical practice. In this study, the RLF was refined and validated as physician performance was evaluated in a CME e-learning activity. Qualitative multiple-case study wherein 473 practicing family physicians commented on research-based synopses after reading and rating them as an on-line CME learning activity. These comments formed 2029 cases from which cognitive tasks were extracted as defined by the RLF with the use of a thematic analysis. Frequencies of cognitive tasks were compared in a cross-case analysis. Four RLF cognitive processes and 12 tasks were supported. Reflective learning was defined as 4 interrelated cognitive processes: Interpretation, Validation, Generalization, and Change, which were specified by 3 observable cognitive tasks, respectively. These 12 tasks and related characteristics were described in an RLF codebook for future use. Reflective learning performances of family physicians were evaluated. The RLF and its codebook can be used for integrating reflective learning into CME curricula and for developing competency-based assessment. Future research on potential uses of the RLF should involve participation of CME stakeholders.

  8. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-02-12

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.

  9. Reflective Practice and Its Implications for Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.1-2 Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student’s own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education. PMID:24558286

  10. On the Angular Variation of Solar Reflectance of Snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Choudhury, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Spectral and integrated solar reflectance of nonhomogeneous snowpacks were derived assuming surface reflection of direct radiation and subsurface multiple scattering. For surface reflection, a bidirectional reflectance distribution function derived for an isotropic Gaussian faceted surface was considered and for subsurface multiple scattering, an approximate solution of the radiative transfer equation was studied. Solar radiation incident on the snowpack was decomposed into direct and atmospherically scattered radiation. Spectral attenuation coefficients of ozone, carbon dioxide, water vapor, aerosol and molecular scattering were included in the calculation of incident solar radiation. Illustrative numerical results were given for a case of North American winter atmospheric conditions. The calculated dependence of spectrally integrated directional reflectance (or albedo) on solar elevation was in qualitative agreement with available observations.

  11. A Pause for Reflection: Incorporating Reflection into Surgical Training

    PubMed Central

    McGlinn, Evan P.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Reflection is an important learning technique for surgeons during their training and is a valuable tool for life-long learning and maintenance of certification to assure competency. Reflection helps individuals to evaluate their performance in the interest of improving their ability to deal with similar experiences in the future. Additionally, reflection can be helpful for established surgeons to continue to improve upon their performance and hone their craft. This article outlines the theoretical role of reflection in the learning process. We will discuss methods for incorporating reflection into training programs, and review the evidence for implementing reflection in surgical training. PMID:25003410

  12. Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W

    2007-12-01

    This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion.

  13. Coherent GNSS Reflections from Arctic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmling, M.; Papke, J.; Helm, A.; Stosius, R.; Beyerle, G.; Yudanov, S.; Ribo, S.; Rius, A.; Rothacher, M.

    2009-04-01

    GNSS signals reflected from the earth surface can be used for remote sensing. In contrast to an active system a GNSS Reflectometry (GNSS-R) receiver is a passive device using GNSS signals of opportunity. Reflection tracks from multiple GNSS satellites will be distributed in the field of view. For applications of interest i.a. sea ice concentration a high coverage is important. An arrangement of several receivers would increase the surface coverage of reflection tracks. In this respect many approved, integrated GNSS-R receivers are needed. In collaboration with JAVAD GNSS we adapted a commercial GNSS receiver for Occultation, Reflectometry and Scatterometry (GORS) applications. To test the receiver a ground based experiment was set up. Within the GPS-SIDS (Sea Ice Dry Snow) project, the GORS receiver was installed at the coast in about 700m above sea level near Godhavn, Western Greenland. Continuous data was recorded in the winter period 2008/2009. The data includes the in-phase/quad-phase of the signal for frequencies L1 and L2. The observations were restricted to elevation angles below 15 degrees to obtain coherent reflections. The coherence yields an interference of the direct and reflected signal. We expect a difference in the coherent fraction between ice and water. In a first approach we aim to locate the boundary between water and appearing sea ice.

  14. Reflectance measurements from particulate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Penttilä, A.; Eskelinen, J.; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Guirado, D.; Muinonen, K.

    2014-07-01

    Asteroids consists of, e.g., metals and rocky materials, and comets consist of, e.g., icy and rocky materials and dust. Their surfaces can be covered by small particles. To certain extent, these surfaces can resemble some natural or artificial surfaces on the Earth, such as snow layers, sand, gravels, or silt. By measuring the reflectance from such surfaces, one can gain better understanding on how to interpret astronomical observations of asteroids and comets. Even if not completely analogous, these samples and measurements provide a strict test bed for the scattering models applied to interpret observations of small Solar System bodies. FIGIFIGO (Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Gonio-spectro-polari- radiometer) can measure the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of surface targets of a diameter of around 10 cm, in a selected angular range and resolution, in the spectral range of 400-2400 nm, at about 10-nm resolution, including linear polarisation (Stokes I, Q, and U, or reflection coefficient matrix elements R_{11}, R_{12}, and R_{13}). Using FIGIFIGO, over 500 samples have been measured over the past years, including over 100 snow samples and almost 100 samples resembling sand, silt, soil, dust, or gravel. For planetary studies, especially interesting are dark volcanic ash and silt samples from Eyjafjallajökull and Grímsvönt eruptions. These have been measured loose and compressed, smooth and rough, purely and deposited on snow. Further single-scattering measurements using the Granada setup and measurements using the Univ. Helsinki integrating sphere complement the picture. Generally, we have observed that the reflectance from volcanic materials behaves mostly as expected and modelled. BRF shows typical bowl shape with strong phase-angle dependence. Spectral features are smooth, with slight angular dependence. Polarisation depends strongly on the phase angle, weaker on other angles defining the scattering geometry, and smoothly on the wavelength. There

  15. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    PubMed

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  16. Reflections on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, S L

    1982-02-01

    As longevity increases, society will face a silent epidemic of idiopathic dementias. The concept, Alzheimer's disease, reflects a cumbersome and vaguely-defined cluster of signs, symptoms and other variables which might more appropriately be labelled as the idiopathic dementias, Alzheimer-type or IDAT. Diagnosis, which is made by exclusion and treatment, primarily custodial, demonstrates the complex nature and unfortunate prognosis of the problem. Dramatic progress, nevertheless, has been made in various scientific aspects of the issue, namely, in histology, genetics and neurochemistry. The resulting evidence warrants further speculation on the role of central cholinergic neurotransmission in cognitive functioning.

  17. Portable reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Graham, R. A.; Ozawa, T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A portable reflectance spectrometer is disclosed. The spectrometer essentially includes an optical unit and an electronic recording unit. The optical unit includes a pair of thermoelectrically-cooled detectors, for detecting total radiance and selected radiance projected through a circular variable filter wheel, and is capable of operating to provide spectral data in the range 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers without requiring coventional substitution of filter elements. The electronic recording unit includes power supplies, amplifiers, and digital recording electronics designed to permit recordation of data on tape casettes. Both the optical unit and electronic recording unit are packaged to be manually portable.

  18. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reflective writing in medical education.

    PubMed

    Song, Philip; Stewart, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of reflection and the use of reflective writing assignments is commonplace in medical school education. There is a preponderance of research in medical education, which appraises and discusses new ways of teaching reflection. Students often complain about having to write about their experience with that patient. This work explores some of the reasoning between the variability of student acceptance of reflection in medical education. The method is based on available literature as well as a personal perspective regarding reflective writing in medical education. Reflection is a skill that requires teaching and practice. It is within the explicit process of teaching reflection in medical education that reflective learners can be developed. Reflection includes the take-home lesson from patient encounters. Its use can help learners become better physicians in terms of medical and humanistic effectiveness and support personal growth.

  20. Force reflection with compliance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Two types of systems for force-reflecting control, which enables high force-reflection gain, are presented: position-error-based force reflection and low-pass-filtered force reflection. Both of the systems are combined with shared compliance control. In the position-error-based class, the position error between the commanded and the actual position of a compliantly controlled robot is used to provide force reflection. In the low-pass-filtered force reflection class, the low-pass-filtered output of the compliance control is used to provide force reflection. The increase in force reflection gain can be more than 10-fold as compared to a conventional high-bandwidth pure force reflection system, when high compliance values are used for the compliance control.

  1. Should Degree Programs in Biomedical and Health Informatics be Dedicated or Integrated? : Reflections and Recommendations after more than 40 Years of Medical Informatics Education at TU Braunschweig, including 10 Years of B.Sc. and 15 Years of M.Sc. Integrated Degree Curricula.

    PubMed

    Haux, Reinhold; Marschollek, Michael; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Zeisberg, Ute

    2017-07-01

    Education in biomedical and health informatics (BMHI) has been established in many countries throughout the world. For degree programs in BMHI we can distinguish between those that are completely stand-alone or dedicated to the discipline vs. those that are integrated within another program. After running integrated degree medical informatics programs at TU Braunschweig for 10 years at the B.Sc. and for 15 years at the M.Sc level, we (1) report about this educational approach, (2) analyze recommendations on, implementations of, and experiences with degree educational programs in BMHI worldwide, (3) summarize our lessons learned with the integrated approach at TU Braunschweig, and (4) suggest an answer to the question, whether degree programs in biomedical and health informatics should be dedicated or integrated. According to our experience at TU Braunschweig and based on our analysis of publications, there is a clear dominance of dedicated degree programs in BMHI. The specialization in medical informatics within a computer science program, as offered at TU Braunschweig, may be a good way of implementing an integrated, informatics-based approach to medical informatics, in particular if a dual degree option can be chosen. The option of curricula leading to double degrees, i.e. in this case to two separate degrees in computer science and in medical informatics might, however, be a better solution.

  2. Fostering and evaluating reflective capacity in medical education: developing the REFLECT rubric for assessing reflective writing.

    PubMed

    Wald, Hedy S; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Julie Scott; Anthony, David; Reis, Shmuel P

    2012-01-01

    Reflective writing (RW) curriculum initiatives to promote reflective capacity are proliferating within medical education. The authors developed a new evaluative tool that can be effectively applied to assess students' reflective levels and assist with the process of providing individualized written feedback to guide reflective capacity promotion. Following a comprehensive search and analysis of the literature, the authors developed an analytic rubric through repeated iterative cycles of development, including empiric testing and determination of interrater reliability, reevaluation and refinement, and redesign. Rubric iterations were applied in successive development phases to Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University students' 2009 and 2010 RW narratives with determination of intraclass correlations (ICCs). The final rubric, the Reflection Evaluation for Learners' Enhanced Competencies Tool (REFLECT), consisted of four reflective capacity levels ranging from habitual action to critical reflection, with focused criteria for each level. The rubric also evaluated RW for transformative reflection and learning and confirmatory learning. ICC ranged from 0.376 to 0.748 for datasets and rater combinations and was 0.632 for the final REFLECT iteration analysis. The REFLECT is a rigorously developed, theory-informed analytic rubric, demonstrating adequate interrater reliability, face validity, feasibility, and acceptability. The REFLECT rubric is a reflective analysis innovation supporting development of a reflective clinician via formative assessment and enhanced crafting of faculty feedback to reflective narratives.

  3. An Integrated Model Recontextualized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Saltmarsh, John

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, authors KerryAnn O'Meara and John Saltmarsh reflect on their 2008 "Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement" article "An Integrated Model for Advancing the Scholarship of Engagement: Creating Academic Homes for the Engaged Scholar," reprinted in this 20th anniversary issue of "Journal of…

  4. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  5. Improving nurses' level of reflection.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2017-08-30

    Reflecting on practice is an important aspect of nursing. There is widespread acknowledgement of the value of reflective practice and it has a significant role in coursework assessment and revalidation requirements. However, less attention has been given to the various levels of reflection and what constitutes a higher or lower level of reflection. This article aims to assist nurses to understand how identifying the various levels of reflection can improve their practice. A case study example is used to demonstrate how mentors might support nurses in incorporating reflection into their practice.

  6. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marvin E; Aalderink, Bernard J; Padoan, Roberto; De Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A G

    2008-09-11

    Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  7. Ionospherically reflected proton whistlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavilov, D. I.; Shklyar, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present experimental observations and detailed investigation of the variety of proton whistlers that includes transequatorial and ionospherically reflected proton whistlers. The latter have previously been indicated from numerical modeling of spectrograms. The study is based on six-component ELF wave data from the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) satellite which permits to obtain not only spectrograms displaying the power spectral density but also such wave properties as the polarization, wave normal angle, wave refractive index, and normalized parallel component of the Poynting vector. The explanation of various types of proton whistlers is based on the properties of ion cyclotron wave propagation in a multicomponent magnetoplasma, with special consideration of the effect of ion hybrid resonance reflection. Analysis of experimental data is supplemented by numerical modeling of spectrograms that reproduces the main features of experimental ones. As a self-contained result, we provide conclusive experimental evidences that the region illuminated by a lightning stroke in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide may spread over a distance of 4000 km in both hemispheres.

  8. GMRES and integral operators

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, C.T.; Xue, Z.Q.

    1994-12-31

    Many discretizations of integral equations and compact fixed point problems are collectively compact and strongly convergent in spaces of continuous functions. These properties not only lead to stable and convergent approximations but also can be used in the construction of fast multilevel algorithms. Recently the GMRES algorithm has become a standard coarse mesh solver. The purpose of this paper is to show how the special properties of integral operators and their approximations are reflected in the performance of the GMRES iteration and how these properties can be used to strengthen the norm in which convergence takes place. The authors illustrate these ideas with composite Gauss rules for integral equations on the unit interval.

  9. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  10. Reflecting on Reflective Practice: (Re)Visiting Dewey and Schon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the author began work in reflective practice, at first informally in the late 1970s and then more formally in the mid-1980s, he has always looked at reflective practice as a compass of sorts to guide teachers when they may be seeking direction as to what they are doing in their classrooms. The metaphor of reflection as a compass enables…

  11. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  12. Reflection: Journals and Reflective Questions: A Strategy for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Reflective journals have been used widely in teacher education programs to promote reflective thinking (Freidus, 1998; Carter & Francis, 2000; Yost, Senter & Forlenzo-Bailey, 2000). Smyth (1992) advocated that posing a series of questions to be answered in written journals could enhance reflective thinking. It was for this reason that…

  13. Manipulating acoustic wavefront by inhomogeneous impedance and steerable extraordinary reflection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators.

  14. Manipulating Acoustic Wavefront by Inhomogeneous Impedance and Steerable Extraordinary Reflection

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiajun; Li, Baowen; Chen, Zhining; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2013-01-01

    We unveil the connection between the acoustic impedance along a flat surface and the reflected acoustic wavefront, in order to empower a wide wariety of novel applications in acoustic community. Our designed flat surface can generate double reflections: the ordinary reflection and the extraordinary one whose wavefront is manipulated by the proposed impedance-governed generalized Snell's law of reflection (IGSL). IGSL is based on Green's function and integral equation, instead of Fermat's principle for optical wavefront manipulation. Remarkably, via the adjustment of the designed specific acoustic impedance, extraordinary reflection can be steered for unprecedented acoustic wavefront while that ordinary reflection can be surprisingly switched on or off. The realization of the complex discontinuity of the impedance surface has been proposed using Helmholtz resonators. PMID:23985717

  15. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  16. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marvin E.; Aalderink, Bernard J.; Padoan, Roberto; de Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms. PMID:27873831

  17. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  18. Structures for Facilitating Student Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe a continuum of levels of reflection. It briefly focuses on Deanna Kuhn's research into the development of scientific thinking and Robert Kegan's Object-Subject Theory of Development applied to the problems of inspiring students to be able to reflect. Assignments for improving students' ability to reflect are…

  19. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  20. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  1. Structures for Facilitating Student Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe a continuum of levels of reflection. It briefly focuses on Deanna Kuhn's research into the development of scientific thinking and Robert Kegan's Object-Subject Theory of Development applied to the problems of inspiring students to be able to reflect. Assignments for improving students' ability to reflect are…

  2. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  3. Teacher Reflection: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the reflective practices of middle school teachers. Based on Dewey's theory of reflective practice and Schon's types of reflection, this experience is one of student learning, relationships, curriculum planning, and lesson delivery. This is a qualitative study using the research method of phenomenology through…

  4. Reflective writing and nursing education.

    PubMed

    Craft, Melissa

    2005-02-01

    Reflective writing is a valued tool for teaching nursing students and for documentation, support, and generation of nursing knowledge among experienced nurses. Expressive or reflective writing is becoming widely accepted in both professional and lay publications as a mechanism for coping with critical incidents. This article explores reflective writing as a tool for nursing education.

  5. The Art of Reflection: Turning the Strange into the Familiar.

    PubMed

    Weingarten, Kaethe

    2016-06-01

    There are a great many useful articles on the dynamics and pragmatics of reflecting teams but few articles address what constitutes a good or inept reflection and why. I provide a conceptual model for thinking about what a good reflection does, distinguishing it from a nice reflection. With some further refinements in place, I then illustrate how reflections can be part of any relationship, not just clinical ones. We have opportunities to make them and to recognize when others make them to us. By using examples from my personal life-as a grandmother, daughter, radio listener, cancer survivor, and client-I attempt to ease the personal/professional binary, a project of mine for the last 35 years. In the second part of the article, I address how writing can serve reflection. Although best offered at the moment one is called for, it is never too late for a reflection. Writing allows people to offer reflections after the fact to those who have shared their stories. Sometimes, it is to ourselves we offer those reflections, when the reflector has long since dropped the thread of obligation or interest. I provide an example of working with iconic imagery to unpack meaning so that reflection can eventually take place, allowing integration to proceed, facilitating the strange becoming the familiar.

  6. Bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine original and useful information about the bidirection reflectance of zinc oxide. The bidirectional reflectance will be studied for the spectra between .25-2.5 microns and the hemisphere above the specimen. The following factors will be considered: (1) surface conditions; (2) specimen preparation; (3) specimen substrate, (4) polarization; (5) depolarization; (6) wavelength; and (7) angles of incident and reflection. The bidirectional reflectance will be checked by experimentally determined angular hemispherical measurements or hemispherical measurements will be used to obtain absolute bidirectional reflectance.

  7. Andreev Reflection in Bosonic Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, I.; Sols, F.

    2009-05-08

    We study the bosonic analog of Andreev reflection at a normal-superfluid interface where the superfluid is a boson condensate. We model the normal region as a zone where nonlinear effects can be neglected. Against the background of a decaying condensate, we identify a novel contribution to the current of reflected atoms. The group velocity of this Andreev reflected component differs from that of the normally reflected one. For a three-dimensional planar or two-dimensional linear interface Andreev reflection is neither specular nor conjugate.

  8. Andreev reflection in bosonic condensates.

    PubMed

    Zapata, I; Sols, F

    2009-05-08

    We study the bosonic analog of Andreev reflection at a normal-superfluid interface where the superfluid is a boson condensate. We model the normal region as a zone where nonlinear effects can be neglected. Against the background of a decaying condensate, we identify a novel contribution to the current of reflected atoms. The group velocity of this Andreev reflected component differs from that of the normally reflected one. For a three-dimensional planar or two-dimensional linear interface Andreev reflection is neither specular nor conjugate.

  9. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water's leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.

  10. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Robust water detection is a critical perception requirement for unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) autonomous navigation. This is particularly true in wide-open areas where water can collect in naturally occurring terrain depressions during periods of heavy precipitation and form large water bodies. One of the properties of water useful for detecting it is that its surface acts as a horizontal mirror at large incidence angles. Water bodies can be indirectly detected by detecting reflections of the sky below the horizon in color imagery. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has implemented a water detector based on sky reflections that geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground and predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. This software detects water bodies in wide-open areas on cross-country terrain at mid- to far-range using imagery acquired from a forward-looking stereo pair of color cameras mounted on a terrestrial UGV. In three test sequences approaching a pond under a clear, overcast, and cloudy sky, the true positive detection rate was 100% when the UGV was beyond 7 meters of the water's leading edge and the largest false positive detection rate was 0.58%. The sky reflection based water detector has been integrated on an experimental unmanned vehicle and field tested at Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA, USA.

  11. Dry etching technologies for reflective multilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iino, Yoshinori; Karyu, Makoto; Ita, Hirotsugu; Kase, Yoshihisa; Yoshimori, Tomoaki; Muto, Makoto; Nonaka, Mikio; Iwami, Munenori

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a highly integrated methodology for patterning Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) mask, which has been highlighted for the lithography technique at the 14nm half-pitch generation and beyond. The EUV mask is characterized as a reflective-type mask which is completely different compared with conventional transparent-type of photo mask. And it requires not only patterning of absorber layer without damaging the underlying multi reflective layers (40 Si/Mo layers) but also etching multi reflective layers. In this case, the dry etch process has generally faced technical challenges such as the difficulties in CD control, etch damage to quartz substrate and low selectivity to the mask resist. Shibaura Mechatronics ARESTM mask etch system and its optimized etch process has already achieved the maximal etch performance at patterning two-layered absorber. And in this study, our process technologies of multi reflective layers will be evaluated by means of optimal combination of process gases and our optimized plasma produced by certain source power and bias power. When our ARES™ is used for multilayer etching, the user can choose to etch the absorber layer at the same time or etch only the multilayer.

  12. Application of laser microprobe (LAMMA 1000) to "fingerprinting" of coal constituents in bituminous coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Hercules, D.M.; Morelli, J.J.; Sellers, G.A.; Mattern, D.; Thompson-Rizer, C. L.; Brown, F.W.; Millay, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    A laser microprobe (LAMMA-1000) microchemical analysis of vitrinites of different morphologies but similar reflectances within the same bituminous coal bed indicates distinct "fingerprint" spectra. The banded form of vitrinite contains Li, Ti, Ba, Sr, F, and Cl which were not detected in the nonbanded vitrinite. These differences may indicate a different plant source or the introduction of these elements from fluids mobilized during diagenesis. The nonbanded vitrinite (called corpocollinite), which was contained in a pyrite coal-ball seed fern permineralization of Myeloxylon, may have been protected from influx of these elements due to entrapment by pyrite during an early peat stage. An ion at M/Z 65, which is characteristic of the banded vitrinite, may indicate C5H5+ and, perhaps a difference in the chemical structure of the two vitrinites. These results demonstrate that "fingerprint" spectra can be obtained from vitrinite macerals by LAMMA and that these "fingerprints" have genetic implications. ?? 1987.

  13. Gauge Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    convergence theorems. Lebesgue developed his theory of measure and integration to address these shortcomings. His integral is more powerful in the...This relatively recent integral possesses the intuitive description of the Riemann integral, with the power of the Lebesgue integral. The purpose of this...strong convergence theorems. Lebesgue developed his theory of measure and integration to address these shortcomings. His integral is more powerful in the

  14. Making Connections for Mindful Inquiry: Using Reflective Journals to Scaffold an Autobiographical Approach to Learning in Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackshields, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    This research develops a narrative of incidents of intentional learning by students studying undergraduate economics as represented in their written reflective journals. The deliberate integration of learner reflection, reflective practice and reflective writing into the pedagogy may facilitate transfer learning (Sousa, 2006). Transfer has been…

  15. Venus Highland Anomalous Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. L.; Häusler, B.; Mattei, R.; Patzold, M.

    2009-09-01

    Maxwell Montes was one of several unusually bright areas identified from early Venus radar backscatter observations. Pioneer Venus' orbiting radar associated low emissivity with the bright areas and established a correlation between reflectivity and altitude. Magellan, using an oblique bistatic geometry, showed that the bright surface dielectric constant was not only large but also imaginary -- i.e., the material was conducting, at least near Cleopatra Patera (Pettengill et al., Science, 272, 1996). Venus Express (VEX) repeated Magellan's bistatic observations over Maxwell, using the more conventional circular polarization carried by most spacecraft. Although VEX signal-to-noise ratio was lower than Magellan's, echoes were sufficiently strong to verify the Magellan conclusions near Cleopatra (see J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00B41, doi:10.1029/2008JE003156). Only about 40% of the surface at Cleopatra scatters specularly, opening the Fresnel (specular) interpretation model to question. Elsewhere in Maxwell, the specular percentage may be even lower. Nonetheless, the echo polarization is reversed throughout Maxwell, a result that is consistent with large dielectric constants and difficult to explain without resorting qualitatively (if not quantitatively) to specular models. VEX was scheduled to explore other high altitude regions when its S-Band (13-cm wavelength) radio system failed in late 2006, so further probing of high altitude targets awaits arrival of a new spacecraft.

  16. Radial reflection diffraction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Sean K.; Norton, Stephen J.

    2004-10-01

    A wave-based tomographic imaging algorithm based upon a single rotating radially outward oriented transducer is developed. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, the transducer launches a primary field and collects the backscattered field in a ``pitch/catch'' operation. The hardware configuration, operating mode, and data collection method are identical to that of most medical intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) systems. IVUS systems form images of the medium surrounding the probe based upon ultrasonic B scans, using a straight-ray model of sound propagation. The goal of this research is to develop a wave-based imaging algorithm using diffraction tomography techniques. Given the hardware configuration and the imaging method, this system is referred to as ``radial reflection diffraction tomography.'' Two hardware configurations are considered: a multimonostatic mode using a single transducer as described above, and a multistatic mode consisting of a single transmitter and an aperture formed by multiple receivers. In this latter case, the entire source/receiver aperture rotates about the fixed radius. Practically, such a probe is mounted at the end of a catheter or snaking tube that can be inserted into a part or medium with the goal of forming images of the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. An analytic expression for the multimonostatic inverse is derived, but ultimately the new Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm is used to construct images using both operating modes. Applications include improved IVUS imaging, bore hole tomography, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of parts with existing access holes. .

  17. Radial Reflection Diffraction Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Norton, S J

    2003-10-10

    We develop a wave-based tomographic imaging algorithm based upon a single rotating radially outward oriented transducer. At successive angular locations at a fixed radius, the transducer launches a primary field and collects the backscattered field in a ''pitch/catch'' operation. The hardware configuration, operating mode, and data collection method is identical to that of most medical intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) systems. IVUS systems form images of the medium surrounding the probe based upon ultrasonic B-scans, using a straight-ray model of sound propagation. Our goal is to develop a wave-based imaging algorithm using diffraction tomography techniques. Given the hardware configuration and the imaging method, we refer to this system as ''radial reflection diffraction tomography.'' We consider two hardware configurations: a multimonostatic mode using a single transducer as described above, and a multistatic mode consisting of a single transmitter and an aperture formed by multiple receivers. In this latter case, the entire source/receiver aperture rotates about the fixed radius. Practically, such a probe is mounted at the end of a catheter or snaking tube that can be inserted into a part or medium with the goal of forming images of the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation. We derive an analytic expression for the multimonostatic inverse but ultimately use the new Hilbert space inverse wave (HSIW) algorithm to construct images using both operating modes. Applications include improved IVUS imaging, bore hole tomography, and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of parts with existing access holes.

  18. Integrated Means Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operation of the Cessna Pilot Center (CPC) flight training systems. The program is based on a series of integrated activities involving stimulus, response, reinforcement and association components. Results show that the program can significantly reduce in-flight training time. (CP)

  19. Integrated Means Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, John D.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the operation of the Cessna Pilot Center (CPC) flight training systems. The program is based on a series of integrated activities involving stimulus, response, reinforcement and association components. Results show that the program can significantly reduce in-flight training time. (CP)

  20. The Senior Year Experience. Facilitating Integration, Reflection, Closure, and Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John N.; Van der Veer, Gretchen

    The theme of this collection of 17 monographs is defined as the "senior year experience," that final period of the undergraduate experience leading to entry into graduate school or the workplace. Part 1, "Understanding the Unique Needs of Today's Seniors," examines the characteristics and needs of senior as they make the…